WorldWideScience

Sample records for exergetic performance assessment

  1. Exergetic performance analysis of a recirculating aquaculture system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucuk, Haydar; Midilli, Adnan; Ozdemir, Atilla; Cakmak, Eyuep; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines exergetic aspects of a Recirculation Aquaculture System (RAS) for Black Sea trout (Salmo trutta labrax) fingerling rearing at the Trabzon Central Fisheries Research Institute, Turkey. In its thermodynamic analysis, each component of the RAS is treated as a steady-state steady flow system and its exergetic efficiencies are studied. In addition, the following parameters are measured and recorded in experiments: the mass flow rates, inlet and outlet temperatures and of the system components, surrounding temperatures, and electrical work utilized by the components in the RAS. Based on these experimental data, inlet and outlet exergy values, exergy losses, and exergetic efficiencies of each component in the system are determined to assess their performance. Moreover, the overall system exergy efficiency is determined. The results show that exergy efficiencies of the system components are highly affected by varying input exergy flows as a function of the surrounding temperature and chiller's operating period.

  2. A comparative study on energetic, exergetic and environmental performance assessments of novel M-Cycle based air coolers for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Applying exergy, environment and sustainability analyses to the three (novel M-Cycle based) air coolers. ► Assessing energy and exergy efficiencies, environmental impact and sustainability. ► Proposing System II (using PV-based electricity) as the most environmentally friendly air cooler. ► Proposing System III (using coal-based electricity) as the most efficient air cooler. - Abstract: In this study, three various novel air coolers based on M-Cycle are evaluated using energy and exergy analyses based efficiency assessments along with environmental impact and sustainability parameters. The M-Cycle systems are considered to cool a building room air while their inlet air parameters are same, but outlet cooled air parameters are different. Systems I and III draw electricity directly taken from an electric grid in the building while System II, which is stand alone system, produces and draws electricity from its solar PV panels. In the energy analysis, wet bulb effectiveness, cooling capacity, Coefficient of Performance (energetic COP) and Primary Energy Ratio (PER) are found. In the exergy analysis, exergy input and output rates, exergy loss rate, exergy destruction rate, Exergetic Coefficient of Performance (COP ex ), Primary Exergy Ratio (PE x R) and exergy efficiency are obtained for six different dead state temperatures changing between 10 °C and 35 °C. Also, sustainability assessments of the systems are obtained using sustainability index (SI) tool for these various dead state temperatures. Finally, environmental assessments of the systems are calculated from their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions (gCO 2 /kW h) due to their electricity consumptions. Maximum exergy efficiencies and sustainability assessments are found to be 35.13% and 1.5415 for System III and 34.94% and 1.5372 for System II, respectively. GHG emissions of the systems are calculated to be 2119.68 gCO 2 /day, 153.6 gCO 2 /day and 3840 gCO 2 /day for Systems I, II and III

  3. Investigation of turbidity effect on exergetic performance of solar ponds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atiz, Ayhan; Bozkurt, Ismail; Karakilcik, Mehmet; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive experimental work on a turbidity of the solar pond. • Percentage transmission evaluation of the turbid and clean salty water of the zones. • Exergy analysis of the inner zones for turbid and clean salty water. • Turbidity effect on exergy efficiencies of the solar pond. • The thermal performance assessment by comparing the exergetic efficiencies of the solar pond. - Abstract: The present paper undertakes a study on the exergetic performance assessment of a solar pond and experimental investigation of turbidity effect on the system performance. There are various types of solar energy applications including solar ponds. One of significant parameters to consider in the assessment of solar pond performance is turbidity which is caused by dirty over time (e.g., insects, leaf, dust and wind bringing parts fall down). Thus, the turbidity in the salty water decreases solar energy transmission through the zones. In this study, the samples are taken from the three zones of the solar pond and analyzed using a spectrometer for three months. The transmission aspects of the solar pond are investigated under calm and turbidity currents to help distinguish the efficiencies. Furthermore, the maximum exergy efficiencies are found to be 28.40% for the calm case and 22.27% with turbidity effects for the month of August, respectively. As a result, it is confirmed that the solar pond performance is greatly affected by the turbidity effect

  4. Assessing the Robustness of Thermoeconomic Diagnosis of Fouled Evaporators: Sensitivity Analysis of the Exergetic Performance of Direct Expansion Coils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Piacentino

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Thermoeconomic diagnosis of refrigeration systems is a pioneering approach to the diagnosis of malfunctions, which has been recently proven to achieve good performances for the detection of specific faults. Being an exergy-based diagnostic technique, its performance is influenced by the trends of exergy functions in the “design” and “abnormal” conditions. In this paper the sensitivity of performance of thermoeconomic diagnosis in detecting a fouled direct expansion coil and quantifying the additional consumption it induces is investigated; this fault is critical due to the simultaneous air cooling and dehumidification occurring in the coil, that induce variations in both the chemical and thermal fractions of air exergy. The examined parameters are the temperature and humidity of inlet air, the humidity of reference state and the sensible/latent heat ratio (varied by considering different coil depths. The exergy analysis reveals that due to the more intense dehumidification occurring in presence of fouling, the exergy efficiency of the evaporator coil eventually increases. Once the diagnostic technique is based only on the thermal fraction of air exergy, the results suggest that the performance of the technique increases when inlet air has a lower absolute humidity, as evident from the “optimal performance” regions identified on a psychrometric chart.

  5. An experimental study of the exergetic performance of an underground air tunnel system for greenhouse cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozgener, Leyla; Ozgener, Onder

    2010-01-01

    The present study highlights the exergetic performance characteristics of an underground air tunnel for greenhouse cooling with a 47 m horizontal, 56 cm nominal diameter U-bend buried galvanized ground heat exchanger. This system was designed and installed in the Solar Energy Institute, Ege University, Izmir, Turkey. Underground air tunnel systems, also known as earth-to-air heat exchangers, are recognized to be outstanding heating, cooling and air heating systems. On the other hand, they have not been used yet in the Turkish market. Greenhouses also have important economical potential in Turkey's agricultural sector. Greenhouses should be cooled during the summer or hot days. In order to establish optimum growth conditions in greenhouses, renewable energy sources should be utilized as much as possible. It is expected that effective use of underground air tunnels with a suitable technology in the modern greenhouses will play a leading role in Turkey in the foreseeable future. The exergy transports between the components and the destructions in each of the components of the system are determined for the average measured parameters obtained from the experimental results. Exergetic efficiencies of the system components are determined in an attempt to assess their individual performances and the potential for improvements is also presented. The daily maximum cooling coefficient of performances (COP) values for the system are also obtained to be 15.8. The total average COP in the experimental period is found to be 10.09. The system COP was calculated based on the amount of cooling produced by the air tunnel and the amount of power required to move the air through the tunnel, while the exergetic efficiency of the air tunnel is found to be in a range among 57.8-63.2%. The overall exergy efficiency value for the system on a product/fuel basis is found to be 60.7%. (author)

  6. Exergetic performance analysis of an ice-cream manufacturing plant: A comprehensive survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowlati, Majid; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Mojarab Soufiyan, Mohamad

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a comprehensive exergetic performance analysis of an ice-cream manufacturing plant was conducted in order to pinpoint the locations of thermodynamic inefficiencies. Exergetic performance parameters of each subunit of the plant were determined and illustrated individually through writing and solving energy and exergy balance equations on the basis of real operational data. The required data were acquired from a local ice-cream factory located in Tehran, Iran. The plant included three main subsystems including water steam generator, refrigeration system, and ice-cream production line. An attempt was also made to quantify the specific exergy destruction of the ice-cream manufacturing process. The functional exergetic efficiency of the water steam generator, refrigeration system, and ice-cream production line was determined at 17.45%, 25.52%, and 5.71%, respectively. The overall functional exergetic efficiency of the process was found to be 2.15%, while the specific exergy destruction was calculated as 719.80 kJ/kg. In general, exergy analysis and its derivatives could provide invaluable information over the conventional energy analysis, suggesting potential locations for the plant performance improvement. - Highlights: • An ice-cream manufacturing plant was exergetically analyzed using the actual data. • Water steaming unit had the highest irreversibility rate among the plant subunits. • The specific exergy destruction of the ice-cream manufacturing was 719.80 kJ/kg. • The overall process exergetic efficiency of the process was found to be 2.15%.

  7. The value of the exergetic life cycle assessment besides the LCA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Rene; Hirs, Gerard

    2002-01-01

    In this paper the value of the exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA) has been analysed. The ELCA uses the framework of the life cycle assessment (LCA) and can be seen as the exergy analysis of a complete life cycle. The value of the ELCA besides the LCA has been discussed. It is shown that the ELCA

  8. Exergetic life cycle assessment of hydrogen production from renewables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granovskii, Mikhail; Dincer, Ibrahim; Rosen, Marc A.

    Life cycle assessment is extended to exergetic life cycle assessment and used to evaluate the exergy efficiency, economic effectiveness and environmental impact of producing hydrogen using wind and solar energy in place of fossil fuels. The product hydrogen is considered a fuel for fuel cell vehicles and a substitute for gasoline. Fossil fuel technologies for producing hydrogen from natural gas and gasoline from crude oil are contrasted with options using renewable energy. Exergy efficiencies and greenhouse gas and air pollution emissions are evaluated for all process steps, including crude oil and natural gas pipeline transportation, crude oil distillation and natural gas reforming, wind and solar electricity generation, hydrogen production through water electrolysis, and gasoline and hydrogen distribution and utilization. The use of wind power to produce hydrogen via electrolysis, and its application in a fuel cell vehicle, exhibits the lowest fossil and mineral resource consumption rate. However, the economic attractiveness, as measured by a "capital investment effectiveness factor," of renewable technologies depends significantly on the ratio of costs for hydrogen and natural gas. At the present cost ratio of about 2 (per unit of lower heating value or exergy), capital investments are about five times lower to produce hydrogen via natural gas rather than wind energy. As a consequence, the cost of wind- and solar-based electricity and hydrogen is substantially higher than that of natural gas. The implementation of a hydrogen fuel cell instead of an internal combustion engine permits, theoretically, an increase in a vehicle's engine efficiency of about of two times. Depending on the ratio in engine efficiencies, the substitution of gasoline with "renewable" hydrogen leads to (a) greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions reductions of 12-23 times for hydrogen from wind and 5-8 times for hydrogen from solar energy, and (b) air pollution (AP) emissions reductions of 38

  9. Exergetic life cycle assessment of cement production process with waste heat power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sui, Xiuwen; Zhang, Yun; Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Shushen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic life cycle assessment was performed for the cement production process. • Each system’s efficiency before and after waste heat power generation was analyzed. • The waste heat power generation improved the efficiency of each production system. • It provided technical support for the implementation of energy-saving schemes. - Abstract: The cement industry is an industry that consumes a considerable quantity of resources and energy and has a very large influence on the efficient use of global resources and energy. In this study, exergetic life cycle assessment is performed for the cement production process, and the energy efficiency and exergy efficiency of each system before and after waste heat power generation is investigated. The study indicates that, before carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies of the raw material preparation system, pulverized coal preparation system and rotary kiln system are 39.4%, 10.8% and 50.2%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 4.5%, 1.4% and 33.7%, respectively; after carrying out a waste heat power generation project, the objective energy efficiencies are 45.8%, 15.5% and 55.1%, respectively, and the objective exergy efficiencies are 7.8%, 2.8% and 38.1%, respectively. The waste heat power generation project can recover 3.7% of the total input exergy of a rotary kiln system and improve the objective exergy efficiencies of the above three systems. The study can identify degree of resource and energy utilization and the energy-saving effect of a waste heat power generation project on each system, and provide technical support for managers in the implementation of energy-saving schemes

  10. Comparative exergetic performance analysis for certain thermal power plants in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Dejan M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods of analysis and calculation of complex thermal systems are based on the first law of thermodynamics. These methods use energy balance for a system. In general, energy balances do not provide any information about internal losses. In contrast, the second law of thermodynamics introduces the concept of exergy, which is useful in the analysis of thermal systems. Exergy is a measure for assessing the quality of energy, and allows one to determine the location, cause, and real size of losses incurred as well as residues in a thermal process. The purpose of this study is to comparatively analyze the performance of four thermal power plants from the energetic and exergetic viewpoint. Thermodynamic models of the plants are developed based on the first and second law of thermodynamics. The primary objectives of this paper are to analyze the system components separately and to identify and quantify the sites having largest energy and exergy losses. Finally, by means of these analyses, the main sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies as well as a reasonable comparison of each plant to others are identified and discussed. As a result, the outcomes of this study can provide a basis for the improvement of plant performance for the considered thermal power plants.

  11. Exergetic performance evaluation of a single pass baffled solar air heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabzpooshani, M.; Mohammadi, K.; Khorasanizadeh, H.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the exergetic performance of a baffled type solar air heater has been evaluated theoretically. A detailed parametric study was done to investigate the effect of variation of fin and baffle parameters, number of glass covers, bottom insulation thickness and inlet air temperature at different mass flow rates on the exergy efficiency. The results indicated that attaching fins and baffles at low mass flow rates can lead to noticeable enhancement of the exergy efficiency. The results revealed that the trend of variation of the energy and exergy efficiencies are not the same and the exergy efficiency is the chief criterion for performance evaluation. Increasing the baffles width, reducing the distance between baffles and increasing the number of fins are effective at low mass flow rates, but at high mass flow rates the inverse trend is observable, such that exergy efficiency reduces sharply. The results showed that exergy efficiency increases with increasing the solar radiation intensity. By adding the second glass cover the exergy efficiency enhances at low mass flow rates. Increasing the insulation thickness over an optimum value doesn't improve the exergy efficiency. Increasing the inlet air temperature increases the exergy efficiency especially at high mass flow rates. - Highlights: • We study the exergetic performance of an upward type baffled solar air heater. • The effect of several design parameters on the performance is investigated. • Exergetic performance is very sensitive to the variation of baffles parameters. • Adding fins and baffles and increasing their parameters are efficient at low m . . • At high m . increment of baffles parameters causes decline of the exergy efficiency

  12. Exergetic performance analyses of drying of broccoli florets in a tray drier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafer Erbay

    2009-01-01

    At present, the drying process is one of the major procedures of food preservation and an important unit operation in a wide variety of food industries. Recently, drying of vegetables is of a particular interest because it is added to various ready-to-eat meals in order to improve their nutritional quality due to health benefit compounds present in vegetables (vitamins, phytochemicals, dietary fibers). Broccoli has been described as a vegetable with a high nutritional value due to its important content of vitamins, antioxidants and anti-carcinogenic compounds. Broccoli dehydration has not been investigated to a great extent and a few data are available in the open literature. In this study, broccoli florets were dried in a tray drier at a temperature range of 50-70 deg C with an air velocity range of 0.5-1.5 m/s. The performance of the process and system was evaluated using the exergy analysis method. Based on the experimental data, effects of the drying air temperature and the velocity on the performance of the drying process were discussed. It was obtained that the exergy evaporation rate and the exergetic efficiency of the process were obtained to vary between 0.0006-0.0029 kW and 0.27-1.16%, respectively. They increased as the drying air temperature increased, while the exergetic efficiency decreased with the rise in the drying air velocity. (author)

  13. Exergetic performance analysis of a Dora II geothermal power plant in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganjehsarabi, Hadi; Gungor, Ali [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Ege University (Turkey); Dincer, Ibrahim [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario (Canada)

    2011-07-01

    In the energy sector there is an urgent need to produce energy from renewable energy sources due to the rising demand, the depletion of fossil fuels and their effects on the environment. Geothermal power is a well-established energy resource and the aim of this research was to examine the energetic performance of a geothermal power plant. The studied power plant, Dora II, has a 9.5 MW power output and is situated in Aydin, Turkey. An evaluation of the plant's performance was carried out using an exergy analysis method on each of the plant's components. Results showed that the highest exergy destruction occurs in brine re-injection while the preheater had the best exergy efficiency; the plant had an overall exergetic efficiency of 29.6%. This study highlighted the components where significant exergy destructions take place so actions could be taken to improve the overall efficiency.

  14. Determination of optimum insulation thickness in pipe for exergetic life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keçebaş, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • It is aimed to determine optimum insulation thickness in pipe. • A new methodology is used as exergetic life cycle assessment for this purpose. • It is evaluated for various fuels, different pipe diameters and some combustion parameters. • This methodology is not suitable for determining optimum insulation thickness of a pipe. • There are benefits to our understanding of the need for insulation use in pipes. - Abstract: The energy saving and the environmental impacts’ reduction in the world building sector have gained great importance. Therefore, great efforts have been invested to create energy-saving green buildings. To do so, one of the many things to be done is the insulation of cylindrical pipes, canals and tanks. In the current study, the main focus is on the determination of the optimum insulation thickness of the pipes with varying diameters when different fuels are used. Therefore, through a new method combining exergy analysis and life cycle assessment, optimum insulation thickness of the pipes, total exergetic environmental impact, net saving and payback period were calculated. The effects of the insulation thickness on environmental and combustion parameters were analyzed in a detailed manner. The results revealed that optimum insulation thickness was affected by the temperature of the fuel when it enters into the combustion chamber, the temperature of the stack gas and the temperature of the combustion chamber. Under these optimum effects, the optimum insulation thickness of a 100 mm pipe was determined to be 55.7 cm, 57.2 cm and 59.3 cm for coal, natural gas and fuel–oil, respectively with the ratios of 76.32%, 81.84% and 84.04% net savings in the exergetic environmental impact. As the environmental impacts of the fuels and their products are bigger than those of the insulation material, the values of the optimum insulation thickness of the method used this study was found greater. Moreover, in the pipes with greater

  15. Energetic and exergetic performance analysis of CdS/CdTe based photovoltaic technology in real operating conditions of composite climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Rahul; Kaushik, S.C.; Sastry, O.S.; Singh, Y.K.; Bora, B.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Performance analysis of 3.2 kW_P CdTe PV system has been carried out. • Performance ratio and thermodynamic efficiencies have been determined. • Electrical parameters have been assessed at alternative reporting conditions. • Exergy analysis of the system has been carried out. • Degradation rate of the system has been calculated to be 0.18%/year. - Abstract: The solar photovoltaic (PV) technology market has increased rapidly with the continuously increasing electricity demand and climate concerns. With the increased PV installed capacity, the performance analysis of these systems has become critically important in order to ensure its reliable operation for a long lifetime, monetary payback and to identify the scope of improvement. The well-established conventional energetic performance analysis techniques are quantitative approaches based on energy conservation while the exergetic performance analysis is the qualitative method which is based on second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, an approach for energetic and exergetic performance analysis has been developed so as to determine the long term performance of PV systems in real operating conditions. A methodology has been proposed for utilizing the long term time series outdoor data in order to assess the performance of PV system statistically and to determine the system degradation rate. The degradation rate of 3.2 kW_P CdTe PV system is found to be 0.18% per year after 23 months of operation in composite climate which is lower than the reported degradation rate of earlier CdTe technology. The average performance ratio (PR), energetic and exergetic efficiency of the system is found to be 0.89%, 9.84% and 10.62% respectively. The average exergetic efficiency is found to be increased by 12% by utilizing the recoverable thermal exergy loss in photovoltaic-thermal system. The instantaneous PR of 93.5% of the per minute data is found to be in the range of 0.84–0.95. Additionally, the

  16. Thrust Performance Evaluation of a Turbofan Engine Based on Exergetic Approach and Thrust Management in Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalcin, Enver

    2017-05-01

    The environmental parameters such as temperature and air pressure which are changing depending on altitudes are effective on thrust and fuel consumption of aircraft engines. In flights with long routes, thrust management function in airplane information system has a structure that ensures altitude and performance management. This study focused on thrust changes throughout all flight were examined by taking into consideration their energy and exergy performances for fuel consumption of an aircraft engine used in flight with long route were taken as reference. The energetic and exergetic performance evaluations were made under the various altitude conditions. The thrust changes for different altitude conditions were obtained to be at 86.53 % in descending direction and at 142.58 % in ascending direction while the energy and exergy efficiency changes for the referenced engine were found to be at 80.77 % and 84.45 %, respectively. The results revealed here can be helpful to manage thrust and reduce fuel consumption, but engine performance will be in accordance with operation requirements.

  17. Lithium bromide high-temperature absorption heat pump: coefficient of performance and exergetic efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M [Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cientificas, Madrid (ES). Inst. de Optica; Aroca, S [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, Valladolid (ES). Catedratico de Ingenieria Termica

    1990-04-01

    A theoretical study of a lithium bromide absorption heat pump, used as a machine type I and aimed to produce heat at 120{sup 0}C via waste heat sources at 60{sup 0}C, is given. Real performance conditions are stated for each component of the machine. By means of thermodynamic diagrams (p, t, x) and (h, x), the required data are obtained for calculation of the heat recovered in the evaporator Q{sub e}, the heat delivered to the absorber Q{sub a} and to the condenser Q{sub c}, and the heat supplied to the generator Q{sub g}. The heat delivered by the hot solution to the cold solution in the heat recovered Q{sub r}, and the work W{sub p} done by the solution pump are calculated. The probable COP is calculated as close to 1.4 and the working temperature in the generator ranges from 178 to 200{sup 0}C. The heat produced by the heat pump is 22% cheaper than that obtained from a cogeneration system comprising a natural gas internal combustion engine and high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression. Compared with a high temperature heat pump with mechanical compression, the heat produced by the absorption heat pump is 31% cheaper. From (h, x) and (s, x) diagrams, exergy losses for each component can be determined leading to an exergetic efficiency of 75% which provides the quality index of the absorption cycle. (author).

  18. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter; De Meester, Steven; Astrup, Thomas F

    2015-12-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource recovery efficiencies. The calculated exergy efficiencies were used to compare the scenarios and to evaluate the applicability of exergy-based measures for expressing resource quality and for optimizing resource recovery. Exergy efficiencies were determined based on two approaches: (i) exergy flow analysis of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher efficiencies were associated with high levels of material recycling), while the scenario efficiencies based on the exergetic LCA lay in a narrow range around 14%. Metal recovery was beneficial in both types of analyses, but had more influence on the overall efficiency in the exergetic LCA approach, as avoided burdens associated with primary metal production were much more important than the exergy content of the recovered metals. On the other hand, plastic recovery was highly beneficial in the exergy flow analysis, but rather insignificant in exergetic LCA. The two approaches thereby offered different quantitative results as well as conclusions regarding material recovery. With respect to resource quality, the main challenge for the exergy flow analysis is the use of exergy content and exergy losses as a proxy for resource quality and resource losses, as exergy content is not per se correlated with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it

  19. Sustainability assessment of turbofan engine with mixed exhaust through exergetic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadon, S.; Redzuan, M. S. Mohd

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the theory, methods and example application are described for a CF6 high-bypass turbofan engine with mixed exhaust flow based on exergo-sustainable point of view. To determine exergetic sustainability index, the turbofan engine has to undergo detailed exergy analysis. The sustainability indicators reviewed here are the overall exergy efficiency of the system, waste exergy ratio, exergy destruction factor, environmental effect factor and the exergetic sustainability index. The results obtained for these parameters are 26.9%, 73.1%, 38.6%, 2.72 and 0.37, respectively, for the maximum take-off condition of the engine. These results would be useful to better understand the connection between the propulsion system parameters and their impact to the environment in order to make it more sustainable for future development.

