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  1. Uranium Exerts Acute Toxicity by Binding to Pyrroloquinoline Quinone Cofactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael R. VanEngelen; Robert I. Szilagyi; Robin Gerlach; Brady E. Lee; William A. Apel; Brent M. Peyton

    2011-02-01

    Uranium as an environmental contaminant has been shown to be toxic to eukaryotes and prokaryotes; however, no specific mechanisms of uranium toxicity have been proposed so far. Here a combination of in vivo, in vitro, and in silico studies are presented describing direct inhibition of pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-dependent growth and metabolism by uranyl cations. Electrospray-ionization mass spectroscopy, UV-vis optical spectroscopy, competitive Ca2+/uranyl binding studies, relevant crystal structures, and molecular modeling unequivocally indicate the preferred binding of uranyl simultaneously to the carboxyl oxygen, pyridine nitrogen, and quinone oxygen of the PQQ molecule. The observed toxicity patterns are consistent with the biotic ligand model of acute metal toxicity. In addition to the environmental implications, this work represents the first proposed molecular mechanism of uranium toxicity in bacteria, and has relevance for uranium toxicity in many living systems.

  2. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Astaxanthin (ATX is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ. Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX.

  3. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li; Wang, Handong

    2015-07-14

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both in vivo and in vitro in various cancer models. Several researches have deciphered that ATX exerts its anti-proliferative, anti-apoptosis and anti-invasion influence via different molecules and pathways including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ). Hence, ATX shows great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer. Here, we review the rapidly advancing field of ATX in cancer therapy as well as some molecular targets of ATX.

  4. Multiple Mechanisms of Anti-Cancer Effects Exerted by Astaxanthin

    OpenAIRE

    Li Zhang; Handong Wang

    2015-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a xanthophyll carotenoid which has been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) as food colorant in animal and fish feed. It is widely found in algae and aquatic animals and has powerful anti-oxidative activity. Previous studies have revealed that ATX, with its anti-oxidative property, is beneficial as a therapeutic agent for various diseases without any side effects or toxicity. In addition, ATX also shows preclinical anti-tumor efficacy both i...

  5. Copper nanoparticles exert size and concentration dependent toxicity on somatosensory neurons of rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    PRABHU, BADANAVALU M.; ALI, SYED F.; MURDOCK, RICHARD C.; HUSSAIN, SABER M.; SRIVATSAN, MALATHI

    2010-01-01

    Metal nanoparticles, due to their unique properties and important applications in optical, magnetic, thermal, electrical, sensor devices and cosmetics, are beginning to be widely manufactured and used. This new and rapidly growing field of technology warrants a thorough examination of the material’s bio-compatibility and safety. Ultra-small particles may adversely affect living cells and organisms since they can easily penetrate the body through skin contact, inhalation and ingestion. Retrograde transport of copper nanoparticles from nerve endings on the skin can reach the somatosensory neurons in dorsal root ganglion (DRG). Since copper nanoparticles have industrial and healthcare applications, we determined the concentration and size-dependant effects of their exposure on survival of DRG neurons of rat in cell culture. The neurons were exposed to copper nanoparticles of increasing concentrations (10–100 μM) and sizes (40, 60 and 80 nm) for 24 h. Light microscopy, histochemical staining for copper, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay for cell death, and MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay for cell viability were performed to measure the resultant toxicity and cell survival. DRG neurons exposed to copper nanoparticles displayed vacuoles and detachment of some neurons from the substratum. Neurons also exhibited disrupted neurite network. LDH and MTS assays revealed that exposure to copper nanoparticles had significant toxic effect with all the sizes tested when compared to unexposed control cultures. Further analysis of the results showed that copper nanoparticles of smaller size and higher concentration exerted the maximum toxic effects. Rubeanic acid staining showed intracellular deposition of copper. These results demonstrate that copper nanoparticles are toxic in a size- and concentration-dependent manner to DRG neurons. PMID:20543894

  6. Supraphysiological doses of performance enhancing anabolic-androgenic steroids exert direct toxic effects on neuron-like cells

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, John R.; Binmadi, Nada O.; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Paoli, Antonio; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few...

  7. Supraphysiological Doses of Performance Enhancing Anabolic-Androgenic Steroids Exert Direct Toxic Effects on Neuron-like Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Robert Basile

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  8. Supraphysiological doses of performance enhancing anabolic-androgenic steroids exert direct toxic effects on neuron-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basile, John R; Binmadi, Nada O; Zhou, Hua; Yang, Ying-Hua; Paoli, Antonio; Proia, Patrizia

    2013-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) are lipophilic hormones often taken in excessive quantities by athletes and bodybuilders to enhance performance and increase muscle mass. AAS exert well known toxic effects on specific cell and tissue types and organ systems. The attention that androgen abuse has received lately should be used as an opportunity to educate both athletes and the general population regarding their adverse effects. Among numerous commercially available steroid hormones, very few have been specifically tested for direct neurotoxicity. We evaluated the effects of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone on sympathetic-like neuron cells. Vitality and apoptotic effects were analyzed, and immunofluorescence staining and western blot performed. In this study, we demonstrate that exposure of supraphysiological doses of methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone are toxic to the neuron-like differentiated pheochromocytoma cell line PC12, as confirmed by toxicity on neurite networks responding to nerve growth factor and the modulation of the survival and apoptosis-related proteins ERK, caspase-3, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and heat-shock protein 90. We observe, in contrast to some previous reports but in accordance with others, expression of the androgen receptor (AR) in neuron-like cells, which when inhibited mitigated the toxic effects of AAS tested, suggesting that the AR could be binding these steroid hormones to induce genomic effects. We also note elevated transcription of neuritin in treated cells, a neurotropic factor likely expressed in an attempt to resist neurotoxicity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that supraphysiological exposure to the AAS methandienone and 17-α-methyltestosterone exert neurotoxic effects by an increase in the activity of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and alterations in neurite networks.

  9. Glucocorticoids exert direct toxicity on microvasculature: analysis of cell death mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Zaoui, Ikram; Behar-Cohen, Francine; Torriglia, Alicia

    2015-02-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) are routinely administered systemically or injected into the eye when treating numerous ocular diseases; however, their toxicity on the retinal microvasculature has not been previously investigated. In this article, the effects of hydrocortisone (Hydro), dexamethasone, dexamethasone-phosphate and triamcinolone acetonide (TA) were evaluated in vitro on human skin microcirculation cells and, bovine endothelial retinal cells, ex-vivo, on flat mounted rat retinas. The degree of GCs induced endothelial cell death varied according to the endothelial cell type and GCs chemical properties. GCs toxicity was higher in skin microvascular endothelial cells and for hydrophobic GC formulations. The mechanism of cell death differed between GCs, Hydro and TA activated the leukocyte elastase inhibitor/L-DNase II pathways but did not activate caspases. The mechanisms of cell death observed in cell cultures were similar to those observed in rat retinal explants. Taken together these results indicate that particular attention should be paid to the potential vascular side effects when administrating GCs clinically and in particular when developing sustained-release intraocular devices. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Assessment of the toxic effect exerted by fluorescent pseudomonads on embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beleneva, I A; Shamshurina, E V; Eliseikina, M G

    2015-05-01

    Strains of bacteria capable of growing on artificial culture media were isolated from the fouling of brass plates submerged in Nha Trang Bay, South China Sea, and from tissues of the seastar Distolasterias nipon, caught in Peter the Great Bay, Sea of Japan. According to the complex of data of genetic and physiological/biochemical analyzes, two strains of cultivated bacteria were identified by us as the species Pseudomonas aeruginosa, two strains as Pseudomonas fluorescens, and one strain as Ruegeria sp. It was shown that the cultivated strains of P. aeruginosa released exotoxins, particularly phenazine pigments, into the environment. Production of the toxins did not depend on presence of a target organism in the system and was aimed at regulation of interactions in the microbial community. The toxicity of the studied natural isolates of fluorescent pseudomonads was analyzed by using embryos and larvae of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus nudus, which are the sensitive and dynamic toxicological sea-urchin embryo test (SET) system. As was established, exotoxins produced by the strains of P. aeruginosa inhibit activity of cilia in sea urchin larvae, as well as disturb processes of cell differentiation in embryos and larvae. Their toxic influence is accompanied by disturbances of protein synthesis and the disruptions of cytoskeleton in the course of zygote cleavage and larval development. Unlike P. aeruginosa, the strains of P. fluorescens and Ruegeria sp. did not exert the toxic effect on SET. The obtained data allow considering objects of the environment as the natural reservoir of opportunistic microorganisms posing a potential threat to human, whereas the use of SET for determination of toxicity of isolated bacteria provides an opportunity to study the mechanisms of their interactions with organisms in marine ecosystems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. VORICONAZOLE TOXICITY IN MULTIPLE PENGUIN SPECIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Georoff, Timothy A; Nollens, Hendrik H; Wells, Rebecca L; Clauss, Tonya M; Ialeggio, Donna M; Harms, Craig A; Wack, Allison N

    2015-12-01

    Aspergillosis is a common respiratory fungal disease in penguins managed under human care. Triazole antifungal drugs, including itraconazole, are most commonly used for treatment; however, itraconazole treatment failures from drug resistance are becoming more common, requiring newer treatment options. Voriconazole, a newer triazole, is being used more often. Until recently, no voriconazole pharmacokinetic studies had been performed in penguins, leading to empiric dosing based on other avian studies. This has led to increased anecdotal reporting of apparent voriconazole toxicity in penguins. This report describes 18 probable and 6 suspected cases of voriconazole toxicity in six penguin species from nine institutions: 12 African penguins (Spheniscus demersus), 5 Humboldt penguins (Spheniscus humboldti), 3 Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus), 2 gentoo penguins (Pygoscelis papua papua), 1 macaroni penguin (Eudyptes chrysolophus), and 1 emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri). Observed clinical signs of toxicity included anorexia, lethargy, weakness, ataxia, paresis, apparent vision changes, seizure-like activity, and generalized seizures. Similar signs of toxicity have also been reported in humans, in whom voriconazole therapeutic plasma concentration for Aspergillus spp. infections is 2-6 μg/ml. Plasma voriconazole concentrations were measured in 18 samples from penguins showing clinical signs suggestive of voriconazole toxicity. The concentrations ranged from 8.12 to 64.17 μg/ml, with penguins having plasma concentrations above 30 μg/ml exhibiting moderate to severe neurologic signs, including ataxia, paresis, and seizures. These concentrations were well above those known to result in central nervous system toxicity, including encephalopathy, in humans. This case series highlights the importance of species-specific dosing of voriconazole in penguins and plasma therapeutic drug monitoring. Further investigation, including pharmacokinetic studies, is

  12. Cadmium exerts its toxic effects on photosynthesis via a cascade mechanism in the cyanobacterium, Synechocystis PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Tünde; Zsiros, Ottó; Kis, Mihály; Garab, Győző; Kovács, László

    2012-12-01

    Despite intense research, the mechanism of Cd(2+) toxicity on photosynthesis is still elusive because of the multiplicity of the inhibitory effects and different barriers in plants. The quick Cd(2+) uptake in Synechocystis PCC 6803 permits the direct interaction of cadmium with the photosynthetic machinery and allows the distinction between primary and secondary effects. We show that the CO(2) -dependent electron transport is rapidly inhibited upon exposing the cells to 40 µm Cd(2+) (50% inhibition in ∼15 min). However, during this time we observe only symptoms of photosystem I acceptor side limitation and a build of an excitation pressure on the reaction centres, as indicated by light-induced P700 redox transients, O(2) polarography and changes in chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters. Inhibitory effects on photosystem II electron transport and the degradation of the reaction centre protein D1 can only be observed after several hours, and only in the light, as revealed by chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, thermoluminescence and immunoblotting. Despite the marked differences in the manifestations of these short- and long-term effects, they exhibit virtually the same Cd(2+) concentration dependence. These data strongly suggest a cascade mechanism of the toxic effect, with a primary effect in the dark reactions. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Fucoxanthin: A Marine Carotenoid Exerting Anti-Cancer Effects by Affecting Multiple Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeetha Ravi Kumar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fucoxanthin is a marine carotenoid exhibiting several health benefits. The anti-cancer effect of fucoxanthin and its deacetylated metabolite, fucoxanthinol, is well documented. In view of its potent anti-carcinogenic activity, the need to understand the underlying mechanisms has gained prominence. Towards achieving this goal, several researchers have carried out studies in various cell lines and in vivo and have deciphered that fucoxanthin exerts its anti-proliferative and cancer preventing influence via different molecules and pathways including the Bcl-2 proteins, MAPK, NFκB, Caspases, GADD45, and several other molecules that are involved in either cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, or metastasis. Thus, in addition to decreasing the frequency of occurrence and growth of tumours, fucoxanthin has a cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Some studies show that this effect is selective, i.e., fucoxanthin has the capability to target cancer cells only, leaving normal physiological cells unaffected/less affected. Hence, fucoxanthin and its metabolites show great promise as chemotherapeutic agents in cancer.

  14. Toxic effects exerted on methanogenic, nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria by chemicals used in a milk analysis laboratory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopez-Fiuza, J.; Buys, B.; Mosquera-Corral, A.; Omil, F.; Mendez, R.

    2002-01-01

    The toxic effects caused by the chemicals contained in wastewaters generated by laboratories involved in raw milk analyses were assessed using batch assays. These assays were carried out separately with methanogenic, ammonium-oxidizing, nitrite-oxidizing and denitrifying bacteria. Since sodium azide

  15. Gene expression profiling reveals multiple toxicity endpoints induced by hepatotoxicants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Qihong; Jin Xidong; Gaillard, Elias T.; Knight, Brian L.; Pack, Franklin D.; Stoltz, James H.; Jayadev, Supriya; Blanchard, Kerry T

    2004-05-18

    Microarray technology continues to gain increased acceptance in the drug development process, particularly at the stage of toxicology and safety assessment. In the current study, microarrays were used to investigate gene expression changes associated with hepatotoxicity, the most commonly reported clinical liability with pharmaceutical agents. Acetaminophen, methotrexate, methapyrilene, furan and phenytoin were used as benchmark compounds capable of inducing specific but different types of hepatotoxicity. The goal of the work was to define gene expression profiles capable of distinguishing the different subtypes of hepatotoxicity. Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with acetaminophen (single dose, 4500 mg/kg for 6, 24 and 72 h), methotrexate (1 mg/kg per day for 1, 7 and 14 days), methapyrilene (100 mg/kg per day for 3 and 7 days), furan (40 mg/kg per day for 1, 3, 7 and 14 days) or phenytoin (300 mg/kg per day for 14 days). Hepatic gene expression was assessed using toxicology-specific gene arrays containing 684 target genes or expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Principal component analysis (PCA) of gene expression data was able to provide a clear distinction of each compound, suggesting that gene expression data can be used to discern different hepatotoxic agents and toxicity endpoints. Gene expression data were applied to the multiplicity-adjusted permutation test and significantly changed genes were categorized and correlated to hepatotoxic endpoints. Repression of enzymes involved in lipid oxidation (acyl-CoA dehydrogenase, medium chain, enoyl CoA hydratase, very long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase) were associated with microvesicular lipidosis. Likewise, subsets of genes associated with hepatotocellular necrosis, inflammation, hepatitis, bile duct hyperplasia and fibrosis have been identified. The current study illustrates that expression profiling can be used to: (1) distinguish different hepatotoxic endpoints; (2) predict the development of toxic endpoints; and

  16. Cucurbitacin B exerts anti-cancer activities in human multiple myeloma cells in vitro and in vivo by modulating multiple cellular pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ning; Zhong, Yueling; Zeng, Ting; Wei, Rong; Wu, Zhongjun; Xiao, Cui; Cao, Xiaohua; Li, Minhui; Li, Limei; Han, Bin; Yu, Xiaoping; Li, Hua; Zou, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Cucurbitacin B (CuB), a triterpenoid compound isolated from the stems of Cucumis melo, has long been used to treat hepatitis and hepatoma in China. Although its remarkable anti-cancer activities have been reported, the mechanism by which it achieves this therapeutic activity remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which CuB inhibits cancer cell proliferation. Our results indicate that CuB is a novel inhibitor of Aurora A in multiple myeloma (MM) cells, arresting cells in the G2/M phase. CuB also inhibited IL-10-induced STAT3 phosphorylation, synergistically increasing the anti-tumor activity of Adriamycin in vitro. CuB induced dephosphorylation of cofilin, resulting in the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-8. CuB inhibited MM tumor growth in a murine MM model, without host toxicity. In conclusion, these results indicate that CuB interferes with multiple cellular pathways in MM cells. CuB thus represents a promising therapeutic tool for the treatment of MM. PMID:27418139

  17. Perceived Exertion Is Lower When Using a Functional Electrical Stimulation Neuroprosthesis Compared With an Ankle-Foot Orthosis in Persons With Multiple Sclerosis: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, Seema R; Beranger, Alexandria G; Felix, Elizabeth R

    2017-03-01

    This study investigates the direct comparison of energy cost, efficiency, and effort between an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) and a functional electrical stimulation (FES) device for foot drop in ambulatory patients with multiple sclerosis. Twenty adults (32-74 years old; 55% female) with a diagnosis of multiple sclerosis resulting in foot drop participated in a crossover, counterbalanced preliminary study. Each participant was tested on different days, with each session consisting of a separate walk trial per prosthetic device. Heart rate, oxygen consumption, speed, distance, and self-reported exertion were measured independently for each device walk trial. Repeated-measures analysis of variance with device and visit number as within-participants independent variables were run for the primary outcome variables of perceived exertion, energy, and metabolic efficiency. A significant main effect of device was found for perceived exertion (P = 0.01), with participants reporting decreased exertion levels (Borg Scale) when using the FES compared with the AFO (mean difference, 1.63; 95% confidence interval, 0.49-2.76). Energy and efficiency did not significantly differ by device. Results suggest that further investigation of the potential advantages of FES devices over traditional AFO is warranted. Complete the self-assessment activity and evaluation online at http://www.physiatry.org/JournalCME CME OBJECTIVES: Upon completion of this article, the reader should be able to: (1) describe the potential differences between an AFO and FES for the treatment of foot drop in patients with multiple sclerosis, (2) understand the mechanisms and prevalence of foot drop in patients with multiple sclerosis, and (3) recognize the potential benefit of improved perceived exertion found when using FES for the treatment of foot drop in patients with multiple sclerosis. Advanced ACCREDITATION: The Association of Academic Physiatrists is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing

  18. A Bayesian dose-finding design incorporating toxicity data from multiple treatment cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jun; Qin, Rui; Ezzalfani, Monia; Sargent, Daniel J; Mandrekar, Sumithra J

    2017-01-15

    Phase I oncology trials are designed to identify a safe dose with an acceptable toxicity profile. The dose is typically determined based on the probability of severe toxicity observed during the first treatment cycle, although patients continue to receive treatment for multiple cycles. In addition, the toxicity data from multiple types and grades are typically summarized into a single binary outcome of dose-limiting toxicity. A novel endpoint, the total toxicity profile, was previously developed to account for the multiple toxicity types and grades. In this work, we propose to account for longitudinal repeated measures of total toxicity profile over multiple treatment cycles, accounting for cumulative toxicity during dosing-finding. A linear mixed model was utilized in the Bayesian framework, with addition of Bayesian risk functions for decision-making in dose assignment. The performance of this design is evaluated using simulation studies and compared with the previously proposed quasi-likelihood continual reassessment method (QLCRM) design. Twelve clinical scenarios incorporating four different locations of maximum tolerated dose and three different time trends (decreasing, increasing, and no effect) were investigated. The proposed repeated measures design was comparable with the QLCRM when only cycle 1 data were utilized in dose-finding; however, it demonstrated an improvement over the QLCRM when data from multiple cycles were used across all scenarios. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor in vitro and in vivo through multiple aspects against activated T lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Li-Li; Wu, Xue-Feng; Liu, Hai-Liang; Guo, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qiong; Tao, Fei-Fei; Ge, Hui-Ming; Shen, Yan; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Xu, Qiang, E-mail: molpharm@163.com; Sun, Yang, E-mail: yangsun@nju.edu.cn

    2013-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the immunosuppressive activity of vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, on T lymphocytes both in vitro and in vivo, and further explored its potential molecular mechanism. Resveratrol had a wide spectrum of healthy beneficial effects with multiple targets. Interestingly, its tetramer, vaticaffinol, exerted more intensive immunosuppressive activity than resveratrol. Vaticaffinol significantly inhibited T cells proliferation activated by concanavalin A (Con A) or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 in a dose- and time-dependent manner. It also induced Con A-activated T cells undergoing apoptosis through mitochondrial pathway. Moreover, this compound prevented cells from entering S phase and G2/M phase during T cells activation. In addition, vaticaffinol inhibited ERK and AKT signaling pathways in Con A-activated T cells. Furthermore, vaticaffinol significantly ameliorated ear swelling in a mouse model of picryl chloride-induced ear contact dermatitis in vivo. In most of the aforementioned experiments, however, resveratrol had only slight effects on the inhibition of T lymphocytes compared with vaticaffinol. Taken together, our findings suggest that vaticaffinol exerts more preferable immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol both in vitro and in vivo by affecting multiple targets against activated T cells. - Graphical abstract: Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer isolated from Vatica mangachapoi, exerts more intensive immunosuppressive activity than its precursor resveratrol does in vitro and in vivo. Its mechanism may involve multiple effects against activated T cells: regulation of signalings involved in cell proliferation, G0/G1 arrest of T cells, as well as an apoptosis induction in activated effector T cells. Highlights: ► Vaticaffinol, a resveratrol tetramer, exerts more potent activity than its precursor. ► It inhibited T cells proliferation and prevented them from entering

  20. Germ Cell Cancer and Multiple Relapses: Toxicity and Survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jakob; Kier, Maria G.G.; Mortensen, Mette S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: A small number of patients with germ cell cancer (GCC) receive more than one line of treatment for disseminated disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate late toxicity and survival in an unselected cohort of patients who experienced relapse after receiving first-line treatment...

  1. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Kurland, Sienna C.; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Williams, Alex H.; Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  2. Arabidopsis RAR1 Exerts Rate-Limiting Control of R Gene–Mediated Defenses against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Paul R.; Kahn, Katherine; Austin, Mark J.; Moisan, Lisa J.; Sadanandom, Ari; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D. G.; Parker, Jane E.

    2002-01-01

    We have identified the Arabidopsis ortholog of barley RAR1 as a component of resistance specified by multiple nucleotide binding/Leu-rich repeat resistance (R) genes recognizing different bacterial and oomycete pathogen isolates. Characterization of partially and fully defective rar1 mutations revealed that wild-type RAR1 acts as a rate-limiting regulator of early R gene–triggered defenses, determining the extent of pathogen containment, hypersensitive plant cell death, and an oxidative burst at primary infection sites. We conclude that RAR1 defense signaling function is conserved between plant species that are separated evolutionarily by 150 million years. RAR1 encodes a protein with two zinc binding (CHORD) domains that are highly conserved across eukaryotic phyla, and the single nematode CHORD-containing homolog, Chp, was found previously to be essential for embryo viability. An absence of obvious developmental defects in null Arabidopsis rar1 mutants favors the notion that, in contrast, RAR1 does not play a fundamental role in plant development. PMID:12034891

  3. Arabidopsis RAR1 exerts rate-limiting control of R gene-mediated defenses against multiple pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muskett, Paul R; Kahn, Katherine; Austin, Mark J; Moisan, Lisa J; Sadanandom, Ari; Shirasu, Ken; Jones, Jonathan D G; Parker, Jane E

    2002-05-01

    We have identified the Arabidopsis ortholog of barley RAR1 as a component of resistance specified by multiple nucleotide binding/Leu-rich repeat resistance (R) genes recognizing different bacterial and oomycete pathogen isolates. Characterization of partially and fully defective rar1 mutations revealed that wild-type RAR1 acts as a rate-limiting regulator of early R gene-triggered defenses, determining the extent of pathogen containment, hypersensitive plant cell death, and an oxidative burst at primary infection sites. We conclude that RAR1 defense signaling function is conserved between plant species that are separated evolutionarily by 150 million years. RAR1 encodes a protein with two zinc binding (CHORD) domains that are highly conserved across eukaryotic phyla, and the single nematode CHORD-containing homolog, Chp, was found previously to be essential for embryo viability. An absence of obvious developmental defects in null Arabidopsis rar1 mutants favors the notion that, in contrast, RAR1 does not play a fundamental role in plant development.

  4. Mdr65 decreases toxicity of multiple insecticides in Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haina; Buchon, Nicolas; Scott, Jeffrey G

    2017-10-01

    ABC transporters are ubiquitous membrane-bound proteins, present in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The major function of eukaryotic ABC transporters is to mediate the efflux of a variety of substrates (including xenobiotics) out of cells. ABC transporters have been widely investigated in humans, particularly for their involvement in multidrug resistance (MDR). Considerably less is known about their roles in transport and/or excretion in insects. ABC transporters are only known to function as exporters in insects. Drosophila melanogaster has 56 ABC transporter genes, including eight which are phylogenetically most similar to the human Mdr genes (ABCB1 clade). We investigated the role of ABC transporters in the ABCB1 clade in modulating the susceptibility to insecticides. We took advantage of the GAL4/UAS system in D. melanogaster to knockdown the expression levels of Mdr65, Mdr50, Mdr49 and ABCB6 using transgenic UAS-RNAi lines and conditional driver lines. The most notable effects were increased sensitivities to nine different insecticides by silencing of Mdr65. Furthermore, a null mutation of Mdr65 decreased the malathion, malaoxon and fipronil LC50 values by a factor of 1.9, 2.1 and 3.9, respectively. Altogether, this data demonstrates the critical role of ABC transporters, particularly Mdr65, in altering the toxicity of specific, structurally diverse, insecticides in D. melanogaster. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatal toxic epidermal necrolysis in a patient on teriflunomide treatment for relapsing multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerschenfeld, Gaspard; Servy, Amandine; Valeyrie-Allanore, Laurence; de Prost, Nicolas; Cecchini, Jérôme

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of toxic epidermal necrolysis in a 46-year-old woman on teriflunomide treatment. Such a severe adverse cutaneous drug reaction with this new therapy for relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis should be early recognized in order to ensure the rapid withdrawal of the drug. © The Author(s), 2015.

  6. Tacrine-Trolox Hybrids: A Novel Class of Centrally Active, Nonhepatotoxic Multi-Target-Directed Ligands Exerting Anticholinesterase and Antioxidant Activities with Low In Vivo Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepovimova, Eugenie; Korabecny, Jan; Dolezal, Rafael; Babkova, Katerina; Ondrejicek, Ales; Jun, Daniel; Sepsova, Vendula; Horova, Anna; Hrabinova, Martina; Soukup, Ondrej; Bukum, Neslihan; Jost, Petr; Muckova, Lubica; Kassa, Jiri; Malinak, David; Andrs, Martin; Kuca, Kamil

    2015-11-25

    Coupling of two distinct pharmacophores, tacrine and trolox, endowed with different biological properties, afforded 21 hybrid compounds as novel multifunctional candidates against Alzheimer's disease. Several of them showed improved inhibitory properties toward acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in relation to tacrine. These hybrids also scavenged free radicals. Molecular modeling studies in tandem with kinetic analysis exhibited that these hybrids target both catalytic active site as well as peripheral anionic site of AChE. In addition, incorporation of the moiety bearing antioxidant abilities displayed negligible toxicity on human hepatic cells. This striking effect was explained by formation of nontoxic metabolites after 1 h incubation in human liver microsomes system. Finally, tacrine-trolox hybrids exhibited low in vivo toxicity after im administration in rats and potential to penetrate across blood-brain barrier. All of these outstanding in vitro results in combination with promising in vivo outcomes highlighted derivative 7u as the lead structure worthy of further investigation.

  7. Mangiferin exerts hepatoprotective activity against D-galactosamine induced acute toxicity and oxidative/nitrosative stress via Nrf2–NFκB pathways

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Joydeep; Ghosh, Jyotirmoy; Roy, Anandita; Sil, Parames C., E-mail: parames@bosemain.boseinst.ac.in

    2012-04-01

    Mangiferin, a xanthone glucoside, is well known to exhibit antioxidant, antiviral, antitumor, anti-inflammatory and gene-regulatory effects. In the present study, we isolated mangiferin from the bark of Mangifera indica and assessed its beneficial role in galactosamine (GAL) induced hepatic pathophysiology. GAL (400 mg/kg body weight) exposed hepatotoxic rats showed elevation in the activities of serum ALP, ALT, levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid-peroxidation and reduction in the levels of serum total proteins, albumin and cellular GSH. Besides, GAL exposure (5 mM) in hepatocytes induced apoptosis and necrosis, increased ROS and NO production. Signal transduction studies showed that GAL exposure significantly increased the nuclear translocation of NFκB and elevated iNOS protein expression. The same exposure also elevated TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12, IL-18 and decreased IL-10 mRNA expressions. Furthermore, GAL also decreased the protein expression of Nrf2, NADPH:quinine oxidoreductase-1, heme oxygenase-1 and GSTα. However, mangiferin administration in GAL intoxicated rats or coincubation of hepatocytes with mangiferin significantly altered all these GAL-induced adverse effects. In conclusion, the hepatoprotective role of mangiferin was due to induction of antioxidant defense via the Nrf2 pathway and reduction of inflammation via NFκB inhibition. Highlights: ►Galactosamine induces hepatocytes death via oxidative and nitrosative stress. ►Mangiferin exerts hepatoprotective effect/antioxidant defense via Nrf2 pathway. ►Mangiferin exerts anti-inflammatory responses by inhibiting NF-κB. ►Mangiferin suppresses galactosamine-induced repression of IL-10 mRNA.

  8. Radiation dose limits and liver toxicities resulting from multiple yttrium-90 radioembolization treatments for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Joseph Y; Rhee, Thomas K; Atassi, Bassel; Gates, Vanessa L; Kulik, Laura; Mulcahy, Mary F; Larson, Andrew C; Ryu, Robert K; Sato, Kent T; Lewandowski, Robert J; Omary, Reed A; Salem, Riad

    2007-11-01

    To assess the relationship between cumulative hepatic lobar radiation dose and liver toxicities in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) treated with multiple sessions of yttrium-90 radioembolization. Forty-one patients with HCC (age range, 46-82 years) underwent radioembolization with 90Y. Patients were classified according to the Okuda scoring system. All patients received single liver lobar treatments on two or more occasions according to standard clinical 90Y embolization protocol. Cumulative radiation dose to each liver lobe was measured and patients were followed to assess liver toxicities. Statistical analysis was performed with the Student t test and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Patients with Okuda stage I disease received more treatments than those with Okuda stage II disease (mean, 2.65 vs 2.24; Por=1 toxicity; P<.005). No correlation between cumulative radiation dose and liver toxicities existed in patients with Okuda stage II disease. The maximum tolerated dose was between 222 and 390 Gy. Median survival times were 660 and 431 days for patients with Okuda stage I and stage II disease, respectively. Patients with HCC can tolerate high cumulative radiation doses with 90Y therapy. Compared with patients with Okuda stage II disease, patients with Okuda stage I disease tolerate a higher cumulative radiation dose without liver toxicity, but liver toxicities increase with increasing cumulative radiation doses.

  9. Blood levels of toxic metals and rare earth elements commonly found in e-waste may exert subtle effects on hemoglobin concentration in sub-Saharan immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Pérez-Arellano, José Luis; González-Antuña, Ana; Camacho, María; Almeida-González, Maira; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P

    2017-12-01

    Pollution by heavy metals and more recently by rare earth elements (REE) and other minor elements (ME) has increased due in part to their high use in technological and electronic devices. This contamination can become very relevant in those sites where e-waste is improperly processed, as it is the case in many countries of the African continent. Exposure to some toxic elements has been associated to certain hematological disorders, specifically anemia. In this study, the concentrations of 48 elements (including REE and other ME) were determined by ICP-MS in whole blood samples of sub-Saharan immigrants with anemia (n=63) and without anemia (n=78). We found that the levels of Fe, Cr, Cu, Mn, Mo, and Se were significantly higher in the control group than in the anemia group, suggesting that anemia was mainly due to nutritional deficiencies. However, since other authors have suggested that in addition to nutritional deficiency, exposure to some elements may influence hemoglobin levels, we wanted to explore the role of a broad panel of toxic and "emerging" elements in hemoglobin deficiency. We found that the levels of Ag, As, Ba, Bi, Ce, Eu, Er, Ga, La, Nb, Nd, Pb, Pr, Sm, Sn, Ta, Th, Tl, U and V were higher in anemic participants than in controls. For most of these elements an inverse correlation with hemoglobin concentration was found. Some of them also correlated inversely with blood iron levels, pointing to the possibility that a higher rate of intestinal uptake of these could exist in relation to a nutritional deficiency of iron. However, the higher levels of Pb, and the group of REE and other ME in anemic participants were independent of iron levels, pointing to the possibility that these elements could play a role in the development of anemia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braver, Richard T

    2016-04-01

    Increased tissue pressure within a fascial compartment may be the result from any increase in volume within its contents, or any decrease in size of the fascial covering or its distensibility. This may lead to symptoms of leg tightness, pain or numbness brought about by exercise. There are multiple differential diagnoses of exercise induced leg pain and the proper diagnoses of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is made by a careful history and by exclusion of other maladies and confirmed by compartment syndrome testing as detailed in this text. Surgical fasciotomies for the anterior, lateral, superficial and deep posterior compartments are described in detail along with ancillary procedures for chronic shin splints that should allow the athlete to return to competitive activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Irresistible ants: exposure to novel toxic prey increases consumption over multiple temporal scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herr, Mark W; Robbins, Travis R; Centi, Alan; Thawley, Christopher J; Langkilde, Tracy

    2016-07-01

    As species become increasingly exposed to novel challenges, it is critical to understand how evolutionary (i.e., generational) and plastic (i.e., within lifetime) responses work together to determine a species' fate or predict its distribution. The introduction of non-native species imposes novel pressures on the native species that they encounter. Understanding how native species exposed to toxic or distasteful invaders change their feeding behavior can provide insight into their ability to cope with these novel threats as well as broader questions about the evolution of this behavior. We demonstrated that native eastern fence lizards do not avoid consuming invasive fire ants following repeated exposure to this toxic prey. Rather fence lizards increased their consumption of these ants following exposure on three different temporal scales. Lizards ate more fire ants when they were exposed to this toxic prey over successive days. Lizards consumed more fire ants if they had been exposed to fire ants as juveniles 6 months earlier. Finally, lizards from populations exposed to fire ants over multiple generations consumed more fire ants than those from fire ant-free areas. These results suggest that the potentially lethal consumption of fire ants may carry benefits resulting in selection for this behavior, and learning that persists long after initial exposure. Future research on the response of native predators to venomous prey over multiple temporal scales will be valuable in determining the long-term effects of invasion by these novel threats.

  12. Analysis of the efficacy and toxicity of bortezomib for treatment of relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma in community practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, KL; van Wieringen, W; Vellenga, E; Zweegman, S; Lokhorst, HM; Sonneveld, P

    The clinical data on the efficacy and toxicity of bortezomib as treatment for multiple myeloma patients are restricted to prospective phase II studies in expert myeloma centers. Here we report a multi-institutional analysis of the efficacy and toxicity of bortezomib in patients with relapsed or

  13. Feasibility and toxicity of hematopoietic stem cell transplant in multiple sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Low Tat Kuan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is a debilitating disease of the central nervous system. It affects people of all ages but is more prevalent among 20-40 year olds. Patients with MS can be presented with potentially any neurological symptom depending on the location of the lesion. A quarter of patients with MS suffer from bilateral lower limb spasticity among other symptoms. These devastating effects can be detrimental to the patient's quality of life. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs have been used as a treatment for MS over the past 2 decades but their safety and efficacy has are undetermined. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility and toxicity of autologous HSCs transplantation in MS. A literature search was done from 1997 to 2016 using different keywords. A total of 9 articles, which met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, were included in this review. The type of conditioning regimen and technique of stem cell mobilization are summarized and compared in this study. All studies reported high-dose immunosuppressive therapy with autologous HSCs transplantation being an effective treatment option for severe cases of multiple sclerosis. Fever, sepsis, and immunosuppression side effects were the most observed adverse effects that were reported in the selected studies. HSCs is a feasible treatment for patients with MS; nevertheless the safety is still a concern due to chemo toxicity.

  14. Graphene oxide selectively targets cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: implications for non-toxic cancer treatment, via "differentiation-based nano-therapy".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Marco; Verre, Andrea F; Iliut, Maria; Peiris-Pagés, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Gandara, Ricardo; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Lisanti, Michael P

    2015-02-28

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a. cancer stem cells (CSCs), are difficult to eradicate with conventional approaches to cancer treatment, such as chemo-therapy and radiation. As a consequence, the survival of residual CSCs is thought to drive the onset of tumor recurrence, distant metastasis, and drug-resistance, which is a significant clinical problem for the effective treatment of cancer. Thus, novel approaches to cancer therapy are needed urgently, to address this clinical need. Towards this end, here we have investigated the therapeutic potential of graphene oxide to target cancer stem cells. Graphene and its derivatives are well-known, relatively inert and potentially non-toxic nano-materials that form stable dispersions in a variety of solvents. Here, we show that graphene oxide (of both big and small flake sizes) can be used to selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types. For this purpose, we employed the tumor-sphere assay, which functionally measures the clonal expansion of single cancer stem cells under anchorage-independent conditions. More specifically, we show that graphene oxide effectively inhibits tumor-sphere formation in multiple cell lines, across 6 different cancer types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancers, as well as glioblastoma (brain). In striking contrast, graphene oxide is non-toxic for "bulk" cancer cells (non-stem) and normal fibroblasts. Mechanistically, we present evidence that GO exerts its striking effects on CSCs by inhibiting several key signal transduction pathways (WNT, Notch and STAT-signaling) and thereby inducing CSC differentiation. Thus, graphene oxide may be an effective non-toxic therapeutic strategy for the eradication of cancer stem cells, via differentiation-based nano-therapy.

  15. Graphene oxide selectively targets cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types: Implications for non-toxic cancer treatment, via “differentiation-based nano-therapy”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorillo, Marco; Verre, Andrea F.; Iliut, Maria; Peiris-Pagés, Maria; Ozsvari, Bela; Gandara, Ricardo; Cappello, Anna Rita; Sotgia, Federica; Vijayaraghavan, Aravind; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-initiating cells (TICs), a.k.a. cancer stem cells (CSCs), are difficult to eradicate with conventional approaches to cancer treatment, such as chemo-therapy and radiation. As a consequence, the survival of residual CSCs is thought to drive the onset of tumor recurrence, distant metastasis, and drug-resistance, which is a significant clinical problem for the effective treatment of cancer. Thus, novel approaches to cancer therapy are needed urgently, to address this clinical need. Towards this end, here we have investigated the therapeutic potential of graphene oxide to target cancer stem cells. Graphene and its derivatives are well-known, relatively inert and potentially non-toxic nano-materials that form stable dispersions in a variety of solvents. Here, we show that graphene oxide (of both big and small flake sizes) can be used to selectively inhibit the proliferative expansion of cancer stem cells, across multiple tumor types. For this purpose, we employed the tumor-sphere assay, which functionally measures the clonal expansion of single cancer stem cells under anchorage-independent conditions. More specifically, we show that graphene oxide effectively inhibits tumor-sphere formation in multiple cell lines, across 6 different cancer types, including breast, ovarian, prostate, lung and pancreatic cancers, as well as glioblastoma (brain). In striking contrast, graphene oxide is non-toxic for “bulk” cancer cells (non-stem) and normal fibroblasts. Mechanistically, we present evidence that GO exerts its striking effects on CSCs by inhibiting several key signal transduction pathways (WNT, Notch and STAT-signaling) and thereby inducing CSC differentiation. Thus, graphene oxide may be an effective non-toxic therapeutic strategy for the eradication of cancer stem cells, via differentiation-based nano-therapy. PMID:25708684

  16. Understanding Genetic Toxicity Through Data Mining: The Process of Building Knowledge by Integrating Multiple Genetic Toxicity Databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper demonstrates the usefulness of representing a chemical by its structural features and the use of these features to profile a battery of tests rather than relying on a single toxicity test of a given chemical. This paper presents data mining/profiling methods applied in...

  17. Toxicity of Gamma Knife Radiosurgery in the Treatment of Intracranial Tumors in Patients With Collagen Vascular Diseases or Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lowell, Dot [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Tatter, Stephen B. [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Bourland, J. Daniel; Guzman, Allan F. de; Ekstrand, Kenneth E. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Ellis, Thomas L. [Department of Neurosurgery, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Lovato, James F. [Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); McMullen, Kevin P.; Munley, Michael T.; Shaw, Edward G.; Urbanic, James J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States); Chan, Michael D., E-mail: mchan@wfubmc.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: To assess toxicity in patients with either a collagen vascular disease (CVD) or multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with intracranial radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Between January 2004 and April 2009, 6 patients with MS and 14 patients with a CVD were treated with Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for intracranial tumors. Treated lesions included 15 total brain metastases in 7 patients, 11 benign brain tumors, 1 low grade glioma, and 1 cavernous malformation. Toxicities were graded by the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Acute/Late Radiation Morbidity Scoring Criteria. 'Rare toxicities' were characterized as those reported in the scientific literature at an incidence of <5%. Results: Median follow-up time was 16 months. Median dose to the tumor margin was 13.0 Gy (range, 12-21 Gy). Median size of tumor was 5.0 cm{sup 3} (range, 0.14-7.8 cm{sup 3}). Of the 14 patients with CVD, none experienced a Grade 3 or 4 toxicity or a toxicity characterized as rare. Of the 6 patients with MS, 3 experienced rare toxicities, and two of these were Grade 3 toxicities. Rare complications included a patient experiencing both communicating hydrocephalus and facial nerve palsy, as well as 2 additional patients with motor cranial nerve palsy. High-grade toxicities included the patient with an acoustic neuroma requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for obstructive hydrocephalus, and 1 patient with a facial nerve schwannoma who experienced permanent facial nerve palsy. Interval between radiosurgery and high-grade toxicities ranged from 1 week to 4 months. Conclusions: Our series suggests that patients with MS who receive GKRS may be at increased risk of rare and high-grade treatment-related toxicity. Given the time course of toxicity, treatment-related edema or demyelination represent potential mechanisms.

  18. Multiple toxic effects of low-dose methotrexate in a patient treated for psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookstaver, P Brandon; Norris, Leann; Rudisill, Celeste; DeWitt, Tammy; Aziz, Shahid; Fant, James

    2008-11-15

    A case of toxicity encountered with low-dose methotrexate therapy is discussed. A 59-year-old African American woman receiving long-term therapy for psoriasis came to the hospital with painful ulcers, difficulty swallowing, cutaneous lesions, and acute renal failure. Her medical history included type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary artery disease, morbid obesity, and psoriasis. On admission, the patient looked ill and had a low-grade fever; maculopapular skin lesions; and bullae and vesicles in her mouth and on her hands, legs, groin, and buttocks. With the exception of carvedilol, all home medications, including methotrexate, were discontinued. A complete medication history revealed that the patient had been taking methotrexate 2.5 mg daily, instead of 2.5 mg three times weekly as prescribed. This error translated into an estimated cumulative dose of 360 mg, nearly twice the prescribed amount. There were no clinically significant drug-drug interactions noted among her prescribed medications; however, the patient did report increased ibuprofen use secondary to the painful ulcerations in the previous few months. Leucovorin 15 mg i.v. every six hours was initiated along with additional supportive care. Skin and mucosal lesions, as well as her pain, had dramatically improved on day 5 of hospitalization. The patient was discharged after a six-day hospitalization and was provided with leucovorin 15 mg orally ever day for seven additional days until rheumatology follow-up. The patient was instructed to avoid any future methotrexate therapy. A patient who erroneously took oral methotrexate daily rather than thrice weekly for psoriasis developed multiple manifestations of methotrexate toxicity.

  19. Acute interstitial nephritis, toxic hepatitis and toxic myocarditis following multiple Asian giant hornet stings in Shaanxi Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zheng; Li, Xiang-Dong; Guo, Bo-Hui; Li, Yi; Zhao, Ming; Shen, Hai-Yan; Zhai, Ying; Wang, Xue-Li; Liu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    During July to October 2013, the Asian giant hornet has killed 42 and injured 1,675 people in the southern part of Shaanxi Province, China. This study investigated this unusual and frequent public health event. During the 3 months, 103 patients with severe Asian hornet stings were hospitalized in our hospital. Clinical data were collected using a standardized data collection form which included sex, age, length of hospital stay and medical recorder. After physical examination and laboratory investigation, 25.2, 46.6 and 44.7 % of the patients were found with varying degrees of acute interstitial nephritis, acute toxic hepatitis and acute toxic myocarditis, respectively. After timely and appropriate treatment including removal of the stings and the use of intravenous methylprednisolone and antihistamines, the kidney function, liver function and heart function of 99 patients recovered within 1 month, while four patients died. This study provided a good opportunity for recognizing the effect of Asian giant hornet stings and evaluating this serious public health event.

  20. miR-10b exerts oncogenic activity in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells by targeting expression of CUB and sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qiao; Gong, Li; Wang, Jun; Tu, Qian; Yao, Li; Zhang, Jia-Rui; Han, Xiu-Juan; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Wang, Shu-Mei; Li, Yan-Hong; Zhang, Wei

    2016-10-18

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a lethal disease, while the precise underlying molecular mechanisms of HCC pathogenesis remain to be defined. MicroRNA (miRNA), a class of non-coding small RNAs, can post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Altered miRNA expression has been reported in HCCs. This study assessed expression and the oncogenic activity of miRNA-10b (miR-10b) in HCC. Forty-five paired human HCC and adjacent non-tumor tissues were collected for qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis of miR-10b and CUB and Sushi multiple domains 1 (CSMD1), respectively. We analyzed the clinicopathological data from these patients to further determine if there was an association between miR-10b and CSMD1. HCC cell lines were used to assess the effects of miR-10b mimics or inhibitors on cell viability, migration, invasion, cell cycle distribution, and colony formation. Luciferase assay was used to assess miR-10b binding to the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) of CSMD1. miR-10b was highly expressed in HCC tissues compared to normal tissues. In vitro, overexpression of miR-10b enhanced HCC cell viability, migration, and invasion; whereas, downregulation of miR-10b expression suppressed these properties in HCC cells. Injection of miR-10b mimics into tumor cell xenografts also promoted xenograft growth in nude mice. Bioinformatics and luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that CSMD1 was the target gene of miR-10b. Immunocytochemical, immunohistochemical, and qRT-PCR data indicated that miR-10b decreased CSMD1 expression in HCC cells. We showed that miR-10b is overexpressed in HCC tissues and miR-10b mimics promoted HCC cell viability and invasion via targeting CSMD1 expression. Our findings suggest that miR-10b acts as an oncogene by targeting the tumor suppressor gene, CSMD1, in HCC.

  1. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Kefeng eFang; Weiwei eZhang; Yu eXing; Qing eZhang; Liu eYang; Qingqin eCao; Ling eQin

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scannin...

  2. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacquart, Thomas; Frisbie, Seth; Mitchell, Erika; Grigg, Laurie; Cole, Christopher; Small, Colleen; Sarkar, Bibudhendra

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  3. Efficacy and toxicity of whole brain radiotherapy in patients with multiple cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hauswald Henrik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To retrospectively access outcome and toxicity of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT in patients with multiple brain metastases (BM from malignant melanoma (MM. Patients and methods Results of 87 patients (median age 58 years; 35 female, 52 male treated by WBRT for BM of MM between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. Total dose applied was either 30 Gy in 10 fractions (n = 56 or 40 Gy in 20 fractions (n = 31. All but 9 patients suffered from extra-cerebral metastases. Prior surgical resection of BM was performed in 18 patients, salvage stereotactic radiosurgery in 13 patients. Results Mean follow-up was 8 months (range, 0–57 months, the 6- and 12-months overall-(OS survival rates were 29.2% and 16.5%, respectively. The median OS was 3.5 months. In cerebral follow-up imaging 6 (11 patients showed a complete (partial remission, while 11 (17 patients had stable disease (intra-cerebral tumor progression. In comparison of total dose, the group treated with 40 Gy in 20 fractions achieved a significant longer OS (p = 0.003, median 3.1 vs. 5.6 months. Furthermore, DS-GPA score (p  Conclusion Treatment of BM from MM with WBRT is tolerated well and some remissions of BM could be achieved. An advantage for higher treatment total doses was seen. However, outcome is non-satisfying, and further improvements in treatment of BM from MM are warranted.

  4. Multiple inorganic toxic substances contaminating the groundwater of Myingyan Township, Myanmar: Arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, and uranium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacquart, Thomas [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Frisbie, Seth [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Mitchell, Erika [Better Life Laboratories, Calais, VT (United States); Grigg, Laurie [Department of Earth and Environmental Science, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Cole, Christopher [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Norwich University, Northfield, VT (United States); Small, Colleen [Vermont Department of Health Laboratory, Burlington, VT (United States); Sarkar, Bibudhendra, E-mail: bsarkar@sickkids.ca [Department of Molecular Structure and Function, The Research Institute of The Hospital for Sick Children, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada); Department of Biochemistry, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario (Canada)

    2015-06-01

    In South Asia, the technological and societal shift from drinking surface water to groundwater has resulted in a great reduction of acute diseases due to water borne pathogens. However, arsenic and other naturally occurring inorganic toxic substances present in groundwater in the region have been linked to a variety of chronic diseases, including cancers, heart disease, and neurological problems. Due to the highly specific symptoms of chronic arsenic poisoning, arsenic was the first inorganic toxic substance to be noticed at unsafe levels in the groundwater of West Bengal, India and Bangladesh. Subsequently, other inorganic toxic substances, including manganese, uranium, and fluoride have been found at unsafe levels in groundwater in South Asia. While numerous drinking water wells throughout Myanmar have been tested for arsenic, relatively little is known about the concentrations of other inorganic toxic substances in Myanmar groundwater. In this study, we analyzed samples from 18 drinking water wells (12 in Myingyan City and 6 in nearby Tha Pyay Thar Village) and 2 locations in the Ayeyarwaddy River for arsenic, boron, barium, beryllium, cadmium, cobalt, chromium, copper, fluoride, iron, mercury, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, lead, antimony, selenium, thallium, uranium, vanadium, and zinc. Concentrations of arsenic, manganese, fluoride, iron, or uranium exceeded health-based reference values in most wells. In addition, any given well usually contained more than one toxic substance at unsafe concentrations. While water testing and well sharing could reduce health risks, none of the wells sampled provide water that is entirely safe with respect to inorganic toxic substances. It is imperative that users of these wells, and users of other wells that have not been tested for multiple inorganic toxic substances throughout the region, be informed of the need for drinking water testing and the health consequences of drinking water contaminated with inorganic toxic

  5. Control of aliphatic halogenated DBP precursors with multiple drinking water treatment processes: Formation potential and integrated toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimeng; Chu, Wenhai; Yao, Dechang; Yin, Daqiang

    2017-08-01

    The comprehensive control efficiency for the formation potentials (FPs) of a range of regulated and unregulated halogenated disinfection by-products (DBPs) (including carbonaceous DBPs (C-DBPs), nitrogenous DBPs (N-DBPs), and iodinated DBPs (I-DBPs)) with the multiple drinking water treatment processes, including pre-ozonation, conventional treatment (coagulation-sedimentation, pre-sand filtration), ozone-biological activated carbon (O 3 -BAC) advanced treatment, and post-sand filtration, was investigated. The potential toxic risks of DBPs by combing their FPs and toxicity values were also evaluated. The results showed that the multiple drinking water treatment processes had superior performance in removing organic/inorganic precursors and reducing the formation of a range of halogenated DBPs. Therein, ozonation significantly removed bromide and iodide, and thus reduced the formation of brominated and iodinated DBPs. The removal of organic carbon and nitrogen precursors by the conventional treatment processes was substantially improved by O 3 -BAC advanced treatment, and thus prevented the formation of chlorinated C-DBPs and N-DBPs. However, BAC filtration leads to the increased formation of brominated C-DBPs and N-DBPs due to the increase of bromide/DOC and bromide/DON. After the whole multiple treatment processes, the rank order for integrated toxic risk values caused by these halogenated DBPs was haloacetonitriles (HANs)≫haloacetamides (HAMs)>haloacetic acids (HAAs)>trihalomethanes (THMs)>halonitromethanes (HNMs)≫I-DBPs (I-HAMs and I-THMs). I-DBPs failed to cause high integrated toxic risk because of their very low FPs. The significant higher integrated toxic risk value caused by HANs than other halogenated DBPs cannot be ignored. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Boron Toxicity Causes Multiple Effects on Malus domestica Pollen Tube Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Kefeng; Zhang, Weiwei; Xing, Yu; Zhang, Qing; Yang, Liu; Cao, Qingqin; Qin, Ling

    2016-01-01

    Boron is an important micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this toxicity is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron toxicity on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results showed that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron toxicity could decrease [Ca(2+)]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca(2+)]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron toxicity. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with fourier-transform infrared analysis, suggested that boron toxicity influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins, and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca(2+)]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  7. Severe toxic osteoblastoma of the humerus associated with diffuse periostitis of multiple bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, S. [Dept. of Radiology, Princess Margaret Hospital for Children, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Breidahl, W.H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, WA (Australia); Baker, D. [Paediatric Oncology Unit, Princess Margaret Hospital, Subiaco, WA (Australia); Robbins, P.D. [PathCentre, QE 11 Medical Centre, Nedlands, WA (Australia); Sundaram, M. [Department of Radiology, Mayo Clinic, First Street SW 200, 55905 Rochester, MN (United States)

    2001-08-01

    Toxic osteoblastoma is a rare variant of an uncommon primary bone tumour that has been described only once before in the world medical literature. It is characterised by systemic features including fever, weight loss and a striking diffuse periostitis in association with an osteoblastoma, resulting in delayed diagnosis. Early recognition of this condition could prevent inappropriate therapies and reduce morbidity. (orig.)

  8. Metal uptake and acute toxicity in zebrafish: common mechanisms across multiple metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsop, Derek; Wood, Chris M

    2011-10-01

    Zebrafish larvae (Danio rerio) were used to examine the mechanisms of action and acute toxicities of metals. Larvae had similar physiological responses and sensitivities to waterborne metals as adults. While cadmium and zinc have previously been shown to reduce Ca(2+) uptake, copper and nickel also decreased Ca(2+) uptake, suggesting that the epithelial transport of all these metals is through Ca(2+) pathways. However, exposure to cadmium, copper or nickel for up to 48 h had little or no effect on total whole body Ca(2+) levels, indicating that the reduction of Ca(2+) uptake is not the acute toxic mechanism of these metals. Instead, mortalities were effectively related to whole body Na(+), which decreased up to 39% after 48 h exposures to different metals around their respective 96 h LC50s. Decreases in whole body K(+) were also observed, although they were not as pronounced or frequent as Na(+) losses. None of the metals tested inhibited Na(+) uptake in zebrafish (Na(+) uptake was in fact increased with exposure) and the observed losses of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) were proportional to the ionic gradients between the plasma and water, indicating diffusive ion loss with metal exposure. This study has shown that there is a common pathway for metal uptake and a common mechanism of acute toxicity across groups of metals in zebrafish. The disruption of ion uptake accompanying metal exposure does not appear to be responsible for the acute toxicity of metals, as has been previously suggested, but rather the toxicity is instead due to total ion loss (predominantly Na(+)). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Multiple mitigation mechanisms: Effects of submerged plants on the toxicity of nine insecticides to aquatic animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogan, William R; Relyea, Rick A

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that regulate contaminant impacts in nature is an increasingly important challenge. For insecticides in surface waters, the ability of aquatic plants to sorb, or bind, hydrophobic compounds has been identified as a primary mechanism by which toxicity can be mitigated (i.e. the sorption-based model). However, recent research shows that submerged plants can also rapidly mitigate the toxicity of the less hydrophobic insecticide malathion via alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. the hydrolysis-based model) driven by increased water pH resulting from photosynthesis. However, it is still unknown how generalizable these mitigation mechanisms are across the wide variety of insecticides applied today, and whether any general rules can be ascertained about which types of chemicals may be mitigated by each mechanism. We quantified the degree to which the submerged plant Elodea canadensis mitigated acute (48-h) toxicity to Daphnia magna using nine commonly applied insecticides spanning three chemical classes (carbamates: aldicarb, carbaryl, carbofuran; organophosphates: malathion, diazinon, chlorpyrifos; pyrethroids: permethrin, bifenthrin, lambda-cyhalothrin). We found that insecticides possessing either high octanol-water partition coefficients (log K ow ) values (i.e. pyrethroids) or high susceptibility to alkaline hydrolysis (i.e. carbamates and malathion) were all mitigated to some degree by E. canadensis, while the plant had no effect on insecticides possessing intermediate log K ow values and low susceptibility to hydrolysis (i.e. chlorpyrifos and diazinon). Our results provide the first general insights into which types of insecticides are likely to be mitigated by different mechanisms based on known chemical properties. We suggest that current models and mitigation strategies would be improved by the consideration of both mitigation models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Amyloid Beta: Multiple Mechanisms of Toxicity and Only Some Protective Effects?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Carrillo-Mora

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Amyloid beta (Aβ is a peptide of 39–43 amino acids found in large amounts and forming deposits in the brain tissue of patients with Alzheimer’s disease (AD. For this reason, it has been implicated in the pathophysiology of damage observed in this type of dementia. However, the role of Aβ in the pathophysiology of AD is not yet precisely understood. Aβ has been experimentally shown to have a wide range of toxic mechanisms in vivo and in vitro, such as excitotoxicity, mitochondrial alterations, synaptic dysfunction, altered calcium homeostasis, oxidative stress, and so forth. In contrast, Aβ has also shown some interesting neuroprotective and physiological properties under certain experimental conditions, suggesting that both physiological and pathological roles of Aβ may depend on several factors. In this paper, we reviewed both toxic and protective mechanisms of Aβ to further explore what their potential roles could be in the pathophysiology of AD. The complete understanding of such apparently opposed effects will also be an important guide for the therapeutic efforts coming in the future.

  11. Architecture of optical sensor for recognition of multiple toxic metal ions from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shenashen, M A; El-Safty, S A; Elshehy, E A

    2013-09-15

    Here, we designed novel optical sensor based on the wormhole hexagonal mesoporous core/multi-shell silica nanoparticles that enabled the selective recognition and removal of these extremely toxic metals from drinking water. The surface-coating process of a mesoporous core/double-shell silica platforms by several consequence decorations using a cationic surfactant with double alkyl tails (CS-DAT) and then a synthesized dicarboxylate 1,5-diphenyl-3-thiocarbazone (III) signaling probe enabled us to create a unique hierarchical multi-shell sensor. In this design, the high loading capacity and wrapping of the CS-DAT and III organic moieties could be achieved, leading to the formation of silica core with multi-shells that formed from double-silica, CS-DAT, and III dressing layers. In this sensing system, notable changes in color and reflectance intensity of the multi-shelled sensor for Cu(2+), Co(2+), Cd(2+), and Hg(2+) ions, were observed at pH 2, 8, 9.5 and 11.5, respectively. The multi-shelled sensor is added to enable accessibility for continuous monitoring of several different toxic metal ions and efficient multi-ion sensing and removal capabilities with respect to reversibility, selectivity, and signal stability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Boron toxicity causes multiple effects on Malus domestica pollen tube growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kefeng eFang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Boron is an essential micronutrient for plants. However, boron is also toxic to cells at high concentrations, although the mechanism of this stress is not known. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of boron stress on Malus domestica pollen tube growth and its possible regulatory pathway. Our results show that a high concentration of boron inhibited pollen germination and tube growth and led to the morphological abnormality of pollen tubes. Fluorescent labeling coupled with a scanning ion-selective electrode technique detected that boron stress could decrease [Ca2+]c and induce the disappearance of the [Ca2+]c gradient, which are critical for pollen tube polar growth. Actin filaments were therefore altered by boron stress. Immuno-localization and fluorescence labeling, together with Fourier-transform infrared analysis (FTIR, suggested that boron stress influenced the accumulation and distribution of callose, de-esterified pectins, esterified pectins and arabinogalactan proteins in pollen tubes. All of the above results provide new insights into the regulatory role of boron in pollen tube development. In summary, boron likely plays a structural and regulatory role in relation to [Ca2+]c, actin cytoskeleton and cell wall components and thus regulates Malus domestica pollen germination and tube polar growth.

  13. Multiple linear regression models for predicting chronic aluminum toxicity to freshwater aquatic organisms and developing water quality guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeForest, David K; Brix, Kevin V; Tear, Lucinda M; Adams, William J

    2018-01-01

    The bioavailability of aluminum (Al) to freshwater aquatic organisms varies as a function of several water chemistry parameters, including pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and water hardness. We evaluated the ability of multiple linear regression (MLR) models to predict chronic Al toxicity to a green alga (Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata), a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia), and a fish (Pimephales promelas) as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions. The MLR models predicted toxicity values that were within a factor of 2 of observed values in 100% of the cases for P. subcapitata (10 and 20% effective concentrations [EC10s and EC20s]), 91% of the cases for C. dubia (EC10s and EC20s), and 95% (EC10s) and 91% (EC20s) of the cases for P. promelas. The MLR models were then applied to all species with Al toxicity data to derive species and genus sensitivity distributions that could be adjusted as a function of varying DOC, pH, and hardness conditions (the P. subcapitata model was applied to algae and macrophytes, the C. dubia model was applied to invertebrates, and the P. promelas model was applied to fish). Hazardous concentrations to 5% of the species or genera were then derived in 2 ways: 1) fitting a log-normal distribution to species-mean EC10s for all species (following the European Union methodology), and 2) fitting a triangular distribution to genus-mean EC20s for animals only (following the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology). Overall, MLR-based models provide a viable approach for deriving Al water quality guidelines that vary as a function of DOC, pH, and hardness conditions and are a significant improvement over bioavailability corrections based on single parameters. Environ Toxicol Chem 2018;37:80-90. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  14. Quinolinic acid toxicity on oligodendroglial cells: relevance for multiple sclerosis and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Gayathri; Brew, Bruce J; Jones, Simon P; Adams, Seray; Lim, Chai K; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2014-12-13

    The excitotoxin quinolinic acid, a by-product of the kynurenine pathway, is known to be involved in several neurological diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS). Quinolinic acid levels are elevated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis rodents, the widely used animal model of MS. Our group has also found pathophysiological concentrations of quinolinic acid in MS patients. This led us to investigate the effect of quinolinic acid on oligodendrocytes; the main cell type targeted by the autoimmune response in MS. We have examined the kynurenine pathway (KP) profile of two oligodendrocyte cell lines and show that these cells have a limited threshold to catabolize exogenous quinolinic acid. We further propose and demonstrate two strategies to limit quinolinic acid gliotoxicity: 1) by neutralizing quinolinic acid's effects with anti-quinolinic acid monoclonal antibodies and 2) directly inhibiting quinolinic acid production from activated monocytic cells using specific KP enzyme inhibitors. The outcome of this study provides a new insight into therapeutic strategies for limiting quinolinic acid-induced neurodegeneration, especially in neurological disorders that target oligodendrocytes, such as MS.

  15. Highly frequent mutations in negative regulators of multiple virulence genes in group A streptococcal toxic shock syndrome isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadayoshi Ikebe

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS is a severe invasive infection characterized by the sudden onset of shock and multiorgan failure; it has a high mortality rate. Although a number of studies have attempted to determine the crucial factors behind the onset of STSS, the responsible genes in group A Streptococcus have not been clarified. We previously reported that mutations of csrS/csrR genes, a two-component negative regulator system for multiple virulence genes of Streptococcus pyogenes, are found among the isolates from STSS patients. In the present study, mutations of another negative regulator, rgg, were also found in clinical isolates of STSS patients. The rgg mutants from STSS clinical isolates enhanced lethality and impaired various organs in the mouse models, similar to the csrS mutants, and precluded their being killed by human neutrophils, mainly due to an overproduction of SLO. When we assessed the mutation frequency of csrS, csrR, and rgg genes among S. pyogenes isolates from STSS (164 isolates and non-invasive infections (59 isolates, 57.3% of the STSS isolates had mutations of one or more genes among three genes, while isolates from patients with non-invasive disease had significantly fewer mutations in these genes (1.7%. The results of the present study suggest that mutations in the negative regulators csrS/csrR and rgg of S. pyogenes are crucial factors in the pathogenesis of STSS, as they lead to the overproduction of multiple virulence factors.