  20. Life cycle assessment (LCA) and exergetic life cycle assessment (ELCA) of the production of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talens Peiro, L.; Lombardi, L.; Villalba Mendez, G.; Gabarrell i Durany, X.

    2010-01-01

    The paper assesses the life cycle of biodiesel from used cooking oil (UCO). Such life cycle involves 4 stages: 1) collection, 2) pre-treatment, 3) delivery and 4) transesterification of UCO. Generally, UCO is collected from restaurants, food industries and recycling centres by authorised companies. Then, UCO is pre-treated to remove solid particles and water to increase its quality. After that, it is charged in cistern trucks and delivered to the biodiesel facility to be then transesterified with methanol to biodiesel. The production of 1 ton of biodiesel is evaluated by a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to assess the environmental impact and by an Exergetic Life Cycle Assessment (ELCA) to account for the exergy input to the system. A detailed list of material and energy inputs is done using data from local companies and completed using Ecoinvent 1.2 database. The results show that the transesterification stage causes 68% of the total environmental impact. The major exergy inputs are uranium and natural gas. If targets set by the Spanish Renewable Energy Plan are achieved, the exergy input for producing biodiesel would be reduced by 8% in the present system and consequently environmental impacts and exergy input reduced up to 36% in 2010.

  1. Resource recovery from residual household waste: An application of exergy flow analysis and exergetic life cycle assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laner, David; Rechberger, Helmut; De Soete, Wouter

    2015-01-01

    Exergy is based on the Second Law of thermodynamics and can be used to express physical and chemical potential and provides a unified measure for resource accounting. In this study, exergy analysis was applied to four residual household waste management scenarios with focus on the achieved resource...... of the waste treatment system under investigation and (ii) exergetic life cycle assessment (LCA) using the Cumulative Exergy Extraction from the Natural Environment (CEENE) as a method for resource accounting. Scenario efficiencies of around 17-27% were found based on the exergy flow analysis (higher...... with the functionality of a material. In addition, the definition of appropriate waste system boundaries is critical for the exergy efficiencies derived from the flow analysis, as it is constrained by limited information available about the composition of flows in the system as well as about secondary production...

  2. An oil palm-based biorefinery concept for cellulosic ethanol and phytochemicals production: Sustainability evaluation using exergetic life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofori-Boateng, Cynthia; Lee, Keat Teong

    2014-01-01

    In this study, thermo-environmental sustainability of an oil palm-based biorefinery concept for the co-production of cellulosic ethanol and phytochemicals from oil palm fronds (OPFs) was evaluated based on exergetic life cycle assessment (ExLCA). For the production of 1 tonne bioethanol, the exergy content of oil palm seeds was upgraded from 236 MJ to 77,999 MJ during the farming process for OPFs production. Again, the high exergy content of the OPFs was degraded by about 62.02% and 98.36% when they were converted into cellulosic ethanol and phenolic compounds respectively. With a total exergy destruction of about 958,606 MJ (internal) and 120,491 MJ (external or exergy of wastes), the biorefinery recorded an overall exergy efficiency and thermodynamic sustainability index (TSI) of about 59.05% and 2.44 per tonne of OPFs' bioethanol respectively. Due to the use of fossil fuels, pesticides, fertilizers and other toxic chemicals during the production, the global warming potential (GWP = 2265.69 kg CO 2 eq.), acidification potential (AP = 355.34 kg SO 2 eq.) and human toxicity potential (HTP = 142.79 kg DCB eq.) were the most significant environmental impact categories for a tonne of bioethanol produced in the biorefinery. The simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) unit emerged as the most exergetically efficient (89.66%), thermodynamically sustainable (TSI = 9.67) and environmentally friendly (6.59% of total GWP) production system. -- Highlights: • Thermo-environmental sustainability of palm-based biorefinery was assessed. • OPFs' exergy content was degraded when converted into bioethanol and phytochemicals. • Exergy efficiency (59.05%) and TSI (2.44) were recorded for the biorefinery • Global warming potential of 2265.6 kg CO 2 eq. was recorded for the whole biorefinery

  3. Exergetic assessment of energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian

    2013-01-01

    offshore system is described: its thermodynamic performance is assessed by performing an exergy accounting and rules of thumb for oil and gas platforms are derived. Simulations are built and conducted with the tools Aspen Plus_, Dynamic Network Analysis and Aspen HYSYS_. 62e65% of the total exergy...

  4. Exergetic efficiency optimization for an irreversible heat pump ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This paper deals with the performance analysis and optimization for irreversible heat pumps working on reversed Brayton cycle with constant-temperature heat reservoirs by taking exergetic efficiency as the optimization objective combining exergy concept with finite-time thermodynamics (FTT). Exergetic efficiency is ...

  5. Thermodynamic performance analysis and optimization of DMC (Dual Miller Cycle) cogeneration system by considering exergetic performance coefficient and total exergy output criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ust, Yasin; Arslan, Feyyaz; Ozsari, Ibrahim; Cakir, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Miller cycle engines are one of the popular engine concepts that are available for improving performance, reducing fuel consumption and NO x emissions. There are many research studies that investigated the modification of existing conventional engines for operation on a Miller cycle. In this context, a comparative performance analysis and optimization based on exergetic performance criterion, total exergy output and exergy efficiency has been carried out for an irreversible Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system having finite-rate of heat transfer, heat leak and internal irreversibilities. The EPC (Exergetic Performance Coefficient) criterion defined as the ratio of total exergy output to the loss rate of availability. Performance analysis has been also extended to the Otto–Miller and Diesel-Miller cogeneration cycles which may be considered as two special cases of the Dual–Miller cycle. The effect of the design parameters such as compression ratio, pressure ratio, cut-off ratio, Miller cycle ratio, heat consumer temperature ratio, allocation ratio and the ratio of power to heat consumed have also been investigated. The results obtained from this paper will provide guidance for the design of Dual–Miller Cycle cogeneration system and can be used for selection of optimal design parameters. - Highlights: • A thermodynamic performance estimation tool for DM cogeneration cycle is presented. • Using the model two special cases OM and dM cogeneration cycles can be analyzed. • The effects of r M , ψ, χ 2 and R have been investigated. • The results evaluate exergy output and environmental aspects together.

  6. Exergetic assessment of energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van; Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik; Breuhaus, Peter; Voldsund, Mari

    2013-01-01

    Oil and gas platforms in the North Sea region are associated with high power consumption and large CO 2 -emissions, as the processing and utility plants suffer from significant changes in production rates and performance losses over the field lifespan. In this paper, a generic model of the overall offshore system is described: its thermodynamic performance is assessed by performing an exergy accounting and rules of thumb for oil and gas platforms are derived. Simulations are built and conducted with the tools Aspen Plus ® , Dynamic Network Analysis and Aspen HYSYS ® . 62–65% of the total exergy destruction of an offshore platform is attributable to the power generation and waste heat recovery system, and 35–38% to the oil and gas processing. The variability of the feed composition has little effect on the split of the thermodynamic irreversibilities between both plants. The rejection of high-temperature gases from the utility and flaring systems is the major contributor to the exergy losses. These findings suggest to focus efforts on a better use of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases and on the ways in which the gas compression performance can be improved. - Highlights: • North Sea oil and gas platforms are investigated and a generic model is developed. • Exergy analysis of these offshore facilities is performed. • Most of the total exergy destruction is attributable to the utility systems producing the electrical power required onsite. • Rejection of the exhaust gases from the utility systems is the major exergy loss of this system. • The highest thermodynamic performance is reached with low well-fluid content of water and gas

  7. Exergetic assessment of energy systems on North Sea oil and gas platforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tuong-Van [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Pierobon, Leonardo; Elmegaard, Brian; Haglind, Fredrik [Section of Thermal Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Building 403, Nils Koppels Allé, 2800 Kongens Lyngby (Denmark); Breuhaus, Peter [Department of Energy, International Research Institute of Stavanger, Professor Olav Hanssens vei 15, 4021 Stavanger (Norway); Voldsund, Mari [Department of Chemistry, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Høgskoleringen 5, 7491 Trondheim (Norway)

    2013-12-01

    Oil and gas platforms in the North Sea region are associated with high power consumption and large CO{sub 2}-emissions, as the processing and utility plants suffer from significant changes in production rates and performance losses over the field lifespan. In this paper, a generic model of the overall offshore system is described: its thermodynamic performance is assessed by performing an exergy accounting and rules of thumb for oil and gas platforms are derived. Simulations are built and conducted with the tools Aspen Plus{sup ®}, Dynamic Network Analysis and Aspen HYSYS{sup ®}. 62–65% of the total exergy destruction of an offshore platform is attributable to the power generation and waste heat recovery system, and 35–38% to the oil and gas processing. The variability of the feed composition has little effect on the split of the thermodynamic irreversibilities between both plants. The rejection of high-temperature gases from the utility and flaring systems is the major contributor to the exergy losses. These findings suggest to focus efforts on a better use of the waste heat contained in the exhaust gases and on the ways in which the gas compression performance can be improved. - Highlights: • North Sea oil and gas platforms are investigated and a generic model is developed. • Exergy analysis of these offshore facilities is performed. • Most of the total exergy destruction is attributable to the utility systems producing the electrical power required onsite. • Rejection of the exhaust gases from the utility systems is the major exergy loss of this system. • The highest thermodynamic performance is reached with low well-fluid content of water and gas.

  8. Energetic and exergetic assessment of a trass mill process in a cement plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogut, M.Z.; Oktay, Z.; Hepbasli, A.

    2009-01-01

    Cement production has become one of the most intensive energy industries in the world. For producing it, addition materials have been widely used in cement factories. The main objective of this study is to assess the performance of a trass mill in a cement plant based on the actual operational data using energy and exergy analysis method. In this regard, the values for energy consumption and losses throughout the production process are described. In the process, the overall exergy efficiencies are found to be slightly less than the corresponding energy efficiencies; e.g. 74% and 10.68% for energy and exergy efficiency, respectively. Using energy recovery systems, waste heat energy may be captured, while energy and exergy efficiency values can be improved to 84% and 48%, respectively. It may also be concluded that the analyses reported here will provide the investigators with knowledge about how effectively and efficiently a sector uses its energy resources.

  9. Exergetic assessment of an integrated gasifier/boiler system for hydrogen production with different biomass types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalinci, Y.; Hepbasli, A.; Dincer, I.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we utilize some experimental data taken from the literature, especially on the air blown gasification characteristics of six different biomass fuels, namely almond shell (ASF), walnut pruning (WPF), rice straw (RSF), whole tree wood chips (WWF), sludge (SLF) and non-recyclable waste paper (NPF) for hydrogen production from an integrated gasifier-boiler power system. Then, we undertake an exergy analysis of this integrated system and assess its performance through energy and exergy efficiencies. The exergy content values calculated for the biomass fuels range from 15.89 to 22.07 MJ/kg. The stack gas is examined at cyclone out, and the hydrogen concentrations determined change between 7 and 18 (%v/v) for NPF and ASF. Furthermore, the system considered is studied in terms of irreversibility and improvement potential rates. These rate values change from 6.82 to 43.11 kW for irreversibility and 6.01 to 41.24 kW for improvement potential, respectively. The exergy efficiencies of the system are calculated as 4.33 to 11.89%. Finally, we consider N and NH 3 contents of the six biomass fuels and their stack gas compositions. (author)

  10. Simulation of energetic- and exergetic performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Zare, D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans was simulated (using a previously validated mathematical model) and analyzed based on the first- and second law of thermodynamics. The energy and exergy analysis were carried out for several drying conditions. The effects of inlet air temperature, microwave power density, bed thickness and inlet air velocity on the efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process have been simulated and discussed. Generally, application of microwave energy during fluidized bed drying enhanced the exergy efficiency of drying process. However, the results showed that it was more efficient not to apply microwave energy at the first stage of fluidized bed drying process. The application of higher levels of drying air temperature led in higher exergy efficiencies. The values of mean relative deviations for the predictions of efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process were less than 14%, compared with those calculated using experimental data. - Highlights: • Introducing a mathematical model to predict the efficiency of microwave-assisted fluidized bed dryers. • Energy and exergy analysis in microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of grains. • Providing practical recommendations for efficient use of microwave power during drying

  11. Exergetic and Economic Assessment of Distillation Hybrid Configurations for Bioethanol Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Suleiman, Bilyaminu; Olawale, Adegboyega Surajudeen; Mohammed, Saidu Waziri

    2014-01-01

    Thermo-economics analysis was used to identify the most economic distillation hybrid configuration to dehydrate bioethanol mash (12 wt%) to fuel grade (99.5 wt%) based on economic objective of minimization of operating cost in this work. Three different hybrids of THIDC with azeotropic and, extractive distillation units were assessed using similar feed and product specifications of 1200 kmol/h (12 % by weight ethanol) and 55 kmol/h (99.5 % by weight ethanol) respectively . The six hybrid conf...

  12. Exergetic Analysis of a Novel Solar Cooling System for Combined Cycle Power Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Calise

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed exergetic analysis of a novel high-temperature Solar Assisted Combined Cycle (SACC power plant. The system includes a solar field consisting of innovative high-temperature flat plate evacuated solar thermal collectors, a double stage LiBr-H2O absorption chiller, pumps, heat exchangers, storage tanks, mixers, diverters, controllers and a simple single-pressure Combined Cycle (CC power plant. Here, a high temperature solar cooling system is coupled with a conventional combined cycle, in order to pre-cool gas turbine inlet air in order to enhance system efficiency and electrical capacity. In this paper, the system is analyzed from an exergetic point of view, on the basis of an energy-economic model presented in a recent work, where the obtained main results show that SACC exhibits a higher electrical production and efficiency with respect to the conventional CC. The system performance is evaluated by a dynamic simulation, where detailed simulation models are implemented for all the components included in the system. In addition, for all the components and for the system as whole, energy and exergy balances are implemented in order to calculate the magnitude of the irreversibilities within the system. In fact, exergy analysis is used in order to assess: exergy destructions and exergetic efficiencies. Such parameters are used in order to evaluate the magnitude of the irreversibilities in the system and to identify the sources of such irreversibilities. Exergetic efficiencies and exergy destructions are dynamically calculated for the 1-year operation of the system. Similarly, exergetic results are also integrated on weekly and yearly bases in order to evaluate the corresponding irreversibilities. The results showed that the components of the Joule cycle (combustor, turbine and compressor are the major sources of irreversibilities. System overall exergetic efficiency was around 48%. Average weekly solar collector

  13. Exergetic and thermoeconomic analyses of power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, H.-Y.; Kim, D.-J.; Jeon, J.-S.

    2003-01-01

    Exergetic and thermoeconomic analyses were performed for a 500-MW combined cycle plant. In these analyses, mass and energy conservation laws were applied to each component of the system. Quantitative balances of the exergy and exergetic cost for each component, and for the whole system was carefully considered. The exergoeconomic model, which represented the productive structure of the system considered, was used to visualize the cost formation process and the productive interaction between components. The computer program developed in this study can determine the production costs of power plants, such as gas- and steam-turbines plants and gas-turbine cogeneration plants. The program can be also be used to study plant characteristics, namely, thermodynamic performance and sensitivity to changes in process and/or component design variables

  14. Exergetic analysis of basin type solar still

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Layek

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Simplicity of solar distillation system makes it very attractive, but the yield as well as the overall efficiency is very low. Different types of absorng materials e.g. black ink, black dye solution in brackish water and black toner on water surface were used to evaluate their effect on the yield. As the absorng material absorbs more insolation to increase brackish water temperature, increases yield as well as overall energy efficiency. To enhance the thermal performance, and to have the insight of thermal losses; exergetic analysis of all the components is done. The maximum overall energy efficiency obtained for brackish water having these absorber on brackish water are about 41.3%, 43.42% and 45.79%, while exergetic efficiency values are 5.91%, 6.34% and 7.10% respectively. Exergy destruction from basin liner is the highest compared to that from brackish water and glazing.

  15. Energetic and exergetic analysis of cogeneration power combined cycle and ME-TVC-MED water desalination plant: Part-1 operation and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almutairi, Abdulrahman; Pilidis, Pericles; Al-Mutawa, Nawaf; Al-Weshahi, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Develop a comprehensive model for a very advanced cogeneration plant using real data. • Evaluate ME-TVC-MED unit using the latest thermodynamic properties of seawater. • Evaluate the desalination unit contribution to the overall efficiency. • Evaluate the stage exergetic efficiency in the ME-TVC-MED unit. • Numerous possibilities have been suggested to improve the proposed system. - Abstract: A comprehensive model of cogeneration plant for electrical power and water desalination has been developed based on energetic and exergetic analyses using real operational data. The power side is a combined cycle power plant (CCPP), while the desalination side is a multi-effect thermal vapour compression plant coupled with a conventional multi-effect plant (ME-TVC-MED). IPSEpro software was utilized to model the process, which shows good agreement with the manufacturer's data and published research. The thermodynamic properties of saline water were obtained from the latest published data in the literature. The performance of the cogeneration plant was examined for different ambient temperatures, pressure ratios, loads, feed water temperatures, number of effects and entrainment ratios. The results show that gas turbine engines produce the highest level of useful work in the system at around 34% of the total fuel input. At the same time, they constitute a major source of irreversibility, which accounts for 84% of the total exergy destruction in the plant, while the lowest source of irreversibility is in the steam turbine of 3.3% due to the type of working fluid and reheating system. In the ME-TVC-MED desalination unit, the highest source of irreversibilities occurs in the effects and in the thermo-compressor. The first two effects in the ME-TVC parallel section were responsible for about 40.6% of the total effect exergy destruction, which constitutes the highest value among all the effects. Operating the system at full load while reducing ambient

  16. Energetic and exergetic Improvement of geothermal single flash cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navid Nazari

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a detailed analysis of a new method for improving energetic and exergetic efficiencies of single flash cycle. The thermodynamic process of the new method consists of extracting a fraction of hot wellhead geothermal brine for the purpose of superheating saturated steam entering the turbine. Computer programming scripts were developed and optimized based on mathematical proposed models for the different components of the systems. The operating parameters such as separator temperature, geofluid wellhead enthalpy and geothermal source temperature are varied to investigate their effects on both net power output and turbine exhaust quality of the systems. Also, full exergy assessment was performed for the new design. The results of separator temperature optimization revealed that specific net power output of the new design can be boosted up to 8% and turbine exhaust quality can be diminished up to 50% as compared to common single flash cycle. In addition, for wells with higher discharge enthalpy, superheating process improve specific net power output even up to 10%. Finally, it was observed that the overall system exergy efficiency was approximately raised 3%. Article History: Received January 5th 2016; Received in revised form June 25th 2016; Accepted July 3rd 2016; Available online How to Cite This Article: Nazari, N. and Porkhial, S. (2016. Energetic and Exergetic Improvement of Geothermal Single Flash Cycle. Int. Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 5(2,129-138. http://dx.doi.org/10.14710/ijred.5.2.129-138 

  17. Full and part load exergetic analysis of a hybrid micro gas turbine fuel cell system based on existing components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakalis, Diamantis P.; Stamatis, Anastassios G.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hybrid SOFC/GT system based on existing components. ► Exergy analysis using AspenPlus™ software. ► Greenhouse gases emission is significantly affected by SOFC stack temperature. ► Comparison with a conventional GT of similar power. ► SOFC/GT is almost twice efficient in terms of second low efficiency and CO 2 emission. - Abstract: The paper deals with the examination of a hybrid system consisting of a pre-commercially available high temperature solid oxide fuel cell and an existing recuperated microturbine. The irreversibilities and thermodynamic inefficiencies of the system are evaluated after examining the full and partial load exergetic performance and estimating the amount of exergy destruction and the efficiency of each hybrid system component. At full load operation the system achieves an exergetic efficiency of 59.8%, which increases during the partial load operation, as a variable speed control method is utilized. Furthermore, the effects of the various performance parameters such as fuel cell stack temperature and fuel utilization factor are assessed. The results showed that the components in which chemical reactions occur have the higher exergy destruction rates. The exergetic performance of the system is affected significantly by the stack temperature. Based on the exergetic analysis, suggestions are given for reducing the overall system irreversibility. Finally, the environmental impact of the operation of the hybrid system is evaluated and compared with a similarly rated conventional gas turbine plant. From the comparison it is apparent that the hybrid system obtains nearly double exergetic efficiency and about half the amount of greenhouse gas emissions compared with the conventional plant.

  18. Global exergetic dimension of hydrogen use in reducing fossil fuel consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adnan Midilli; Ibrahim Dincer

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, hydrogen is considered as a renewable and sustainable solution for minimizing the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient of global fossil fuel consumption and combating global warming and studied exergetically through a parametric performance analysis. The environmental impact results are then compared with the ones obtained for fossil fuels. In this regard, some exergetic expressions such as global waste exergy factor, global irreversibility coefficient and hydrogen based-global exergetic indicator. In order to investigate the role of hydrogen use at minimizing the fossil fuel based global irreversibility, the actual fossil fuel consumption data are taken from the literature. Due to the unavailability of appropriate hydrogen data for analysis, it is assumed that the utilization ratios of hydrogen are ranged between 0 and 1. Consequently, if exergetic utilization ratio of hydrogen from non-fossil fuel sources at a certain exergetic utilization ratio of fossil fuels increases, the fossil fuel based-global irreversibility coefficient will decrease. (author)

  19. Thermodynamic performance assessment of wind energy systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redha, Adel Mohammed; Dincer, Ibrahim; Gadalla, Mohamed

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. The thermodynamic characteristics of wind through energy and exergy analyses are considered and both energetic and exergetic efficiencies are studied. Wind speed is affected by air temperature and pressure and has a subsequent effect on wind turbine performance based on wind reference temperature and Bernoulli's equation. VESTAS V52 wind turbine is selected for (Sharjah/UAE). Energy and exergy efficiency equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. The results show that there are noticeable differences between energy and exergy efficiencies and that exergetic efficiency reflects the right/actual performance. Finally, exergy analysis has been proven to be the right tool used in design, simulation, and performance evaluation of all renewable energy systems. -- Highlights: → In this research the performance of wind energy system is assessed thermodynamically, from resource and technology perspectives. → Energy and exergy equations for wind energy systems are further developed for practical applications. → Thermodynamic characteristics of wind turbine systems through energetic and exergetic efficiencies are evaluated from January till March 2010. → Exergy efficiency describes the system irreversibility and the minimum irreversibility exists when the wind speed reaches 11 m/s. → The power production during March was about 17% higher than the month of February and 66% higher than January.

  20. Exergetic Modelling of Oil-Fired Steam Boilers | Ohijeagbon ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance variables and potential for energy savings in oil-fired industrial steam boilers were studied. Operational parameters of steam boilers using low pour fuel oil (LPFO) and diesel were used to determine thermodynamic properties of material streams and exergetic parameters. Analysis of thermodynamic ...