  16. Evaluating the Spatial Distribution of Toxic Air Contaminants in Multiple Ecosystem Indicators in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanus, L.; Simonich, S. L.; Rocchio, J.; Flanagan, C.

    2013-12-01

    Toxic air contaminants originating from agricultural areas of the Central Valley in California threaten vulnerable sensitive receptors including surface water, vegetation, snow, sediments, fish, and amphibians in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region. The spatial distribution of toxic air contaminants in different ecosystem indicators depends on variation in atmospheric concentrations and deposition, and variation in air toxics accumulation in ecosystems. The spatial distribution of organic air toxics and mercury at over 330 unique sampling locations and sample types over two decades (1990-2009) in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region were compiled and maps were developed to further understand spatial patterns and linkages between air toxics deposition and ecological effects. Potential ecosystem impacts in the Sierra Nevada-Southern Cascades region include bioaccumulation of air toxics in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, reproductive disruption, and immune suppression. The most sensitive ecological end points in the region that are affected by bioaccumulation of toxic air contaminants are fish. Mercury was detected in all fish and approximately 6% exceeded human consumption thresholds. Organic air toxics were also detected in fish yielding variable spatial patterns. For amphibians, which are sensitive to pesticide exposure and potential immune suppression, increasing trends in current and historic use pesticides are observed from north to south across the region. In other indicators, such as vegetation, pesticide concentrations in lichen increase with increasing elevation. Current and historic use pesticides and mercury were also observed in snowpack at high elevations in the study area. This study shows spatial patterns in toxic air contaminants, evaluates associated risks to sensitive receptors, and identifies data gaps. Future research on atmospheric modeling and information on sources is needed in order to predict which ecosystems are the

  17. In vitro evaluation of human xenobiotic toxicity: scientific concepts and the novel integrated discrete multiple cell co-culture (IdMOC) technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Albert P

    2008-01-01

    In vitro human-based experimental systems represent a relevant preclinical tool for the definition of human xenobiotic properties as human-specific xenobiotic properties, by definition, cannot be detected with nonhuman laboratory animals. For the evaluation of human-specific xenobiotic toxicity, the experimental system should have human xenobiotic metabolism as well as cell populations representing the target cells in vivo. Based on these requirements, we have developed a novel cell culture technology, the Integrated Discrete Multiple Organ Co-culture (IdMOC) system, as an alternative experimental model for the evaluation of xenobiotic toxicity. The IdMOC system employs a wells-in-a-well concept for the co-culturing of cells from different organs as physically separated (discrete) entities in the inner wells, but interconnected by an overlying medium (integrated) in the outer well. The IdMOC system models a multi-organ animal/human in vivo with organs that are physically separated but interconnected by the systemic circulation. The IdMOC allows multi-organ interactions that are absent in the conventional single-cell type cultures. Applications of IdMOC include the evaluation of multiple organ metabolism as well as organ-specific drug distribution and toxicity. A particularly interesting application of IdMOC is the co-culturing of cancer cells and cells representing major organs for the selection of anticancer agents with minimal organ toxicity.

  18. Does mental exertion alter maximal muscle activation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vianney eRozand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mental exertion is known to impair endurance performance, but its effects on neuromuscular function remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that mental exertion reduces torque and muscle activation during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors. Ten subjects performed in a randomized order three separate mental exertion conditions lasting 27 minutes each: i high mental exertion (incongruent Stroop task, ii moderate mental exertion (congruent Stroop task, iii low mental exertion (watching a movie. In each condition, mental exertion was combined with ten intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensor muscles (one maximal voluntary contraction every 3 minutes. Neuromuscular function was assessed using electrical nerve stimulation. Maximal voluntary torque, maximal muscle activation and other neuromuscular parameters were similar across mental exertion conditions and did not change over time. These findings suggest that mental exertion does not affect neuromuscular function during intermittent maximal voluntary contractions of the knee extensors.

  19. Chlorfenapyr: irritant effect compared to other insecticides and its intrinsic toxicity in multiple-insecticide-susceptible and -resistant Anopheles stephensi (Diptera: Culicidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vaishali; Elamathi, N; Velamuri, Poonam S; Sreehari, U; Agrawal, O P; Raghavendra, K

    2015-03-01

    For effective management of vector resistance there is a need for new insecticide molecules with novel modes of action. For desired toxic effect of an insecticide, apart from other behavioural aspects, toxicity and chemical nature of the molecule are important that may cause irritability in the mosquito to the insecticide affecting the uptake. In this study, a pyrrole class insecticide, chlorfenapyr (a late acting insecticide) was tested for its irritability against multiple-insecticide-susceptible and -resistant strains of Anopheles stephensi Liston 1901 (Diptera: Culicidae). Studies were conducted to assess the irritability due to chlorfenapyr, DDT, malathion, deltamethrin and permethrin and intrinsic toxicity of chlorfenapyr in multiple-insecticide-susceptible and -resistant laboratory strains of An. stephensi following standard WHO methods. Chlorfenapyr molecule has shown least irritant effect against susceptible and resistant strains among all the insecticides tested allowing more landing time to the vector species on the impregnated surfaces to pick-up lethal dose. Chlorfenapyr could be an ideal insecticide for management of multiple-insecticide-resistance including pyrethroids.

  20. Comparative performance of descriptors in a multiple linear and Kriging models: a case study on the acute toxicity of organic chemicals to algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugcu, Gulcin; Yilmaz, H Birkan; Saçan, Melek Türker

    2014-10-01

    This study presents quantitative structure-toxicity relationship (QSTR) models on the toxicity of 91 organic compounds to Chlorella vulgaris using multiple linear regression (MLR) and Kriging techniques. The molecular descriptors were calculated using SPARTAN and DRAGON programs, and descriptor selection was made by "all subset" method available in the QSARINS software. MLR and Kriging models developed with the same descriptors were compared. In addition to these models, Kriging method was used for descriptor selection, and model development. The selected descriptors showed the importance of hydrophobicity, molecular weight and atomic ionization state in describing the toxicity of a diverse set of chemicals to C. vulgaris. A QSTR model should be associated with appropriate measures of goodness-of-fit, robustness, and predictivity in order to be used for regulatory purpose. Therefore, while the internal performances (goodness-of-fit and robustness) of the models were determined by using a training set, the predictive abilities of the models were determined by using a test set. The results of the study showed that while MLR method is easier to apply, the Kriging method was more successful in predicting toxicity.

  1. How much do PCB toxic equivalents account for PHAH toxicity in predatory birds?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pereira, M.G.; Murk, A.J.; Berg, van den H.; Walker, L.A.; Shore, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    Various diffuse polyhalogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) exert common toxicity through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Apex predators spatially and temporally integrate diffuse contamination and simultaneous exposure can cause additive toxicity. We investigated the extent to which PCBs,

  2. Multiple possible inaccuracies cast doubt on a recent report suggesting selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors to be toxic and ineffective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieronymus, Fredrik; Lisinski, Alexander; Näslund, Jakob; Eriksson, Elias

    2017-07-18

    According to a systematic review on the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in adult depression that was recently published in BMC Psychiatry, the results of which have been widely disseminated in lay media, these drugs increase the risk for serious adverse events (SAEs) while exerting poor antidepressant efficacy. A cursory analysis, however, suggests the analysis of SAEs conducted by the authors to be marred by both methodological inaccuracies and blatant errors. After having corrected for these apparent mistakes, we conducted a sensitivity analysis in which we also accounted for a possible moderating effect of age; while this suggests SSRIs to be safe drugs in the non-elderly, they do confirm what is already known, that is, that they may enhance the risk for SAEs in the old. Given the loose definition of SAE, including also innocuous phenomena, the possible clinical significance of the latter observation, however, remains unclear until the nature and actual impact of the SAEs in question have been clarified. Moreover, with respect to efficacy, we find the paper in BMC Psychiatry misleading: first, the authors seem unaware of the well-established shortcomings associated with the conventional efficacy parameter on which their analysis is based, second, they have included suboptimal SSRI doses and third, they have missed some pivotal trials. Unless there are explanations for the many peculiarities in this paper that have escaped us, and which may be satisfactorily clarified by the authors, it seems important that the conclusions presented in this paper be publicly rectified.

  3. Multiple linear regression based congener profile correlation to estimate the toxicity (TEQ) and dioxin concentration in atmospheric emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, D; Pou, J O; Gonzalez-Sabaté, L; Díaz-Ferrero, J

    2018-05-01

    The formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) is governed by complex chemical reactions with complex kinetic models. The simulation of Municipal Solid Waste incinerators, or other industrial thermal processes, is a powerful tool that can be used to optimize and control them, and reducing the number of components to simulate is mandatory for a proper use. In this study it has been determined that only the formation of 3 of the 17 main PCDD/F congeners can be considered as linearly independent. This fact has been used to establish linear regression models that are able to estimate properly the total amount and toxicity of a sample considering only the amount of 1,2,3,6,7,8-HxCDD, OCDF and 2,3,7,8-TCDF. All models have been validated using new samples performing a close approach to the real values provided by complete analytical studies. The average relative error is 3.5% and the maximum relative error is below 9% for these new testing samples. The main goal of our investigation is to build a dynamic simulation process of a MSW facility and include the dioxins formation on it using these models. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Reflections on the Design of Exertion Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Florian Floyd; Altimira, David; Khot, Rohit Ashot

    2015-02-01

    The design of exertion games (i.e., digital games that require physical effort from players) is a difficult intertwined challenge of combining digital games and physical effort. To aid designers in facing this challenge, we describe our experiences of designing exertion games. We outline personal reflections on our design processes and articulate analyses of players' experiences. These reflections and analyses serve to highlight the unique opportunities of combining digital games and physical effort. The insights we seek aim to enhance the understanding of exertion game design, contributing to the advancement of the field, and ultimately resulting in better games and associated player experiences.

  5. An improved method for calculating toxicity-based pollutant loads: Part 1. Method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachael A; Warne, Michael St J; Mengersen, Kerrie; Turner, Ryan Dr

    2017-07-01

    Pollutant loads are a means for assessing regulatory compliance and setting targets to reduce pollution entering receiving waterbodies. However, a pollutant load is often comprised of multiple chemicals, which may exert joint toxicity on biota. When the ultimate goal for assessing pollutant loads is to protect ecosystems from adverse effects of toxicants, then the total pollutant load needs to be calculated based on the principles of mixture toxicology. In this article, an improved method is proposed to convert a pollutant load to a toxicity-based load (toxic load) using a modified toxic equivalency factor (TEF) derivation method. The method uses the relative potencies (RePs) of multiple species to represent the response of the ecological community. The TEF is calculated from a percentile of a cumulative distribution function (CDF) fitted to the RePs. The improvements permit the determination of which percentile of the CDF generates the most environmentally relevant and robust toxic loads. That is, environmental relevance ensures that a reduction in the toxic load is likely to result in a corresponding improvement in ecosystem health and robustness ensures that the calculation of the toxic loads is not biased by the reference chemical used. The improved methodology will therefore ensure that correct management decisions will be made and ultimately, a reduction in the toxic load will lead to a commensurate improvement in water quality. Integr Environ Assess Manag 2017;13:746-753. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  6. ABC transporters and the proteasome complex are implicated in susceptibility to Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis across multiple drugs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Nicoletti

    Full Text Available Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS and Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN represent rare but serious adverse drug reactions (ADRs. Both are characterized by distinctive blistering lesions and significant mortality rates. While there is evidence for strong drug-specific genetic predisposition related to HLA alleles, recent genome wide association studies (GWAS on European and Asian populations have failed to identify genetic susceptibility alleles that are common across multiple drugs. We hypothesize that this is a consequence of the low to moderate effect size of individual genetic risk factors. To test this hypothesis we developed Pointer, a new algorithm that assesses the aggregate effect of multiple low risk variants on a pathway using a gene set enrichment approach. A key advantage of our method is the capability to associate SNPs with genes by exploiting physical proximity as well as by using expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs that capture information about both cis- and trans-acting regulatory effects. We control for known bias-inducing aspects of enrichment based analyses, such as: 1 gene length, 2 gene set size, 3 presence of biologically related genes within the same linkage disequilibrium (LD region, and, 4 genes shared among multiple gene sets. We applied this approach to publicly available SJS/TEN genome-wide genotype data and identified the ABC transporter and Proteasome pathways as potentially implicated in the genetic susceptibility of non-drug-specific SJS/TEN. We demonstrated that the innovative SNP-to-gene mapping phase of the method was essential in detecting the significant enrichment for those pathways. Analysis of an independent gene expression dataset provides supportive functional evidence for the involvement of Proteasome pathways in SJS/TEN cutaneous lesions. These results suggest that Pointer provides a useful framework for the integrative analysis of pharmacogenetic GWAS data, by increasing the power to detect

  7. Design Strategies for Balancing Exertion Games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mads Møller; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2016-01-01

    , it is unclear how balancing mechanisms should be applied in exertion games, where physical and digital elements are fused. In this paper, we present an exertion game and three approaches for balancing it; a physical, an explicit-digital and an implicit-digital balancing approach. A user study that compares......In sports, if players' physical and technical abilities are mismatched, the competition is often uninteresting for them. With the emergence of exertion games, this could be changing. Player balancing, known from video games, allows players with different skill levels to compete, however...... these three approaches is used to investigate the qualities and challenges within each approach and explore how the player experience is affected by them. Based on these findings, we suggest four design strategies for balancing exertion games, so that players will stay engaged in the game and contain...

  8. Effects of ?-Tocopherol on Cadmium-Induced Toxicity in Rat Testis and Spermatogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hoe Saeng; Han, Dong Keun; Kim, Jung Ran; Sim, Jae Chul

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium is known to exert toxic effects on multiple organs, including the testes. To determine if ?-Tocopherol, an antioxidant, could protect testicular tissues and spermatogenesis from the toxic effects of cadmium, six-week old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to receive cadmium at doses of 0 (control), 1, 2, 4 or 8 mg/kg by the intraperitoneal route (Group A) or ?-tocopherol for 5 days before being challenged with cadmium (Group B) in an identical dose-dependent manner. When both gr...

  9. Gene expression analysis of troglitazone reveals its impact on multiple pathways in cell culture: a case for in vitro platforms combined with gene expression analysis for early (idiosyncratic) toxicity screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vansant, Gordon; Pezzoli, Patrick; Saiz, Robert; Birch, Aaron; Duffy, Chris; Ferre, Francois; Monforte, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) agonists of the thiazolidinedione family are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus due to their ability to reduce glucose and lipid levels in patients with this disease. Three thiazolidinediones that were approved for treatment are Rezulin (troglitazone), Avandia (rosiglitazone), and Actos (pioglitazone). Troglitazone was withdrawn from the market due to idiosyncratic drug toxicity. Rosiglitazone and pioglitazone are still on the market for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The authors present data from a gene expression screen that compares the impact these three compounds have in rats, in rat hepatocytes, and in the clone 9 rat liver cell line. The authors monitored the changes in expression in multiple genes, including those related to xenobiotic metabolism, proliferation, DNA damage, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation. Compared to the other two compounds, troglitazone had a significant impact on many of the pathways monitored in vitro although no major perturbation was detected in vivo. The changes detected predict not only general toxicity but potential mechanisms of toxicity. Based on gene expression analysis, the authors propose there is not just one but multiple ways troglitazone could be toxic, depending on a patient's environment and genetic makeup, including immune response-related toxicity.

  10. Exertional leg pain: teasing out arterial entrapments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Thomas T; Kapur, Rahul; Harwood, Marc I

    2007-12-01

    Vascular causes of exertional lower extremity pain are relatively rare, but may be the answer in athletes refractory to treatment for the more common overuse syndromes of the lower extremities. It is important to differentiate these vascular causes from chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS), medial tibial stress syndrome (MTSS), and stress fractures in order to develop appropriate treatment plans, avoid complications, and return athletes to play expeditiously. Important vascular etiologies to be considered are popliteal artery entrapment syndrome (PAES), endofibrotic disease, popliteal artery aneurysm, cystic adventitial disease, and peripheral arterial dissections. The diagnostic workup involves angiography or noninvasive vascular studies such as Doppler ultrasound or magnetic resonance angiography in both the neutral and provocative positions. Treatment of these vascular abnormalities typically involves surgical correction of the vascular anomaly.

  11. Comparative Screening of Digestion Tract Toxic Genes in Proteus mirabilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xiaolu; Lin, Yiman; Qiu, Yaqun; Li, Yinghui; Jiang, Min; Chen, Qiongcheng; Jiang, Yixiang; Yuan, Jianhui; Cao, Hong; Hu, Qinghua; Huang, Shenghe

    2016-01-01

    Proteus mirabilis is a common urinary tract pathogen, and may induce various inflammation symptoms. Its notorious ability to resist multiple antibiotics and to form urinary tract stones makes its treatment a long and painful process, which is further challenged by the frequent horizontal gene transferring events in P. mirabilis genomes. Three strains of P. mirabilis C02011/C04010/C04013 were isolated from a local outbreak of a food poisoning event in Shenzhen, China. Our hypothesis is that new genes may have been acquired horizontally to exert the digestion tract infection and toxicity. The functional characterization of these three genomes shows that each of them independently acquired dozens of virulent genes horizontally from the other microbial genomes. The representative strain C02011 induces the symptoms of both vomit and diarrhea, and has recently acquired a complete type IV secretion system and digestion tract toxic genes from the other bacteria.

  12. Traction Forces exerted by crawling cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso-Latorre, Baldomero; Del Alamo, Juan C.; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Javier; Aliseda, Alberto; Meili, Rudolph; Firtel, Richard; Lasheras, Juan C.

    2006-11-01

    We measure the forces exerted by Dictyostelium discoideum cells crawling over a deformable substrate from the displacements of fluorescent beads embedded in it. A particle tracking technique similar to PIV is used to obtain the displacements. From them, forces are computed by solving the elasto-static equation in a finite thickness slab. We will show that the finite thickness of the substrate and the distance of the beads to its surface affect substantially the results, although previous traction cytometry techniques neglected them. The measured forces are correlated to the different stages of the crawling cycle for various cell strains. It has been observed that a large fraction of the forces measured on the substrate are originated by the cell's internal tension through all the stages of motion, including the protrusion of pseudopods. This result suggests that the viscous drag exerted by the fluid in which the cells are immersed is very small compared to the forces applied by the cytoskeleton on the substrate.

  13. High self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime is associated with greater objectively assessed sleep efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Kalak, Nadeem; Gerber, Markus; Kirov, Roumen; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2014-09-01

    To assess the association between self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime and objectively measured sleep. Fifty-two regularly exercising young adults (mean age, 19.70 years; 54% females) underwent sleep electroencephalographic recordings 1.5 h after completing moderate to vigorous exercise in the evening. Before sleeping, participants answered questions regarding degree of exertion of the exercise undertaken. Greater self-perceived exertion before bedtime was associated with higher objectively assessed sleep efficiency (r = 0.69, P exercise exertion was associated with more deep sleep, shortened sleep onset time, fewer awakenings after sleep onset, and shorter wake duration after sleep onset. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that objective sleep efficiency was predicted by increased exercise exertion, shortened sleep onset time, increased deep sleep, and decreased light sleep. Against expectations and general recommendations for sleep hygiene, high self-perceived exercise exertion before bedtime was associated with better sleep patterns in a sample of healthy young adults. Further studies should also focus on elderly adults and adults suffering from insomnia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Does heavy physical exertion trigger myocardial infarction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallqvist, J; Möller, J; Ahlbom, A

    2000-01-01

    To study possible triggering of first events of acute myocardial infarction by heavy physical exertion, the authors conducted a case-crossover analysis (1993-1994) within a population-based case-referent study in Stockholm County, Sweden (the Stockholm Heart Epidemiology Program). Interviews were...... million person-hours, and the attributable proportion was 5.7 percent. The risk was modified by physical fitness, with an increased risk being seen among sedentary subjects as in earlier studies, but the data also suggested a U-shaped association. In addition, the trigger effect was modified......, and a standard case-referent analysis) were applied to overcome the threat of misclassification of control exposure information. A case-crossover analysis in a random sample of healthy subjects resulted in a relative risk close to unity, as expected....

  15. Mechanisms of exertional fatigue in muscle glycogenoses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, John; Haller, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Exertional fatigue early in exercise is a clinical hallmark of muscle glycogenoses, which is often coupled with painful muscle contractures and episodes of myoglobinuria. A fundamental biochemical problem in these conditions is the impaired generation of ATP to fuel muscle contractions, which...... relates directly to the metabolic defect, but also to substrate-limited energy deficiency, as exemplified by the "second wind" phenomenon in McArdle disease. A number of secondary events may also play a role in inducing premature fatigue in glycogenoses, including (1) absent or blunted muscle acidosis...... and aerobic energy for muscle contraction; and the pathological fatigue that occurs when glycogenolysis and/or glycolysis is blocked imply an important role for theses metabolic pathways in normal muscle fatigue....

  16. Understanding the Mismatch Between Coaches' and Players' Perceptions of Exertion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, Michel S.; Kersten, Anna W.; Frencken, Wouter G. P.

    A mismatch between the training exertion intended by a coach and the exertion perceived by players is well established in sports. However, it is unknown whether coaches can accurately observe exertion of individual players during training. Furthermore, the discrepancy in coaches' and players'

  17. Multiple factors govern the association between pharmacology and toxicity in a class of drugs: toward a unification of class effect terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Dennis A; Harrison, Anthony; Morgan, Paul

    2011-04-18

    The term class effect has gained in use to describe a side effect including toxicity common to a series of drugs. There is no definition of what constitutes a class effect, and it is not applied against a rigid set of criteria.Thus, the finding of toxicity in one of a series of drugs can raise the concern of a class effect, especially if one or more of the others shows findings even slightly related or at very much lower incidence. This is particularly problematic when the term is used loosely or speculatively on initial events that are themselves of low incidence and serious. This speculation exaggerates and distorts the scientific process in establishing the true benefit risk of the individual drugs and can lead to lengthy development times, or highly restrictive labeling, to the detriment of patient welfare. To provide better definition and application of the term, we suggest that the term class effect toxicity is only used when a clear mechanistic link has been established between a safety concern and drug class based on (I) where the primary pharmacology delivers a clear rationale for the observed findings and toxicities; and (II) where the secondary pharmacology is obligate to the class of the molecule and not subject to variation of structure, and the selectivity cannot be impacted significantly by variations in potency introduced by structural manipulation. With these categorizations, we believe class effect toxicity will be mainly confined to I with examples such as the tetracycline class of antibacterials which inhibit protein synthesis both as a mechanism of antibacterial activity and to produce hepatic injury by mitochondrial injury in the liver.

  18. The toxicity of beta-carotene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heywood, R; Palmer, A K; Gregson, R L; Hummler, H

    1985-08-01

    The safety of beta-carotene, a widely distributed food colorant was assessed in tests with cells and in sub-chronic and chronic experiments with animals. Mutagenicity evaluations which included the standard Ames test and the micro-nucleus test of bone marrow cells from mice showed that beta-carotene exerted no mutagenic properties. Embryotoxicity studies in rats and rabbits showed that there was no evidence of embryotoxicity and a multiple generation study in rats showed that there was no interference with the reproductive function in rats given oral doses of up to 1000 mg/kg/day. Chronic toxicity was studied in a 2-year study with dogs in a toxicity/tumorigenicity study in rats and in a mouse carcinogenicity study. Histological findings in the livers of treated dogs and mice, but not in rats, included vacuolated cells with eccentric nuclei which were distributed in periportal areas and which were frequently associated with minimal lipid deposition. There was no evidence that the vacuolisation was dose-related. It was considered that the vacuolated cells were fat storage cells. There was no effect on the tumor profiles in the rat and the mouse studies.

  19. Cytotoxic effects exerted by Tritrichomonas foetus pseudocysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira-Neves, Antonio; Nascimento, Ligia Ferreira; Benchimol, Marlene

    2012-07-01

    The protozoan parasite Tritrichomonas foetus displays a pear-shaped form and a pseudocyst stage. However, little is known about the biology of the pseudocyst. The aim of this work was to assess whether pseudocysts exert cytotoxic effects during their interaction with MDCK cells (an epithelial kidney canine cell line) and compare their behavior to that of the pear-shaped parasites. Pseudocysts and pear-shaped parasites from both cultured and freshly isolated T. foetus were used. Electron microscopy revealed that the epithelial cells exhibited more signs of injury, such as depletion of microvilli, retraction from neighboring cells and swollen mitochondria with loss of electron density in the matrix, when the pseudocysts were used in interaction experiments. In addition, during the co-incubation with MDCK cells, pseudocysts exhibited a more intense amoeboid transformation than that found in pear-shaped parasites. The MTT viability assay demonstrated that the pseudocysts were more cytotoxic when in contact with host cells as compared to the flagellated pear-shaped parasites. The JC-1 viability assay revealed that pseudocysts induced a higher loss of mitochondrial membrane potential compared to pear-shaped parasites. Pseudocysts undergoing a budding process were observed after 2.5h of co-incubation with MDCK cells. Our results suggest that the T. foetus pseudocyst might be a more aggressive form. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  1. Multiple protein domains contribute to nuclear import and cell toxicity of DUX4, a candidate pathogenic protein for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgardo Daniel Corona

    Full Text Available DUX4 (Double Homeobox Protein 4 is a nuclear transcription factor encoded at each D4Z4 unit of a tandem-repeat array at human chromosome 4q35. DUX4 constitutes a major candidate pathogenic protein for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD, the third most common form of inherited myopathy. A low-level expression of DUX4 compromises cell differentiation in myoblasts and its overexpression induces apoptosis in cultured cells and living organisms. In this work we explore potential molecular determinants of DUX4 mediating nuclear import and cell toxicity. Deletion of the hypothetical monopartite nuclear localization sequences RRRR(23, RRKR(98 and RRAR(148 (i.e. NLS1, NLS2 and NLS3, respectively only partially delocalizes DUX4 from the cell nuclei. Nuclear entrance guided by NLS1, NLS2 and NLS3 does not follow the classical nuclear import pathway mediated by α/β importins. NLS and homeodomain mutants from DUX4 are dramatically less cell-toxic than the wild type molecule, independently of their subcellular localization. A triple ΔNLS1-2-3 deletion mutant is still partially localized in the nuclei, indicating that additional sequences in DUX4 contribute to nuclear import. Deletion of ≥111 amino acids from the C-terminal of DUX4, on a ΔNLS1-2-3 background, almost completely re-localizes DUX4 to the cytoplasm, indicating that the C-ter tail contributes to subcellular trafficking of DUX4. Also, C-terminal deletion mutants of DUX4 on a NLS wild type background are less toxic than wild type DUX4. Results reported here indicate that DUX4 possesses redundant mechanisms to assure nuclear entrance and that its various transcription-factor associated domains play an essential role in cell toxicity.

  2. Multiple bio-analytical methods to reveal possible molecular mechanisms of developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos/larvae exposed to tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Zhihua [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Wang, Qiangwei [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Fu, Jie [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Chen, Hongshan [State Environmental Protection Key Laboratory of Wetland Ecology and Vegetation Restoration, School of the Environment, Northeast Normal University, Changchun 130024 (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhao, Ye [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Zhou, Bingsheng [State Key Laboratory of Freshwater Ecology and Biotechnology, Institute of Hydrobiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Wuhan 430072 (China); Gong, Zhiyuan [Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); Wei, Si; Li, Jun; Liu, Hongling; Zhang, Xiaowei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Liu, Chunsheng, E-mail: liuchunshengidid@126.com [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China); Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore (Singapore); College of Fisheries, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Hongxia, E-mail: yuhx@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse and School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210023 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • TBEP exposure decreased the survival of zebrafish embryos/larvae. • TBEP exposure led to its bioconcentration in zebrafish lavare. • TBEP caused developmental toxicity by inhibiting the degradation and utilization of nutrients. • TBEP exposure caused developmental toxicity by inducing apoptosis. - Abstract: The flame retardant tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP) is a frequently detected contaminant in the environment, wildlife and human milk. The potentially toxic effects of TBEP and their underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here, zebrafish embryos were exposed to different concentrations of TBEP from 4 hours of post-fertilization (hpf) to 120 hpf, and effects on embryonic development and global protein expression patterns examined. Our results demonstrate that treatment with TBEP (0.8–100 mg/L) causes a concentration- and time-dependent decrease in embryonic survival and the hatching percentage. The median lethal concentration was 10.7 mg/L at 120 hpf. Furthermore, exposure to 150 or 800 μg/L TBEP inhibited the degradation and utilization of vitellogenins and down-regulated the expression of proteins related to cation binding, and lipid transport, uptake and metabolism, accompanied by a decrease in heart rate and body length. Exposure to TBEP (150 or 800 μg/L) also decreased the expression of proteins involved in cell proliferation and DNA repair, and led to an increased number of apoptotic cells in the tail region. Collectively, our results suggest that exposure to TBEP causes toxicity in the developing zebrafish by inhibiting the degradation and utilization of nutrients from the mother and inducing apoptosis.

  3. Mitigation of nitrite toxicity by increased salinity is associated with multiple physiological responses: A case study using an economically important model species, the juvenile obscure puffer (Takifugu obscurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Tang, Hengxing; Zhang, Xingxing; Xue, Xiaofeng; Zhu, Xuexia; Chen, Yafen; Yang, Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Nitrite is a common pollutant in water and is highly toxic to aquatic animals. To reveal the mechanism of salinity in attenuating nitrite toxicity to fish, we measured the physiological responses of juvenile Takifugu obscurus exposed to nitrite concentrations (0, 10, 20, 50, and 100 mg/L) under different salinity levels (0, 10, and 20 ppt) for 96 h. Salinity increased the survival rates of juvenile T. obscurus exposed to nitrite. Changes in key hematological parameters, antioxidant system, malondialdehyde, Na + /K + -ATPase, and HSP70 indicated that nitrite induced considerable damage to juveniles; salinity mitigated the harmful effects. This finding reflects similar changing trends in both antioxidants and their gene expressions among different tissues. We applied an overall index, an integrated biomarker response (IBR), that increased under high-nitrite condition but recovered to the normal levels under salinity treatment. Analysis of the selected detection indices and IBR values showed that the overall mitigating effect of salinity on nitrite toxicity seems to be at sub-cellular level and associated with complicated physiological responses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Using heart rate variability for automated identification of exercise exertion levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Joseph; Jeong, In Cheol

    2015-01-01

    Heart rate monitoring is being used to estimate activity of autonomous nervous system by analysing heart rate variability (HRV). HRV has been recently shown to be effective means to monitor efficacy of exercise in patients with cardiovascular conditions and older adults. Whether HRV can be used to identify exercise exertion levels is unknown. There are multiple approaches to analyse HRV however it is not clear which approach is optimal in assessing cycling exercise. Previous studies demonstrated potential of analysis of short-term sequences of beat-by-beat heart rate data in a time domain for continuous monitoring of levels of physiological stress. The goal of this study was to assess the potential value of short-term HRV analysis during cycling exercise for automated identification of exercise exertion level. HRV indices were compared during rest, height of exercise exertion, and exercise recovery. Comparative analysis of HRV during cycling exercise demonstrated responsiveness of time-domain indices to different phases of an exercise program. Using discriminant analysis, canonical discriminant functions were built which correctly identified 100% of 'highest level of exertion' and 80.0% of 'rest' episodes. HRV demonstrated high potential in monitoring autonomic balance and exercise exertion during cycling exercise program.

  5. Arsenic toxicity in the human nerve cell line SK-N-SH in the presence of chromium and copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    HU, LIGANG; GREER, JUSTIN B.; SOLO-GABRIELE, HELENA; FIEBER, LYNNE A.; CAI, YONG

    2013-01-01

    As, Cr, and Cu represent one potential combination of multiple metals/metalloids exposures since these three elements are simultaneously leached from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood, a common product used for building construction, at levels that can be potentially harmful. This study investigated the neurotoxicity of As associated with CCA-treated wood when accompanied by Cr and Cu. The toxicity was evaluated on basis of a cytotoxicity model using human neuroblastoma cell line SK-N-SH. The cells were cultured with CCA-treated wood leachates or with solutions containing arsenate [As(V)], divalent copper [Cu(II)], trivalent chromium [Cr(III)] alone or in different combinations of the three elements. The toxicity was evaluated using variations in cell replication compared to controls after 96 hrs exposure. Among the three elements present in wood leachates, As played the primary role in the observed toxic effects, which exerted through multiple pathways, including the generation of oxidative stress. DOM affected the absorption of metals/metalloids into the test cells, which however did not obviously appear to impact toxicity. As toxicity was enhanced by Cu(II) and inhibited by Cr(III) at concentrations below U.S. EPA’s allowable maximum contaminant levels in drinking waters. Thus assessing As toxicity in real environments is not sufficient if based solely on the result from As. PMID:23473430

  6. Antimony toxicity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms...

  7. Prediction of acute toxicity of phenol derivatives using multiple linear regression approach for Tetrahymena pyriformis contaminant identification in a median-size database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieguez-Santana, Karel; Pham-The, Hai; Villegas-Aguilar, Pedro J; Le-Thi-Thu, Huong; Castillo-Garit, Juan A; Casañola-Martin, Gerardo M

    2016-12-01

    In this article, the modeling of inhibitory grown activity against Tetrahymena pyriformis is described. The 0-2D Dragon descriptors based on structural aspects to gain some knowledge of factors influencing aquatic toxicity are mainly used. Besides, it is done by some enlarged data of phenol derivatives described for the first time and composed of 358 chemicals. It overcomes the previous datasets with about one hundred compounds. Moreover, the results of the model evaluation by the parameters in the training, prediction and validation give adequate results comparable with those of the previous works. The more influential descriptors included in the model are: X3A, MWC02, MWC10 and piPC03 with positive contributions to the dependent variable; and MWC09, piPC02 and TPC with negative contributions. In a next step, a median-size database of nearly 8000 phenolic compounds extracted from ChEMBL was evaluated with the quantitative-structure toxicity relationship (QSTR) model developed providing some clues (SARs) for identification of ecotoxicological compounds. The outcome of this report is very useful to screen chemical databases for finding the compounds responsible of aquatic contamination in the biomarker used in the current work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Statin treatment in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pihl-Jensen, Gorm; Tsakiri, Anna; Frederiksen, Jette Lautrup

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease that leads to progressive disability. Statins [hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors] are widely prescribed drugs in hypercholesterolemia. They exert immunomodulatory and neurotrophic effects and are attractive...

  9. Definition of metabolism-dependent xenobiotic toxicity with co-cultures of human hepatocytes and mouse 3T3 fibroblasts in the novel integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture (IdMOC) experimental system: results with model toxicants aflatoxin B1, cyclophosphamide and tamoxifen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Albert P; Uzgare, Aarti; LaForge, Yumiko S

    2012-07-30

    The integrated discrete multiple organ co-culture system (IdMOC) allows the co-culturing of multiple cell types as physically separated cells interconnected by a common overlying medium. We report here the application of IdMOC with two cell types: the metabolically competent primary human hepatocytes, and a metabolically incompetent cell line, mouse 3T3 fibroblasts, in the definition of the role of hepatic metabolism on the cytotoxicity of three model toxicants: cyclophosphamide (CPA), aflatoxin B1 (AFB) and tamoxifen (TMX). The presence of hepatic metabolism in IdMOC with human hepatocytes was demonstrated by the metabolism of the P450 isoform 3A4 substrate, luciferin-IPA. The three model toxicants showed three distinct patterns of cytotoxic profile: TMX was cytotoxic to 3T3 cells in the absence of hepatocytes, with slightly lower cytotoxicity towards both 3T3 cells and hepatocytes in the IdMOC. AFB was selective toxic towards the human hepatocytes and relatively noncytotoxic towards 3T3 cells both in the presence and absence of the hepatocytes. CPA cytotoxicity to the 3T3 cells was found to be significantly enhanced by the presence of the hepatocytes, with the cytotoxicity dependent of the number of hepatocytes, and with the cytotoxicity attenuated by the presence of a non-specific P450 inhibitor, 1-aminobenzotriazole. We propose here the following classification of toxicants based on the role of hepatic metabolism as defined by the human hepatocyte-3T3 cell IdMOC assay: type I: direct-acting cytotoxicants represented by TMX as indicated by cytotoxicity in 3T3 cells in the absence of hepatocytes; type II: metabolism-dependent cytotoxicity represented by AFB1 with effects localized within the site of metabolic activation (i. e. hepatocytes); and type III: metabolism-dependent cytotoxicity with metabolites that can diffuse out of the hepatocytes to cause toxicity in cells distal from the site of metabolism, as exemplified by CPA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland

  10. Multiple functions of the crustacean gill: osmotic/ionic regulation, acid-base balance, ammonia excretion, and bioaccumulation of toxic metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Raymond P; Lucu, Cedomil; Onken, Horst; Weihrauch, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    The crustacean gill is a multi-functional organ, and it is the site of a number of physiological processes, including ion transport, which is the basis for hemolymph osmoregulation; acid-base balance; and ammonia excretion. The gill is also the site by which many toxic metals are taken up by aquatic crustaceans, and thus it plays an important role in the toxicology of these species. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation performed by the gill. The current concepts of the mechanisms of ion transport, the structural, biochemical, and molecular bases of systemic physiology, and the history of their development are discussed. The relationship between branchial ion transport and hemolymph acid-base regulation is also treated. In addition, the mechanisms of ammonia transport and excretion across the gill are discussed. And finally, the toxicology of heavy metal accumulation via the gill is reviewed in detail.

  11. Modified hydra bioassay to evaluate the toxicity of multiple mycotoxins and predict the detoxification efficacy of a clay-based sorbent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, K A; Mays, T; Romoser, A; Marroquin-Cardona, A; Mitchell, N J; Elmore, S E; Phillips, T D

    2014-01-01

    Food shortages and a lack of food supply regulation in developing countries often leads to chronic exposure of vulnerable populations to hazardous mixtures of mycotoxins, including aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) and fumonisin B(1) (FB(1)). A refined calcium montmorillonite clay [i.e. uniform particle size NovaSil (UPSN)] has been reported to tightly bind these toxins, thereby decreasing bioavailability in humans and animals. Hence, our objectives in the present study were to examine the ability of UPSN to bind mixtures of AFB(1) and FB(1) at gastrointestinally relevant pH in vitro, and to utilize a rapid in vivo bioassay to evaluate AFB(1) and FB(1) toxicity and UPSN efficacy. Isothermal sorption data indicated tight AFB(1) binding to UPSN surfaces at both pH 2.0 and 6.5, but substantially more FB(1) bound at pH 2.0 than 6.5. Site-specific competition occurred between the toxins when exposed to UPSN in combination. Importantly, treatment with UPSN resulted in significant protection to mycotoxin-exposed hydra maintained at pH 6.9-7.0. Hydra were exposed to FB(1), AFB(1) and FB(1) /AFB(1) combinations with and without UPSN. A toxic response over 92 h was rated based on morphology and mortality. Hydra assay results indicated a minimum effective concentration (MEC) of 20 µg ml(-1) for AFB(1), whereas the MEC for FB(1) was not reached. The MEC for co-exposure was 400 µg ml(-1) FB(1) + 10 µg ml(-1) AFB(1). This study demonstrates that UPSN sorbs both mycotoxins tightly at physiologically relevant pH levels, resulting in decreased bioavailability, and that a modified hydra bioassay can be used as an initial screen in vivo to predict efficacy of toxin-binding agents. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Prior Acute Mental Exertion in Exercise and Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Júnior, Fernando Lopes E; Emanuel, Patrick; Sousa, Jordan; Silva, Matheus; Teixeira, Silmar; Pires, Flávio; Machado, Sérgio; Arias-Carrion, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Mental exertion is a psychophysiological state caused by sustained and prolonged cognitive activity. The understanding of the possible effects of acute mental exertion on physical performance, and their physiological and psychological responses are of great importance for the performance of different occupations, such as military, construction workers, athletes (professional or recreational) or simply practicing regular exercise, since these occupations often combine physical and mental tasks while performing their activities. However, the effects of implementation of a cognitive task on responses to aerobic exercise and sports are poorly understood. Our narrative review aims to provide information on the current research related to the effects of prior acute mental fatigue on physical performance and their physiological and psychological responses associated with exercise and sports. The literature search was conducted using the databases PubMed, ISI Web of Knowledge and PsycInfo using the following terms and their combinations: "mental exertion", "mental fatigue", "mental fatigue and performance", "mental exertion and sports" "mental exertion and exercise". We concluded that prior acute mental exertion affects effectively the physiological and psychophysiological responses during the cognitive task, and performance in exercise. Additional studies involving prior acute mental exertion, exercise/sports and physical performance still need to be carried out in order to analyze the physiological, psychophysiological and neurophysiological responses subsequently to acute mental exertion in order to identify cardiovascular factors, psychological, neuropsychological associates.

  13. Cardiovascular Fitness and the Psychophysics of Perceived Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihevic, Patricia M.

    1983-01-01

    The perceptual responses of individuals at different levels of physical fitness to absolute exercise intensities were compared. Perceived exertion, as measured by the Rating of Perceived Exertion scale, did not discriminate between subjects who were physically fit and those who were not, despite differences in physiological strain. (Author/PP)

  14. Force Exertion Capacity Measurements in Haptic Virtual Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munih, Marko; Bardorfer, Ales; Ceru, Bojan; Bajd, Tadej; Zupan, Anton

    2010-01-01

    An objective test for evaluating functional status of the upper limbs (ULs) in patients with muscular distrophy (MD) is presented. The method allows for quantitative assessment of the UL functional state with an emphasis on force exertion capacity. The experimental measurement setup and the methodology for the assessment of maximal exertable force…

  15. Can emotive imagery aid in tolerating exertion efficiently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coote, D; Tenenbaum, G

    1998-12-01

    The study examined the role of relaxation and aggressive types of imagery and the effect of goal orientations, self efficacy, self control, and determination on exertion tolerance. the participants underwent an exertive task in which they were required to squeeze a dynamometer, at 50% of their maximal hand-grip capacity, for as long as they could. Perceived exertion was measured every 15 sec during the task. The time that elapsed between rating exertion as "strong", and dropping the handbar under 10% of the designated 50% criterion, was considered as the "zone of exertion tolerance". forty-eight female university students were randomly assigned into 3 groups. two imagery techniques, one under relaxing and one under aggressive conditions were taught and then applied. In the control condition, discussions were conducted. traits such as goal orientation (task and ego), physical self-efficacy and self-control were measured prior to performing the task, while rate of perceived exertion task-specific determination (i.e., task-related confidence, commitment, exertion tolerance, and effort investment) were measured before, during and after the task. The results showed an average of 31% and 28% increase in exertion tolerance in participants who used aggressive and relaxation imagery techniques respectively, compared to 4% reduction in the controls. RM ANOVA indicated equality between the two imagery groups but both were significantly different from the control group. Physical self-efficacy, self-control, and task-specific determination were found nonsignificant, but their important roles in coping with aversive stimuli are highlighted. It was evident that the "coping" mechanism rather than the "distraction" mechanism accounted for the larger sustain in the "zone of exertion tolerance". Imagery can be used efficiently in exertion tolerance but more studies are needed on athletes.

  16. Multiple Functions of the Crustacean Gill: Osmotic/ionic Regulation, Acid-Base Balance, Ammonia Excretion, and Bioaccumulation of Toxic Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond P Henry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The crustacean gill is a multi-functional organ,and it is the site of a number of physiological processes, including ion transport, which is the basis for hemolymph osmoregulation; acid-base balance; and ammonia excretion. The gill is also the site by which many toxic metals are taken up by aquatic crustaceans, and thus it plays an important role in the toxicology of these species. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the ecology, physiology, biochemistry, and molecular biology of the mechanisms of osmotic and ionic regulation performed by the gill. The current concepts of the mechanisms of ion transport, the structural, biochemical, and molecular bases of systemic physiology, and the history of their development are discussed. The relationship between branchial ion transport and hemolymph acid-base regulation is also treated. In addition, the mechanisms of ammonia transport and excretion across the gill are discussed. And finally, the toxicology of heavy metal accumulation via the gill is reviewd in detail.

  17. Antimony Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundar, Shyam; Chakravarty, Jaya

    2010-01-01

    Antimony toxicity occurs either due to occupational exposure or during therapy. Occupational exposure may cause respiratory irritation, pneumoconiosis, antimony spots on the skin and gastrointestinal symptoms. In addition antimony trioxide is possibly carcinogenic to humans. Improvements in working conditions have remarkably decreased the incidence of antimony toxicity in the workplace. As a therapeutic, antimony has been mostly used for the treatment of leishmaniasis and schistosomiasis. The major toxic side-effects of antimonials as a result of therapy are cardiotoxicity (~9% of patients) and pancreatitis, which is seen commonly in HIV and visceral leishmaniasis co-infections. Quality control of each batch of drugs produced and regular monitoring for toxicity is required when antimonials are used therapeutically. PMID:21318007

  18. Exertional desaturation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panos, Ralph J; Eschenbacher, William

    2009-12-01

    Although the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services oxygen prescription guidelines utilize a threshold arterial oxygen tension patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). There is no uniform definition of exertional hypoxemia or standardized exercise protocol to elicit decreases in oxygen levels in individuals with COPD. The causes for exertional desaturation in patients with COPD are multifactorial with ventilation-perfusion mismatching, diffusion-type limitation, shunting and reduced oxygen content of mixed venous blood all contributing to some degree. Neither resting oxygen saturation nor pulmonary function studies can reliably predict which patients with COPD will develop exertional desaturation. However, preserved pulmonary function, especially diffusing capacity, reliably predicts which patients with COPD will sustain oxygenation during exercise. Although exertional desaturation in patients with COPD appears to portend a poor prognosis, there is no evidence that maintenance of normoxemia during exercise improves the survival of these patients. Studies of the effect of supplemental oxygen on exercise performance in individuals with COPD who desaturate with exertion have yielded conflicting results. The use of short-term or "burst" oxygen either prior to or after exertion may not have significant clinical benefit. Differences in the definition of desaturation, mode of exercise, and characteristics of the patient population make it difficult to compare studies of exertional desaturation and its treatment and to determine their applicability to clinical practice.

  19. Surgical management of exertional anterior compartment syndrome of the leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, T; Mohammed, F; Mencia, M; Maharaj, D; Hoford, R

    2013-07-01

    To describe the characteristic presentation of exertional leg pain in athletes and to discuss the diagnostic options and surgical management of exertional anterior compartment syndrome of the leg in this group of patients. Data from a series of athletes presenting with exertional leg pain were analysed and categorized according to aetiology. Sixty-six athletes presenting with exertional leg pain in 102 limbs were analysed. Sixteen patients in a first group of 20 patients with a provisional diagnosis of exertional anterior compartment syndrome of the leg underwent a closed fasciotomy with complete resolution of symptoms. A second group of 42 patients were diagnosed as medial tibial stress syndrome and a third group of four patients had confirmed stress fracture of the tibia. Exertional leg pain is a common presenting complaint of athletes to sports physicians and physiotherapists. Careful analysis can lead to an accurate diagnosis and commencement of effective treatment. Exertional anterior compartment syndrome can be successfully treated utilizing a closed fasciotomy with a rapid return to sport.

  20. Predicting the synergy of multiple stress effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, Matthias; Foit, Kaarina; Knillmann, Saskia; Schäfer, Ralf B.; Liess, Hans-Dieter

    2016-09-01

    Toxicants and other, non-chemical environmental stressors contribute to the global biodiversity crisis. Examples include the loss of bees and the reduction of aquatic biodiversity. Although non-compliance with regulations might be contributing, the widespread existence of these impacts suggests that for example the current approach of pesticide risk assessment fails to protect biodiversity when multiple stressors concurrently affect organisms. To quantify such multiple stress effects, we analysed all applicable aquatic studies and found that the presence of environmental stressors increases individual sensitivity to toxicants (pesticides, trace metals) by a factor of up to 100. To predict this dependence, we developed the “Stress Addition Model” (SAM). With the SAM, we assume that each individual has a general stress capacity towards all types of specific stress that should not be exhausted. Experimental stress levels are transferred into general stress levels of the SAM using the stress-related mortality as a common link. These general stress levels of independent stressors are additive, with the sum determining the total stress exerted on a population. With this approach, we provide a tool that quantitatively predicts the highly synergistic direct effects of independent stressor combinations.

  1. Predicting the synergy of multiple stress effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liess, Matthias; Foit, Kaarina; Knillmann, Saskia; Schäfer, Ralf B; Liess, Hans-Dieter

    2016-09-09

    Toxicants and other, non-chemical environmental stressors contribute to the global biodiversity crisis. Examples include the loss of bees and the reduction of aquatic biodiversity. Although non-compliance with regulations might be contributing, the widespread existence of these impacts suggests that for example the current approach of pesticide risk assessment fails to protect biodiversity when multiple stressors concurrently affect organisms. To quantify such multiple stress effects, we analysed all applicable aquatic studies and found that the presence of environmental stressors increases individual sensitivity to toxicants (pesticides, trace metals) by a factor of up to 100. To predict this dependence, we developed the "Stress Addition Model" (SAM). With the SAM, we assume that each individual has a general stress capacity towards all types of specific stress that should not be exhausted. Experimental stress levels are transferred into general stress levels of the SAM using the stress-related mortality as a common link. These general stress levels of independent stressors are additive, with the sum determining the total stress exerted on a population. With this approach, we provide a tool that quantitatively predicts the highly synergistic direct effects of independent stressor combinations.

  2. POTENTIALLY TOXIC ELEMENT CYCLES AND CHARACTERIZATION OF MULTIPLE SOURCES IN THE IRRIGATION DITCHES FROM THE RAVENNA COASTAL PLAIN THROUGH TRACE ELEMENTS AND ISOTOPE GEOCHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available While monitoring the physico-chemical characteristics, trace elements and O-H-Sr-B isotopic data were obtained in superficial waters from a number of irrigations canals and ditches in the Ravenna coastal plain, in order to highlight the cycling of potentially toxic elements and the different sources of the solutes. Surveys were conducted during March and July 2008, and considered as representative of the waters in winter and summer, respectively. In summer, the water mass balance in the network is mostly controlled by the ingression of freshwaters from the Canale Emiliano Romagnolo (CER. The O-H isotopic data indicated that, in winter, waters are primarily recharged from Apennine catchments and undergo evaporation to different extents.The boron isotopic signature indicates the important role played by the marine component. A major seawater contribution was evidenced in canals close to the coastline; however, the process controlling the origin of dissolved boron is not solely related to direct mixing with sea water but comprises an additional source probably related to water-soil exchanges and boron of marine origin leaching, owing to the prolonged exposure of alluvial sediments to sea water. An additional boron contribution from the agricultural practice was is also evidenced. Calculation based on the conservative behaviour of chloride ions indicated that in canals and ditches not directly connected with the sea up to the 80% of the Sr budget did not originate from seawater, indicating a source from Al-silicate minerals and supporting the hypothesis of significant soil-water interactions and chemical exchanges.The positive correlation between pH and dissolved oxygen in winter waters is likely to reflect CO2 consumption during algal photosynthesis, favouring the in-situ generation of colloidal particles due to the oxidative precipitation of ferric iron oxy-hydroxides and probably small carbonate particles able to adsorb trace metals on their

  3. 20 CFR 220.132 - Physical exertion requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... determine the physical exertion requirements of work in the national economy, jobs are classified as... determinations the Board uses the following definitions: (a) Sedentary work. Sedentary work involves lifting no...

  4. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    OpenAIRE

    Fritz, T; Hardikar, S.; Demoucron, M.; Niessen, M.; Demey, M.; O. Giot; Li, Y.; Haynes, J; Villringer, A; Leman, M.

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from i...

  5. Efficacy and toxicity of the combination chemotherapy of thalidomide, alkylating agent, and steroid for relapsed/refractory myeloma patients: a report from the Korean Multiple Myeloma Working Party (KMMWP) retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jihyun; Min, Chang-Ki; Kim, Kihyun; Han, Jae-Joon; Moon, Joon Ho; Kang, Hye Jin; Eom, Hyeon-Seok; Kim, Min Kyoung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Yoon, Dok Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Ok; Lee, Won Sik; Lee, Jae Hoon; Lee, Je-Jung; Choi, Yoon-Seok; Kim, Sung Hyun; Yoon, Sung-Soo

    2017-01-01

    We analyzed the treatment responses, toxicities, and survival outcomes of patients with relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma who received daily thalidomide, cyclophosphamide, and dexamethasone (CTD) or daily thalidomide, melphalan, and prednisolone (MTP) at 17 medical centers in Korea. Three-hundred and seventy-six patients were enrolled. The combined chemotherapy of thalidomide, corticosteroid, and an alkylating agent (TAS) was second-line chemotherapy in 142 (37.8%) patients, and third-line chemotherapy in 135 (35.9%) patients. The response rate overall was 69.4%. Patients who were not treated with bortezomib and lenalidomide before TAS showed a higher response rate compared to those who were exposed to these agents. The estimated median progression-free survival and overall survival times were 10.4 months and 28.0 months, respectively. The adverse events during TAS were generally tolerable, but 39 (10.4%) patients experienced severe infectious complications. There were no differences in terms of efficacy between CTD and MTP, but infectious complications were more common in CTD group. TAS is an effective treatment regimen which induces a high response rate in relapsed or refractory multiple myeloma patients. Due to the high incidence of grade 3 or 4 infection, proper management of infection is necessary during the TAS treatment, especially the CTD. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-10-29

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting.

  7. Do placebo expectations influence perceived exertion during physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mothes, Hendrik; Leukel, Christian; Seelig, Harald; Fuchs, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates the role of placebo expectations in individuals' perception of exertion during acute physical exercise. Building upon findings from placebo and marketing research, we examined how perceived exertion is affected by expectations regarding a) the effects of exercise and b) the effects of the exercise product worn during the exercise. We also investigated whether these effects are moderated by physical self-concept. Seventy-eight participants conducted a moderate 30 min cycling exercise on an ergometer, with perceived exertion (RPE) measured every 5 minutes. Beforehand, each participant was randomly assigned to 1 of 4 conditions and watched a corresponding film clip presenting "scientific evidence" that the exercise would or would not result in health benefits and that the exercise product they were wearing (compression garment) would additionally enhance exercise benefits or would only be worn for control purposes. Participants' physical self-concept was assessed via questionnaire. Results partially demonstrated that participants with more positive expectations experienced reduced perceived exertion during the exercise. Furthermore, our results indicate a moderator effect of physical self-concept: Individuals with a high physical self-concept benefited (in terms of reduced perceived exertion levels) in particular from an induction of generally positive expectations. In contrast, individuals with a low physical self-concept benefited when positive expectations were related to the exercise product they were wearing. In sum, these results suggest that placebo expectations may be a further, previously neglected class of psychological factors that influence the perception of exertion.

  8. Musical agency reduces perceived exertion during strenuous physical performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Thomas Hans; Hardikar, Samyogita; Demoucron, Matthias; Niessen, Margot; Demey, Michiel; Giot, Olivier; Li, Yongming; Haynes, John-Dylan; Villringer, Arno; Leman, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Music is known to be capable of reducing perceived exertion during strenuous physical activity. The current interpretation of this modulating effect of music is that music may be perceived as a diversion from unpleasant proprioceptive sensations that go along with exhaustion. Here we investigated the effects of music on perceived exertion during a physically strenuous task, varying musical agency, a task that relies on the experience of body proprioception, rather than simply diverting from it. For this we measured psychologically indicated exertion during physical workout with and without musical agency while simultaneously acquiring metabolic values with spirometry. Results showed that musical agency significantly decreased perceived exertion during workout, indicating that musical agency may actually facilitate physically strenuous activities. This indicates that the positive effect of music on perceived exertion cannot always be explained by an effect of diversion from proprioceptive feedback. Furthermore, this finding suggests that the down-modulating effect of musical agency on perceived exertion may be a previously unacknowledged driving force for the development of music in humans: making music makes strenuous physical activities less exhausting. PMID:24127588

  9. [Toxic megacolon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppkes, M; Ganslmayer, M; Strauß, R; Neurath, M F

    2015-10-01

    Toxic megacolon constitutes a feared, life-threatening complication of severe intestinal inflammation and is a challenge for interdisciplinary medical care. Specific aspects of conservative treatment based on current scientific evidence derived from guidelines, qualified reviews, and scientific studies are presented, which provide a rational approach and maximize therapeutic success. This work is based on a selective literature review and the authors' experience of many years in gastroenterology and intensive care. Toxic megacolon requires a rapid interdisciplinary assessment. Depending on the underlying etiology, an individual treatment concept needs to be developed. If an infectious or inflammatory cause is probable, a conservative approach can reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. A step-wise approach with controlled reevaluations of the response to therapy after 72 h and 7 days avoids uncontrolled delay of surgical options further ensuring patient safety. Despite a decreasing incidence of toxic megacolon, it remains an interdisciplinary therapeutic challenge.

  10. Detection of a highly toxic clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (JP2) in a Moroccan immigrant family with multiple cases of localized aggressive periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubek, D; Westergaard, J

    2004-01-01

    The JP2 clone of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans, a high-leukotoxin-producing strain, characterized by a 530-basepair (bp) deletion in the promoter region of the leukotoxin gene operon and mainly found among individuals with African origin, is associated with localized aggressive periodontitis. The objective of the study was to examine the occurrence of periodontal disease in a Moroccan immigrant family living in Denmark in which the oldest son (14 year) was referred and treated for localized aggressive periodontitis. Further, the potential occurrence of the JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the family was examined. Here we present the clinical, radiographic, and microbiological findings from the family. Clinical and radiographic examination of the other family members revealed that 3 of 5 younger siblings had localized aggressive periodontitis, one had gingivitis and the mother had chronic periodontitis. Despite scaling followed by intensive maintenance therapy several family members, including the sibling with gingivitis, had further attachment loss at the 1-year examination. The JP2 clone of A. actinomycetemcomitans was isolated from subgingival plaque samples from 4 children with periodontitis. In contrast, it was not detected in plaque from the oldest boy, who had been treated for localized aggressive periodontitis by surgery combined with antibiotic therapy. The 4 children with periodontitis and colonized with the JP2 clone were treated by scaling and antibiotic administration. One month later the JP2 clone could still be detected in plaque samples. In conclusion, it is confirmed that members of immigrant families with African origin are potential carriers of the JP2 clone and that those families often have multiple family members with localized aggressive periodontitis. It is proposed that those families are given periodontal examination frequently to benefit from early diagnosis and treatment of the disease.

  11. Jatropha toxicity--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devappa, Rakshit K; Makkar, Harinder P S; Becker, Klaus

    2010-08-01

    Jatropha is a nonedible oil seed plant belonging to Euphorbiaceae family. Global awareness of sustainable and alternative energy resources has propelled research on Jatropha oil as a feedstock for biodiesel production. During the past two decades, several cultivation projects were undertaken to produce Jatropha oil. In future, the increased cultivation of toxic Jatropha plants and utilization of its agro-industrial by-products may raise the frequency of contact with humans, animals, and other organisms. An attempt was thus made to present known information on toxicity of Jatropha plants. The toxicity of Jatropha plant extracts from fruit, seed, oil, roots, latex, bark, and leaf to a number of species, from microorganisms to higher animals, is well established. Broadly, these extracts possess moluscicidal, piscicidal, insecticidal, rodenticidal, antimicrobial, and cytotoxic properties, and exert adverse effects on animals including rats, poultry, and ruminants. The toxicity attributed to these seeds due to their accidental consumption by children is also well documented. An attempt was also made to identify areas that need further study. The information provided in this review may aid in enhancing awareness in agroindustries involved in the cultivation, harvesting, and utilization of Jatropha plants and its products with respect to the potential toxicity of Jatropha, and consequently in application and enforcement of occupational safety measures. Data on the wide range of bioactivities of Jatropha and its products were collated and it is hoped will create new avenues for exploiting these chemicals by the phamaceutical industry to develop chemotherapeutic agents.

  12. Challenging Return to Play Decisions: Heat Stroke, Exertional Rhabdomyolysis, and Exertional Collapse Associated With Sickle Cell Trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asplund, Chad A; O'Connor, Francis G

    2016-01-01

    Sports medicine providers frequently return athletes to play after sports-related injuries and conditions. Many of these conditions have guidelines or medical evidence to guide the decision-making process. Occasionally, however, sports medicine providers are challenged with complex medical conditions for which there is little evidence-based guidance and physicians are instructed to individualize treatment; included in this group of conditions are exertional heat stroke (EHS), exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), and exertional collapse associated with sickle cell trait (ECAST). The MEDLINE (2000-2015) database was searched using the following search terms: exertional heat stroke, exertional rhabdomyolysis, and exertional collapse associated with sickle cell trait. References from consensus statements, review articles, and book chapters were also utilized. Clinical review. Level 4. These entities are unique in that they may cause organ system damage capable of leading to short- or long-term detriments to physical activity and may not lend to complete recovery, potentially putting the athlete at risk with premature return to play. With a better understanding of the pathophysiology of EHS, ER, and ECAST and the factors associated with recovery, better decisions regarding return to play may be made. © 2015 The Author(s).

  13. Acute toxicity variation of hydroxyl benzophenone UV filters during photoinduction-chlorination disinfection processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Qi; Wei, Dongbin; Liu, Wei; Du, Yuguo

    2017-04-01

    Benzophenones (BPs), a group of widely used UV filters, exert multiple, significant toxicity effects. The 11 BPs were selected as target compounds, and the photobacterium acute toxicity test and an index for acute toxicity formation potential (ATFP) were used to evaluate the toxicity variation of BPs before and after a photoinduction-chlorination disinfection process. Orthogonal experiments were performed at different pH values and chlorine dosages. The characteristics of ATFP values for 11 BPs after a photoinduction-chlorination process can be summarized as follows: (1) The ATFPs decreased as the hydroxyl group number increased in BPs molecules. (2) For those BPs with the same hydroxyl group number, the ATFPs were higher when the hydroxyl groups were located at the 3- or 4-position than those at the 2-position; the BPs with hydroxyl groups distributed on two benzene rings had higher ATFPs than those on one ring. (3) Introducing a methoxyl group and sulfonic acid group into BP molecules increased the ATFP values. (4) The ATFPs were pH-dependent, the values of which were lowest at the neutral condition and highest at the acid condition. (5) The ATFPs increased and then decreased as the chlorine dosage increased. The results can be used as a reference to scientifically evaluate the environmental fate and potential risk of BPs in photoinduction-chlorination disinfection processes. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Human Toxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jolliet, Olivier; Fantke, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This chapter reviews the human toxicological impacts of chemicals and how to assess these impacts in life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), in order to identify key processes and pollutants. The complete cause-effect pathway – from emissions of toxic substances up to damages on human health...... on characterisation factors means that results should by default be reported and interpreted in log scales when comparing scenarios or substance contribution! We conclude by outlining future trends in human toxicity modelling for LCIA, with promising developments for (a) better estimates of degradation halflives, (b......) the inclusion of ionization of chemicals in human exposure including bioaccumulation, (c) metal speciation, (d) spatialised models to differentiate the variability associated with spatialisation from the uncertainty, and (e) the assessment of chemical exposure via consumer products and occupational settings...

  15. Mechanochemistry Induced Using Force Exerted by a Functionalized Microscope Tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yajie; Wang, Yongfeng; Lü, Jing-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Atomic-scale mechanochemistry is realized from force exerted by a C60 -functionalized scanning tunneling microscope tip. Two conformers of tin phthalocyanine can be prepared on coinage-metal surfaces. A transition between these conformers is induced on Cu(111) and Ag(100). Density-functional calc......Atomic-scale mechanochemistry is realized from force exerted by a C60 -functionalized scanning tunneling microscope tip. Two conformers of tin phthalocyanine can be prepared on coinage-metal surfaces. A transition between these conformers is induced on Cu(111) and Ag(100). Density...

  16. Studying toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkus, A.; LeBlanc, L.; Kim, C.; Van Beneden, R.; Mayer, G.