  1. Using an energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to assess the best applications of legumes within a biobased economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brehmer, Ben; Struik, Paul C.; Sanders, Johan

    2008-01-01

    In symbiosis with bacteria, legumes are able to biologically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and therefore require less artificial nitrogen fertilizer. As the manufacturing of nitrogen fertilizers demands a lot of process energy, growing legumes may give large overall energy savings. The reduction of nitrogen fertilizer, however, gives a yield loss as the carbon-to-nitrogen efficiency is lower for inoculation than for the synthetic process. When brought into the realm of biomass for bioenergy, the energy savings obtained through less fertilizer input must be balanced with the loss of potential yield output. Twelve popular choice crops (including two legumes, two crops grown in mixture with legumes and one crop associated with mycorrhiza) were chosen to investigate the relationship between solar radiation input, fertilizer input and the resulting potential bioenergy output. A cradle-to-factory gate assessment was performed with cumulative energy and exergy values as the main indicators. The trade-off between lower fertilizer energy inputs to utilized solar radiation was assessed. Combined they relate to the land use efficiency, basically the energy relations per hectare. Our analysis shows that legumes do not present energy savings and do not contribute to sustainability when grown as bioenergy crops. The benefits of nitrogen fixation by legumes should be carefully assessed and best utilized within the emerging sector of non-food applications

  2. Exergetic and economic evaluation of the effect of HRSG configurations on the performance of combined cycle power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajik Mansouri, Mohammad; Ahmadi, Pouria; Ganjeh Kaviri, Abdolsaeid; Jaafar, Mohammad Nazri Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ►To conduct the comprehensive exergy and economic analysis for advanced combined cycle power plant. ►To study three different HRSG configurations, dual and triple pressure HRSG, based on thermodynamic relations. ►To have a better performance assessment of the system studied using exergy and economic criteria. - Abstract: In the present research study, the effect of HRSG pressure levels on exergy efficiency of combined cycle power plants is investigated. Hence, three types of gas turbine combined cycles, with the same gas turbine as a topping cycle are evaluated. A double pressure, and two triple pressure HRSGs (with and without reheat) are modeled. The results show how an increase in the number of pressure levels of the HRSG affect the exergy losses due to heat transfer in the HRSG and the exhaust of flue gas to the stack. Moreover, the results show that an increase in the number of pressure levels affects the exergy destruction rate in HRSG, and as a result, it causes a tangible increase in exergy efficiency of the whole cycle. The results from thermodynamic analysis show that the losses due to heat transfer in the HRSG and the exhaust of flue gas to the stack in a triple pressure reheat combined cycle are less than the other cases. From the economic analysis, it is found that increasing the number of pressure levels of steam generation leads to an increase for the total and specific investment cost of the plant for about 6% and 4% respectively. The net present value (NPV) of the plant increases for about 7% for triple pressure reheat compared to with the double pressure CCPP. Therefore, the results of economic analysis show that it is economically justifiable to increase the number of pressure levels of steam generation in HRSG.

  3. Advanced exergetic analysis of five natural gas liquefaction processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatani, Ali; Mehrpooya, Mehdi; Palizdar, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Advanced exergetic analysis was investigated for five LNG processes. • Avoidable/unavoidable and endogenous/exogenous irreversibilities were calculated. • Advanced exergetic analysis identifies the potentials for improving the system. - Abstract: Conventional exergy analysis cannot identify portion of inefficiencies which can be avoided. Also this analysis does not have ability to calculate a portion of exergy destruction which has been produced through performance of a component alone. In this study advanced exergetic analysis was performed for five mixed refrigerant LNG processes and four parts of irreversibility (avoidable/unavoidable) and (endogenous/exogenous) were calculated for the components with high inefficiencies. The results showed that portion of endogenous exergy destruction in the components is higher than the exogenous one. In fact interactions among the components do not affect the inefficiencies significantly. Also this analysis showed that structural optimization cannot be useful to decrease the overall process irreversibilities. In compressors high portion of the exergy destruction is related to the avoidable one, thus they have high potential to improve. But in multi stream heat exchangers and air coolers, unavoidable inefficiencies were higher than the other parts. Advanced exergetic analysis can identify the potentials and strategies to improve thermodynamic performance of energy intensive processes

  4. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Moejes, Sanne N.; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J.; Goot, Atze Jan van der; Boom, Remko M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy consumed in all the industrial bread chains studied. The par-baked brown bun production chain had the best thermodynamic performance because of the highest rational exergetic efficiency (71.2%), the lowest specific exergy losses (5.4 MJ/kg brown bun), and the almost lowest cumulative exergy losses (4768 MJ/1000 kg of dough processed). However, recycling of bread waste is also exergetically efficient when the total fermented surplus is utilizable. Clearly, preventing material losses (i.e. utilizing raw materials maximally) improves the exergetic efficiency of industrial bread chains. In addition, most of the physical (non-material related) exergy losses occurred at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. Consequently, any additional improvement in industrial bread production should focus on the design of thermodynamically efficient baking and cooling processes, and on the use of technologies throughout the chain that consume the lowest possible physical exergy. - Highlights: • Preventing material losses is the best way to enhance the exergetic efficiency. • Most of the physical exergy losses occur at the baking, cooling and freezing steps. • Par-baking “saves” chemical exergy but consumes an equal amount of physical exergy

  5. EXERGETIC ANALYSIS OF A COGENERATION POWER PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Manuel Nuñez Bosch

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Cogeneration power plants connected to industrial processes have a direct impact on the overall efficiency of the plant and therefore on the economic results. Any modification to the thermal outline of these plants must first include an exergetic analysis to compare the benefits it can bring the new proposal. This research is performed to a cogeneration plant in operation with an installed electrical capacity of 24 MW and process heat demand of 190 MW, it shows a study made from the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Exergetic evaluation of each component of the plant was applied and similarly modified cogeneration scheme was evaluated. The results illustrate that the exergy losses and irreversibilities are completely different from one subsystem to another. In general, the total exergy destruction represented 70,7% from the primary fuel exergy. Steam generator was the subsystem with the highest irreversibility of the plant with 54%. It was demonstrated that the increase of the steam parameters lead to reduce exergy destruction and exergy efficiency elevation. The suppression of the reduction system and the adding of an extraction-condensing steam turbine produce the same effect and contribute to drop off the electrical consumption from the grid.

  6. Exergetic evaluation on photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel; Taiyoko netsu hybrid panel no exergy hyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwaki, H; Morita, Y; Fujisawa, T; Tani, T [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    The photovoltaic/thermal hybrid panel (PV/T) is an energy converter that was designed for the composite use of electricity and heat. In this paper, the validity of PV/T designed for trial was evaluated based on an exergetic theory. As the result of an experiment, the electric exergetic value of PV/T and PV is each 65.8 kWh/m{sup 2} and 58.6 kWh/m{sup 2}. The former is higher than the latter by 11.2%. The total exergetic value of PV/T is also 1.2 and 8.2 times as high as those of a PV and solar collector (SC), respectively. The calculation result of the optimum temperature operation showed that the exergetic value of PV/T is 3.1 times as high as the electric exergetic value. Therefore, the operation must be performed with the electric and thermal exergetic values set in a ratio of 3.1 to 1. In this paper, the operating mode is handled in which importance was more attached to the electric exergy than the thermal exergy. The flow rate of a heating medium on PV/T is not thus the flow control that maximizes the PV/T exergy. In the future, studies including these points will be promoted. 7 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. A review on energetic, exergetic and exergoeconomic aspects of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepbasli, Arif

    2010-01-01

    Geothermal is a reliable and promising renewable energy. In 1892 the first geothermal district heating system (GDHS) began operations in Boise, Idaho, USA. Since then, a number of GDHSs installations have been made worldwide. Various investigations on the efficient utilization of geothermal energy resources have also been conducted to attain sustainable development. There is a link between exergy and sustainable development. In recent years, exergy analysis has been widely used in the design, simulation and performance assessment of thermal systems. Exergoeconomic analysis, which is a combination of exergy and economics, is nowadays considered a powerful tool to study and optimize various types of energy-related systems. The present study comprehensively reviews GDHSs in terms of three aspects, namely energetic, exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses and assessments, for the first time to the best of the author's knowledge. A brief historical development of the studies on GDHSs was given on the base of these three aspects first. Next, GDHSs analyzed were schematically presented and shortly described. The previously conducted studies on GDHSs were then reviewed and classified. Finally, the conclusions were presented. It is expected that this comprehensive study will be very beneficial to everyone involved or interested in the energetic, exergetic and exergoeconomic design, analysis and performance evaluation of GDHSs.

  8. Energetic, exergetic, economic and environmental evaluations of geothermal district heating systems: An application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keçebaş, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Applying exergy, economic, environment and sustainability analyses to the GDHSs. ► Assessing energy and exergy efficiencies, economic and environmental impacts. ► Calculating the energy and exergy efficiencies of 34.86% and 48.78%, respectively. ► Proposing GDHSs as the most economic heating system. ► Providing a significant contribution towards reducing the emissions of air pollution. - Abstract: This study deals with an energetic and exergetic analysis as well as economic and environmental evaluations of Afyon geothermal district heating system (AGDHS) in Afyon, Turkey. In the analysis, actual system data are used to assess the district heating system performance, energy and exergy efficiencies, specific exergy index, exergetic improvement potential and exergy losses. And, for economic and environmental evaluations, actual data are obtained from the Technical Departments. The energy and exergy flow diagrams are clearly drawn to illustrate how much destructions/losses take place in addition to the inputs and outputs. For system performance analysis and improvement, both energy and exergy efficiencies of the overall AGDHS are determined to be 34.86% and 48.78%, respectively. The efficiency improvements in heat and power systems can help achieving energy security in an environmentally acceptable way by reducing the emissions that might otherwise occur. Present application has shown that in Turkey, geothermal energy is much cheaper than the other energy sources, like fossil fuels, and makes a significant contribution towards reducing the emissions of air pollution.

  9. Energetic and exergetic analyses of T56 turboprop engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balli, Ozgur; Hepbasli, Arif

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Performing comprehensive energy and exergy analyses of T56 turboprop engine at various operation modes. • Proposing two new parameters, energetic and exergetic fuel-production ratios. • Calculating maximum energy efficiency values of 25.4% for Case A and 28.1% for Case B at Takeoff mode. • Accounting maximum exergy efficiency values of 23.8% for Case A and 26.3% for Case B at Takeoff mode. - Abstract: This study presents the results of energetic and exergetic analyses of T56 turboprop engine at various power loading operation modes (75%, 100%, Military and Takeoff). The energetic and exergetic performance evaluations were made for both the shaft power (Case A) and the shaft power plus the kinetic energy of exhaust gaseous (Case B). The energetic efficiency was calculated to be maximum at 25.4% for Case A and 28.1% for Case B while the exergy efficiency was obtained to be maximum at 23.8% for Case A and 26.3% for Case B at Takeoff mode, respectively. The maximum exergy destruction rate occurred within the combustion chamber. It increased from 4846.3 kW to 6234.1 kW depending on operation modes. The exergetic performance parameters, such as the relative exergy consumption, the fuel depletion ratio, the productivity lack ratio, the improvement potential and the fuel-production ratio, were also investigated. The fuel energy-production ratio decreased from 4.6 to 3.9 while the fuel exergy-production ratio decreased from 4.9 to 4.2 by increasing the produced shaft power and residual thrust. The results provided here can be helpful to regulate and select operation modes for these engine users

  10. Exergetic comparison of two KRW-based IGCC power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsaronis, G.; Tawfik, T.; Lin, L.; Gallaspy, D.T.

    1991-01-01

    In studies supported by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute, several design configurations of Kellogg-Rust-Westinghouse (KRW)-based Integrated Gasification-Combined-Cycle (IGCC) power plants were developed. Two of these configurations are compared in this paper, from the exergetic viewpoint. The exergetic comparison identifies the causes of performance differences between the two cases: differences in the exergy destruction of the gasification system, the gas turbine system, and the gas cooling process, as well as differences in the exergy loss accompanying the solids to disposal stream. The potential for using oxygen-blown versus air-blown KRW gasifiers, and hot gas versus cold gas cleanup processes is evaluated

  11. Exergetic analysis of autonomous power complex for drilling rig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebedev, V. A.; Karabuta, V. S.

    2017-10-01

    The article considers the issue of increasing the energy efficiency of power equipment of the drilling rig. At present diverse types of power plants are used in power supply systems. When designing and choosing a power plant, one of the main criteria is its energy efficiency. The main indicator in this case is the effective efficiency factor calculated by the method of thermal balances. In the article, it is suggested to use the exergy method to determine energy efficiency, which allows to perform estimations of the thermodynamic perfection degree of the system by the example of a gas turbine plant: relative estimation (exergetic efficiency factor) and an absolute estimation. An exergetic analysis of the gas turbine plant operating in a simple scheme was carried out using the program WaterSteamPro. Exergy losses in equipment elements are calculated.

  12. Exergetic and environmental analysis of a pulverized coal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, Álvaro; Miyake, Raphael; Kleveston, Fábio; Bazzo, Edson

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the results of exergetic and environmental analysis of a typical pulverized coal power plant located in Brazil. The goal was to quantify both the exergy destruction and the environmental impact associated with a thermal power plant. The problem boundary consists of the entire coal delivery route, including mining and beneficiation, transport, pre-burning processes and the power plant. The used data were obtained mainly from field measurements taken in all system processes, from mining to the power plant. The study focused only on the operation period. Previous works have shown that the construction and decommissioning periods contribute less than 1% of the environmental impact. The exergetic analysis was based on the second law of thermodynamics while the environmental analysis was based on life cycle assessment (LCA) using SimaPro 7.2, focussing on the climate change and acidification impact categories. The CO 2 -eq emission was 1300 kg per MWh. The highest degree of environmental impact occurred during the combustion process. The exergetic and environmental analysis provides a tool to evaluate irreversibilities and the environmental impact, identifying the most significant stages and equipment of the entire power generation process. -- Highlights: ► Exergetic and environmental analysis of a typical Brazilian PC power plant. ► Environmental impact associated with the mining, transport and thermal power plant. ► Life cycle assessment used for environmental analysis. ► Acidification impact category evaluated using Eco-indicator 99. ► Climate change impact evaluation using (Global Warming Potential) GWP 100a.

  13. Advanced thermodynamic (exergetic) analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsatsaronis, G; Morosuk, T

    2012-01-01

    Exergy analysis is a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. However, the lack of a formal procedure in using the results obtained by an exergy analysis is one of the reasons for exergy analysis not being very popular among energy practitioners. Such a formal procedure cannot be developed as long as the interactions among components of the overall system are not being taken properly into account. Splitting the exergy destruction into unavoidable and avoidable parts in a component provides a realistic measure of the potential for improving the thermodynamic efficiency of this component. Alternatively splitting the exergy destruction into endogenous and exogenous parts provides information on the interactions among system components. Distinctions between avoidable and unavoidable exergy destruction on one side and endogenous and exogenous exergy destruction on the other side allow the engineer to focus on the thermodynamic inefficiencies that can be avoided and to consider the interactions among system components. The avoidable endogenous and the avoidable exogenous exergy destruction provide the best guidance for improving the thermodynamic performance of energy conversion systems.

  14. Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Marigorta, A.M.; Suárez-Medina, J.; Vera-Castellano, A.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Exergetic analysis of a biodiesel production process from Jatropha curcas. ► A 95% of the inefficiencies are located in the transesterification reactor. ► Exergetic efficiency of the steam generator amounts 37.6%. ► Chemical reactions cause most of the irreversibilities of the process. ► Exergetic efficiency of the overall process is over 63%. -- Abstract: As fossil fuels are depleting day by day, it is necessary to find an alternative fuel to fulfill the energy demand of the world. Biodiesel is considered as an environmentally friendly renewable diesel fuel alternative. The interest in using Jatropha curcas as a feedstock for the production of biodiesel is rapidly growing. On the one hand, J. curcas’ oil does not compete with the food sector due to its toxic nature and to the fact that it must be cultivated in marginal/poor soil. On the other, its price is low and stable. In the last decade, the investigation on biodiesel production was centered on the choice of the suitable raw material and on the optimization of the process operation conditions. Nowadays, research is focused on the improvement of the energetic performance and on diminishing the inefficiencies in the different process components. The method of exergy analysis is well suited for furthering this goal, for it is a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. In this work, we identify the location, magnitude and sources of thermodynamic inefficiencies in a biodiesel production process from J. curcas by means of an exergy analysis. The thermodynamic properties were calculated from existing databases or estimated when necessary. The higher exergy destruction takes places in the transesterification reactor due to chemical reactions. Almost 95% of the exergy of the fuel is destroyed in this reactor. The exergetic efficiency of the overall process is 63%.

  15. Comprehensive exergetic and economic comparison of PWR and hybrid fossil fuel-PWR power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Sabzaligol, Tooraj

    2010-01-01

    A typical 1000 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) nuclear power plant and two similar hybrid 1000 MW PWR plants operate with natural gas and coal fired fossil fuel superheater-economizers (Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel plants) are compared exergetically and economically. Comparison is performed based on energetic and economic features of three systems. In order to compare system at their optimum operating point, three workable base case systems including the conventional PWR, and gas and coal fired hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants considered and optimized in exergetic and exergoeconomic optimization scenarios, separately. The thermodynamic modeling of three systems is performed based on energy and exergy analyses, while an economic model is developed according to the exergoeconomic analysis and Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are developed. The exergetic and exergoeconomic optimizations are performed using the Genetic Algorithm (GA). Energetic and economic features of exergetic and exergoeconomic optimized conventional PWR and gas and coal fired Hybrid PWR-Fossil fuel power plants are compared and discussed comprehensively.

  16. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a new compact trigeneration system run with liquefied petroleum gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proenza Pérez, Nestor; Titosse Sadamitsu, Marlene; Luz Silveira, Jose; Santana Antunes, Julio; Eduardo Tuna, Celso; Erazo Valle, Atilio; Faria Silva, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to analyze the quantity and quality of energy in a small compact trigeneration system. This combined cycle is composed of a little reciprocating ICE model GM, 1.0 CORSA (internal combustion engine), using LPG (liquefied petroleum gas) as fuel, HE1 and HE2 (two heat exchangers) and an AM (absorption machine) using ammonia–water as working fluid mixture. The mass and energy balance equations of the engine and subsystems are reviewed in detail. Exergy of each involved stream is calculated and the exergetic balance of each subsystem is presented, as well as the global system, identifying where and why losses and irreversibilities occurs. Efficiencies based on the second law of thermodynamics are calculated for each subsystem and compared. Special attention is given to identification and quantification of second law efficiencies and the irreversibilities of various processes and subsystems. The determination of the irreversibilities in each subsystem is particularly important since they are not identified in traditional first law analysis. Furthermore, this study revealed that the combustion was the most important contributor to the system inefficiency representing 36.0% of the total exergy input and 73% of the total exergy destruction. The exergetic efficiency of the trigeneration system is determined to be 51.19%. - Highlights: • The energetic and exergetic performance of trigeneration system was studied. • The engine is the main exergetic destruction equipment. • The exergetic efficiency of the trigeneration system was 51.19%.

  17. The use of exergetic indicators in the food industry - A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K; Rossier-Miranda, Francisco J; van der Goot, Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M

    2017-01-02

    Assessment of sustainability will become more relevant for the food industry in the years to come. Analysis based on exergy, including the use of exergetic indicators and Grassmann diagrams, is a useful tool for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of the efficiency of industrial food chains. In this paper, we review the methodology of exergy analysis and the exergetic indicators that are most appropriate for use in the food industry. The challenges of applying exergy analysis in industrial food chains and the specific features of food processes are also discussed.

  18. Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doe, T.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of performance assessment is to show that the repository is expected to serve its stated function - disposing of radioactive waste safely both during operation and for the postclosure period. Performance assessment is a straightforward concept, but its application may be very complicated. The concept of performance assessment has been clarified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in their Draft Generic Technical Position on Licensing Assessment Methodology for High-Level Waste Geologic Repositories (NRC, 1984). This document has gone a long way toward defining the criteria that the NRC will use to determine whether or not information from site characterization is adequate to meet the regulations of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). A favorable determination is required for issuance of a construction authorization, which is the first major regulatory requirement for developing a working repository. It is, therefore, essential that a research program be developed that not only resolves the outstanding technical issues, but also does it in such a way that the results are clearly applicable to the formal performance assessment and licensing procedures. The definitions of performance assessment are reviewed and the current NRC thinking is summarized

  19. Hierarchically structured exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis and evaluation of energy conversion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, Dietrich; Bittrich, Petra; Riedl, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of the efficiency and economic benefit of energy conversion processes and technologies requires a scientifically based analysis. The hierarchically structured exergetic analysis provides a detailed characterization of complex technical systems. By defining corresponding evaluation coefficients, the exergetic efficiency can be assessed for units within the whole system. Based on this exergetic analysis, a thermoeconomic evaluation method is developed. A cost function is defined for all units, subsystems and the total plant, so that the cost flow in the system can be calculated. Three dimensionless coefficients, the Pauer factor, the loss coefficient and the cost factor, enable pinpointing cost intensive process units, allocating cost in cases of co-production and gaining insight for future design improvements. The methodology is demonstrated by a biomass gasification plant producing electricity, heat and cold

  20. Exergetic effects of some design parameters on the small turbojet engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turan, Onder [Anadolu University, School of Civil Aviation (Turkey)], e-mail: onderturan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With increasing energy demand and the depletion of fossil fuel reserves, research is being done in the aeronautics sector on improving the efficiency of engines and reducing their fuel consumption. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of design parameters on the performance of a small turbojet engine composed of an inlet, centrifugal compressor, axial flow turbine, exhaust nozzle and reverse flow compression chamber. An exergetic analysis, which allows the loss locations to be assessed and efficiencies to be evaluated in a meaningful way, was carried out under different environments and at different flight velocities. Results showed that high compressor pressure and high turbine inlet temperature significantly increase energy efficiency but the exergy efficiency increase is lower. This study demonstrated that the the second law of thermodynamics, and not only the first law, is highly relevant to the proper understanding of aircraft engine performance.

  1. Thermodynamic performance assessment of an integrated geothermal powered supercritical regenerative organic Rankine cycle and parabolic trough solar collectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakici, Duygu Melek; Erdogan, Anil; Colpan, Can Ozgur

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the thermodynamic performance of an integrated geothermal powered supercritical regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC) and parabolic trough solar collectors (PTSC) is assessed. A thermal model based on the principles of thermodynamics (mass, energy, and exergy balances) and heat transfer is first developed for the components of this integrated system. This model gives the performance assessment parameters of the system such as the electrical and exergetic efficiencies, total exergy destruction and loss, productivity lack, fuel depletion ratio, and improvement potential rate. To validate this model, the data of an existing geothermal power plant based on a supercritical ORC and literature data for the PTSC are used. After validation, parametric studies are conducted to assess the effect of some of the important design and operating parameters on the performance of the system. As a result of these studies, it is found that the integration of ORC and PTSC systems increases the net power output but decreases the electrical and exergetic efficiencies of the integrated system. It is also shown that R134a is the most suitable working fluid type for this system; and the PTSCs and air cooled condenser are the main sources of the exergy destructions. - Highlights: • A geothermal power plant integrated with PTSC is investigated. • Different approaches for defining the exergetic efficiency are used. • The PTSCs and ACC are the main sources of the exergy destructions. • R134a gives the highest performance for any number of collectors studied.

  2. Performance evaluations of a geothermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2011-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of an operational 7.5 MWe binary geothermal power plant in Tuzla-Turkey is performed, through energy and exergy, using actual plant data to assess its energetic and exergetic performances. Eight performance-related parameters, namely total exergy destruction ratio, component exergy destruction ratio, dimensionless exergy destruction, energetic renewability ratio, exergetic renewability ratio, energetic reinjection ratio, exergetic reinjection ratio and improvement potential are investigated. Energy and exergy losses/destructions for the plant and its units are determined and illustrated using energy and exergy flow diagrams. The largest energy and exergy losses occur in brine reinjection unit. The variation of the plant energy efficiency is found between 6% and 12%. Exergy efficiency values change between 35 and 49%. The annual average energy and exergy efficiencies are found as 9.47% and 45.2%, respectively. - Highlights: → Investigation of a geothermal system energetically and exergetically. → Performance assessment of the system through energy and exergy efficiencies. → Utilization of temperature distribution in exergy calculations. → Evaluation of eight energetic and exergetic parameters for the system.

  3. Exergetic efficiency analysis of hydrogen–air detonation in pulse detonation combustor using computational fluid dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinku Debnath

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Exergy losses during the combustion process, heat transfer, and fuel utilization play a vital role in the analysis of the exergetic efficiency of combustion process. Detonation is thermodynamically more efficient than deflagration mode of combustion. Detonation combustion technology inside the pulse detonation engine using hydrogen as a fuel is energetic propulsion system for next generation. In this study, the main objective of this work is to quantify the exergetic efficiency of hydrogen–air combustion for deflagration and detonation combustion process. Further detonation parameters are calculated using 0.25, 0.35, and 0.55 of H2 mass concentrations in the combustion process. The simulations have been performed for converging the solution using commercial computational fluid dynamics package Ansys Fluent solver. The details of combustion physics in chemical reacting flows of hydrogen–air mixture in two control volumes were simulated using species transport model with eddy dissipation turbulence chemistry interaction. From these simulations it was observed that exergy loss in the deflagration combustion process is higher in comparison to the detonation combustion process. The major observation was that pilot fuel economy for the two combustion processes and augmentation of exergetic efficiencies are better in the detonation combustion process. The maximum exergetic efficiency of 55.12%, 53.19%, and 23.43% from deflagration combustion process and from detonation combustion process, 67.55%, 57.49%, and 24.89%, are obtained from aforesaid H2 mass fraction. It was also found that for lesser fuel mass fraction higher exergetic efficiency was observed.

  4. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of a Heat Exchanger Integrated in a Solid Biomass-Fuelled Micro-CHP System with an Ericsson Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Creyx

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A specific heat exchanger has been developed to transfer heat from flue gas to the working fluid (hot air of the Ericsson engine of a solid biomass-fuelled micro combined heat and power (CHP. In this paper, the theoretical and experimental energetic analyses of this heat exchanger are compared. The experimental performances are described considering energetic and exergetic parameters, in particular the effectiveness on both hot and cold sides. A new exergetic parameter called the exergetic effectiveness is introduced, which allows a comparison between the real and the ideal heat exchanger considering the Second Law of Thermodynamics. A global analysis of exergetic fluxes in the whole micro-CHP system is presented, showing the repartition of the exergy destruction among the components.

  5. Exergetic optimization of turbofan engine with genetic algorithm method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turan, Onder [Anadolu University, School of Civil Aviation (Turkey)], e-mail: onderturan@anadolu.edu.tr

    2011-07-01

    With the growth of passenger numbers, emissions from the aeronautics sector are increasing and the industry is now working on improving engine efficiency to reduce fuel consumption. The aim of this study is to present the use of genetic algorithms, an optimization method based on biological principles, to optimize the exergetic performance of turbofan engines. The optimization was carried out using exergy efficiency, overall efficiency and specific thrust of the engine as evaluation criteria and playing on pressure and bypass ratio, turbine inlet temperature and flight altitude. Results showed exergy efficiency can be maximized with higher altitudes, fan pressure ratio and turbine inlet temperature; the turbine inlet temperature is the most important parameter for increased exergy efficiency. This study demonstrated that genetic algorithms are effective in optimizing complex systems in a short time.

  6. Energetic and exergetic performances analysis of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system tested and simulated under to Tunisian (North Africa) climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Riahi, Ali; Mehdaoui, Farah; Nouicer, Omeima; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2016-01-01

    The endeavor of this paper is to study the potential offered by the expenditure of a PV/T (photovoltaic thermal) solar system in Tunisian households. This investigation is performed according to two-folded approaches. Firstly, outdoor experiments were carried out during July 2014 for both passive and active mode. An exhaustive energy and exergy analysis was then performed to evaluate the instantaneous thermal and the electrical exergy outputs of the PV/T solar system. The results showed that the maximum instantaneous thermal and electric energy efficiency in active mode are about 50 and 15%, respectively. It was found also that the maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were about 50 and 14.8%, respectively. The second approach is the evaluation of the monthly/annual performances of the PV/T solar system under typical climate area of Tunisia by using TRNSYS program. The results showed that the active mode enhances the electric efficiency and the exergy of the PV/T system by 3 and 2.5% points, respectively. The results showed that the optimized PV/T solar system covert the major part of the hot water and the electric needs of Tunisian household's with an expected annual average gain of about 14.60 and 5.33%, respectively. An economic appraisal was performed. - Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using PV/T solar collector in Tunisian. • The maximum thermal and electric efficiencies are 50 and 15%, respectively. • The maximum thermal and electric exergy efficiencies were 50 and 14.8%. • The results showed that the expected annual gain are 14.60 and 5.33%. • The PV/T is compared to a high quality commercial solar collectors and a PV panel.

  7. Improving exergetic and sustainability parameters of a DI diesel engine using polymer waste dissolved in biodiesel as a novel diesel additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Mohammadi, Pouya; Pourvosoughi, Navid; Nikbakht, Ali M.; Goli, Sayed Amir Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergy analysis of diesel engine fuelled with various SBE biodiesel–diesel blends containing EPS. • Profound effect of engine speed and load on exergetic performance parameters of diesel engine. • Selection of B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel as the best mixture. • Potential application of the applied framework for optimizing sustainability index of IC engines. - Abstract: Exergy analysis of a DI diesel engine running on several biodiesel/diesel blends (B5) containing various quantities of expanded polystyrene (EPS) was carried out. Neat diesel and B5 were also investigated during the engine tests. The biodiesel used was produced using waste oil extracted from spend bleaching earth (SBE). The experiments were conducted to assess the effects of fuel type, engine speed, and load on thermal efficiency, exergetic parameters, and sustainability index of the diesel engine. The obtained results revealed that the exergetic parameters strongly depended on the engine speed and load. Generally, increasing engine speed remarkably decreased the exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine. However, increasing engine load initially enhanced the exergy efficiency and sustainability index, while its further augmentation did not profoundly affect these parameters. The maximum exergy efficiency and sustainability index of the diesel engine (i.e. 40.21% and 1.67, respectively) were achieved using B5 containing 50 g EPS/L biodiesel. Generally, the approach presented herein could be a promising strategy for energy recovery from polymer waste, emissions reduction, and performance improvement. The findings of the present study also confirmed that exergy analysis could be employed to minimize the irreversibility and losses occurring in modern engines and to enhance the sustainability index of combustion processes.

  8. Exergetic comparison of two different cooling technologies for the power cycle of a thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco-Marigorta, Ana M.; Victoria Sanchez-Henriquez, M.; Pena-Quintana, Juan A.

    2011-01-01

    Exergetic analysis is without any doubt a powerful tool for developing, evaluating and improving an energy conversion system. In the present paper, two different cooling technologies for the power cycle of a 50 MWe solar thermal power plant are compared from the exergetic viewpoint. The Rankine cycle design is a conventional, single reheat design with five closed and one open extraction feedwater heaters. The software package GateCycle is used for the thermodynamic simulation of the Rankine cycle model. The first design configuration uses a cooling tower while the second configuration uses an air cooled condenser. With this exergy analysis we identify the location, magnitude and the sources or thermodynamic inefficiencies in this thermal system. This information is very useful for improving the overall efficiency of the power system and for comparing the performance of both technologies.

  9. Multi-objective optimization of a cascade refrigeration system: Exergetic, economic, environmental, and inherent safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eini, Saeed; Shahhosseini, Hamidreza; Delgarm, Navid; Lee, Moonyong; Bahadori, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-objective optimization is performed for a cascade refrigeration cycle. • The optimization problem considers inherently safe design as well as 3E analysis. • As a measure of inherent safety level a quantitative risk analysis is utilized. • A CO 2 /NH 3 cascade refrigeration system is compared with a CO 2 /C 3 H 8 system. - Abstract: Inherently safer design is the new approach to maximize the overall safety of a process plant. This approach suggests some risk reduction strategies to be implemented in the early stages of design. In this paper a multi-objective optimization was performed considering economic, exergetic, and environmental aspects besides evaluation of the inherent safety level of a cascade refrigeration system. The capital costs, the processing costs, and the social cost due to CO 2 emission were considered to be included in the economic objective function. Exergetic efficiency of the plant was considered as the second objective function. As a measure of inherent safety level, Quantitative Risk Assessment (QRA) was performed to calculate total risk level of the cascade as the third objective function. Two cases (ammonia and propane) were considered to be compared as the refrigerant of the high temperature circuit. The achieved optimum solutions from the multi–objective optimization process were given as Pareto frontier. The ultimate optimal solution from available solutions on the Pareto optimal curve was selected using Decision-Makings approaches. NSGA-II algorithm was used to obtain Pareto optimal frontiers. Also, three decision-making approaches (TOPSIS, LINMAP, and Shannon’s entropy methods) were utilized to select the final optimum point. Considering continuous material release from the major equipment in the plant, flash and jet fire scenarios were considered for the CO 2 /C 3 H 8 cycle and toxic hazards were considered for the CO 2 /NH 3 cycle. The results showed no significant differences between CO 2 /NH 3 and

  10. Exergetic analysis and optimization of a solar-powered reformed methanol fuel cell micro-powerplant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotz, Nico; Zimmerman, Raúl; Weinmueller, Christian; Lee, Ming-Tsang; Grigoropoulos, Costas P.; Rosengarten, Gary; Poulikakos, Dimos

    The present study proposes a combination of solar-powered components (two heaters, an evaporator, and a steam reformer) with a proton exchange membrane fuel cell to form a powerplant that converts methanol to electricity. The solar radiation heats up the mass flows of methanol-water mixture and air and sustains the endothermic methanol steam reformer at a sufficient reaction temperature (typically between 220 and 300 °C). In order to compare the different types of energy (thermal, chemical, and electrical), an exergetic analysis is applied to the entire system, considering only the useful part of energy that can be converted to work. The effect of the solar radiation intensity and of different operational and geometrical parameters like the total inlet flow rate of methanol-water mixture, the size of the fuel cell, and the cell voltage on the performance of the entire system is investigated. The total exergetic efficiency comparing the electrical power output with the exergy input in form of chemical and solar exergy reaches values of up to 35%, while the exergetic efficiency only accounting for the conversion of chemical fuel to electricity (and neglecting the 'cost-free' solar input) is increased up to 59%. At the same time, an electrical power density per irradiated area of more than 920 W m -2 is obtained for a solar heat flux of 1000 W m -2.

  11. A finite-volume model of a parabolic trough photovoltaic/thermal collector: Energetic and exergetic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; Palombo, Adolfo; Vanoli, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed finite-volume model of a concentrating photovoltaic/thermal (PVT) solar collector. The PVT solar collector consists in a parabolic trough concentrator and a linear triangular receiver. The bottom surfaces of the triangular receiver are equipped with triple-junction cells whereas the top surface is covered by an absorbing surface. The cooling fluid (water) flows inside a channel along the longitudinal direction of the PVT collector. The system was discretized along its axis and, for each slice of the discretized computational domain, mass and energy balances were considered. The model allows one to evaluate both thermodynamic and electrical parameters along the axis of the PVT collector. Then, for each slice of the computational domain, exergy balances were also considered in order to evaluate the corresponding exergy destruction rate and exergetic efficiency. Therefore, the model also calculates the magnitude of the irreversibilities inside the collector and it allows one to detect where these irreversibilities occur. A sensitivity analysis is also performed with the scope to evaluate the effect of the variation of the main design/environmental parameters on the energetic and exergetic performance of the PVT collector. -- Highlights: ► The paper investigates an innovative concentrating photovoltaic thermal solar collector. ► The collector is equipped with triple-junction photovoltaic layers. ► A local exergetic analysis is performed in order to detect sources of irreversibilities. ► Irreversibilities are mainly due to the heat transfer between sun and PVT collector.

  12. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tol, Hakan İbrahim; Svendsen, Svend

    2013-01-01

    to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated...... in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives....

  13. Process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1987-01-01

    Performance assessment is the process used to evaluate the environmental consequences of disposal of radioactive waste in the biosphere. An introductory review of the subject is presented. Emphasis is placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which are discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment is addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the system/site/technology issues as the focal point of this symposium are reviewed

  14. A comprehensive energy–exergy-based assessment and parametric study of a hydrogen production process using steam glycerol reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajjaji, Noureddine; Chahbani, Amna; Khila, Zouhour

    2014-01-01

    Various assessment tools are applied to comprehensively investigate a glycerol-to-hydrogen production system. These tools investigate the chemical reactions, design and simulate the entire hydrogen production process, study the energetic and exergetic performances and perform parametric analyses (using intuitive and design of experiment-based methods). Investigating the chemical reaction of steam glycerol reforming reveals that the optimal conditions, determined based on maximizing the hydrogen production while minimizing the methane and carbon monoxide contents and coke formation, can be achieved at a reforming temperature and a water-to-glycerol feed ratio (WGFR) of 950 K and 9, respectively. The thermal and exergetic efficiencies of the resulting process are 66.6% and 59.9%, respectively. These findings are lower than those cited in the literature and relative to other reformates (methane, ethanol and methanol). The parametric investigation indicates that the performance of the process (energetic and exergetic) could be ensured by using an appropriate and judiciously selected combination of the reactor temperature and WGFR. Based on the parametric energetic and exergetic investigation, WGFR = 6 and T = 1100 K appear to be the most accurate parameters for the entire glycerol-to-hydrogen process. For this recommend configuration, the thermal and exergetic efficiencies are 78.1% and 66.1%, respectively. - Highlights: • Energy and exergy analysis are used to assess glycerol-to-hydrogen process. • Recommended conditions for glycerol-to-hydrogen process are WGFR = 6 and T = 1100 K. • For recommend conditions, thermal and exergetic efficiencies are 78.1% and 66.1%. • Energy and exergy consideration should be included by engineers and scientists

  15. NRC performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) performance assessment program includes the development of guidance to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on preparation of a license application and on conducting the studies to support a license application. The nature of the licensing requirements of 10 CFR Part 60 create a need for performance assessments by the DOE. The NRC and DOE staffs each have specific roles in assuring the adequacy of those assessments. Performance allocation is an approach for determining what testing and analysis will be needed during site characterization to assure that an adequate data base is available to support the necessary performance assessments. From the standpoint of establishing is implementable methodology, the most challenging performance assessment needed for licensing is the one that will be used to determine compliance with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) containment requirement

  16. Application of exergetic sustainability index to a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with ideal Bose and Fermi gasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Açıkkalp, Emin, E-mail: eacikkalp@gmail.com [Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Bilecik S.E. University, Bilecik (Turkey); Caner, Necmettin [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2015-09-25

    Highlights: • An irreversible Brayton cycle operating quantum gasses is considered. • Exergetic sustainability index is derived for nano-scale cycles. • Nano-scale effects are considered. • Calculation are conducted for irreversible cycles. • Numerical results are presented and discussed. - Abstract: In this study, a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with quantum gasses including Bose and Fermi gasses is researched. Developments in the nano-technology cause searching the nano-scale machines including thermal systems to be unavoidable. Thermodynamic analysis of a nano-scale irreversible Brayton cycle operating with Bose and Fermi gasses was performed (especially using exergetic sustainability index). In addition, thermodynamic analysis involving classical evaluation parameters such as work output, exergy output, entropy generation, energy and exergy efficiencies were conducted. Results are submitted numerically and finally some useful recommendations were conducted. Some important results are: entropy generation and exergetic sustainability index are affected mostly for Bose gas and power output and exergy output are affected mostly for the Fermi gas by x. At the high temperature conditions, work output and entropy generation have high values comparing with other degeneracy conditions.

  17. Energetic and exergetic analysis of waste heat recovery systems in the cement industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karellas, S.; Leontaritis, A.-D.; Panousis, G.; Bellos, E.; Kakaras, E.

    2013-01-01

    In a typical cement producing procedure, 25% of the total energy used is electricity and 75% is thermal energy. However, the process is characterized by significant heat losses mainly by the flue gases and the ambient air stream used for cooling down the clinker (about 35%–40% of the process heat loss). Approximately 26% of the heat input to the system is lost due to dust, clinker discharge, radiation and convection losses from the kiln and the preheaters. A heat recovery system could be used to increase the efficiency of the cement plant and thus contribute to emissions decrease. The aim of this paper is to examine and compare energetically and exergetically, two different WHR (waste heat recovery) methods: a water-steam Rankine cycle, and an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC). A parametric study proved that the water steam technology is more efficient than ORC in exhaust gases temperature higher than 310 °C. Finally a brief economic assessment of the most efficient solution was implemented. WHR installations in cement industry can contribute significantly in the reduction of the electrical consumptions operating cost thus being a very attractive investment with a payback period up to 5 years. - Highlights: • This paper presents waste heat recovery as a way to gain energy from the exhaust gases in a cement plant. • Water steam cycle and ORC has been analyzed for waste heat recovery. • The energetic and exergetic evaluation of the two waste heat recovery processes is presented and compared

  18. Energetic and exergetic comparison of the human body for the summer season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Energetic and exergetic comparison of the human body. • Usage of summer season data. • Calculation of entropy generation of the human body. • Thermal comfort. • Determining predicted mean vote rate and predicted percentage dissatisfied rate for the human comfort. - Abstract: The energy and exergy analyses are performed to the human body for the summer season of the Izmir city in Turkey. It is found that the metabolism energy and exergy rates are the major part of the human body’s energy generation. However, metabolism energy rate (58.326 W/m 2 ) is much higher than corresponding exergetic one (1.661 W/m 2 ). The maximum energy loss of the human body (70.59%) occurs due to heat exchange such as radiation, convection, and conduction. On the other hand, the maximum exergy loss of the human body happens due to exhaled humid air (6.393%), while the most of the total exergy is consumed by the human body (90.786%). Thermal comfort condition is also calculated. The Predicted Mean Vote (PMV) rate is found as 0.028 which means that the thermal sensation of the human body is called as comfortable. Furthermore, the Predicted Percentage Dissatisfied (PPD) rate is determined to be 5.017% which is low and shows the thermally dissatisfied people percentages

  19. Methodology for the physical and chemical exergetic analysis of steam boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohijeagbon, Idehai O.; Waheed, M. Adekojo; Jekayinfa, Simeon O.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework of thermodynamic, energy and exergy, analyses of industrial steam boilers. Mass, energy, and exergy analysis were used to develop a methodology for evaluating thermodynamic properties, energy and exergy input and output resources in industrial steam boilers. Determined methods make available an analytic procedure for the physical and chemical exergetic analysis of steam boilers for appropriate applications. The energy and exergy efficiencies obtained for the entire boiler was 69.56% and 38.57% at standard reference state temperature of 25 °C for an evaporation ratio of 12. Chemical exergy of the material streams was considered to offer a more comprehensive detail on energy and exergy resource allocation and losses of the processes in a steam boiler. - Highlights: ► We evaluated thermodynamic properties and performance variables associated with material streams. ► We analysed resources allocation, and magnitude of exergetic losses in steam boilers. ► Chemical exergy of material streams contributed to improved exergy values. ► High operational parameter will lead to higher boiler exergy. ► Exergy destroyed was higher in the combustion as against the heat exchanging unit

  20. Exergetic analysis of a double stage LiBr-H2O thermal compressor cooled by air/water and driven by low grade heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izquierdo, M.; Venegas, M.; Garcia, N.; Palacios, E.

    2005-01-01

    In the present paper, an exergetic analysis of a double stage thermal compressor using the lithium bromide-water solution is performed. The double stage system considered allows obtaining evaporation temperatures equal to 5 deg. C using solar heat coming from flat plate collectors and other low grade thermal sources. In this study, ambient air and water are alternatively used as cooling fluids without crystallization problems up to condensation-absorption temperatures equal to 50 deg. C. The results obtained give the entropy generated, the exergy destroyed and the exergetic efficiency of the double stage thermal compressor as a function of the absorption temperature. The conclusions obtained show that the irreversibilities generated by the double stage thermal compressor will tend to increase with the absorption temperature up to 45 deg. C. The maximum value corresponds to 1.35 kJ kg -1 K -1 . The entropy generated and the exergy destroyed by the air cooled system are higher than those by the water cooled one. The difference between the values increases when the absorption temperature increases. For an absorption temperature equal to 50 deg. C, the air cooled mode generates 14% more entropy and destroys 14% more exergy than the water cooled one. Also, the results are compared with those of previous studies for single and double effect air cooled and water cooled thermal compressors. The conclusions show that the double stage system has about 22% less exergetic efficiency than the single effect one and 32% less exergetic efficiency than the double effect one

  1. Exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis of a novel hybrid solar–geothermal polygeneration system producing energy and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calise, Francesco; D’Accadia, Massimo Dentice; Macaluso, Adriano; Piacentino, Antonio; Vanoli, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis of hybrid renewable system is presented. • The system provides electric, thermal and cooling energy and desalinated water. • Exergy efficiency varies between 40–50% in the winter and 16–20% in the summer. • Electricity and fresh water costs vary between 15–17 and 57–60 c€/kW h_e_x. • Chilled and hot water costs vary between 18.6–18.9 and 1.6–1.7 c€/kW h_e_x. - Abstract: A dynamic simulation model of a novel solar–geothermal polygeneration system and the related exergetic and exergoeconomic analyses are presented in this paper. The plant is designed in order to supply electrical, thermal and cooling energy and fresh water for a small community, connected to a district heating and cooling network. The hybrid system is equipped with an Organic Rankine Cycle fueled by medium-enthalpy geothermal energy and by a Parabolic Trough Collector solar field. Geothermal brine is also used for space heating and cooling purposes. Finally, geothermal fluid supplies heat to a Multi-Effect Distillation unit, producing also desalinized water from seawater. Dynamic simulations were performed in order to design the system. The overall simulation model, implemented in TRNSYS environment, includes detailed algorithms for the simulation of system components. Detailed control strategies were included in the model in order to properly manage the system. An exergetic and exergoeconomic analysis is also implemented. The exergetic analysis allows to identify all the aspects that affect the global exergy efficiency, in order to suggest possible system enhancements. The accounting of exergoeconomic costs aims at establishing a monetary value to all material and energy flows, then providing a reasonable basis for price allocation. The analysis is applied to integral values of energy and a comparison of results between summer and winter season is performed. Results are analyzed on different time bases presenting

  2. Support vector machine-based exergetic modelling of a DI diesel engine running on biodiesel–diesel blends containing expanded polystyrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshirband, Shahaboddin; Tabatabaei, Meisam; Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Yee, Por Lip; Petković, Dalibor

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • SVM-based thermodynamic modelling of a DI diesel engine working with diesel/biodiesel blends containing EPS. • Comparison of SVM-WT, SVM-FFA, SVM-RBF, SVM-QPSO, and ANN approaches for exergetic modelling of the engine. • Satisfactory performance of the SVM-WT for performance modelling of the engine over the other approaches. - Abstract: In the present study, four Support Vector Machine-based (SVM-based) approaches and the standard artificial neural network (ANN) model were designed and compared in modelling the exergetic parameters of a DI diesel engine running on diesel/biodiesel blends containing expanded polystyrene (EPS) wastes. For this aim, the SVM was coupled with discrete wavelet transform (SVM-WT), firefly algorithm (SVM-FFA), radial basis function (SVM-RBF) and quantum particle swarm optimization (SVM-QPSO). The exergetic data were computed using mass, energy, and exergy balance equations for the engine at different speeds and loads as well as various biodiesel and EPS wastes quantities. Three statistical indicators namely root means square error, coefficient of determination and Pearson coefficient were used to access the capability of the developed approaches for exergetic performance modelling of the DI diesel engine. The modelling results indicated that the SVM-WT approach was more efficient in exergetic modelling of the engine than the other three approaches. Moreover, the results obtained confirmed the effectiveness of the SVM-WT model in identifying the most exergy-efficient combustion conditions and the best fuel composition for achieving the most cost-effective and eco-friendly combustion process.