    2006-01-01

    With funding from the George Mitchell Center for the Environment at the University of Maine, a team of scientists used a simple laboratory-based sediment resuspension design, and two well-established aquatic toxicology models, fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) and zebrafish (Danio rerio), to evaluate if resuspension of Penobscot river sediment significantly elevates the toxicity of river water and to provide preliminary information on the types of chemicals likely to desorb during resuspension. The group collected sediments from two sites with known chemical contamination downstream of the Great Works and Veazie dams. The sediments were examined to determine the dynamics of PAH desorption and degradation under different resuspension frequencies. The scientists used clarified water from resuspension experiments for toxicity tests with the water-flea Ceriodaphnia dubia, and other aquatic test organisms to infer toxicity from sediments from northern California rivers. Data from the study will help ascertain whether metals and/or xenoestrogens are present in the desorption water and give insight into possible avenues of sediment remediation.

  17. Photo-induced toxicity in early life stage fiddler crab (Uca longisignalis) following exposure to Deepwater Horizon oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damare, Leigh M; Bridges, Kristin N; Alloy, Matthew M; Curran, Thomas E; Soulen, Brianne K; Forth, Heather P; Lay, Claire R; Morris, Jeffrey M; Stoeckel, James A; Roberts, Aaron P

    2018-02-20

    The 2010 explosion of the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) oil rig led to the release of millions of barrels of oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Oil in aquatic ecosystems exerts toxicity through multiple mechanisms, including photo-induced toxicity following co-exposure with UV radiation. The timing and location of the spill coincided with both fiddler crab reproduction and peak yearly UV intensities, putting early life stage fiddler crabs at risk of injury due to photo-induced toxicity. The present study assessed sensitivity of fiddler crab larvae to photo-induced toxicity during co-exposure to a range of environmentally relevant dilutions of high-energy water accommodated fractions of DWH oil, and either dark recovery period (duration: 17-h) in between. Survival was significantly decreased in treatments the presence of >10% UV and relatively low concentrations of oil. Results of the present study indicate fiddler crab larvae are sensitive to photo-induced toxicity in the presence of DWH oil. These results are of concern, as fiddler crabs play an important role as ecosystem engineers, modulating sediment biogeochemical processes via burrowing action. Furthermore, they occupy an important place in the food web in the Gulf of Mexico.

  18. 20 CFR 220.135 - Exertional and nonexertional limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Department of Labor, to determine the exertional requirements of work which exists in the national economy... other work which exists in the national economy in order to decide whether the claimant is disabled or... functioning because the claimant is nervous, anxious, or depressed; (ii) Difficulty maintaining attention or...

  19. Exertional abdominal pain as a symptom of secondary pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... We report a rare presentation of mitral stenosis (MS). MS is a common valvular disease, the first manifestation of which is usually easy fatigability and exertional dyspnea. As the disease progresses in severity, other signs and symptoms appear, such as orthopnea, hemoptysis, and peripheral edema. This is ...

  20. Identification of training status differences using perceived exertion threshold.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Guilherme A; Bertuzzi, Romulo; Lima-Silva, Adriano E; Malfatti, Carlos; De-Oliveira, Fernando R; Osiecki, Raul

    2016-04-01

    We investigated if the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) threshold is as sensitive as the lactate threshold to detect training differences. Lactate and RPE thresholds were identified in well-trained cyclists and physically active males. Power output was higher in well-trained cyclists than in physically active individuals for both thresholds (p trained cyclists and physically active individuals.

  1. Visual control in basketball shooting under exertion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwierko, Teresa; Popowczak, Marek; Woźniak, Jarosław; Rokita, Andrzej

    2017-07-25

    This study examined the effect of physical exertion on gaze behavior during basketball shooting in both stationary and dynamic conditions. Thirteen skilled basketball players performed two-point shooting during a 60 second fatigue protocol. Before and after a jump shot test, players performed two free throws. Eye movements were registered using an SMI Mobile EyeTracker. The frequency of all fixation points (number) and fixation duration during the motor phases of shooting were determined using frame-by- frame analysis. The type of basketball shot differentiated gaze control: (1) fixations were longer and more frequent during free throws as compared to jump shots, (2) shooting accuracy was positively influenced by less frequent and longer fixations, (3) physical exertion resulted in significantly more frequent fixations during free throws, and (4) exertion conditions resulted in a high variation in the patterns of total fixation times during jump shots. The findings suggest that physical exertion may reduce oculomotor efficiency during aiming at a distant target. Moreover, stationary and dynamic shots require different gaze behavior strategies.

  2. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a rower ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case report describes chronic exertional compartment syndrome in the forearm of a professional rower. We consider this to be a rare anatomical location for this type of syndrome. Morever, not much is known about its clinical presentation and the subsequent optimal medical management thereof.

  3. Exertional abdominal pain as a symptom of secondary pulmonary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-21

    Apr 21, 2011 ... Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice • Jan-Mar 2013 • Vol 16 • Issue 1. Case Report. Exertional abdominal pain as a symptom of secondary pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis. J Najafian, N Toghianifar, A Khosravi. Department of cardiology, Isfahan Cardiovascular Research Center, Isfahan ...

  4. Selenium deficiency and toxicity in the environment

    OpenAIRE

    Fordyce, Fiona

    2005-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is a naturally occurring metalloid element, which is essential to human and other animal health in trace amounts but is harmful in excess. Of all the elements, selenium has one of the narrowest ranges between dietary deficiency (40 gday1) and toxic levels (400gday1) (WHO, 1996), which makes it necessary to carefully control intakes by humans and other animals, hence, the importance of understanding the relationships between environmental exposure and health. Geology exerts...

  5. Toxic shock syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome; Toxic shock-like syndrome; TSLS ... Toxic shock syndrome is caused by a toxin produced by some types of staphylococcus bacteria. A similar problem, called toxic shock- ...

  6. Measurement and Relation between Received and Exerted Violence against Partner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Moral de la Rubia

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A female victimization model is often assumed in the study of couple violence, even in general population. In Mexico, a questionnaire of couple violence has been developed. This instrument evaluates suffered and exerted violence. The aims of this paper were to contrast the factor structure of this questionnaire, calculate its internal consistency, describe its distributions, compare means of violence between both sexes and between persons who live or not with their partners, and study the relationship between received and exerted violence. A non-experimental research with a trans-sectional design was performed. The questionnaire was applied to a non probability sample of 223 women and 177 men with heterosexual couples from general population. Confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modeling were used for data analysis. The factor structure of received violence scale was one-dimensional, and the one of exerted violence scale was two-dimensional. Both sexes reported to exert violence with the same frequency, but men complained to receive violence with more frequency than women. Persons who live with their partners reported to receive more violence and to exert more non-psychological violence than persons who do not live with their partners. The correlations between received and exercised violence were moderate. A recursive model of violent reaction showed a fit to data from good to adequate, and had good properties of invariance between both sexes, and between persons who live or not with their partners. It is concluded that the questionnaire has good properties of factor structure and internal consistency, and data refute a model of female victimization.

  7. Amiodarone Pulmonary Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman Wolkove

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects.

  8. Amiodarone pulmonary toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolkove, Norman; Baltzan, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Amiodarone is an antiarrhythmic agent commonly used to treat supraventricular and ventricular arrhythmias. This drug is an iodine-containing compound that tends to accumulate in several organs, including the lungs. It has been associated with a variety of adverse events. Of these events, the most serious is amiodarone pulmonary toxicity. Although the incidence of this complication has decreased with the use of lower doses of amiodarone, it can occur with any dose. Because amiodarone is widely used, all clinicians should be vigilant of this possibility. Pulmonary toxicity usually manifests as an acute or subacute pneumonitis, typically with diffuse infiltrates on chest x-ray and high-resolution computed tomography. Other, more localized, forms of pulmonary toxicity may occur, including pleural disease, migratory infiltrates, and single or multiple nodules. With early detection, the prognosis is good. Most patients diagnosed promptly respond well to the withdrawal of amiodarone and the administration of corticosteroids, which are usually given for four to 12 months. It is important that physicians be familiar with amiodarone treatment guidelines and follow published recommendations for the monitoring of pulmonary as well as extrapulmonary adverse effects. PMID:19399307

  9. Toxicity Assessment for EPA's Hydraulic Fracturing Study

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset contains data used to develop multiple manuscripts on the toxicity of chemicals associated with the hydraulic fracturing industry. These manuscripts...

  10. [Toxic methemoglobinemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, P; Neuhaus, H

    2011-04-01

    A 19 year-old female patient suffered from severe hypoxemia after an ambulant surgery for splayfeet. Local anesthesia had been performed with prilocain and bupivacain. Methemoglobinemia was suspected and treated with ascorbine acid and methylene blue. The patient was then admitted to hospital. The patient was well orientated and awake. She complained of a mild headache and general illness. There was marked central cyanosis. A blood sample was dark-red to brownish. The periphere oxygen saturation was 85%. A cardiac ultrasound and a chest X ray were without pathological findings. Initial arterial blood gas analysis showed a concentration of methemoglobin of 24%. On intensive care clinical and laboratory findings quickly resolved and methemoglobin concentration normalized after one day. The patient had no symptoms anymore and was discharged the next day. In treatment-resistent hypoxemia after local anesthesia toxic methemoglobinaemia should be suspected. Therapy of choice is immediate administration of methylene blue. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod B; Lebrun, Drake G; Roth, Cameron A; Kelly, John D

    2015-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports.

  12. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutaneous fasciotomies have more favorable results, but these techniques are associated with significant morbidity. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy techniques afford the advantages of being minimally invasive, providing excellent visualization, and allowing accelerated rehabilitation. The purpose of this article is to describe a technique for performing endoscopically assisted fasciotomies for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg using an entirely endoscopic thermal ablating device. The endoscopic thermal fasciotomy technique is associated with minimal morbidity, ensures excellent hemostasis, and affords an early return to sports. PMID:26900549

  13. Two cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis precipitated by personal trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springer, Brian L; Clarkson, Priscilla M

    2003-09-01

    Numerous cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis have been reported in the literature, and these cases mostly involve individuals who were inexperienced exercisers, uneducated in fitness and health principles, dehydrated or heat stressed, taking drugs, or military recruits in basic training. The purpose of this article is to review two cases of exertional rhabdomyolysis in healthy, experienced exercisers. The cases reviewed are for a 22-yr-old female college student and a 37-yr-old male physician who presented with rhabdomyolysis secondary to exercise in a local health club that was part of a national chain. In these two cases individuals, both well educated and experienced in fitness, were encouraged by fitness instructors in a local health club to overexertion during their exercise routine leading to rhabdomyolysis.

  14. Oleander toxicity: an examination of human and animal toxic exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langford, S D; Boor, P J

    1996-05-03

    The oleander is an attractive and hardy shrub that thrives in tropical and subtropical regions. The common pink oleander, Nerium oleander, and the yellow oleander, Thevetia peruviana, are the principle oleander representatives of the family Apocynaceae. Oleanders contain within their tissues cardenolides that are capable of exerting positive inotropic effects on the hearts of animals and humans. The cardiotonic properties of oleanders have been exploited therapeutically and as an instrument of suicide since antiquity. The basis for the physiological action of the oleander cardenolides is similar to that of the classic digitalis glycosides, i.e. inhibition of plasmalemma Na+,K+ ATPase. Differences in toxicity and extracardiac effects exist between the oleander and digitalis cardenolides, however. Toxic exposures of humans and wildlife to oleander cardenolides occur with regularity throughout geographic regions where these plants grow. The human mortality associated with oleander ingestion is generally very low, even in cases of intentional consumption (suicide attempts). Experimental animal models have been successfully utilized to evaluate various treatment protocols designed to manage toxic oleander exposures. The data reviewed here indicate that small children and domestic livestock are at increased risk of oleander poisoning. Both experimental and established therapeutic measures involved in detoxification are discussed.

  15. Endoscopic Thermal Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Voleti, Pramod B.; Lebrun, Drake G.; Roth, Cameron A.; Kelly, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is an activity-induced condition that occurs when intracompartmental pressures within an osteofascial envelope increase during exercise, leading to reversible ischemic symptoms such as pain, cramping, numbness, or weakness. Nonoperative treatment options for this condition have shown limited success and are often undesirable for the patient given the requirement for activity modification. Traditional surgical treatment options involving open or subcutan...

  16. Exercise, Physical Activity, and Exertion over the Business Cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory J. Colman; Dhaval M. Dave

    2011-01-01

    As economic recessions reduce employment and wages, associated shifts in time and income constraints would be expected to also impact individuals' health behaviors. Prior work has focused exclusively on recreational exercise, which typically represents only about 4% of total daily physical exertion. The general presumption in these studies is that, because exercise improves health, if unemployment increases exercise it must also improve health. Yet a person may be laid off from a physically d...

  17. Perceived Exertion under Conditions of Sustained Work and Sleep Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-25

    the various tasks they would be performing during testing (see Ryman et al, 1984, for details). Day 2 involved further practice with the questionaires ...34history" and methods. Medicine and Science in Sports , 5, 90-93. Gamberale, F. 1972, Perceived exertion, heart rate, oxygen uptake and blood lactate in...G.M. 1981, Exercise after sleep deprivation, Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 13, 220-223. McNair, D.M., Lorr, M., and Droppleman, L.F

  18. Polymyxin B, in combination with fluconazole, exerts a potent fungicidal effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Bing; Zhou, Henry; Yang, Liangpeng; Zhang, Jun; Jung, Kathy; Giam, Chou-Zen; Xiang, Xin; Lin, Xiaorong

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to identify existing clinical compounds that either possess a fungicidal activity alone or can act synergistically with fungistatic antifungals. Methods We screened a clinical compound library for drugs that exhibited anti-Aspergillus activity. Among selected compounds, the cationic peptide antibiotic polymyxin B was chosen for further characterization because it can be used parenterally and topically. The fungicidal effect of polymyxin B and its synergistic interactions with azole antifungals were tested against a variety of fungal species. The toxicity of the drug combination of polymyxin B and fluconazole was compared with that of each drug alone in mammalian cell cultures. Results We found that polymyxin B possesses a broad-spectrum antifungal activity at relatively high concentrations. However, because of its synergistic interactions with azole antifungals, polymyxin B at much lower concentrations exerts a potent fungicidal effect against Cryptococcus neoformans, Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida species and moulds when combined with azoles. The combination of polymyxin B and fluconazole at concentrations within susceptible breakpoints is particularly potent against C. neoformans isolates, including fluconazole-resistant strains. The drug combination displayed no additional toxicity compared with polymyxin B alone when tested in cell culture. Conclusions The combination of polymyxin B and fluconazole has the potential to be used in the clinic to treat systemic cryptococcosis. Our findings suggest that combining cationic peptide antibiotics with azole antifungals could provide a new direction for developing novel antifungal therapies. PMID:20167587

  19. 3-Hydroxykynurenine: an intriguing molecule exerting dual actions in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Maldonado, Perla D; Santamaría, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine pathway is gaining attention due to the many metabolic processes in which it has been involved. The tryptophan conversion into several other metabolites through this pathway provides neuronal and redox modulators useful for maintenance of major functions in the brain. However, when physiopathological conditions prevail - i.e. oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inflammation - preferential formation and accumulation of toxic metabolites could trigger factors for degeneration in neurological disorders. 3-Hydroxykynurenine has been largely described as one of these toxic metabolites capable of inducing oxidative damage and cell death; consequently, this metabolite has been hypothesized to play a pivotal role in different neurological and psychiatric disorders. Supporting evidence has shown altered 3-hydroxykynurenine levels in samples of patients from several disorders. In contrast, some experimental studies have provided evidence of antioxidant and scavenging properties inherent to this molecule. In this review, we explored most of literature favoring one or the other concept, in order to provide an accurate vision on the real participation of this tryptophan metabolite in both experimental paradigms and human brain pathologies. Through this collected evidence, we provide an integrative hypothesis on how 3-hydroxykynurenine is exerting its dual actions in the central nervous system and what will be the course of investigations in this field for the next years. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise, physical activity, and exertion over the business cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colman, Gregory; Dave, Dhaval

    2013-09-01

    Shifts in time and income constraints over economic expansions and contractions would be expected to affect individuals' behaviors. We explore the impact of the business cycle on individuals' exercise, time use, and total physical exertion, utilizing information on 112,000 individual records from the 2003-2010 American Time Use Surveys. In doing so, we test a key causal link that has been hypothesized in the relation between unemployment and health, but not heretofore assessed. Using more precise measures of exercise (and other activities) than previous studies, we find that as work-time decreases during a recession, recreational exercise, TV-watching, sleeping, childcare, and housework increase. This, however, does not compensate for the decrease in work-related exertion due to job-loss, and total physical exertion declines. These effects are strongest among low-educated men, which is validating given that employment in the Great Recession has declined most within manufacturing, mining, and construction. We also find evidence of intra-household spillover effects, wherein individuals respond to shifts in spousal employment conditional on their own labor supply. The decrease in total physical activity during recessions is especially problematic for vulnerable populations concentrated in boom-and-bust industries, and may have longer-term effects on obesity and related health outcomes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mechanisms, measurement and management of exertional dyspnoea in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Weatherald

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a heterogeneous condition, with dyspnoea during exercise affecting individuals to a variable degree. This narrative review explores the mechanisms and measurement of exertional dyspnoea in asthma and summarises the available evidence for the efficacy of various interventions on exertional dyspnoea. Studies on the mechanisms of dyspnoea in asthma have largely utilised direct bronchoprovocation challenges, rather than exercise, which may invoke different physiological mechanisms. Thus, the description of dyspnoea during methacholine challenge can differ from what is experienced during daily activities, including exercise. Dyspnoea perception during exercise is influenced by many interacting variables, such as asthma severity and phenotype, bronchoconstriction, dynamic hyperinflation, respiratory drive and psychological factors. In addition to the intensity of dyspnoea, the qualitative description of dyspnoea may give important clues as to the underlying mechanism and may be an important endpoint for future interventional studies. There is currently little evidence demonstrating whether pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions specifically improve exertional dyspnoea, which is an important area for future research.

  2. Perceived exertion : influence of age and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groslambert, Alain; Mahon, Anthony D

    2006-01-01

    Because little is known about the effects of aging on perceived exertion, the aim of this article is to review the key findings from the published literature concerning rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in relation to the developmental level of a subject. The use of RPE in the exercise setting has included both an estimation paradigm, which is the quantification of the effort sense at a given level of exercise, and a production paradigm, which involves producing a given physiological effort based on an RPE value. The results of the review show that the cognitive developmental level of children aged 0-3 years does not allow them to rate their perceived exertion during a handgrip task. From 4 to 7 years of age, there is a critical period where children are able to progressively rate at first their peripheral sensory cues during handgrip tests, and then their cardiorespiratory cues during outdoor running in an accurate manner. Between 8 and 12 years of age, children are able to estimate and produce 2-4 cycling intensities guided by their effort sense and distinguish sensory cues from different parts of their body. However, most of the studies report that the exercise mode and the rating scale used could influence their perceptual responsiveness. During adolescence, it seems that the RPE-heart rate (HR) relationship is less pronounced than in adults. Similar to observations made in younger children, RPE values are influenced by the exercise mode, test protocol and rating scale. Limited research has examined the ability of adolescents to produce a given exercise intensity based on perceived exertion. Little else is known about RPE in this age group. In healthy middle-aged and elderly individuals, age-related differences in perceptual responsiveness may not be present as long as variations in cardiorespiratory fitness are taken into account. For this reason, RPE could be associated with HR as a useful tool for monitoring and prescribing exercise. In physically

  3. Analyzing Arabidopsis thaliana root proteome provides insights into the molecular bases of enantioselective imazethapyr toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Haifeng; Lu, Haiping; Ding, Haiyan; Lavoie, Michel; Li, Yali; Liu, Weiping; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Imazethapyr (IM) is a widely used chiral herbicide that inhibits the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs). IM is thought to exert its toxic effects on amino acid synthesis mainly through inhibition of acetolactate synthase activity, but little is known about the potential effects of IM on other key biochemical pathways. Here, we exposed the model plant Arabidospsis thaliana to trace S- and R-IM enantiomer concentrations and examined IM toxicity effects on the root proteome using iTRAQ. Conventional analyses of root carbohydrates, organic acids, and enzyme activities were also performed. We discovered several previously unknown key biochemical pathways targeted by IM in Arabidospsis. 1,322 and 987 proteins were differentially expressed in response to R- and S-IM treatments, respectively. Bioinformatics and physiological analyses suggested that IM reduced the BCAA tissue content not only by strongly suppressing BCAA synthesis but also by increasing BCAA catabolism. IM also affected sugar and starch metabolism, changed the composition of root cell walls, increased citrate production and exudation, and affected the microbial community structure of the rhizosphere. The present study shed new light on the multiple toxicity mechanisms of a selective herbicide on a model plant.

  4. Physiological modes of action of toxic chemicals in the nematode acrobeloides nanus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alda Alvarez, O.; Jager, T.; Redondo, E.M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2006-01-01

    To gain a better understanding of the mechanisms through which a chemical exerts toxicity, a deeper insight is needed regarding the physiological processes that take place during a toxic stress. This issue can have important benefits for risk assessment, because it can contribute to a better

  5. Toxicity of Methylcyclohexane and Its Effect on the Reproductive System in SD Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeon-Yeong Kim

    2011-09-01

    Conclusion: When injected repeatedly for 13 weeks, methylcyclohexane proved to be toxic for the liver, heart, and kidney at a high dose. The absolute toxic dose was 1,000 mg/kg/day, while the no observed adverse effect level was less than 100 mg/kg/day. The substance exerted little influence on the reproductive system.

  6. Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Distributed Structure Searchable Toxicity (DSSTox) online resource provides high quality chemical structures and annotations in association with toxicity data....

  7. A detailed quantification of differential ratings of perceived exertion during team-sport training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Shaun J; Smith, Andrew; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2017-03-01

    To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) to team-sport training. Single cohort, observational study. Twenty-nine professional rugby union players were monitored over a six-week intensified training period. Training sessions were classified as: high-intensity intervals, repeated high-intensity efforts, speed, skill-based conditioning, skills, whole-body resistance, or upper-body resistance. After each session, players recorded a session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE; CR100 ® ), along with differential session ratings for breathlessness (sRPE-B), leg muscle exertion (sRPE-L), upper-body muscle exertion (sRPE-U), and cognitive/technical demands (sRPE-T). Each score was multiplied by the session duration to calculate session training loads. Data were analysed using mixed linear modelling and multiple linear regression, with magnitude-based inferences subsequently applied. Between-session differences in dRPE scores ranged from very likely trivial to most likely extremely large and within-session differences amongst dRPE scores ranged from unclear to most likely very large. Differential RPE training loads combined to explain 66-91% of the variance in sRPE training loads, and the strongest associations with sRPE training load were with sRPE-L for high-intensity intervals (r=0.67; 90% confidence limits ±0.22), sRPE-B for repeated high-intensity efforts (0.89; ±0.08) and skill-based conditioning (0.67; ±0.19), sRPE-T for Speed (0.63; ±0.17) and Skills (0.51; ±0.28), and sRPE-U for resistance training (whole-body: 0.61; ±0.21, upper-body: 0.92; ±0.07). Differential RPE can provide a detailed quantification of internal load during training activities commonplace in team sports. Knowledge of the relationships between dRPE and sRPE can isolate the specific perceptual demands of different training modes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Forces exerted by a correlated fluid on embedded inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitbol, Anne-Florence; Fournier, Jean-Baptiste

    2011-06-01

    We investigate the forces exerted on embedded inclusions by a fluid medium with long-range correlations, described by an effective scalar field theory. Such forces are the basis for the medium-mediated Casimir-like force. To study these forces beyond thermal average, it is necessary to define them in each microstate of the medium. Two different definitions of these forces are currently used in the literature. We study the assumptions underlying them. We show that only the definition that uses the stress tensor of the medium gives the sought-after force exerted by the medium on an embedded inclusion. If a second inclusion is embedded in the medium, the thermal average of this force gives the usual Casimir-like force between the two inclusions. The other definition can be used in the different physical case of an object that interacts with the medium without being embedded in it. We show in a simple example that the two definitions yield different results for the variance of the Casimir-like force.

  9. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a Healthy Young Man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Sonia V; Duarte, Manuel A

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this case report is to describe a patient who presented with symptoms of exercise-induced compartment syndrome and was later referred for bilateral fasciotomy surgery. A 21-year-old patient presented for chiropractic care with the inability to run due to foot paresthesia and weakness. An exertion test and compartment pressure test diagnosed exercise-induced compartment syndrome. Exertion test and compartment pressure test were used to identify and diagnose exercise-induced compartment syndrome. The patient was diagnosed with exercise-induced compartment syndrome. He was treated conservatively and referred for additional testing. The orthopedic surgeon requested that 12 weeks of conservative care be provided prior to testing; treatment consisted of chiropractic care and rehabilitation exercises. Following the 12 weeks of treatment, the patient did not significantly respond to conservative care. A compartment pressure test confirmed the initial diagnosis of exercise-induced compartment syndrome. The patient underwent a unilateral fasciotomy surgery and recovered fully. Following the surgery, the patient returned to the chiropractic clinic with the same presentation in the contralateral leg. The same protocol of management resulted in the same outcome. Two years after surgical intervention, the patient continues to maintain an active lifestyle, able to run 2 to 3 miles per day without any exacerbations or symptomatology. Clinical awareness, a detailed history, and thorough examination with reproduction of symptomatology are necessary to form a proper diagnosis and treatment plan for these patients. Therefore, multidisciplinary medical communication would prove to be the most beneficial approach for the patient.

  10. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome versus Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Newton, Julia L; Strand, Elin Bolle; Vernon, Suzanne D

    2015-07-01

    The Institute of Medicine has recommended a change in the name and criteria for Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS), renaming the illness Systemic Exertion Intolerance Disease (SEID). The new SEID case definition requires substantial reductions or impairments in the ability to engage in pre-illness activities, unrefreshing sleep, post-exertional malaise, and either cognitive impairment or orthostatic intolerance. In the current study, samples were generated through several different methods and were used to compare this new case definition to previous case definitions for CFS, Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME-ICC), Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS), as well as a case definition developed through empirical methods. We used a cross-sectional design with samples from tertiary care settings, a biobank sample, and other forums. 796 patients from the US, Great Britain, and Norway completed the DePaul Symptom Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the SEID criteria identified 88% of participants in the samples analyzed, which is comparable to the 92% that met the Fukuda criteria. The SEID case definition was compared to a four item empiric criteria, and findings indicated that the four item empiric criteria identified a smaller, more functionally limited and symptomatic group of patients. The recently developed SEID criteria appears to identify a group comparable in size to the Fukuda et al. criteria, but a larger group of patients than the Canadian ME/CFS and ME criteria, and selects more patients who have less impairment and fewer symptoms than a four item empiric criteria.

  11. Cooling methods used in the treatment of exertional heat illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J E

    2005-08-01

    To review the different methods of reducing body core temperature in patients with exertional heatstroke. The search strategy included articles from 1966 to July 2003 using the databases Medline and Premedline, Embase, Evidence Based Medicine (EBM) reviews, SPORTDiscus, and cross referencing the bibliographies of relevant papers. Studies were included if they contained original data on cooling times or cooling rates in patients with heat illness or normal subjects who were subjected to heat stress. In total, 17 papers were included in the analysis. From the evidence currently available, the most effective method of reducing body core temperature appears to be immersion in iced water, although the practicalities of this treatment may limit its use. Other methods include both evaporative and invasive techniques, and the use of chemical agents such as dantrolene. The main predictor of outcome in exertional heatstroke is the duration and degree of hyperthermia. Where possible, patients should be cooled using iced water immersion, but, if this is not possible, a combination of other techniques may be used to facilitate rapid cooling. There is no evidence to support the use of dantrolene in these patients. Further work should include a randomised trial comparing immersion and evaporative therapy in heatstroke patients.

  12. Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in a High School Soccer Player

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James J. Bresnahan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS is a relatively rare condition that affects young adult athletes and often causes them to present to the emergency department. If left untreated, those who continue to compete at high levels may experience debilitating leg pain. Physicians may have difficulty differentiating CECS from other syndromes of the lower leg such as medial tibial stress syndrome, stress fractures, and popliteal artery entrapment. The gold standard for diagnosing CECS is intramuscular compartment pressure monitoring before and/or after 10 minutes of exercise. Some patients may choose to stop participation in sports in order to relieve their pain, which otherwise does not respond well to nonoperative treatments. In patients who wish to continue to participate in sports and live an active life, fasciotomy provides relief in 80% or more. The typical athlete can return to training in about 8 weeks. This is a case of a high school soccer player who stopped competing due to chronic exertional compartment syndrome. She had a fascial hernia, resting intramuscular pressure of 30 mmHg, and postexercise intramuscular pressure of 99 mmHg. Following fasciotomy she experienced considerable life improvement and is once again training and playing soccer without symptoms.

  13. Exploring the potential role of tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) nanoparticle internalization in observed toxicity toward lung epithelial cells in vitro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armstead, Andrea L. [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Graduate Program, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Arena, Christopher B. [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); E.J. Van Liere Research Program, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Li, Bingyun, E-mail: bili@hsc.wvu.edu [Biomaterials, Bioengineering and Nanotechnology Laboratory, Department of Orthopaedics, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences Graduate Program, School of Pharmacy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); E.J. Van Liere Research Program, School of Medicine, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Mary Babb Randolph Cancer Center, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States)

    2014-07-01

    Tungsten carbide cobalt (WC-Co) has been recognized as a workplace inhalation hazard in the manufacturing, mining and drilling industries by the National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health. Exposure to WC-Co is known to cause “hard metal lung disease” but the relationship between exposure, toxicity and development of disease remain poorly understood. To better understand this relationship, the present study examined the role of WC-Co particle size and internalization on toxicity using lung epithelial cells. We demonstrated that nano- and micro-WC-Co particles exerted toxicity in a dose- and time-dependent manner and that nano-WC-Co particles caused significantly greater toxicity at lower concentrations and shorter exposure times compared to micro-WC-Co particles. WC-Co particles in the nano-size range (not micron-sized) were internalized by lung epithelial cells, which suggested that internalization may play a key role in the enhanced toxicity of nano-WC-Co particles over micro-WC-Co particles. Further exploration of the internalization process indicated that there may be multiple mechanisms involved in WC-Co internalization such as actin and microtubule based cytoskeletal rearrangements. These findings support our hypothesis that WC-Co particle internalization contributes to cellular toxicity and suggest that therapeutic treatments inhibiting particle internalization may serve as prophylactic approaches for those at risk of WC-Co particle exposure. - Highlights: • Hard metal (WC-Co) particle toxicity was established in lung epithelial cells. • Nano-WC-Co particles caused greater toxicity than micro-WC-Co particles. • Nano- and micro-WC-Co particles were capable of inducing cellular apoptosis. • Nano-WC-Co particles were internalized by lung epithelial cells. • WC-Co particle internalization was mediated by actin dynamics.

  14. Evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome: a review of current literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vajapey, Sravya; Miller, Timothy L

    2017-11-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a rare condition that usually affects distance runners and other running athletes. It is characterized by pain and pressure in one or multiple muscle compartments with repetitive physical activity. Reduction in pain typically occurs with cessation of activity. Evaluation of CECS consists of a thorough history of patient symptoms and ruling out of other causes of symptoms. Post-exercise pressure measurements can help confirm the diagnosis when symptoms are consistent and imaging evaluation negative for other causes. Non-operative treatment is a viable option for hindfoot runners and patients with anterior compartment syndrome of the leg. Limited-incision fasciotomy has been shown to be the most effective treatment and remains the gold standard for treatment. Minimal-incision open fasciotomy and endoscopic fasciotomy have surgical outcomes similar to wide-open fasciotomy. Military patients treated with fasciotomy have higher failure rates compared to civilians. Pediatric patients have similar outcomes compared to adults.

  15. Optimum polygenic profile to resist exertional rhabdomyolysis during a marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis can occur in individuals performing various types of exercise but it is unclear why some individuals develop this condition while others do not. Previous investigations have determined the role of several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs to explain inter-individual variability of serum creatine kinase (CK concentrations after exertional muscle damage. However, there has been no research about the interrelationship among these SNPs. The purpose of this investigation was to analyze seven SNPs that are candidates for explaining individual variations of CK response after a marathon competition (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del, ACTN3 = p.R577X, CKMM = NcoI, IGF2 = C13790G, IL6 = 174G>C, MLCK = C37885A, TNFα = 308G>A.Using Williams and Folland's model, we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of these seven SNPs for marathoners with a low CK response (n = 36; serum CK <400 U·L-1 vs. marathoners with a high CK response (n = 31; serum CK ≥400 U·L-1.At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum CK (290±65 vs. 733±405 U·L-1; P<0.01 and myoglobin concentrations (443±328 vs. 1009±971 ng·mL-1, P<0.01 than high CK responders. Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, running experience and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (5.2±1.4 vs. 4.4±1.7 point, P = 0.02.Marathoners with a lower CK response after the race had a more favorable polygenic profile than runners with high serum CK concentrations. This might suggest a significant role of genetic polymorphisms in the levels of exertional muscle damage and rhabdomyolysis. Yet other SNPs, in addition to exercise training, might also play a role in the values of CK after damaging exercise.

  16. Exertional dyspnea in mitochondrial myopathy: clinical features and physiological mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinicke, Katja; Taivassalo, Tanja; Wyrick, Phil; Wood, Helen; Babb, Tony G; Haller, Ronald G

    2011-10-01

    Exertional dyspnea limits exercise in some mitochondrial myopathy (MM) patients, but the clinical features of this syndrome are poorly defined, and its underlying mechanism is unknown. We evaluated ventilation and arterial blood gases during cycle exercise and recovery in five MM patients with exertional dyspnea and genetically defined mitochondrial defects, and in four control subjects (C). Patient ventilation was normal at rest. During exercise, MM patients had low Vo(2peak) (28 ± 9% of predicted) and exaggerated systemic O(2) delivery relative to O(2) utilization (i.e., a hyperkinetic circulation). High perceived breathing effort in patients was associated with exaggerated ventilation relative to metabolic rate with high VE/VO(2peak), (MM = 104 ± 18; C = 42 ± 8, P ≤ 0.001), and Ve/VCO(2peak)(,) (MM = 54 ± 9; C = 34 ± 7, P ≤ 0.01); a steeper slope of increase in ΔVE/ΔVCO(2) (MM = 50.0 ± 6.9; C = 32.2 ± 6.6, P ≤ 0.01); and elevated peak respiratory exchange ratio (RER), (MM = 1.95 ± 0.31, C = 1.25 ± 0.03, P ≤ 0.01). Arterial lactate was higher in MM patients, and evidence for ventilatory compensation to metabolic acidosis included lower Pa(CO(2)) and standard bicarbonate. However, during 5 min of recovery, despite a further fall in arterial pH and lactate elevation, ventilation in MM rapidly normalized. These data indicate that exertional dyspnea in MM is attributable to mitochondrial defects that severely impair muscle oxidative phosphorylation and result in a hyperkinetic circulation in exercise. Exaggerated exercise ventilation is indicated by markedly elevated VE/VO(2), VE/VCO(2), and RER. While lactic acidosis likely contributes to exercise hyperventilation, the fact that ventilation normalizes during recovery from exercise despite increasing metabolic acidosis strongly indicates that additional, exercise-specific mechanisms are responsible for this distinctive pattern of exercise ventilation.

  17. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing in the assessment of exertional dyspnea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debapriya Datta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dyspnea on exertion is a commonly encountered problem in clinical practice. It is usually investigated by resting tests such as pulmonary function tests and echocardiogram, which may at times can be non-diagnostic. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET measures physiologic parameters during exercise which can enable accurate identification of the cause of dyspnea. Though CPET has been around for decades and provides valuable and pertinent physiologic information on the integrated cardiopulmonary responses to exercise, it remains underutilized. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensible overview of the underlying principles of exercise physiology, indications and contraindications of CPET, methodology and interpretative strategies involved and thereby increase the understanding of the insights that can be gained from the use of CPET.

  18. Physiological responses and perceived exertion during cycling with superimposed electromyostimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahl, Patrick; Schaerk, Jonas; Achtzehn, Silvia; Kleinöder, Heinz; Bloch, Wilhelm; Mester, Joachim

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the study was to evaluate and to quantify the effects of local electromyostimulation (EMS) during cycling on the cardiorespiratory system, muscle metabolism, and perceived exertion compared with cycling with no EMS. Ten healthy men (age: 24.6 ± 3.2 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max: 54.1 ± 6.0 ml·min·kg) performed 3 incremental cycle ergometer step tests, 1 without and 2 with EMS (30 and 85 Hz) until volitional exhaustion. Lactate values and respiratory exchange ratio were significantly higher at intensities ≥75% peak power output (PPO) when EMS was applied. Bicarbonate concentration, base excess (BE), and Pco2 were significantly lower when EMS was applied compared with the control at intensities ≥75% PPO. Saliva cortisol levels increased because of the exercise but were unaffected by EMS. Furthermore, EMS showed greater effects on CK levels 24 hours postexercise than normal cycling did. Rating of perceived exertion was significantly higher at 100% PPO with EMS. No statistical differences were found for heart rate, pH, and Po2 between the tested cycling modes. The main findings of this study are greater metabolic changes (lactate, respiratory exchange ratio, BE, (Equation is included in full-text article.), Pco2) during cycling with EMS compared with normal cycling independent of frequency, mainly visible at higher work rates. Because metabolic alterations are important for the induction of cellular signaling cascades and adaptations, these results lead to the hypothesis that applied EMS stimulations during cycling exercise might be an enhancing stimulus for skeletal muscle metabolism and related adaptations. Thus, superimposed EMS application during cycling could be beneficial to aerobic performance enhancements in athletes and in patients who cannot perform high workloads. However, the higher demand on skeletal muscles involved must be considered.

  19. Spinal cord stimulation exerts neuroprotective effects against experimental Parkinson's disease.

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    Aiko Shinko

    Full Text Available In clinical practice, deep brain stimulation (DBS is effective for treatment of motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD. However, the mechanisms have not been understood completely. There are some reports that electrical stimulation exerts neuroprotective effects on the central nervous system diseases including cerebral ischemia, head trauma, epilepsy and PD, although there are a few reports on neuroprotective effects of spinal cord stimulation (SCS. We investigated the neuroprotective effects of high cervical SCS on PD model of rats. Adult female Sprague-Dawley rats received hour-long SCS (2, 50 or 200 Hz with an epidural electrode at C1-2 level for 16 consecutive days. At 2 days after initial SCS, 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA was injected into the right striatum of rats. Behavioral evaluations of PD symptoms were employed, including cylinder test and amphetamine-induced rotation test performed at 1 and 2 weeks after 6-OHDA injection. Animals were subsequently euthanized for immunohistochemical investigations. In order to explore neurotrophic and growth factor upregulation induced by SCS, another cohort of rats that received 50 Hz SCS was euthanized at 1 and 2 weeks after lesion for protein assays. Behavioral tests revealed that the number of amphetamine-induced rotations decreased in SCS groups. Immunohistochemically, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH-positive fibers in the striatum were significantly preserved in SCS groups. TH-positive neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta were significantly preserved in 50 Hz SCS group. The level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF was upregulated by SCS at 1 week after the lesion. These results suggest that high cervical SCS exerts neuroprotection in PD model of rats, at least partially by upregulation of VEGF. SCS is supposed to suppress or delay PD progression and might become a less invasive option for PD patients, although further preclinical and clinical investigations are needed to confirm the

  20. The use of subjective rating of exertion in Ergonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capodaglio, P

    2002-01-01

    In Ergonomics, the use of psychophysical methods for subjectively evaluating work tasks and determining acceptable loads has become more common. Daily activities at the work site are studied not only with physiological methods but also with perceptual estimation and production methods. The psychophysical methods are of special interest in field studies of short-term work tasks for which valid physiological measurements are difficult to obtain. The perceived exertion, difficulty and fatigue that a person experiences in a certain work situation is an important sign of a real or objective load. Measurement of the physical load with physiological parameters is not sufficient since it does not take into consideration the particular difficulty of the performance or the capacity of the individual. It is often difficult from technical and biomechanical analyses to understand the seriousness of a difficulty that a person experiences. Physiological determinations give important information, but they may be insufficient due to the technical problems in obtaining relevant but simple measurements for short-term activities or activities involving special movement patterns. Perceptual estimations using Borg's scales give important information because the severity of a task's difficulty depends on the individual doing the work. Observation is the most simple and used means to assess job demands. Other evaluations integrating observation are the followings: indirect estimation of energy expenditure based on prediction equations or direct measurement of oxygen consumption; measurements of forces, angles and biomechanical parameters; measurements of physiological and neurophysiological parameters during tasks. It is recommended that determinations of performances of occupational activities assess rating of perceived exertion and integrate these measurements of intensity levels with those of activity's type, duration and frequency. A better estimate of the degree of physical activity

  1. Multiple Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... multiple pregnancy affect fetal growth? Are tests for genetic disorders as accurate in multiple pregnancies? How can multiple pregnancy affect delivery? Can multiple pregnancy affect my risk of postpartum depression? Can I breastfeed if I have multiples? Glossary ...

  2. Toxic trace elements at gastrointestinal level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, M; Calatayud, M; Jadán Piedra, C; Chiocchetti, G M; Vélez, D; Devesa, V

    2015-12-01

    Many trace elements are considered essential [iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu)], whereas others may be harmful [lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg), arsenic (As)], depending on their concentration and chemical form. In most cases, the diet is the main pathway by which they enter our organism. The presence of toxic trace elements in food has been known for a long time, and many of the food matrices that carry them have been identified. This has led to the appearance of legislation and recommendations concerning consumption. Given that the main route of exposure is oral, passage through the gastrointestinal tract plays a fundamental role in their entry into the organism, where they exert their toxic effect. Although the digestive system can be considered to be of crucial importance in their toxicity, in most cases we do not know the events that occur during the passage of these elements through the gastrointestinal tract and of ascertaining whether they may have some kind of toxic effect on it. The aim of this review is to summarize available information on this subject, concentrating on the toxic trace elements that are of greatest interest for organizations concerned with food safety and health: Pb, Cd, Hg and As. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiple sclerosis; Multiple Sklerose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Kuehn, A.L.; Backens, M.; Papanagiotou, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Abteilung fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Radiologische Klinik, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Shariat, K. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurochirurgie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Kostopoulos, P. [Universitaet des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Neurologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)

    2008-06-15

    Multiple sclerosis is the most common chronic inflammatory disease of myelin with interspersed lesions in the white matter of the central nervous system. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a key role in the diagnosis and monitoring of white matter diseases. This article focuses on key findings in multiple sclerosis as detected by MRI. (orig.) [German] Die Multiple Sklerose (MS) ist die haeufigste chronisch-entzuendliche Erkrankung des Myelins mit eingesprengten Laesionen im Bereich der weissen Substanz des zentralen Nervensystems. Die Magnetresonanztomographie (MRT) hat bei der Diagnosestellung und Verlaufskontrolle eine Schluesselrolle. Dieser Artikel befasst sich mit Hauptcharakteristika der MR-Bildbebung. (orig.)

  4. Short-term hyperoxia does not exert immunologic effects during experimental murine and human endotoxemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiers, Dorien; Gerretsen, Jelle; Janssen, Emmy; John, Aaron; Groeneveld, R.; van der Hoeven, Johannes G.; Scheffer, Gert-Jan; Pickkers, Peter; Kox, Matthijs

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen therapy to maintain tissue oxygenation is one of the cornerstones of critical care. Therefore, hyperoxia is often encountered in critically ill patients. Epidemiologic studies have demonstrated that hyperoxia may affect outcome, although mechanisms are unclear. Immunologic effects might be involved, as hyperoxia was shown to attenuate inflammation and organ damage in preclinical models. However, it remains unclear whether these observations can be ascribed to direct immunosuppressive effects of hyperoxia or to preserved tissue oxygenation. In contrast to these putative anti-inflammatory effects, hyperoxia may elicit an inflammatory response and organ damage in itself, known as oxygen toxicity. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of systemic inflammation, short-term hyperoxia (100% O2 for 2.5 hours in mice and 3.5 hours in humans) does not result in increased levels of inflammatory cytokines in both mice and healthy volunteers. Furthermore, we show that, compared with room air, hyperoxia does not affect the systemic inflammatory response elicited by administration of bacterial endotoxin in mice and man. Finally, neutrophil phagocytosis and ROS generation are unaffected by short-term hyperoxia. Our results indicate that hyperoxia does not exert direct anti-inflammatory effects and temper expectations of using it as an immunomodulatory treatment strategy. PMID:26616217

  5. Vitamin A and Retinoids as Mitochondrial Toxicants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are micronutrient necessary for the human diet in order to maintain several cellular functions from human development to adulthood and also through aging. Furthermore, vitamin A and retinoids are utilized pharmacologically in the treatment of some diseases, as, for instance, dermatological disturbances and some types of cancer. In spite of being an essential micronutrient with clinical application, vitamin A exerts several toxic effects regarding redox environment and mitochondrial function. Moreover, decreased life quality and increased mortality rates among vitamin A supplements users have been reported. However, the exact mechanism by which vitamin A elicits its deleterious effects is not clear yet. In this review, the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the mechanism of vitamin A-induced toxicity is discussed.

  6. Heart rate and blood lactate correlates of perceived exertion during small-sided soccer games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, Aaron J; Rampinini, Ermanno; Marcora, Samuele M; Castagna, Carlo; Impellizzeri, Franco M

    2009-01-01

    The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) could be a practical measure of global exercise intensity in team sports. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between heart rate (%HR(peak)) and blood lactate ([BLa(-)]) measures of exercise intensity with each player's RPE during soccer-specific aerobic exercises. Mean individual %HR(peak), [BLa(-)] and RPE (Borg's CR 10-scale) were recorded from 20 amateur soccer players from 67 soccer-specific small-sided games training sessions over an entire competitive season. The small-sided games were performed in three 4min bouts separated with 3min recovery on various sized pitches and involved 3-, 4-, 5-, or 6-players on each side. A stepwise linear multiple regression was used to determine a predictive equation to estimate global RPE for small-sided games from [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Partial correlation coefficients were also calculated to assess the relationship between RPE, [BLa(-)] and %HR(peak). Stepwise multiple regression analysis revealed that 43.1% of the adjusted variance in RPE could be explained by HR alone. The addition of [BLa(-)] data to the prediction equation allowed for 57.8% of the adjusted variance in RPE to be predicted (Y=-9.49-0.152 %HR(peak)+1.82 [BLa(-)], pintensity in soccer.

  7. Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Exerts Antiviral Activity against Respiratory Syncytial Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoulaye J Dabo

    Full Text Available Increased lung levels of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9 are frequently observed during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV infection and elevated MMP9 concentrations are associated with severe disease. However little is known of the functional role of MMP9 during lung infection with RSV. To determine whether MMP9 exerted direct antiviral potential, active MMP9 was incubated with RSV, which showed that MMP9 directly prevented RSV infectivity to airway epithelial cells. Using knockout mice the effect of the loss of Mmp9 expression was examined during RSV infection to demonstrate MMP9's role in viral clearance and disease progression. Seven days following RSV infection, Mmp9-/- mice displayed substantial weight loss, increased RSV-induced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR and reduced clearance of RSV from the lungs compared to wild type mice. Although total bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF cell counts were similar in both groups, neutrophil recruitment to the lungs during RSV infection was significantly reduced in Mmp9-/- mice. Reduced neutrophil recruitment coincided with diminished RANTES, IL-1β, SCF, G-CSF expression and p38 phosphorylation. Induction of p38 signaling was required for RANTES and G-CSF expression during RSV infection in airway epithelial cells. Therefore, MMP9 in RSV lung infection significantly enhances neutrophil recruitment, cytokine production and viral clearance while reducing AHR.

  8. Return to activity following fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irion, Val; Magnussen, Robert A; Miller, Timothy L; Kaeding, Christopher C

    2014-10-01

    Diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is relatively rare but has been well documented in athletes. There are, however, few reports regarding return to athletic activity after surgery among elite-level athletes. We hypothesized that a majority of elite-level athletes would successfully return to their previous level of competition following fasciotomy for CECS. A retrospective chart review was performed to identify elite-level athletes (collegiate or professional sport participation) who underwent fasciotomy for CECS over a 3-year period. Data collected included sport or activity, treatment and surgical details, time away from sport/activity after surgery, and ability to return to prior level of activity. Six males and seven females were included in the analysis. Patient age ranged from 17 to 24 years with a mean of 19.7 years. Six patients underwent unilateral lower extremity compartment release, and seven underwent bilateral lower extremity compartment release. The anterior and lateral compartments alone were released in 11 patients (84.6%). Two patients (15.4%) underwent four-compartment releases. Eleven patients (84.6%) were able to return to their previous elite level of sport participation at a mean of 10.6 weeks following surgical fasciotomy. Patients who had four-compartment release had a more than 3.5 week average longer return to full sporting activities (p = 0.011). Fasciotomy is effective in allowing elite athletes with CECS to return to sport.

  9. Petiveria alliacea exerts mnemonic and learning effects on rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Mallone Lopes; Luz, Diandra Araújo; Paixão, Thiago Portal da; Silva, João Paulo Bastos; Belém-Filho, Ivaldo Jesus Almeida; Fernandes, Luanna Melo Pereira; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina Baetas; Fontes-Júnior, Enéas Andrade; de Andrade, Marciene Ataíde; Maia, Cristiane Socorro Ferraz

    2015-07-01

    Petiveria alliacea L. (Phytolaccaceae) is a perennial shrub native to the Amazon region and other tropical areas such as Central America and the Caribbean. Popularly known as mucuracaá, P. alliacea is used in the folk medicine for a broad variety of therapeutic purpose and also in religious ceremonies by slaves as a sedative, which highlights its properties on the Central Nervous System (CNS). The present study evaluated the effects of the P. alliacea leaves hydroalcoholic extract (PaLHE) on the cognition, including learning and memory. Three-month-old male and female Wistar rats (n=8-10/group) were administered with 900mg/kg of PaLHE. The behavioral assays included Step-down Inhibitory avoidance (IA) and Morris Water Maze (MWM) tests. Consistent with our previous reports, P. alliacea improved long-term memory. It also exerted previously unreported effects on short-term and spatial memory improvement, and increased learning in the tasks. The P. alliacea extract elicited mnemonic effects and improved the learning process in both IA and MWM tests. Our results highlight the importance of further studies in order to identify the active substances of the PaLHE and investigate the pharmacological mechanisms that underlies the reported effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Perceived exertion and anaerobic threshold during the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L A; Kolka, M A; Wilkerson, J E

    1982-01-01

    Six adult females with normal menstrual cycles (28-31 d in length) volunteered to exercise on a bicycle ergometer on five different days of their menstrual cycles (days 2, 8, 14, 20, and 26; day 1 = onset of menstruation). Each day the subjects exercised at a maximum work load (184.4 W) and at four submaximal exercise intensities (45.0, 83.1, 121.4 and 154.4 W). Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were obtained during minute 4 of each 5-min submaximal exercise bout and at exhaustion each day. Overall, RPE was linearly correlated with heart rate (r = 0.87) when all exercise intensities and cycle days were considered. There was no statistically significant (P greater than 0.05) change in RPE at any exercise intensity related to cycle day. Factors (expired ventilatory volume, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, end-tidal CO2 tension, and heart rate) that may have affected RPE, maximal aerobic power, and anaerobic threshold (AT) were also statistically unchanged because of cycle day. Anaerobic threshold averaged 68.7% of the VO2max, or 1.592 l . min for all cycle days, as determined by the total expiratory volume/oxygen uptake "break point" method of Wasserman and co-workers (18). These data support the utilization of female subjects with normal menstrual cycles in psychophysiological studies without regard to menstrual cycle phase.

  11. [Angina-like chest pain and exertional esophageal ph monitoring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romand, F; Vincent, E; Potier, V; Claudel, N; Galoo, E; Desbaumes, J

    1999-03-01

    Spontaneous chest pain attacks are uncommon during 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring in patients suffering from angina-like chest pain suspected to be acid-related. The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of exertional esophageal pH monitoring and to prove that exercise testing induces chest pain and gastro-esophageal reflux and therefore improves symptomatic correlation study. Forty three patients suffering from angina-like chest pain underwent treadmill exercise testing during a 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring. Symptom analysis was made using the symptom-association probability described by Weusten. During the 24-hour pH monitoring, 10 patients (23%) had a pathologic esophageal acid exposure, 20 (46%) experienced chest pain and 3 (7%) had a symptom association probability > 95%. During the exercise testing on a treadmill, 19 patients (44%) had gastro-esophageal reflux, and 14 (32%) experienced chest pain, coinciding with a gastro-esophageal reflux in 8 (19%). After exercise testing, the symptom-association probability analysis was significantly changed in 9 patients (21%), > 95% in 6 patients (14%). Exercise testing on a treadmill induces chest pain episodes during a 24-hour esophageal pH monitoring and therefore improves symptomatic correlation study in patients suffering from angina-like chest pain.

  12. Association between work engagement and perceived exertion among healthcare workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Luiz Carregaro

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Complaints and musculoskeletal discomforts are common manifestations of individuals affected by work-related disorders (WRMD, and the influence of individual and/or psychosocial risk factors may play a significant role in WRMD development. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and to compare work engagement (WE and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and to assess the association between indexes of WE and RPE among healthcare workers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen female subjects (36 ± 11 years, 1.58 ± 0.06 m and 59 ± 9 kg participated, all officially employed on a nonprofit agency. The Nordic Questionnaire was used to evaluate musculoskeletal complaints and the Borg Scale used to evaluate the RPE. The Utrecht Work Engagement Scale quantified WE (vigor, dedication and absorption domains. Participants were divided into two groups, according to their sectors: healthcare clinics and institution for the elderly. The independent student t test was used to verify differences between groups and the chi-square test to verify associations between variables. RESULTS: All subjects reported musculoskeletal complaints, mainly in the low back (58%. RPE did not differ between groups, while in the vigor, it was found a significant statistically difference (p = 0.035. An association between RPE and vigor and RPE and dedication was establish (p = 0.02 and p = 0.036, respectively. CONCLUSION: The association between WE and RPE suggests that workers with lower indexes of vigor and dedication may perceive greater physical demand, which can be imposed by work demands.

  13. Toxic hemolytic anemias.

    OpenAIRE

    ZEMANOVÁ, Vendula

    2014-01-01

    This thesis deals with toxic hemolytic anemias which are often unheeded. There are described laboratory signs of hemolytic anemias, their dividing into the various groups and it focuses mainly to toxic and drug-related hemolytic anemias and their causations.

  14. Combined Toxicity of Nano-ZnO and Nano-TiO2: From Single- to Multinanomaterial Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Tiezheng; Wilke, Carolyn M; Wu, Jinsong; Binh, Chu Thi Thanh; Kelly, John J; Gaillard, Jean-François; Gray, Kimberly A

    2015-07-07

    Previous studies on the toxicity of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) have been primarily based on testing individual ENMs, so little is known about the interactions and combined toxicity of multiple ENMs. In this study the toxicity of chemically stable nano-TiO2 and soluble nano-ZnO was investigated individually and in combination, by monitoring bacterial cell membrane integrity and ATP levels in a natural aqueous medium (Lake Michigan water). Both nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO damage bacterial cell membranes under simulated solar irradiation (SSI), but their phototoxicity is not additive. Nano-ZnO at 1 mg/L, for example, surprisingly eliminates the damaging effect of nano-TiO2 at 10 mg/L. This phenomenon does not correlate with reactive oxygen species production, but is explained by a reduced extent of bacteria/nano-TiO2 contact in the presence of both nano-ZnO and dissolved zinc. The presence of nano-ZnO also exerts a significant decrease in bacterial ATP levels both under SSI and in the dark, a stress effect not captured by measuring bacterial cell membrane integrity. This inhibitory effect of nano-ZnO, however, is reduced somewhat by nano-TiO2 due to the adsorption of Zn(2+). Therefore, our results reveal that nanoparticle interactions and surface complexation reactions alter the original toxicity of individual nanoparticles and that comprehensive assessments of potential ENM toxicity in the environment require careful integration of complex physicochemical interactions between ENMs and various biological responses.

  15. Preservative toxicity in glaucoma medication: clinical evaluation of benzalkonium chloride-free 0.5% timolol eye drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosin LM

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Lauren M Rosin,1 Nicholas P Bell1,2 1Ruiz Department of Ophthalmology and Visual Science, The University of Texas Medical School at Houston, 2Robert Cizik Eye Clinic, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Timolol (generic name is a frequently used medication for the control of glaucoma. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK is a commonly used preservative in ophthalmic solutions with a broad range of antimicrobial activity; however, this nonspecificity can result in toxicity. Adverse effects attributed to BAK, including conjunctival inflammation and fibrosis, tear film instability, corneal cytotoxicity, anterior chamber inflammation, trabecular meshwork cell apoptosis, cataract development, macular edema, and even systemic effects, have been well documented. These effects can lead to ocular discomfort, poor intraocular pressure control, glaucoma surgery failure, and decreased patient compliance. BAK use in topical medications has decreased recently as newer and less toxic preservatives have become available. Yet these preservatives still exert some toxic effects, especially in patients with chronic eye disease who use multiple drops over extended periods of time. Thus, attempts to reduce overall preservative loads for patients are important, whether it be decreasing the amount of preservative, decreasing the total number of drops patients use, or eliminating preservatives entirely. A preservative-free formulation of timolol, TIMOPTIC® in OCUDOSE®, is available in unit-dose vials. Preservative-free unit-dose vials minimize toxic adverse effects and are a good option for patients with ocular surface disease, on long-term multidrop therapy, or who simply do not tolerate the effects of preservatives due to discomfort. Keywords: glaucoma, ocular toxicity, benzalkonium chloride, preservative-free timolol

  16. Exertional hypoxemia in stable COPD is common and predicted by circulating proadrenomedullin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolz, Daiana; Boersma, Wim; Blasi, Francesco; Louis, Renaud; Milenkovic, Branislava; Kostikas, Kostantinos; Aerts, Joachim G; Rohde, Gernot; Lacoma, Alicia; Rakic, Janko; Boeck, Lucas; Castellotti, Paola; Scherr, Andreas; Marin, Alicia; Hertel, Sabine; Giersdorf, Sven; Torres, Antoni; Welte, Tobias; Tamm, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The prevalence of exertional hypoxemia in unselected patients with COPD is unknown. Intermittent hypoxia leads to adrenomedullin (ADM) upregulation through the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 pathway. We aimed to assess the prevalence and the annual probability to develop exertional hypoxemia in stable COPD. We also hypothesized that increased ADM might be associated with exertional hypoxemia and envisioned that adding ADM to clinical variables might improve its prediction in COPD. A total of 1,233 6-min walk tests and circulating proadrenomedullin (proADM) levels from 574 patients with clinically stable, moderate to very severe COPD enrolled in a multinational cohort study and followed up for 2 years were concomitantly analyzed. The prevalence of exertional hypoxemia was 29.1%. In a matrix derived from a fitted-multistate model, the annual probability to develop exertional hypoxemia was 21.6%. Exertional hypoxemia was associated with greater deterioration of specific domains of health-related quality of life, higher severe exacerbation, and death annual rates. In the logistic linear and conditional Cox regression multivariable analyses, both FEV1% predicted and proADM proved independent predictors of exertional hypoxemia (P 2 nmol/L) presented increased risk (> 30%) for exertional desaturation. Exertional desaturation is common and associated with poorer clinical outcomes in COPD. ADM improves prediction of exertional desaturation as compared with the use of FEV1% predicted alone. ISRCTN Register; No.: ISRCTN99586989; URL: www.controlled-trials.com.

  17. Polysulfide exerts a protective effect against cytotoxicity caused by t-buthylhydroperoxide through Nrf2 signaling in neuroblastoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Shin; Ogasawara, Yuki; Shibuya, Norihiro; Kimura, Hideo; Ishii, Kazuyuki

    2013-11-01

    Polysulfide is a bound sulfur species derived from endogenous H2S. When mouse neuroblastoma, Neuro2A cells were exposed to tert-butyl hydroperoxide after treatment with polysulfide, a significant decline in cell toxicity was observed. Rapid uptake of polysulfides induced translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus, resulting in acceleration of GSH synthesis and HO-1 expression. We demonstrated that polysulfide reversibly modified Keap1 to form oxidized dimers and induced the translocation of Nrf2. Moreover, polysulfide treatment accelerated Akt phosphorylation, which is a known pathway of Nrf2 phosphorylation. Thus, polysulfide may mediate the activation of Nrf2 signaling, thereby exerting protective effects against oxidative damage in Neuro2A cells. Copyright © 2013 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A miniswine model of acute exertional heat exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentile, B J; Szlyk-Modrow, P C; Durkot, M J; Krestel, B A; Sils, I V; Tartarini, K A; Alkhyyat, A M

    1996-06-01

    We examined the thermoregulatory and hemodynamic responses of 12 miniswine (31 +/- 3.9 kg) during 25-30 min of treadmill exercise (5.4 km.h-1, 5% grade) under cool (10 degrees C), moderate (20 degrees C) and warm (30 degrees C) ambient temperature (Ta) conditions. Within 15-20 min of exercise at Ta = 30 degrees C, the miniswine demonstrated significant hyperventilation, hypersalivation, and unsteady gait. Exercise-heat endurance time (T) at Ta = 30 degrees C decreased by 35% and 40% in comparison to T at Ta = 20 degrees C and 10 degrees C, respectively. This resulted from a significant rise in heat strain (S)-defined as the rate of change in rectal temperature. Averaged throughout exercise, S increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 degree C.min-1 and 0.05 +/- 0.02 degree C.min-1 at Ta = 10 degrees C and 20 degrees C, respectively, to 0.10 +/- 0.03 degree C.min-1 at Ta = 30 degrees C. Due to the comparatively large storage capacity of the porcine spleen relative to humans, splenectomized miniswine were used. This permitted calculation of percentage changes in plasma volume (% delta PVc) from hematocrit (HCT) and hemoglobin (HGB) without the confounding effects of splenic red cells released into the circulation during exercise. Independent of Ta, pre-exercise PVc decreased 3%-5% (p post-exercise. We conclude that the poor thermoregulatory ability of miniswine manifested in insignificant sweating and restricted evaporative cooling, may make them an appropriate model for acute exertional heat exhaustion in humans working in hot, humid conditions and/or wearing impermeable protective clothing. Further, evaluation of plasma volume changes from HCT and HGB in a miniswine model should consider the merit of a splenectomized design.

  19. Relationship between perceived exertion during exercise and subsequent recovery measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TN Mann

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The return towards resting homeostasis in the post-exercise period has the potential to represent the internal training load of the preceding exercise bout. However, the relative potential of metabolic and autonomic recovery measurements in this role has not previously been established. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate which of 4 recovery measurements was most closely associated with Borg’s Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE, a measurement widely acknowledged as an integrated measurement of the homeostatic stress of an exercise bout. A heterogeneous group of trained and untrained participants (n = 36 completed a bout of exercise on the treadmill (3 km at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake followed by 1 hour of controlled recovery. Expired respiratory gases and heart rate (HR were measured throughout the exercise and recovery phases of the trial with recovery measurements used to calculate the magnitude of excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOCMAG, the time constant of the EPOC curve (EPOCτ, 1 min heart rate recovery (HRR60s and the time constant of the HR recovery curve (HRRτ for each participant. RPE taken in the last minute of exercise was significantly associated with HRR60s (r=-0.69, EPOCτ (r=0.52 and HRRτ (r=0.43 but not with EPOCMAG. This finding suggests that, of the 4 recovery measurements under investigation, HRR60s shows modest potential to represent inter-individual variation in the homeostatic stress of a standardized exercise bout, in a group with a range of fitness levels.