  3. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF EXERGETIC BALANCE METHODS IN ALCOHOLIC DISTILLATION COLUMNS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arletis Cruz Llerena

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The comparison between three methods to calculate the exergy of the currents involved in the exergetic balance of alcoholic distillation columns is presented. Exergy of the currents was considered as: 1 flow exergies, 2 heat exergies and 3 the sum of flow exergy and chemical exergy. The implementation of the exergetic analysis was examined as a key point to improve the efficiency of the process. A case study, where the methods are applied for the evaluation of the exergy is analyzed; differences among the methods were obtained between the 15% and 30 %. The influence of the studied columns in total work capacity loss was determined, concluding that regardless of the method, the distillation column has shown the higher loss. An economic analysis was made applying the first method to the case study, where the percentage of ethanol in wine increases from 5.8 ºGL to 9 ºGL, which led to a decrease of vapor consumption of 23.66%, an exergetic yield increase of 28.02 % and a combustion gas flow reduction of 24 627 034.4 m3/year.

  4. Assessing Scientific Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, John M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    A method for assessing scientific performance based on relationships displayed numerically in published documents is proposed and illustrated using published documents in pediatric oncology for the period 1979-1982. Contributions of a major clinical investigations group, the Childrens Cancer Study Group, are analyzed. Twenty-nine references are…

  5. Performance assessment calculational exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnard, R.W.; Dockery, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Performance Assessment Calculational Exercises (PACE) are an ongoing effort coordinated by Yucca Mountain Project Office. The objectives of fiscal year 1990 work, termed PACE-90, as outlined in the Department of Energy Performance Assessment (PA) Implementation Plan were to develop PA capabilities among Yucca Mountain Project (YMP) participants by calculating performance of a Yucca Mountain (YM) repository under ''expected'' and also ''disturbed'' conditions, to identify critical elements and processes necessary to assess the performance of YM, and to perform sensitivity studies on key parameters. It was expected that the PACE problems would aid in development of conceptual models and eventual evaluation of site data. The PACE-90 participants calculated transport of a selected set of radionuclides through a portion of Yucca Mountain for a period of 100,000 years. Results include analyses of fluid-flow profiles, development of a source term for radionuclide release, and simulations of contaminant transport in the fluid-flow field. Later work included development of a problem definition for perturbations to the originally modeled conditions and for some parametric sensitivity studies. 3 refs

  6. Context for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocher, D.C.

    1997-01-01

    In developing its recommendations on performance assessment for disposal of low-level radioactive waste, Scientific committee 87-3 of the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) has considered a number of topics that provide a context for the development of suitable approaches to performance assessment. This paper summarizes the Committee' discussions on these topics, including (1) the definition of low-level waste and its sources and properties, as they affect the variety of wastes that must be considered, (2) fundamental objectives and principles of radioactive waste disposal and their application to low-level waste, (3) current performance objectives for low-level waste disposal in the US, with particular emphasis on such unresolved issues of importance to performance assessment as the time frame for compliance, requirements for protection of groundwater and surface water, inclusion of doses from radon, demonstrating compliance with fixed performance objectives using highly uncertain model projections, and application of the principle that releases to the environment should be maintained as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA), (4) the role of active and passive institutional controls over disposal sites, (5) the role of the inadvertent human intruder in low-level waste disposal, (6) model validation and confidence in model outcomes, and (7) the concept of reasonable assurance of compliance

  7. Texas' performance assessment work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charbeneau, R.J.; Hertel, N.E.; Pollard, C.G.

    1990-01-01

    The Texas Low-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Authority is completing two years of detailed on-site suitability studies of a potential low-level radioactive waste disposal site in Hudspeth County, Texas. The data from these studies have been used to estimate site specific parameters needed to do a performance assessment of the site. The radiological impacts of the site have been analyzed as required for a license application. The approach adopted for the performance assessment was to use simplified and yet conservative assumptions with regard to releases, radionuclide transport, and dose calculations. The methodologies employed in the performance assessment are reviewed in the paper. Rather than rely on a single computer code, a modular approach to the performance assessment was selected. The HELP code was used to calculate the infiltration rate through the trench covers and the amount of leachate released from this arid site. Individual pathway analyses used spreadsheet calculations. These calculations were compared with those from other computer models including CRRIS, INGDOS, PATHRAE, and MICROSHIELD copyright, and found to yield conservative estimates of the effective whole body dose. The greatest difficulty in performing the radiological assessment of the site was the selection of reasonable source terms for release into the environment. A surface water pathway is unreasonable for the site. Though also unlikely, the groundwater pathway with exposure through a site boundary well was found to yield the largest calculated dose. The more likely pathway including transport of leachate from the facility through the unsaturated zone and returning to the ground surface yields small doses. All calculated doses associated with normal releases of radioactivity are below the regulatory limits

  8. Energetic and exergetic analysis of a steam turbine power plant in an existing phosphoric acid factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hafdhi, Fathia; Khir, Tahar; Ben Yahyia, Ali; Ben Brahim, Ammar

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The operating mode of the factory and the power supply streams are presented. • Energetic Analysis of steam turbine power plant of an existing phosphoric acid factory. • Exergetic Analysis of each component of steam turbine power plant and the different heat recovery system. • Energy, exergy efficiency and irreversibility rates for the main components are determined. • The effect of the operating parameters on the plant performance are analyzed. - Abstract: An energetic and exergetic analysis is conducted on a Steam Turbine Power Plant of an existing Phosphoric Acid Factory. The heat recovery systems used in the different parts of the plant are also considered in the study. Mass, energy and exergy balances are established on the main compounds of the plant. A numerical code is established using EES software to perform the calculations required for the thermal and exergy plant analysis considering real variation ranges of the main operating parameters such as pressure, temperature and mass flow rate. The effects of theses parameters on the system performances are investigated. The main sources of irreversibility are the melters, followed by the heat exchangers, the steam turbine generator and the pumps. The maximum energy efficiency is obtained for the blower followed by the heat exchangers, the deaerator and the steam turbine generator. The exergy efficiency obtained for the heat exchanger, the steam turbine generator, the deaerator and the blower are 88%, 74%, 72% and 66% respectively. The effects of High Pressure steam temperature and pressure on the steam turbine generator energy and exergy efficiencies are investigated.

  9. Energy performance assessment methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Platzer, W.J. [Fraunhofer Inst. for Solar Energy Systems, Freiburg (Germany)

    2006-01-15

    The energy performance of buildings are intimately connected to the energy performance of building envelopes. The better we understand the relation between the quality of the envelope and the energy consumption of the building, the better we can improve both. We have to consider not only heating but all service energies related to the human comfort in the building, such as cooling, ventilation, lighting as well. The complexity coming from this embracing approach is not to be underestimated. It is less and less possible to realted simple characteristic performance indicators of building envelopes (such as the U-value) to the overall energy performance. On the one hand much more paramters (e.g. light transmittance) come into the picture we have to assess the product quality in a multidimensional world. Secondly buildings more and more have to work on a narrow optimum: For an old, badly insulated building all solar gains are useful for a high-performance building with very good insulation and heat recovery systems in the ventilation overheating becomes more likely. Thus we have to control the solar gains, and sometimes we need high gains, sometimes low ones. And thirdly we see that the technology within the building and the user patterns and interactions as well influence the performance of a building envelope. The aim of this project within IEA Task27 was to improve our knowledge on the complex situation and also to give a principal approach how to assess the performance of the building envelope. The participants have contributed to this aim not pretending that we have reached the end. (au)

  10. Waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lester, D.H.

    1981-01-01

    This paper describes work undertaken to assess the life-expectancy and post-failure nuclide release behavior of high-level and waste packages in a geologic repository. The work involved integrating models of individual phenomena (such as heat transfer, corrosion, package deformation, and nuclide transport) and using existing data to make estimates of post-emplacement behavior of waste packages. A package performance assessment code was developed to predict time to package failure in a flooded repository and subsequent transport of nuclides out of the leaking package. The model has been used to evaluate preliminary package designs. The results indicate, that within the limitation of model assumptions and data base, packages lasting a few hundreds of years could be developed. Very long lived packages may be possible but more comprehensive data are needed to confirm this

  11. TURVA-2012: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hellae, Pirjo; Snellman, Margit; Marcos, Nuria; Pastina, Barbara; Smith, Paul; Koskinen, Kari

    2014-01-01

    TURVA-2012 is Posiva's safety case in support of the Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) and application for a construction licence for a repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel at the Olkiluoto site in south-western Finland. Posiva's safety concept is based on long-term isolation and containment, which is achieved through a robust engineered barrier system (EBS) design and favourable geological conditions at the repository site. The reference design considered in the TURVA-2012 safety case is the KBS-3V design, with the EBS consisting of a copper-iron canister, a buffer of swelling clay material, a backfill in the deposition tunnels of low-permeability material and closure of the central tunnels and other underground openings. The host rock acts as a natural barrier. Each barrier contributes to safety through one or more safety function. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the EBS and the target properties for the host rock. The performance assessment (Posiva, 2013), which is a key component of TURVA-2012, analyses the ability of the repository system to provide containment and isolation of the spent nuclear fuel during the long-term evolution of the system and the site. The conditions needed for the barriers to fulfil their respective safety functions are expressed in terms of performance targets for the engineered barriers and target properties for the host rock, for example properties related to the corrosion resistance and mechanical strength of the canister as well as groundwater flow and composition. The analyses take into account the uncertainties in the initial state, the subsequent thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical evolution of the repository system and uncertainties in the evolution. The conclusions of the performance assessment are based mostly on the output of key modelling activities. Whenever modelling is not possible the conclusions

  12. Exergetic analysis of a gas turbine plant with chemical recuperation; Analise exergetica de uma planta de turbina a gas com recuperacao quimica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prieto, Mario G. Sanchez; Nebra, Silvia Azucena; Gallo, Waldir L. Ribeiro [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]. E-mails: 192572rg@discovery.fem.unicamp.br; sanebra@fem.unicamp.br; wgallo@fem.unicamp.br

    2000-07-01

    One of the proposals that has been more recently analyzed with growing interest in Gas Turbine cycles, with the purpose of obtaining gains in the power output and thermal efficiency, is the Chemically Recuperated Gas Turbine Cycle, (CRGT). Such systems are equipped of chemical heat recovery components in which the waste heat in the turbine exhaust is used to convert a methane-steam mixture into a hydrogen-rich fuel in a methane steam reformer. One additional aspect of these cycles that represents a potential benefit is explained by the ultra-low NO{sub x} emission levels, even less than those system which use steam injection This paper, with the aid of the concepts emanated from the Second Thermodynamic Law, is presenting an evaluation of the exergetic performance of one installation of this type. Exergetic efficiencies are evaluated according to the relation fuel-product, considering one control volume for each component of the system. (author)

  13. Effect of fuel oxygen on the energetic and exergetic efficiency of a compression ignition engine fuelled separately with palm and karanja biodiesels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jena, Jibanananda; Misra, Rahul Dev

    2014-01-01

    Exergy analysis of any thermodynamic system can take care of the limitations of energy analysis such as irreversible losses, their magnitude and the source of thermodynamic inefficiencies apart from energy losses. In the present study, both the analyses along with heat release analysis are conducted on a natural aspirated diesel engine fuelled separately with palm biodiesel (PB), karanja biodiesel (KB), and petrodiesel (PD) using the experimental data. Since the engine performs best at about 85% loading condition, the energetic and exergetic performance parameters of the engine are evaluated at 85% loading condition for each type of fuel. The aim of the study is to determine the effect of fuel oxygen on energy and exergy efficiencies of a CI (compression ignition) engine. Various exergy losses, exergy destruction and their ratios associated with the heat transfer through cooling water, radiation, exhaust gas, friction, and some uncounted exergy destruction are investigated. Apart from exergy loss due to heat transfer; the uncounted exergy destruction (due to combustion) also plays a major role in the system inefficiency. Based on the comparative assessment of the obtained results, it is concluded that a better combustion with less irreversibility is possible with the increase in O 2 content in the fuel. - Highlights: • Efficiency of a CI engine increases with the increase in oxygen quantity in the fuel. • Irreversibility of a CI engine decreases with increase in oxygen content in the fuel. • Palm biodiesel performs better than karanja biodiesel and petrodiesel for a CI engine

  14. Thermal and Exergetic Analysis of a Solar Still

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chávez, S; Terres, H; Lizardi, A; López, R; Lara, A

    2017-01-01

    In this work an energy and exergy analysis of solar distillation process is presented. The analysis is based on the experimental observation of the simple basin type solar stills for 4 different initial volumes (5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 L). Energy and exergy balance equations have been written for all components of the solar still including glass cover, brine and absorber plate. The thermodynamic models for the energy and exergy analysis are presented on the critical heat transfer correlations in literatures for the simple basin type solar still. The results show that maximum values are reached in the energy efficiency of 45.6, 41.5, 35.7 and 31.8%, however exergetic efficiency for maximum values are 7.5, 7.2, 7 and 5.4%, corresponding to volumes 5.5, 6.5, 7.5 and 8.5 L respectively. (paper)

  15. Exergetic analysis of a double stage LiBr-H{sub 2}O thermal compressor cooled by air/water and driven by low grade heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izquierdo, M. [Instituto C.C. Eduardo Torroja (CSIC), Edificacion y Habitabilidad, Madrid (Spain); Venegas, M.; Garcia, N. [Universidad Carlos III de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Ingenieria Termica y Fluidos; Palacios, E. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (Spain). Departamento de Mecanica Industrial

    2005-05-01

    In the present paper, an exergetic analysis of a double stage thermal compressor using the lithium bromide-water solution is performed. The double stage system considered allows obtaining evaporation temperatures equal to 5{sup o} C using solar heat coming from flat plate collectors and other low grade thermal sources. In this study, ambient air and water are alternatively used as cooling fluids without crystallization problems up to condensation-absorption temperatures equal to 50 {sup o}C. The results obtained give the entropy generated, the exergy destroyed and the exergetic efficiency of the double stage thermal compressor as a function of the absorption temperature. The conclusions obtained show that the irreversibilities generated by the double stage thermal compressor will tend to increase with the absorption temperature up to 45 {sup o}C. The maximum value corresponds to 1.35 kJ kg{sup -}1{sup K-1}. The entropy generated and the exergy destroyed by the air cooled system are higher than those by the water cooled one. The difference between the values increases when the absorption temperature increases. For an absorption temperature equal to 50 {sup o}C, the air cooled mode generates 14% more entropy and destroys 14% more exergy than the water cooled one. Also, the results are compared with those of previous studies for single and double effect air cooled and water cooled thermal compressors. The conclusions show that the double stage system has about 22% less exergetic efficiency than the single effect one and 32% less exergetic efficiency than the double effect one. (author)

  16. Georgia's Teacher Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenton, Anne Marie; Wetherington, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Like most states, Georgia until recently depended on an assessment of content knowledge to award teaching licenses, along with a licensure recommendation from candidates' educator preparation programs. While the content assessment reflected candidates' grasp of subject matter, licensure decisions did not hinge on direct, statewide assessment of…

  17. OLEM Performance Assessment Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a variety of data sets that measure the performance of Office of Land and Emergency Management (OLEM) programs in support of the Office of the...

  18. Simply Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Cheryl A.; McLaughlin, Felecia C.; Pringle, Rose M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents the experiences of Miss Felecia McLaughlin, a fourth-grade teacher from the island of Jamaica who used the model proposed by Bass et al. (2009) to assess conceptual understanding of four of the six types of simple machines while encouraging collaboration through the creation of learning teams. Students had an opportunity to…

  19. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  20. Total System Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-01

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the comprehensive

  1. Total System Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Youn Myoung; Han, Ji Woong; Choi, Jong Won; Hahn, Pil Soo; Park, Jeong Hwa; Jeong, Mi Seon

    2007-06-15

    Based on the KAERI FEP list developed through the previous studies, the KAERI FEP Encyclopedia has been developed. Current version is 1.0 which includes all relevant FEPs to compose of two references and all alternative scenarios. Many interaction FEPs between scenario defining FEP(SDF) are created throughout the study. FEPs are classified into many Integrated FEP(IFEP) which eventually become the elements of the RES matrix. The FEAS program one of the component of the KAERI's CYPRUS information system is added to develop the FEP, RES, AC, AMF and finally scenarios. It assists to create transparent way to deal with assessment from the stage of the planning of the R and D to the final stage of the external audit and regulatory body review. Even though MASCOT-K and compartment analysis codes such as AMBER, GoldSim and Ecolego are excellent for TSPA they by in heritage possess a certain limitation especially to identify a proper migration cross sectional area when a relatively big component intersects with a tiny one such as a fracture. It is truly 3D phenomena in nature. MDPSA code is developed which is expected to overcome limitations in compartment models while successfully deals with natural disruptive events. The R and D target for the TSPA is to develop the sufficient scenarios and their variation cases to understand the safety of KRS in every possible aspect. For this, reference scenarios, alternative scenarios covering engineered barrier failure and natural events are developed and assessed respectively for around 100 cases. The stylized template to assess the Korean reference biosphere is developed using the AMBER. Three critical groups, agricultural, freshwater and marine water fishing groups are identified to assess the DCF following the guidelines of ICRP. Based on the QA principles of T2R3, the web based QA system is developed using the procedures in the USNRC 10CFR50 Appendix B. The QA system is combined with the PAID and FEAS to create the

  2. Introduction to radiological performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moss, G.

    1995-02-01

    A radiological performance assessment is conducted to provide reasonable assurance that performance objectives for low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal will be met. Beginning in the early stages of development, a radiological performance assessment continues through the operational phase, and is instrumental in the postclosure of the facility. Fundamental differences exist in the regulation of commercial and defense LLW, but the radiological performance assessment process is essentially the same for both. The purpose of this document is to describe that process in a concise and straightforward manner. This document focuses on radiological performance assessment as it pertains to commercial LLW disposal, but is applicable to US Department of Energy sites as well. Included are discussions on performance objectives, site characterization, and how a performance assessment is conducted. A case study is used to illustrate how the process works as a whole. A bibliography is provided to assist in locating additional information

  3. The process of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, C.M.; Halford, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    An introductory review of the subject of ''Performance Assessment'' will be presented. Emphasis will be placed on the process of performance assessment from the standpoint of defining the process. Performance assessment, from evolving experience at DOE sites, has short-term and long-term subprograms, the components of which will be discussed. The role of mathematical modeling in performance assessment will be addressed including the pros and cons of current approaches. Finally, the ''system/site/technology'' issues as the focal point of this symposium will be reviewed

  4. Technology Performance Level Assessment Methodology.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Jesse D.; Bull, Diana L; Malins, Robert Joseph; Costello, Ronan Patrick; Aurelien Babarit; Kim Nielsen; Claudio Bittencourt Ferreira; Ben Kennedy; Kathryn Dykes; Jochem Weber

    2017-04-01

    The technology performance level (TPL) assessments can be applied at all technology development stages and associated technology readiness levels (TRLs). Even, and particularly, at low TRLs the TPL assessment is very effective as it, holistically, considers a wide range of WEC attributes that determine the techno-economic performance potential of the WEC farm when fully developed for commercial operation. The TPL assessment also highlights potential showstoppers at the earliest possible stage of the WEC technology development. Hence, the TPL assessment identifies the technology independent “performance requirements.” In order to achieve a successful solution, the entirety of the performance requirements within the TPL must be considered because, in the end, all the stakeholder needs must be achieved. The basis for performing a TPL assessment comes from the information provided in a dedicated format, the Technical Submission Form (TSF). The TSF requests information from the WEC developer that is required to answer the questions posed in the TPL assessment document.

  5. Exergetic Analysis of an Integrated Tri-Generation Organic Rankine Cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratha Z. Mathkor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a study of the modelling, validation and analysis of an integrated 1 MW (electrical output tri-generation system energized by solar energy. The impact of local climatic conditions in the Mediterranean region on the system performance was considered. The output of the system that comprised a parabolic trough collector (PTC, an organic Rankine cycle (ORC, single-effect desalination (SED, and single effect LiBr-H2O absorption chiller (ACH was electrical power, distilled water, and refrigerant load. The electrical power was produced by the ORC which used cyclopentane as working fluid and Therminol VP-1 was specified as the heat transfer oil (HTO in the collectors with thermal storage. The absorption chiller and the desalination unit were utilize the waste heat exiting from the steam turbine in the ORC to provide the necessary cooling energy and drinking water respectively. The modelling, which includes an exergetic analysis, focuses on the performance of the solar tri-generation system. The simulation results of the tri-generation system and its subsystems were produced using IPSEpro software and were validated against experimental data which showed good agreement. The tri-generation system was able to produce about 194 Ton of refrigeration, and 234 t/day distilled water.