  20. Physiological and Perceived Exertion Responses during International Karate Kumite Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabben, Montassar; Sioud, Rim; Haddad, Monoem; Franchini, Emerson; Chaouachi, Anis; Coquart, Jeremy; Chaabane, Helmi; Chamari, Karim; Tourny-Chollet, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Investigate the physiological responses and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) in elite karate athletes and examine the relationship between a subjective method (Session-RPE) and two objective heart-rate (HR)-based methods to quantify training-load (TL) during international karate competition. Methods Eleven karatekas took part in this study, but only data from seven athletes who completed three matches in an international tournament were used (four men and three women). The duration of combat was 3 min for men and 2 min for women, with 33.6±7.6 min for the first interval period (match 1–2) and 14.5±3.1 min for the second interval period (match 2–3). HR was continuously recorded during each combat. Blood lactate [La-] and (RPE) were measured just before the first match and immediately after each match. Results Means total fights time, HR, %HRmax, [La-], and session-RPE were 4.7±1.6 min, 182±9 bpm, 91±3%, 9.02±2.12 mmol.L-1 and 4.2±1.2, respectively. No significant differences in %HRmax, [La-], and RPE were noticed across combats. Significant correlations were observed between RPE and both resting HR (r=0.60; P=0.004) and mean HR (r=0.64; P=0.02), session-RPE and Banister training-impulse (TRIMP) (r=0.84; Pkarate competition elicited near-maximal cardiovascular responses and high [La-]. Training should therefore include exercise bouts that sufficiently stimulate the zone between 90 and 100% HRmax. Karate coaches could use the RPE-method to follow competitor's competition loads and consider it in their technical and tactical training. PMID:24800001

  1. Isolated Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Lateral Lower Leg

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zantvoort, Aniek P.M.; de Bruijn, Johan A.; Winkes, Michiel B.; Dielemans, Jeanne P.; van der Cruijsen-Raaijmakers, Marike; Hoogeveen, Adwin R.; Scheltinga, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise-induced lower leg pain may be caused by chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS). The anterior (ant-CECS) or deep posterior compartment (dp-CECS) is usually affected. Knowledge regarding CECS of the lateral compartment (lat-CECS) is limited. Purpose: To describe demographic characteristics and symptoms in a consecutive series of patients with isolated CECS of the lateral compartment of the leg. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Since 2001, patients undergoing dynamic intracompartmental pressure (ICP) measurements for suspected CECS in a single institution were prospectively monitored. Individuals with a history possibly associated with lat-CECS and elevated ICP measurements (Pedowitz criteria) were identified. Exclusion criteria were concomitant ipsilateral ant-CECS/dp-CECS, acute compartment syndrome, recent significant trauma, peroneal nerve entrapment, or vascular claudication. Results: During an 11-year time period, a total of 26 patients with isolated lat-CECS fulfilled study criteria (15 females; median age, 21 years; range, 14-48 years). Frequently identified provocative sports were running (n = 4), walking (n = 4), field hockey (n = 3), soccer (n = 3), and volleyball (n = 2). Exercise-induced lateral lower leg pain (92%) and tightness (42%) were often reported. The syndrome was bilateral in almost two-thirds (62%, n = 16). Delay in diagnosis averaged 24 months (range, 2 months to 10 years). Conclusion: Young patients with exercise-induced pain in the lateral portions of the lower leg may suffer from isolated CECS of the lateral compartment. ICP measurements in the lateral compartment in these patients are recommended. PMID:26740955

  2. Use of ratings of perceived exertion in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, Roger

    2012-06-01

    The rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is a recognized marker of intensity and of homeostatic disturbance during exercise. It is typically monitored during exercise tests to complement other measures of intensity. The purpose of this commentary is to highlight the remarkable value of RPE as a psychophysiological integrator in adults. It can be used in such diverse fashions as to predict exercise capacity, assess changes in training status, and explain changes in pace and pacing strategy. In addition to using RPE to self-regulate exercise, a novel application of the intensity:RPE relationship is to clamp RPE at various levels to produce self-paced bouts of exercise, which can be used to assess maximal functional capacity. Research also shows that the rate of increase in RPE during self-paced competitive events of varying distance, or constant-load tasks where the participant exercises until volitional exhaustion, is proportional to the duration that remains. These findings suggest that the brain regulates RPE and performance in an anticipatory manner based on awareness of metabolic reserves at the start of an event and certainty of the anticipated end point. Changes in pace may be explained by a continuous internal negotiation of momentary RPE compared with a preplanned "ideal rate of RPE progression" template, which takes into account the portion of distance covered and the anticipated end point. These observations have led to the development of new techniques to analyze the complex relationship of RPE and pacing. The use of techniques to assess frontal-cortex activity will lead to further advances in understanding.

  3. Outcomes of exertional rhabdomyolysis following high-intensity resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, A; Leong, K; Jones, N; Crump, N; Russell, D; Anderson, M; Steinfort, D; Johnson, D F

    2016-05-01

    High-intensity resistance training (HIRT) programmes are increasingly popular amongst personal trainers and those attending gymnasiums. We report the experience of exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) at two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. To compare the clinical outcomes of ER with other causes of rhabdomyolysis. Retrospective cross-sectional study of patients presenting with a serum creatine kinase (CK) of greater than 25 000 units/L from 1 September 2013 to 31 August 2014 at two tertiary referral hospitals in Melbourne, Australia. Records were examined to identify care measures implemented during hospital stay, clinical outcomes during admission and on subsequent follow up. Thirty four cases of rhabdomyolysis with a CK of greater than 25 000 units/L (normal range: 20-180 units/L) were identified during the 12-month study period. Twelve of the 34 cases (35%) had ER with 10 of 12 related to HIRT. No acute kidney injury, intensive care admission or death were seen among those with ER. All cases were managed conservatively, with 11 admitted and 9 receiving intravenous fluids only. In contrast, patients with rhabdomyolysis from other causes experienced significantly higher rates of intensive care admission (64%, P = 0.0002), acute kidney injury (82%, P = 0.0001) and death (27%, P = 0.069). ER resulting from HIRT appears to have a benign course compared with rhabdomyolysis of other aetiologies in patients with a serum CK greater than 25 000 units/L. Conservative management of ER appears to be adequate, although this requires confirmation in future prospective studies. © 2016 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  4. Effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killen, L G; Green, J M; O'Neal, E K; McIntosh, J R; Hornsby, J; Coates, T E

    2013-03-01

    This study examined effects of caffeine on session ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) following 30 min constant-load cycling. Individuals (n = 15) of varying aerobic fitness completed a [Formula: see text] max trial and two 30 min cycling bouts (double-blind, counterbalanced) following ingestion of 6 mL/kg of caffeine or matched placebo. RPE overall, legs and breathing were estimated every 5 min and session RPE was estimated 30 min post-exercise using the OMNI pictorial scale. Session RPE for caffeine and placebo trails were compared using paired t test. Between-trial comparisons of HR, RPE overall, RPE legs and RPE breathing were analyzed using an independent 2 (trial) × 6 (time point) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) for each dependent variable. Caffeine resulted in a significantly lower session RPE (p < 0.05) for caffeine (6.1 ± 2.2) versus placebo (6.8 ± 2.1). Acute perceptual responses were significantly lower for caffeine for RPE overall (15, 20, 25, and 30 min), RPE breathing (15, 20, 25, and 30 min) and RPE legs (20 and 30 min). Survey responses post-exercise revealed greater feelings of nervousness, tremors, restlessness and stomach distress following caffeine versus placebo. Blunted acute RPE and survey responses suggest participants responded to caffeine ingestion. Caffeine decreased acute RPE during exercise which could partially account for lower session RPE responses. However, decreased session RPE could also reveal a latent analgesic affect of caffeine extending into recovery. Extending the understanding of session RPE could benefit coaches in avoiding overtraining when adjusting training programs.

  5. Intravenous polyclonal human immunoglobulins in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Per Soelberg

    2008-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta-analysis ......Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is an established therapy for demyelinating diseases of the peripheral nervous system. IVIG exerts a number of effects that may be beneficial in multiple sclerosis (MS). Four double-blind IVIG trials have been performed in relapsing-remitting MS. A meta...

  6. Measuring Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion in Healthy Adults and with Respiratory Disease: New Pictorial Scales

    OpenAIRE

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Zhang, Zhen; Hernandez, Paul; Huebner, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    Background Dyspnea or perceived exertion during exercise is most commonly measured using Borg or visual analog scales, created for use in adults. In contrast, pictorial scales have been promoted for children due to skepticism concerning applicability of the said scales in pediatrics. We sought to validate our newly created, pictorial Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in adult populations and compare ratings with the Borg scale. Methods Dyspnea and perceived exertion ratings obta...

  7. Surgical Treatment of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome in Pediatric Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Jennifer J; Tepolt, Frances A; Miller, Patricia E; Micheli, Lyle J; Kocher, Mininder S

    2016-10-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) is a cause of leg pain in running athletes and is treated with fasciotomy after failure of nonoperative management. CECS is being seen with increased frequency in younger patients. The demographics and outcomes of fasciotomy for CECS in pediatric patients, including risk factors for treatment failure, have not been described. To describe characteristics of pediatric patients with CECS and determine surgical outcomes of the condition in this population. Case series; Level of evidence, 4. A retrospective review was performed for patients 18 years and younger treated surgically for CECS with compartment release at a single institution from 1995 to 2014. Demographic and condition characteristics, operative procedure, postoperative course, and clinical outcomes were recorded for 286 legs of 155 patients. Compartment pressure testing using the Pedowitz criteria confirmed the diagnosis in all patients. A total of 155 patients were included in the study (average patient age at presentation, 16.4 ± 1.38 years); 136 (88%) were female. All 155 patients presented with leg pain; of these patients, 8 (5%) also had neurologic symptoms, and 131 (85%) presented with bilateral symptoms requiring bilateral compartment release. Symptoms were chronic in nature, with duration over 1 year in 63% of patients. The primary sport was most commonly reported as running (25%), soccer (23%), or field hockey (12%); 50% of patients were multisport athletes. Of 286 legs, 138 (48%) had only anterior and/or lateral compartments released, while 84 (29.4%) had all 4 compartments released. Documented return to sport was seen in 79.5% of patients. Outcomes analysis was performed for 250 of 286 legs. Of these 250 legs, 47 (18.8%) had recurrent CECS requiring reoperation at a median of 1.3 years (interquartile range, 0.8-3.5) after initial compartment release. For each additional month between presentation and release, the odds of recurrence decreased by 12

  8. Endoscopic Fascia Release for Forearm Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: Case Report and Surgical Technique

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Elizabeth A; Cobb, Anna L; Cobb, Tyson K

    Background: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of the forearm is traditionally treated with open compartment release requiring large incisions that can result in less than optimal esthetic results...

  9. [Visits of patients with exertional rhabdomyolysis to the Emergency Department at Landspítali, The National University Hospital of Iceland in the years 2008-2012].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halldorsson, Arnljotur Bjorn; Benedikz, Elisabet; Olafsson, Isleifur; Mogensen, Brynjolfur

    2016-03-01

    Overexertion and too much training are among the -multiple etiologies of rhabdomyolysis. Creatine kinase (CK) and myo-globine, released from skeletal muscle cells, are useful for diagnosis and follow-up. Acute kidney injury is a serious complication of myoglobinemia. Literature on exertional rhabdomyolysis in the general population is scarce. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of exertional rhabdomyolysis among patients diagnosed at Landspítali The National University Hospital of Iceland in 2008-2012. The study was retrospective and observational. All patients presenting with muscle pain after exertion and elevated creatine kinase >1000 IU/L, during the period from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2012, were included. Patients with CK elevations secondary to causes other than exertion were excluded. Variables included: patient number and gender, CK-levels, date of hospital admission, cause of rhabdomyolysis, location of injured muscle groups, length of hospital stay, complications and means of fluid replacement. Population figures of the capital region were gathered from Statistics Iceland and information on sport practice in the capital region from The National Olympic and Sports Association of Iceland. Exertional rhabdomyolysis was diagnosed in 54 patients, 18 females (33,3%) and 36 males (66,7%), or 8,3% of rhabdomyolysis cases from all causes in the study period (648 cases). Incidence in the capital region was 5,0/100.000 inhabitants per year in the study period. Median age was 28 years and median CK-level was 24.132 IU/L. CK-levels were higher among females but the difference between genders was not significant. Muscle groups of the upper and lower extremities were most frequently affected (89%). Thirty patients received intravenous fluids. They had significantly higher CK values than other patients. One patient developed acute kidney injury. Information on sport practice and physical training in the capital region was not available

  10. Sediment toxicity in Boston Harbor: Magnitude, extent, and relationships with chemical toxicants. Technical memo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, E.R.; Sloane, G.M.; Carr, R.S.; Scott, K.J.; Thursby, G.B.

    1996-06-01

    A survey of the toxicity of sediments throughout Boston Harbor and vicinity was conducted by NOAA`s National Status and Trends (NS&T) Program. The objectives of the survey were to determine the magnitude and spatial extent of toxicity and the relationship between measures of toxicity and the concentrations of chemical toxicants in the sediments. Multiple toxicity tests were performed including: an amphipod survival test performed with whole sediments, a microbial bioluminescence test performed with organic solvent extracts of the sediments, and sea urchin fertilization and embryological development tests performed with the pore waters extracted from the sediments. Chemical analyses were performed on selected samples for trace metals, polynuclear aromatic hydrcarbons, chlorinated pesticides, PCBs, and butyltins.

  11. Interleukin-1 exerts distinct actions on different cell types of the brain in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying An

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ying An, Qun Chen, Ning QuanDepartment of Oral Biology, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a critical neuroinflammatory mediator in the central nervous system (CNS. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-1 on inducing inflammation-related gene expression in three astrocyte, two microglial, and one brain endothelial cell line. Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β is found to be produced by the two microglial cell lines constitutively, but these cells do not respond to IL-1β stimulation. The three astrocyte cell lines responded to IL-1ß stimulation by expressing MCP-1, CXCL-1, and VCAM-1, but different subtypes of astrocytes exhibited different expression profiles after IL-1β stimulation. The brain endothelial cells showed strongest response to IL-1β by producing MCP-1, CXCL-1, VCAM-1, ICAM-1, IL-6, and COX-2 mRNA. The induction of endothelial COX-2 mRNA is shown to be mediated by p38 MAPK pathway, whereas the induction of other genes is mediated by the NF-κB pathway. These results demonstrate that IL-1 exerts distinct cell type-specific action in CNS cells and suggest that IL-1-mediated neuroinflammation is the result of the summation of multiple responses from different cell types in the CNS to IL-1.Keywords: astrocyte, microglia, endothelial cells, signal transduction pathways, gene expression 

  12. Sam68 exerts separable effects on cell cycle progression and apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resnick Ross J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The RNA-binding protein Sam68 has been implicated in a number of cellular processes, including transcription, RNA splicing and export, translation, signal transduction, cell cycle progression and replication of the human immunodeficiency virus and poliovirus. However, the precise impact it has on essential cellular functions remains largely obscure. Results In this report we show that conditional overexpression of Sam68 in fibroblasts results in both cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Arrest in G1 phase of the cell cycle is associated with decreased levels of cyclins D1 and E RNA and protein, resulting in dramatically reduced Rb phosphorylation. Interestingly, cell cycle arrest does not require the specific RNA binding ability of Sam68. In marked contrast, induction of apoptosis by Sam68 absolutely requires a fully-functional RNA binding domain. Moreover, the anti-cancer agent trichostatin A potentiates Sam68-driven apoptosis. Conclusions For the first time we have shown that Sam68, an RNA binding protein with multiple apparent functions, exerts functionally separable effects on cell proliferation and survival, dependent on its ability to bind specifically to RNA. These findings shed new light on the ability of signal transducing RNA binding proteins to influence essential cell function. Moreover, the ability of a class of anti-cancer therapeutics to modulate its ability to promote apoptosis suggests that Sam68 status may impact some cancer treatments.

  13. Parenting Multiples

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Parenting Multiples KidsHealth / For Parents / Parenting Multiples What's in ... your ability to take care of your babies. Parenting Issues With Multiples It may be difficult to ...

  14. Hydrocarbon toxicity: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoehlen, L M; Tekulve, K J; Nañagas, K A

    2014-06-01

    Clinical effects of hydrocarbon exposure have been reported since 1897. These substances are ubiquitous, and their exposures are common. The specific hydrocarbon and route of exposure will determine the clinical effect, and an understanding of this is helpful in the care of the hydrocarbon-exposed patient. To complete a comprehensive review of the literature on hydrocarbon toxicity and summarize the findings. Relevant literature was identified through searches of Medline (PubMed/OVID) and Cochrane Library databases (inclusive of years 1975-2013), as well as from multiple toxicology textbooks. Bibliographies of the identified articles were also reviewed. Search terms included combinations of the following: hydrocarbons, inhalants, encephalopathy, coma, cognitive deficits, inhalant abuse, huffing, sudden sniffing death, toluene, renal tubular acidosis, metabolic acidosis, arrhythmia, dermatitis, and aspiration pneumonitis. All pertinent clinical trials, observational studies, and case reports relevant to hydrocarbon exposure and published in English were reviewed. Chronic, occupational hydrocarbon toxicity was not included. Exposure to hydrocarbons occurs through one of the following routes: inhalation, ingestion with or without aspiration, or dermal exposure. Inhalational abuse is associated with central nervous system depression, metabolic acidosis, and arrhythmia. The exact mechanism of the CNS depression is unknown, but experimental evidence suggests effects on NMDA, dopamine, and GABA receptors. Chronic toluene inhalation causes a non-anion gap metabolic acidosis associated with hypokalemia. Halogenated hydrocarbon abuse can cause a fatal malignant arrhythmia, termed "sudden sniffing death". Individuals who regularly abuse hydrocarbons are more likely to be polysubstance users, exhibit criminal or violent behavior, and develop memory and other cognitive deficits. Heavy, long-term use results in cerebellar dysfunction, encephalopathy, weakness, and dementia

  15. Artesunate exerts specific cytotoxicity in retinoblastoma cells via CD71.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei; Wang, Han; Kunda, Patricilia; Chen, Xuemei; Liu, Qiu-Ling; Liu, Tao

    2013-09-01

    Retinoblastoma (RB) is an intraocular cancer that affects young children. There is an ongoing effort to find new agents for RB management that are effective, specific and with few side-effects. In the present study, we tested artesunate (ART), a synthetic derivative from the herbal drug artemisinin, used in the clinic for the treatment of malaria. We analyzed ART cytotoxicity in an RB cell line (RB-Y79) and in a retinal epithelial cell line (hTERT-RPE1) by flow cytometric analysis (FCM). We related the effect of ART to the expression of transferrin receptor 1 (TfR-1, also known as CD71) by knocking down CD71 with RNAi and analyzing cell cycle variables by FCM. We found that the cytotoxic action of ART is specific for RB cells in a dose-dependent manner, with low toxicity in normal retina cells. ART is more effective in RB than carboplatin with a markedly strong cytotoxic effect on carboplatin-resistant RB cells. RB had higher CD71 levels at the membrane compared to normal retinal cells. We showed that ART internalization in RB cells is dependent upon the expression of the CD71. In addition, ART blocked the cell cycle progression at the G1 phase, even at low doses, and decreased the proportion of RB cells in the S phase. In conclusion, we showed that ART is a promising drug exhibiting high selective cytotoxicity even against multidrug-resistant RB cells. Thus, we suggest that ART could be used in the treatment of RB.

  16. Factors affecting perception of effort (session rating of perceived exertion) during rugby league training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, T W J; Sirotic, Anita C; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Coutts, Aaron J

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the validity of session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) for monitoring training intensity in rugby league. Thirty-two professional rugby league players participated in this study. Training-load (TL) data were collected during an entire season and assessed via microtechnology (heart-rate [HR] monitors, global positioning systems [GPS], and accelerometers) and sRPE. Within-individual correlation analysis was used to determine relationships between sRPE and various other measures of training intensity and load. Stepwise multiple regressions were used to determine a predictive equation to estimate sRPE during rugby league training. There were significant within-individual correlations between sRPE and various other internal and external measures of intensity and load. The stepwise multiple-regression analysis also revealed that 62.4% of the adjusted variance in sRPE-TL could be explained by TL measures of distance, impacts, body load, and training impulse (y = 37.21 + 0.93 distance - 0.39 impacts + 0.18 body load + 0.03 training impulse). Furthermore, 35.2% of the adjusted variance in sRPE could be explained by exercise-intensity measures of percentage of peak HR (%HRpeak), impacts/min, m/min, and body load/min (y = -0.01 + 0.37%HRpeak + 0.10 impacts/min + 0.17 m/min + 0.09 body load/min). A combination of internal and external TL factors predicts sRPE in rugby league training better than any individual measures alone. These findings provide new evidence to support the use of sRPE as a global measure of exercise intensity in rugby league training.

  17. Females and Toxic Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    than uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt...uplifting followers. Toxic leadership plummets productivity and applies brakes to organizational growth , causing progress to screech to a halt.”5...FEMALES AND TOXIC LEADERSHIP A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in

  18. Fatigue induced by physical and mental exertion increases perception of effort and impairs subsequent endurance performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Pageaux

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to performance during whole-body or single-joint endurance exercise soliciting mainly the aerobic energy system. First, the impact of physical and mental exertion on force production capacity is presented, with specific emphasize on the fact that solely physical exertion and not mental exertion induces a decrease in force production capacity of the working muscles. Then, the negative impact of fatigue induced by physical exertion and mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance is highlighted based on experimental data. Perception of effort being identified as the variable altered by both prior physical exertion and mental exertion, future studies should investigate the underlying mechanisms increasing perception of effort overtime and in presence of fatigue during endurance exercise. Perception of effort should be considered not only as marker of exercise intensity, but also as a factor limiting endurance performance. Therefore, using a psychophysiological approach to explain the regulation of endurance performance would allow a better understanding of the interaction between physiological and psychological phenomena known to impact endurance performance.

  19. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher E Gross; Bela J Parekh; Samuel B Adams; Selene G Parekh

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  20. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown.......Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  1. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the superficial posterior compartment: Soleus syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Christopher E; Parekh, Bela J; Adams, Samuel B; Parekh, Selene G

    2015-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) represents the second most-common cause of exertional leg pain with incidence of 27-33%. CECS of the superficial posterior compartment, or soleus syndrome, is rare and has only been discussed briefly in the literature. We discuss the management of two patients with bilateral soleus syndrome or CECS of the superficial posterior compartment.

  2. Effects of music and video on perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enoch C. Chow

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: Music and video in combination may result in lower perceived exertion during high-intensity exercise when compared to music or video in isolation. Future research will be necessary to test if reductions in perceived exertion in response to dissociative attentional stimuli have implications for exercise adherence.

  3. Dynamics of Perceived Exertion in Constant-Power Cycling: Time- and Workload-Dependent Thresholds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balagué, Natàlia; Hristovski, Robert; García, Sergi; Aguirre, Cecilia; Vázquez, Pablo; Razon, Selen; Tenenbaum, Gershon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to test the dynamics of perceived exertion shifts (PES) as a function of time and workload during constant-power cycling. Method: Fifty-two participants assigned to 4 groups performed a cycling task at 4 different constant workloads corresponding to their individual rates of perceived exertion (RPEs = 13, 15,…

  4. CHEMICAL TOXICITY OF URANIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Cam

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Uranium, occurs naturally in the earth’s crust, is an alpha emitter radioactive element from the actinide group. For this reason, U-235 and U-238, are uranium isotopes with long half lives, have got radiological toxicity. But, for natural-isotopic-composition uranium (NatU, there is greater risk from chemical toxicity than radiological toxicity. When uranium is get into the body with anyway, also its chemical toxicity must be thought. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2007; 6(3.000: 215-220

  5. Protective Effect of Tetracycline against Dermal Toxicity Induced by Jellyfish Venom: e57658

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Changkeun Kang; Yeung Bae Jin; Jeongsoo Kwak; Hongseok Jung; Won Duk Yoon; Tae-Jin Yoon; Jong-Shu Kim; Euikyung Kim

    2013-01-01

      Background Previously, we have reported that most, if not all, of the Scyphozoan jellyfish venoms contain multiple components of metalloproteinases, which apparently linked to the venom toxicity...

  6. Multiple Perspectives / Multiple Readings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Biggs

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available People experience things from their own physical point of view. What they see is usually a function of where they are and what physical attitude they adopt relative to the subject. With augmented vision (periscopes, mirrors, remote cameras, etc we are able to see things from places where we are not present. With time-shifting technologies, such as the video recorder, we can also see things from the past; a time and a place we may never have visited.In recent artistic work I have been exploring the implications of digital technology, interactivity and internet connectivity that allow people to not so much space/time-shift their visual experience of things but rather see what happens when everybody is simultaneously able to see what everybody else can see. This is extrapolated through the remote networking of sites that are actual installation spaces; where the physical movements of viewers in the space generate multiple perspectives, linked to other similar sites at remote locations or to other viewers entering the shared data-space through a web based version of the work.This text explores the processes involved in such a practice and reflects on related questions regarding the non-singularity of being and the sense of self as linked to time and place.

  7. Toxic proteins in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Liuyi; Van Damme, Els J M

    2015-09-01

    Plants have evolved to synthesize a variety of noxious compounds to cope with unfavorable circumstances, among which a large group of toxic proteins that play a critical role in plant defense against predators and microbes. Up to now, a wide range of harmful proteins have been discovered in different plants, including lectins, ribosome-inactivating proteins, protease inhibitors, ureases, arcelins, antimicrobial peptides and pore-forming toxins. To fulfill their role in plant defense, these proteins exhibit various degrees of toxicity towards animals, insects, bacteria or fungi. Numerous studies have been carried out to investigate the toxic effects and mode of action of these plant proteins in order to explore their possible applications. Indeed, because of their biological activities, toxic plant proteins are also considered as potentially useful tools in crop protection and in biomedical applications, such as cancer treatment. Genes encoding toxic plant proteins have been introduced into crop genomes using genetic engineering technology in order to increase the plant's resistance against pathogens and diseases. Despite the availability of ample information on toxic plant proteins, very few publications have attempted to summarize the research progress made during the last decades. This review focuses on the diversity of toxic plant proteins in view of their toxicity as well as their mode of action. Furthermore, an outlook towards the biological role(s) of these proteins and their potential applications is discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Mechanisms of Phosphine Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisa S. Nath

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Fumigation with phosphine gas is by far the most widely used treatment for the protection of stored grain against insect pests. The development of high-level resistance in insects now threatens its continued use. As there is no suitable chemical to replace phosphine, it is essential to understand the mechanisms of phosphine toxicity to increase the effectiveness of resistance management. Because phosphine is such a simple molecule (PH3, the chemistry of phosphorus is central to its toxicity. The elements above and below phosphorus in the periodic table are nitrogen (N and arsenic (As, which also produce toxic hydrides, namely, NH3 and AsH3. The three hydrides cause related symptoms and similar changes to cellular and organismal physiology, including disruption of the sympathetic nervous system, suppressed energy metabolism and toxic changes to the redox state of the cell. We propose that these three effects are interdependent contributors to phosphine toxicity.

  9. Toxicity of 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol to willow trees (Salix viminalis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Lauge Peter Westergaard; Jensen, Christian Kjær; Trapp, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Chlorinated phenols have been intensively investigated from an eco-toxicological point of view, however almost nothing is known about toxicity of tetrachlorophenol (TeCP) to higher terrestrial plants. This paper applied the willow tree acute toxicity test to study the toxicity of 2,3,5,6-Te......CP to willows Salix viminalis (S. viminalis) at neutral and acidic conditions (roughly pH 7 and 4) with inhibition of transpiration as toxic endpoint. At neutral pH the EC50 was >10 mg L−1 while the EC50 at acidic conditions was 0.32 ± 0.17 mg L−1, clearly indicating that toxicity is exerted by the non......-ionic chemical fraction. Standard tests running at neutral pH are therefore not capturing the full toxicity of weak acids and bases....

  10. Motivational incentives lead to a strong increase in lateral prefrontal activity after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethi, Matthias S; Friese, Malte; Binder, Julia; Boesiger, Peter; Luechinger, Roger; Rasch, Björn

    2016-10-01

    Self-control is key to success in life. Initial acts of self-control temporarily impair subsequent self-control performance. Why such self-control failures occur is unclear, with prominent models postulating a loss of a limited resource vs a loss of motivation, respectively. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to identify the neural correlates of motivation-induced benefits on self-control. Participants initially exerted or did not exert self-control. In a subsequent Stroop task, participants performed worse after exerting self-control, but not if they were motivated to perform well by monetary incentives. On the neural level, having exerted self-control resulted in decreased activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus. Increasing motivation resulted in a particularly strong activation of this area specifically after exerting self-control. Thus, after self-control exertion participants showed more prefrontal neural activity without improving performance beyond baseline level. These findings suggest that impaired performance after self-control exertion may not exclusively be due to a loss of motivation. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Blood pressure response to physical exertion in adolescents: influence of overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carletti, Luciana; Rodrigues, Anabel Nunes; Perez, Anselmo José; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim

    2008-07-01

    The acute blood pressure response to physical exertion has been used as an indicator of the risk of developing hypertension. The factors associated with this response need to be clarified for timely intervention in preventing hypertensive disease. To describe the response of cardiovascular variables to acute physical exertion in overweight adolescents using cardiopulmonary exercise testing. The sample consisted of 104 adolescents (56 boys and 48 girls), divided into two groups: the obese/overweight group (OOG) and the eutrophic group (EG). The following variables were measured: anthropometric (weight, height, and BMI), body composition (skin fold thickness), as well as hemodynamic variables such as systolic arterial pressure (SAP), diastolic arterial pressure (DAP), and heart rate (HR), at rest and at maximal physical exertion during the cardiopulmonary test. In the male group, the greatest values of systolic arterial pressure at rest were recorded in the OOG as compared to the EG (113 +/- 13 vs 106 +/- 8 mmHg; p = 0.009), pre-exertion SAP (120 +/- 14 vs 109 +/- 10 mmHg; p = 0.003), and SAP during maximal exertion conditions (156 +/- 20 vs 146 +/- 14 mmHg; p = 0.03). In the female group, only pre-exertion SAP was higher in the overweight group as compared to the eutrophic girls (114 +/- 11 vs 106 +/- 10 mmHg; p = 0.009). The response of arterial blood pressure during physical exercise was most exacerbated in obese adolescents as compared to eutrophic teens, suggesting greater reactivity to physical exertion.

  12. Capability and recruitment patterns of trunk during isometric uniaxial and biaxial upright exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhzadeh, Ali; Parnianpour, Mohamad; Nordin, Margareta

    2008-06-01

    Work-related risk factors of low back disorders have been identified to be external moments, awkward postures, and asymmetrical dynamic lifting amongst others. The distinct role of asymmetry of load versus posture is hard to discern from the literature. Hence, the aim of this study is to measure isometric trunk exertions at upright standing posture at different exertion level and degree of asymmetry to further delineate the effects of exertion level and asymmetry on neuromuscular capability response. Fifteen healthy volunteers randomly performed trunk exertions at three levels (30%, 60%, and 100% of maximum voluntary exertion and five different angles (0 degrees , 45 degrees , 90 degrees , 135 degrees , and 180 degrees ) of normalized resultant moments. During each trial, the normalized EMG activity of 10 selected trunk muscles was quantified. The EMG activity of the 10 trunk muscles was significantly (Presultant moment, and their interactions. The controllability of the torque generation was reduced in biaxial exertions. The capability to generate and control the required trunk moments is significantly lowered during biaxial trunk exertions, while all muscles present higher EMG activity. These results suggest that the trunk muscles will be taxed higher while performing biaxial exertion tasks, increasing muscle fatigue possibly leading to a higher probability of low back injury. The prediction of biaxial trunk performance based on uniaxial data will result in an overestimation of capability and controllability of the trunk during physically demanding tasks. This study provides a better understanding of the potential mechanisms of injury during asymmetrical and biaxial trunk exertion during work-related tasks.

  13. Synchrony and exertion during dance independently raise pain threshold and encourage social bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarr, Bronwyn; Launay, Jacques; Cohen, Emma; Dunbar, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Group dancing is a ubiquitous human activity that involves exertive synchronized movement to music. It is hypothesized to play a role in social bonding, potentially via the release of endorphins, which are analgesic and reward-inducing, and have been implicated in primate social bonding. We used a 2 × 2 experimental design to examine effects of exertion and synchrony on bonding. Both demonstrated significant independent positive effects on pain threshold (a proxy for endorphin activation) and in-group bonding. This suggests that dance which involves both exertive and synchronized movement may be an effective group bonding activity. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Posterior Tibial Arterial System Deficiency Mimicking Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Kyle P; Parcells, Bertrand W; Hosea, Timothy

    2016-01-01

    A 15-year-old female competitive high school basketball player presented as an outpatient with a 3-month history of bilateral exertional calf pain. Patient history and compartment pressure measurements were consistent with the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome, and the patient underwent bilateral fasciotomies. Postoperatively, her symptoms recurred and she was found to have a deficient posterior tibial arterial system bilaterally, as confirmed on advanced imaging. We advocate the careful consideration of vascular etiologies in athletes who present with exertional leg pain.

  15. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel

    2015-01-01

    exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. METHODS: 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity...... was 0.43 and 0.13, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Physical exercise performed at the workplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers....

  16. Pediatric Toxic Shock Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Yee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Audience: This scenario was developed to educate emergency medicine residents on the diagnosis and management of a pediatric patient with toxic shock syndrome. The case is also appropriate for teaching of medical students and advanced practice providers, as well as a review of the principles of crisis resource management, teamwork, and communication. Introduction: Toxic shock syndrome is a low-frequency, high-acuity scenario requiring timely identification and aggressive management. If patients suffering from this condition are managed incorrectly, they may progress into multi-organ dysfunction and potentially death. Toxic shock syndrome has been associated with Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus (Staph. Approximately half of Staph cases are associated with menstruation, which was first described in the 1970s-1980s and was associated with the use of absorbent tampons.1 Group A Streptococcus may cause complications such as necrotizing fasciitis and gangrenous myositis.2 Pediatric patients may present critically ill from toxic shock syndrome. Providers need to perform a thorough history and physical exam to discern the source of infection. Management requires aggressive care with antibiotics and IV fluids. Objectives: By the end of this simulation session, the learner will be able to: 1 Recognize toxic shock syndrome. 2 Review the importance of a thorough physical exam. 3 Discuss management of toxic shock syndrome, including supportive care and the difference in antibiotic choices for streptococcal and staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome. 4 Appropriately disposition a patient suffering from toxic shock syndrome. 5 Communicate effectively with team members and nursing staff during a resuscitation of a critically ill patient. Method: This session was conducted using high-fidelity simulation, followed by a debriefing session and lecture on toxic shock syndrome.

  17. Overexpression of alpha-synuclein at non-toxic levels increases dopaminergic cell death induced by copper exposure via modulation of protein degradation pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandhan, Annadurai; Rodriguez-Rocha, Humberto; Bohovych, Iryna; Griggs, Amy M; Zavala-Flores, Laura; Reyes-Reyes, Elsa M; Seravalli, Javier; Stanciu, Lia A; Lee, Jaekwon; Rochet, Jean-Christophe; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; Franco, Rodrigo

    2015-09-01

    Gene multiplications or point mutations in alpha (α)-synuclein are associated with familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). An increase in copper (Cu) levels has been reported in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood of PD patients, while occupational exposure to Cu has been suggested to augment the risk to develop PD. We aimed to elucidate the mechanisms by which α-synuclein and Cu regulate dopaminergic cell death. Short-term overexpression of wild type (WT) or mutant A53T α-synuclein had no toxic effect in human dopaminergic cells and primary midbrain cultures, but it exerted a synergistic effect on Cu-induced cell death. Cell death induced by Cu was potentiated by overexpression of the Cu transporter protein 1 (Ctr1) and depletion of intracellular glutathione (GSH) indicating that the toxic effects of Cu are linked to alterations in its intracellular homeostasis. Using the redox sensor roGFP, we demonstrated that Cu-induced oxidative stress was primarily localized in the cytosol and not in the mitochondria. However, α-synuclein overexpression had no effect on Cu-induced oxidative stress. WT or A53T α-synuclein overexpression exacerbated Cu toxicity in dopaminergic and yeast cells in the absence of α-synuclein aggregation. Cu increased autophagic flux and protein ubiquitination. Impairment of autophagy by overexpression of a dominant negative Atg5 form or inhibition of the ubiquitin/proteasome system (UPS) with MG132 enhanced Cu-induced cell death. However, only inhibition of the UPS stimulated the synergistic toxic effects of Cu and α-synuclein overexpression. Our results demonstrate that α-synuclein stimulates Cu toxicity in dopaminergic cells independent from its aggregation via modulation of protein degradation pathways. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Electronic Cigarette Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, J Drew; Michaels, David; Orellana-Barrios, Menfil; Nugent, Kenneth

    2017-04-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are often advertised as a healthier product when compared with traditional cigarettes. Currently, there are limited data to support this and only a threat of federal regulation from the US Food and Drug Administration. Calls to poison control centers about e-cigarette toxicity, especially in children, and case reports of toxic exposures have increased over the past 3 years. This research letter reports the frequency of hazardous exposures to e-cigarettes and characterizes the reported adverse health effects associated with e-cigarette toxicity.

  19. Assessing Nanoparticle Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Sara A.; Maurer-Jones, Melissa A.; Thompson, John W.; Lin, Yu-Shen; Haynes, Christy L.

    2012-07-01

    Nanoparticle toxicology, an emergent field, works toward establishing the hazard of nanoparticles, and therefore their potential risk, in light of the increased use and likelihood of exposure. Analytical chemists can provide an essential tool kit for the advancement of this field by exploiting expertise in sample complexity and preparation as well as method and technology development. Herein, we discuss experimental considerations for performing in vitro nanoparticle toxicity studies, with a focus on nanoparticle characterization, relevant model cell systems, and toxicity assay choices. Additionally, we present three case studies (of silver, titanium dioxide, and carbon nanotube toxicity) to highlight the important toxicological considerations of these commonly used nanoparticles.

  20. Liquid Nicotine Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Won; Baum, Carl R

    2015-07-01

    E-cigarettes, also known as electronic nicotine delivery systems and electronic cigarettes, are advertised as a healthier alternative product to tobacco cigarettes despite limited data on the consequences of e-cigarette use. Currently, there are no US Food and Drug Administration or other federal regulations of e-cigarettes, and calls to poison control centers regarding liquid nicotine toxicity, especially in children, are on the rise. This article presents the background and mechanism of action of e-cigarettes as well as up-to-date details of the toxicity of liquid nicotine. We also present management strategies in the setting of liquid nicotine toxicity.

  1. Novel small-molecule AMPK activator orally exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yuan-Yuan; Yu, Li-Fang; Zhang, Li-Na; Qiu, Bei-Ying; Su, Ming-Bo; Wu, Fang; Chen, Da-Kai; Pang, Tao; Gu, Min; Zhang, Wei; Ma, Wei-Ping; Jiang, Hao-Wen; Li, Jing-Ya, E-mail: jyli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Nan, Fa-Jun, E-mail: fjnan@mail.shcnc.ac.cn; Li, Jia, E-mail: jli@mail.shcnc.ac.cn

    2013-12-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a pivotal guardian of whole-body energy metabolism, has become an attractive therapeutic target for metabolic syndrome. Previously, using a homogeneous scintillation proximity assay, we identified the small-molecule AMPK activator C24 from an optimization based on the original allosteric activator PT1. In this paper, the AMPK activation mechanism of C24 and its potential beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism on db/db mice were investigated. C24 allosterically stimulated inactive AMPK α subunit truncations and activated AMPK heterotrimers by antagonizing autoinhibition. In primary hepatocytes, C24 increased the phosphorylation of AMPK downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase dose-dependently without changing intracellular AMP/ATP ratio, indicating its allosteric activation in cells. Through activating AMPK, C24 decreased glucose output by down-regulating mRNA levels of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in primary hepatocytes. C24 also decreased the triglyceride and cholesterol contents in HepG2 cells. Due to its improved bioavailability, chronic oral treatment with multiple doses of C24 significantly reduced blood glucose and lipid levels in plasma, and improved the glucose tolerance of diabetic db/db mice. The hepatic transcriptional levels of PEPCK and G6Pase were reduced. These results demonstrate that this orally effective activator of AMPK represents a novel approach to the treatment of metabolic syndrome. - Highlights: • C24 activates AMPK through antagonizing autoinhibition within α subunit. • C24 activates AMPK in hepatocytes and decreases glucose output via AMPK. • C24 exerts beneficial effects on diabetic db/db mice. • C24 represents a novel therapeutic for treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Relationship Between Training Volume and Ratings of Perceived Exertion in Swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade Nogueira, Francine Caetano; de Freitas, Victor Hugo; Miloski, Bernardo; de Oliveira Cordeiro, André Henrique; Zacaron Werneck, Francisco; Yuzo Nakamura, Fábio; Gattás Bara-Filho, Maurício

    2016-02-01

    The markers of external training load (ETL), distance and intensity, do not take into account the athletes' psychophysiological stress, i.e., internal training load (ITL). Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between ETL and ITL using the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and session-RPE in swimmers. Seventeen young swimmers (10 male, 15.8 ± 0.87 yr and 7 female, 15.1 ± 0.46 yr) belonging to one national level youth team took part in this study over 4 wk. The external training load was planned using swimming distance (in meters) at seven different training intensities. Swimmers' RPE was assessed 30 min after each training session. Session-RPE was calculated by multiplying RPE by session duration (min). The relationship between the variables was analyzed with Pearson correlations and a multiple linear regression was performed to predict the session-RPE as a function of the independent variables (aerobic and anaerobic volume). The swimming distance at different intensities correlated strongly with RPE and very largely with session-RPE (.64, p volumes together explained more than 50% of the ITL variability. In conclusion, the swimming distance in each training session was significantly associated with RPE and session-RPE in swimmers. In other words, based on these results, the use of high-volume training at lower intensities affects the RPE and Session-RPE more than the anaerobic volume. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. The secondary school football coach's relationship with the athletic trainer and perspectives on exertional heat stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, William M; Mazerolle, Stephanie M; Casa, Douglas J; Huggins, Robert A; Burton, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Prior researchers have examined the first-aid knowledge and decision making among high school coaches, but little is known about their perceived knowledge of exertional heat stroke (EHS) or their relationships with an athletic trainer (AT). To examine secondary school football coaches' perceived knowledge of EHS and their professional relationship with an AT. Qualitative study. Web-based management system. Thirty-eight secondary school head football coaches (37 men, 1 woman) participated in this study. Their average age was 47 ± 10 years old, and they had 12 ± 9 years' experience as a head football coach. Participants responded to a series of online questions that were focused on their perceived knowledge of EHS and professional relationships with ATs. Data credibility was established through multiple-analyst triangulation and peer review. We analyzed the data by borrowing from the principles of a general inductive approach. Two dominant themes emerged from the data: perceived self-confidence of the secondary school coach and the influence of the AT. The first theme highlighted the perceived confidence, due to basic emergency care training, of the coach regarding management of an emergency situation, despite a lack of knowledge. The second theme illustrated the secondary school coach's positive professional relationships with ATs regarding patient care and emergency procedures. Of the coaches who participated, 89% (34 out of 38) indicated positive interactions with their ATs. These secondary school coaches were unaware of the potential causes of EHS or the symptoms associated with EHS, and they had higher perceived levels of self-confidence in management abilities than indicated by their perceived knowledge level. The secondary school football coaches valued and understood the role of the AT regarding patient and emergency care.

  4. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a nervous system disease that affects your brain and spinal cord. It damages the myelin ... healthy cells in your body by mistake. Multiple sclerosis affects women more than men. It often begins ...

  5. Aqueous extract of some indigenous medicinal plants inhibits glycation at multiple stages and protects erythrocytes from oxidative damage-an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, Rashmi S; Sankhe, Neena M; Shaikh, Shamim A; Phatak, Devyani V; Parikh, Juhi U; Khaire, Amrita A; Kemse, Nisha G

    2015-04-01

    Azadirachta indica, Emblica officinalis, Syzygium cumini and Terminalia bellirica are common in Indian system of traditional medicine for the prevention of diabetes and its complications. The aim of the present study was to comprehensively and comparatively investigate the antiglycation potential of these plant extracts at multiple stages and their possible protective effect against glycated albumin mediated toxicity to erythrocytes. Antiglycation activities of these plant extracts was measured by co-incubation of plant extract with bovine serum albumin-fructose glycation model. The multistage glycation markers- fructosamines (early stage), protein carbonyls (intermediate stage) and AGEs (late stage) are investigated along with measurement of thiols and β aggregation of albumin using amyloid-specific dyes-Congo red and Th T. Protection of erythrocytes from glycated albumin induced toxicity by these plant extracts was assessed by measuring erythrocytes hemolysis, lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione and intracellular antioxidant capacity. Total phenolics, reducing power and antioxidant activities of the plant extracts were also measured. In vitro glycation assays showed that plant extracts exerted site specific inhibitory effects at multiple stages, with T. bellirica showing maximum attenuation. In erythrocytes, along with the retardation of glycated albumin induced hemolysis and lipid-peroxidation, T. bellirica considerably maintained cellular antioxidant potential. Significant positive correlations were observed between erythrocyte protection parameters with total phenolics. These plant extracts especially T. bellirica prevents glycation induced albumin modifications and subsequent toxicity to erythrocytes which might offer additional protection against diabetic vascular complications.

  6. Artefactual multiplicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Pernille; Hertzum, Morten

    2011-01-01

    Whiteboards are highly important to the work in emergency departments (EDs). As a collaborative technology ED whiteboards are usually placed in the dynamic centre of the ED, and all ED staff will approach the whiteboard regularly to organize their individual yet interdependent work. Currently, di...... this characteristic of heterogeneous artefacts; namely artefactual multiplicity. Artefactual multiplicity identifies not only the multiple functions of heterogeneous artefacts but also the intricate relations between these multiple functionalities....

  7. Effect of extremely weak pulsed magnetic field type Bemer 3000 on ratings of perceived exertion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    D Gazurek; K Spodaryk

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether is an influence of the exposition on different inductions of magnetic fields on rating of perceived exertion during 10 min long standardised physical cycloergometer exercise...

  8. Identification of the lactate threshold and the heart rate deflection point by the perceived exertion curve

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conde, Juan Henrique Szymczak; Rubio, Tiago Burigo Guimaraes; Ferreira, Guilherme Assungao; Coelho, Rogerio Luz; de Oliveira, Fernando Roberto; Osiecki, Raul

    2014-01-01

    Conde JHS, Rubio TBG, Ferreira GA, Luz Coelho R, De Oliveira FR, Osiecki R. Identification of the Lactate Threshold and the Heart Rate Deflection Point by the Perceived Exertion Curve. JEPonline 2014;17(3):32-38...

  9. Stiffness and thickness of fascia do not explain chronic exertional compartment syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Morten; Hansen, Philip; Stål, Per

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is diagnosed based on symptoms and elevated intramuscular pressure and often is treated with fasciotomy. However, what contributes to the increased intramuscular pressure remains unknown....

  10. Finger Multiplication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simanihuruk, Mudin

    2011-01-01

    Multiplication facts are difficult to teach. Therefore many researchers have put a great deal of effort into finding multiplication strategies. Sherin and Fuson (2005) provided a good survey paper on the multiplication strategies research area. Kolpas (2002), Rendtorff (1908), Dabell (2001), Musser (1966) and Markarian (2009) proposed the finger…

  11. Blood lactate, heart rate and rating of perceived exertion responses of elite surf lifesavers to high-performance competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Wade H; Kerr, Rebecca M; Spinks, Warwick L; Leicht, Anthony S

    2009-01-01

    A paucity of empirical research exists into surf lifesaving competition from which coaches and athletes may formulate training and recovery strategies. Seventeen (male=9; female=8) high-performance surf lifesavers (21.2+/-3.9 years) contested multiple rounds of team and individual events at a 2-day surf lifesaving competition. Individual events consisted of the multi-discipline ironman (IRON), paddle board (BOARD) and surf swim (SWIM). Blood lactate (BLa), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were determined following heats, semi-finals and final. IRON HR and RPE following semi-finals (153.0+/-21.6beatsmin(-1) and 14.4+/-1.5) and final (171.0+/-9.1beatsmin(-1) and 19.1+/-0.2) were greater than heats (141.8+/-17.2beatsmin(-1) and 12.0+/-1.9; psurf lifesavers employ race strategies with all-out maximal exercise limited to semi-finals and finals.

  12. Exertional heat stroke management strategies in United States high school football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Zachary Y; Marshall, Stephen W; Comstock, R Dawn; Casa, Douglas J

    2014-01-01

    The 5-year period of 2005-2009 saw more exertional heat stroke-related deaths in organized sports than any other 5-year period in the past 35 years. The risk of exertional heat stroke appears highest in football, particularly during the preseason. To estimate the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and assess the utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies during the 2011 preseason in United States high school football programs. Cross-sectional study; Level of evidence, 3. A self-administered online questionnaire addressing the incidence of exertional heat stroke events and utilization of exertional heat stroke management strategies (eg, removing athlete's football equipment, calling Emergency Medical Services [EMS]) was completed in May to June 2012 by 1142 (18.0%) athletic trainers providing care to high school football athletes during the 2011 preseason. Among all respondents, 20.3% reported treating at least 1 exertional heat stroke event. An average of 0.50 ± 1.37 preseason exertional heat stroke events were treated per program. Athletic trainers responding to exertional heat stroke reported using an average of 6.6 ± 1.8 management strategies. The most common management strategies were low-level therapeutic interventions such as removing the athlete's football equipment (98.2%) and clothing (77.8%) and moving the athlete to a shaded area (91.6%). Few athletic trainers reported active management strategies such as calling EMS (29.3%) or using a rectal thermometer to check core body temperature (0.9%). Athletic trainers in states with mandated preseason heat acclimatization guidelines reported a higher utilization of management strategies such as cooling the athlete through air conditioning (90.1% vs 65.0%, respectively; P fans (54.3% vs 42.0%, respectively; P = .06) and monitoring the athlete's temperature (60.5% vs 46.2%, respectively; P = .04). Preseason exertional heat stroke events, which are likely to be fatal if untreated, were

  13. Anticholinesterase Toxicity and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dejan Milatovic

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticholinesterase compounds, organophosphates (OPs and carbamates (CMs are commonly used for a variety of purposes in agriculture and in human and veterinary medicine. They exert their toxicity in mammalian system primarily by virtue of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition at the synapses and neuromuscular junctions, leading into the signs of hypercholinergic preponderance. However, the mechanism(s involved in brain/muscle damage appear to be linked with alteration in antioxidant and the scavenging system leading to free radical-mediated injury. OPs and CMs cause excessive formation of F2-isoprostanes and F4-neuroprostanes, in vivo biomarkers of lipid peroxidation and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and of citrulline, a marker of NO/NOS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS generation. In addition, during the course of these excitatory processes and inhibition of AChE, a high rate of ATP consumption, coupled with the inhibition of oxidative phosphorylation, compromise the cell's ability to maintain its energy levels and excessive amounts of ROS and RNS may be generated. Pretreatment with N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA receptor antagonist memantine, in combination with atropine sulfate, provides significant protection against inhibition of AChE, increases of ROS/RNS, and depletion of high-energy phosphates induced by DFP/carbofuran. Similar antioxidative effects are observed with a spin trapping agent, phenyl-N-tert-butylnitrone (PBN or chain breaking antioxidant vitamin E. This review describes the mechanisms involved in anticholinesterase-induced oxidative/nitrosative injury in target organs of OPs/CMs, and protection by various agents.

  14. Exertional rhabdomyolysis following excessive exercise of university freshman cheer-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Sangchan, Apichat; Mootsikapun, Piroon

    2003-08-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a life threatening condition resulting from lysis of muscle cells after vigorous exercise. It can cause many complications such as renal failure. It occurs most commonly in military personnel but also in civilians who have excessive excercise after work. Two cases of freshmen who had exertional rhabdomyolysis were reported to illustrate the potential risk of cheer-training. Appropriate measures should be arranged to prevent this condition. Diagnosis and treatment should be given promptly to prevent serious complications.

  15. Physical exercise at the workplace reduces perceived physical exertion during healthcare work: cluster randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Brandt, Mikkel; Jay, Kenneth; Aagaard, Per; Andersen, Lars L

    2015-11-01

    High physical exertion during work is a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain and long-term sickness absence. Physical exertion (RPE) reflects the balance between physical work demands and physical capacity of the individual. Thus, increasing the physical capacity through physical exercise may decrease physical exertion during work. This study investigates the effect of workplace-based versus home-based physical exercise on physical exertion during work (WRPE) among healthcare workers. 200 female healthcare workers (age: 42.0, body mass index: 24.1, average pain intensity: 3.1 on a scale of 0 to 10, average WRPE: 3.6 on a scale of 0 to 10) from 18 departments at three participating hospitals. Participants were randomly allocated at the cluster level to 10 weeks of: (1) workplace physical exercise (WORK) performed in groups during working hours for 5×10 minutes per week and up to five group-based coaching sessions on motivation for regular physical exercise, or (2) home-based physical exercise (HOME) performed during leisure time for 5×10 minutes per week. Physical exertion was assessed at baseline and at 10-week follow-up. 2.2 (SD: 1.1) and 1.0 (SD: 1.2) training sessions were performed per week in WORK and HOME, respectively. Physical exertion was reduced more in WORK than HOME (pgroup differences in physical exertion at follow-up (WORK vs. HOME) was -0.5 points (95% CI -0.8 to -0.2). Within-group effect size (Cohen's d) in WORK and HOME was 0.43 and 0.13, respectively. Physical exercise performed at the workplace appears more effective than home-based exercise in reducing physical exertion during daily work tasks in healthcare workers. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  16. Toxics Release Inventory (TRI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) is a dataset compiled by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). It contains information on the release and waste...

  17. Toxicity Reference Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Toxicity Reference Database (ToxRefDB) contains approximately 30 years and $2 billion worth of animal studies. ToxRefDB allows scientists and the interested...

  18. Local anaesthetic toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    treatment strategies. Introduction ... depression and central nervous system and cardiovascular toxicity increased .... requiring analgesic therapy beyond that of surgery. ..... Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology 2006;91:1 –82. 32.

  19. [Toxicity of hydroxyquinoline derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pashov, D; Simeonov, S P; Drumev, D; Peĭnikova, Ts; Dzhurov, A

    1980-01-01

    We studied a 90 day toxicity in dogs of the compound broxyquinoline + broxaldine--5:1 (enteroquin), applied orally and daily in doses of 0.1 and 0.2/kg t/24 h. We established the toxic manifestations during the period after the 15th day of the treatment: leukopenia, neutropenia and lymphocytosis (by 0.2 kg t/24 h). After the second and fifth day we observed a decrease of appetite, depression of the CNS, paralyses, arrhythmia, progressing loss in weight, proteinorrhea (more pronounced with those receiving 0.2/kg t (24 h); lethal consequence with some part of the animals 25% (ba 0.1/kg t) and 50% (by 0.2 kg t). We found out pathohistologically necrobiotic changes in the medulla oblongata and the kidneys, toxic distrophy of the liver, blood-vessel injuries. The toxic changes observed can be interpreted in connection with the presence of a species specific reaction.

  20. Recurrent amiodarone pulmonary toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chendrasekhar, A; Barke, R A; Druck, P

    1996-01-01

    Amiodarone, a widely used antiarrhythmic drug, is associated with pulmonary toxicity, with an estimated mortality of 1% to 33%. Standard treatment for amiodarone pulmonary toxicity (APT) has been discontinuance of the drug and steroid therapy. We report a case of APT that recurred after withdrawal of steroids and failed to respond to reinstatement of steroid therapy. Recurrent APT is a rare clinical entity that has been reported only twice in recent literature.

  1. [Toxic alcohol poisonings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulicki, Paweł; Głogowski, Tomasz

    Accidental or intentional poisonings with ethylene glycol or methanol constitute a serious toxicological problem in many countries. Both alcohols are quickly metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to toxic metabolites responsible for high anion gap severe metabolic acidosis and profound neurological, cardiopulmonary, renal disturbances and death. In the early period, the competing inhibition the alcohol dehydrogenase with ethanol or fomepizol may successfully prevent the formation of the toxic metabolites. Once severe acidosis develops an emergency hemodialysis is required.

  2. Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC) exerts effective anti-human breast tumor activities but has a narrow therapeutic window in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dongliang; Sun, Yun; Wang, Ling; He, Qianchuan; Zheng, Juecun; Deng, Fei; Deng, Shanshan; Chang, ShuChing; Yu, XiaoPing; Li, Minhui; Meng, Yao; Jin, Jiagui; Shen, Fubing

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-momorcharin (α-MMC), a ribosome inactivating protein (RIP) extracted from the seeds of Momordica charantia, exerts anti-tumor, antiviral, and anti-fungal activities. However, α-MMC has an obvious toxicity that limits its clinical application. We examined the effect of α-MMC on the inhibition of human breast cancer and assessed its general toxicity to find the therapeutic window in vivo for its potential clinical use. It was purified using column chromatography, and then injected into the xenograft nude mouse model induced by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. The anti-tumor efficacy was evaluated with T/C%. Next, the α-MMC was injected at a series of doses to Balb/C mice to assess its general toxicity. The MTT assay, the apoptosis test, and the cell cycle inhibition of α-MMC in human breast cancer cells were performed. In the xenografted tumors induced by MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7, α-MMC exerted an obvious inhibition effects on tumor growth at the dosage of 1.2mg/kg and 0.8 mg/kg. For in vivo toxicity experiments of α-MMC in Balb/C mice, the minimal toxic dose of α-MMC was 1.2mg/kg. Alpha-MMC induced apoptosis by increasing caspase3 activities, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G0/G1 or G2/M phases. The measurements of IC50 were 15.07 μg/mL, 33.66 μg/mL, 42.94 μg/mL for MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-453 respectively. Alpha-MMC exhibits anti-tumor effects in human breast cancer in vivo and in vitro. It inhibits breast cancer cells through the inhibition of tumor growth and induction of cell apoptosis. However, due to its obvious toxicity, α-MMC has a relatively narrow therapeutic window in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A bibliometric analysis of exertional heat stroke research in Web of Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Zhi; Liu, Chao; Chen, Shuo; Zhu, Zheng-Guo; Kang, Hong-Jun; Zhou, Fei-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Exertional heat stroke is a fatal condition and remains a health problem. This paper evaluates the publication trend regarding exertional heat stroke research between 1996 and 2015 using a bibliometric method. Articles regarding exertional heat stroke research published between 1996 and December 2015 were searched for in the SCI-EXPANDED database of Web of Science. The search results were analyzed with regard to publication year; publication quantity regarding countries/regions, and authors; citation frequency; and journal distribution. CiteSpace (v3.6) was used for a document co-citation visualization analysis. In total, 289 publications on heat stroke were located. After selection, 209 original articles conducted across 28 countries/regions and published in 83 journals were included in the analysis. The USA, Isreal, and France were the most common locations for exertional heat stroke studies. The CiteSpace visualization cluster analysis showed that exertional heat stroke-related mortality and protective measures were constant concerns of research. Research related to exertional heat stroke has been continuous concerned. USA is still the leading country in this field.

  4. Perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia: explanatory factors and comparison with healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palstam, Annie; Larsson, Anette; Bjersing, Jan; Löfgren, Monika; Ernberg, Malin; Bileviciute-Ljungar, Indre; Ghafouri, Bijar; Sjörs, Anna; Larsson, Britt; Gerdle, Björn; Kosek, Eva; Mannerkorpi, Kaisa

    2014-09-01

    To investigate perceived exertion at work in women with fibromyalgia. A controlled cross-sectional multi-centre study. Seventy-three women with fibromyalgia and 73 healthy women matched by occupation and physical workload were compared in terms of perceived exertion at work (0-14), muscle strength, 6-min walk test, symptoms rated by Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), work status (25-100%), fear avoidance work beliefs (0-42), physical activity at work (7-21) and physical workload (1-5). Spearman's correlation coefficient and linear regression analysis were conducted. Perceived exertion at work was significantly higher in the fibromyalgia group than in the reference group (p = 0.002), while physical activity at work did not differ between the groups. Physical capacity was lower and symptom severity higher in fibromyalgia compared with references (p fibromyalgia, perceived exertion at work showed moderate correlation with physical activity at work, physical workload and fear avoidance work beliefs (rs = 0.53-0.65, p anxiety (rs = 0.26, p = 0.027). Regression analysis indicated that the physical activity at work and fear avoidance work beliefs explained 50% of the perceived exertion at work. Women with fibromyalgia perceive an elevated exertion at work, which is associated with physical work-related factors and factors related to fear and anxiety.

  5. Assessment of decision-making performance and in-game physical exertion of Australian football umpires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larkin, Paul; O'Brien, Brendan; Mesagno, Christopher; Berry, Jason; Harvey, Jack; Spittle, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of in-game physical exertion on decision-making performance of Australian football umpires. Fifteen Australian football umpires (Mage = 36, s = 13.5 years; Mgames umpired = 235.2, s = 151.3) volunteered to participate in the study. During five competitive Australian football pre-season games, measures of in-game physical exertion (blood lactate levels, global positioning system [GPS]) and decision-making performance (video-based test) were obtained. There were no significant correlations between physical exertion in a particular quarter and decision-making performance in either the same quarter or any other quarter. Video-based decision-making performance was effected by time in game χ(2)(3) = 24.24, P = 0.001, with Quarter 4 performance significantly better than both Quarter 2 and Quarter 3. In-game physical exertion (blood lactate) significantly decreased over the course of the game χ(2)(3) = 11.58, P = 0.009. Results indicate no definable link between in-game physical exertion and decision-making performance. It is, however, presumed that decision-making performance may be affected by the time or context of the game. Future research is warranted to explore the relationship between physical exertion and decision-making performance to potentially inform Australian football umpire training programmes that replicate in-game physical and decision-making demands.

  6. In vitro activity of dimethylarsinic acid against human leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duzkale, Hatice; Jilani, Iman; Orsolic, Nada; Zingaro, Ralph A; Golemovic, Mirna; Giles, Francis J; Kantarjian, Hagop; Albitar, Maher; Freireich, Emil J; Verstovsek, Srdan

    2003-05-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)), an inorganic arsenic compound, has recently been approved for the treatment of relapsed or refractory acute promyelocytic leukemia. However, systemic toxicity associated with As(2)O(3) treatment remains a problem. Inorganic arsenic is detoxified in vivo by methylation reactions into organic arsenic compounds that are less toxic. We investigated the antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity of dimethylarsinic acid (DMAA), an organic arsenic derivative and major metabolic by-product of As(2)O(3), against a panel of eight leukemia and multiple myeloma cell lines. As(2)O(3) was tested in comparison. In clonogenic assay, the average concentration of DMAA that suppressed cell colony growth by 50% was 0.5-1 m M, while for As(2)O(3) it was on average 1-2 microM. At those concentrations DMAA and As(2)O(3) had significantly less effect on colony growth of normal progenitor cells. Cytotoxic doses of DMAA and As(2)O(3) in 3-day trypan blue dye exclusion assay experiments were similar to doses effective in clonogenic assay. Assessment of apoptosis by annexin V assay revealed a high rate of apoptosis in all cell lines treated with DMAA and As(2)O(3), but significantly less effect on normal progenitor cells. DMAA, unlike As(2)O(3), had no effect on the maturation of leukemic cells. DMAA exerts differential antiproliferative and cytotoxic activity against leukemia and multiple myeloma cells, with no significant effect on normal progenitor cells. However, concentrations of DMAA needed to achieve such efficacy are up to 1000 times those of As(2)O(3). Evaluation of novel organic arsenic that would combine the high efficacy of As(2)O(3) and the low toxicity of DMAA is warranted.

  7. Multiplicity Counting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, William H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This set of slides begins by giving background and a review of neutron counting; three attributes of a verification item are discussed: 240Pueff mass; α, the ratio of (α,n) neutrons to spontaneous fission neutrons; and leakage multiplication. It then takes up neutron detector systems – theory & concepts (coincidence counting, moderation, die-away time); detector systems – some important details (deadtime, corrections); introduction to multiplicity counting; multiplicity electronics and example distributions; singles, doubles, and triples from measured multiplicity distributions; and the point model: multiplicity mathematics.