  6. Exergetic analysis and thermoeconomic study for a container-housed engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sala, J.M.; Eguia, J.; Flores, I. [Escuela Superior de Ingenieros Industriales de Bilbao, Universidad del Pais Vasco, Alameda de Urquijo, s/n 48013 Bilbao, Bizkaia (Spain); Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.; Ruiz de Adana, M. [Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieria Industrial, Universidad de La Rioja, C/Luis de Ulloa, 20. E-26004 Logrono, La Rioja (Spain); Miguez, J.L. [Universidad de Vigo, Escuela Tecnica Superior de Ingenieros Industriales, C/Lagoas-Marcosende, s/n 36200 Vigo, Pontevedra (Spain)

    2006-11-15

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses for a container-housed reciprocating engine. The exergy analysis conducted was based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. Using thermographic inspection, the heat dissipated by each one of the 28 elements under consideration in the engine container was assessed, together with the mass flow rate of air supplied to the cab and the air temperature at the inlet and outlet. This information is essential for the proper design of the ventilation system needed to disseminate the heat generated inside the container-housed unit. The energy balance and corresponding exergy balance were drawn up using the values thus obtained and the information available on the engine. The engine efficiency rates were evaluated on both an energy and exergy basis, taking into account that heat from the cooling circuit and exhaust fumes are used for CHP. Finally, thermoeconomics was applied to calculate the costs of the electricity and useful heat energy produced by the engine. The result of this study should be to optimize the design of container-housed CHP systems, showing where exergy losses occur and identifying areas of improvement. (author)

  7. Energetic and exergetic aspects of cotton stalk production in establishing energy policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hepbasli, Arif; Utlu, Zafer; Akdeniz, R. Cengiz

    2007-01-01

    Exergy analysis is important for energy resource utilization, because exergy, which is a way to a sustainable future, is a part of the energy analysis. Exergy analysis starts to play a role in several countries in developing energy policy. This paper deals with the exergetic assessment of the cotton stalk (CS) production. In this regard, Turkey, which is one of the eight countries producing 85% of the world's cotton, is given as an application country first. Energy and exergy relations used in the analysis are then presented. Finally, the Turkish CS production in 2003 is evaluated using energy and exergy analyses method, while the results obtained are discussed. The values for the net energy and exergy gained are obtained to be about 49,146 and 59,395 MJ/ha, respectively. Turkey's total energy and exergy are estimated to be 75.45 and 81.87 PJ. It may be concluded that this amount of energy is equal to 7.77% and 2.38% of Turkey's primary energy production and consumption in the same year, respectively. The overall mean energy and exergy efficiencies of the cotton production in the year studied are found to be 33.06% and 33.12%, respectively. It is also expected that the results of this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies

  8. Exergetic analysis and thermoeconomic study for a container-housed engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sala, J.M.; Lopez-Gonzalez, L.M.; Ruiz de Adana, M.; Miguez, J.L.; Eguia, J.; Flores, I.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the engineering design and theoretical exergetic analyses for a container-housed reciprocating engine. The exergy analysis conducted was based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for power generation systems. Using thermographic inspection, the heat dissipated by each one of the 28 elements under consideration in the engine container was assessed, together with the mass flow rate of air supplied to the cab and the air temperature at the inlet and outlet. This information is essential for the proper design of the ventilation system needed to disseminate the heat generated inside the container-housed unit. The energy balance and corresponding exergy balance were drawn up using the values thus obtained and the information available on the engine. The engine efficiency rates were evaluated on both an energy and exergy basis, taking into account that heat from the cooling circuit and exhaust fumes are used for CHP. Finally, thermoeconomics was applied to calculate the costs of the electricity and useful heat energy produced by the engine. The result of this study should be to optimize the design of container-housed CHP systems, showing where exergy losses occur and identifying areas of improvement

  9. Exergetic optimization of a key design parameter in heat pump systems with economizer coupled with scroll compressor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Guoyuan; Li, Xianguo

    2007-01-01

    The heat pump system with economizer coupled with scroll compressor can extend effectively its operating ranges and provide a technological method to enable the heat pump to run steadily and efficiently in severe weather conditions. The intermediate pressure, namely the working pressure of the refrigerant in the economizer, is an essential design parameter and affects crucially the performances of the heat pump system. According to the exergetic model setup for the heat pump system based on the second law of thermodynamics, the influences of the intermediate pressure on the performances are comprehensively analyzed using experimental data of the heat pump prototype. It is found that the optimal relative intermediate pressure (RIP) is between 1.1 and 1.3

  10. Analysis of energetic and exergetic efficiency, and environmental benefits of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez, María; Jiménez, Angel; Rodríguez, Javier; González, Celina; López, Ignacio; Nieto, Rafael

    2013-04-01

    The problem of the high carbon dioxide emissions linked to power generation makes necessary active research on the use of biofuels in gas turbine systems as a promising alternative to fossil fuels. Gasification of biomass waste is particularly of interest in obtaining a fuel to be run in gas turbines, as it is an efficient biomass-to-biofuel conversion process, and an integration into a combined cycle power plant leads to a high performance with regard to energetic efficiency. The goal of this study was to carry out an energetic, exergetic and environmental analysis of the behaviour of an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant fuelled with different kinds of biomass waste by means of simulations. A preliminary economic study is also included. Although a technological development in gasification technology is necessary, the results of simulations indicate a high technical and environmental interest in the use of biomass integrated gasification combined cycle (BioIGCC) systems for large-scale power generation from biomass waste.

  11. Optimization of Two-Stage Peltier Modules: Structure and Exergetic Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Ramirez-Lopez

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we undertake the theoretical analysis of a two-stage semiconductor thermoelectric module (TEM which contains an arbitrary and different number of thermocouples, n1 and n2, in each stage (pyramid-styled TEM. The analysis is based on a dimensionless entropy balance set of equations. We study the effects of n1 and n2, the flowing electric currents through each stage, the applied temperatures and the thermoelectric properties of the semiconductor materials on the exergetic efficiency. Our main result implies that the electric currents flowing in each stage must necessarily be different with a ratio about 4.3 if the best thermal performance and the highest temperature difference possible between the cold and hot side of the device are pursued. This fact had not been pointed out before for pyramid-styled two stage TEM. The ratio n1/n2 should be about 8.

  12. Exergetic analysis of a thermo-generator for automotive application: A dynamic numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glavatskaya, O.; Goupil, C.; Bakkali, A. El; Shonda, O.

    2012-06-01

    It is well known that, when using a passenger car with an ICE (Internal Combustion Engine), only a fraction of the burnt fuel energy actually contributes to drive the vehicle. Typical passenger vehicle engines run about 25% efficiency while a great part of the remaining energy (about 40%), is lost through the exhaust gases. This latter has a significant energy conversion potential since the temperature (more than 300°C) and the mass flow rate are high enough. Thus, direct conversion of heat into electricity is a credible option if the overall system is optimized. This point is crucial since the heat conversion into work process is very sensible to any mismatching of the different parts of the system, and very sensible significant to the possible varying working conditions. All these effects constitute irreversibility sources that degrade the overall efficiency. The exergetic analysis is known to be an efficient tool for finding the root causes of theses irreversible processes. In order to investigate the performance of our automotive thermo-generator we propose an analysis of the exergy flow through the system under dynamic conditions. Taking into account the different irreversible sources such as thermal conduction and Joule effect, we are able to localize and quantify the exergy losses. Then, in order to optimize the thermoelectric converter for a given vehicle, correct actions in term of design and working conditions can be proposed.

  13. Exergetic, technological and economic study for transport of nuclear fuel energy to distant consumers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozdeev, V.V.; Dobrovol'skij, S.P.; Shiryaev, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    Seven versions of energy transport from HTGR base power source are considered. Energy trasnport using electricity is taken as the main variant. The most promising among considered systems is the variant with steam conversion of methane, which can be used for three methods of energy transport: by converted gas, hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Exergetic method of analysis was used to compare different products, used by heat and electric showed that exergetic and economic efficiency of HTGR energy transport by hydrogen appeared to be the highest. Besides this, absolute ecologic purity is provided

  14. Performance Assessment National Review Group

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.A.; Davis, S.N.; Harleman, D.R.F.

    1985-02-01

    Performance assessment involves predicting the potential radiological impact of a nuclear waste disposal system, taking into account all of the natural and engineered components of the system. It includes the analysis and evaluation of predicted system and component performance to determine compliance with regulatory performance criteria. In the context of the nuclear waste management program, performance assessment has five major purposes: to assist in the evaluation and selection of repository sites; to guide the research, development, and testing programs; to assist in the evaluation of repository designs; to assist in the evaluation of the design and performance of engineered barriers; and to show regulatory compliance and support repository licensing. Current performance assessment methodologies are still in the developmental stage. Only the simplest of bounding calculations have produced quantitative predictions of radionuclide releases. The methodologies require considerable extension and validation before they can provide answers suitable for project decisions and licensing. 135 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab

  15. Implementing of the multi-objective particle swarm optimizer and fuzzy decision-maker in exergetic, exergoeconomic and environmental optimization of a benchmark cogeneration system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Babaie, Meisam; Farmani, Mohammad Reza

    2011-01-01

    Multi-objective optimization for design of a benchmark cogeneration system namely as the CGAM cogeneration system is performed. In optimization approach, Exergetic, Exergoeconomic and Environmental objectives are considered, simultaneously. In this regard, the set of Pareto optimal solutions known as the Pareto frontier is obtained using the MOPSO (multi-objective particle swarm optimizer). The exergetic efficiency as an exergetic objective is maximized while the unit cost of the system product and the cost of the environmental impact respectively as exergoeconomic and environmental objectives are minimized. Economic model which is utilized in the exergoeconomic analysis is built based on both simple model (used in original researches of the CGAM system) and the comprehensive modeling namely as TTR (total revenue requirement) method (used in sophisticated exergoeconomic analysis). Finally, a final optimal solution from optimal set of the Pareto frontier is selected using a fuzzy decision-making process based on the Bellman-Zadeh approach and results are compared with corresponding results obtained in a traditional decision-making process. Further, results are compared with the corresponding performance of the base case CGAM system and optimal designs of previous works and discussed. -- Highlights: → A multi-objective optimization approach has been implemented in optimization of a benchmark cogeneration system. → Objective functions based on the environmental impact evaluation, thermodynamic and economic analysis are obtained and optimized. → Particle swarm optimizer implemented and its robustness is compared with NSGA-II. → A final optimal configuration is found using various decision-making approaches. → Results compared with previous works in the field.

  16. Performance assessment: a peer review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lieberman, J.A.; Lee, W.W.L.

    1986-01-01

    This paper describes the rationale, membership, operation and major observations of the Performance Assessment National Review Group. The Group was assembled by Weston at the request of the US Department of Energy Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management to review performance assessment work in the US basalt, salt and tuff repository projects. The purposes were to evaluate the adequacy of the current methods, identify deficiencies, and suggest potential improvement on repository performance assessment. To perform the review, Weston retained a group of distinguished consultants who have had extensive experience in disciplines pertinent to management of radioactive wastes including mathematical modeling of fluid transport. Topics reviewed included flow and transport, source term and uncertainty analysis. While the emphasis was on methodologies, the Projects were specifically requested to show currently available results so that the way they utilized familiar methodologies could be evaluated. This paper will highlight some of the technical observations of the Group as well as some managerial and institutional issues

  17. Energetic, exergetic and financial evaluation of a solar driven absorption chiller – A dynamic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Symeou, Christoforos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A solar cooling system with ETC and a single effect absorption chiller is analyzed. • The analysis is dynamic and it is made for the city of Athens, Greece. • The analysis is energetic, exergetic and financial for all the summer period. • Firstly the system is optimized exergetically and after it is analyzed financially. • The optimum case is 450 m"2 of solar collectors coupled with a storage tank of 14 m"3. - Abstract: In this study, a solar cooling system of 100 kW is analyzed parametrically in dynamic basis for the city of Athens, Greece. The objective of this study is the design of a sustainable system, using energetic, exergetic and financial criteria. The examined system includes evacuated tube collectors, storage tank and a single stage absorption chiller operating with LiBr-H_2O working pair. Different combinations of collecting areas and storage tank volumes are tested in order to determine the most suitable cases exergetically. These optimum cases are evaluated financially and finally the system with the higher financial indexes is selected as the most suitable. More specifically, the collecting area is analyzed from 150 m"2 to 600 m"2 and the storage tank from 6 m"3 to 16 m"3. Finally, 450 m"2 of evacuated tube collectors with a 14 m"3 storage tank was proved to be the optimum solution financially with 15 years payback period and 67 k€ net present value.

  18. Exergetical analysis of combustion, heat transfers, thermodynamical cycles and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchet, E.

    1983-11-01

    Exergetic analysis allowed to show up and evaluate irreversibilities in combustion, vapor exchanges and thermodynamic cycles, and also to justify processes often used to improve yields of thermal and energetic plants, and among them some more and more complex in cogeneration plants. This analysic method has been applied to thermal or nuclear steam power plant, to gas turbines and to cogeneration [fr

  19. New exergy criterion in the 'multi-criteria' context: a life cycle assessment of two plaster products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beccali, Giorgio; Cellura, Maurizio; Mistretta, Marina

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the exergy analysis (EXA) of plaster materials and ranks the environmental burdens due to the production of such materials. The calculation of the exergy loss during the whole examined process represents a relevant index, looking at the technology improvement of a process, as a suitable tool in aid of the trade-off of alternative materials in the decision making. A life cycle inventory is performed for building plaster products and the matrix method is used. The authors extend the application of EXA to life cycle assessment, conducting an exergetic life cycle assessment, and propose an exergetic index in the framework of multi-criteria decision making. An exergy balance, accounting for energy and material flows, is applied to calculate the exergy losses and efficiencies for each stage of the examined processes: resources extraction, materials processing, transport and product manufacturing. Furthermore, exergy values are calculated for the pollutants and wastes

  20. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-07-01

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  1. Comparative energy and exergy performance assessments of a microcogenerator unit in different electricity mix scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonçalves, Pedro; Angrisani, Giovanni; Roselli, Carlo; Gaspar, Adélio R.; Gameiro da Silva, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental and energy–exergy modelling of a 6 kW micro-combined heat and power unit. • Evaluation of energy and exergy efficiencies for performance assessment. • Use of exergy and energy indicators for comparison with a reference system. • Use of different renewables supply options into the electric and heat reference system. • The electric grid mix of Portugal and Italy is used and discussed. - Abstract: The Directive 2004/8/EC on the promotion of cogeneration proposes a comparative indicator based on primary energy savings, neglecting some important thermodynamic aspects, such as exergy. This study aims to compare and discuss the usefulness of a set of complementary indicators for performance assessments of cogeneration systems, concerning thermodynamic principles based on first and second law (the exergy approach). As case study, a 6 kW electric output micro-combined heat and power unit was experimentally tested and a model of the unit was developed in TRNSYS. Considering as reference a set of different heat and electricity scenarios, including the actual electric mixes of Portugal and Italy, the indicators case incon (PES) and Primary and Total Irreversibilities Savings (PIS and TIS), as well as energy and exergy renewability ratios were assessed and discussed. The results show that the use of MCHP has higher advantages for the Italian electric grid, than an equivalent scenario considering the Portuguese electric network as reference. As result, for a particular scenario analysed, PES and PIS have 3% and 6% for Portugal, and 10% and 18% for Italy, respectively. Furthermore, for one particular scenario evaluated, the indicators energetic and exergetic renewability ratios have 23% and 14%, respectively for the Portuguese electric grid, and 19% and 10% for the Italian electric system

  2. Exergetic Evaluation of Speed and Load Effects in Spark Ignition Engines Évaluation exergétique des effets de la vitesse et de la charge dans les moteurs àallumage par étincelle

    OpenAIRE

    Sezer I.; Bilgin A.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of various operating conditions in spark ignition engines via an exergy analysis. A thermodynamic cycle model including compression, combustion and expansion processes was used for investigation. Induction and exhaust processes were computed with a simple approximation method. The principles of the second law were applied to the cycle model to perform the exergy analysis. Exergetic variables, i.e., the exergy transfers with heat and work, irreversibili...

  3. Exergetic optimization of a thermoacoustic engine using the particle swarm optimization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitou, Hussein; Nika, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Optimization of a thermoacoustic engine using the particle swarm optimization method. ► Exergetic efficiency, acoustic power and their product are the optimized functions. ► PSO method is used successfully for the first time in the TA research. ► The powerful PSO tool is advised to be more involved in the TA research and design. ► EE times AP optimized function is highly recommended to design any new TA devices. - Abstract: Thermoacoustic engines convert heat energy into acoustic energy. Then, the acoustic energy can be used to pump heat or to generate electricity. It is well-known that the acoustic energy and therefore the exergetic efficiency depend on parameters such as the stack’s hydraulic radius, the stack’s position in the resonator and the traveling–standing-wave ratio. In this paper, these three parameters are investigated in order to study and analyze the best value of the produced acoustic energy, the exergetic efficiency and the product of the acoustic energy by the exergetic efficiency of a thermoacoustic engine with a parallel-plate stack. The dimensionless expressions of the thermoacoustic equations are derived and calculated. Then, the Particle Swarm Optimization method (PSO) is introduced and used for the first time in the thermoacoustic research. The use of the PSO method and the optimization of the acoustic energy multiplied by the exergetic efficiency are novel contributions to this domain of research. This paper discusses some significant conclusions which are useful for the design of new thermoacoustic engines.

  4. Performance assessment - risk assessment vive la differences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitschke, R.L.

    1997-01-01

    In the sister worlds of radioactive waste management disposal and environmental restoration, there are two similar processes and computational approaches for determining the acceptability of the proposed activities. While similar, these two techniques can lead to confusion and misunderstanding if the differences are not recognized and appreciated. In the case of radioactive waste management, the performance assessment process is used to determine compliance with certain prescribed 'performance objectives'. These objectives are designed to ensure that the disposal of radioactive (high-level, low-level, and/or transuranic) waste will be protective of human health and the environment. The environmental link is primarily through assuring protection of the groundwater as a resource. In the case of environmental restoration, the risk assessment process is used to determine the proper remedial action response, if any, for a past hazardous waste release. The process compares the 'no action' or 'leave as is' option with both carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic values for human health to determine the need for any action and to help to help determine just what the appropriate action would need to be. The impacts to the ecological system are evaluated in a slightly, different but similar fashion. Now the common objectives between these two processes notwithstanding. There are some key and fundamental differences that need to be answered that make direct comparisons or a common approach inappropriate. Failure to recognize this can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. This can be particularly problematic when one is faced with an active disposal facility located within the boundaries of an environmental restoration site as is the case at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Through a critical evaluation of the performance assessment and risk assessment processes, highlighting both similarities and differences, it is hoped that greater understanding and appreciation

  5. Power performance assessment. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frandsen, S.

    1998-12-01

    In the increasingly commercialised wind power marketplace, the lack of precise assessment methods for the output of an investment is becoming a barrier for wider penetration of wind power. Thus, addressing this problem, the overall objectives of the project are to reduce the financial risk in investment in wind power projects by significantly improving the power performance assessment methods. Ultimately, if this objective is successfully met, the project may also result in improved tuning of the individual wind turbines and in optimisation methods for wind farm operation. The immediate, measurable objectives of the project are: To prepare a review of existing contractual aspects of power performance verification procedures of wind farms; to provide information on production sensitivity to specific terrain characteristics and wind turbine parameters by analyses of a larger number of wind farm power performance data available to the proposers; to improve the understanding of the physical parameters connected to power performance in complex environment by comparing real-life wind farm power performance data with 3D computational flow models and 3D-turbulence wind turbine models; to develop the statistical framework including uncertainty analysis for power performance assessment in complex environments; and to propose one or more procedures for power performance evaluation of wind power plants in complex environments to be applied in contractual agreements between purchasers and manufacturers on production warranties. Although the focus in this project is on power performance assessment the possible results will also be of benefit to energy yield forecasting, since the two tasks are strongly related. (au) JOULE III. 66 refs.; In Co-operation Renewable Energy System Ltd. (GB); Centre for Renewable Energy (GR); Aeronautic Research Centre (SE); National Engineering Lab. (GB); Public Power Cooperation (GR)

  6. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT FOR FIELD SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Carling

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available DESCRIPTION The book covers the various sport science assessment procedures for sports such as soccer, rugby, field hockey and lacrosse. It provides detailed and clear information about laboratory and field-based methods that can be used to assess and improve both individual and team performance. PURPOSE The book aims to provide a contemporary reference tool for selection of appropriate testing procedures for sports across a range of scientific disciplines. FEATURES The text begins with a chapter on the rationales for performance assessments, the use of technology and the necessity for procedures to conform to scientific rigor, explaining the importance of test criteria. This chapter ends by emphasizing the importance of the feedback process and vital considerations for the practitioner when interpreting the data, selecting which information is most important and how to deliver this back to the athlete or coach in order to deliver a positive performance outcome. The next two chapters focus on psychological assessments with respect to skill acquisition, retention and execution providing a variety of qualitative and quantitative options, underpinned with scientific theory and contextualized in order to improve the understanding of the application of these methods to improve anticipation and decision-making to enhance game intelligence.Chapter 4 provides coverage of match analysis techniques in order to make assessments of technical, tactical and physical performances. Readers learn about a series of methodologies ranging from simplistic pen and paper options through to sophisticated technological systems with some exemplar data also provided. Chapters 5 through 7 cover the physiological based assessments, including aerobic, anaerobic and anthropometric procedures. Each chapter delivers a theoretical opening section before progressing to various assessment options and the authors make great efforts to relate to sport-specific settings. The final

  7. Energetic and exergetic investigation of an organic Rankine cycle at different heat source temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Jing; Pei, Gang; Li, Yunzhu; Wang, Dongyue; Ji, Jie

    2012-01-01

    The energetic and exergetic performance of an updated ORC (organic Rankine cycle) is investigated. The thermal efficiencies of the ORC at different heat source temperatures of about 100, 90, 80, and 70 °C are explored. The thermodynamic irreversibility that takes place in the evaporator, condenser, turbine, pump, and separator is revealed. The ORC feasibility for low-temperature applications is demonstrated. With a hot side temperature of around 80 °C, a thermal efficiency of 7.4% and a turbine isentropic efficiency of 0.68 can be achieved. The present research further indicates that exergy destruction caused by heat transfer through an appreciable temperature difference in the evaporator is the largest in the energy conversion process, followed by that in the condenser. The exergy destroyed in the heat exchangers amounts to 74% of the overall exergy loss. The total system exergy efficiency is approximately 40%; thus, ways to improve exergy efficiency are required. HCFC-123, a dry fluid, is experimentally confirmed to be highly superheated after expansion in this study. A regenerator should be used to preheat HCFC-123 prior to entering the evaporator. Meanwhile the heat-transfer configuration with two oil cycles can be a good solution to overcome the thermodynamic disadvantage of a one-stage evaporator. -- Highlights: ► An updated ORC system is introduced. ► The ORC feasibility for low-temperature applications is experimentally demonstrated. ► Thermodynamic irreversibility in ORC components is revealed. ► Suggestions are given to reduce the exergy destruction.

  8. Exergetic analysis of the heat pump installed in the Limmat school building in Zurich; Exergieanalyse der Waermepumpe im Schulhaus Limmat - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M.

    2009-10-15

    In large buildings, heat pumps todays are only used in a small number of cases. In those rare cases, they are operated with synthetic working fluids and are mainly used for low temperature heating. Since January 2006, a heat pump with Propane as working fluid has been operating in a school building in Zuerich (Schulhaus Limmat), which provides space heating and hot water for the old building erected in 1909. As a heat source, a main channel of sewage is used, an ideal heat source, which is only rarely used nowadays. Hence, the installation has a pioneering role in many aspects and has been analysed in detail during the current project. During this project, the Propane heat pump in the Schulhaus Limmat as well as the hydraulic system have been analysed in respect to its exergetic losses. The heat pump has a seasonal performance factor of 2.7. The investigation has shown that the heat pump does not operate in an optimal way and that the hydraulic has room for improvement with respect to exergetic losses. In implementing the measures suggested in this report, the seasonal performance factor can be increased to about 4.4. (author)

  9. Methodology for NDA performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuypers, M.; Franklin, M.; Guardini, S.