  8. Traumatic white matter injury and toxic leukoencephalopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hasani, Omer Hussain; Smith, Colin

    2011-09-01

    White matter injury may be secondary to a range of neurodegenerative disorders, such as the common dementing disorders of the elderly, or may be a consequence of specific white matter disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and the rare leukodystrophies. This article will focus on two relatively common primary groups of disorders of the white matter, traumatic white matter injury and toxic leukoencephalopathies. Traumatic axonal injury may be focal or diffuse, and is associated with a clinical spectrum ranging from concussion through to coma and death. The molecular mechanisms underlying axonal degeneration secondary to traumatic axonal degeneration are being elucidated and may give an insight into potential therapeutic targets. Toxic leukoencephalopathy may be secondary to exposure to a wide range of compounds, including chemotherapeutic drugs. These toxins may produce white matter injury through a range of mechanisms, and the potential toxic effects of compounds need to be considered when assessing a patient with a nonspecific leukoencephalopathy.

  9. MULTIPLE OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Bosov

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of complicated techniques of production and management processes, information systems, computer science, applied objects of systems theory and others requires improvement of mathematical methods, new approaches for researches of application systems. And the variety and diversity of subject systems makes necessary the development of a model that generalizes the classical sets and their development – sets of sets. Multiple objects unlike sets are constructed by multiple structures and represented by the structure and content. The aim of the work is the analysis of multiple structures, generating multiple objects, the further development of operations on these objects in application systems. Methodology. To achieve the objectives of the researches, the structure of multiple objects represents as constructive trio, consisting of media, signatures and axiomatic. Multiple object is determined by the structure and content, as well as represented by hybrid superposition, composed of sets, multi-sets, ordered sets (lists and heterogeneous sets (sequences, corteges. Findings. In this paper we study the properties and characteristics of the components of hybrid multiple objects of complex systems, proposed assessments of their complexity, shown the rules of internal and external operations on objects of implementation. We introduce the relation of arbitrary order over multiple objects, we define the description of functions and display on objects of multiple structures. Originality.In this paper we consider the development of multiple structures, generating multiple objects.Practical value. The transition from the abstract to the subject of multiple structures requires the transformation of the system and multiple objects. Transformation involves three successive stages: specification (binding to the domain, interpretation (multiple sites and particularization (goals. The proposed describe systems approach based on hybrid sets

  10. Multiple Chemical Sensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dantoft, Thomas Meinertz

    Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a chronic disorder characterized by reports of symptoms from various organ systems attributed by the individuals to exposure to common odors and airborne chemicals in doses far below those known to induce toxic effects. There exists a general lack of knowledge...... controls at baseline, immediately after and four hours after a controlled chemical (n-butanol) exposure, in an exposure chamber previously verified to induce symptom elicitation in MCS subjects. In manuscript III, mucosal lining fluid samples were collected and levels of 19 cytokines and chemokines were...

  11. Prostaglandin E2 Exerts Multiple Regulatory Actions on Human Obese Adipose Tissue Remodeling, Inflammation, Adaptive Thermogenesis and Lipolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alonso, Verónica; Titos, Esther; Alcaraz-Quiles, Jose; Rius, Bibiana; Lopategi, Aritz; López-Vicario, Cristina; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Delgado, Salvadora; Lozano, Juanjo; Clària, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Obesity induces white adipose tissue (WAT) dysfunction characterized by unremitting inflammation and fibrosis, impaired adaptive thermogenesis and increased lipolysis. Prostaglandins (PGs) are powerful lipid mediators that influence the homeostasis of several organs and tissues. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory actions of PGs in human omental WAT collected from obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to adipocyte hypertrophy, obese WAT showed remarkable inflammation and total and pericellular fibrosis. In this tissue, a unique molecular signature characterized by altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis and WAT browning was identified by microarray analysis. Targeted LC-MS/MS lipidomic analysis identified increased PGE2 levels in obese fat in the context of a remarkable COX-2 induction and in the absence of changes in the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (i.e. mPGES-1, mPGES-2 and cPGES). IPA analysis established PGE2 as a common top regulator of the fibrogenic/inflammatory process present in this tissue. Exogenous addition of PGE2 significantly reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes in human WAT explants and significantly down-regulated Col1α1, Col1α2 and αSMA in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes exposed to TGF-β. In addition, PGE2 inhibited the expression of inflammatory genes (i.e. IL-6 and MCP-1) in WAT explants as well as in adipocytes challenged with LPS. PGE2 anti-inflammatory actions were confirmed by microarray analysis of human pre-adipocytes incubated with this prostanoid. Moreover, PGE2 induced expression of brown markers (UCP1 and PRDM16) in WAT and adipocytes, but not in pre-adipocytes, suggesting that PGE2 might induce the trans-differentiation of adipocytes towards beige/brite cells. Finally, PGE2 inhibited isoproterenol-induced adipocyte lipolysis. Taken together, these findings identify PGE2 as a regulator of the complex network of interactions driving uncontrolled inflammation and fibrosis and impaired adaptive thermogenesis and lipolysis in human obese visceral WAT.

  12. Prostaglandin E2 Exerts Multiple Regulatory Actions on Human Obese Adipose Tissue Remodeling, Inflammation, Adaptive Thermogenesis and Lipolysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica García-Alonso

    Full Text Available Obesity induces white adipose tissue (WAT dysfunction characterized by unremitting inflammation and fibrosis, impaired adaptive thermogenesis and increased lipolysis. Prostaglandins (PGs are powerful lipid mediators that influence the homeostasis of several organs and tissues. The aim of the current study was to explore the regulatory actions of PGs in human omental WAT collected from obese patients undergoing laparoscopic bariatric surgery. In addition to adipocyte hypertrophy, obese WAT showed remarkable inflammation and total and pericellular fibrosis. In this tissue, a unique molecular signature characterized by altered expression of genes involved in inflammation, fibrosis and WAT browning was identified by microarray analysis. Targeted LC-MS/MS lipidomic analysis identified increased PGE2 levels in obese fat in the context of a remarkable COX-2 induction and in the absence of changes in the expression of terminal prostaglandin E synthases (i.e. mPGES-1, mPGES-2 and cPGES. IPA analysis established PGE2 as a common top regulator of the fibrogenic/inflammatory process present in this tissue. Exogenous addition of PGE2 significantly reduced the expression of fibrogenic genes in human WAT explants and significantly down-regulated Col1α1, Col1α2 and αSMA in differentiated 3T3 adipocytes exposed to TGF-β. In addition, PGE2 inhibited the expression of inflammatory genes (i.e. IL-6 and MCP-1 in WAT explants as well as in adipocytes challenged with LPS. PGE2 anti-inflammatory actions were confirmed by microarray analysis of human pre-adipocytes incubated with this prostanoid. Moreover, PGE2 induced expression of brown markers (UCP1 and PRDM16 in WAT and adipocytes, but not in pre-adipocytes, suggesting that PGE2 might induce the trans-differentiation of adipocytes towards beige/brite cells. Finally, PGE2 inhibited isoproterenol-induced adipocyte lipolysis. Taken together, these findings identify PGE2 as a regulator of the complex network of interactions driving uncontrolled inflammation and fibrosis and impaired adaptive thermogenesis and lipolysis in human obese visceral WAT.

  13. Life starts at home: bathing, exertion and participation for people with mobility impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiman, Lillie; Fleming, S Parker; Ward, Bryce; Myers, Andrew; Ravesloot, Craig

    2018-01-03

    Investigate the relationship between perceived exertion while bathing/dressing/grooming and associations with social -recreational activities outside the home for individuals with mobility impairment (MI). We use a two-study approach examining data from the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) and primary data from the Health and Home Survey (HHS). We explore the relationship between bathing/dressing/grooming and engagement in social-recreational activities and the role that exertion in the bathroom may play in participation in these activities. General community setting. For the ATUS survey, participants include 6,002 individuals who report a MI. For the HHS we used two mail based recruitment methods to recruit a sample of 170 individuals with MI across three geographically diverse U.S. communities. Participation in social and recreational activities. We show that people with MI (relative to those without MI) are less likely to report spending any time bathing/dressing/grooming on a given day, but spend more time when they do. People with MI report higher exertion while bathing/dressing/grooming than people without. People with MI are less likely to leave the house or engage in social-recreational activities on days where they do not engage in bathing activities. People who report greater exertion in the bathroom engage in fewer social- recreational activities. Exertion in the bathroom may present a barrier to participation indicating a relationship between exertion in the bathroom and social-recreational participation. Research that examines the impact of home modifications on exertion and participation is needed. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. [Toxicity of puffer fish fins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shunichi; Ichimaru, Shunichi; Arakawa, Osamu; Takatani, Tomohiro; Noguchi, Tamao; Ishizaki, Shoichiro; Nagashima, Yuji

    2007-10-01

    Puffer fish is prized as a Japanese traditional food and its fin is also used in the cuisine. However, whether the fin is edible or not is determined for convenience from the toxicity of skin, since little information is available about the toxicity of puffer fish fins. In the present study, we examined the toxicity of fins and skin of three toxic species, Takifugu vermicularis, T. snyderi, and T. porphyreus. The toxicity of T. vermicularis fins (puffer fish with toxic skin also have toxic fins.

  15. The oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD in combination with cisplatin exerts a potent anti-osteosarcoma activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Velez, Naiara; Xipell, Enric; Jauregui, Patricia; Zalacain, Marta; Marrodan, Lucía; Zandueta, Carolina; Vera, Beatriz; Urquiza, Leire; Sierrasesúmaga, Luis; Julián, Mikel San; Toledo, Gemma; Fueyo, Juan; Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria; Torre, Wensceslao; Lecanda, Fernando; Patiño-García, Ana; Alonso, Marta M

    2014-10-01

    Osteosarcoma is the most common malignant bone tumor in children and adolescents. The presence of metastases and the lack of response to conventional treatment are the major adverse prognostic factors. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new treatment strategies that overcome both of these problems. Our purpose was to elucidate whether the use of the oncolytic adenovirus Δ24-RGD alone or in combination with standard chemotherapy would be effective, in vitro and in vivo, against osteosarcoma. Our results showed that Δ24-RGD exerted a potent antitumor effect against osteosarcoma cell lines that was increased by the addition of cisplatin. Δ24-RGD osteosarcoma treatment resulted in autophagy in vitro that was further enhanced when combined with cisplatin. Of importance, administration of Δ24-RGD and/or cisplatin, in novel orthotopic and two lung metastatic models in vivo resulted in a significant reduction of tumor burden meanwhile maintaining a safe toxicity profile. Together, our data underscore the potential of Δ24-RGD to become a realistic therapeutic option for primary and metastatic pediatric osteosarcoma. Moreover, this study warrants a future clinical trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of Δ24-RGD for this devastating disease. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  16. Penduliflaworosin, a Diterpenoid from Croton crassifolius, Exerts Anti-Angiogenic Effect via VEGF Receptor-2 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeyin Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anti-angiogenesis targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2 has been considered as an important strategy for cancer therapy. Penduliflaworosin is a diterpenoid isolated from the plant Croton crassifolius. Our previous study showed that this diterpenoid possesses strong anti-angiogenic activity by inhibiting vessel formation in zebrafish. This study was conducted to further investigate the anti-angiogenic activity and mechanism of penduliflaworosin. Results revealed that penduliflaworosin significantly inhibited VEGF-induced angiogenesis processes including proliferation, invasion, migration, and tube formation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs. Moreover, it notably inhibited VEGF-induced sprout formation of aortic rings and blocked VEGF-induced vessel formation in mice. Western blotting studies showed that penduliflaworosin inhibited phosphorylation of the VEGF receptor-2 and its downstream signaling mediators in HUVECs, suggesting that the anti-angiogenic activity was due to an interference with the VEGF/VEGF receptor-2 pathway. In addition, molecular docking simulation indicated that penduliflaworosin could form hydrogen bonds within the ATP-binding region of the VEGF receptor-2 kinase unit. Finally, cytotoxicity assay showed that penduliflaworosin possessed little toxicity toward both cancer and normal cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that penduliflaworosin exerts its anti-angiogenic effect via the VEGF receptor-2 signaling pathway. The anti-angiogenic property and low cytotoxicity of penduliflaworosin suggest that it may be useful in cancer treatments.

  17. Acute Toxicity of Vildagliptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Peter; Martin, Lori; Keselica, Michael; Gunson, Diane; Skuba, Elizabeth; Lapadula, Dan; Hayes, Michael; Bentley, Phil; Busch, Steve

    2017-01-01

    This article describes acute toxicity data in cynomolgus monkeys following oral treatment with vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor. Acute toxicity symptoms in cynomolgus monkeys include edema formation of the extremities, tails, and face associated with skeletal muscle necrosis, and elevations of lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, alanine transaminase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities in the serum; hypothermia; hypotension; tachycardia; moribundity; and death in a few isolated instances. In surviving animals, symptoms were reversible even if treatment was continued. Cynomolgus monkeys from Mauritius appear more sensitive than monkeys of Asian origin. The underlying mechanism(s) of these symptoms in cynomolgus monkeys is currently not well understood, although a vascular mechanism including initial vasoconstriction and subsequent vascular leakage in distal extremities may play a role. The monkey data are reviewed and discussed in the context of other preclinical and clinical data, and it is concluded that acute toxicity following vildagliptin treatment is a monkey-specific phenomenon without relevance for humans.

  18. Exertion Fatigue and Chronic Fatigue Are Two Distinct Constructs in People Post-Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Benjamin Y.; Billinger, Sandra A.; Gajewski, Byron J.; Kluding, Patricia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Post-stroke fatigue is a common and neglected issue despite the fact that it impacts daily functions, quality of life, and has been linked with a higher mortality rate because of its association with a sedentary lifestyle. The purpose of this study was to identify the contributing factors of exertion fatigue and chronic fatigue in people post-stroke. Methods Twenty-one post-stroke people (12 males, 9 females; 59.5±10.3 years of age; time after stroke 4.1±3.5 years) participated in the study. The response variables included exertion fatigue and chronic fatigue. Participants underwent a standardized fatigue-inducing exercise on a recumbent stepper. Exertion fatigue level was assessed at rest and immediately after exercise using the Visual Analog Fatigue Scale. Chronic fatigue was measured by the Fatigue Severity Scale. The explanatory variables included aerobic fitness, motor control, and depressive symptoms measured by peak oxygen uptake, Fugl-Meyer motor score, and the Geriatric Depression Scale, respectively. Results Using forward stepwise regression, we found that peak oxygen uptake was an independent predictor of exertion fatigue (P=0.006), whereas depression was an independent predictor of chronic fatigue (P=0.002). Conclusion Exertion fatigue and chronic fatigue are 2 distinct fatigue constructs, as identified by 2 different contributing factors. PMID:20947841

  19. The Influence of Exercise Environment and Gender on Mood and Exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plante, Thomas G; Oppezzo, Marily A; Diaz, L Aislinn; Pistoresi, Selena; Santos, Michael; Fahey, Jacqueline E; Kay, Elizabeth; Britton, Briana; Khan, Suheel

    This study examined the influence of exercise environment and gender on post-exercise mood and exertion. College student participants (55 females, 49 males) were instructed to pedal a stationary bike at a moderate pace for 20 minutes. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three laboratory conditions: (1) exercising in front of a mirror and posters showing ideal fit body types (i.e., celebrity male and female personal trainers), (2) exercising in front of a mirror only, or (3) a control condition in which participants exercised without a mirror or posters. The Activation-Deactivation Adjective Check List (AD-ACL), measuring exercise-induced mood states, was administered both before and after exercise. Average bike speed throughout the exercise session measured exertion. Mirrors and posters of ideally fit celebrities did interact with gender on post-exercise tension in that women felt most tense after exercising in front of the mirror and posters while men were most tense after exercising in front of the mirror only. Exercise exertion was also impacted by experimental condition such that participants rode significantly faster in the mirror and posters condition. There was no significant interaction of gender and condition on exercise exertion, but women pedaled fastest in the mirror and poster condition relative to the other conditions. Results suggest that exercise exertion and tension reduction are partially a by-product of gender and exercise environment.

  20. The toxicity of refrigerants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calm, J.M.

    1996-07-01

    This paper presents toxicity data and exposure limits for refrigerants. The data address both acute (short-term, single exposure) and chronic (long-term, repeated exposure) effects, with emphasis on the former. The refrigerants covered include those in common use for the last decade, those used as components in alternatives, and selected candidates for future replacements. The paper also reviews the toxicity indicators used in both safety standards and building, mechanical, and fire codes. It then outlines current classification methods for refrigerant safety and relates them to standard and code usage.

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Fasciotomy for Anterior Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balius, Ramon; Bong, David A; Ardèvol, Jordi; Pedret, Carles; Codina, David; Dalmau, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome is characterized by exertional pain and elevated intracompartmental pressures affecting the leg in physically active young people. In patients who have failed conservative measures, fasciotomy is the treatment of choice. This study presents a new method for performing fasciotomy using high-resolution ultrasound (US) guidance and reports on the clinical outcomes in a group of these patients. Over a 3-year period, 7 consecutive patients with a total of 9 involved legs presented clinically with anterior compartment chronic exertional compartment syndrome, which was confirmed by intracompartmental pressure measurements before and after exercise. After a US examination, fasciotomy under US guidance was performed. Preoperative and postoperative pain and activity levels were assessed as well as number of days needed to "return to play." All patients had a decrease in pain, and all except 1 returned to presymptomatic exercise levels with a median return to play of 35 days. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  2. [Smoldering multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouquet, G; Guidez, S; Herbaux, C; Demarquette, H; Leleu, X

    2014-04-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell neoplasia, characterized by monoclonal plasma cell proliferation in the absence of end-organ damage, but with a high risk of progression to multiple myeloma. It has therefore to be distinguished from monoclonal gammapathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), which has a much lower risk of progression, but also from multiple myeloma, which remains an incurable disease and requires a specific treatment. The critical question in the management of SMM is whether an early therapeutic strategy could help delaying the progression to multiple myeloma, in order to lower the risk of serious complications related to this progression, or even to cure the disease. This early treatment could not be proposed to all SMM patients, who are indeed asymptomatic, and in whom the risk of toxicity could make it difficult to justify the potential benefit obtained. The challenge is to target early at diagnosis SMM patients with a high risk of progression, using available routine tests sufficiently reliable to warrant the therapeutic sanction which relies on it. Today however, apart from randomized studies, recommendations are to maintain therapeutic abstention in SMM patients. Copyright © 2013 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Exertional Tolerance Assessments after Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quatman-Yates, Catherine; Bailes, Anna; Constand, Sara; Sroka, Mary Claire; Nissen, Katharine; Kurowski, Brad; Hugentobler, Jason

    2017-12-22

    The objective of this study was to review the literature to identify and summarize strategies for evaluating responses to physical exertion after mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) for clinical and research purposes. PubMed and EBSCOHost through December 31, 2016. Two independent reviewers selected studies based on the following criteria: 1) inclusion of participants with mTBI/concussion, 2) use of a measurement of physiological or psychosomatic response to exertion, 3) a repeatable description of the exertion protocol was provided, 4) a sample of at least 10 participants with a mean age between 8-65 years, and 5) the article was in English. The search process yielded 2,685 articles, of which 14 studies met the eligibility requirements. A quality assessment using a checklist was conducted for each study by two independent study team members and verified by a third team member. Data were extracted by a one team member and verified by a second team member. A qualitative synthesis of the studies revealed that most protocols employed a treadmill or cycle ergometer as the exercise modality. Protocol methods varied across studies including differences in initial intensity determination, progression parameters, and exertion duration. Common outcome measures were self-reported symptoms, heart rate, and blood pressure. The strongest evidence indicates that exertional assessments can provide important insight about mTBI recovery and should be administered using symptoms as a guide. Additional studies are needed to verify an optimal modes and protocols for post-mTBI exertional assessments. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Effects of fitness and self-confidence on time perception during exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Human physical and psychological features influence perceptions of the environment during activity. If during exercise an individual over-estimates time, they may interpret this as spending longer than necessary under a potentially aversive state of exertion. This may in turn decrease one’s sense of exercise success and tendency to persevere with exercise. We tested if experimentally manipulating sense of exercise self-efficacy would affect time perception during standardised physical exertion. Method: Exercise Self-Efficacy (ESE of 18 -73 year olds (N=51 was measured before and after an exercise challenge of moderate intensity. Height, weight and body fat composition were measured before participants were randomly allocated to one of three groups. After a 4-minute treadmill fitness test, participants were presented with either bogus feedback about their performance (positive or negative or no feedback (control. Before and during exercise, participants estimated a prescribed 2-minute time interval. Ratings of perceived exertion were also measured periodically. Results: Feedback on performance had no significant effect on time perception, even when controlling for individual exertion level. Reported ESE was also unaffected by whether someone received positive, negative or no feedback. Age was again found to be significantly correlated with VO2max, r(51 = .62, p < .001, but in contrast to prior findings, estimates of general fitness such as VO2max, BMI and waist circumference were unrelated to changes in time perception due to exertion. Conclusions: These findings failed to support prior findings and anecdotal evidence suggesting that exertion might alter one’s perception of time. We also failed to find any support for effects on ESE when participants were given explicit performance feedback. Finally, participants’ physical characteristics appear to be unrelated to time perception whilst exercising at moderate intensity.

  5. Human gamma interferon and tumor necrosis factor exert a synergistic blockade on the replication of herpes simplex virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feduchi, E; Alonso, M A; Carrasco, L

    1989-03-01

    The replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is not inhibited in either HeLa or HEp-2 cells treated with human alpha interferon (HuIFN-alpha), particularly when high multiplicities of infection are used. However, HuIFN-gamma partially inhibits HSV-1 translation in HEp-2 cells infected at low multiplicities. Under these conditions, the transcription of genes alpha 22, TK, and gamma 0 is greatly diminished. The combined addition of human tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and HuIFN-gamma to HEp-2 cells exerts a synergistic inhibition of HSV-1 translation. Cells treated with both cytokines continue synthesizing cellular proteins, even 20 h after HSV-1 infection. As little as 10 U of IFN-gamma per ml blocked HSV-1 DNA replication, provided that TNF was also present in the medium. Analyses of HSV-1 gene transcription suggest that the action of both TNF and IFN-gamma blocked a step that comes at or prior to early HSV-1 gene expression. This early step in HSV-1 replication inhibited by TNF and IFN-gamma occurs after virus attachment and entry into cells, since the internalization of radioactive HSV-1 virion particles was not blocked by the presence of the two cytokines. Therefore, we conclude that the synergistic action of TNF plus IFN-gamma affects a step in HSV-1 replication that comes after virus entry but before or at the transcription of immediate-early genes.

  6. HLA-A*0206 with TLR3 polymorphisms exerts more than additive effects in Stevens-Johnson syndrome with severe ocular surface complications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayumi Ueta

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS is an acute inflammatory vesiculobullous reaction of the skin and mucosa, often including the ocular surface, and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN occurs with its progression. Although SJS/TEN is thought to be initiated by certain types of medication coupled with possible infection. In the present study we examined the multiplicative interaction(s between HLA-A*0206 and 7 Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3 Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in patients with SJS/TEN. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed the genotypes for HLA-A and 7 TLR3 SNPs in 110 Japanese SJS/TEN patients with severe ocular complications and 206 healthy volunteers to examine the interactions between the two loci. We found that HLA-A*0206 exhibited a high odds ratio for SJS/TEN (carrier frequency: OR = 5.1; gene frequency: OR = 4.0 and that there was a strong association with TLR3 rs.5743312T/T SNP (OR = 7.4, TLR3 rs.3775296T/T SNP (OR = 5.8, TLR3 rs.6822014G/G SNP (OR = 4.8, TLR3 rs.3775290A/A SNP (OR = 2.9, TLR3 rs.7668666A/A SNP (OR = 2.7, TLR3 rs.4861699G/G SNP (OR = 2.3, and TLR3 rs.11732384G/G SNP (OR = 1.9. There was strong linkage disequilibrium (LD between rs.3775296 and rs.5743312 and between rs.7668666 and rs.3775290. The results of interaction analysis showed that the pair, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 SNP rs3775296T/T, which exhibited strong LD with TLR3 rs.5743312, exerted more than additive effects (OR = 47.7. The other pairs, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 rs.3775290A/A SNP (OR = 11.4 which was in strong LD with TLR3 rs7668666A/A SNP, and TLR3 rs4861699G/G SNP (OR = 7.6 revealed additive effects. Moreover, the combination HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 rs3775296T/T was stronger than the TLR3 rs6822014G/G and TLR3 rs3775290A/A pair, which reflected the interactions within the TLR3 gene alone. SIGNIFICANCE: By interaction analysis, HLA-A*0206 and TLR3 SNP rs3775296T/T, which were in strong LD with TLR3 SNP rs5743312T/T, manifested more than additive effects that

  7. Assessment of Subjective Perceived Exertion at the Anaerobic Threshold with the Borg CR-10 Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Zamunér, Antonio R.; Moreno, Marlene A.; Camargo, Taís M.; Graetz, Juliana P.; Rebelo, Ana C. S.; Tamburús, Nayara Y.; Ester da Silva

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT) with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R). Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years) were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG) and sedentary group (SG) and were...

  8. Exertional Heat Stroke and American Football: What the Team Physician Needs to Know.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylvester, Jillian E; Belval, Luke N; Casa, Douglas J; O'Connor, Francis G

    Football is recognized as a leading contributor to sports injury secondary to the contact collision nature of the endeavor. While direct deaths from head and spine injury remain a significant contributor to the number of catastrophic injuries, indirect deaths (systemic failure) predominate. Exertional heat stroke has emerged as one of the leading indirect causes of death in high school and collegiate football. This review details for the team physician the unique challenge of exercising in the heat to the football player, and the prevention, diagnosis, management, and return-to-play issues pertinent to exertional heat illnesses.

  9. Diagnosing exertional rhabdomyolysis: a brief review and report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsworth, M; Kessler, T

    2001-03-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis is a potentially dangerous condition that involves release of intracellular contents from skeletal muscle in concentrations that may cause renal or other systemic complications. The purpose of the two case reports presented is to assist clinicians in recognizing this condition and in considering its predisposing factors. This paper describes two patients who, in the presence of several predisposing risk factors, developed exertional rhabdomyolysis. After diagnoses of rhabdomyolysis were reached, both patients were admitted to a local hospital for several days of monitoring and treatment. After 1 to 2 months of activity modification, both patients successfully resumed full physical activity and military duty.

  10. Sickle Cell Trait-Related Exertional Deaths: Observations at Autopsy and Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Rhome L; Feig, James

    2015-08-01

    Sickle cell trait-related exertional deaths, although rare, are well-accepted in the field of forensic pathology; however, the increased risk of sudden unexpected deaths in persons with sickle cell trait undergoing strenuous physical activity may be an underappreciated acute phenomenon in the clinical realm. Herein, we report two cases of sickle cell trait-related exertional deaths of active duty military members, with a review of the literature including the pathophysiology of sickle cell trait-related deaths and current military screening guidelines. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  11. Nanomaterials and Retinal Toxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The neuroretina should be considered as a potential site of nanomaterial toxicity. Engineered nanomaterials may reach the retina through three potential routes of exposure including; intra­ vitreal injection of therapeutics; blood-borne delivery in the retinal vasculature an...

  12. Respiratory Toxicity Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    The advancement in high throughput genomic, proteomic and metabolomic techniques have accelerated pace of lung biomarker discovery. A recent growth in the discovery of new lung toxicity/disease biomarkers have led to significant advances in our understanding of pathological proce...

  13. ANTIRETROVIRAl TOXICITY IN CHILDREN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    vertical transmission prophylaxis (VrP), and the other is treatment for symptomatic HIV infection. Fig. 7. Disease profile ofHN-positivechildren in the Italian. Collaborative Multicentric Study. Antiretroviral (ARV) toxicity is an important issue that must be fully appreciated by prescribing doctors. While the benefits of therapy are ...

  14. Monosodium Glutamate Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    on the brain, it is used as a major taste enhancer in most eateries and cafeteria in Nigeria. However, information is scanty on the potential of Sida acuta leaf ethanolic extract. (SALEE) to mitigate MSG-induced effect on the brain. This study aimed to investigate the possible toxic effect of MSG, a natural constituent of many ...

  15. STResS (Simulated Toxicant-Related Stress) documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greene, K.D.; Newman, M.C.; Jagoe, R.H.

    1994-12-31

    STResS (Simulated Toxicant-Related Stress) is a program written in DEC FORTRAN v. 6.2. This program can be run either interactively or batch mode. This program is designed to model the effects of toxicant exposure on a simulated population of a specific species, as well as the effects of the toxicant on the demographic and genetic characteristics. The toxic effect on the time-to-death is based on an accelerated failure time model in which the time-to-death depends on size, sex and genotype, toxicant concentration, and frequency and duration of exposure. Sexual, fecundity, and meiotic drive/gametic selection can also be included. Multiple simulations can be run for a user-specified number of gestation periods of user-specified length. The effect of winter can be included, and the exposure duration can be changed once during each simulation, if desired.

  16. Reverse Phase Protein Arrays for High-throughput Toxicity Screening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marlene Lemvig; Block, Ines; List, Markus

    RNAs with known killing effects as a model system to demonstrate that RPPA-based protein quantification can serve as substitute readout of cell viability, hereby reliably reflecting toxicity. In terms of automation, cell exposure, protein harvest, serial dilution and sample reformatting were performed using...... beneficially in automated high-throughput toxicity testing. An advantage of using RPPAs is that, in addition to the baseline toxicity readout, they allow testing of multiple markers of toxicity, such as inflammatory responses, which do not necessarily cumulate in cell death. We used transfection of si...... a robotic screening platform. Furthermore, we automated sample tracking and data analysis by developing a bundled bioinformatics tool named “MIRACLE”. Automation and RPPA-based viability/toxicity readouts enable rapid testing of large sample numbers, while granting the possibility for flexible consecutive...

  17. [Toxicity study of realgar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Aihua; Li, Chunying; Wang, Jinhua; Xue, Baoyun; Li, Hua; Yang, Bing; Wang, Jingyu; Xie, Qing; Nilsen, Odd Georg

    2011-07-01

    To investigate the toxicity of realgar and provide the scientific basis for safety use of realgar in clinic. Acute toxicity was tested by single oral administration. Chronic toxicity of realgar was tested at different dose levels (5, 10, 20, 80, 160 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)) which correspond to 1/2, 1, 2, 8, 16 times of human dose levels. The rats were treated with the test substances through oral administration once daily for successively 90 days. Urinary qualitative test, blood routine examination, serum chemistry measurement, and histomorphologic observation were conducted at day 30, 60 and 90. Toxic changes related to the treatment of realgar and no-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was evaluated. With the content of 90% total arsenic and 1.696 mg x g(-1) soluble asenic, LD50 of Realgar with oral administration was 20.5 g x kg(-1) (corresponding to 34.8 mg x kg(-1) soluble arsenic), equivalent to 12 812 times of clinical daily dose for an adult. Realgar can cause kidney toxicity or/and liver toxicity after administration for over 30, 60 or 90 days respectively. The kidney was more sensitive to realgar than liver. Based on repeated dose toxicity study, NOAELs were 160 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 30 day's administration, 20 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 60 day's administration, 10 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) mg x kg(-1) x d(-1) for 90 day's administration respectively. Thus, for safety use of realgar, it is recommended that the daily doses of realgar (with soluble arsenic realgar can cause kidney and liver pathological change, so the doses and administration duration should be limited. The suggestion is as follows: realgar which contains soluble arsenic < or = 1.7 mg x g(-1) should be used less than 2 weeks at daily dose 160 mg, less than 4 weeks at the dose of 20 mg and less than 6 weeks at the dose of 10 mg.

  18. Multiple homicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, A R

    1989-09-01

    A study of multiple homicides or multiple deaths involving a solitary incident of violence by another individual was performed on the case files of the Office of the Medical Examiner of Metropolitan Dade County in Miami, Florida, during 1983-1987. A total of 107 multiple homicides were studied: 88 double, 17 triple, one quadruple, and one quintuple. The 236 victims were analyzed regarding age, race, sex, cause of death, toxicologic data, perpetrator, locale of the incident, and reason for the incident. This article compares this type of slaying with other types of homicide including those perpetrated by serial killers. Suggestions for future research in this field are offered.

  19. A general mechanism for intracellular toxicity of metal-containing nanoparticles

    KAUST Repository

    Sabella, Stefania

    2014-04-09

    The assessment of the risks exerted by nanoparticles is a key challenge for academic, industrial, and regulatory communities worldwide. Experimental evidence points towards significant toxicity for a range of nanoparticles both in vitro and in vivo. Worldwide efforts aim at uncovering the underlying mechanisms for this toxicity. Here, we show that the intracellular ion release elicited by the acidic conditions of the lysosomal cellular compartment-where particles are abundantly internalized-is responsible for the cascading events associated with nanoparticles-induced intracellular toxicity. We call this mechanism a "lysosome-enhanced Trojan horse effect" since, in the case of nanoparticles, the protective cellular machinery designed to degrade foreign objects is actually responsible for their toxicity. To test our hypothesis, we compare the toxicity of similar gold particles whose main difference is in the internalization pathways. We show that particles known to pass directly through cell membranes become more toxic when modified so as to be mostly internalized by endocytosis. Furthermore, using experiments with chelating and lysosomotropic agents, we found that the toxicity mechanism for different metal containing NPs (such as metallic, metal oxide, and semiconductor NPs) is mainly associated with the release of the corresponding toxic ions. Finally, we show that particles unable to release toxic ions (such as stably coated NPs, or diamond and silica NPs) are not harmful to intracellular environments. The Royal Society of Chemistry 2014.

  20. Multiple myeloma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Collins, Conor D

    2012-02-01

    Advances in the imaging and treatment of multiple myeloma have occurred over the past decade. This article summarises the current status and highlights how an understanding of both is necessary for optimum management.

  1. Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SEARCH Definition Treatment Prognosis Clinical Trials Organizations Publications Definition An unpredictable disease of the central nervous system, multiple sclerosis (MS) can range from relatively benign to somewhat disabling to devastating, as communication between the brain and other parts of the ...

  2. Multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bradley's Neurology in Clinical Practice . 7th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap 80. Heine M, van de Port I, Rietberg MB, van Wegen EE, Kwakkel G. Exercise therapy for fatigue in multiple ...

  3. A comparison of a maximum exertion method and a model-based, sub-maximum exertion method for normalizing trunk EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; van Dieën, Jaap; Lee, Angela S; Reeves, N Peter

    2011-10-01

    The problem with normalizing EMG data from patients with painful symptoms (e.g., low back pain) is that such patients may be unwilling or unable to perform maximum exertions. Furthermore, the normalization to a reference signal, obtained from a maximal or sub-maximal task, tends to mask differences that might exist as a result of pathology. Therefore, we presented a novel method (GAIN method) for normalizing trunk EMG data that overcomes both problems. The GAIN method does not require maximal exertions (MVC) and tends to preserve distinct features in the muscle recruitment patterns for various tasks. Ten healthy subjects performed various isometric trunk exertions, while EMG data from 10 muscles were recorded and later normalized using the GAIN and MVC methods. The MVC method resulted in smaller variation between subjects when tasks were executed at the three relative force levels (10%, 20%, and 30% MVC), while the GAIN method resulted in smaller variation between subjects when the tasks were executed at the three absolute force levels (50 N, 100 N, and 145 N). This outcome implies that the MVC method provides a relative measure of muscle effort, while the GAIN-normalized data gives an estimate of the absolute muscle force. Therefore, the GAIN-normalized data tends to preserve the differences between subjects in the way they recruit their muscles to execute various tasks, while the MVC-normalized data will tend to suppress such differences. The appropriate choice of the EMG normalization method will depend on the specific question that an experimenter is attempting to answer. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Subacute toxicity assessment of water disinfection byproducts on zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rácz, Gergely; Csenki, Zsolt; Kovács, Róbert; Hegyi, Arpád; Baska, Ferenc; Sujbert, László; Zsákovics, Ivett; Kis, Renáta; Gustafson, Ryan; Urbányi, Béla; Szende, Béla

    2012-07-01

    Disinfection of raw water is essential to the production of drinking water. However, by-products of disinfection may exert toxic effects. The potential toxic effects of two of these compounds, 4-ethylbenzaldehyde (EBA) and 2,4-difluoroaniline (DFA) were investigated using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The two compounds, dissolved, were introduced in duplicate aquariums containing zebrafish in two different concentrations based on LC50 values. The aquarium water containing EBA or DFA was changed every 96 h throughout the 3 months of treatment. Behavior of the fish in each replicate was inspected twice daily. In course of treatment with both concentrations, fish exposed to DFA displayed behavior associated with visible anxiety, while EBA treated were lethargic and did not evade capture. Application of both concentrations of each component into the aquarium water resulted in dystrophic lesions in the liver, kidney and skin of the fish while preneoplastic lesions and tumors were not observed.

  5. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. exerts chemoprevention of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishayee, Anupam, E-mail: abishayee@auhs.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, School of Pharmacy, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, CA 90755 (United States); Mandal, Animesh [Cancer Therapeutics and Chemoprevention Group, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, Northeast Ohio Medical University, Rootstown, OH 44272 (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Dietary administration of an ethanolic extract of aerial parts of T. portulacastrum (TPE) exhibits a striking chemopreventive effect in an experimentally induced classical animal model of breast cancer. • The mammary tumor-inhibitory effect of TPE could be achieved, at least in part, though intervention of key hallmark capabilities of tumor cells, such as abnormal cell proliferation and evasion of apoptosis. • TPE is capable of diminishing activated canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling to exhibit antiproliferative, proapoptotic and oncostatic effects during this early-stage mammary carcinoma. • These results coupled with a safety profile of T. portulacastrum may encourage further studies to understand the full potential of this dietary plant for chemoprevention of breast cancer. - Abstract: Due to limited treatment options for advanced-stage metastatic breast cancer, a high priority should be given to develop non-toxic chemopreventive drugs. The value of various natural and dietary agents to reduce the risk of developing breast cancer is well established. Trianthema portulacastrum Linn. (Aizoaceae), a dietary and medicinal plant, has been found to exert antihepatotoxic and antihepatocarcinogenic properties in rodents. This study was initiated to investigate mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of an ethanolic extract of T. portulacastrum (TPE) against 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-initiated rat mammary gland carcinogenesis, an experimental tumor model that closely resembles human breast cancer. Rats had access to a basal diet supplemented with TPE to yield three dietary doses of the extract, i.e., 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight. Following two weeks of TPE treatment, mammary tumorigenesis was initiated by oral administration of DMBA (50 mg/kg body weight). At the end of the study (16 weeks after DMBA exposure), TPE exhibited a striking reduction of DMBA-induced mammary tumor incidence, total tumor burden and average tumor weight

  6. Exercise during and after neoadjuvant rectal cancer treatment (the EXERT trial): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morielli, Andria R; Usmani, Nawaid; Boulé, Normand G; Severin, Diane; Tankel, Keith; Nijjar, Tirath; Joseph, Kurian; Fairchild, Alysa; Courneya, Kerry S

    2018-01-12

    Organisation of Research and Treatment of Cancer, and symptom management assessed by the M.D. Anderson Symptom Inventory. Exploratory clinical endpoints will include treatment toxicities, treatment completion, treatment response, and surgical complications. If the preliminary findings of EXERT are positive, additional research will be warranted to confirm whether exercise is an innovative treatment to maintain QoL, manage side effects, and/or improve treatment outcomes in rectal cancer patients. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT03082495 . Registered on 9 February, 2017.

  7. Multiple centrally acting antidotes protect against severe organophosphate toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivilotti, Marco L A; Bird, Steven B; Lo, Jean C Y; Dickson, Eric W

    2006-04-01

    Accumulation of acetylcholine in the central nervous system is believed to account for the rapid lethality of organophosphate pesticides and chemical nerve agents. Diazepam is known to supplement atropine therapy, but its specific mechanism of action is uncertain. To test four centrally acting agents for early antidotal efficacy in severe dichlorvos poisoning in the murine model. The up-and-down method was used to dose four candidate antidotes: diazepam, xylazine, morphine, and ketamine. Antidotes were administered subcutaneously to unsedated adult Sprague-Dawley rats who were pretreated with 3 mg/kg intraperitoneal glycopyrrolate. All animals received 20 mg/kg of dichlorvos subcutaneously 5 minutes later. A blinded observer adjudicated the outcomes of 10-minute mortality and survival time. All animals pretreated with either no antidote (8/8 deaths) or glycopyrrolate alone (8/8) died within 10 minutes of dichlorvos injection. Pretreatment with diazepam (3/9 deaths), or xylazine (3/9), decreased lethality substantially (Fisher p = 0.007; median effective doses, 0.12 mg/kg and 3.0 mg/kg, respectively). Intermediate doses of morphine (3.1 to 5.5 mg/kg) resulted in survival, but higher doses did not, presumably because of excessive respiratory depression (7/11 deaths; p = 0.09). Ketamine (7/8 deaths) was ineffective as an antidote. Survival times also were prolonged in the diazepam and xylazine groups (log-rank p mechanisms are each sufficient to avert lethality. These findings suggest new possibilities for prophylaxis or therapy.

  8. TRITOX: a multiple parameter evaluation of tritium toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carsten, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The increased use of nuclear reactors for power generation will lead to the introduction of tritium into the environment. The need for assessing possible immediate and long-term effects of exposure to this tritium led to the development of a broad program directed towards evaluating the possible somatic and genetic effects of continuous exposure to tritiated water (HTO). Among the parameters measured are the genetic, cytogenetic, reproductive efficiency, growth, nonspecific lifetime shortening, bone marrow cellularity and stem cell content, relative biological effectiveness as compared to /sup 137/Cesium gamma exposure, and related biochemical and microdosimetric evaluations. These parameters have been evaluated on animals maintained on HTO at 10 to 100 times the maximum permissible concentration (0.03 - 3.0 ..mu..Ci/ml) for HTO. Dominant lethal mutations, chromosome aberrations in regenerating liver, increased sister chromatid exchanges in bone marrow and reduction in bone marrow stem cell content have been observed at the higher concentrations. The relative biological effectiveness for HTO ingestion as compared to external /sup 137/Cesium gamma exposures has been found to be between 1 and 2.

  9. Development of Novel Models for Describing Multiple Toxicity Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-10-12

    Saccharin and Two Hydrolytic Derivatives Toxicology, 6, 133-138 (1976). compounds studied: Sodium Saccharin , Sulfamoylbenzoic Acid, Ammonium Carboxybenzene...Normal 24 Study Number: 216 Wildman, J.M., et.al. Benzene and Lead Inhibition of Rabbit Reticulocyte Heme and Protein Synthesis : Evidence for Additive...compounds studied: Benzene and Lead as components in gasoline biological response: Inhibition of rabbit reticulocyte heme/protein synthesis # of combinations

  10. Investigation of Forces Exerted During the Expansion of Nanomechanically Tensioned Organosilica Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albon, Theresa; Edmiston, Paul; Lehman, Susan

    2012-02-01

    Osorbis a sol-gel derived organosilica that instantaneously swells up to four times in volume with organic liquids. The nanoporous glass-like material is hydrophobic and does not swell in water but absorbs non-polar organic solutes from aqueous solution. Swelling due to absorption of organic solutes, liquids, or gases leads to the generation of substantial mechanical force, presumably derived from the relaxation of the interconnected network of organosilica nanoparticles that comprise the material. We have investigated the force exerted by placing a powdered sample in a cylinder with a freely movable piston. As solvent percolates into the cylinder from below, the exerted force is measured by a load cell. The piston is then gradually moved upward to allow the material to expand. As the sample just begins to swell, we have routinely observed forces in excess of 500 N per gram; the exerted force then decreases as the volume is allowed to increase. The relationship between the exerted force and sample volume is shown to be exponential, and we define the exponential decay constant as the characteristic volume Vc. We also determine the absorption capacity and fractional change in volume of the organosilica samples, and correlate these with changes in Vc.

  11. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac(R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  12. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby

  13. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; Brunschot, C. van; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.A.; Luijtelaar, E.L.J.M. van; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac(R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  14. Respiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion following exposure to secondhand smoke in healthy adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas D Flouris

    Full Text Available We assessed the cardiorespiratory and immune response to physical exertion following secondhand smoke (SHS exposure through a randomized crossover experiment. Data were obtained from 16 (8 women non-smoking adults during and following a maximal oxygen uptake cycling protocol administered at baseline and at 0-, 1-, and 3- hours following 1-hour of SHS set at bar/restaurant carbon monoxide levels. We found that SHS was associated with a 12% decrease in maximum power output, an 8.2% reduction in maximal oxygen consumption, a 6% increase in perceived exertion, and a 6.7% decrease in time to exhaustion (P<0.05. Moreover, at 0-hours almost all respiratory and immune variables measured were adversely affected (P<0.05. For instance, FEV(1 values at 0-hours dropped by 17.4%, while TNF-α increased by 90.1% (P<0.05. At 3-hours mean values of cotinine, perceived exertion and recovery systolic blood pressure in both sexes, IL4, TNF-α and IFN-γ in men, as well as FEV(1/FVC, percent predicted FEV(1, respiratory rate, and tidal volume in women remained different compared to baseline (P<0.05. It is concluded that a 1-hour of SHS at bar/restaurant levels adversely affects the cardiorespiratory and immune response to maximal physical exertion in healthy nonsmokers for at least three hours following SHS.

  15. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homberg, J.R.; Olivier, J.D.A.; Blom, T.; Arentsen, T.; van Brunschot, C.; Schipper, P.; Korte-Bouws, G.; van Luijtelaar, G.; Reneman, L.

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac (R) (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and

  16. Recommendations for aerobic endurance training based on subjective ratings of perceived exertion in healthy seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Zahner, Lukas; Cordes, Mareike; Hanssen, Henner; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Aarno; Faude, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated physiological responses during 2-km walking at a certain intensity of a previously performed maximal exercise test where moderate perceived exertion was reported. Twenty seniors were examined by an incremental walking treadmill test to obtain maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max). A submaximal 2-km walking test was applied 1 wk later. The corresponding moderate perceived exertion (4 on the CR-10 scale) during the VO2max test was applied to the 2-km treadmill test. Moderate exertion (mean rating of perceived exertion [RPE]: 4 ± 1) led to 76% ± 8% of VO2max and 79% ± 6% of maximal heart rate. RPE values drifted with a significant time effect (p = .001, η(p) = .58) during the 2-km test from 3 ± 0.7 to 4.6 ± 0.8. Total energy expenditure (EE) was 3.3 ± 0.5 kcal/kg. No gender differences in ventilatory, heart-rate, or EE data occurred. Brisk walking at moderate RPE of 3-5 would lead to a beneficial physiological response during endurance training and a weekly EE of nearly 1,200 kcal when exercising 5 times/wk for 30 min.

  17. Post-exertion neurocognitive test failure among student-athletes following concussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Neal; Dinn, Wayne M; Collins, Michael W; Lovell, Mark R; Elbin, R J; Kontos, Anthony P

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine post-exertion (PE) neurocognitive performance among student-athletes following concussion who were asymptomatic and returned to baseline normal neurocognitive test levels at rest. This study examined the neurocognitive performance of a sub-set of student-athletes who 'failed' to perform at baseline levels of neurocognitive function, i.e. exhibited downward reliable change index (RCI) alterations following a moderate exertional protocol during recovery from concussion. A retrospective records review was carried out of Immediate Post-concussion Assessment and Cognitive Testing (ImPACT) and neuropsychological consultation data among athletes with sports-related concussion from a network of 22 schools and one junior hockey programme. Fifty-four student-athletes met inclusion criteria and participated in the study. A total of 27.7% of concussed student-athletes who were symptom-free and returned to baseline on ImPACT at rest (i.e. no longer demonstrated performance deficits on neurocognitive tests) exhibited cognitive decline following moderate physical exertion. The PE cognitive changes were not simply general performance effects, but significant changes in memory ability in the presence of intact processing speed functions. The PE-Pass and PE-Fail groups did not, however, differ on post-concussive symptoms or concussion history. Clinicians' return-to-play evaluation protocols should include post-exertional computerized neurocognitive testing.

  18. Influence of ambient music on perceived exertion during a pulmonary rehabilitation session: a randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reychler, Gregory; Mottart, Florian; Boland, Maelle; Wasterlain, Emmanuelle; Pieters, Thierry; Caty, Gilles; Liistro, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary rehabilitation is a key element in the treatment of COPD. Music has been shown to have a positive effect on parameters related to a decrease in exercise tolerance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of listening to ambient music on perceived exertion during a pulmonary rehabilitation session for COPD subjects. COPD subjects randomly performed a session of pulmonary rehabilitation with or without ambient music. Perceived exertion (Borg scales), anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety Subscale), dyspnea (visual analog scale), and cardiorespiratory parameters were compared at the end of both sessions. Forty-one subjects were analyzed. The characteristics of the COPD subjects were as follows: age, 70.5 ± 8.4 y; body mass index, 22.7 ± 3.9 kg/m(2); and FEV1, 38.6 ± 12.5 % predicted. Perceived exertion was not modified by ambient music, but anxiety was improved (P = .02). Dyspnea, fatigue and cardiorespiratory parameters were not influenced by music during a typical session of the pulmonary rehabilitation program. This study demonstrates that perceived exertion during one pulmonary rehabilitation session was not influenced by ambient music. However, a positive effect on anxiety was observed. (ClinicalTrials.gov registration NCT01833260.). Copyright © 2015 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Hydrocortisone Infusion Exerts Dose- and Sex-Dependent Effects on Attention to Emotional Stimuli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breitberg, Alaina; Drevets, Wayne C.; Wood, Suzanne E.; Mah, Linda; Schulkin, Jay; Sahakian, Barbara J.; Erickson, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Glucocorticoid administration has been shown to exert complex effects on cognitive and emotional processing. In the current study we investigated the effects of glucocorticoid administration on attention towards emotional words, using an Affective Go/No-go task on which healthy humans have shown an attentional bias towards positive as compared to…

  20. Oxytocin microinjected into the central amygdaloid nuclei exerts anti-aggressive effects in male rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Stubbendorff, Christine; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F.; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jacob

    We recently demonstrated that acute and chronic intracerebroventricular enhancement of brain OXT levels induces potent anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects during social challenges. However, the exact anatomical location in the brain where OXT exerts its action is still elusive. In the

  1. Animal Toxicity of Phytopathogenic Fungi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, C. E.; Hamilton, P. B.

    1972-01-01

    Twelve genera of phytopathogenic fungi comprising 27 species previously reported to produce phytotoxins were tested concurrently for animal and plant toxicity. There appeared to be no direct relationship between plant and animal toxicity. PMID:5059620

  2. Allegheny County Toxics Release Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — The Toxics Release Inventory (TRI) data provides information about toxic substances released into the environment or managed through recycling, energy recovery, and...

  3. Risk of dust bronchopulmonary pathology development in workers employed in various economic brunches under impacts exerted by occupational risk factors: clinical and hygienic aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Bakirov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We performed complex clinical and hygienic research on 234 workers suffering from occupational bronchitis; they were employed in petrochemical industry, mining, civil engineering, as well as in construction. Group of workers with occu-pational diseases comprised hose suffering from dust bronchitis and toxic-dust bronchitis. Workers employed in the exam-ined branches had to work under exposure to production aerosols with complex structure and they working conditions had 3.2–3.4 hazard degree. We showed that occupational factors exerted negative influence on workers' health as they caused occupational bronchitis development, grave complications, and frequent associated diseases evolvement. The paper dwells on the results of our research on lipid peroxidation products content in workers exposed to production aerosols. We detected increased activity of free radical oxidation caused by impacts exerted by production aerosols; here we revealed that growth in lipid peroxidation products depended on duration of work under hazardous conditions. We set a goal to detect correlation between polymorph gene types of xenobiotics transformation enzymes and occupational bronchitis evolvement via poly-merase chain reaction technique; to achieve this, we analyzed polymorphic locuses in a group of sick workers (131 people and healthy ones (156 people. We determined genetic markers which had protective significance in terms of occupational bronchitis evolvement risk. The research results prove that occupational bronchitis nature and peculiarities of its clinic pic-ture are determined both by occupational impacts and individual features of a worker' s body.

  4. Exertional Rhabdomyolysis in a 21-Year-Old Healthy Woman: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Brianna D; Yeo, Noelle M; Jenkins, Nathaniel D M; Miramonti, Amelia A; Cramer, Joel T

    2017-05-01

    McKay, BD, Yeo, NM, Jenkins, NDM, Miramonti, AA, and Cramer, JT. Exertional rhabdomyolysis in a 21-year-old healthy woman: a case report. J Strength Cond Res 31(5): 1403-1410, 2017-The optimal resistance training program to elicit muscle hypertrophy has been recently debated and researched. Although 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 70-80% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) are widely recommended, recent studies have shown that low-load (∼30% 1RM) high-repetition (3 sets of 30-40 repetitions) resistance training can elicit similar muscular hypertrophy. Incidentally, this type of resistance training has gained popularity. In the process of testing this hypothesis in a research study in our laboratory, a subject was diagnosed with exertional rhabdomyolysis after completing a resistance training session that involved 3 sets to failure at 30% 1RM. Reviewed were the events leading up to and throughout the diagnosis of exertional rhabdomyolysis in a healthy recreationally-trained 21-year-old woman who was enrolled in a study that compared the acute effects of high-load low-repetition vs. low-load high-repetition resistance training. The subject completed a total of 143 repetitions of the bilateral dumbbell biceps curl exercise. Three days after exercise, she reported excessive muscle soreness and swelling and sought medical attention. She was briefly hospitalized and then discharged with instructions to take acetaminophen for soreness, drink plenty of water, rest, and monitor her creatine kinase (CK) concentrations. Changes in the subject's CK concentrations, ultrasound-determined muscle thickness, and echo intensity monitored over a 14-day period are reported. This case illustrates the potential risk of developing exertional rhabdomyolysis after a low-load high-repetition resistance training session in healthy, young, recreationally-trained women. The fact that exertional rhabdomyolysis is a possible outcome may warrant caution when prescribing this type of resistance

  5. Self-reported post-exertional fatigue in Gulf War veterans: roles of autonomic testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mian eLi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine if objective evidence of autonomic dysfunction exists from a group of Gulf War veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue, we evaluated 16 Gulf War ill veterans and 12 Gulf War controls. Participants of the ill group had self- reported, unexplained chronic post-exertional fatigue and the illness symptoms had persisted for years until the current clinical study. The controls had no self-reported post-exertional fatigue either at the time of initial survey nor at the time of the current study. We intended to identify clinical autonomic disorders using autonomic and neurophysiologic testing in the clinical context. We compared the autonomic measures between the 2 groups on cardiovascular function at both baseline and head-up tilt, and sudomotor function. We identified 1 participant with orthostatic hypotension, 1 posture orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, 2 distal small fiber neuropathy, and 1 length dependent distal neuropathy affecting both large and small fiber in the ill group; whereas none of above definable diagnoses was noted in the controls. The ill group had a significantly higher baseline heart rate compared to controls. Compound autonomic scoring scale showed a significant higher score (95% CI of mean: 1.72 to 2.67 among ill group compared to controls (0.58 to 1.59. We conclude that objective autonomic testing is necessary for the evaluation of self-reported, unexplained post-exertional fatigue among some Gulf War veterans with multi-symptom illnesses. Our observation that ill veterans with self-reported post-exertional fatigue had objective autonomic measures that were worse than controls warrants validation in a larger clinical series.

  6. Effects of acclimation on water and electrolitic disbalance in soldiers during exertional heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Sonja S.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. The aim of this study was to examine changes in body water and serum concentrations of some electrolites in soldiers during exertional heat stress (EHST, as well as effects of 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber. Methods. Forty male soldiers with high aerobic capacity, performed EHST either in cool (20 ºC, 16 ºC WBGT-wet bulb globe temperature, or hot (40 ºC, 25 ºC WBGT environment, unacclimatized, or after 10 days of passive or active acclimation. The subjects were allowed to drink tap water ad libitum during EHST. Mean skin (Tsk and tympanic (Tty temperatures and heart rates (HR measured physiological strain, while sweat rate (SwR, and serum concentrations of sodium, potassium and osmolality measured changes in water and electrolyte status. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after the EHST. Results. Exertional heat stress in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty, HR, and SwR, with significant decrease in serum sodium concentration (140.6±1.52 before vs 138.5±1.0 mmol/l after EHST, p < 0.01 and osmolality (280.7±3.8 vs 277.5±2.6 mOsm/kg, p < 0.05 in the unacclimatized group. The acclimated soldiers suffered no such effects of exertional heat stress, despite almost the same degree of heat strain, measured by Tty, HR and SwR. Conclusion. In the trained soldiers, 10-day passive or active acclimation in a climatic chamber can prevent disturbances in water and electrolytic balance, i.e. decrease in serum sodium concentrations and osmolality induced by exertional heat stress.

  7. Multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Shaji K; Rajkumar, Vincent; Kyle, Robert A; van Duin, Mark; Sonneveld, Pieter; Mateos, María-Victoria; Gay, Francesca; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2017-07-20

    Multiple myeloma is a malignancy of terminally differentiated plasma cells, and patients typically present with bone marrow infiltration of clonal plasma cells and monoclonal protein in the serum and/or urine. The diagnosis of multiple myeloma is made when clear end-organ damage attributable to the plasma cell proliferative disorder or when findings that suggest a high likelihood of their development are present. Distinguishing symptomatic multiple myeloma that requires treatment from the precursor stages of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and smouldering multiple myeloma is important, as observation is the standard for those conditions. Much progress has been made over the past decade in the understanding of disease biology and individualized treatment approaches. Several new classes of drugs, such as proteasome inhibitors and immunomodulatory drugs, have joined the traditional armamentarium (corticosteroids, alkylating agents and anthracyclines) and, along with high-dose therapy and autologous haemopoietic stem cell transplantation, have led to deeper and durable clinical responses. Indeed, an increasing proportion of patients are achieving lasting remissions, raising the possibility of cure for this disease. Success will probably depend on using combinations of effective agents and treating patients in the early stages of disease, such as patients with smouldering multiple myeloma.

  8. Kombucha--toxicity alert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Kombucha mushroom, also known as Manchurian mushroom, is a mail-order product touted to lower blood pressure and raise T-cell counts. No controlled trials have been conducted to test these claims. Aspergillus, a mold that may grow on the Kombucha mushroom, attacks the brain and may be fatal to persons with weakened immune systems. Reported toxicity reactions have included stomach problems and yeast infections. Taking Kombucha in combination with other drugs may affect the drugs potency.

  9. Toxicity of Depleted Uranium

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-02-01

    cancer in dogs and humans1 and mice and humans.2 The information for inert metal toxicity in humans is foreign-body carcinogenesis data related to...high dose of Thorotrast® (> 0.4 Bq/g) developed fibrosarcomas from perivascular leakage of some injections.19 Plutonium fragments have been injected...into the footpads of dogs to simulate the plutonium-contaminated wounds of plutonium machinists.2" The plutonium was translocated to the local lymph

  10. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  11. Acute toxicity formation potential of benzophenone-type UV filters in chlorination disinfection process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qi; Chen, Zhenbin; Wei, Dongbin; Du, Yuguo

    2014-02-01

    Benzophenones (BPs) are a class of widely used UV filters, which have been frequently detected within multiple environmental matrices. Disinfection is a necessary process in water treatment processes. The transformation behaviors and toxicity changes of 14 BP-type UV filters during chlorination disinfection treatment were investigated in this study. A new index, the acute toxicity formation potential, was proposed to evaluate the toxicity changes and potential risks of BP-type UV filters during chlorination treatment. It was found that 13 of 14 BP-type UV filters exhibited toxicity decreases in the chlorination disinfection process, more or less, while one showed a toxicity increase. The toxicity changes were dependent on substitution effects, such that 2,4-di-hydroxylated or 3-hydroxylated BPs exhibited significant toxicity decreases after chlorination treatment due to the ready cleavage of the aromatic ring. Importantly, the acute toxicity changes could be duplicated in an ambient water matrix.

  12. Multi-Toxic Endpoints of the Foodborne Mycotoxins in Nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhendong; Xue, Kathy S; Sun, Xiulan; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2015-12-02

    Aflatoxins B₁ (AFB₁), deoxynivalenol (DON), fumonisin B₁ (FB₁), T-2 toxin (T-2), and zearalenone (ZEA) are the major foodborne mycotoxins of public health concerns. In the present study, the multiple toxic endpoints of these naturally-occurring mycotoxins were evaluated in Caenorhabditis elegans model for their lethality, toxic effects on growth and reproduction, as well as influence on lifespan. We found that the lethality endpoint was more sensitive for T-2 toxicity with the EC50 at 1.38 mg/L, the growth endpoint was relatively sensitive for AFB₁ toxic effects, and the reproduction endpoint was more sensitive for toxicities of AFB₁, FB₁, and ZEA. Moreover, the lifespan endpoint was sensitive to toxic effects of all five tested mycotoxins. Data obtained from this study may serve as an important contribution to knowledge on assessment of mycotoxin toxic effects, especially for assessing developmental and reproductive toxic effects, using the C. elegans model.

  13. Toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifi, Shahriar; Behzadi, Shahed; Laurent, Sophie; Forrest, M Laird; Stroeve, Pieter; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2012-03-21

    Nanoscience has matured significantly during the last decade as it has transitioned from bench top science to applied technology. Presently, nanomaterials are used in a wide variety of commercial products such as electronic components, sports equipment, sun creams and biomedical applications. There are few studies of the long-term consequences of nanoparticles on human health, but governmental agencies, including the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and Japan's Ministry of Health, have recently raised the question of whether seemingly innocuous materials such as carbon-based nanotubes should be treated with the same caution afforded known carcinogens such as asbestos. Since nanomaterials are increasing a part of everyday consumer products, manufacturing processes, and medical products, it is imperative that both workers and end-users be protected from inhalation of potentially toxic NPs. It also suggests that NPs may need to be sequestered into products so that the NPs are not released into the atmosphere during the product's life or during recycling. Further, non-inhalation routes of NP absorption, including dermal and medical injectables, must be studied in order to understand possible toxic effects. Fewer studies to date have addressed whether the body can eventually eliminate nanomaterials to prevent particle build-up in tissues or organs. This critical review discusses the biophysicochemical properties of various nanomaterials with emphasis on currently available toxicology data and methodologies for evaluating nanoparticle toxicity (286 references).

  14. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, Egon; Stenager, E N; Knudsen, Lone

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 117 randomly selected patients (52 men, 65 women) with definite multiple sclerosis, it was found that 76 percent were married or cohabitant, 8 percent divorced. Social contacts remained unchanged for 70 percent, but outgoing social contacts were reduced for 45 percent......, need for structural changes in home and need for pension became greater with increasing physical handicap. No significant differences between gender were found. It is concluded that patients and relatives are under increased social strain, when multiple sclerosis progresses to a moderate handicap...

  15. Modern toxic antipersonnel projectiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Yvan; Regenstreif, Philippe; Fanton, Laurent

    2014-12-01

    In the spring of 1944, Kurt von Gottberg, the SS police chief in Minsk, was shot and injured by 2 Soviet agents. Although he was only slightly injured, he died 6 hours later. The bullets were hollow and contained a crystalline white powder. They were 4-g bullets, semi-jacketed in cupronickel, containing 28 mg of aconitine. They were later known as akonitinnitratgeschosse. The Sipo (the Nazi security police) then ordered a trial with a 9-mm Parabellum cartridge containing Ditran, an anticholinergic drug with hallucinogenic properties causing intense mental confusion. In later years, QNB was used and given the NATO code BZ (3-quinuclidinyl-benzylate). It was proven that Saddam Hussein had this weapon (agent 15) manufactured and used it against the Kurds. Serbian forces used the same type of weapon in the Bosnian conflict, particularly in Srebrenica.The authors go on to list the Cold War toxic weapons developed by the KGB and the Warsaw pact countries for the discreet elimination of dissidents and proindependence leaders who had taken refuge in the West. These weapons include PSZh-13 launchers, the Troika electronic sequential pistol, and the ingenious 4-S110T captive piston system designed by the engineer Stechkin. Disguised as a cigarette case, it could fire a silent charge of potassium cyanide. This rogues gallery also includes the umbrella rigged to inject a pellet of ricin (or another phytalbumin of similar toxicity, such as abrin or crotin) that was used to assassinate the Bulgarian writer and journalist Georgi Markov on September 7, 1978, in London.During the autopsy, the discovery of a bullet burst into 4 or 5 parts has to make at once suspecting the use of a toxic substance. Toxicological analysis has to look for first and foremost aconitine, cyanide, suxamethonium, Ditran, BZ, or one of the toxic phytalbumins. The use of such complex weapons has to make suspect a powerful organization: army, secret service, terrorism. The existence of the Russian UDAR spray

  16. Sensitive endpoints in extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study versus two generation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Sofie

    Increasing pressure is exerted by some stakeholders to replace the current “golden standard”, two-generation study (OECD TG 416), by an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study (EOGRTS), because this would considerably reduce the number of animals and other costs involved in these leng......Increasing pressure is exerted by some stakeholders to replace the current “golden standard”, two-generation study (OECD TG 416), by an extended one-generation reproductive toxicity study (EOGRTS), because this would considerably reduce the number of animals and other costs involved...... during critical period of development in contrast to the parental generation. Retrospective analysis of available two-generation studies, however, indicate that the assessment included in the study of other endpoints in the male offspring such as histopathology of reproductive organs and semen quality...