    1986-01-01

    In the framework of the RandD programme of the Joint Research Centre of the Commission of the European Communities, a considerable effort is being dedicated to performance assessment of NDA techniques taking account of field conditions. By taking account of field conditions is meant measurement samples of the size encountered in practice and training which allows inspectors to design cost efficient verification plans for the real situations encountered in the field. Special laboratory facilities referred to as PERLA are being constructed for this purpose. These facilities will be used for measurement experiments and for training. In this paper, performance assessment is discussed under the headings of measurement capability and in-field effectiveness. Considerable emphasis is given to the role of method specific measurement error models. The authors outline the advantages of giving statistical error models a sounder basis in the physical phenomenology of the measurement method

  10. Preliminary melter performance assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, M.L.; Eyler, L.L.; Mahoney, L.A.; Cooper, M.F.; Whitney, L.D.; Shafer, P.J.

    1994-08-01

    The Melter Performance Assessment activity, a component of the Pacific Northwest Laboratory's (PNL) Vitrification Technology Development (PVTD) effort, was designed to determine the impact of noble metals on the operational life of the reference Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) melter. The melter performance assessment consisted of several activities, including a literature review of all work done with noble metals in glass, gradient furnace testing to study the behavior of noble metals during the melting process, research-scale and engineering-scale melter testing to evaluate effects of noble metals on melter operation, and computer modeling that used the experimental data to predict effects of noble metals on the full-scale melter. Feed used in these tests simulated neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) feed. This report summarizes the results of the melter performance assessment and predicts the lifetime of the HWVP melter. It should be noted that this work was conducted before the recent Tri-Party Agreement changes, so the reference melter referred to here is the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter design

  11. Performance Assessment Institute-NV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lombardo, Joesph [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2012-12-31

    The National Supercomputing Center for Energy and the Environment’s intention is to purchase a multi-purpose computer cluster in support of the Performance Assessment Institute (PA Institute). The PA Institute will serve as a research consortium located in Las Vegas Nevada with membership that includes: national laboratories, universities, industry partners, and domestic and international governments. This center will provide a one-of-a-kind centralized facility for the accumulation of information for use by Institutions of Higher Learning, the U.S. Government, and Regulatory Agencies and approved users. This initiative will enhance and extend High Performance Computing (HPC) resources in Nevada to support critical national and international needs in "scientific confirmation". The PA Institute will be promoted as the leading Modeling, Learning and Research Center worldwide. The program proposes to utilize the existing supercomputing capabilities and alliances of the University of Nevada Las Vegas as a base, and to extend these resource and capabilities through a collaborative relationship with its membership. The PA Institute will provide an academic setting for interactive sharing, learning, mentoring and monitoring of multi-disciplinary performance assessment and performance confirmation information. The role of the PA Institute is to facilitate research, knowledge-increase, and knowledge-sharing among users.

  12. On the exergetic capacity factor of a wind – Solar power generation system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xydis, George

    2013-01-01

    production. In this paper, a detailed exergetic analysis aiming to identify the overall Exergetic Capacity Factor (ExCF) for a wind – solar power generation system was done. ExCF, as a new parameter, can be used for better classification and evaluation of renewable energy sources (RES). All the energy...... and exergy characteristics of wind and solar energy were examined in order to identify the variables that affect the power output of the hybrid system. A validated open source PV optimization tool was also included in the analysis, It was shown that parameters as e.g. air density or tracking losses, low......In the recent years, exergy analysis has become a very important tool in the evaluation of systems’ efficiency. It aims on minimizing the energy related-system losses and therefore maximizing energy savings and helps society substantially to move towards sustainable development and cleaner...

  13. Salt site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kircher, J.F.; Gupta, S.K.

    1983-01-01

    During this year the first selection of the tools (codes) for performance assessments of potential salt sites have been tentatively selected and documented; the emphasis has shifted from code development to applications. During this period prior to detailed characterization of a salt site, the focus is on bounding calculations, sensitivity and with the data available. The development and application of improved methods for sensitivity and uncertainty analysis is a focus for the coming years activities and the subject of a following paper in these proceedings. Although the assessments to date are preliminary and based on admittedly scant data, the results indicate that suitable salt sites can be identified and repository subsystems designed which will meet the established criteria for protecting the health and safety of the public. 36 references, 5 figures, 2 tables

  14. Energetic and exergetic analysis of steam production for the extraction of coniferous essential oils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friso, Dario; Grigolato, Stefano; Cavalli, Raffaele

    2011-01-01

    Bioenergy production is optimal when the energy production process is both efficient and benefits from local resources. Energetic and exergetic analyses are applied to highlight efficiency differences between small-size systems that are based on the co-generation of heating and power (CHP) versus the co-generation of heating and power with steam production (CHP-S). Both systems use the Organic fluid Rankine Cycle (ORC). The recovery of heat from flue gases is considered to be a way of increasing energy efficiency. In the CHP-S case, steam (at low pressure) is used to extract essential oils from fresh twigs and needles of coniferous trees throughout a steam distillation process. When the systems work at a thermal combustion power of 1350 kW, energetic analysis shows that the energy efficiency of the CHP-S plant (89.4%) is higher than that of the CHP plant (77.9%). Exergetic analysis shows that the efficiency of the CHP-S plant is 2.2% higher than that of the CHP plant. -- Highlights: → Bioenergy production is optimal when the energy production process is efficient. → Energetic and exergetic analyses are applied to highlight efficiency differences between the co-generation of heating and power (CHP) versus the co-generation of heating and power with steam production (CHP-S). → The recovery of heat from flue gases is a way of increasing energy efficiency. → The energetic and exergetic analysis shows that the efficiency of the CHP-S plant is higher than that of the CHP plant.

  15. The DECADE performance assessment program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, B.V.; Ottinger, P.F.; Commisso, R.J.; Thompson, J.; Rowley, J.E.; Filios, P.; Babineau, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs

  16. The DECADE performance assessment program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, B V; Ottinger, P F; Commisso, R J [Naval Research Lab., Washington, DC (United States). Plasma Physics Div.; Goyer, J R; Kortbawi, D [Physics International Co., Berkeley, CA (United States); Thompson, J [Maxwell Labs., San Diego, CA (United States); Rowley, J E; Filios, P [Defense Nuclear Agency, Alexandria, VA (United States); Babineau, M A [Sverdlup Technology, Tullahoma, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Previous analyses of DECADE Module 1 experiments indicated significant current loss between the plasma opening switch (POS) and an electron-beam load. A program was initiated to diagnose and improve the power flow to assess the performance of a multi-module DECADE system. Power flow measurements between the POS and load indicate high vacuum flow, distributed current loss and azimuthal asymmetries. A decreased load impedance reduces the fraction of the load current flowing in vacuum. Improved plasma source symmetry reduces losses near the load for long conduction times. Increased POS impedance is required to significantly improve the power coupling to the load. (author). 6 figs., 9 refs.

  17. Performance assessment of coupled processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigford, T.H.

    1987-01-01

    The author considers all processes to be coupled. For example, a waste package heats the surrounding rock and its pore water, creating gradients in density and pressure that result in increased water flow. That process can be described as coupled, in that the flow is a consequence of heating. In a narrower sense, one speaks also of the more weakly coupled transport processes, expressed by the Onsager reciprocal relations, that state that a transport current, i.e., flux, of heat is accompanied by a small transport current of material, as evidenced in isotope separation by thermal diffusion, the Thompson effect in thermoelectricity, etc. This paper presents a performance assessment of coupled processes

  18. Energetic and Exergetic Analysis of Low and Medium Temperature District Heating Network Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hongwei; Svendsen, Svend

    In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can ...... will reduce the amount of water supply from the MTDH network and improve the system energy conversion efficiency. Through the simulation, the system energetic and exergetic efficiencies based on the two network integration approaches were calculated and evaluated.......In this paper, energetic and exergetic approaches were applied to an exemplary low temperature district heating (LTDH) network with supply/return water temperature at 55oC/25 oC. The small LTDH network is annexed to a large medium temperature district heating (MTDH) network. The LTDH network can...... be supplied through upgrading the return water from the MTDH network with a small centralized heat pump. Alternatively, the supply and return water from the MTDH network can be mixed with a shunt at the junction point to supply the LTDH network. Comparing with the second approach, the heat pump system...

  19. Designing Second Language Performance Assessments. Technical Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, John M.; Brown, James Dean; Hudson, Thom; Yoshioka, Jim

    This technical report focuses on the decision-making potential provided by second language performance assessments. First, performance assessment is situated within the broader discussion of alternatives in language assessment and in educational assessment in general. Next, issues in performance assessment design, implementation, reliability, and…

  20. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  1. Quality assurance in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maul, P.R.; Watkins, B.M.; Salter, P.; Mcleod, R [QuantiSci Ltd, Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1999-01-01

    Following publication of the Site-94 report, SKI wishes to review how Quality Assurance (QA) issues could be treated in future work both in undertaking their own Performance Assessment (PA) calculations and in scrutinising documents supplied by SKB (on planning a repository for spent fuels in Sweden). The aim of this report is to identify the key QA issues and to outline the nature and content of a QA plan which would be suitable for SKI, bearing in mind the requirements and recommendations of relevant standards. Emphasis is on issues which are specific to Performance Assessments for deep repositories for radioactive wastes, but consideration is also given to issues which need to be addressed in all large projects. Given the long time over which the performance of a deep repository system must be evaluated, the demonstration that a repository is likely to perform satisfactorily relies on the use of computer-generated model predictions of system performance. This raises particular QA issues which are generally not encountered in other technical areas (for instance, power station operations). The traceability of the arguments used is a key QA issue, as are conceptual model uncertainty, and code verification and validation; these were all included in the consideration of overall uncertainties in the Site-94 project. Additionally, issues which are particularly relevant to SKI include: How QA in a PA fits in with the general QA procedures of the organisation undertaking the work. The relationship between QA as applied by the regulator and the implementor of a repository development programme. Section 2 introduces the discussion of these issues by reviewing the standards and guidance which are available from national and international organisations. This is followed in Section 3 by a review of specific issues which arise from the Site-94 exercise. An outline procedure for managing QA issues in SKI is put forward as a basis for discussion in Section 4. It is hoped that

  2. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Layton, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  3. Improved power performance assessment methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frandsen, S; Antoniou, I; Dahlberg, J A [and others

    1999-03-01

    The uncertainty of presently-used methods for retrospective assessment of the productive capacity of wind farms is unacceptably large. The possibilities of improving the accuracy have been investigated and are reported. A method is presented that includes an extended power curve and site calibration. In addition, blockage effects with respect to reference wind speed measurements are analysed. It is found that significant accuracy improvements are possible by the introduction of more input variables such as turbulence and wind shear, in addition to mean wind speed and air density. Also, the testing of several or all machines in the wind farm - instead of only one or two - may provide a better estimate of the average performance. (au)

  4. Communicating Performance Assessments Results - 13609

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Layton, Mark [Savannah River Remediation LLC, Building 705-1C, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The F-Area Tank Farms (FTF) and H-Area Tank Farm (HTF) are owned by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and operated by Savannah River Remediation LLC (SRR), Liquid Waste Operations contractor at DOE's Savannah River Site (SRS). The FTF and HTF are active radioactive waste storage and treatment facilities consisting of 51 carbon steel waste tanks and ancillary equipment such as transfer lines, evaporators and pump tanks. Performance Assessments (PAs) for each Tank Farm have been prepared to support the eventual closure of the underground radioactive waste tanks and ancillary equipment. PAs provide the technical bases and results to be used in subsequent documents to demonstrate compliance with the pertinent requirements for final closure of the Tank Farms. The Tank Farms are subject to a number of regulatory requirements. The State regulates Tank Farm operations through an industrial waste water permit and through a Federal Facility Agreement approved by the State, DOE and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Closure documentation will include State-approved Tank Farm Closure Plans and tank-specific closure modules utilizing information from the PAs. For this reason, the State of South Carolina and the EPA must be involved in the performance assessment review process. The residual material remaining after tank cleaning is also subject to reclassification prior to closure via a waste determination pursuant to Section 3116 of the Ronald W. Reagan National Defense Authorization Act of Fiscal Year 2005. PAs are performance-based, risk-informed analyses of the fate and transport of FTF and HTF residual wastes following final closure of the Tank Farms. Since the PAs serve as the primary risk assessment tools in evaluating readiness for closure, it is vital that PA conclusions be communicated effectively. In the course of developing the FTF and HTF PAs, several lessons learned have emerged regarding communicating PA results. When communicating PA results it is

  5. Behavior model for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-01-01

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result

  6. Behavior model for performance assessment.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borwn-VanHoozer, S. A.

    1999-07-23

    Every individual channels information differently based on their preference of the sensory modality or representational system (visual auditory or kinesthetic) we tend to favor most (our primary representational system (PRS)). Therefore, some of us access and store our information primarily visually first, some auditorily, and others kinesthetically (through feel and touch); which in turn establishes our information processing patterns and strategies and external to internal (and subsequently vice versa) experiential language representation. Because of the different ways we channel our information, each of us will respond differently to a task--the way we gather and process the external information (input), our response time (process), and the outcome (behavior). Traditional human models of decision making and response time focus on perception, cognitive and motor systems stimulated and influenced by the three sensory modalities, visual, auditory and kinesthetic. For us, these are the building blocks to knowing how someone is thinking. Being aware of what is taking place and how to ask questions is essential in assessing performance toward reducing human errors. Existing models give predications based on time values or response times for a particular event, and may be summed and averaged for a generalization of behavior(s). However, by our not establishing a basic understanding of the foundation of how the behavior was predicated through a decision making strategy process, predicative models are overall inefficient in their analysis of the means by which behavior was generated. What is seen is the end result.

  7. 24 CFR 115.206 - Performance assessments; Performance standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Performance assessments; Performance standards. 115.206 Section 115.206 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing... AGENCIES Certification of Substantially Equivalent Agencies § 115.206 Performance assessments; Performance...

  8. Making Performance Assessments a Part of Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haun, Billy

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this commentary is to describe recent efforts in Virginia to develop and use performance assessments, including the challenges that emerged during this process and key considerations for states that integrate performance assessment into their systems. Performance assessments can play an important role in preparing students for…

  9. Conventional and advanced exergetic analyses applied to a combined cycle power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrakopoulou, Fontina; Tsatsaronis, George; Morosuk, Tatiana; Carassai, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Conventional exergy-based methods pinpoint components and processes with high irreversibilities. However, they lack certain insight. For a given advanced technological state, there is a minimum level of exergy destruction related to technological and/or economic constraints that is unavoidable. Furthermore, in any thermodynamic system, exergy destruction stems from both component interactions (exogenous) and component inefficiencies (endogenous). To overcome the limitations of the conventional analyses and to increase our knowledge about a plant, advanced exergy-based analyses have been developed. In this paper, a combined cycle power plant is analyzed using both conventional and advanced exergetic analyses. Except for the expander of the gas turbine system and the high-pressure steam turbine, most of the exergy destruction in the plant components is unavoidable. This unavoidable part is constrained by internal technological limitations, i.e. each component’s endogenous exergy destruction. High levels of endogenous exergy destruction show that component interactions do not contribute significantly to the thermodynamic inefficiencies. In addition, these inefficiencies are unavoidable to a large extent. With the advanced analysis, new improvement strategies are revealed that could not otherwise be found. -- Highlights: ► This is the first application of a complete advanced exergetic analysis to a complex power plant. ► In the three-pressure-level combined cycle power plant studied here, the improvement potential of the majority of the components is low, since most of the exergy destruction is unavoidable. ► Component interactions are generally of lower importance for the considered plant. ► Splitting the exogenous exergy destruction reveals one-to-one component interactions and improvement strategies. ► The advanced exergetic analysis is a necessary supplement to the conventional analysis in improving a complex system.

  10. The Exergetic, Environmental and Economic Effect of the Hydrostatic Design Static Pressure Level on the Pipe Dimensions of Low-Energy District Heating Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan İbrahim Tol

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Low-Energy District Heating (DH systems, providing great energy savings by means of very low operating temperatures of 55 °C and 25 °C for supply and return respectively, were considered to be the 4th generation of the DH systems for a low-energy future. Low-temperature operation is considered to be used in a low-energy DH network to carry the heat produced by renewable and/or low grade energy sources to low-energy Danish buildings. In this study, a comparison of various design considerations with different levels of maximum design static pressures was performed, and their results evaluated in terms of energetic, exergetic, economic, and environmental perspectives.

  11. Exergetic and energetic comparison of LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O working pairs in a solar absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellos, Evangelos; Tzivanidis, Christos; Antonopoulos, Kimon A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Two working pairs (LiCl-H_2O and LiBr-H_2O) are examined in a solar absorption chiller. • The examined single effect absorption chiller is driven by flat plate collectors. • The system is analyzed energetically and energetically for 3 ambient temperatures. • LiCl-H_2O performs better than LiBr-H_2O in all the examined cases. • The optimum operating temperature is lower for the case of pair LiCl-H_2O. - Abstract: The objective of this study is to investigate the use of an alternative working pair in a solar absorption cooling system. LiCl-H_2O is the new examined pair and it is compared energetically and exegetically with the conventional pair LiBr-H_2O, which is the most usual in air-conditioning applications. The simplest solar cooling system is analyzed in order to focus in the comparison between these working fluids. Specifically, flat plate collectors, coupled with a storage tank, feed the single effect absorption chiller which produces 250 kW cooling at 10 °C. The two pairs are examined parametrically for various heat source temperature levels and for three ambient temperature levels (25 °C, 30 °C and 35 °C). The minimization of the collecting area, which means maximum exergetic efficiency, is the optimization goal in every case. The final results show that LiCl-H_2O pair performs better in all cases by giving greater exergetic efficiency. More specifically, about 8% lower collecting area is required to cover the demanded cooling load with this working pair. Another interesting result is that the optimum heat source temperature for the LiCl-H_2O is roughly lower than the respective for the LiBr-H_2O. The system is analyzed in steady state with the commercial software Engineering Equator Solver (EES).

  12. Contractor Performance Assessment Reporting System

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — CPARS is a web-based system used to input data on contractor performance. Reports from the system are used as an aid in awarding contracts to contractors that...

  13. Performance Assessment in Courts - The Swiss Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lienhard

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Performance assessments have become commonplace in management, even in the public sector. With the increasing pressure on courts to perform while making efficient use of resources, performance assessments in the justice system are also gaining in importance. However, the need for judicial independence poses special challenges for performance assessments in courts. Against this background, this article conducts a constitutional appraisal, and contrasts the need for judicial independence with the principles governing effectiveness and efficiency, self-government and supervision, and appointment and re-appointment. A duty to guarantee justice can be derived from this that does not in principle exclude the performance assessment of judges, but even renders it essential, subject to compliance with certain requirements. In these circumstances, it seems hardly surprising that numerous countries conduct performance assessments of judges and also that various international institutions have developed principles for this purpose, a summary of which is presented – in Switzerland’s case based on a recently conducted survey. In the field of conflict between the guaranteeing justice and protecting the judiciary, the following key questions arise in particular: What is the purpose of performance assessments and what are the consequences?What is subjected to a performance assessment and what are the assessment criteria?How is performance recorded as the basis for the performance assessment?Who is subjected to a performance assessment, and must a distinction be made between judges in higher and lower courts?Who carries out the performance assessment and what methods of protecting one’s rights are available?Who should receive the results of the performance assessment?The contribution sketches out possible answers to these key questions and aims to encourage academics and practitioners to give further consideration to this subject.

  14. VISUAL ART TEACHERS AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    qualitative research design; an aspect of descriptive survey research aiming at ... the competence and use of assessment strategies is determined by the type of ... Visual Art Teachers and Performance Assessment Methods in Nigerian Senior ...

  15. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A.

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  16. Expert judgement in performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Galson, D.A. [Galson Sciences Ltd, Oakham (United Kingdom)

    2000-01-01

    This report is a pilot study that systematically describes the various types of expert judgement that are made throughout the development of a PA, and summarizes existing tools and practices for dealing with expert judgements. The report also includes recommendations for further work in the area of expert judgement. Expert judgements can be classified in a number of ways, including classification according to why the judgements are made and according to how the judgements are made. In terms of why judgements are made, there is a broad distinction between: Judgements concerning data that are made because alternatives are not feasible; and Judgements about the conduct of a PA that are made because there are no alternative approaches for making the decision. In the case of how judgements are made, the report distinguishes between non-elicited judgements made by individuals, non-elicited judgements made by groups, and elicited judgements made by individuals or groups. These types of judgement can generally be distinguished by the extent of the associated documentation, and hence their traceability. Tools for assessing judgements vary depending on the type of judgements being examined. Key tools are peer review, an appropriate QA regime, documentation, and elicitation. Dialogue with stake holders is also identified as important in establishing whether judgements are justified in the context in which they are used. The PA process comprises a number of stages, from establishing the assessment context, through site selection and repository design, to scenario and model development and parametrisation. The report discusses how judgements are used in each of these stages, and identifies which of the tools and procedures for assessing judgements are most appropriate at each stage. Recommendations for further work include the conduct of a trial expert elicitation to gain experience in the advantages and disadvantages of this technique, the development of guidance for peer

  17. Assessing school performance and motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Pavelková, Isabella; Kubíková, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    We verify the theoretical hypothesis that individual reference norm helps the development of positive achievement motivation and lowers the performance fear of pupils. The research was carried out with pupils aged 9 to 12 years. The article presents the results of the research in using reference norms with 61 teachers in connection with achievement motivation of their 1144 pupils. The research also mapped the real school situations for the teachers involved, based partly on observation during...

  18. Performance assessment in algebra learning process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestariani, Ida; Sujadi, Imam; Pramudya, Ikrar

    2017-12-01

    The purpose of research to describe the implementation of performance assessment on algebra learning process. The subject in this research is math educator of SMAN 1 Ngawi class X. This research includes descriptive qualitative research type. Techniques of data collecting are done by observation method, interview, and documentation. Data analysis technique is done by data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion. The results showed any indication that the steps taken by the educator in applying the performance assessment are 1) preparing individual worksheets and group worksheets, 2) preparing rubric assessments for independent worksheets and groups and 3) making performance assessments rubric to learners’ performance results with individual or groups task.

  19. Operational human performance reliability assessment (OHPRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, P.M.; Swanson, P.J.; Connelly, E.M.