  17. Multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nicholas, Richard; Rashid, Waqar

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is characterised by central nervous system lesions causing neurological dysfunction and other problems, such as fatigue, pain, depression, and anxiety. Early disease is usually relapsing and remitting, but most people develop secondary-progressive disease over time. No treatment has been shown to affect long-term outcome.Irreversible disability can occur, but life expectancy is generally not affected.

  18. Multiple Intelligences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, Janet

    1999-01-01

    Details the characteristics of Howard Gardner's seven multiple intelligences (MI): linguistic, logical-mathematical, bodily-kinesthetic, spatial, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. Discusses the implications of MI for instruction. Explores how students can study using their preferred learning style - visual, auditory, and physical study…

  19. Multiple Leiomyoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nath Sarkar Jyotirindra

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A case of multiple cutaneous lelomyomas is reported for its uncommon occurrence. This cases was associated with osseous and soft tissue hamartoma of right thumb, lipoma on left side of chest and back, hoarseness of voice and lower motor neurone disorder in limbs.

  20. Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plummer, Nancy; Michael, Nancy, Ed.

    This module on multiple sclerosis is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who administer medications in long-term care facilities. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions, and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then…

  1. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1988-01-01

    Forty-two (12%) of a total of 366 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) had psychiatric admissions. Of these, 34 (81%) had their first psychiatric admission in conjunction with or after the onset of MS. Classification by psychiatric diagnosis showed that there was a significant positive correlation...

  2. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1994-01-01

    In a cross-sectional study of 94 patients (42 males, 52 females) with definite multiple sclerosis (MS) in the age range 25-55 years, the correlation of neuropsychological tests with the ability to read TV-subtitles and with the use of sedatives is examined. A logistic regression analysis reveals...

  3. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Knudsen, L; Jensen, K

    1991-01-01

    In a cross-sectional investigation of 116 patients with multiple sclerosis, the social and sparetime activities of the patient were assessed by both patient and his/her family. The assessments were correlated to physical disability which showed that particularly those who were moderately disabled...

  4. Multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E; Jensen, K

    1990-01-01

    An investigation on the correlation between ability to read TV subtitles and the duration of visual evoked potential (VEP) latency in 14 patients with definite multiple sclerosis (MS), indicated that VEP latency in patients unable to read the TV subtitles was significantly delayed in comparison...

  5. Epidemiology of exertional rhabdomyolysis susceptibility in standardbred horses reveals associated risk factors and underlying enhanced performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cajsa M Isgren

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome is recognised in many athletic horse breeds and in recent years specific forms of the syndrome have been identified. However, although Standardbred horses are used worldwide for racing, there is a paucity of information about the epidemiological and performance-related aspects of the syndrome in this breed. The objectives of this study therefore were to determine the incidence, risk factors and performance effects of exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred trotters and to compare the epidemiology and genetics of the syndrome with that in other breeds. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A questionnaire-based case-control study (with analysis of online race records was conducted following identification of horses that were determined susceptible to exertional rhabdomyolysis (based on serum biochemistry from a total of 683 horses in 22 yards. Thirty six exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses were subsequently genotyped for the skeletal muscle glycogen synthase (GYS1 mutation responsible for type 1 polysaccharide storage myopathy. A total of 44 susceptible horses was reported, resulting in an annual incidence of 6.4 (95% CI 4.6-8.2% per 100 horses. Female horses were at significantly greater risk than males (odds ratio 7.1; 95% CI 2.1-23.4; p = 0.001 and nervous horses were at a greater risk than horses with calm or average temperaments (odds ratio 7.9; 95% CI 2.3-27.0; p = 0.001. Rhabdomyolysis-susceptible cases performed better from standstill starts (p = 0.04 than controls and had a higher percentage of wins (p = 0.006. All exertional rhabdomyolysis-susceptible horses tested were negative for the R309H GYS1 mutation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Exertional rhabdomyolysis syndrome in Standardbred horses has a similar incidence and risk factors to the syndrome in Thoroughbred horses. If the disorder has a genetic basis in Standardbreds, improved performance in susceptible animals may be

  6. Modeling trajectories of perceived leg exertion during maximal cycle ergometer exercise in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; Therneau, Terry; McGrath, Patrick; Pianosi, Paolo

    2014-01-09

    Borg developed scales for rating pain and perceived exertion in adults that have also been used in pediatric populations. Models describing functional relationships between perceived exertion and work capacity have not been studied in children. We compared different models and their fits to individual trajectories and assessed the variability in these trajectories. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were collected from 79 children. Progressive cycle ergonometric testing was performed to maximal work capacity with test duration ranging from 6- 12 minutes. Ratings were obtained during each 1-minute increment. Work was normalized to individual maximal work capacity (Wmax). A delay was defined as the fraction of Wmax at which point an increase in ratings of leg fatigue occurred. Such a delay term allows the characterization of trajectories for children whose ratings were initially constant with increasing work. Two models were considered, a delay model and a power model that is commonly used to analyze Borg ratings. Individual model fit was assessed with root mean squared error (RMSE). Functional clustering algorithms were used to identify patterns. Leg tiredness developed quickly for some children while for others there was a delay before an in- creased ratings of leg exertion occurred with increasing work. Models for individual trajectories with the smallest RMSE included a delay and a quadratic term (quadratic-delay model), or a power function and a delay term (power-delay model) compared to a simple power function. The median delay was 40% Wmax (interquartile range (IQR): 26-49%) in a quadratic-delay model, while the median exponent was 1.03 (IQR: 0.83-1.78) in a power-delay model. Nine clusters were identified showing linear or quadratic patterns with or without a delay. Cluster membership did not depend on age, gender or diagnosis. Children and adolescents vary widely in their capacity to rate their perceptions and exhibit different functional relationships

  7. Is LSD toxic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, David E; Grob, Charles S

    2018-02-01

    LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide) was discovered almost 75 years ago, and has been the object of episodic controversy since then. While initially explored as an adjunctive psychiatric treatment, its recreational use by the general public has persisted and on occasion has been associated with adverse outcomes, particularly when the drug is taken under suboptimal conditions. LSD's potential to cause psychological disturbance (bad trips) has been long understood, and has rarely been associated with accidental deaths and suicide. From a physiological perspective, however, LSD is known to be non-toxic and medically safe when taken at standard dosages (50-200μg). The scientific literature, along with recent media reports, have unfortunately implicated "LSD toxicity" in five cases of sudden death. On close examination, however, two of these fatalities were associated with ingestion of massive overdoses, two were evidently in individuals with psychological agitation after taking standard doses of LSD who were then placed in maximal physical restraint positions (hogtied) by police, following which they suffered fatal cardiovascular collapse, and one case of extreme hyperthermia leading to death that was likely caused by a drug substituted for LSD with strong effects on central nervous system temperature regulation (e.g. 25i-NBOMe). Given the renewed interest in the therapeutic potential of LSD and other psychedelic drugs, it is important that an accurate understanding be established of the true causes of such fatalities that had been erroneously attributed to LSD toxicity, including massive overdoses, excessive physical restraints, and psychoactive drugs other than LSD. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Toxic metals and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Sarmishtha; Sarkar, Shuvasree; Bhattacharya, Shelley

    2014-11-17

    The earth's resources are finite, and it can no longer be considered a source of inexhaustible bounty for the human population. However, this realization has not been able to contain the human desire for rapid industrialization. The collateral to overusing environmental resources is the high-level contamination of undesirable toxic metals, leading to bioaccumulation and cellular damage. Cytopathological features of biological systems represent a key variable in several diseases. A review of the literature revealed that autophagy (PCDII), a high-capacity process, may consist of selective elimination of vital organelles and/or proteins that intiate mechanisms of cytoprotection and homeostasis in different biological systems under normal physiological and stress conditions. However, the biological system does survive under various environmental stressors. Currently, there is no consensus that specifies a particular response as being a dependable biomarker of toxicology. Autophagy has been recorded as the initial response of a cell to a toxic metal in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Various signaling pathways are triggered through cellular proteins and/or protein kinases that can lead to autophagy, apoptosis (or necroptosis), and necrosis. Although the role of autophagy in tumorigenesis is associated with promoting tumor cell survival and/or acting as a tumor suppressive mechanism, PCDII in metal-induced toxicity has not been extensively studied. The aim of this review is to analyze the comparative cytotoxicity of metals/metalloids and nanoparticles (As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Fe, and metal-NP) in cells enduring autophagy. It is noted that metals/metalloids and nanoparticles prefer ATG8/LC3 as a potent inducer of autophagy in several cell lines or animal cells. MAP kinases, death protein kinases, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and AMP kinase have been found to be the major components of autophagy induction or inhibition in the context of cellular responses to metals/metalloids and

  9. Nanoparticle toxicity and cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevenslik, T, E-mail: nanoqed@gmail.com [QED Radiations, Discovery Bay, Hong Kong (Hong Kong)

    2011-07-06

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have provided significant advancements in cancer treatment. But as in any technology, there is a darkside. Experiments have shown NPs in body fluids pose a health risk by causing DNA damage that in of itself may lead to cancer. To avoid the dilemma that NPs are toxic to both cancer cells and DNA alike, the mechanism of NP toxicity must be understood so that the safe use of NPs may go forward. Reactive oxidative species (ROS) of peroxide and hydroxyl radicals damage the DNA by chemical reaction, but require NPs provide energies of about 5 eV not possible by surface effects. Only electromagnetic (EM) radiations beyond ultraviolet (UV) levels may explain the toxicity of NPs. Indeed, experiments show DNA damage from <100 nm NPs mimic the same reaction pathways of conventional sources of ionizing radiation, Hence, it is reasonable to hypothesize that NPs produce their own source of UV radiation, albeit at low intensity. Ionizing radiation from NPs at UV levels is consistent with the theory of QED induced EM radiation. QED stands for quantum electrodynamics. By this theory, fine < 100 nm NPs absorb low frequency thermal energy in the far infrared (FIR) from collisions with the water molecules in body fluids. Since quantum mechanics (QM) precludes NPs from having specific heat, absorbed EM collision energy cannot be conserved by an increase in temperature. But total internal reflection (TIR) momentarily confines the absorbed EM energy within the NP. Conservation proceeds by the creation of QED photons by frequency up-conversion of the absorbed EM energy to the TIR confinement frequency, typically beyond the UV. Subsequently, the QED photons upon scattering from atoms within the NP avoid TIR confinement and leak UV to the surroundings, thereby explaining the remarkable toxicity of NPs. But QED radiation need not be limited to natural or man-made NPs. Extensions suggest UV radiation is produced from biological NPs within the body, e.g., enzyme induced

  10. Neurological oxygen toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmery, Scott; Sykes, Oliver

    2012-10-01

    SCUBA diving has several risks associated with it from breathing air under pressure--nitrogen narcosis, barotrauma and decompression sickness (the bends). Trimix SCUBA diving involves regulating mixtures of nitrogen, oxygen and helium in an attempt to overcome the risks of narcosis and decompression sickness during deep dives, but introduces other potential hazards such as hypoxia and oxygen toxicity convulsions. This study reports on a seizure during the ascent phase, its potential causes and management and discusses the hazards posed to the diver and his rescuer by an emergency ascent to the surface.

  11. Diagnosis and Treatment of Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome - a Proposition for an Algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Peter Birk; Jensen, Steffen Skov

    Title: Diagnosis and treatment of chronic exertional compartment syndrome - a proposition for an algorithm based on case series of patients treated at Sports Medicine Division, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Viborg Regional Hospital, Denmark Background: Chronic exertional compartment syndrome...... that specific activity induced strain (SAIS) can be used to diagnose the specific affected compartments, and in this way be able to safely and effectively treat this disorder using endoscopic assisted selective fasciotomy (EASF). Materials and Methods: Retrospective follow-up study of 13 consecutive selected...... in conjunction with a thorough medical history formed the basis for the diagnosis. Results: 11 patients were offered surgical treatment consisting of EASF of the affected compartment (10 bilateral and 1 unilateral, 8 affected in specific compartments and 3 affected in all compartments. Only 1 patient required...

  12. Virtual Exertions: a user interface combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback for virtual object manipulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponto, Kevin; Kimmel, Ryan; Kohlmann, Joe; Bartholomew, Aaron; Radwin, Robert G

    2012-01-01

    Virtual Reality environments have the ability to present users with rich visual representations of simulated environments. However, means to interact with these types of illusions are generally unnatural in the sense that they do not match the methods humans use to grasp and move objects in the physical world. We demonstrate a system that enables users to interact with virtual objects with natural body movements by combining visual information, kinesthetics and biofeedback from electromyograms (EMG). Our method allows virtual objects to be grasped, moved and dropped through muscle exertion classification based on physical world masses. We show that users can consistently reproduce these calibrated exertions, allowing them to interface with objects in a novel way.

  13. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J S; Wheeler, P C; Boyd, K T; Barnes, M R; Allen, M J

    2011-06-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria for offering surgical intervention. The superficial flexor, deep flexor and extensor compartments were released. Median follow-up was 9.5 years (range 7 months to 12 years). Median patient-reported percentage improvement after surgery was 88% (range 0%-100%). Median time to return to full activity was 9 weeks. Eleven out of 12 patients were satisfied, very satisfied or extremely satisfied with the outcome of surgery. Fasciotomy can be an effective treatment for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm.

  14. Incidental Finding of Inferior Vena Cava Atresia Presenting with Deep Venous Thrombosis following Physical Exertion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shalini Koppisetty

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Inferior vena cava atresia (IVCA is a rare but well described vascular anomaly. It is a rare risk factor for deep venous thrombosis (DVT, found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity (LE DVT in patients <30 years of age. Affected population is in the early thirties, predominantly male, often with a history of major physical exertion and presents with extensive or bilateral DVTs. Patients with IVC anomalies usually develop compensatory circulation through the collateral veins with enlarged azygous/hemizygous veins. Despite the compensatory circulation, the venous drainage of the lower limbs is often insufficient leading to venous stasis and thrombosis. We describe a case of extensive and bilateral deep venous thrombosis following physical exertion in a thirty-six-year-old male patient with incidental finding of IVCA on imaging.

  15. Assessment of the mechanisms exerting glucose-lowering effects of dried peas in glucose-intolerant rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Kevin A; Kozicky, Lisa; Jin, Alena; Yee, Homun; Ha, Christine; Morris, Jill; Field, Catherine J; Bell, Rhonda C; Ozga, Jocelyn A; Chan, Catherine B

    2012-08-01

    The present study compared the effects of feeding uncooked pea fractions (embryo v. seed coat) on glucose homeostasis in glucose-intolerant rats and examined potential mechanisms influencing glucose homeostasis. Rats were made glucose intolerant by high-fat feeding, after which diets containing both high-fat and pea fractions were fed for 4 weeks. Rats fed diets containing uncooked pea seed coats low (non-coloured seed coat; NSC) or high (coloured seed coat; CSC) in proanthocyanidins but not embryos had improved oral glucose tolerance (P < 0·05). NSC also lowered fasting and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (P < 0·05), decreased β-cell mass by 50 % (P < 0·05) and lowered levels of malondialdehyde, a marker of oxidative stress. Furthermore, NSC decreased the mucosal thickness of the colon by 25 % (P < 0·05), which might affect fibre fermentation and other gut functions. Small but statistically significant (P < 0·05) effects consistent with enhanced glucose transport or metabolism were observed in the skeletal muscle of rats fed NSC or CSC, for example, increased levels of AMP-dependent kinase or akt. We conclude that pea seed coats are the fraction exerting beneficial effects on glucose tolerance. Most of the changes were small in amplitude, suggesting that additive effects on multiple tissues may be important. NSC content appeared to have the most beneficial effects in improving glucose homeostasis but our ability to detect the effect of flavonoids may have been limited by their low concentration in the diet.

  16. Exertional rhabdomyolysis and acute renal failure following the Army Physical Fitness Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietjen, D P; Guzzi, L M

    1989-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuric acute renal failure may occur following strenuous exercise and may be more common in less physically conditioned persons. A case of moderately severe acute renal failure after the exercise involved in a routine Army Physical Fitness Test (APFT) is described. This level of exertion, which is universally applied to Army personnel, should be recognized as a potential etiology of rhabdomyolysis. Prospective studies may help define the exact risk to renal function provided by the APFT.

  17. Salivary Gland Derived BDNF Overexpression in Mice Exerts an Anxiolytic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Saruta, Juri; To, Masahiro; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Yamamoto, Yuko; Shimizu, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Inoue, Hiroko; Saito, Ichiro; Tsukinoki, Keiichi

    2017-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is abundant in the hippocampus and plays critical roles in memory and synapse formation, as well as exerting antidepressant-like effects in psychiatric disorders. We previously reported that BDNF is expressed in salivary glands and affects blood BDNF content. However, the function of salivary BDNF remains unclear. The aim of this study was to generate transgenic mice overexpressing BDNF in the salivary glands. Hence, we used the Lama construct (hemaggl...

  18. Fatigue Induced by Physical and Mental Exertion Increases Perception of Effort and Impairs Subsequent Endurance Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Pageaux, Benjamin; Lepers, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Endurance performance involves the prolonged maintenance of constant or self-regulated power/velocity or torque/force. While the impact of numerous determinants of endurance performance has been previously reviewed, the impact of fatigue on subsequent endurance performance still needs to be documented. This review aims to present the impact of fatigue induced by physical or mental exertion on subsequent endurance performance. For the purpose of this review, endurance performance refers to per...

  19. Effect of Stimulant Medication Use by Children with ADHD on Heart Rate and Perceived Exertion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahon, Anthony D.; Woodruff, Megan E.; Horn, Mary P.; Marjerrison, Andrea D.; Cole, Andrew S.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of stimulant medication use by children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE)--heart rate (HR) relationship was examined. Children with ADHD (n = 20; 11.3 [plus or minus] 1.8 yrs) and children without ADHD (n = 25; 11.2 [plus or minus] 2.1 yrs) were studied. Children with ADHD…

  20. Implicit theories about willpower predict the activation of a rest goal following self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Job, Veronika; Bernecker, Katharina; Miketta, Stefanie; Friese, Malte

    2015-10-01

    Past research indicates that peoples' implicit theories about the nature of willpower moderate the ego-depletion effect. Only people who believe or were led to believe that willpower is a limited resource (limited-resource theory) showed lower self-control performance after an initial demanding task. As of yet, the underlying processes explaining this moderating effect by theories about willpower remain unknown. Here, we propose that the exertion of self-control activates the goal to preserve and replenish mental resources (rest goal) in people with a limited-resource theory. Five studies tested this hypothesis. In Study 1, individual differences in implicit theories about willpower predicted increased accessibility of a rest goal after self-control exertion. Furthermore, measured (Study 2) and manipulated (Study 3) willpower theories predicted an increased preference for rest-conducive objects. Finally, Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence that theories about willpower predict actual resting behavior: In Study 4, participants who held a limited-resource theory took a longer break following self-control exertion than participants with a nonlimited-resource theory. Longer resting time predicted decreased rest goal accessibility afterward. In Study 5, participants with an induced limited-resource theory sat longer on chairs in an ostensible product-testing task when they had engaged in a task requiring self-control beforehand. This research provides consistent support for a motivational shift toward rest after self-control exertion in people holding a limited-resource theory about willpower. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Prevention of Organ Injury in Exertional Heat Stroke: Preclinical Evaluation of a New Class of NSAIDs

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-01

    Mustico DL, Haines JM, and Clanton TL. Biomarkers of multi- organ injury in a pre-clinical model of exertional heat stroke. Journal of Applied...Human Performance, The University of Florida; and 2Thermal and Mountain Medicine Division, United States Army Research Institute of Environmental...hypovolemic circulatory collapse by IL-6 activated Stat3. PLoS One 3: e1605, 2008. doi:10.1371/ journal . pone.0001605. 3. Bachmaier K, Toya S, Malik AB

  2. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm: a case series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, J S; Wheeler, P C; Boyd, K T; Barnes, M R; Allen, M J

    2011-01-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is rare in the published literature. We report the outcome of a series of 12 patients treated with fasciotomy over a 14 year period. All patients underwent dynamic intra-compartmental pressure testing using a slit catheter technique before surgery. Raised intra-compartmental pressures on exercise, typical symptoms and the absence of other diagnoses were criteria for offering surgical intervention. The superficial flexor, deep flexor and e...

  3. Bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity

    OpenAIRE

    Lievin, V; Peiffer, I.; Hudault, S; Rochat, F; Brassart, D; Neeser, J.P.; Servin, A L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS—The gastrointestinal microflora exerts a barrier effect against enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to examine if bifidobacteria, a major species of the human colonic microflora, participates in the barrier effect by developing antimicrobial activity against enterovirulent bacteria.
METHODS—Antibacterial activity was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium SL1334 cell association and c...

  4. Understanding the toxicity of carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Zhao, Yuliang; Sun, Baoyun; Chen, Chunying

    2013-03-19

    Because of their unique physical, chemical, electrical, and mechanical properties, carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted a great deal of research interest and have many potential applications. As large-scale production and application of CNTs increases, the general population is more likely to be exposed to CNTs either directly or indirectly, which has prompted considerable attention about human health and safety issues related to CNTs. Although considerable experimental data related to CNT toxicity at the molecular, cellular, and whole animal levels have been published, the results are often conflicting. Therefore, a systematic understanding of CNT toxicity is needed but has not yet been developed. In this Account, we highlight recent investigations into the basis of CNT toxicity carried out by our team and by other laboratories. We focus on several important factors that explain the disparities in the experimental results of nanotoxicity, such as impurities, amorphous carbon, surface charge, shape, length, agglomeration, and layer numbers. The exposure routes, including inhalation, intravenous injection, or dermal or oral exposure, can also influence the in vivo behavior and fate of CNTs. The underlying mechanisms of CNT toxicity include oxidative stress, inflammatory responses, malignant transformation, DNA damage and mutation (errors in chromosome number as well as disruption of the mitotic spindle), the formation of granulomas, and interstitial fibrosis. These findings provide useful insights for de novo design and safe application of carbon nanotubes and their risk assessment to human health. To obtain reproducible and accurate results, researchers must establish standards and reliable detection methods, use standard CNT samples as a reference control, and study the impact of various factors systematically. In addition, researchers need to examine multiple types of CNTs, different cell lines and animal species, multidimensional evaluation methods, and

  5. The toxic effects of chlorophenols and associated mechanisms in fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Tingting; Han, Jiangyuan; Qi, Yongmei; Gu, Xueyan; Ma, Lin; Zhang, Chen; Naeem, Sajid; Huang, Dejun, E-mail: huangdj@lzu.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Highlights: • We review the toxic effects of chlorophenols (CPs) and underlying mechanisms in fish. • CPs induce lethal effects, oxidative stress, endocrine disruption, reproductive toxicity and apoptosis in fish. • CPs exhibit toxicity through multiple signaling pathways in fish and different pathways co-exist under the same conditions. • Studies on DNA methylation provide new insights into our understanding of epigenetic mechanisms of CPs-induced toxicity. • Mechanisms studies on CPs toxicity performed under environmental concentrations need more attentions. - Abstract: Chlorophenols (CPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in the environment primarily released from agricultural and industrial wastewater. These compounds are not readily degraded naturally, and easily accumulate in organs, tissues and cells via food chains, further leading to acute and chronic toxic effects on aquatic organisms. Herein, we review the available literature regarding CP toxicity in fish, with special emphasis on the potential toxic mechanisms. CPs cause oxidative stress via generation of reactive oxygen species, induction of lipid peroxidation and/or oxidative DNA damage along with inhibition of antioxidant systems. CPs affect immune system by altering the number of mature B cells and macrophages, while suppressing phagocytosis and down-regulating the expression of immune factors. CPs also disrupt endocrine function by affecting hormone levels, or inducing abnormal gene expression and interference with hormone receptors. CPs at relatively higher concentrations induce apoptosis via mitochondria-mediated pathway, cell death receptor-mediated pathway, and/or DNA damage-mediated pathway. CPs at relatively lower concentrations promote cell proliferation, and foster cancers-prone environment by increasing the rate of point mutations and oxidative DNA lesions. These toxic effects in fish are induced directly by CPs per se or indirectly by their metabolic products. In addition, recent

  6. EPs® 7630 (Umckaloabo®), an extract from Pelargonium sidoides roots, exerts anti-influenza virus activity in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theisen, Linda L; Muller, Claude P

    2012-05-01

    A prodelphinidin-rich extract from Pelargonium sidoides DC, EPs® 7630 (Umckaloabo®), which is licensed to treat respiratory tract infections such as acute bronchitis, was investigated for its antiviral effects. EPs® 7630 showed dose-dependent anti-influenza activity at non-toxic concentrations against pandemic H1N1, oseltamivir-sensitive and -resistant seasonal H1N1, seasonal H3N2 and the laboratory H1N1 strain A/Puerto Rico/8/34, while it had no antiviral activity against adenovirus or measles virus. The extract inhibited an early step of influenza infection and impaired viral hemagglutination as well as neuraminidase activity. However, EPs® 7630 did not exhibit a direct virucidal effect, as virus preincubation (unlike cell preincubation) with the extract did not influence infectivity. Importantly, EPs® 7630 showed no propensity to resistance development in vitro. Analysis of EPs® 7630 constituents revealed that prodelphinidins represent the active principle. Chain length influenced antiviral activity, as monomers and dimers were less effective than oligo- and polymers. Importantly, gallocatechin and its stereoisomer epigallocatechin exert antiviral activity also in their monomeric form. In addition, EPs® 7630 administered by inhalation significantly improved survival, body weight and body temperature of influenza-infected mice, without obvious toxicity, demonstrating the benefit of EPs® 7630 in treatment of influenza. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Influence of a Bout of Exertion on Novice Barefoot Running Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Hashish, Sachithra D. Samarawickrame, Lucinda Baker, George J. Salem

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Barefoot, forefoot strike (FFS running has recently risen in popularity. Relative to shod, rear-foot strike (RFS running, employing a FFS is associated with heightened triceps surae muscle activation and ankle mechanical demand. Novice to this pattern, it is plausible that habitually shod RFS runners exhibit fatigue to the triceps surae when acutely transitioning to barefoot running, thereby limiting their ability to attenuate impact. Therefore, the purpose was to determine how habitually shod RFS runners respond to an exertion bout of barefoot running, operationally defined as a barefoot run 20% of mean daily running distance. Twenty-one RFS runners performed novice barefoot running, before and after exertion. Ankle peak torque, triceps surae EMG median frequency, foot-strike patterns, joint energy absorption, and loading rates were evaluated. Of the 21 runners, 6 maintained a RFS, 10 adopted a mid-foot strike (MFS, and 5 adopted a FFS during novice barefoot running. In-response to exertion, MFS and FFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque, median frequency, and ankle energy absorption, and an increase in loading rate. RFS runners demonstrated reductions in peak torque and loading rate. These results indicate that a short bout of running may elicit fatigue to novice barefoot runners, limiting their ability to attenuate impact.

  8. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohse, Keith R.; Sherwood, David E.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007a) compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevinson and Biddle, 1998). In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task) to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type) increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors) in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies, and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion. PMID:22102843

  9. Exertional Myopathy in a Juvenile Green Sea Turtle (Chelonia mydas Entangled in a Large Mesh Gillnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brianne E. Phillips

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A juvenile female green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas was found entangled in a large mesh gillnet in Pamlico Sound, NC, and was weak upon presentation for treatment. Blood gas analysis revealed severe metabolic acidosis and hyperlactatemia. Plasma biochemistry analysis showed elevated aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase, marked hypercalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, and hyperkalemia. Death occurred within 24 hours of presentation despite treatment with intravenous and subcutaneous fluids and sodium bicarbonate. Necropsy revealed multifocal to diffuse pallor of the superficial and deep pectoral muscles. Mild, multifocal, and acute myofiber necrosis was identified by histopathological examination. While histological changes in the examined muscle were modest, the acid-base, mineral, and electrolyte abnormalities were sufficiently severe to contribute to this animal’s mortality. Exertional myopathy in reptiles has not been well characterized. Sea turtle mortality resulting from forced submergence has been attributed to blood gas derangements and seawater aspiration; however, exertional myopathy may also be an important contributing factor. If possible, sea turtles subjected to incidental capture and entanglement that exhibit weakness or dull mentation should be clinically evaluated prior to release to minimize the risk of delayed mortality. Treatment with appropriate fluid therapy and supportive care may mitigate the effects of exertional myopathy in some cases.

  10. An Exploration of Exertion in Mixed Reality Systems via the ``Table Tennis for Three'' Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Florian ‘Floyd'; Gibbs, Martin R.; Vetere, Frank

    Humans experience their physical and social environment through their bodies and their associated movement actions. However, most mixed reality systems approach the integration of the real with a virtual world from a computational perspective, often neglecting the body’s capabilities by offering only limited interaction possibilities with a few augmented tangible objects. We propose a view on mixed reality systems that focuses on the human body and its movements, because we believe such an approach has the potential to support novel interaction experiences, as explored by a prototypal gaming system that was inspired by exertion actions exhibited in table tennis. “Table Tennis for Three” enables augmented bodily experiences while offering new opportunities for interaction, such as supporting three players simultaneously across geographical distances. This case study offers an exploration of the role of the human body and its associated movement actions in mixed reality systems, aiming to contribute toward an understanding of the use of exertion in such systems. Such an understanding can support leveraging the many benefits of exertion through mixed reality systems and therefore guide future advances in this research field.

  11. Single minimal incision fasciotomy for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the lower leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffulli, Nicola; Loppini, Mattia; Spiezia, Filippo; D'Addona, Alessio; Maffulli, Gayle D

    2016-05-24

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) involves a painful increase in compartment pressure caused by exercise and relieved by rest, common in athletes. The most common site for CECS in the lower limbs is the anterior leg compartment. The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of a single minimal incision fasciotomy in athletes and their capability to return to high level sport activity. The study reports mid-term results in a series of 18 consecutive athletes with chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the leg who had undergone minimally invasive fasciotomy. Between 2000 and 2007, we prospectively enrolled 18 consecutive athletes (12 males and six females, median age 27 years) with unilateral or bilateral chronic exertional compartment syndrome undergoing unilateral or bilateral minimally invasive fasciotomy. Clinical outcomes were assessed with Short-Form Health Survey-36 (SF-36) and European Quality of Life-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) scale. The ability to participate in sport before and after surgery and the time to return to training (RTT) and to sport (RTS) were recorded. The median follow-up after surgery was 36 months. Both questionnaires showed a statistically significant improvement (P compartment syndrome of the anterior and lateral compartments of the leg with good results in the mid-term.

  12. Selective Fasciotomy for Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome Detected With Exercise Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sehan; Lee, Ho Seong; Seo, Sang Gyo

    2017-11-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome that is refractory to conservative management should be treated with surgical fasciotomy. However, owing to the limitations of intracompartmental needle manometry in reaching a definite diagnosis, the appropriate timing for fasciotomy and on which compartment remain unclear. The authors report the case of a 22-year-old male military cadet who reported pain in his left calf when running or walking for long distances. The pain was located at the lateral aspect of the calf, from the mid-calf level to the ankle. At another hospital, nonenhanced magnetic resonance imaging had been performed, which showed no considerable abnormality. The authors used exercise magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose chronic exertional compartment syndrome. They performed selective fasciotomy on the compartment that showed a high signal intensity. As a military cadet, the patient was required to jog for more than an hour per day and perform strenuous muscle exercises. He reported that he did not have calf pain or discomfort during such activities 13 months postoperatively. The authors obtained a follow-up exercise magnetic resonance image. Compared with the preoperative magnetic resonance image, the follow-up exercise magnetic resonance image did not show high signal intensity at the lateral compartment. Exercise magnetic resonance imaging is useful in confirming the diagnosis of chronic exertional compartment syndrome and enables the performance of selective fasciotomy on the affected compartment. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(6):e1099-e1102.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. [Endoscopic aponeurotomy for chronic exertional compartmental syndrome of the forearm: report of 41 cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, D; Clement, R; Roure, P

    2003-08-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is probably underdiagnosed as a cause of forearm pain in the sportsman. Its pathological basis is a critical elevation of extracellular pressure. The clinical diagnosis is confirmed by measurements of intracompartmental pressures. We described a reliable original method of endoscopically assisted superficial fasciotomy for treating chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm. The goal of the study is the physiological and clinical validation of this technique. Retrospective cohort study after the anatomical assessment of the feasibility of our endoscopically assisted fasciotomy. Review of 41 forearm decompressions in 25 patients (23 sportsmen and 2 musicians). Follow-up of 6 months to 9 years. Eighty-eight percent reported an excellent or good outcome with significant reduction of pain during exercise. Three patients noted the return of their compartment syndrome and this was confirmed by new measurements of intramuscular pressure. Two of them underwent fasciectomy with excision of a hypertrophic scar of the superficial aponevrosis to good effect. Two hematomas and 2 lateral epicondylitis with no adverse effect on the final result. Endoscopically assisted fasciotomy is a reliable technique for reducing pain in chronic compartment exertional syndromes. It allows the large majority of patients to return to sports. It is our first choice indication in young sportsmen for syndromes of the forearm (anterior and/or posterior compartment). The limit of the technique is the current knowledge of collagenic tissues pathology as a cause of recurrence with hypertrophic aponevrotic scars.

  14. Caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on attention under emotional arousal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Mahoney, Caroline R; Brunyé, Tad T; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-01-01

    Tea is perceived as more relaxing than coffee, even though both contain caffeine. L-theanine in tea may account for the difference. Consumed together, caffeine and theanine exert similar cognitive effects to that of caffeine alone, but exert opposite effects on arousal, in that caffeine accentuates and theanine mitigates physiological and felt stress responses. We evaluated whether caffeine and theanine influenced cognition under emotional arousal. Using a double-blind, repeated-measures design, 36 participants received 4 treatments (200 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 200 mg caffeine + 200 mg theanine, 0 mg caffeine + 0 mg theanine) on separate days. Emotional arousal was induced by highly arousing negative film clips and pictures. Mood, salivary cortisol, and visual attention were evaluated. Caffeine accentuated global processing of visual attention on the hierarchical shape task (p Caffeine reduced flanker conflict difference scores on the Attention Network Test (p caffeine and theanine exert opposite effects on certain attentional processes, but when consumed together, they counteract the effects of each other.

  15. Relative contribution of trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine during isometric exertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholewicki, Jacek; VanVliet, James J

    2002-02-01

    To compare the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to the stability of the lumbar spine. Quantification of spine stability with a biomechanical model. Modern low back rehabilitation techniques focus on muscles that stabilize the lumbar spine. However, the relative contribution of various trunk muscles to spine stability is currently unknown. Eight male subjects performed isometric exertions in trunk flexion, extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation, and isometric exertions under vertical trunk loading and in a lifting hold. Each isometric trial was repeated three times at 20%, 40%, and 60% of the maximum trunk flexion force or with a load of 0%, 20%, 40%, and 60% of body weight for the latter two exertions. Surface EMG data from 12 major trunk muscles were used in the biomechanical model to estimate stability of the lumbar spine. A simulation of each trial was performed repeatedly with one of the 10 major trunk muscle groups removed from the model. Relative contribution of each muscle to spine stability was significantly affected by the combination of loading magnitude and direction (3-way interaction). None of the removed muscles reduced spine stability by more than 30%. A single muscle cannot be identified as the most important for the stability of the lumbar spine. Rather, spine stability depends on the relative activation of all trunk muscles and other loading variables. This study will improve our understanding of individual trunk muscles' contribution to overall stability of the lumbar spine.

  16. Defining the Focus of Attention: Effects of Attention on Perceived Exertion and Fatigue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith eLohse

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents two experiments designed to explore the effects of attention on perceived exertion and time to failure in a fatiguing athletic task. There were two major motivating factors for these experiments. First, there are few studies evaluating attentional focus effects in endurance tasks and, second, there is a lack of integration between studies of attentional focus as external/internal (e.g., Wulf, 2007 compared to associative/dissociative (e.g., Stevenson & Biddle, 1998. In Experiment 1, we used a fatiguing wall-sit posture (essentially a complex, isometric task to compare two different types of external attention with an internal focus on the position of the legs. An external focus (regardless of type increased the time taken to failure and reduced perceived exertion. In Experiment 2, we manipulated subjects’ expectancy of fatigue to test the interaction of attention and expectancy (both top-down factors in this highly fatiguing task. Previous theories of attention during endurance tasks have suggested that as fatigue/pain increase, bottom-up factors begin to dominate subjects’ attention. While this may be true, Experiment 2 showed that even in a highly fatiguing task, attentional strategies and expectancies affected the time to failure and perceived exertion.

  17. Dalhousie Dyspnea and perceived exertion scales: psychophysical properties in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pianosi, Paolo T; Huebner, Marianne; Zhang, Zhen; McGrath, Patrick J

    2014-08-01

    Children and adolescents vary widely in their perception of, or capacity to rate, sensations during exercise using the Borg scale. We sought to measure sensory-perceptual responses obtained using Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales in 79 pediatric subjects during maximal exercise challenge and to determine the psychophysical function relationship(s). Concurrent validity was assessed by canonical plots of mean ratings on either scale, which showed showing very good correlations for perceived leg exertion vs work, and dyspnea vs ventilation. Both scales yielded similar results with respect to goodness of fit regardless of whether data was fitted to a power or quadratic function provided a delay term was included. The quadratic model fixed the exponent of the power law at 2 but, unlike a power model, allowed characterization of individual responses that increased and then plateaued. Dalhousie Dyspnea and Perceived Exertion Scales offer an alternative to Borg scale during exercise in pediatric populations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Multiple sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Nylander, Alyssa; Hafler, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a multifocal demyelinating disease with progressive neurodegeneration caused by an autoimmune response to self-antigens in a genetically susceptible individual. While the formation and persistence of meningeal lymphoid follicles suggest persistence of antigens to drive the continuing inflammatory and humoral response, the identity of an antigen or infectious agent leading to the oligoclonal expansion of B and T cells is unknown. In this review we examine new paradig...

  19. Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Gaby, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive demyelinating disease of the central nervous system. Common manifestations include paresthesias, diplopia, loss of vision, numbness or weakness of the limbs, bowel or bladder dysfunction, spasticity, ataxia, fatigue, and mental changes. Four main patterns of MS are recognized: relapsing remitting, primary progressive, secondary progressive, and progressive relapsing. The cause of MS is unknown, although it appears to be an autoimmune disease. M...

  20. Molecular toxicity of nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xue-Ling; Yang, Sheng-Tao; Xing, Gengmei

    2014-10-01

    With the rapid developments in the fields of nanoscience and nanotechnlogy, more and more nanomaterials and their based consumer products have been used into our daily life. The safety concerns of nanomaterials have been well recognized by the scientific community and the public. Molecular mechanism of interactions between nanomaterials and biosystems is the most essential topic and final core of the biosafety. In the last two decades, nanotoxicology developed very fast and toxicity phenomena of nanomaterials have been reported. To achieve better understanding and detoxication of nanomaterials, thorough studies of nanotoxicity at molecular level are important. The interactions between nanomaterials and biomolecules have been widely investigated as the first step toward the molecular nanotoxicology. The consequences of such interactions have been discussed in the literature. Besides this, the chemical mechanism of nanotoxicology is gaining more attention, which would lead to a better design of nontoxic nanomaterials. In this review, we focus on the molecular nanotoxicology and explore the toxicity of nanomaterials at molecular level. The molecular level studies of nanotoxicology are summarized and the published nanotoxicological data are revisited.

  1. 49 CFR 1103.13 - Attempts to exert political or personal influence on the Board are prohibited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Attempts to exert political or personal influence... Attempts to exert political or personal influence on the Board are prohibited. (a) It is unethical for a practitioner to attempt to influence the judgment of the Board by threats of political or personal reprisal. (b...

  2. Update On Aquatic Toxicity/Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) Issues, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, Winona L

    2005-07-01

    This paper summarizes recent changes in the field of aquatic toxicity/Whole Effluent Toxicity (WET) testing. There are been numerous legal challenges to the validity of WET testing, both at the federal and state levels, but to date, the regulators have prevailed and WET testing is used as a regulatory tool to ensure that the biota of receiving streams are protected. The most recent ruling at the federal level was on December 10, 2004, when a federal appeals court in the District of Columbia upheld the validity of WET testing. At the state level, at the urging of the South Carolina Manufacturers Alliance, the state legislature passed a law (the South Carolina Aquatic Life Protection Act) in 2004 that requires the South Carolina Department of Health and Environmental Control (DHEC) to evaluate the accuracy and precision of the WET test. As a result, SCDHEC removed WET test limits from several NPDES permits. EPA took issue with the impact of the legislation and SCDHEC's actions, and as a result, EPA has taken over several NPDES permits from SCDHEC and threatened to revoke the state's delegated NPDES permit program. A new Act was signed into law in March 2005, which does not exclude the use of chronic toxicity testing for regulatory compliance. As a result, EPA has turned over the issuance of NPDES permits back to SCDHEC. In December 2004, the U.S. EPA issued the Draft National WET Implementation Guidance document for review and comment. The guidance contains recommendations on the determination of ''reasonable potential'' for toxicity. The EPA's ECOTOX database is a valuable resource of toxicity data for many chemicals. For those cases in which there are no toxicity data or very limited data available, the EPA has developed two models, the Interspecies Correlation Estimation (ICE) and the Acute to Chronic Estimation (ACE), for predicting toxicity. Active areas of research include assessing the uptake of heavy metals via multiple

  3. Gastrointestinal Toxicities With Combined Antiangiogenic and Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pollom, Erqi L.; Deng, Lei [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Pai, Reetesh K. [Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States); Brown, J. Martin; Giaccia, Amato; Loo, Billy W.; Shultz, David B.; Le, Quynh Thu; Koong, Albert C. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States); Chang, Daniel T., E-mail: dtchang@stanford.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, California (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Combining the latest targeted biologic agents with the most advanced radiation technologies has been an exciting development in the treatment of cancer patients. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is an ablative radiation approach that has become established for the treatment of a variety of malignancies, and it has been increasingly used in combination with biologic agents, including those targeting angiogenesis-specific pathways. Multiple reports have emerged describing unanticipated toxicities arising from the combination of SBRT and angiogenesis-targeting agents, particularly of late luminal gastrointestinal toxicities. In this review, we summarize the literature describing these toxicities, explore the biological mechanism of action of toxicity with the combined use of antiangiogenic therapies, and discuss areas of future research, so that this combination of treatment modalities can continue to be used in broader clinical contexts.

  4. Identifying the causes of sediment-associated toxicity in urban waterways in South China: incorporating bioavailabillity-based measurements into whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Xiaoyi; Li, Huizhen; Ma, Ping; You, Jing

    2015-08-01

    Sediments in urban waterways of Guangzhou, China, were contaminated by a variety of chemicals and showed prevalent toxicity to benthic organisms. A combination of whole-sediment toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) and bioavailability-based extraction was used to identify the causes of sediment toxicity. Of the 6 sediment samples collected, 4 caused 100% mortality to Chironomus dilutus in 10-d bioassays, and the potential toxicants were assessed using TIE in these sediments after dilution. The results of phase I characterization showed that organic contaminants were the principal contributors to the mortality of the midges in 2 sediments and that metals and organics jointly caused the mortality in the other 2 sediments. Ammonia played no role in the mortality for any samples. Conventional toxic unit analysis in phase II testing identified Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn as the toxic metals, with cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, deltamethrin, and fipronils being the toxic organics. To improve the accuracy of identifying the toxicants, 4-step sequential extraction and Tenax extraction were conducted to analyze the bioavailability of the metals and organics, respectively. Bioavailable toxic unit analysis narrowed the list of toxic contributors, and the putative toxicants included 3 metals (Zn, Ni, and Pb) and 3 pesticides (cypermethrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, and fipronils). Metals contributed to the mortality in all sediments, but sediment dilution reduced the toxicity and confounded the characterization of toxicity contribution from metals in 2 sediments in phase I. Incorporating bioavailability-based measurements into whole-sediment TIE improved the accuracy of identifying the causative toxicants in urban waterways where multiple stressors occurred and contributed to sediment toxicity jointly. © 2015 SETAC.

  5. Effects of calcium, magnesium, and sodium on alleviating cadmium toxicity to Hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, B.P.; Lasier, P.J.; Miller, W.P.; Winger, P.V.

    2000-01-01

    Toxicity of trace metal ions to aquatic organisms, arising through either anthropogenic inputs or acidification of surface waters, continues to be both a regulatory and environmental problem. It is generally accepted that the free metal ion is the major toxic species (Florence et a1.,1992) and that inorganic or organic complexation renders the metal ion non-bioavailable (Meador, 1991, Galvez and Wood, 1997). However, water chemistry parameters such as alkalinity, hardness, dissolved organic carbon and pH influence metal ion toxicity either directly by lowering free metal ion concentration or indirectly through synergistic or antagonistic effects. Alkalinity and salinity can affect the speciation of metal ions by increasing ion-pair formation, thus decreasing free metal ion concentration. For example, Cu was found to be less toxic to rainbow trout in waters of high alkalinity (Miller and Mackay, 1980), due to formation of CuCO3 ion pair, and corresponding reduction in free Cu2+ concentration. The influence of salinity on the toxicity of cadmium to various organisms has been demonstrated in a number of studies (Bervoets et al., 1995, Hall et al., 1995, Lin and Dunson, 1993, Blust et al., 1992). In all these studies the apparent toxicity of cadmium was lowered as salinity was increased due to increased formation of CdC1+ and CDCl2 aqueous complexes that are non-toxic or of much lower toxicity than the free Cd2+ ion. Changes in pH exert both a biological and chemical effect on metal ion toxicity (Campbell and Stokes, 1985). Low pH favors greater metal ion solubility, and, in the absence of complexing ions, reduced speciation of the metal ion, which tends to increase toxicity compared to higher pH. However, Iow pH also enhances competition between H+ and metal ion for cell surface binding sites, which tends to decrease metal ion toxicity.

  6. In Vitro activity of Manuka Honey and polyhexamethylene biguanide on filamentous fungi and toxicity to human cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabes, Joseph M; White, Brian K; Murray, Clinton K; Sanchez, Carlos J; Mende, Katrin; Beckius, Miriam L; Zera, Wendy C; Wenke, Joseph C; Akers, Kevin S

    2017-04-01

    Soft-tissue invasive fungal infections are increasingly recognized as significant entities directly contributing to morbidity and mortality. They complicate clinical care, requiring aggressive surgical debridement and systemic antifungal therapy. To evaluate new topical approaches to therapy, we examined the antifungal activity and cytotoxicity of Manuka Honey (MH) and polyhexamethylene biguanide (PHMB). The activities of multiple concentrations of MH (40%, 60%, 80%) and PHMB (0.01%, 0.04%, 0.1%) against 13 clinical mould isolates were evaluated using a time-kill assay between 5 min and 24 h. Concentrations were selected to represent current clinical use. Cell viability was examined in parallel for human epidermal keratinocytes, dermal fibroblasts and osteoblasts, allowing determination of the 50% viability (LD50) concentration. Antifungal activity of both agents correlated more closely with exposure time than concentration. Exophiala and Fusarium growth was completely suppressed at 5 min for all PHMB concentrations, and at 12 and 6 h, respectively, for all MH concentrations. Only Lichtheimia had persistent growth to both agents at 24 h. Viability assays displayed concentration-and time-dependent toxicity for PHMB. For MH, exposure time predicted cytotoxicity only when all cell types were analyzed in aggregate. This study demonstrates that MH and PHMB possess primarily time-dependent antifungal activity, but also exert in vitro toxicity on human cells which may limit clinical use. Further research is needed to determine ideal treatment strategies to optimize antifungal activity against moulds while limiting cytotoxicity against host tissues in vivo. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology 2016. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  7. Biological control of toxic cyanobacteria

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, L

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available • If successful, the biocontrol agent may produce conformational changes to the cyanobacterial toxins or reduced eco-toxicity effects • The laboratory study may give insight into the factors inhibiting the natural balance of predatory bacteria... studies have been done on the eco-toxicity resulting from biocontrol as well as the changes to cyanotoxins, if any. Research Plan The study will be conducted at whole cell level and with specific metabolites and toxins, with eco-toxicity studied...

  8. Pharmacokinetics and Toxicity of Sodium Selenite in the Treatment of Patients with Carcinoma in a Phase I Clinical Trial: The SECAR Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ola Brodin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sodium selenite at high dose exerts antitumor effects and increases efficacy of cytostatic drugs in multiple preclinical malignancy models. We assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous administered sodium selenite in cancer patients’ refractory to cytostatic drugs in a phase I trial. Patients received first line of chemotherapy following selenite treatment to investigate altered sensitivity to these drugs and preliminary assessment of any clinical benefits. Materials and Methods: Thirty-four patients with different therapy resistant tumors received iv sodium selenite daily for consecutive five days either for two weeks or four weeks. Each cohort consisted of at least three patients who received the same daily dose of selenite throughout the whole treatment. If 0/3 patients had dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs, the study proceeded to the next dose-level. If 2/3 had DLT, the dose was considered too high and if 1/3 had DLT, three more patients were included. Dose-escalation continued until the maximum tolerated dose (MTD was reached. MTD was defined as the highest dose-level on which 0/3 or 1/6 patients experienced DLT. The primary endpoint was safety, dose-limiting toxic effects and the MTD of sodium selenite. The secondary endpoint was primary response evaluation. Results and Conclusion: MTD was defined as 10.2 mg/m2, with a calculated median plasma half-life of 18.25 h. The maximum plasma concentration of selenium from a single dose of selenite increased in a nonlinear pattern. The most common adverse events were fatigue, nausea, and cramps in fingers and legs. DLTs were acute, of short duration and reversible. Biomarkers for organ functions indicated no major systemic toxicity. In conclusion, sodium selenite is safe and tolerable when administered up to 10.2 mg/m2 under current protocol. Further development of the study is underway to determine if prolonged infusions might be a more effective treatment strategy.

  9. Spin multiplicities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtright, T.L., E-mail: curtright@miami.edu [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); Van Kortryk, T.S., E-mail: vankortryk@gmail.com [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States); Zachos, C.K., E-mail: zachos@anl.gov [Department of Physics, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33124-8046 (United States); High Energy Physics Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439-4815 (United States)

    2017-02-05

    The number of times spin s appears in the Kronecker product of n spin j representations is computed, and the large n asymptotic behavior of the result is obtained. Applications are briefly sketched. - Highlights: • We give a self-contained derivation of the spin multiplicities that occur in n-fold tensor products of spin-j representations. • We make use of group characters, properties of special functions, and asymptotic analysis of integrals. • We emphasize patterns that arise when comparing different values of j, and asymptotic behavior for large n. • Our methods and results should be useful for various statistical and quantum information theory calculations.

  10. Prediction of pesticide toxicity in Midwest streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoda, Megan E.; Stone, Wesley W.; Nowell, Lisa H.

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of pesticide mixtures is common in stream waters of the United States, and the impact of multiple compounds on aquatic organisms is not well understood. Watershed Regressions for Pesticides (WARP) models were developed to predict Pesticide Toxicity Index (PTI) values in unmonitored streams in the Midwest and are referred to as WARP-PTI models. The PTI is a tool for assessing the relative toxicity of pesticide mixtures to fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera in stream water. One hundred stream sites in the Midwest were sampled weekly in May through August 2013, and the highest calculated PTI for each site was used as the WARP-PTI model response variable. Watershed characteristics that represent pesticide sources and transport were used as the WARP-PTI model explanatory variables. Three WARP-PTI models—fish, benthic invertebrates, and cladocera—were developed that include watershed characteristics describing toxicity-weighted agricultural use intensity, land use, agricultural management practices, soil properties, precipitation, and hydrologic properties. The models explained between 41 and 48% of the variability in the measured PTI values. WARP-PTI model evaluation with independent data showed reasonable performance with no clear bias. The models were applied to streams in the Midwest to demonstrate extrapolation for a regional assessment to indicate vulnerable streams and to guide more intensive monitoring.

  11. Tapentadol toxicity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borys, Douglas; Stanton, Matthew; Gummin, David; Drott, Tracy

    2015-02-01

    Tapentadol (Nucynta) is indicated for the treatment of moderate to severe pain in adults. Tapentadol's mechanism of action consists of acting as an agonist on the μ-opioid receptor and by inhibiting the reuptake of norepinephrine. There are no published reports on the toxicity of tapentadol in pediatric patients. The goals of this study are to describe the incidence, medical outcomes, clinical effects, and treatment secondary to tapentadol exposure. This retrospective observational study used data from the National Poison Data System. Inclusion criteria were exposure to tapentadol from November 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013; age 0 to 17 years; single ingestion; and followed to a known outcome. There were 104 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Eighty patients were aged ≤ 6, 2-year-olds the most common age group (60.6%). There were 52 male and 52 female patients. Of the 104 patients, 93 had unintentional exposures. No deaths were reported. Sixty-two of the patients had no effect, 34 had minor effects, 6 had moderate and 2 had major effects. Thirty patients reported drowsiness and lethargy. Other effects reported included nausea, vomiting, miosis, tachycardia, respiratory depression, dizziness/vertigo, coma, dyspnea, pallor, vomiting, edema, hives/welts, slurred speech, pruritus, and hallucinations/delusions. Fifty-three patients were reported to have no medical intervention. This is the first study examining the toxic effects of tapentadol in a pediatric population. Although a majority of the patients in this review developed no effect from their exposure, two had life-threatening events. The most common effects reported were opioidlike. Copyright © 2015 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  12. Lead toxicity: Current concerns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goyer, R.A. (Univ. of Western Ontario, London (Canada))

    1993-04-01

    Over the 20-year period since the first issue of Environmental Health Perspectives was published, there has been considerable progress in the understanding of the potential toxicity of exposure to lead. Many of these advances have been reviewed in published symposia, conferences, and review papers in EHP. This brief review identifies major advances as well as a number of current concerns that present opportunities for prevention and intervention strategies. The major scientific advance has been the demonstration that blood lead (PbB) levels of 10-15 micrograms/dL in newborn and very young infants result in cognitive and behavioral deficits. Further support for this observation is being obtained by prospective or longitudinal studies presently in progress. The mechanism(s) for the central nervous system effects of lead is unclear but involve lead interactions within calcium-mediated intracellular messenger systems and neurotransmission. Effects of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure, particularly in adult men, may be related to the effect of lead on calcium-mediated control of vascular smooth muscle contraction and on the renin-angiotensin system. Reproductive effects of lead have long been suspected, but low-level effects have not been well studied. Whether lead is a carcinogen or its association with renal adenocarcinoma is a consequence of cystic nephropathy is uncertain. Major risk factors for lead toxicity in children in the United States include nutrition, particularly deficiencies of essential metals, calcium, iron, and zinc, and housing and socioeconomic status. A goal for the year 2000 is to reduce prevalence of blood lead levels exceeding 15 micrograms/dL. 97 refs.

  13. Nano-sized zeolites as modulators of thiacloprid toxicity on Chironomus riparius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Carla S; Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Guluzada, Leyla; Crone, Barbara; Karst, Uwe; Lee, Hwa Jun; Triebskorn, Rita; Haderlein, Stefan B; Huhn, Carolin; Köhler, Heinz-R

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether zeolites of different size (Y30 (nano-sized) and H-Beta(OH)-III (forming large aggregates/agglomerates composed of 50 nm small primary particles)) exerted acute toxicity on larvae of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, and whether such zeolites are able to modulate the toxicity of a common insecticide, thiacloprid, by means of adsorption of a dissolved toxicant. We conducted acute toxicity tests with fourth instar larvae of C. riparius. In these tests, larvae were exposed to zeolites or thiacloprid solely, or to mixtures of both compounds. The mixtures comprised 1.0 µg/L thiacloprid in addition to low (5.2 mg/L), medium (18.2 mg/L), and high (391.7 mg/L) zeolite concentrations, resulting in different adsorption rates of thiacloprid. As biological endpoints, changes in mortality rates and in behavior were monitored every 24 h over a total investigation period of 96 h. Furthermore, we conducted chemical analyses of thiacloprid in the medium and the larvae and located the zeolite particles within the larvae by LA-ICP-MS imaging techniques. Our results demonstrate that both types of zeolites did not exert acute toxicity when applied as single-substances, but led to reduced acute toxicity of thiacloprid when applied together with thiacloprid. These results are in line with the sorption properties of zeolites indicating reduced bioavailability of thiacloprid, although our data indicate that thiacloprid can desorb from zeolites to some extent. While freely dissolved (i.e., non-sorbed) fraction of thiacloprid was a good parameter to roughly estimate toxic effects, it did not correlate with measured internal thiacloprid concentrations. Moreover, it was shown that both zeolite types were ingested by the larvae, but no indication for cellular uptake of them was found.

  14. Nano-sized zeolites as modulators of thiacloprid toxicity on Chironomus riparius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla S. Lorenz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether zeolites of different size (Y30 (nano-sized and H-Beta(OH-III (forming large aggregates/agglomerates composed of 50 nm small primary particles exerted acute toxicity on larvae of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, and whether such zeolites are able to modulate the toxicity of a common insecticide, thiacloprid, by means of adsorption of a dissolved toxicant. We conducted acute toxicity tests with fourth instar larvae of C. riparius. In these tests, larvae were exposed to zeolites or thiacloprid solely, or to mixtures of both compounds. The mixtures comprised 1.0 µg/L thiacloprid in addition to low (5.2 mg/L, medium (18.2 mg/L, and high (391.7 mg/L zeolite concentrations, resulting in different adsorption rates of thiacloprid. As biological endpoints, changes in mortality rates and in behavior were monitored every 24 h over a total investigation period of 96 h. Furthermore, we conducted chemical analyses of thiacloprid in the medium and the larvae and located the zeolite particles within the larvae by LA-ICP-MS imaging techniques. Our results demonstrate that both types of zeolites did not exert acute toxicity when applied as single-substances, but led to reduced acute toxicity of thiacloprid when applied together with thiacloprid. These results are in line with the sorption properties of zeolites indicating reduced bioavailability of thiacloprid, although our data indicate that thiacloprid can desorb from zeolites to some extent. While freely dissolved (i.e., non-sorbed fraction of thiacloprid was a good parameter to roughly estimate toxic effects, it did not correlate with measured internal thiacloprid concentrations. Moreover, it was shown that both zeolite types were ingested by the larvae, but no indication for cellular uptake of them was found.

  15. Nano-sized zeolites as modulators of thiacloprid toxicity on Chironomus riparius

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicht, Anna-Jorina; Guluzada, Leyla; Crone, Barbara; Karst, Uwe; Lee, Hwa Jun; Triebskorn, Rita; Haderlein, Stefan B.; Huhn, Carolin; Köhler, Heinz-R.

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated whether zeolites of different size (Y30 (nano-sized) and H-Beta(OH)-III (forming large aggregates/agglomerates composed of 50 nm small primary particles)) exerted acute toxicity on larvae of the non-biting midge, Chironomus riparius, and whether such zeolites are able to modulate the toxicity of a common insecticide, thiacloprid, by means of adsorption of a dissolved toxicant. We conducted acute toxicity tests with fourth instar larvae of C. riparius. In these tests, larvae were exposed to zeolites or thiacloprid solely, or to mixtures of both compounds. The mixtures comprised 1.0 µg/L thiacloprid in addition to low (5.2 mg/L), medium (18.2 mg/L), and high (391.7 mg/L) zeolite concentrations, resulting in different adsorption rates of thiacloprid. As biological endpoints, changes in mortality rates and in behavior were monitored every 24 h over a total investigation period of 96 h. Furthermore, we conducted chemical analyses of thiacloprid in the medium and the larvae and located the zeolite particles within the larvae by LA-ICP-MS imaging techniques. Our results demonstrate that both types of zeolites did not exert acute toxicity when applied as single-substances, but led to reduced acute toxicity of thiacloprid when applied together with thiacloprid. These results are in line with the sorption properties of zeolites indicating reduced bioavailability of thiacloprid, although our data indicate that thiacloprid can desorb from zeolites to some extent. While freely dissolved (i.e., non-sorbed) fraction of thiacloprid was a good parameter to roughly estimate toxic effects, it did not correlate with measured internal thiacloprid concentrations. Moreover, it was shown that both zeolite types were ingested by the larvae, but no indication for cellular uptake of them was found. PMID:28729952

  16. Children's Ability to Recognise Toxic and Non-Toxic Fruits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fancovicova, Jana; Prokop, Pavol

    2011-01-01

    Children's ability to identify common plants is a necessary prerequisite for learning botany. However, recent work has shown that children lack positive attitudes toward plants and are unable to identify them. We examined children's (aged 10-17) ability to discriminate between common toxic and non-toxic plants and their mature fruits presented in…

  17. DeepTox: Toxicity Prediction using Deep Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas eMayr

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The Tox21 Data Challenge has been the largest effort of the scientific community to compare computational methods for toxicity prediction. This challenge comprised 12,000 environmental chemicals and drugs which were measured for 12 different toxic effects by specifically designed assays. We participated in this challenge to assess the performance of Deep Learning in computational toxicity prediction. Deep Learning has already revolutionized image processing, speech recognition, and language understanding but has not yet been applied to computational toxicity. Deep Learning is founded on novel algorithms and architectures for artificial neural networks together with the recent availability of very fast computers and massive datasets. It discovers multiple levels of distributed representations of the input, with higher levels representing more abstract concepts. We hypothesized that the construction of a hierarchy of chemical features gives Deep Learning the edge over other toxicity prediction methods. Furthermore, Deep Learning naturally enables multi-task learning, that is, learning of all toxic effects in one neural network and thereby learning of highly informative chemical features.In order to utilize Deep Learning for toxicity prediction, we have developed the DeepTox pipeline. First, DeepTox normalizes the chemical representations of the compounds. Then it computes a large number of chemical descriptors that are used as input to machine learning methods. In its next step, DeepTox trains models, evaluates them, and combines the best of them to ensembles. Finally, DeepTox predicts the toxicity of new compounds. In the Tox21 Data Challenge, DeepTox had the highest performance of all computational methods winning the grand challenge, the nuclear receptor panel, the stress response panel, and six single assays (teams ``Bioinf@JKU''. We found that Deep Learning excelled in toxicity prediction and outperformed many other computational approaches

  18. Identifying the cause of toxicity in an algal whole effluent toxicity study - an unanticipated toxicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddy, Rami B; Tapp, Kelly; Rehner, Anita B; Pillard, David A; Schrage, Laura

    2011-10-01

    Toxicity was observed in whole effluent toxicity (WET) studies with the freshwater alga, Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata, in three consecutive monthly studies, (NOEC=50-75%). Toxicity was not observed to Ceriodaphnia dubia or the fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas in concurrent studies. Selected toxicity identification evaluation (TIE) tests were conducted in a tiered approach to eliminate possible toxicants and progressively identify the causative agent. Filtration following alkaline adjustment (pH 10 or 11) was effective in eliminating significant growth effects and also reduced phosphate concentration. The TIE studies confirmed that the observed effluent toxicity was caused by excess ortho-phosphate in the effluent not by overstimulation or related to unfavorable N:P ratios; but due to direct toxicity. The 96-h 25% inhibition concentration (IC25) of ortho-phosphate to P. subcapitata was 3.4 mg L⁻¹ while the maximum acceptable toxicant concentration was 4.8 mg L⁻¹. This study illustrates the value of multi-species testing and also provides an example of an effective TIE using algae identifying an unanticipated toxicant. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Cross-sectional assessment of exertional dyspnea in otherwise healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahut, Bruno; Fuchs-Climent, Deborah; Plantier, Laurent; Karila, Chantal; Refabert, Luc; Chevalier-Bidaud, Brigitte; Beydon, Nicole; Peiffer, Claudine; Delclaux, Christophe

    2014-08-01

    Exertional dyspnea during sport at school in children with asthma or in otherwise healthy children is commonly attributed to exercise-induced asthma (EIA), but when a short-acting beta agonist (SABA) trial fails to improve symptoms the physician is often at a loose end. The aims were to prospectively assess the causes of exertional dyspnea in children/adolescents with or without asthma using a cardiopulmonary exercise test while receiving a SABA and to assess the effects of standardized breathing/reassurance therapy. Seventy-nine patients (12.2 ± 2.3 years, 41 girls, 49 with previously diagnosed asthma) with dyspnea unresponsive to SABA were prospectively included. Exercise test outcomes depicted normal or subnormal performance with normal ventilatory demand and capacity in 53/79 children (67%) defining a physiological response. The remaining 26 children had altered capacity (resistant EIA [n = 17, 9 with previous asthma diagnosis], vocal cord dysfunction [n = 2]) and/or increased demand (alveolar hyperventilation [n = 3], poor conditioning [n = 7]). Forty-two children who had similar characteristics than the remaining 37 children underwent the two sessions of standardized reassurance therapy. They all demonstrated an improvement that was rated "large." The degree of improvement correlated with % predicted peak V'O2 (r = -0.37, P = 0.015) and peak oxygen pulse (r = -0.45, P = 0.003), whatever the underlying dyspnea cause. It suggested a higher benefit in those with poorer conditioning condition. The most frequent finding in children/adolescents with mild exertional dyspnea unresponsive to preventive SABA is a physiological response to exercise, and standardized reassurance afforded early clinical improvement, irrespective of the dyspnea cause. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. The effects of acclimatization on blood clotting parameters in exertional heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesić Zoran

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is a common problem in military services. Considering the coagulation abnormalities are of major importance in development of severe heat stroke, we wanted to examine changes in hemostatic parameters in soldiers during exertional heat stress test as well as the effects of a 10-day passive or active acclimatization in a climatic chamber. Methods. A total of 40 male soldiers with high aerobic capacity performed exertional heat stress test (EHST either in cool [20ºC, 16ºC wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT], or hot (40ºC, 29ºC, (WBGT environment, unacclimatized (U or after 10 days of passive (P or active (A acclimatization. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty and heart rates (HR. Platelet count (PC, antithrombin III (AT, and prothrombin time (PT were assessed in blood samples collected before and immediately after the EHST. Results. EHST in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR, with a significant increase in prothrombin time in the groups U and A. Platelet counts were significantly higher after the EHST compared to the basic levels in all the investigated groups, regardless environmental conditions and acclimatization state. Antithrombin levels were not affected by EHST whatsoever. Conclusion. In the trained soldiers, physiological heat stress caused mild changes in some serum parameters of blood clotting such as prothrombin time, while others such as antithrombin levels were not affected. Platelet counts were increased after EHST in all groups. A 10-day passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber showed no effect on parameters investigated.

  1. Effect of experimental modulation of mood on perception of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Pramod; Morris, Norman R; Adams, Lewis

    2016-01-15

    In many diseases across a range of pathologies (e.g., cardiopulmonary, neuromuscular, and cancer), chronic dyspnea, particularly on exertion, is a major debilitating symptom often associated with clinical anxiety/depression. This study aims to explore the interaction between mood state and exertional dyspnea in a healthy population. Following familiarization, 20 healthy subjects (27-54 years old) performed six 5-min treadmill tests on three separate days. On each day subjects viewed randomly assigned images designed to induce positive, negative, or neutral mood states (International Affective Picture System). For each condition, at minute intervals, subjects rated dyspnea (sensory and affective domains) in the first test and mood (valence and arousal domains) in the second test. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2 , liters/min), carbon dioxide production (V̇CO2, liters/min), ventilation (V̇E, liters/min), respiratory frequency (f(R), beats/min), and heart rate (HR, bpm), were measured throughout the exercise. V̇O2, V̇CO2, V̇E, HR, and f(R) were not statistically significantly different among the three mood states (P > 0.05). Mood valence was significantly higher with parallel viewing of positive (last 2-min mean ± SE = 6.9 ± 0.2) compared with negative pictures (2.4 ± 0.2; P negative (sensory: 5.6 ± 0.3; affective: 3.3 ± 0.5) compared with positive mood (sensory: 4.4 ± 0.4, P positive mood alleviates both the sensory and affective domains of exertional dyspnea in healthy subjects. Thus the treatment of anxiety/depression in dyspenic populations could be a worthwhile therapeutic strategy in increasing symptom-limited exercise tolerance, thereby contributing to improved quality of life. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Methods for Reducing Effort Exertion in a Gearbox Synchronizer During Shifting Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Krutashov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In gearbox synchronizer design process, the most important parameter to be determined is the effort required to engage a gear within specified time interval (or vice versa – engaging time for the specified effort. Usually, reduction of said effort implies one of the following approaches: choosing a friction cone as large as possible, or using a multi-cone design. However, according to practical experience and investigations of shifting process, engaging effort may not be the decisive factor in shifting quality assessment. One can observe that during shifting the force exertion process often has two stages. The first stage is a result of the synchronization process itself. The existing second stage, effort amount, and instability of force observed at this stage while repeating shifts, require a thorough investigation. Therefore, the subject of the work was the shifting process stages that affect the engaging effort. The paper gives the certain characteristics of shifting process to demonstrate that there is the second stage in force exertion. The paper describes a technique for calculating the force acting on synchronizing sleeve and presents results of such calculations for several types of synchronizers.These results showed that in the case when tooth rims of a synchronizing sleeve and a gearwheel situated against each other in an adverse way, simultaneous sleeve movement and gearwheel rotation exert the second peak of the force comparable with synchronization effort (≈ 53…71%. The remainder of the paper shows the ways to decrease said second force peak. Recommendations for synchronizers design improvement are given as well. The conclusion has been made that technical requirements for modern synchronizer design, apart from the maximum synchronization effort, must provide relative maximum value of the second peak of at most 1/3 of synchronization effort. This will ensure improved perception of the shifting process.

  3. [Multiple apheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffe, C

    2007-05-01

    Multiple apheresis makes it possible to obtain at least two labile blood components from a single donor using a cell separator. It can be either multicomponent apheresis leading to the preparation of at least two different blood component types or red blood cell apheresis providing two identical red blood cell concentrates. These techniques available in addition to whole blood donation, are modifying collection strategies in many Etablissements Français du Sang and will contribute to improve stock logistics in the future. In areas with insufficient stock, these procedures will help achieve blood component self-sufficiency. The author first describes the principle underlying different--current or future--techniques as well as their advantages and drawbacks. He finally addresses the potential impact of these processes on the evolution of blood collection and the advantages to be gained.

  4. Drugs of abuse: epigenetic mechanisms in toxicity and addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovatsi, L; Fragou, D; Samanidou, V; Njau, S; Kouidou, S

    2011-01-01

    The abuse of substances such as ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines and heroin is associated with toxic effects on almost every system of the organism. Furthermore, the transition from occasional-recreational use to chronic abuse and addiction is a serious psychiatric disorder with only few chances for effective and definitive treatment since most individuals relapse, even after long periods of abstinence. It is therefore of utmost importance to elucidate the mechanisms by which these substances exert their toxicity and mediate addiction, in order to develop new, efficient therapeutic strategies with a long-term outcome, which are currently lacking. We already know that in a great number of these mechanisms, altered gene function is involved. But, with the new field of epigenetics, there is increasing evidence that changes in the epigenome are responsible for the altered gene function. The advances in the field of epigenetics towards elucidation of the mechanisms underlying toxicity and addiction for ethanol, cocaine, amphetamines and heroin are currently presented and discussed in this review.

  5. 3-Alkylpyridinium compounds as potential non-toxic antifouling agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepcić, K; Turk, T

    2006-01-01

    To date, around thirty bioactive 3-alkylpyridinium compounds, either in monomeric or oligomeric forms, have been identified in marine sponges belonging to the order Haplosclerida In this work, we have reviewed their biological activities, which include mainly cytotoxicity, ichthyotoxicity, inhibition of bacterial growth, and enzyme inhibition. Most of these activities increase with the increasing degree of oligomerization of the corresponding 3-alkylpyridinium compound. It was shown recently that 3-alkylpyridines also exhibit promising antifouling activities. Linear 3-octylpyridinium polymers (Poly-APS), isolated from the Mediterranean sponge Reniera sarai, showed a non-toxic reversible mechanism of settlement inhibition of Balanus amphitrite cypris larvae with an EC50 of 0.27 microg/mL. At the same time, their toxicity towards the organisms used in the toxicity bioassays (B. amphitrite nauplii, microalga Tetraselmis suecica and larvae of Mytilus galloprovincialis) was almost negligible in comparison to commercially available and currently used booster biocides based on copper and zinc complexes with pyrithione. Poly-APS and some other natural 3-alkylpyridines were also found to be very effective in preventing microbial biofilm formation. Preliminary tests have confirmed that some monomeric and oligomeric synthetic analogues of poly-APS also exert antifouling activity, which makes these compounds promising candidates as new environmentally-friendly ingredients in the new generation of antifouling coatings.

  6. Motorcycle racer with unilateral forearm flexor and extensor chronic exertional compartment syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkes, Michiel B; Teijink, Joep A; Scheltinga, Marc R

    2016-04-14

    We discuss a case of a 26-year-old man, a motorcycle racer, who presented with progressive pain, weakness and swelling of his right forearm and loss of power in his index finger, experienced during motor racing. Chronic exertional compartment syndrome (CECS) of both flexor and extensor compartments of his forearm was diagnosed by dynamic intracompartmental muscle pressure measurements. After fasciotomies, all symptoms were resolved and the patient was able to improve on his preinjury racing skills, without any limitations. A literature review and a surgical 'how-to' for correct release of the extensor and deep flexor compartments of the forearm are provided. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  7. Massive right atrial myxoma presenting as syncope and exertional dyspnea: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosch Carla

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Primary heart neoplasms are rare occurring with an estimated incidence of 0.0017-0.19%. Myxoma is the most prevalent primary heart tumor. The right atrium is an unusual localization, occurring only in 15-20% of myxoma cases. We report a rare case of a massive right atrial myxoma causing tricuspid valve obstruction and presenting as syncope and exertional dyspnea. This case illustrates the influence of myxoma's size, position and mobility as well as patient's body posture and respiration to the development of signs and symptoms. Three-dimensional echocardiography proved useful in surgery planning, allowing a better definition of the tumor outline and attachment.

  8. Influence of acclimatization on serum enzyme changes in soldiers during exertional heat stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radaković Sonja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Exertional heat stress is common problem in military services. The aim was to examine changes in serum concentrations of some enzymes in soldiers during exertional heat stress test (EHST as well as the effects of 10-days passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber. Methods. Forty male soldiers with high aerobic capacity, performed EHST either in cool (20 ºC, 16 ºC Wet bulb globe temperature - WBGT, or hot (40 ºC, 25 ºC WBGT environment, unacclimatized, or after 10 days of passive or active acclimation. Physiological strain was measured by tympanic temperatures (Tty and heart rates (HR. Concentrations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT and aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and creatine-kinase (CK were measured in blood samples collected before and immediately after EHST. Results. Exertional heat stress test in hot conditions induced physiological heat stress (increase in Tty and HR, with significant increase in concentrations of all enzymes in unacclimatized group: ALT (42.5 ± 4.2 before vs 48.1 ± 3.75 U/L after EHST, p < 0.01, AST (24.9 ± 5.1 vs 33.4 ± 4.48 U/L, p < 0.01, LDH (160.6 ± 20.2 vs 195.7 ± 22.6 U/L, p < 0.001 and CK (215.5 ± 91.2 vs 279.1 ± 117.5 U/L, p < 0.05. In acclimatized soldiers there were no significant changes in concentrations of ALT and AST, while concentration of CK was significantly higher. Concentrations of LDH were significantly higher in all investigated groups, regardless of temperature conditions. Conclusion. In trained soldiers, 10-days passive or active acclimatization in climatic chamber can prevent increase in serum concentrations of ALT and AST, induced by exertional heat stress. Increase of serum concentrations of CK and LDH was induced by physical strain itself, with no additional effect of heat stress.

  9. Reliability and Validity of the OMNI-Vibration Exercise Scale of Perceived Exertion

    OpenAIRE

    Marín, Pedro J.; Alejandro Santos-Lozano; Fernanda Santin-Medeiros; Robertson, Robert J.; Nuria Garatachea

    2012-01-01

    This study examined reliability and concurrent validity of the newly developed OMNI-vibration exercise scale (OMNI-VIBRO) to measure Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) during vibration exercise in twenty recreationally active students (12 males and 8 females). The criterion variables were muscle activity of the Vastus Medialis (VM), Vastus Lateralis (VL), Biceps Femoris (BF), and Medial Gastrocnemius (MG) muscles, as well as accelerations (12.5, 20.2, 30.9, 36.3, 60.1, and 88.4 m·s-2). RPE w...

  10. High-Output Heart Failure from a Hepatic Hemangioma With Exertion-Induced Hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Aaron A H; Nelson, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Patients with hepatic hemangiomas have been known to have high-output heart failure as a result of left-to-right arteriovenous shunting. We report a patient with a hepatic hemangioma that presented with high-output heart failure with hypoxia on exertion. After embolization of the hemangioma, the patient's hypoxia resolved and ejection fraction improved. In the absence of cardiopulmonary pathophysiology, we presume that our patient's hemangioma was causing a right-to-left shunt as opposed to an expected left-to-right shunt. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The endoplasmic reticulum exerts control over organelle streaming during cell expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Brandizzi, Federica

    2014-03-01

    Cytoplasmic streaming is crucial for cell homeostasis and expansion but the precise driving forces are largely unknown. In plants, partial loss of cytoplasmic streaming due to chemical and genetic ablation of myosins supports the existence of yet-unknown motors for organelle movement. Here we tested a role of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as propelling force for cytoplasmic streaming during cell expansion. Through quantitative live-cell analyses in wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana cells and mutants with compromised ER structure and streaming, we demonstrate that cytoplasmic streaming undergoes profound changes during cell expansion and that it depends on motor forces co-exerted by the ER and the cytoskeleton.

  12. Respiratory frequency is strongly associated with perceived exertion during time trials of different duration

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolò, Andrea; Marcora, Samuele Maria; Sacchetti, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In order to provide further insight into the link between respiratory frequency (fR) and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), the present study investigated the effect of exercise duration on perceptual and physiological responses during self-paced exercise. Nine well-trained competitive male cyclists (23 ± 3 years) performed a preliminary incremental ramp test and three randomised self-paced time trials (TTs) differing in exercise duration (10, 20 and 30 min). Both RPE and fR increased al...

  13. The application of differential ratings of perceived exertion to Australian Football League matches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Siegler, Jason; Bahnert, Andrew; McBrien, James; Lovell, Ric

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the application of differential ratings of perceived exertion for the examination of internal load during Australian Football League (AFL) matches. Single cohort, observational study. Using the centiMax rating of perceived exertion (RPE) scale, 26 professional AFL players provided ratings for match exertion (RPE-M), along with differential ratings for breathlessness (RPE-B), leg exertion (RPE-L), and technical demand (RPE-T) following 129 matches (5.0 ± 1.6 matches per player). Global positioning satellite (GPS) and accelerometer measures were also collected. Data were analysed using magnitude-based inferences. RPE scores were 93.0 ± 8.2 AU (RPE-M), 89.0 ± 11.0 AU (RPE-B), 91.5 ± 9.8 AU (RPE-L), and 87.0 ± 10.0 AU (RPE-T). There was a most likely small difference between RPE-L and RPE-T (5.5%; ± 90% confidence limits 1.9%), a likely small difference between RPE-L and RPE-B (3.5%; ± 1.5%) and a possibly small difference between RPE-B and RPE-T (1.9%; ± 1.9%). Within-player correlations between RPE and GPS measures were small for RPE-M (r = 0.14-0.28), unclear to small for RPE-B (r = 0.06-0.24) and unclear to moderate for RPE-L (r = 0.06-0.37). Differential RPE's combined to explain 76% of the variance in RPE-M. For all RPE scores, within-player variability was moderate to high (typical error: 7.9-12.4%), and the thresholds for a likely between-match change were 8.8-13.7%. As differential RPE's represent distinct sensory inputs, the collection of these scores facilitate the interpretation of internal match loads and therefore represent a valuable addition to match data collection procedures. Moderate to high within-player variability should be considered when interpreting between-match changes in all RPE scores. Copyright © 2014 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Toxic factors and autism

    OpenAIRE

    Charalampos Depastas

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autism is a neurodevelopmental disorder. Today it has observed a continuing and rapid increase in its prevalence. Autism increase, in combination with unknown factors that cause it, so far, has drawn the interest of several researchers (from different scientific fields). It could be characterized as a multiple-factors disorder. In recent decades, many researchers have implicated mainly environmental, chemical, genetic, hereditary, and biological factors. The present article focus...

  15. Comparative chronic toxicity of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam to Chironomus dilutus and estimation of toxic equivalency factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallaro, Michael C; Morrissey, Christy A; Headley, John V; Peru, Kerry M; Liber, Karsten

    2017-02-01

    Nontarget aquatic insects are susceptible to chronic neonicotinoid insecticide exposure during the early stages of development from repeated runoff events and prolonged persistence of these chemicals. Investigations on the chronic toxicity of neonicotinoids to aquatic invertebrates have been limited to a few species and under different laboratory conditions that often preclude direct comparisons of the relative toxicity of different compounds. In the present study, full life-cycle toxicity tests using Chironomus dilutus were performed to compare the toxicity of 3 commonly used neonicotinoids: imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam. Test conditions followed a static-renewal exposure protocol in which lethal and sublethal endpoints were assessed on days 14 and 40. Reduced emergence success, advanced emergence timing, and male-biased sex ratios were sensitive responses to low-level neonicotinoid exposure. The 14-d median lethal concentrations for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were 1.52 μg/L, 2.41 μg/L, and 23.60 μg/L, respectively. The 40-d median effect concentrations (emergence) for imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam were 0.39 μg/L, 0.28 μg/L, and 4.13 μg/L, respectively. Toxic equivalence relative to imidacloprid was estimated through a 3-point response average of equivalencies calculated at 20%, 50%, and 90% lethal and effect concentrations. Relative to imidacloprid (toxic equivalency factor [TEF] = 1.0), chronic (lethality) 14-d TEFs for clothianidin and thiamethoxam were 1.05 and 0.14, respectively, and chronic (emergence inhibition) 40-d TEFs were 1.62 and 0.11, respectively. These population-relevant endpoints and TEFs suggest that imidacloprid and clothianidin exert comparable chronic toxicity to C. dilutus, whereas thiamethoxam induced comparable effects only at concentrations an order of magnitude higher. However, the authors caution that under field conditions, thiamethoxam readily degrades to

  16. Externalization of the Toxic Introject

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Michael

    1975-01-01

    The therapist encounters patients who have incorporated toxic introjects. Therapy helps them to provide room for incorporation of a healthy object by externalizing the toxic introject. This technique is illustrated with several cases and comparison is made between the use of this technique in the treatment of adults and children. (Author)

  17. Toxic Leadership in Educational Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, James E.

    2014-01-01

    While research on the traits and skills of effective leaders is plentiful, only recently has the phenomenon of toxic leadership begun to be investigated. This research report focuses on toxic leadership in educational organizations--its prevalence, as well as the characteristics and early indicators. Using mixed methods, the study found four…

  18. One Health and Toxic Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Health and toxic cyanobacteria Blooms of toxic freshwater blue-green algae or cyanobacteria (HABs) have been in the news after HABs associated with human and animal health problems have been reported in Florida, California and Utah during 2016. HABs occur in warm, slow moving...

  19. The toxicity of X material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferry, J.L.

    1943-12-31

    This report addresses toxicity (largely chemical) of Manhattan Project materials from the point of worker protection. Known chemical toxicities of X material (uranium), nitrous fumes, fluorine, vanadium, magnesium, and lime are described followed by safe exposure levels, symptoms of exposure, and treatment recommendations. The report closes with an overview of general policy in a question and answer format.

  20. Polish Toxic Currency Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Gontarski

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Toxic currency options are defined on the basis of the opposition to the nature (essence of an option contract, which is justified in terms of norms founded on the general law clause of characteristics (nature of a relation (which represents an independent premise for imposing restrictions on the freedom of contracts. So-understood toxic currency options are unlawful. Indeed they contravene iuris cogentis regulations. These include for instance option contracts, which are concluded with a bank, if the bank has not informed about option risk before concluding the contract; or the barrier options, which focus only on the protection of banks interests. Therefore, such options may appear to be invalid. Therefore, performing contracts for toxic currency options may be qualified as a criminal mismanagement. For the sake of security, the manager should then take into consideration filing a claim for stating invalidity (which can be made in a court verdict. At the same time, if the supervisory board member in a commercial company, who can also be a subject to mismanagement offences, commits an omission involving lack of reaction (for example, if he/she fails to notify of the suspected offence committed by the management board members acting to the companys detriment when the management board makes the company conclude option contracts which are charged with absolute invalidity the supervisory board member so acting may be considered to act to the companys detriment. In the most recent Polish jurisprudence and judicature the standard of a good host is treated to be the last resort for determining whether the managers powers resulting from criminal regulations were performed. The manager of the exporter should not, as a rule, issue any options. Issuing options always means assuming an obligation. In the case of currency put options it is an absolute obligation to purchase a given amount in euro at exchange rate set in advance. On the other hand issuing

  1. LAST (local anesthetic systemic toxicity) but not least: systemic lidocaine toxicity during cardiac intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Thisayakorn, Piyapon; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan F

    2014-01-01

    Lidocaine is the most common medication used for local anesthesia in cardiac procedures. Sometimes, a higher dose of lidocaine is used to improve the patient's comfort, especially in device implantation or complex interventional procedures requiring several sheath insertions for access. We describe a patient with idiopathic cardiomyopathy who underwent implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation for primary prevention and developed local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) associated with lidocaine use. Multiple susceptible factors leading to lidocaine toxicity found in this case are common in patients with advanced heart failure. This case emphasizes the importance of dose adjustment of local anesthetic agents in individual patients, especially those with advanced heart failure who undergo cardiovascular procedures. The risk factors, preventive measures, and therapeutic approaches to manage this type of complication are discussed in detail.

  2. VARIATIONS IN REPRODUCTIVE TOXICANT IDENTIFICATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simmons, F

    2008-05-13

    Reproductive toxicants are a very important class of compounds. They present unique hazards to those of child bearing ages, perform their 'dirty work' using a wide variety of mechanisms on a number of different organs, and are regulatorily important. Because of all of this, properly identifying reproductive toxicants is important, but fraught with difficulty. In this paper we will describe types or reproductive toxicants, their importance, and both mistakes and good practices that people who are not experts in reproductive toxicology may use in their attempts to identify them. Additionally, this paper will focus on chemical reproductive toxicants and will not address biological agents that could affect reproductive toxicity although many principles outlined here could be applied to that endeavor.

  3. TLR3 Ligand Poly(I:C) Exerts Distinct Actions in Synovial Fibroblasts When Delivered by Extracellular Vesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank-Bertoncelj, Mojca; Pisetsky, David S; Kolling, Christoph; Michel, Beat A; Gay, Renate E; Jüngel, Astrid; Gay, Steffen

    2018-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis. We have used as model the effects on RA SFs, of EV released from monocyte U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon stimulation with Poly(I:C), a synthetic analog of dsRNA. We show that EV released from unstimulated cells and Poly(I:C)-stimulated U937 cells [Poly(I:C) EV] differ in size but bind similar amounts of Annexin V and express comparable levels of MAC-1, the receptor for dsRNA, on the vesicular membranes. Specifically, Poly(I:C) EV contain or associate with Poly(I:C) and at least partially protect Poly(I:C) from RNAse III degradation. Poly(I:C) EV shuttle Poly(I:C) to SFs and reproduce the proinflammatory and antiviral gene responses of SFs to direct stimulation with Poly(I:C). Poly(I:C) EV, however, halt the death receptor-induced apoptosis in SFs, thereby inverting the proapoptotic nature of Poly(I:C). These prosurvival effects sharply contrast with the high toxicity of cationic liposome-delivered Poly(I:C) and may reflect the route of Poly(I:C) delivery via EV or the fine-tuning of Poly(I:C) actions by molecular cargo in EV. The demonstration that EV may safeguard extracellular dsRNA and allow dsRNA to exert antiapoptotic effects on SFs highlights the potential of EV to amplify the pathogenicity of dsRNA in arthritis beyond inflammation (by concurrently enhancing the

  4. TLR3 Ligand Poly(I:C Exerts Distinct Actions in Synovial Fibroblasts When Delivered by Extracellular Vesicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EV can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis. We have used as model the effects on RA SFs, of EV released from monocyte U937 cells and peripheral blood mononuclear cells upon stimulation with Poly(I:C, a synthetic analog of dsRNA. We show that EV released from unstimulated cells and Poly(I:C-stimulated U937 cells [Poly(I:C EV] differ in size but bind similar amounts of Annexin V and express comparable levels of MAC-1, the receptor for dsRNA, on the vesicular membranes. Specifically, Poly(I:C EV contain or associate with Poly(I:C and at least partially protect Poly(I:C from RNAse III degradation. Poly(I:C EV shuttle Poly(I:C to SFs and reproduce the proinflammatory and antiviral gene responses of SFs to direct stimulation with Poly(I:C. Poly(I:C EV, however, halt the death receptor-induced apoptosis in SFs, thereby inverting the proapoptotic nature of Poly(I:C. These prosurvival effects sharply contrast with the high toxicity of cationic liposome-delivered Poly(I:C and may reflect the route of Poly(I:C delivery via EV or the fine-tuning of Poly(I:C actions by molecular cargo in EV. The demonstration that EV may safeguard extracellular dsRNA and allow dsRNA to exert antiapoptotic effects on SFs highlights the potential of EV to amplify the pathogenicity of dsRNA in arthritis beyond inflammation (by concurrently enhancing the

  5. Toxicity of energy drinks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolk, Brian J; Ganetsky, Michael; Babu, Kavita M

    2012-04-01

    'Energy drinks', 'energy shots' and other energy products have exploded in popularity in the past several years; however, their use is not without risk. Caffeine is the main active ingredient in energy drinks, and excessive consumption may acutely cause caffeine intoxication, resulting in tachycardia, vomiting, cardiac arrhythmias, seizures, and death. The effects of chronic high-dose caffeine intake in children and adolescents are unknown. Caffeine may raise blood pressure, disrupt adolescent sleep patterns, exacerbate psychiatric disease, cause physiologic dependence, and increase the risk of subsequent addiction. Coingestion of caffeine and ethanol has been associated with increased risk-taking behaviors, harm to adolescent users, impaired driving, and increased use of other illicit substances. The toxicity of ingredients often present in energy drinks, such as taurine, niacin, and pyridoxine, is less well defined. Recent and significant literature describing adverse events associated with energy drink use are reviewed. Although prior studies have examined the effects of caffeine in adolescents, energy drinks should be considered a novel exposure. The high doses of caffeine, often in combination with ingredients with unknown safety profiles, mandates urgent research on the safety of energy drink use in children and adolescents. Regulation of pediatric energy drink use may be a necessary step once the health effects are further characterized.

  6. Overcoming ammonium toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittsánszky, András; Pilinszky, Katalin; Gyulai, Gábor; Komives, Tamas

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia (ammonium ion under physiological conditions) is one of the key nitrogen sources in cellular amino acid biosynthesis. It is continuously produced in living organisms by a number of biochemical processes, but its accumulation in cells leads to tissue damage. Current knowledge suggests that a few enzymes and transporters are responsible for maintaining the delicate balance of ammonium fluxes in plant tissues. In this study we analyze the data in the scientific literature and the publicly available information on the dozens of biochemical reactions in which endogenous ammonium is produced or consumed, the enzymes that catalyze them, and the enzyme and transporter mutants listed in plant metabolic and genetic databases (Plant Metabolic Network, TAIR, and Genevestigator). Our compiled data show a surprisingly high number of little-studied reactions that might influence cellular ammonium concentrations. The role of ammonium in apoptosis, its relation to oxidative stress, and alterations in ammonium metabolism induced by environmental stress need to be explored in order to develop methods to manage ammonium toxicity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ratings of Perceived Exertion and Self-reported Mood State in Response to High Intensity Interval Training. A Crossover Study on the Effect of Chronotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacopo A. Vitale

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of chronotype on mood state and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE before and in response to acute high intensity interval exercise (HIIE performed at different times of the day. Based on the morningness–eveningness questionnaire, 12 morning-types (M-types; N = 12; age 21 ± 2 years; height 179 ± 5 cm; body mass 74 ± 12 kg and 11 evening-types (E-types; N = 11; age 21 ± 2 years; height 181 ± 11 cm; body mass 76 ± 11 kg were enrolled in a randomized crossover study. All subjects underwent measurements of Profile of Mood States (POMS, before (PRE, after 12 (POST12 and 24 h (POST24 the completion of both morning (08.00 am and evening (08.00 p.m. training. Additionally, Global Mood Disturbance and Energy Index (EI were calculated. RPE was obtained PRE and 30 min POST HIIE. Two-way ANOVA with Tukey’s multiple comparisons test of POMS parameters during morning training showed significant differences in fatigue, vigor and EI at PRE and POST24 between M-types and E-types. In addition, significant chronotype differences were found only in POST12 after the evening HIIE for fatigue, vigor and EI. For what concerns Borg perceived exertion, comparing morning versus evening values in PRE condition, a higher RPE was observed in relation to evening training for M-types (P = 0.0107 while E-types showed higher RPE values in the morning (P = 0.008. Finally, intragroup differences showed that E-types had a higher RPE respect to M-types before (P = 0.002 and after 30 min (P = 0.042 the morning session of HIIE. No significant changes during the evening training session were found. In conclusion, chronotype seems to significantly influence fatigue values, perceived exertions and vigor in relation to HIIE performed at different times of the day. Specifically, E-types will meet more of a burden when undertaking a physical task early in the day. Practical results suggest that performing a HIIE at those times

  8. Single portal endoscopic treatment for chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Alessandro; Pivato, Giorgio; Kask, Kristo; Susini, Francesca; Pegoli, Loris

    2014-09-01

    Chronic exertional compartment syndrome of the forearm is an unusual disease not commonly found in the daily practice of a hand surgeon. This condition is quite rare in the general population but occurs more frequently among musicians and athletes, with the highest incidence found in professional motorcycle drivers. It is mainly because of a critical augmentation of the extracellular pressure of the forearm compartments. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on stress dynamic tests and intracompartmental pressure measurements. Traditionally, the treatment of this disease has revolved around trigger activity suspension. In the case of professional athletes, this solution cannot be considered and thus the standard surgical treatment consists of an open forearm fasciotomy. This procedure usually requires a lengthy operation period and has a long recovery time before patients can resume their regular activity. Different surgical endoscopic solutions with mini-open techniques have been proposed to shorten this time and reduce the incision size. The aim of this study was to present a new technique for endoscopic-assisted fasciotomy of the forearm in chronic exertional compartment syndrome using a single mini-incision. Four surgical procedures were performed in 3 patients. They were all treated at our center for this condition, and in one case the disease was found on both sides.

  9. Witnesses in action: the effect of physical exertion on recall and recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hope, Lorraine; Lewinski, William; Dixon, Justin; Blocksidge, David; Gabbert, Fiona

    2012-04-01

    Understanding memory performance under different operational conditions is critical in many occupational settings. To examine the effect of physical exertion on memory for a witnessed event, we placed two groups of law-enforcement officers in a live, occupationally relevant scenario. One group had previously completed a high-intensity physical-assault exercise, and the other had not. Participants who completed the assault exercise showed impaired recall and recognition performance compared with the control group. Specifically, they provided significantly less accurate information concerning critical and incidental target individuals encountered during the scenario, recalled less briefing information, and provided fewer briefing updates than control participants did. Exertion was also associated with reduced accuracy in identifying the critical target from a lineup. These results support arousal-based competition accounts proposing differential allocation of resources under physiological arousal. These novel findings relating to eyewitness memory performance have important implications for victims, ordinary citizens who become witnesses, and witnesses in policing, military, and related operational contexts.

  10. A static dynamometer measuring simultaneous torques exerted at the upper limb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boissy, P; Bourbonnais, D; Gravel, D; Arsenault, A B; Leblanc, M

    1998-09-01

    The majority of available dynamometers are designed to measure force or torque in one specific direction, one joint at a time. For the quantification of motor incoordination in neurological patient populations, these dynamometers provide limited information about the global behavior of the limb under investigation. This report describes the potential use and function of a static dynamometer measuring torques exerted simultaneously at the shoulder (flexion-extension, abduction-adduction, internal-external rotation), elbow (flexion-extension), and forearm (pronation-supination). Orthogonal forces were measured at the arm and wrist using strain gauge transducers interfaced with a laboratory computer. The lever arms were specified to a software program and the joint torques were calculated in real time according to static equilibrium equations. The use of the dynamometer is illustrated by characterizing for one hemiparetic subject, the joints torques recorded at the shoulder, elbow, and forearm during isolated submaximal grip exertions at different force levels on both sides. The torques generated at the shoulder, elbow and forearm during the hand grip tasks on the affected side were significantly higher than those obtained on the nonaffected side and increased with the grip force level. These differences probably reflect the loss of movement selectivity observed following a lesion in the central nervous system. Further studies are currently being undertaken in neurological patient populations to characterize and quantify motor deficits using this dynamometer. As a long term goal, we hope that the method and technologies described here will contribute to the evaluation and rehabilitation of these populations.

  11. Absence of Exertional Hyperthermia in a 17 Year Old with Severe Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEntire, Serina J.; Lee, Jong O.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia = body core temperature > 39°C) during exercise. Methods We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31°C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17 year old with a 99% total body surface area burn. A 30 minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured pre-exercise, during, and post-exercise. Results The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30 minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 °C and increased 0.69 °C during exercise. After excercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. Conclusion It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature, however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he were forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia. PMID:19506510

  12. EXERTIONAL COMPARTMENT SYNDROME: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE AND PROPOSED REHABILITATION GUIDELINES FOLLOWING SURGICAL RELEASE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background: There is little published information regarding postoperative management of patients with Chronic Exertional Compartment Syndrome (CECS). Reports of recurrence of symptoms following surgical decompression exist, and are not uncommon depending on the specific technique used. Recurrence suggests that more time and effort may need to be spent on implementing strategic post-operative rehabilitation management in order to avoid repeat surgical intervention or prolonged symptoms. Objective: To summarize relevant literature regarding CECS and propose scientifically-based guidelines for rehab following compartment release with the rationale based on tissue healing, muscle loading, and scar tissue formation and consideration of all tissues contained in the involved compartment. Literature review: A literature search was performed in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, CINAHL, PEDRO, and Google Scholar using the phrase: “chronic exertional compartment syndrome.” Results: No specific rehabilitation guidelines following surgical compartment release for lower extremity CECS were found in the literature search performed for this clinical commentary. Discussion: The development of the proposed post-operative guidelines may allow for improved long-term outcomes following anterior compartment release. Summary: Adequate description of long-term follow-up of outcomes following compartment release for CECS is lacking in current literature. The proposed guidelines for rehab following compartment release include consideration of tissue healing, muscle loading, scar tissue formation, and consideration of soft tissues contained in the involved compartment. Utilization of the proposed guidelines may allow for future research to be performed in order to assess outcomes following surgical intervention for CECS. PMID:21713230

  13. Fruit extract of the medicinal plant Crataegus oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and mutagenic effects in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Quadros, Ana Paula Oliveira; Mazzeo, Dania Elisa Christofoletti; Marin-Morales, Maria Aparecida; Perazzo, Fábio Ferreira; Rosa, Paulo Cesar Pires; Maistro, Edson Luis

    2017-01-01

    Crataegus oxyacantha, a plant of the Rosaceae family also known "English hawthorn, haw, maybush, or whitethorn," has long been used for medicinal purposes such as digestive disorders, hyperlipidemia, dyspnea, inducing diuresis, and preventing kidney stones. However, the predominant use of this plant has been to treat cardiovascular disorders. Due to a lack of studies on the genotoxicity of C. oxyacantha, this investigation was undertaken to determine whether its fruit extract exerts cytotoxic, genotoxic, or clastogenic/aneugenic effects in leukocytes and HepG2 (liver hepatocellular carcinoma) cultured human cells, or mutagenic effects in TA100 and TA98 strains of Salmonella typhimurium bacterium. Genotoxicity analysis showed that the extract produced no marked genotoxic effects at concentrations of 2.5 or 5 µg/ml in either cell type; however, at concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher significant DNA damage was detected. The micronucleus test also demonstrated that concentrations of 10 µg/ml or higher produced clastogenic/aneugenic responses. In the Ames test, the extract induced mutagenic effects in TA98 strain of S. typhimurium with metabolic activation at all tested concentrations (2.5 to 500 µg/ml). Data indicate that, under certain experimental conditions, the fruit extract of C. oxyacantha exerts genotoxic and clastogenic/aneugenic effects in cultured human cells, and with metabolism mutagenicity occurs in bacteria cells.

  14. The role of aerobic fitness on session rating of perceived exertion in futsal players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanez, Vinícius F; Pedro, Rafael E; Moreira, Alexandre; Boullosa, Daniel A; Salle-Neto, Fuad; Nakamura, Fábio Y

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of aerobic fitness (VO2max) on internal training loads, as measured by the session rating of perceived exertion (session-RPE) method. Nine male professional outfield futsal players were monitored for 4 wk of the in-season period with regards to the weekly accumulated session-RPE, while participating in the same training sessions. Single-session-RPE was obtained from the product of a 10-point RPE scale and the duration of exercise. Maximal oxygen consumption was determined during an incremental treadmill test. The average training load throughout the 4 wk period varied between 2,876 and 5,035 arbitrary units. Technical-tactical sessions were the predominant source of loading. There was a significant correlation between VO2max (59.6 ± 2.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) and overall training load accumulated over the total period (r = -0.75). The VO2max plays a key role in determining the magnitude of an individual's perceived exertion during futsal training sessions.

  15. Exertional dyspnoea in COPD: the clinical utility of cardiopulmonary exercise testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis E. O'Donnell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Activity-related dyspnoea is often the most distressing symptom experienced by patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD and can persist despite comprehensive medical management. It is now clear that dyspnoea during physical activity occurs across the spectrum of disease severity, even in those with mild airway obstruction. Our understanding of the nature and source of dyspnoea is incomplete, but current aetiological concepts emphasise the importance of increased central neural drive to breathe in the setting of a reduced ability of the respiratory system to appropriately respond. Since dyspnoea is provoked or aggravated by physical activity, its concurrent measurement during standardised laboratory exercise testing is clearly important. Combining measurement of perceptual and physiological responses during exercise can provide valuable insights into symptom severity and its pathophysiological underpinnings. This review summarises the abnormal physiological responses to exercise in COPD, as these form the basis for modern constructs of the neurobiology of exertional dyspnoea. The main objectives are: 1 to examine the role of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET in uncovering the physiological mechanisms of exertional dyspnoea in patients with mild-to-moderate COPD; 2 to examine the escalating negative sensory consequences of progressive respiratory impairment with disease advancement; and 3 to build a physiological rationale for individualised treatment optimisation based on CPET.

  16. Menstrual cycle effects on perceived exertion and pain during exercise among sedentary women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Ann E Caldwell; Bryan, Angela D; Eaton, Melissa

    2011-03-01

    Increasing cardiovascular fitness through exercise participation among sedentary people is important for decreasing all-cause mortality. From an intervention perspective, identifying modifiable factors that maximize the successful initiation of exercise is of utmost importance. For women, cyclic hormonal variations can influence aspects of health and health behaviors, from smoking cessation efficacy to physiological responses to exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of menstrual cycle phase and hormonal contraceptive (HC) use on subjective response to an initial bout of moderate intensity exercise among previously sedentary women (n = 117). Women completed a treadmill exercise challenge session at 65% of their previously determined maximum oxygen consumption (Vo(2) max) during the early follicular, late follicular, or luteal phase. Participants reported ratings of perceived exertion and pain using Borg's Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) and CR10 scales at 10, 20, and 30 minutes during the exercise session. There was a significant menstrual phase x birth control interaction on change in RPE [F(2, 111) = 3.75, p cycle phase influence sedentary women's subjective response to exercise. These results have important implications for the timing of exercise interventions aimed at increasing exercise among sedentary women.

  17. H-Ras Exerts Opposing Effects on Type I Interferon Responses Depending on Its Activation Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Guann-An; Lin, Yun-Ru; Chung, Hai-Ting; Hwang, Lih-Hwa

    2017-01-01

    Using shRNA high-throughput screening, we identified H-Ras as a regulator of antiviral activity, whose depletion could enhance Sindbis virus replication. Further analyses indicated that depletion of H-Ras results in a robust increase in vesicular stomatitis virus infection and a decrease in Sendai virus (SeV)-induced retinoic acid-inducible gene-I-like receptor (RLR) signaling. Interestingly, however, ectopic expression of wild-type H-Ras results in a biphasic mode of RLR signaling regulation: while low-level expression of H-Ras enhances SeV-induced RLR signaling, high-level expression of H-Ras significantly inhibits this signaling. The inhibitory effects correlate with the activation status of H-Ras. As a result, oncogenic H-Ras, H-RasV12, strongly inhibits SeV-induced IFN-β promoter activity and type I interferon signaling. Conversely, the positive effects exerted by H-Ras on RLR signaling are independent of its signaling activity, as a constitutively inactive form of H-Ras, H-RasN17, also positively regulates RLR signaling. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that depletion of H-Ras reduces the formation of MAVS-TNF receptor-associated factor 3 signaling complexes. These results reveal that the H-Ras protein plays a role in promoting MAVS signalosome assembly in the mitochondria, whereas oncogenic H-Ras exerts a negative effect on type I IFN responses.

  18. Measuring exertion time, duty cycle and hand activity level for industrial tasks using computer vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkas, Oguz; Lee, Cheng Hsien; Hu, Yu Hen; Harris Adamson, Carisa; Rempel, David; Radwin, Robert G

    2017-12-01

    Two computer vision algorithms were developed to automatically estimate exertion time, duty cycle (DC) and hand activity level (HAL) from videos of workers performing 50 industrial tasks. The average DC difference between manual frame-by-frame analysis and the computer vision DC was -5.8% for the Decision Tree (DT) algorithm, and 1.4% for the Feature Vector Training (FVT) algorithm. The average HAL difference was 0.5 for the DT algorithm and 0.3 for the FVT algorithm. A sensitivity analysis, conducted to examine the influence that deviations in DC have on HAL, found it remained unaffected when DC error was less than 5%. Thus, a DC error less than 10% will impact HAL less than 0.5 HAL, which is negligible. Automatic computer vision HAL estimates were therefore comparable to manual frame-by-frame estimates. Practitioner Summary: Computer vision was used to automatically estimate exertion time, duty cycle and hand activity level from videos of workers performing industrial tasks.

  19. Activity Exerted by a Testosterone Derivative on Myocardial Injury Using an Ischemia/Reperfusion Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro, Figueroa-Valverde; Francisco, Díaz-Cedillo; Elodia, García-Cervera; Eduardo, Pool-Gómez; Maria, López-Ramos; Marcela, Rosas-Nexticapa; Lenin, Hau-Heredia; Betty, Sarabia-Alcocer; Monica, Velázquez-Sarabia Betty

    2014-01-01

    Some reports indicate that several steroid derivatives have activity at cardiovascular level; nevertheless, there is scarce information about the activity exerted by the testosterone derivatives on cardiac injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion (I/R). Analyzing these data, in this study, a new testosterone derivative was synthetized with the objective of evaluating its effect on myocardial injury using an ischemia/reperfusion model. In addition, perfusion pressure and coronary resistance were evaluated in isolated rat hearts using the Langendorff technique. Additionally, molecular mechanism involved in the activity exerted by the testosterone derivative on perfusion pressure and coronary resistance was evaluated by measuring left ventricular pressure in the absence or presence of the following compounds: flutamide, prazosin, metoprolol, nifedipine, indomethacin, and PINANE TXA2. The results showed that the testosterone derivative significantly increases (P = 0.05) the perfusion pressure and coronary resistance in isolated heart. Other data indicate that the testosterone derivative increases left ventricular pressure in a dose-dependent manner (0.001–100 nM); however, this phenomenon was significantly inhibited (P = 0.06) by indomethacin and PINANE-TXA2  (P = 0.05) at a dose of 1 nM. In conclusion, these data suggest that testosterone derivative induces changes in the left ventricular pressure levels through thromboxane receptor activation. PMID:24839599

  20. Bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liévin, V; Peiffer, I; Hudault, S; Rochat, F; Brassart, D; Neeser, J R; Servin, A L

    2000-11-01

    The gastrointestinal microflora exerts a barrier effect against enteropathogens. The aim of this study was to examine if bifidobacteria, a major species of the human colonic microflora, participates in the barrier effect by developing antimicrobial activity against enterovirulent bacteria. Antibacterial activity was examined in vitro against a wide range of Gram negative and Gram positive pathogens. Inhibition of Salmonella typhimurium SL1334 cell association and cell invasion was investigated in vitro using Caco-2 cells. Colonisation of the gastrointestinal tract in vivo by bifidobacteria was examined in axenic C3/He/Oujco mice. Antimicrobial activity was examined in vivo in axenic C3/He/Oujco mice infected by the lethal S typhimurium C5 strain. Fourteen human bifidobacterium strains isolated from infant stools were examined for antimicrobial activity. Two strains (CA1 and F9) expressed antagonistic activity against pathogens in vitro, inhibited cell entry, and killed intracellular S typhimurium SL1344 in Caco-2 cells. An antibacterial component(s) produced by CA1 and F9 was found to be a lipophilic molecule(s) with a molecular weight of less than 3500. In the axenic C3/He/Oujco mice, CA1 and F9 strains colonised the intestinal tract and protected mice against S typhimurium C5 lethal infection. Several bifidobacterium strains from resident infant human gastrointestinal microflora exert antimicrobial activity, suggesting that they could participate in the "barrier effect" produced by the indigenous microflora.

  1. Changes in muscle activity and perceived exertion during exercises performed on a swiss ball.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Paul; Murphy, Bernadette

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine differences in electromyographic (EMG) activity of prime mover and abdominal muscles while performing squats, push ups, and double leg lowering with a swiss ball. Twelve healthy subjects performed the movements. There was no difference between the surface conditions for muscle activity during the squat exercise; however, individuals had lower perceived exertion for the swiss ball squat. Activity of the triceps and abdominals was highest performing push ups on the swiss ball, whereas the activity of rectus abdominus (RA) only increased during double leg lowering on the swiss ball. Perceived exertion was highest for the push up and leg-lowering exercise performed on the swiss ball. Increased RA activity during double leg lowering can be attributed to its role as a hip flexor, whereas the lack of a rotation aspect to the task prevented increased oblique muscle activity. The swiss ball appears to only increase muscle activity during exercises where the unstable surface is the primary base of support.

  2. Validity of the CALER and OMNI-bike ratings of perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkley, Jacob E; Roemmich, James N

    2008-04-01

    To test the validity of the Cart and Load Effort Rating (CALER) and OMNI bike RPE scales. Children (16 boys aged 9.5 +/- 0.7 and 16 girls aged 9.4 +/- 0.8) performed a progressive exercise test on a cycle ergometer to exhaustion. Random effects models and correlation analysis were used to determine the association of the undifferentiated perceived exertion from the CALER and OMNI bike scales with heart rate and V O2 for concurrent validity and the association of the CALER scale with the validated OMNI bike scale for construct validity. Tests of proportions were performed to compare the proportion of maximal RPE scale (CALER, OMNI bike) with the proportion of maximal heart rate achieved during the final stage of the exercise test. Concurrent validity of the CALER and OMNI bike scales was established, as increases in scores of both scales were associated with (P bike scale (r = 0.93). The proportion of maximal CALER (75 +/- 20%) and OMNI bike (74 +/- 19%) scales were less (P bike RPE scales was established for a progressively increasing exercise paradigm. However, the proportion of maximal perceived exertion scores from both scales was lower than the proportion of predicted maximal heart rate achieved during the final stage of the exercise test.

  3. Update: Exertional hyponatremia, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2001-2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    From 2001 through 2016, there were 1,519 incident diagnoses of exertional hyponatremia among active component service members (incidence rate: 6.9 cases per 100,000 person-years [p-yrs]). The incidence rate in 2016 (6.6 cases per 100,000 p-yrs) represented a decrease of 23.3% from 2015. Compared to their respective counterparts, overall incidence rates of exertional hyponatremia were higher among females, those aged 19 years or younger, and recruit trainees. The overall incidence rate during the surveillance period was highest in the Marine Corps, intermediate in the Army and Air Force, and lowest in the Navy. Overall incidence rates were lowest among black, non-Hispanic service members and highest among white, non-Hispanic and Asian/Pacific Islander service members. Service members (particularly recruit trainees) and their supervisors must be vigilant for early signs of heat-related illnesses and must be knowledgeable of the dangers of excessive water consumption and the prescribed limits for water intake during prolonged physical activity (e.g., field training exercises, personal fitness training, recreational activities) in hot, humid weather.

  4. Assessing health-related quality of life in patients with benign non-toxic goitre

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watt, Torquil; Cramon, Per; Frendl, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) assessments are increasingly used to evaluate treatment effects and to shape the delivery of value based care. Valid generic and disease specific tools are available for quantifying HRQoL in patients with non-toxic goitre. However, few studies have applied...... these validated instruments to assess HRQoL in patients with benign non-toxic goitre. Limited evidence suggests that patients with non-toxic goitre have HRQoL impairments in multiple HRQoL domains. While the HRQoL-impact of non-toxic goitre may be small relative to other severely disabling medical conditions...

  5. Ranking of aquatic toxicity of esters modelled by QSAR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Ester; Battaini, Francesca; Gramatica, Paola

    2005-02-01

    Alternative methods like predictions based on Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationships (QSARs) are now accepted to fill data gaps and define priority lists for more expensive and time consuming assessments. A heterogeneous data set of 74 esters was studied for their aquatic toxicity, and available experimental toxicity data on algae, Daphnia and fish were used to develop statistically validated QSAR models, obtained using multiple linear regression (MLR) by the OLS (Ordinary Least Squares) method and GA-VSS (Variable Subset Selection by Genetic Algorithms) to predict missing values. An ESter Aquatic Toxicity INdex (ESATIN) was then obtained by combining, by PCA, experimental and predicted toxicity data, from which model outliers and esters highly influential due to their structure had been eliminated. Finally this integrated aquatic toxicity index, defined by the PC1 score, was modelled using only a few theoretical molecular descriptors. This last QSAR model, statistically validated for its predictive power, could be proposed as a preliminary evaluative method for screening/prioritising esters according to their integrated aquatic toxicity, just starting from their molecular structure.

  6. A case of fulminating amebic colitis associated with toxic megacolon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Kyung Sik; Lee, Joong Suk; Suh, Soo Jhi [Kyung Hee University Hospital. Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1985-12-15

    Amebic colitis was common disease in Korea as well as in the world especially frequent in tropical area such as Africa, India and South America. Clinicopathological forms of this condition were ulcerative rectocolitis (95%), typhloappendicitis (3%), ameboma (1.5%), and fulminating colitis with toxic megacolon (0.5%). The fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon was very rare and dangerous condition which was reported by Wruble on 1966. Toxic megacolon was seen in the cases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, typhoid fever, cholera, and acute bacillary dysentery. Radiological findings of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon were megacolon, multiple polypoid filling defects, thumbprinting, and cobble stone appearance, which were resemble with ulcerative colitis. The cause of toxic megacolon was not well known, but it has been speculated that this results from transmural disease with destruction of muscle and the myenteric plexus with resultant loss of muscle tone. Authors experienced a case of fulminating amebic colitis with toxic megacolon which was resemble with ulcerative colitis by radiologically at Kyung Hee University Hospital and reported it with review of the literatures.

  7. Chrysin as an Anti-Cancer Agent Exerts Selective Toxicity by Directly Inhibiting Mitochondrial Complex II and V in CLL B-lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi, Ahmad; Roudkenar, Mehryar Habibi; Seydi, Enayatollah; Sadeghi, Leila; Mohseni, Alireza; Pirahmadi, Nahal; Pourahmad, Jalal

    2017-03-16

    We investigated the effect of chrysin on isolated normal and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) B-lymphocytes and their isolated mitochondria. We report that a selective and significant increase in cytotoxicity, intracellular reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, ADP/ATP ratio, caspase 3 activation and finally apoptosis in chrysin-treated CLL B- lymphocytes. Also we determined that chrysin selectively inhibits complex II and ATPases in cancerous mitochondria. In this study we proved that the ability of chrysin to promote apoptosis in CLL B-lymphocytes performed by selectively targeting of mitochondria. Our findings may provide a potential therapeutic approach for using chrysin to target mitochondria in CLL B-lymphocytes.

  8. Use of transepithelial electrical resistance in the study of pentachlorophenol toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, G; Ait-Aissa, S; Gillet, C; Rogerieux, F; Lambre, C; Vindimian, E; Porcher, J M

    1999-01-01

    The toxicity of pentachlorophenol (PCP), a polluting substance believed to exert a narcotic effect, was assayed using the Caco-2 cell line as a model. In order to assess this toxicity as fully as possible, several viability tests, each examining different endpoints, have been used. Neutral red uptake was found to be more sensitive to PCP than MTT and Alamar Blue tests. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) was shown to be the most sensitive to PCP at concentrations and exposure times where the Alamar Blue, LDH leakage and Blue Dextran passage did not evidence any effect. Blue Dextran passage and optical microscopy revealed cellular detachment at concentrations where LDH and Alamar Blue showed little or no cytotoxicity. Thus, PCP seems to affect the integrity of the intestinal barrier at levels where no cytotoxicity is seen. Our results support the notion that TEER can be used as a very sensitive method for evaluating membrane-perturbing toxicants.

  9. Russia-A New Empire Under Construction. The Russian Policy towards Former Communist Satellites-Mechanisms of Exertion of Influence

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nogaj, Mariusz

    2008-01-01

    .... This thesis examines how the Russian foreign policy strategy was developed and used as a tool for exertion of influence over the postcommunist states, particularly Poland, Ukraine, and Georgia...

  10. The future of toxicity testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Melvin E; Al-Zoughool, Mustafa; Croteau, Maxine; Westphal, Margit; Krewski, Daniel

    2010-02-01

    In 2007, the U.S. National Research Council (NRC) released a report, "Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A Vision and a Strategy," that proposes a paradigm shift for toxicity testing of environmental agents. The vision is based on the notion that exposure to environmental agents leads to adverse health outcomes through the perturbation of toxicity pathways that are operative in humans. Implementation of the NRC vision will involve a fundamental change in the assessment of toxicity of environmental agents, moving away from adverse health outcomes observed in experimental animals to the identification of critical perturbations of toxicity pathways. Pathway perturbations will be identified using in vitro assays and quantified for dose response using methods in computational toxicology and other recent scientific advances in basic biology. Implementation of the NRC vision will require a major research effort, not unlike that required to successfully map the human genome, extending over 10 to 20 years, involving the broad scientific community to map important toxicity pathways operative in humans. This article provides an overview of the scientific tools and technologies that will form the core of the NRC vision for toxicity testing. Of particular importance will be the development of rapidly performed in vitro screening assays using human cells and cell lines or human tissue surrogates to efficiently identify environmental agents producing critical pathway perturbations. In addition to the overview of the NRC vision, this study documents the reaction by a number of stakeholder groups since 2007, including the scientific, risk assessment, regulatory, and animal welfare communities.

  11. A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW OF TOXIC LEADERSHIP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-05

    Definitions of Toxic Leadership ...3 Table 1: Definitions of Toxic Leadership ... leadership . However, there are differing explanations as to the cause, solution, and even the definition of toxic leadership . This research contains

  12. National Air Toxic Assessments (NATA) Results

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The National Air Toxics Assessment was conducted by EPA in 2002 to assess air toxics emissions in order to identify and prioritize air toxics, emission source types...

  13. Biological control of toxic cyanobacteri

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ndlela, Luyanda L

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available and applications • If successful, the biocontrol agents may produce conformational changes to the cyanobacterial toxins or reduced eco-toxicity effects • The laboratory study may give insight into the factors inhibiting the natural balance of predatory... on the eco-toxicity resulting from biocontrol as well as the changes to cyanotoxins, if any. Research Plan The study will be conducted at whole cell level and with specific metabolites and toxins, with eco-toxicity studied at three trophic levels...

  14. Developmental Exposure to Environmental Toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Alison J; Mooney, Sandra; Kapoor, Shiv S; White, Kimberly M R; Bearer, Cynthia; El Metwally, Dina

    2015-10-01

    Children interact with the physical environment differently than adults, and are uniquely susceptible to environmental toxicants. Routes of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and target organ toxicities vary as children grow and develop. This article summarizes the sources of exposure and known adverse effects of toxicants that are ubiquitous in our environment, including tobacco smoke, ethanol, solvents, heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, persistent organic pollutants, and pesticides. Preventive strategies that may be used in counseling children and their families are highlighted. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. [Imatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo-Esper, Raúd; Morales-Victorino, Neisser

    2009-01-01

    Antineoplasic agent-induced pulmonary toxicity is an important cause of respiratory failure. These novel antineoplastic agents include imatinib mesylate, a protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor that is encoded by the Bcr-Abl gen created by the Philadelphia chromosome abnormality in chronic myeloid leukemia. Pulmonary toxicity of imatinib is directly related to the dose used. The more severe pulmonary manifestations include pleural effusion by water retention and interstitial pneumonitis. We report the first case published in Mexico ofimatinib-induced pulmonary toxicity and its management in the intensive care unit of the Medica Sur Clinic Foundation.

  16. Toxicity of staphylococcal toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 in rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    de Azavedo, J C; Arbuthnott, J P

    1984-01-01

    Strains of Staphylococcus aureus associated with toxic shock syndrome produce toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 (TSST 1), which is lethal to conventional rabbits and acts synergistically with gram-negative lipopolysaccharide. The lethal effect of TSST 1 was examined in specific-pathogen-free rabbits on the basis that these rabbits, being less colonized by gram-negative bacteria, would be less susceptible than conventional animals. Although there was no significant difference in mortality between s...

  17. Toxicity of Uranium Adsorbent Materials using the Microtox Toxicity Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jiyeon [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Jeters, Robert T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gill, Gary A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kuo, Li-Jung [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bonheyo, George T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Marine Sciences Laboratory at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory evaluated the toxicity of a diverse range of natural and synthetic materials used to extract uranium from seawater. The uranium adsorbent materials are being developed as part of the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy, Fuel Resources Program. The goal of this effort was to identify whether deployment of a farm of these materials into the marine environment would have any toxic effects on marine organisms.

  18. Physiological mechanisms of sex differences in exertional dyspnoea: role of neural respiratory motor drive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaeffer, Michele R; Mendonca, Cassandra T; Levangie, Marc C; Andersen, Ross E; Taivassalo, Tanja; Jensen, Dennis

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does the combination of a higher neural respiratory drive and greater dynamic mechanical ventilatory constraints during exercise in healthy women versus men form the mechanistic basis of sex differences in activity-related dyspnoea? What is the main finding and its importance? Sex differences in activity-related dyspnoea in health primarily reflected the awareness of a higher neural respiratory drive needed to achieve any given ventilation during exercise in the setting of relatively greater dynamic mechanical ventilatory constraints in women. These findings may have implications for our understanding of the mechanisms of sex differences in exertional dyspnoea in variants of health (e.g. the elderly) and in patients with cardiorespiratory disease. The purpose of this study was to elucidate the physiological mechanisms of sex differences in exertional dyspnoea. We compared detailed measures of neural respiratory motor drive [diaphragmatic EMG (EMGdi) expressed as a percentage of maximal EMGdi (EMGdi%max)], breathing pattern, operating lung volumes, dynamic respiratory mechanics [tidal oesophageal (P(oes,tida)l%peak) and transdiaphragmatic pressure swings (P(di,tidal)%peak) expressed as a percentage of their respective peak values] and sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnoea during symptom-limited incremental cycle exercise in healthy young women (n = 25) and men (n = 25). The tidal volume to forced vital capacity ratio (V(T)%FVC), breathing frequency, EMGdi%max, P(oes,tidal)%peak, P(di,tidal)%peak and sensory intensity and unpleasantness ratings of dyspnoea were higher, while dynamic inspiratory capacity and inspiratory reserve volume were lower at a standardized absolute ventilation of 55 l min(-1) during submaximal exercise in women versus men (all P sex had no demonstrable effect on the inter-relationships between exercise-induced increases in V(T)%FVC, EMGdi%max and sensory intensity and unpleasantness

  19. Use of the caco-2 model in the screening of polluting substance toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velarde, G; Ait-Aissa, S; Gillet, C; Rogerieux, F; Lambre, C; Vindimian, E; Porcher, J M

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the oral toxicity of representative chemicals chosen from each class of the list of 132 substances present in industrial effluents after the EEC Directive 76-464. Owing to its characterization as a model of the intestinal epithelium, the CaCo-2 cell line model was chosen. Cytotoxicity was assayed using the tetrazolium blue (MTT) test. For most of the substances, a linear correlation was observed between the octanol/water partition coefficient (log Kw) and the median inhibition concentration (IC(50)). This relationship between lipophilicity and toxicity is the hallmark of a narcotic mechanism of action. However, diethylamine appeared more toxic than the correlation would predict. Other amines were then tested (tert-butylamine, n-butylamine and benzylamine). All of these did not fit into the baseline correlation. The IC(50) were corrected by taking into account only the non-ionized, lipid insoluble, concentration at pH7.3. The amines still did not fit into the correlation, reinforcing the idea of a non-narcotic mechanism. The toxicity of a large number of substances can thus be predicted from their physico-chemical properties only when the substances exert a direct and non-specific effect. The amines appeared more toxic than substances with the same partition coefficient, showing that knowledge of the only lipophilicity is too restrictive to predict toxicity.

  20. Influence of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yue, Kai; Fornara, Dario A; Yang, Wanqin

    2017-01-01

    The interactive effects of multiple global change drivers on terrestrial carbon (C) storage remain poorly understood. Here, we synthesise data from 633 published studies to show how the interactive effects of multiple drivers are generally additive (i.e. not differing from the sum...... of their individual effects) rather than synergistic or antagonistic. We further show that (1) elevated CO2 , warming, N addition, P addition and increased rainfall, all exerted positive individual effects on plant C pools at both single-plant and plant-community levels; (2) plant C pool responses to individual...... additive effects of multiple global change drivers into future assessments of the C storage ability of terrestrial ecosystems....

  1. Potential toxicity of improperly discarded exhausted photovoltaic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, C M; Cerciello, R; De Bonis, S; Mazzella, V; Cirino, P; Panzuto, R; Ciaravolo, M; Simoniello, P; Toscanesi, M; Trifuoggi, M; Avallone, B

    2016-09-01

    Low tech photovoltaic panels (PVPs) installed in the early '80s are now coming to the end of their life cycle and this raises the problem of their proper disposal. As panels contain potentially toxic elements, unconventional, complex and costly procedures are required to avoid environmental health risks and in countries where environmental awareness and economic resources are limited this may be especially problematic. This work was designed to investigate potential risks from improper disposal of these panels. To accomplish this aim an exhausted panel was broken into pieces and these were placed in water for 30 days. The resulting leached solution was analyzed to determine chemical release or used in toto, to determine its potential toxicity in established tests. The end points were seed germination (on Cucumis sativus and Lens culinaris) and effects on early development in three larval models: two crustaceans, Daphnia magna and Artemia salina, and the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Our results show that the panels release small amounts of electrolytes (Na, Ca and Mg) into solution, along with antimony and manganese, with a concentration under the accepted maximum contaminant level, and nickel at a potentially toxic concentration. Developmental defects are seen in the plant and animal test organisms after experimental exposure to the whole solution leached from the broken panel. The toxic effects revealed in in vitro tests are sufficient to attract attention considering that they are exerted on both plants and aquatic animals and that the number of old PVPs in disposal sites will be very high. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. MicroRNAs as regulators in plant metal toxicity response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Belen Mendoza-Soto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Metal toxicity is a major stress affecting crop production. This includes metals that are essential for plants (copper, iron, zinc, manganese, and non-essential metals (cadmium, aluminum, cobalt, mercury. A primary common effect of high concentrations of metals such as aluminum, cooper, cadmium or mercury, is root growth inhibition. Metal toxicity triggers the accumulation of reactive oxygen species leading to damage of lipids, proteins and DNA. The plants response to metal toxicity involves several biological processes that require fine and precise regulation at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are 21 nucleotides non-coding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. A miRNA, incorporated into a RNA induced silencing complex, promotes cleavage of its target mRNA that is recognized by an almost perfect base complementarity. In plants miRNA regulation has been involved in development and also in biotic and abiotic stress responses. We review novel advances in identifying miRNAs related to metal toxicity responses and their potential role according to their targets. Most of the targets for plant metal-responsive miRNAs are transcription factors. Information about metal-responsive miRNAs in different plants points to important regulatory roles of miR319, miR390, miR393 and miR398. The target of miR319 is the TCP transcription factor, implicated in growth control. MiR390 exerts its action through the biogenesis of trans-acting small interference RNAs that, in turn, regulate auxin responsive factors. MiR393 targets the auxin receptors TIR1/AFBs and a bHLH transcription factor. Increasing evidence points to the crucial role of miR398 and its targets Cu/Zn superoxide dismutases in the control of the oxidative stress generated after high metal copper or iron exposure.

  3. Toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium on Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Minling; Zhang, Ze; Lv, Mengting; Song, Wenhua; Lv, Yuhua

    2018-02-01

    Chemical immobilization technologies involving the use of chemical absorbents such as nanomaterials have been recommended for the remediation of Cd-contaminated water and soil. The impact of nanomaterials or nanomaterials coexisting with other contaminants on aquatic organisms has been reported, but information on the toxic effects of nanomaterial-adsorbed cadmium (Nano-Cd) on aquatic organisms is lacking. This study aimed to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of Nano-Cd on Daphnia magna by using a method developed based on the standard Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) 202 guidelines. The toxicity of cadmium chloride (Cd 2+ ), nano-manganese dioxide-cadmium (nMnO 2 -Cd), 20nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 20 -Cd), and 40nm nano-hydroxyapatite-cadmium (nHAP 40 -Cd) to D. magna was in the following order: Cd 2+ > nMnO 2 -Cd > nHAP 20 -Cd > nHAP 40 -Cd. Further, nMnO 2 -Cd, nHAP 20 -Cd, and nHAP 40 -Cd showed acute toxicity to D. magna of level II grade according to the Commission of the European Communities and OECD standards. Exposure to low and medium, but not high, Nano-Cd concentrations increased the activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and anti-superoxide anion. Thus, Nano-Cd, particularly at high concentrations, could exert oxidative damage in D. magna. An increase in Cd 2+ and Nano-Cd concentrations gradually increased the malondialdehyde content, indicating cell membrane damage caused by the production of excessive O 2 - . Thus, the use of nanomaterials after adsorption of Cd is associated with a potential risk to aquatic organisms. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Population growth rate determinants for Arbacia: Evaluating ecological relevance of toxicity test endpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nacci, D.; Gleason, T.; Munns, W.R. Jr. [Environmental Protection Agency, Narragansett, RI (United States). Environmental Research Lab.

    1995-12-31

    A population dynamics model for the sea urchin, Arbacia punctulata, was recently developed incorporating life stage endpoints frequently measured in acute and chronic toxicity studies. Model elasticity analysis was used to demonstrate that population growth rate was influenced most by adult survival and least by early life stage success, calling into question the ecological relevance of results from standardized Arbacia fertilization and larval development toxicity tests. Two approaches were used to continue this evaluation. Actual and hypothetical dose-response curves for toxicant exposures over multiple life stages were used to evaluate contributions to population growth rate of stage-specific toxicant effects. Additionally, relationships between critical life stages were developed from laboratory data for Arbacia. The results of this analysis underscore the importance of understanding both endpoint sensitivity to toxicants and sensitivity of population growth rate to test endpoints in determining the ecological relevance of toxicity tests results.

  5. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and anaerobic toxicity assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  6. Determination of leachate toxicity through acute toxicity using Daphnia pulex and Anaerobic Toxicity Assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Torres Lozada

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The municipal solid waste (MSW of large cities, in particular in developing countries, is mainly disposed of in landfills (LFs, whose inadequate management generates the emission of greenhouse gases and the production of leachates with high concentrations of organic and inorganic matter and occasionally heavy metals. In this study, the toxicity of the leachates from an intermediate-age municipal landfill was evaluated by ecotoxicity and anaerobic digestion tests. The acute toxicity assays with Daphnia pulex presented a toxic unit (TU value of 49.5%, which indicates that these leachates should not be directly discharged into water sources or percolate into the soil because they would affect the ecosystems served by these waters. According to statistical analyses, the leachate toxicity is mainly associated with the inorganic fraction, with chlorides, calcium hardness and calcium having the greatest influence on the toxicity. The anaerobic toxicity assays showed that in the exposure stage, the methanogenic activity exceeded that of the control, which suggests that the anaerobic bacteria easily adapted to the leachate. Therefore, this treatment could be an alternative to mitigate the toxicity of the studied leachates. The inhibition presented in the recovery stage, represented by a reduction of the methanogenic activity, could arise because the amount of supplied substrate was not enough to fulfill the carbon and nutrient requirements of the bacterial population present.

  7. Thalidomide and its analogues in the treatment of Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Tahir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Multiple myeloma is an incurable malignant disorder of mature B-cells that predominantly affects the elderly. The immunomodulatory drug (IMiD thalidomide and its newer analogs demonstrate increased antitumor activity, and have had a positive impact on the natural history of multiple myeloma. Recent advances in the clinical application of these agents and in our understanding of their mechanism of action, and toxicity have made safer and smarter use of these drugs possible. This review discusses the available information regarding mechanisms of action, toxicity and clinical results on thalidomide, lenalidomide and pomalidomide in the therapy of multiple myeloma.

  8. Non-Toxic HAN Monopropellant Propulsion Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Non-toxic monopropellants have been developed that provide better performance than toxic hydrazine. Formulations based on hydroxylammonium nitrate (HAN) have...

  9. Campylobacter colitis: Rare cause of toxic megacolon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kwok, MBBS

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: Toxic megacolon should be considered in a patient with Campylobacter colitis who becomes critically unwell. Despite treatment, toxic megacolon is associated with a significant risk of mortality.

  10. 2011 NATA - Air Toxics Monitors

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset includes annual (2005 - 2013) statistics of measured ambient air toxics concentrations (in micrograms per cubic meter) and associated risk estimates for...

  11. Methylmercury toxicity and functional programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grandjean, Philippe

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. This notion is considered from epidemiological evidence using developmental methylmercury neurotoxicity as an example. MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Accumula...

  12. Exertional myopathy in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) captured by leghold snare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattet, Marc; Stenhouse, Gordon; Bollinger, Trent

    2008-10-01

    We diagnosed exertional myopathy (EM) in a grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) that died approximately 10 days after capture by leghold snare in west-central Alberta, Canada, in June 2003. The diagnosis was based on history, post-capture movement data, gross necropsy, histopathology, and serum enzyme levels. We were unable to determine whether EM was the primary cause of death because autolysis precluded accurate evaluation of all tissues. Nevertheless, comparison of serum aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase concentrations and survival between the affected bear and other grizzly bears captured by leghold snare in the same research project suggests EM also occurred in other bears, but that it is not generally a cause of mortality. We propose, however, occurrence of nonfatal EM in grizzly bears after capture by leghold snare has potential implications for use of this capture method, including negative effects on wildlife welfare and research data.

  13. Amplexicaule A exerts anti-tumor effects by inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Meixian; Su, Hanwen; Shu, Guangwen; Wan, Dingrong; He, Feng; Loaec, Morgann; Ding, Yali; Li, Jun; Dovat, Sinisa; Yang, Gaungzhong; Song, Chunhua

    2016-04-05

    Chemotherapy is the main treatment for patients with breast cancer metastases, but natural alternatives have been receiving attention for their potential as novel anti-tumor reagents. Amplexicaule A (APA) is a flavonoid glucoside isolated from rhizomes of Polygonum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb (PADF). We found that APA has anti-tumor effects in a breast cancer xenograft mouse model and induces apoptosis in breast cancer cell lines. APA increased levels of cleaved caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP, which resulted from suppression of MCL-1 and BCL-2 expression in the cells. APA also inactivated the Akt/mTOR pathway in breast cancer cells. Thus, APA exerts a strong anti-tumor effect on breast cancer cells, most likely through induction of apoptosis. Our study is the first to identify this novel anti-tumor compound and provides a new strategy for isolation and separation of single compounds from herbs.

  14. Depletion, moral identity, and unethical behavior: Why people behave unethically after self-control exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Chen, Qiuju; Li, Lin

    2017-11-01

    Self-control enables people to resist short-term temptations in the service of long-term goals. Previous exertion of self-control leads to a state of ego depletion. Three studies demonstrated that ego depletion leads to a high level of unethical behavior. These studies also hypothesized and confirmed that depleted individuals behave unethically because of low moral identity. Study 1 found that depleted participants were more likely to over-report their performance than non-depleted participants. Study 2 revealed that depletion reduced people's moral identity, which in turn increased their propensity to engage in unethical behavior. Study 3 proved that priming moral identity eliminated the effect of depletion on cheating. Findings suggest that reduced moral identity accounts for the effect of self-control depletion on unethical behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Forces exerted by a flowing foam : viscous, elastic and plastic behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graner, Francois

    2005-11-01

    We have built a 1 m long, 10 cm wide foam channel, in which we produce 2D foam flows in the range 0.05 - 50 mm/s. In the middle of the channel, we place an obstacle: circle, square, cogwheel, ellipse or airfoil. We perform measurements of the drag, lift and torque exerted by the flowing foam on the obstacle. We observe both a dissipative contribution characteristic of a liquid, and a yielding behaviour typical of a solid. We simultaneously image the foam. In each region of the flow, we measure locally the pressure field, as well as the velocity field, as for a liquid, but also elastic deformation and plastic rearrangements. We discuss how to link the local and global descriptions, and how beyond a few bubble diameters the foam behaves as a continuous material. However, its triple viscous, elastic, plastic behaviour is complex, and most features we observe are not yet explained by current models.

  16. Ethanol exerts anti-inflammatory effects in human adipose tissue in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandler, Anne; Bruun, Jens M; Nielsen, Maria P; Richelsen, Bjørn

    2008-12-16

    Moderate alcohol consumption is suggested to be associated with reduced inflammation and morbidity. Human adipose tissue (AT) and obesity is characterised by low-grade inflammation, so the present study wanted to investigate the effects of ethanol on inflammation in human AT in vitro. Subcutaneous human AT was incubated with ethanol [11-88 mM] under non- or LPS-stimulated [50mg/mL] conditions. Protein and mRNA levels of adiponectin, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha, MCP-1, and CD68 were assessed using ELISA and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. Non-stimulated, ethanol incubations up to 24h increased adiponectin release and mRNA expression (p0.05). In conclusion, ethanol exerts anti-inflammatory effects in human AT, suggesting that ethanol may attenuate whole-body inflammation.

  17. Exertional rhabdomyolysis: identification and evaluation of the athlete at risk for recurrence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepanik, Michelle E; Heled, Yuval; Capacchione, John; Campbell, William; Deuster, Patricia; O'Connor, Francis G

    2014-01-01

    Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) is a common medical condition encountered by primary care and sports medicine providers. Although the majority of individuals with ER follow an expected and unremarkable clinical course without any adverse long-term sequelae or increased risk for recurrence, in others, the condition can serve as an 'unmasker' of an underlying condition that portends future risk. We present two cases of warfighters with a history of recurrent ER who presented to our facility for further evaluation and a return to duty determination. We describe the definition, pathophysiology, epidemiology, etiology, and clinical course of ER. In addition, we introduce 'high-risk' criteria for ER to assist in identifying individuals needing further testing and work-up. Finally we present a suggested algorithm that details the work-up of these individuals with high-risk ER to help identify underlying conditions that may lead to recurrence.

  18. Arachidonic and oleic acid exert distinct effects on the DNA methylome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva-Martínez, Guillermo A.; Rodríguez-Ríos, Dalia; Alvarado-Caudillo, Yolanda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Abnormal fatty acid metabolism and availability are landmarks of metabolic diseases, which in turn are associated with aberrant DNA methylation profiles. To understand the role of fatty acids in disease epigenetics, we sought DNA methylation profiles specifically induced by arachidonic...... (AA) or oleic acid (OA) in cultured cells and compared those with published profiles of normal and diseased tissues. THP-1 monocytes were stimulated with AA or OA and analyzed using Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip (Illumina) and Human Exon 1.0 ST array (Affymetrix). Data were corroborated......, AA and OA exert distinct effects on the DNA methylome. The observation that AA may contribute to shape the epigenome of important metabolic diseases, supports and expands current diet-based therapeutic and preventive efforts....

  19. The validity of submaximal ratings of perceived exertion to predict one repetition maximum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eston, Roger; Evans, Harrison James Llewelyn

    2009-01-01

    The One Repetition Maximum (1-RM) test is commonly used to assess strength. However, direct assessments of 1-RM are time consuming and unsafe for novice lifters. Whilst various equations exist to predict 1-RM, there is limited research on the validity of these equations. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of using sub-maximal ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) to predict 1-RM in young adults, using the Borg 6-20 RPE Scale. Twenty healthy participants (ten male (Mean ± SD, 20.8 ± 0.6 y, 75.7 ± 9.3 kg, 1.8 ± 0.07 m) and ten female (20.3 ± 0.7 y, 68.4 ± 10.0 kg, 1.68 ± 0.03 m)) completed two trials involving resistance exercises for both the upper and lower body. In the first trial the 1-RM for the bilateral biceps curl (BC) and the bilateral knee extension (KE) were determined for each participant. In the second trial, participants performed blinded repetitions which were equivalent to 20, 40 and 60 % of 1-RM for both exercises. The RPE was recorded immediately after two repetitions had been completed at each intensity. The order of intensity of the repetitions was randomly assigned with participants wearing blindfolds to exclude the possibility of pre-determined judgments about load and RPE. Individual RPE recorded at each intensity was subjected to linear regression analysis and the line of best fit was extrapolated to RPE 20 to predict 1-RM in both exercises. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the 1-RM predicted from RPE 20 and measured 1-RM for both exercises for the men and women. Measured and predicted values for men were 46.0 ± 4.6 and 45.2 ± 6. 1 kg for biceps curl, and 46.3 ± 3.8 and 43.0 ± 7.1 kg for knee extension, respectively. Measured and predicted values for women were 18.6 ± 5.7 and 19.3 ± 5.6 kg for biceps curl, and 25.5 ± 9.6 and 27.2 ± 12.6 kg for knee extension, respectively. Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients between actual and predicted 1-RM for the BC and KE were 0.97 and 0

  20. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray.

  1. Construct and concurrent validation of OMNI-Kayak rating of Perceived Exertion Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Fábio Y; Perandini, Luiz A; Okuno, Nilo M; Borges, Thiago O; Bertuzzi, Rômulo C M; Robertson, Robert J

    2009-06-01

    This study tested the concurrent and construct validity of a newly developed OMNI-Kayak Scale, testing 8 male kayakers who performed a flatwater load-incremented "shuttle" test over a 500-m course and 3 estimation-production trials over a 1,000-m course. Velocity, blood lactate concentration, heart rate, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE), using the OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale and the Borg 6-20 Scale were recorded. OMNI-Kayak Scale RPE was highly correlated with velocity, the Borg 6-20 Scale RPE, blood lactate, and heart rate for both load-incremented test (rs = .87-.96), and estimation trials (rs = .75-.90). There were no significant differences among velocities, heart rate and blood lactate concentration between estimation and production trials. The OMNI-Kayak RPE Scale showed concurrent and construct validity in assessing perception of effort in flatwater kayaking and is a valid tool for self-regulation of exercise intensity.

  2. Association between the Rating Perceived Exertion, Heart Rate and Blood Lactate in Successive Judo Fights (Randori)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branco, Braulio H.M.; Massuça, Luis M.; Andreato, Leonardo V.; Marinho, Bruno F.; Miarka, Bianca; Monteiro, Luis; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate the association between the rating of perceived exertion (RPE), heart rate (HR) and the blood lactate concentration ([La]) in successive judo fight simulations (randori). Methods Ten athletes participated in the study (age: 25.6±2.1 years; stature: 1.75±0.07 m; body mass: 75.6±14.9kg; %BF: 11.5±7.8%; practice: 14.5±6.2 years) and completed 4 judo fight simulations (T1 to T4) with duration of 5 min separated by 5 min passive recovery periods. Before each randori, [La] and HR were collected, and after each randori, the same measures and the RPE (CR-10 scale) were collected. Results Significant correlations were observed between: (1) CR-10 and HR (T2: r =0.70; T3: r =0.64; both, Pjudo fight simulations (Pjudo, should be done with caution. PMID:23802054

  3. TOXIC AND DRUG INDUCED MYOPATHIES

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Although the ?do no harm? dogma of Hippocrates is faithfully followed by all practitioners, drugs used for therapeutic interventions either alone or in combination, may sometimes cause unexpected toxicity to the muscles, resulting in a varying degree of symptomatology, from mild discomfort and inconvenience to permanent damage and disability. The clinician should suspect a toxic myopathy when a patient without a pre-existing muscle disease develops myalgia, fatigue, weakn...

  4. Influence of the moment exerted by the athlete on the pole in pole-vaulting performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morlier, Julien; Mesnard, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Current studies on pole-vaulting focus mostly on energy transfer data [Ekevad, M., Lundberg, B., 1995. Simulation of "smart" pole vaulting. Journal of Biomechanics 28, 1079-1090; Ekevad, M., Lundberg, B., 1997. Influence of pole length and stiffness on the energy conversion in pole-vaulting. Journal of Biomechanics, 30, 259-264; Linthorne, N.P., 2000. Energy loss in the pole vault take-off and the advantage of the flexible pole. Sports Engineering 3, 205-218; Schade, F., Arampatzis, A., Bruggemann, G.P., 2006. Reproducibility of energy parameters in the pole vault. Journal of Biomechanics 39, 146-147.] and often fail to take into account the actions exerted on the pole [Arampatzis, Schade, Bruggemann, 2004. Effect of the pole-human body interaction on pole-vaulting performance. Journal of Biomechanics 37, 1353-1360]. The present study integrates the 3D kinematics data of the athlete but also the actions measured at the end of the pole in the planting box and on the track during the last stride before take-off. It proposes a mechanical model allowing determination of the pole-vaulter's actions on the pole. The model is based on a global mechanical approach. The pole-vaulter's action on his upper and lower hand is concentrated on one middle point to solve the dynamics problem. The model was applied to seven experienced pole-vaulters. The force and the moment exerted on the pole by the pole-vaulter during the last stride before take off and during jump stage, were calculated. This analysis of the compressive force and bending moment for seven pole-vaulters helps to highlight the impact of the moment in the performance. The conclusion is confirmed by an additional comparative study carried out on two pole-vaulters, with comparable morphologies and performing with the same pole.

  5. Metabolic Rate and Perceived Exertion of Walking in Older Adults With Idiopathic Chronic Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valiani, Vincenzo; Corbett, Duane B; Knaggs, Jeffrey D; Manini, Todd M

    2016-11-01

    Fatigue is a common complaint in older adults, often not associated with underlying medical conditions. The purpose of this study was to investigate metabolic rate (MR) of walking, walking performance, and perception-based exertion during walking in older adults with and without idiopathic chronic fatigue (ICF). 20 older adults (aged 70.8±4.9 years), reporting 2 SD above normative values of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue scale and without overt health conditions that explained their symptoms, were compared with 25 age-matched older adults (73.2±5.1 years) without fatigue symptoms. Participants walked 400 m at a rapid pace on a 20-m course. On a separate visit, oxygen consumption was measured during treadmill test at standard (40.2 m/min), preferred paces (40-83 m/min) and peak capacity. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at each treadmill stage and after each lap of the 400-m walk test. During the 400-m walk test, individuals with ICF showed lower overall walking speed and reported a steady increase in RPE with no change observed in non-fatigued group (1.63±1.72 vs 0.27±0.68, p < .01). Similar findings on RPE were noted on treadmill test. Gross MR, mass-specific MR, mass-specific net MR, and MR as a percent of peak oxygen consumption of walking were similar between groups during standard, preferred paces and peak capacity on treadmill. This study suggests that ICF in older adults is not related to elevated metabolic cost of walking. Higher RPE without concomitant decreases in performance indicate a potential disconnect between metabolic output and sensations during movement. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Effect of Bench Press Load Knowledge on Repetitions, Rating of Perceived Exertion, and Attentional Focus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, Christina M; Cox, Zachary; Dundore, Tyler; Thomas, Tayler; Kim, Johnathon; Pillivant, Daniel

    2018-02-01

    Beaudoin, CM, Cox, Z, Dundore, T, Thomas, T, Kim, J, and Pillivant, D. Effect of bench press load knowledge on repetitions, rating of perceived exertion, and attentional focus. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 514-519, 2018-Few studies have examined the role of the teleoanticipation during resistance training. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bench press (BP) load knowledge on repetitions completed, ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs), and attentional focus (% associative). Thirty-six recreationally active resistance-trained men (n = 25) and women (n = 11) participated in this study (age = 20.97 ± 1.87 years; ht = 174.12 ± 9.41 cm; and mass = 80.14 ± 14.03 kg). All subjects completed 3 testing sessions: (a) 1 repetition maximum (1RM) BP determination; (b) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue known load (KL); and (c) submaximal BP repetitions to fatigue unknown load (UL). Known load and UL sessions were randomized and counterbalanced and both completed at 70% 1RM. An estimated weight ratio was computed using the subject's estimate of the UL weight relative to the KL weight. An independent samples t-test revealed no significant testing order difference for the estimated weight ratio. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variances revealed no significant differences in the number of repetitions (p = 0.63), RPE (p = 0.18), or attentional focus (% associative) (p = 0.93) between the KL and UL conditions. Pearson correlations found a moderate positive association between KL repetitions completed and % associative focus when the UL was completed before the KL. Load knowledge did not influence the number of repetitions, RPE, or attentional focus while completing the BP. Further research examining the use of pacing strategies, RPE, and attentional focus during KL and UL conditions are warranted.

  7. Nonmuscle myosin II exerts tension but does not translocate actin in vertebrate cytokinesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuefei; Kovács, Mihály; Conti, Mary Anne; Wang, Aibing; Zhang, Yingfan; Sellers, James R; Adelstein, Robert S

    2012-03-20

    During vertebrate cytokinesis it is thought that contractile ring constriction is driven by nonmuscle myosin II (NM II) translocation of antiparallel actin filaments. Here we report in situ, in vitro, and in vivo observations that challenge this hypothesis. Graded knockdown of NM II in cultured COS-7 cells reveals that the amount of NM II limits ring constriction. Restoration of the constriction rate with motor-impaired NM II mutants shows that the ability of NM II to translocate actin is not required for cytokinesis. Blebbistatin inhibition of cytokinesis indicates the importance of myosin strongly binding to actin and exerting tension during cytokinesis. This role is substantiated by transient kinetic experiments showing that the load-dependent mechanochemical properties of mutant NM II support efficient tension maintenance despite the inability to translocate actin. Under loaded conditions, mutant NM II exhibits a prolonged actin attachment in which a single mechanoenzymatic cycle spans most of the time of cytokinesis. This prolonged attachment promotes simultaneous binding of NM II heads to actin, thereby increasing tension and resisting expansion of the ring. The detachment of mutant NM II heads from actin is enhanced by assisting loads, which prevent mutant NM II from hampering furrow ingression during cytokinesis. In the 3D context of mouse hearts, mutant NM II-B R709C that cannot translocate actin filaments can rescue multinucleation in NM II-B ablated cardiomyocytes. We propose that the major roles of NM II in vertebrate cell cytokinesis are to bind and cross-link actin filaments and to exert tension on actin during contractile ring constriction.

  8. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith R Homberg

    Full Text Available The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI Prozac® (fluoxetine is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg at postnatal day (PND 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (norfluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (norfluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential

  9. Ratings of Perceived Exertion in an Incremental Test in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis César Leite Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2014v16n1p106   Although the rating of perceived exertion (RPE is used in the evaluation and prescription of physical activity for the elderly, some subjects might find it hard tounderstand the Borg scale. This study aimed to verify whether elderly women could notice, associate, and report changes in physical effort using the perceived exertion scale in response to a stress test. We also aimed to verify the possibility of predicting a respiratory compensation point (RCP using the Borg scale. Twenty six elderly women took a stress test on a treadmill, with ergospirometry and ECG monitoring and RPE in a ramp protocol. Based on the RPEs for different exercise intensities (low, moderate, high, we assessed the women’s perception, association, and report of changes in physical effort. Eight subjects (30.77% did not notice, associate or report changes in effort using RPE. For those who did, the percentage of max-imum workload at the moment of RPE 13 (69.92 ± 10,30 and 14 (78.90 ± 11,00 did not differ significantly from the one at the moment of RCP (75.45 ± 9.65. We conclude that some elderly women may have difficulties noticing, associating and reporting changes in physical effort using the Borg scale. However, for those who do not have any difficulty, RPE 13 and 14 coincide with the RCP.

  10. Fluoxetine Exerts Age-Dependent Effects on Behavior and Amygdala Neuroplasticity in the Rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R.; Olivier, Jocelien D. A.; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg) at postnatal day (PND) 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7–14 days after the last injection when (nor)fluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (nor)fluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling) immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT1A receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential fluoxetine

  11. Fluoxetine exerts age-dependent effects on behavior and amygdala neuroplasticity in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homberg, Judith R; Olivier, Jocelien D A; Blom, Tom; Arentsen, Tim; van Brunschot, Chantal; Schipper, Pieter; Korte-Bouws, Gerdien; van Luijtelaar, Gilles; Reneman, Liesbeth

    2011-01-31

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) Prozac® (fluoxetine) is the only registered antidepressant to treat depression in children and adolescents. Yet, while the safety of SSRIs has been well established in adults, serotonin exerts neurotrophic actions in the developing brain and thereby may have harmful effects in adolescents. Here we treated adolescent and adult rats chronically with fluoxetine (12 mg/kg) at postnatal day (PND) 25 to 46 and from PND 67 to 88, respectively, and tested the animals 7-14 days after the last injection when (nor)fluoxetine in blood plasma had been washed out, as determined by HPLC. Plasma (nor)fluoxetine levels were also measured 5 hrs after the last fluoxetine injection, and matched clinical levels. Adolescent rats displayed increased behavioral despair in the forced swim test, which was not seen in adult fluoxetine treated rats. In addition, beneficial effects of fluoxetine on wakefulness as measured by electroencephalography in adults was not seen in adolescent rats, and age-dependent effects on the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition were observed. On the other hand, adolescent rats showed resilience to the anorexic effects of fluoxetine. Exploratory behavior in the open field test was not affected by fluoxetine treatment, but anxiety levels in the elevated plus maze test were increased in both adolescent and adult fluoxetine treated rats. Finally, in the amygdala, but not the dorsal raphe nucleus and medial prefrontal cortex, the number of PSA-NCAM (marker for synaptic remodeling) immunoreactive neurons was increased in adolescent rats, and decreased in adult rats, as a consequence of chronic fluoxetine treatment. No fluoxetine-induced changes in 5-HT(1A) receptor immunoreactivity were observed. In conclusion, we show that fluoxetine exerts both harmful and beneficial age-dependent effects on depressive behavior, body weight and wakefulness, which may relate, in part, to differential fluoxetine

  12. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A.; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R.; Casa, Douglas J.

    2017-08-01

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  13. ASSESSMENT OF SUBJECTIVE PERCEIVED EXERTION AT THE ANAEROBIC THRESHOLD WITH THE BORG CR-10 SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio R. Zamunér

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anaerobic threshold (AT with a graphic visual method for estimating the intensity of ventilatory and metabolic exertion and to determine the ratings of perceived exertion (RPE on the Borg CR-10 scale during a continuous ramp type exercise test (CT-R. Forty healthy, physically active and sedentary young women (age 23.1 ± 3.52 years were divided into two groups according to their fitness level: active group (AG and sedentary group (SG and were submitted to a CT-R on a cycloergometer with 20 to 25 W/min increments. Shortly before the end of each one-minute period, the subjects were asked to rate dyspnea (RPE-D and leg fatigue (RPE-L on the Borg CR-10 scale. After the AT was determined with the graphic visual method, the score that the volunteers gave on the Borg CR10 scale was verified. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney and Spearman correlation tests with the significance level set at 5%. The mean ratings of RPE-L and RPE-D at the AT level were not significantly different between groups (p > 0.05. Significant correlations were found between VO2, heart rate (HR, power output and RPE for both groups. The muscular and respiratory RPE, according to the Borg CR-10 scale, were correlated with the AT, suggesting that scores close to 5, which correspond to a "strong" perception, may be used as parameters for quantifying aerobic exercise intensity for active and sedentary individuals. The similar perception of exercise intensity, which corresponded to the AT of different individuals, makes it possible to prescribe exercise at an intensity equivalent to the AT by means of the RPE.

  14. American football and fatal exertional heat stroke: a case study of Korey Stringer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundstein, Andrew; Knox, John A; Vanos, Jennifer; Cooper, Earl R; Casa, Douglas J

    2017-03-17

    On August 1, 2001, Korey Stringer, a Pro Bowl offensive tackle for the Minnesota Vikings, became the first and to date the only professional American football player to die from exertional heat stroke (EHS). The death helped raise awareness of the dangers of exertional heat illnesses in athletes and prompted the development of heat safety policies at the professional, collegiate, and interscholastic levels. Despite the public awareness of this death, no published study has examined in detail the circumstances surrounding Stringer's fatal EHS. Using the well-documented details of the case, our study shows that Stringer's fatal EHS was the result of a combination of physiological limitations, organizational and treatment failings, and extreme environmental conditions. The COMfort FormulA (COMFA) energy budget model was used to assess the relative importance of several extrinsic factors on Stringer's EHS, including weather conditions, clothing insulation, and activity levels. We found that Stringer's high-intensity training in relation to the oppressive environmental conditions was the most prominent factor in producing dangerous, uncompensable heat stress conditions and that the full football uniform played a smaller role in influencing Stringer's energy budget. The extreme energy budget levels that led to the fatal EHS would have been avoided according to our modeling through a combination of reduced intensity and lower clothing insulation. Finally, a long delay in providing medical treatment made the EHS fatal. These results highlight the importance of modern heat safety guidelines that provide controls on extrinsic factors, such as the adjustment of duration and intensity of training along with protective equipment modifications based on environmental conditions and the presence of an emergency action plan focused on rapid recognition and immediate on-site aggressive cooling of EHS cases.

  15. Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2014-07-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are illicitly used drugs that act on neurotransmitter transporters for dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. These drugs can by themselves already cause severe neurotoxicity. However, an additional health threat arises from adulterant substances which are added to the illicit compound without declaration. One of the most frequently added adulterants in street drugs sold as cocaine is the anthelmintic drug levamisole. We tested the effects of levamisole on neurotransmitter transporters heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Levamisole was 100 and 300-fold less potent than cocaine in blocking norepinephrine and dopamine uptake, and had only very low affinity for the serotonin transporter. In addition, levamisole did not trigger any appreciable substrate efflux. Because levamisole and cocaine are frequently co-administered, we searched for possible allosteric effects; at 30μM, a concentration at which levamisole displayed already mild effects on norepinephrine transport it did not enhance the inhibitory action of cocaine. Levamisole is metabolized to aminorex, a formerly marketed anorectic drug, which is classified as an amphetamine-like substance. We examined the uptake-inhibitory and efflux-eliciting properties of aminorex and found it to exert strong effects on all three neurotransmitter transporters in a manner similar to amphetamine. We therefore conclude that while the adulterant levamisole itself has only moderate effects on neurotransmitter transporters, its metabolite aminorex may exert distinct psychostimulant effects by itself. Given that the half-time of levamisole and aminorex exceeds that of cocaine, it may be safe to conclude that after the cocaine effect "fades out" the levamisole/aminorex effect "kicks in". Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Aminorex, a metabolite of the cocaine adulterant levamisole, exerts amphetamine like actions at monoamine transporters☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmaier, Tina; Luf, Anton; Seddik, Amir; Stockner, Thomas; Holy, Marion; Freissmuth, Michael; Ecker, Gerhard F.; Schmid, Rainer; Sitte, Harald H.; Kudlacek, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Psychostimulants such as amphetamine and cocaine are illicitly used drugs that act on neurotransmitter transporters for dopamine, serotonin or norepinephrine. These drugs can by themselves already cause severe neurotoxicity. However, an additional health threat arises from adulterant substances which are added to the illicit compound without declaration. One of the most frequently added adulterants in street drugs sold as cocaine is the anthelmintic drug levamisole. We tested the effects of levamisole on neurotransmitter transporters heterologously expressed in HEK293 cells. Levamisole was 100 and 300-fold less potent than cocaine in blocking norepinephrine and dopamine uptake, and had only very low affinity for the serotonin transporter. In addition, levamisole did not trigger any appreciable substrate efflux. Because levamisole and cocaine are frequently co-administered, we searched for possible allosteric effects; at 30 μM, a concentration at which levamisole displayed already mild effects on norepinephrine transport it did not enhance the inhibitory action of cocaine. Levamisole is metabolized to aminorex, a formerly marketed anorectic drug, which is classified as an amphetamine-like substance. We examined the uptake-inhibitory and efflux-eliciting properties of aminorex and found it to exert strong effects on all three neurotransmitter transporters in a manner similar to amphetamine. We therefore conclude that while the adulterant levamisole itself has only moderate effects on neurotransmitter transporters, its metabolite aminorex may exert distinct psychostimulant effects by itself. Given that the half-time of levamisole and aminorex exceeds that of cocaine, it may be safe to conclude that after the cocaine effect “fades out” the levamisole/aminorex effect “kicks in”. PMID:24296074

  17. Effects of partial sleep restriction and subsequent daytime napping on prolonged exertional heat strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokizawa, Ken; Sawada, Shin-Ichi; Tai, Tetsuo; Lu, Jian; Oka, Tatsuo; Yasuda, Akinori; Takahashi, Masaya

    2015-07-01

    It is considered that sleep restriction is one of the risk factors for the development of exertional heat stroke and illness. However, how sleep restriction affects exertional heat strain and the nature of the coping strategy involved in this phenomenon remain unclear. Fourteen healthy subjects were studied on four occasions: after a night of normal sleep (NS, 7-8 h) and after a night of partial sleep restriction (PSR, 4 h), each with or without taking a daytime nap during the subsequent experimental day. The laboratory test consisted of two 40 min periods of moderate walking in a hot room in the morning and the afternoon. The increase in rectal temperature during walking was significantly greater in PSR than in NS in the afternoon. The rating scores for physical and psychological fatigue and sleepiness were significantly greater in PSR than in NS, both in the morning and in the afternoon. The reaction times and lapses in the psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) after walking were significantly worse in PSR than in NS in the morning and after lunch. The nap intervention attenuated significantly the scores for fatigue and sleepiness in PSR. Furthermore, the decreased PVT response in PSR was significantly reversed by the nap. These results suggest that PSR augments physiological and psychological strain and reduces vigilance in the heat. Taking a nap seemed to be effective in reducing psychological strain and inhibiting the decrease in vigilance. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Brain activity and perceived exertion during cycling exercise: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Eduardo B; Okano, Alexandre H; De Guio, François; Schabort, Elske J; Min, Li Li; Basset, Fabien A; Stein, Dan J; Noakes, Timothy D

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the equipment and techniques available to assess brain function during dynamic exercise are limited, which has restricted our knowledge of how the brain regulates exercise. This study assessed the brain areas activated during cycling by making use of a novel cycle ergometer, constructed to measure functional MRI (fMRI) brain images during dynamic exercise. Furthermore, we compared brain activation at different levels of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) generated during the exercise. Seven healthy adults performed cycling exercise in a novel MRI compatible cycle ergometer while undergoing brain  fMRI. Participants completed a cycling block protocol comprising six trials of 2 min cycling with 16-s intervals between trials. Participants reported their RPE every minute through an audio link. The MRI cycling ergometer transferred the torque generated on the ergometer through a cardan system to a cycling ergometer positioned outside the MRI room. For data analysis, the effects of cycling as opposed to rest periods were examined after motion correction. The multiparticipant analysis revealed in particular the activation of the cerebellar vermis and precentral and postcentral gyrus when periods of cycling versus rest were compared. Single participant analysis in four participants revealed that activation of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus occurred in cycling blocks perceived as 'hard' compared with exercise blocks that were less demanding. The present study offers a new approach to assess brain activation during dynamic cycling exercise, and suggests that specific brain areas could be involved in the sensations generating the rating of perceived exertion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Oxytocin microinjected into the central amygdaloid nuclei exerts anti-aggressive effects in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagnoli, Federica; Stubbendorff, Christine; Meyer, Neele; de Boer, Sietse F; Althaus, Monika; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2015-03-01

    We recently demonstrated that acute and chronic intracerebroventricular enhancement of brain OXT levels induces potent anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects during social challenges. However, the exact anatomical location in the brain where OXT exerts its action is still elusive. In the present study, we targeted two critical brain areas, i.e. the central amygdala (CeA) and the dorsal raphe (DR), both containing high levels of OXT receptors (OXTRs) and constituting important nodes of the neural circuitry related to aggression. Behavioral effects of local micro-infusion of OXT and OXTR antagonist, L368.899, (alone and combined) were evaluated in resident male rats during confrontations with an unfamiliar male intruder. Our results show that OXT microinjected into the CeA markedly reduced resident's offensive behavior and facilitated social exploration, without affecting other non-aggressive behaviors. The receptor specificity of the behavioral effects was verified when a micro-infusion of a selective OXTR antagonist nullified the changes. Pharmacological blockade of CeA OXTRs per se was without clear behavioral effects suggesting that endogenous OXT within the CeA does not play a major inhibitory role on offensiveness. Anatomical specificity was also supported by the absence of relevant behavioral effects when OXT was microinjected into more medial sub-regions of the amygdala. Likewise, within the DR neither OXT nor OXTR exerted significant effects on offensive aggression, while microinjection of the 5-HT1A autoreceptor agonist in this region significantly suppressed aggression. In conclusion, our results point at the CeA as an important brain site of action for the anti-aggressive and pro-social explorative effects induced by exogenous enhancement of brain OXT levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Punicalagin exerts protective effect against high glucose-induced cellular stress and neural tube defects

    OpenAIRE

    Zhong, Jianxiang; Reece, E. Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2015-01-01

    Maternal diabetes-induced birth defects remain a significant health problem. Studying the effect of natural compounds with antioxidant properties and minimal toxicities on diabetic embryopathy may lead to the development of new and safe dietary supplements. Punicalagin is a primary polyphenol found in pomegranate juice, which possesses antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic properties, suggesting a protective effect of punicalagin on diabetic embryopathy. Here, we examined whethe...

  1. Rare Manifestation of Digoxin Toxicity: Right Bundle Branch Block

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Dalvir; Zaidi, Samana

    2016-01-01

    A 76-year-old female, with medical history significant for systolic congestive heart failure, who presented to the emergency department with lethargy and abdominal pain with diarrhea for the past 3 weeks. Due to hypotension, the patient received multiple boluses of isotonic saline and was started on norepinephrine. Laboratories were significant for severe digoxin toxicity (29 ng/mL), in setting of acute kidney injury. Electrocardiogram (EKG) revealed a new right bundle branch block (RBBB). She was given Digibind and her repeat digoxin level was 20 ng/mL. Repeat EKG showed resolved RBBB. This case identifies that patients with digoxin toxicity are at risk for RBBB. This is a rare finding and is not commonly recognized. Emergency medicine physicians are often the first to encounter patients with digoxin toxicity and need to be aware of such EKG findings. PMID:28104974

  2. Assessment of Jatropha curcas L. biodiesel seed cake toxicity using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryo toxicity (ZFET) test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallare, Arnold V; Ruiz, Paulo Lorenzo S; Cariño, J C Earl D

    2014-05-01

    Consequent to the growing demand for alternative sources of energy, the seeds from Jatropha curcas remain to be the favorite for biodiesel production. However, a significant volume of the residual organic mass (seed cake) is produced during the extraction process, which raises concerns on safe waste disposal. In the present study, we assessed the toxicity of J. curcas seed cake using the zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryotoxicity test. Within 1-h post-fertilization (hpf), the fertilized eggs were exposed to five mass concentrations of J. curcas seed cake and were followed through 24, 48, and 72 hpf. Toxicity was evaluated based on lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos namely egg coagulation, non-formation of somites, and non-detachment of tail. The lowest concentration tested, 1 g/L, was not able to elicit toxicity on embryos whereas 100 % mortality (based also on lethal endpoints) was recorded at the highest concentration at 2.15 g/L. The computed LC50 for the J. curcas seed cake was 1.61 g/L. No further increase in mortality was observed in the succeeding time points (48 and 72 hpf) indicating that J. curcas seed cake exerted acute toxicity on zebrafish embryos. Sublethal endpoints (yolk sac and pericardial edema) were noted at 72 hpf in zebrafish embryos exposed to higher concentrations. The observed lethal endpoints induced on zebrafish embryos were discussed in relation to the active principles, notably, phorbol esters that have remained in the seed cake even after extraction.

  3. Multiple System Atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home » Disorders » Patient & Caregiver Education » Fact Sheets Multiple System Atrophy Fact Sheet What is multiple system atrophy? ... can I get more information? What is multiple system atrophy? Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is a progressive ...

  4. Acute amiodarone pulmonary toxicity following lung resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadahunsi, Opeyemi; Krol, Ronald

    2014-09-01

    Amiodarone is one of the most frequently prescribed antiarrhythmic agents. Despite its widespread use, it is associated with systemic side effects. Pulmonary toxicity, the most severe adverse effect of amiodarone, has usually been described in the context of chronic amiodarone use. We report a case of an 80-year-old male presenting acutely following right upper lung lobe resection for stage 1b adenocarcinoma. He developed atrial fibrillation on postoperative day four and received 12.5 g of amiodarone within a 12 day period. On presentation, he had new bilateral lung opacities and a 35% absolute decline in the predicted diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide. Pulmonary embolism was ruled out on chest computed tomography. Amiodarone was discontinued and prednisone was initiated. Despite initial improvement, he suffered from multiple hypoxemic episodes until his death in the fourth month. In a subset of patients undergoing thoracic surgery who are intubated and require high levels of oxygen, the risk of amiodarone lung toxicity increases and patients may present acutely.

  5. Framework for Application of the Toxicity Equivalence ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent contaminants found widely in the environment. Several of these compounds bioaccumulate in the tissues of fish, birds, and mammals and have been shown to cause mortality and adverse effects on reproduction, development, and the immune system. EPA has developed a framework intended to assist Agency scientists in using a method known as the toxicity equivalence methodology to evaluate the ecological risks of these chemicals. The methodology offers a means to derive a single exposure estimate from multiple chemical concentrations found in environmental mixtures so that risk assessors can consider their cumulative impacts. This framework helps to clarify this methodology’s strengths, limitations, and role within the broader context of ecological risk assessment.

  6. Major components of energy drinks (caffeine, taurine, and guarana) exert cytotoxic effects on human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells by decreasing reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeidán-Chuliá, Fares; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Kolling, Eduardo Antônio; Rybarczyk-Filho, José Luiz; Ambrosi, Priscilla; Terra, Silvia Resende; Pires, André Simões; da Rocha, João Batista Teixeira; Behr, Guilherme Antônio; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2013-01-01

    To elucidate the morphological and biochemical in vitro effects exerted by caffeine, taurine, and guarana, alone or in combination, since they are major components in energy drinks (EDs). On human neuronal SH-SY5Y cells, caffeine (0.125-2 mg/mL), taurine (1-16 mg/mL), and guarana (3.125-50 mg/mL) showed concentration-dependent nonenzymatic antioxidant potential, decreased the basal levels of free radical generation, and reduced both superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities, especially when combined together. However, guarana-treated cells developed signs of neurite degeneration in the form of swellings at various segments in a beaded or pearl chain-like appearance and fragmentation of such neurites at concentrations ranging from 12.5 to 50 mg/mL. Swellings, but not neuritic fragmentation, were detected when cells were treated with 0.5 mg/mL (or higher doses) of caffeine, concentrations that are present in EDs. Cells treated with guarana also showed qualitative signs of apoptosis, including membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, and cleaved caspase-3 positivity. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that cells treated with 12.5-50 mg/mL of guarana and its combinations with caffeine and/or taurine underwent apoptosis. Excessive removal of intracellular reactive oxygen species, to nonphysiological levels (or "antioxidative stress"), could be a cause of in vitro toxicity induced by these drugs.

  7. Synergistic toxicity of copper and gold compounds in Cupriavidus metallidurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesemann, Nicole; Bütof, Lucy; Herzberg, Martin; Hause, Gerd; Berthold, Lutz; Etschmann, Barbara; Brugger, Joël; Martinez-Criado, Gema; Dobritzsch, Dirk; Baginsky, Sacha; Reith, Frank; Nies, Dietrich H

    2017-09-22

    The bacterium Cupriavidus metallidurans is capable of reducing toxic gold(I/III)-complexes and biomineralizing them into metallic gold (Au) nanoparticles, thereby mediating the (trans)formation of Au nuggets. In Au-rich soils, most transition metals do not interfere with the resistance of this bacterium to toxic mobile Au-complexes and can be removed from the cell by plasmid-encoded metal efflux systems. Copper is a noticeable exception: the presence of Au-complexes and Cu-ions results in synergistic toxicity, which is accompanied by an increased cytoplasmic Cu content and formation of Au nanoparticles in the periplasm. The periplasmic Cu-oxidase CopA was not essential for formation of the periplasmic Au nanoparticles. As shown with the purified and reconstituted Cu efflux system CupA, Au-complexes block Cu-dependent release of phosphate from ATP by CupA, indicating inhibition of Cu transport. Moreover, Cu resistance of Au-inhibited cells was similar to that of mutants carrying deletions in the genes for the Cu-exporting PIB1-type ATPases. Consequently, Au-complexes inhibit export of cytoplasmic Cu-ions, leading to an increased cellular Cu-content and decreased Cu/Au resistance. Uncovering the biochemical mechanisms of synergistic Au/Cu-toxicity in C. metallidurans explains the issues this bacterium has to face in auriferous environments, where it is as an important contributor to the environmental Au cycle.ImportanceC. metallidurans lives in metal-rich environments, including auriferous soils that contain a mixture of toxic transition metal cations. We demonstrate here that copper ions and gold complexes exert synergistic toxicity because gold ions inhibit the copper-exporting P-type ATPase CupA, which is central to copper resistance in this bacterium. Such a situation should occur in soils overlying Au deposits, in which Cu:Au ratios usually are > 1. Appreciating how C. metallidurans solves the problem of living in environments that contain both Au and Cu is a

  8. Catecholate siderophores protect bacteria from pyochelin toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Conrado; Corbalán, Natalia S; Seyedsayamdost, Mohammad R; Pomares, María Fernanda; de Cristóbal, Ricardo E; Clardy, Jon; Kolter, Roberto; Vincent, Paula A

    2012-01-01

    Bacteria produce small molecule iron chelators, known as siderophores, to facilitate the acquisition of iron from the environment. The synthesis of more than one siderophore and the production of multiple siderophore uptake systems by a single bacterial species are common place. The selective advantages conferred by the multiplicity of siderophore synthesis remains poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that siderophores may have other physiological roles besides their involvement in iron acquisition. Here we provide the first report that pyochelin displays antibiotic activity against some bacterial strains. Observation of differential sensitivity to pyochelin against a panel of bacteria provided the first indications that catecholate siderophores, produced by some bacteria, may have roles other than iron acquisition. A pattern emerged where only those strains able to make catecholate-type siderophores were resistant to pyochelin. We were able to associate pyochelin resistance to catecholate production by showing that pyochelin-resistant Escherichia coli became sensitive when biosynthesis of its catecholate siderophore enterobactin was impaired. As expected, supplementation with enterobactin conferred pyochelin resistance to the entE mutant. We observed that pyochelin-induced growth inhibition was independent of iron availability and was prevented by addition of the reducing agent ascorbic acid or by anaerobic incubation. Addition of pyochelin to E. coli increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) while addition of ascorbic acid or enterobactin reduced them. In contrast, addition of the carboxylate-type siderophore, citrate, did not prevent pyochelin-induced ROS increases and their associated toxicity. We have shown that the catecholate siderophore enterobactin protects E. coli against the toxic effects of pyochelin by reducing ROS. Thus, it appears that catecholate siderophores can behave as protectors of oxidative stress. These

  9. Catecholate siderophores protect bacteria from pyochelin toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrado Adler

    Full Text Available Bacteria produce small molecule iron chelators, known as siderophores, to facilitate the acquisition of iron from the environment. The synthesis of more than one siderophore and the production of multiple siderophore uptake systems by a single bacterial species are common place. The selective advantages conferred by the multiplicity of siderophore synthesis remains poorly understood. However, there is growing evidence suggesting that siderophores may have other physiological roles besides their involvement in iron acquisition.Here we provide the first report that pyochelin displays antibiotic activity against some bacterial strains. Observation of differential sensitivity to pyochelin against a panel of bacteria provided the first indications that catecholate siderophores, produced by some bacteria, may have roles other than iron acquisition. A pattern emerged where only those strains able to make catecholate-type siderophores were resistant to pyochelin. We were able to associate pyochelin resistance to catecholate production by showing that pyochelin-resistant Escherichia coli became sensitive when biosynthesis of its catecholate siderophore enterobactin was impaired. As expected, supplementation with enterobactin conferred pyochelin resistance to the entE mutant. We observed that pyochelin-induced growth inhibition was independent of iron availability and was prevented by addition of the reducing agent ascorbic acid or by anaerobic incubation. Addition of pyochelin to E. coli increased the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS while addition of ascorbic acid or enterobactin reduced them. In contrast, addition of the carboxylate-type siderophore, citrate, did not prevent pyochelin-induced ROS increases and their associated toxicity.We have shown that the catecholate siderophore enterobactin protects E. coli against the toxic effects of pyochelin by reducing ROS. Thus, it appears that catecholate siderophores can behave as protectors of

  10. Toxic stress and child refugees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this article was to describe the phenomenon of toxic stress and its impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees. Almost two decades ago, researchers found that recurring adverse childhood events (ACEs; e.g., physical, psychological, and sexual abuse, neglect, and household dysfunction such as substance abuse, mental illness, and criminal behavior) were associated with a significant increase in serious illnesses during adulthood. Illnesses include heart, lung, and liver disease, cancer, and bone fractures. The scientists reported that experiencing four or more ACEs during childhood significantly increases the risk for toxic stress. Toxic stress is defined as the exposure to extreme, frequent, and persistent adverse events without the presence of a supportive caretaker. There is a paucity of literature related to toxic stress and child refugees. However, it has been clearly established that the prolonged brutal and traumatizing war in Syria is having a profound impact on the physical and mental health of child refugees at a distressing rate. Prevention of toxic stress should be a primary goal of all pediatric healthcare professionals working with child refugees. While this seems daunting given the population, and the seemingly insurmountable stressors they experience, some basic interventions should be considered. Providing basic anticipatory guidance to parents and caregivers of child refugees, to encourage positive parenting and strengthening support networks, will be highly effective in developing the requisite buffers that mitigate the effects of stress and avoid toxic stress. Efforts should also be focused on addressing caregiver stress and improving their ability to provide safe, reliable, and nurturing care that will help to mitigate any stress response experienced by a child. It is critical that greater awareness be placed on the effects of toxic stress on child refugees who are exposed to significant adverse events early in life

  11. Probing the bioinorganic chemistry of toxic metals in the mammalian bloodstream to advance human health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gailer, Jürgen

    2012-03-01

    The etiology of numerous grievous human diseases, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease is not well understood. Conversely, the concentration toxic metals and metalloids, such as As, Cd, Hg and Pb in human blood of the average population is well established, yet we know strikingly little about the role that they might play in the etiology of disease processes. Establishing functional connections between the chronic exposure of humans to these and other inorganic pollutants and the etiology of certain human diseases is therefore viewed by many as one of the greatest challenges in the post-genomic era. Conceptually, this task requires us to uncover hitherto unknown biomolecular mechanisms which must explain how small doses of a toxic metal/metalloid compound (low μg per day) - or mixtures thereof - may eventually result in a particular human disease. The biological complexity that is inherently associated with mammals, however, makes the discovery of these mechanisms a truly monumental task. Recent findings suggest that a better understanding of the bioinorganic chemistry of inorganic pollutants in the mammalian bloodstream represents a fruitful strategy to unravel relevant biomolecular mechanisms. The adverse effect(s) that toxic metals/metalloid compounds exert on the transport of essential ultratrace elements to internal organs appear particularly pertinent. A brief overview of the effect that arsenite and Hg(2+) exert on the mammalian metabolism of selenium is presented. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Toxicity profiles and solvent-toxicant interference in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea after dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, An-Sofie; Pirotte, Nicky; Plusquin, Michelle; Willems, Maxime; Neyens, Thomas; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen

    2015-03-01

    To investigate hydrophobic test compounds in toxicological studies, solvents like dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) are inevitable. However, using these solvents, the interpretation of test compound-induced responses can be biased. DMSO concentration guidelines are available, but are mostly based on acute exposures involving one specific toxicity endpoint. Hence, to avoid solvent-toxicant interference, we use multiple chronic test endpoints for additional interpretation of DMSO concentrations and propose a statistical model to assess possible synergistic, antagonistic or additive effects of test compounds and their solvents. In this study, the effects of both short- (1 day) and long-term (2 weeks) exposures to low DMSO concentrations (up to 1000 µl l(-1) ) were studied in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. We measured different biological levels in both fully developed and developing animals. In a long-term exposure set-up, a concentration of 500 µl l(-1) DMSO interfered with processes on different biological levels, e.g. behaviour, stem cell proliferation and gene expression profiles. After short exposure times, 500 µl l(-1) DMSO only affected motility, whereas the most significant changes on different parameters were observed at a concentration of 1000 µl l(-1) DMSO. As small sensitivity differences exist between biological levels and developmental stages, we advise the use of this solvent in concentrations below 500 µl l(-1) in this organism. In the second part of our study, we propose a statistical approach to account for solvent-toxicant interactions and discuss full-scale solvent toxicity studies. In conclusion, we reassessed DMSO concentration limits for different experimental endpoints in the planarian S. mediterranea. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Toxic element contamination of natural health products and pharmaceutical preparations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen J Genuis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Concern has recently emerged regarding the safety of natural health products (NHPs-therapies that are increasingly recommended by various health providers, including conventional physicians. Recognizing that most individuals in the Western world now consume vitamins and many take herbal agents, this study endeavored to determine levels of toxic element contamination within a range of NHPs. METHODS: Toxic element testing was performed on 121 NHPs (including Ayurvedic, traditional Chinese, and various marine-source products as well as 49 routinely prescribed pharmaceutical preparations. Testing was also performed on several batches of one prenatal supplement, with multiple samples tested within each batch. Results were compared to existing toxicant regulatory limits. RESULTS: Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested. Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to toxic elements is occurring regularly as a result of some contaminated NHPs. Best practices for quality control-developed and implemented by the NHP industry with government oversight-is recommended to guard the safety of unsuspecting consumers.

  14. Toxicogenetics: in search of host susceptibility to environmental toxicants

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Gelareh; Jones, Byron C.

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals, various pesticide and herbicides are implicated as risk factors for human health. Paraquat, maneb, and rotenone, carbamate, and organophosphorous insecticides are examples of toxicants for which acute and chronic exposure are associated with multiple neurological disorders including Parkinson’s disease. Nevertheless, the role of pesticide exposure in neurodegenerative diseases is not clear-cut, as there are inconsistencies in both the epidemiological and preclinical research. Th...

  15. Wastewater toxicity of tannin- versus chromium-based leather tanneries in Marrakesh, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nicola, E; Meriç, S; Della Rocca, C; Gallo, M; Iaccarino, M; Manini, P; Petruzzelli, D; Belgiorno, V; Cheggour, M; Di Gennaro, A; Moukrim, A; Tünay, O; Pagano, G

    2007-10-01

    The toxicity of leather tanning wastewater from a traditional tannery (TT), which is based on vegetable tannin (VT), was compared with wastewater from a tannery combining the use of chromium-based tanning (CT) with VT-based tanning operations. Wastewater samples from a TT and a CT plant as well as from five sewer sampling points were collected in Marrakesh, Morocco, and the concentrations of VT and some selected inorganics were measured. A set of bioassays were used to test wastewater toxicity in sea urchin (Paracentrotus lividus) embryos and sperm, in Daphnia magna, and in marine microalgae (Dunaliella tertiolecta). Toxicity end points included: (1) developmental defects, embryonic mortality, sperm fertilization success, and offspring damage in sea urchins; (2) D. magna immobilization; and (3) algal growth rate inhibition. Toxicity tests on TT and CT effluents (TTE and CTE) were run at dilutions ranging from 0.1% to 2% (sea urchins and algae) or up to 12% in D. magna. Parallel bioassays were run on VT extract (VTE) at nominal tannin concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg l(-1). The results showed higher toxicity of CTE compared with TTE. CTE toxicity in sea urchins and algae showed concentration-related trends, whereas TTE exerted hormetic effects at levels of 0.1% to 0.2% and toxic effects at levels >or=1%. The same trends were observed for VTE, suggesting a prevailing role of tannin in TTE-associated effects. The moderate wastewater toxicity of VT-based tanneries might prompt interest in the VT tanning process.

  16. Baclofen Toxicity in Kidney Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Erin; Kothari, Niraj R; Roberts, John K; Sparks, Matthew A

    2018-02-01

    Baclofen, a commonly prescribed muscle relaxant, is primarily excreted via the kidneys; toxicity is a potentially serious adverse outcome in patients with decreased kidney function. We describe a patient with end-stage kidney disease receiving hemodialysis who developed neurotoxicity and hemodynamic instability after receiving baclofen for muscle spasms. In this case, prompt recognition of baclofen toxicity and urgent hemodialysis were effective in reversing this toxicity. This case is used to examine the pharmacokinetics and pathophysiology of baclofen toxicity and discuss appropriate diagnosis and management of baclofen toxicity. We recommend reducing the baclofen dose in patients who have moderately reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate, 30-60mL/min/1.73m 2 ) and avoiding use in patients with severely reduced kidney function (estimated glomerular filtration rate < 30mL/min/1.73m 2 ) or on renal replacement therapy. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Emerging exposures of developmental toxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S; Buckley, Jessie P; Engel, Stephanie M; McConnell, Rob S; Barr, Dana B

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to identify emerging developmental toxicants that are understudied in children's health. Exposures may arise from new products designed to improve utility, to reduce toxicity, or to replace undesirable chemicals. Exposures to less-toxic chemicals may also be significant if they are very commonly used, thereby generating widespread exposure. Sources of exposure include the workplace, personal, home, and office products; food, water, and air. We describe eight exposure categories that contain numerous potential developmental toxicants. References are discussed if reported in PubMed during the past decade at least 10 times more frequently than in 1990-2000. Examples included phthalates, phenols, sunscreens, pesticides, halogenated flame retardants, perfluoroalkyl coatings, nanoparticles, e-cigarettes, and dietary polyphenols. Replacements are often close structural homologs of their precursors. We suggest biomonitoring as preferred means of exposure assessment to emerging chemicals. Some existing analytic methods would require minimal modification to measure these exposures, but others require toxicokinetic and analytic investigation. A deliberate strategy for biomonitoring of emerging replacement chemicals is warranted, especially in view of concerns regarding developmental toxicity. To prevent adverse health effects, it is important to characterize such exposures before they become widely disseminated.

  18. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, J. B.; Baral, M.; Geis, E.; Mitchell, J.; Ingram, J; Hensley, A.; I. Zappia; Newmark, S.; E. Gehn; Rubin, R A; Mitchell, K; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahr, J. M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 3–8 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary ex...

  19. The Sensitivity of Differential Ratings of Perceived Exertion as Measures of Internal Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaren, Shaun J; Graham, Michael; Spears, Iain R; Weston, Matthew

    2016-04-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of differential ratings of perceived exertion (dRPE) as measures of internal load. Twenty-two male university soccer players performed 2 maximal incremental-exercise protocols (cycle, treadmill) on separate days. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal heart rate (HRmax), peak blood lactate concentration (B[La]peak), and the preprotocol-to-postprotocol change in countermovement-jump height (ΔCMJH) were measured for each protocol. Players provided dRPE (CR100) for breathlessness (RPE-B) and leg-muscle exertion (RPE-L) immediately on exercise termination (RPE-B0, RPE-L0) and 30 min postexercise (RPE-B30, RPE-L30). Data were analyzed using magnitude-based inferences. There were clear between-protocols differences for VO2max (cycle 46.5 ± 6.3 vs treadmill 51.0 ± 5.1 mL · kg-1 · min-1, mean difference -9.2%; ±90% confidence limits 3.7%), HRmax (184.7 ± 12.7 vs 196.7 ± 7.8 beats/min, -6.0%; ±1.7%), B[La]peak (9.7 ± 2.1 vs 8.5 ± 2.0 mmol/L, 15%; ± 10%), and ΔCMJH (-7.1 ± 4.2 vs 0.6 ± 3.6 cm, -23.2%; ± 5.4%). Clear between-protocols differences were recorded for RPE-B0 (78.0 ± 11.7 vs 94.7 ± 9.5 AU, -18.1%; ± 4.5%), RPE-L0 (92.6 ± 9.7 vs 81.3 ± 14.1 AU, 15.3%; ± 7.6%), RPE-B30 (70 ± 11 vs 82 ± 13 AU, -13.8%; ± 7.3%), and RPE-L30 (86 ± 12 vs 65 ± 19 AU, 37%; ±17%). A substantial timing effect was observed for dRPE, with moderate to large reductions in all scores 30 min postexercise compared with scores collected on exercise termination. dRPE enhance the precision of internal-load measurement and therefore represent a worthwhile addition to training-load-monitoring procedures.

  20. A cluster of exertional rhabdomyolysis affecting a Division I Football team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smoot, M Kyle; Amendola, Annunziato; Cramer, Elizabeth; Doyle, Christopher; Kregel, Kevin C; Chiang, Hsiu-yin; Cavanaugh, Joseph E; Herwaldt, Loreen A

    2013-09-01

    To identify risk factors for exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER) among collegiate football athletes. We hypothesized that a back squat workout triggered ER in some players, and that the risk of ER was altered by players' characteristics or other exposures. Case report and case-control study. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Football Program and an academic medical center. National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I football players. Characteristics, performance during the implicated workout, and exposures of players. Exertional rhabdomyolysis was the primary outcome; the hypotheses were formulated before data were collected. Initial serum creatine kinase and creatinine values ranged from 96,987 to 331,044 U/L and from 1.0 to 3.4 mg/dL, respectively. The risk of ER increased as the time and number of sets needed to complete 100 back squats increased [odds ratio (OR), 1.11; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03-1.19; P = 0.0051 and OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.09-1.63; P = 0.0056, respectively]. Affected players were significantly more likely than unaffected players to report that they went to muscle failure (P = 0.006), did not think they could complete the workout (P = 0.02), and performed extra squats (P = 0.02) during the back squat assignment. For athletes playing skilled or semiskilled positions, the risk of ER increased as the percent body weight lifted increased [OR (corresponding to a 10% increase), 1.77; 95% CI, 1.06-2.94; P = 0.0292]. Drinking protein shakes after the implicated workout was associated with a decreased risk (OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.51-0.96; P = 0.0284); the odds decreased about 30% per shake. Percent body weight lifted, the number of sets, and time needed to complete 100 back squats were significantly associated with increased risk of ER. Affected athletes were more likely to report going to muscle failure, thinking they could complete the workout, and performing extra squats during the back squat assignment. Consuming protein shakes