    1993-01-01

    Operational Human Performance Reliability Assessment (OHPRA) is an approach for assessing human performance that is being developed in response to demands from modern process industries for practical and effective tools to assess and improve human performance, and therefore overall system performance and safety. The single most distinguishing feature of the approach is that is defines human performance in open-quotes operationalclose quotes terms. OHPRA is focused not on generation of human error probabilities, but on practical analysis of human performance to aid management in (1) identifying open-quotes fixableclose quotes problems and (2) providing input on the importance and nature of potential improvements. Development of the model in progress uses a unique approach for eliciting expert strategies for assessing performance. A PC-based model incorporating this expertise is planned. A preliminary version of the approach has already been used successfully to identify practical human performance problems in reactor and chemical process plant operations

  20. Performance assessment of a microsprinkler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edivaldo Lopes Thomaz

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface hydrological processes are essential to the understanding and prediction of soil erosion. Several equipments are used to measure infiltration rate, runoff and soil loss. However, researchers build their own equipment due to the specific sites where the measurements are performed. This study evaluated the performance of a microsprinkler developed to measure the hydrological processes on unpaved rural roads. The microsprinkler is portable, lightweight, easy to operate, and also low cost. The measured parameters refer to different physical aspects of the rainfall produced as: intensity, drop size, kinetic energy and the simulation area. The microsprinkler was tested at different heights and pressures. The main results obtained: the intensity of simulated rainfall was 71.4 - 148.3 mmh-1, the drop size ranged from 0.3 to 1.2 mm (mean 0.7 mm, the kinetic energy of rainfall varied between 51 and 77% compared with a natural rainfall of similar intensity, and the simulation area had 0.28 - 0.56 m2 (mean 0.40 m2. The parameters obtained in this study are within the limit of others simulators reported in the literature.

  1. Competency Assessment Using Key Performance Indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Alexandra Toader; Laura Brad

    2015-01-01

    The paper proposes a method for computing the scores of the key performance indicators resulted in the competency assessment process. The key performance indicators are estimated considering four performance levels that an IT professional can obtain at the end of the assessment process. We suggest as the best approach for estimating the performance key indicators an online questionnaire filled by 60 employees that work in IT Romanian companies. The results provide evidence that the difference...

  2. Cost and performance analysis of concentrating solar power systems with integrated latent thermal energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nithyanandam, K.; Pitchumani, R.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating TES (thermal energy storage) in a CSP (concentrating solar power) plant allows for continuous operation even during times when solar irradiation is not available, thus providing a reliable output to the grid. In the present study, the cost and performance models of an EPCM-TES (encapsulated phase change material thermal energy storage) system and HP-TES (latent thermal storage system with embedded heat pipes) are integrated with a CSP power tower system model utilizing Rankine and s-CO 2 (supercritical carbon-dioxide) power conversion cycles, to investigate the dynamic TES-integrated plant performance. The influence of design parameters of the storage system on the performance of a 200 MW e capacity power tower CSP plant is studied to establish design envelopes that satisfy the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative requirements, which include a round-trip annualized exergetic efficiency greater than 95%, storage cost less than $15/kWh t and LCE (levelized cost of electricity) less than 6 ¢/kWh. From the design windows, optimum designs of the storage system based on minimum LCE, maximum exergetic efficiency, and maximum capacity factor are reported and compared with the results of two-tank molten salt storage system. Overall, the study presents the first effort to construct and analyze LTES (latent thermal energy storage) integrated CSP plant performance that can help assess the impact, cost and performance of LTES systems on power generation from molten salt power tower CSP plant. - Highlights: • Presents technoeconomic analysis of thermal energy storage integrated concentrating solar power plants. • Presents a comparison of different storage options. • Presents optimum design of thermal energy storage system for steam Rankine and supercritical carbon dioxide cycles. • Presents designs for maximizing exergetic efficiency while minimizing storage cost and levelized cost of energy

  3. Probabilistic assessments of fuel performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelppe, S.; Ranta-Puska, K.

    1998-01-01

    The probabilistic Monte Carlo Method, coupled with quasi-random sampling, is applied for the fuel performance analyses. By using known distributions of fabrication parameters and real power histories with their randomly selected combinations, and by making a large number of ENIGMA code calculations, one expects to find out the state of the whole reactor fuel. Good statistics requires thousands of runs. A sample case representing VVER-440 reactor fuel indicates relatively low fuel temperatures and mainly athermal fission gas release if any. The rod internal pressure remains typically below 2.5 MPa, which leaves a large margin to the system pressure of 12 MPa Gap conductance, an essential parameter in the accident evaluations, shows no decrease from its start-of-life value. (orig.)

  4. Exergetic comparison of food waste valorization in industrial bread production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, F.K.; Moejes, S.N.; Rossier Miranda, F.J.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the thermodynamic performance of three industrial bread production chains: one that generates food waste, one that avoids food waste generation, and one that reworks food waste to produce new bread. The chemical exergy flows were found to be much larger than the physical exergy

  5. Performance Assessment of Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Daojuan; Moini, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    on the performance measures and benchmarks adopted in M&A research field and the relevant empirical results. We find that the definitions of performance varied in terms of accounting, financial, operational and perceptual metrics. And performance assessment is sensitive to the definition of performance, methodology......Corporate mergers and acquisitions (M&As) have been increasing popular during these decades. However, a majority of research show failure rate (40% - 80%) has not significantly changed. This “success paradox” triggers us to reflect on performance assessment of M&As: how the performance of M...

  6. The Effects of Performance-Based Assessment Criteria on Student Performance and Self-Assessment Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastre, Greet Mia Jos; van der Klink, Marcel R.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of performance-based versus competence-based assessment criteria on task performance and self-assessment skills among 39 novice secondary vocational education students in the domain of nursing and care. In a performance-based assessment group students are provided with a preset list of performance-based…

  7. Review of SR 97 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This review has identified many technical problems in the SR 97 performance assessment. The general impression of this reviewer is that SKB has been disingenuous in its performance assessment effort. It has not cited important differences of opinion with its own views. Furthermore, there are many inconsistencies in the SR 97 report that all together leave the impression that there are many more uncertainties in the SR 97 performance assessment than SKB would perhaps care to admit. Additionally, despite SKB's statements to the contrary, many of the analyses conducted for the SR 97 performance assessment can be clearly shown not to have been based on 'conservative' assumptions. Finally, SKB has made little effort to consider possible coupling effects between their different scenarios in SR 97. This is a serious flaw in the SR 97 performance assessment. The comments in this review should not be taken to imply that the KBS-3 nuclear waste disposal method will not be able to meet the safety and radiation protection requirements which SKI and SSI have specified in recent years. Instead, my conclusion is simply that the SR 97 performance assessment of the KBS-3 method would have been more believable had it been based on a forthright and comprehensive discussion of facts, uncertainties and opinions, and on a more conservative choice of assumptions. As it stands, the SR 97 performance assessment is not very credible

  8. Exergetic Aspects of Hydrogen Energy Systems—The Case Study of a Fuel Cell Bus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evanthia A. Nanaki

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Electrifying transportation is a promising approach to alleviate climate change issues arising from increased emissions. This study examines a system for the production of hydrogen using renewable energy sources as well as its use in buses. The electricity requirements for the production of hydrogen through the electrolysis of water, are covered by renewable energy sources. Fuel cells are being used to utilize hydrogen to power the bus. Exergy analysis for the system is carried out. Based on a steady-state model of the processes, exergy efficiencies are calculated for all subsystems. The subsystems with the highest proportion of irreversibility are identified and compared. It is shown that PV panel has exergetic efficiency of 12.74%, wind turbine of 45%, electrolysis of 67%, and fuel cells of 40%.

  9. VISUAL ART TEACHERS AND PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Charles

    Senior Secondary school visual art teachers constituted the sample of this ... and Performance Assessment Methods in Nigerian Senior Secondary Schools – Bello .... definition includes knowledge, skills, attitudes, metacognition and strategic ...

  10. Enabling performance skills: Assessment in engineering education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrone, Jenny Kristina

    Current reform in engineering education is part of a national trend emphasizing student learning as well as accountability in instruction. Assessing student performance to demonstrate accountability has become a necessity in academia. In newly adopted criterion proposed by the Accreditation Board for Engineering and Technology (ABET), undergraduates are expected to demonstrate proficiency in outcomes considered essential for graduating engineers. The case study was designed as a formative evaluation of freshman engineering students to assess the perceived effectiveness of performance skills in a design laboratory environment. The mixed methodology used both quantitative and qualitative approaches to assess students' performance skills and congruency among the respondents, based on individual, team, and faculty perceptions of team effectiveness in three ABET areas: Communications Skills. Design Skills, and Teamwork. The findings of the research were used to address future use of the assessment tool and process. The results of the study found statistically significant differences in perceptions of Teamwork Skills (p performance skills, such as teamwork, among freshman engineering students; (2) incorporate feedback into the learning process; (3) strengthen the assessment process with a follow-up plan that specifically targets performance skill deficiencies, and (4) integrate the assessment instrument and practice with ongoing curriculum development. The findings generated by this study provides engineering departments engaged in assessment activity, opportunity to reflect, refine, and develop their programs as it continues. It also extends research on ABET competencies of engineering students in an under-investigated topic of factors correlated with team processes, behavior, and student learning.

  11. Personality, Assessment Methods and Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furnham, Adrian; Nuygards, Sarah; Chamorro-Premuzic, Tomas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the relationship between personality and two different academic performance (AP) assessment methods, namely exams and coursework. It aimed to examine whether the relationship between traits and AP was consistent across self-reported versus documented exam results, two different assessment techniques and across different…

  12. Assessing Vocal Performances Using Analytical Assessment: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gynnild, Vidar

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated ways to improve the appraisal of vocal performances within a national academy of music. Since a criterion-based assessment framework had already been adopted, the conceptual foundation of an assessment rubric was used as a guide in an action research project. The group of teachers involved wanted to explore thinking…

  13. Application of the exergetic cost theory to the LiBr/H2O vapour absorption system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, R.D.; Sahoo, P.K.; Gupta, A.

    2002-01-01

    Optimization of thermal systems is generally based on thermodynamic analysis. However, the systems so optimized often are not viable due to economic constraints. The Theory of Exergetic Cost, a thermoeconomic optimization technique, combines the thermodynamic analysis with that of economic constraints to obtain an optimum configuration of a thermal system. In this paper, this technique is applied to optimize a LiBr/H 2 O vapour absorption refrigeration system run by pressurized hot water for air-conditioning applications. The mathematical and numerical techniques-based optimization of thermal systems is not always possible due to plant complexities. Hence, a simplified cost minimization methodology, based on 'Theory of Exergetic Cost', is applied to evaluate the economic costs of all the internal flows and products of the system under consideration. As shown in this paper, once these costs are determined, an approximately optimum design configuration can be obtained

  14. Physician Performance Assessment: Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipner, Rebecca S.; Weng, Weifeng; Caverzagie, Kelly J.; Hess, Brian J.

    2013-01-01

    Given the rising burden of healthcare costs, both patients and healthcare purchasers are interested in discerning which physicians deliver quality care. We proposed a methodology to assess physician clinical performance in preventive cardiology care, and determined a benchmark for minimally acceptable performance. We used data on eight…

  15. Assessing irrigation performance by using remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bandara, K.M.P.S.

    2006-01-01

    Keywords: Performance indicators, performance assessment, diagnostic approach, SEBAL, target level, grain yield, water productivity, error estimation, spatio-temporal resolution.

    In

  16. Performing the lockout/tagout risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, W Jon

    2007-03-01

    Lockout/tagout provides the greatest level routine, repetitive, and integral to the production process, a risk assessment should be performed. If the task performed poses an unacceptable risk, acceptable risk reduction methods should be implemented to reduce the risk to acceptable levels.

  17. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolster, A.A.; Waddington, W.A.

    1996-01-01

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera's computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author)

  18. Gamma camera performance: technical assessment protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolster, A.A. [West Glasgow Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Clinical Physics; Waddington, W.A. [University College London Hospitals NHS Trust, London (United Kingdom). Inst. of Nuclear Medicine

    1996-12-31

    This protocol addresses the performance assessment of single and dual headed gamma cameras. No attempt is made to assess the performance of any associated computing systems. Evaluations are usually performed on a gamma camera commercially available within the United Kingdom and recently installed at a clinical site. In consultation with the manufacturer, GCAT selects the site and liaises with local staff to arrange a mutually convenient time for assessment. The manufacturer is encouraged to have a representative present during the evaluation. Three to four days are typically required for the evaluation team to perform the necessary measurements. When access time is limited, the team will modify the protocol to test the camera as thoroughly as possible. Data are acquired on the camera`s computer system and are subsequently transferred to the independent GCAT computer system for analysis. This transfer from site computer to the independent system is effected via a hardware interface and Interfile data transfer. (author).

  19. 5th Total System Performance Assessment Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Yong Soo; Lee, Youn Myoung; Kang, Chul Hyung; Lee, Sung Ho

    2009-07-01

    Research items on safety assessment of high-level waste repository have been proposed by external invited experts outside KAERI and discussed extensively during the annual 5th performance assessment workshop prepared by safety assessment group in KAERI. This could be useful to set up R and D plans necessary for the next phase of mid- and long-term reaserch area regarding the safety assessment of high-level waste repository. Through the research and the presentation, HLW-related research and development area including such specific research items as current status of HLW safety assessment research, current requirement for the licensing of the repository system, priority on research area, data base building for the safety assessment, source-term modeling as well as safety case, among many others, have been discussed and summarized

  20. Small animal PET: aspects of performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Simone; Bauer, Andreas

    2004-01-01

    Dedicated small animal positron emission tomography (PET) systems are increasingly prevalent in industry (e.g. for preclinical drug development) and biological research. Such systems permit researchers to perform animal studies of a longitudinal design characterised by repeated measurements in single animals. With the advent of commercial systems, scanners have become readily available and increasingly popular. As a consequence, technical specifications are becoming more diverse, making scanner systems less broadly applicable. The investigator has, therefore, to make a decision regarding which type of scanner is most suitable for the intended experiments. This decision should be based on gantry characteristics and the physical performance. The first few steps have been taken towards standardisation of the assessment of performance characteristics of dedicated animal PET systems, though such assessment is not yet routinely implemented. In this review, we describe current methods of evaluation of physical performance parameters of small animal PET scanners. Effects of methodologically different approaches on the results are assessed. It is underscored that particular attention has to be paid to spatial resolution, sensitivity, scatter fraction and count rate performance. Differences in performance measurement methods are described with regard to commercially available systems, namely the Concorde MicroPET systems P4 and R4 and the quad-HIDAC. Lastly, consequences of differences in scanner performance parameters are rated with respect to applications of small animal PET. (orig.)

  1. Performance success from self-assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, G.

    1996-01-01

    This paper provides information on and successes of self-assessments completed at the Callaway plant. It stresses the vital needs and substantial benefits from these continual self-improvement efforts. The Callaway plant staff use a variety of methods and techniques to do self-assessments with the focus on performance outcomes. Self-assessments help Callaway focus on the priority issues and direct resources properly. Callaway's success has been due to this learning culture. The Callaway plant is a Westinghouse four-loop plant in the state of Missouri and has been operational since 1984

  2. Assessing the Performance of Natural Resource Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce Campbell

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Assessing the performance of management is central to natural resource management, in terms of improving the efficiency of interventions in an adaptive-learning cycle. This is not simple, given that such systems generally have multiple scales of interaction and response; high frequency of nonlinearity, uncertainty, and time lags; multiple stakeholders with contrasting objectives; and a high degree of context specificity. The importance of bounding the problem and preparing a conceptual model of the system is highlighted. We suggest that the capital assets approach to livelihoods may be an appropriate organizing principle for the selection of indicators of system performance. In this approach, five capital assets are recognized: physical, financial, social, natural, and human. A number of principles can be derived for each capital asset; indicators for assessing system performance should cover all of the principles. To cater for multiple stakeholders, participatory selection of indicators is appropriate, although when cross-site comparability is required, some generic indicators are suitable. Because of the high degree of context specificity of natural resource management systems, a typology of landscapes or resource management domains may be useful to allow extrapolation to broader systems. The problems of nonlinearities, uncertainty, and time lags in natural resource management systems suggest that systems modeling is crucial for performance assessment, in terms of deriving "what would have happened anyway" scenarios for comparison to the measured trajectory of systems. Given that a number of indicators are necessary for assessing performance, the question becomes whether these can be combined to give an integrative assessment. We explore five possible approaches: (1 simple additive index, as used for the Human Development Index; (2 derived variables (e.g., principal components as the indices of performance; (3 two-dimensional plots of

  3. Dehydration: physiology, assessment, and performance effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheuvront, Samuel N; Kenefick, Robert W

    2014-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive review of dehydration assessment and presents a unique evaluation of the dehydration and performance literature. The importance of osmolality and volume are emphasized when discussing the physiology, assessment, and performance effects of dehydration. The underappreciated physiologic distinction between a loss of hypo-osmotic body water (intracellular dehydration) and an iso-osmotic loss of body water (extracellular dehydration) is presented and argued as the single most essential aspect of dehydration assessment. The importance of diagnostic and biological variation analyses to dehydration assessment methods is reviewed and their use in gauging the true potential of any dehydration assessment method highlighted. The necessity for establishing proper baselines is discussed, as is the magnitude of dehydration required to elicit reliable and detectable osmotic or volume-mediated compensatory physiologic responses. The discussion of physiologic responses further helps inform and explain our analysis of the literature suggesting a ≥ 2% dehydration threshold for impaired endurance exercise performance mediated by volume loss. In contrast, no clear threshold or plausible mechanism(s) support the marginal, but potentially important, impairment in strength, and power observed with dehydration. Similarly, the potential for dehydration to impair cognition appears small and related primarily to distraction or discomfort. The impact of dehydration on any particular sport skill or task is therefore likely dependent upon the makeup of the task itself (e.g., endurance, strength, cognitive, and motor skill). © 2014 American Physiological Society.

  4. Performance assessment of gamma cameras. Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliot, A.T.; Short, M.D.; Potter, D.C.; Barnes, K.J.

    1980-11-01

    The Dept. of Health and Social Security and the Scottish Home and Health Dept. has sponsored a programme of measurements of the important performance characteristics of 15 leading types of gamma cameras providing a routine radionuclide imaging service in hospitals throughout the UK. Measurements have been made of intrinsic resolution, system resolution, non-uniformity, spatial distortion, count rate performance, sensitivity, energy resolution and shield leakage. The main aim of this performance assessment was to provide sound information to the NHS to ease the task of those responsible for the purchase of gamma cameras. (U.K.)

  5. Performance Assessment Position Paper: Time for Compliance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    2003-01-01

    This study lays out the historical development of the time frame for a low-level waste disposal facility to demonstrate compliance with the DOE performance objectives and requirements. The study recommends that 1,000 years should be used as the time for compliance for all of the performance objectives and requirements (i.e., for the all-pathways, air pathway, radon emanation, water resource protection and inadvertent intruder analyses) for all low-level waste disposal facility performance assessments at the Savannah River Site

  6. Assessing the Performance of Business Unit Managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwens, J.F.M.G.; van Lent, L.A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    Using a sample of 140 managers, we investigate the use of various performance metrics in determining the periodic assessment, bonus decisions, and career paths of business unit managers.We show that the weight on accounting return measures is associated with the authority of these managers, and we

  7. The Visible Hand of Research Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Far from allowing a governance of universities by the invisible hand of market forces, research performance assessments do not just measure differences in research quality, but yield themselves visible symptoms in terms of a stratification and standardization of disciplines. The article illustrates this with a case study of UK history departments…

  8. Performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG strain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Use of FBG sensors for real time health monitoring of various civil engineering structures is well-established in western world since last decade, whereas in the Indian context this technology is still in a nascent stage. In this paper, performance assessment of indigenously developed FBG sensors for the application of health ...

  9. An overview of performance assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hongnian Jow

    2010-01-01

    The definition of performance assessment (PA) within the context of a geologic repository program is a post-closure safety assessment; a system analysis of hazards associated with the facility and the ability of the site and the design of the facility to provide for the safety functions. For the last few decades, PA methodology bas been developed and applied to different waste disposal programs around the world. PA has been used in the safety analyses for waste disposal repositories for low-level waste, intermediate level waste, and high-level waste including spent nuclear fuels. This paper provides an overview of the performance assessment methodology and gives examples of its applications for the Yucca Mountain Project. (authors)

  10. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations.

  11. Radioactive Waste Management Complex performance assessment: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Case, M.J.; Maheras, S.J.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Sussman, M.E.; Voilleque, P.

    1990-06-01

    A radiological performance assessment of the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory was conducted to demonstrate compliance with appropriate radiological criteria of the US Department of Energy and the US Environmental Protection Agency for protection of the general public. The calculations involved modeling the transport of radionuclides from buried waste, to surface soil and subsurface media, and eventually to members of the general public via air, ground water, and food chain pathways. Projections of doses were made for both offsite receptors and individuals intruding onto the site after closure. In addition, uncertainty analyses were performed. Results of calculations made using nominal data indicate that the radiological doses will be below appropriate radiological criteria throughout operations and after closure of the facility. Recommendations were made for future performance assessment calculations

  12. The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2010-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2010). The effects of performance-based assessment criteria on student performance and self-assessment skills. Advances in Health Science Education, 15(4), 517-532.

  13. Identification of energy gain potential in industrial processes, through exergetic analysis; Identificacao de potenciais de ganho energetico em processos industriais via analise exergetica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, Lis Nunes; Silva, Ricardo Junqueira; Bernardes, Lucas Lanza; Filgueiras, Pedro Freire [V e M do Brasil S.A., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2011-12-21

    V and M Brazil is an integrated steel mill for the production of steel tubes. The manufacturing process includes various processes and thermal equipment, such as industrial furnaces, boilers, and others. Due to its importance, it is essential that these devices operate with the best possible efficiency. Thus, it becomes necessary to use tools and methods for performance analysis of energy processes that occurs on these devices. One tool that has been widely used in industrial environment is the exergy analysis. It is based on the Second Law of Thermodynamics, and therefore takes into account the entropy generation, indicating the maximum amount of useful energy (work) that can be drawn from a stream, with reference to environmental parameters. This paper aims to apply the exergetic methodology in industrial thermal processes that occurs at V and M Brazil, as a tool for identification of losses and potential performance improvement of energy systems to save on fuel and the reduction of environmental impacts and emissions of greenhouse gases. (author)

  14. Thermodynamic performance assessment of a novel environmentally-benign solar energy based integrated system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuksel, Yunus Emre; Ozturk, Murat; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Development of a novel solar energy based system for multigenaration applications. • Evaluation of the exergy efficiency and destruction rate in each system component. • Investigation of the varying operating conditions on the system performance. • Evaluation of complete parametric studies and performance analysis of the system. - Abstract: In this paper, a novel solar energy based multigeneration system for producing electricity, hydrogen, hot water, heating and cooling is presented and analyzed thermodynamically for potential applications. The energy and exergy analyses are conducted for entire system and its sub-systems, which are a parabolic trough collector system, a double-stage organic Rankine cycle, a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer, a PEM fuel cycle and a quadruple effect absorption cooling system. The parametric studies are performed in order to indicate the impacts of some key indicators on the integrated system performance. These analyses are simulated by using the Engineering Equation Solver software. The results show that the increase in ambient temperature increases the exergetic coefficient performance of the Quadruple Effect Absorption Cooling System. In addition, the increase in solar intensity, temperature of absorber pipes inner surface and concentration of ammonia in working fluid mixture has the positive effect on produced electricity from the expanders and turbine, and hydrogen from the PEM electrolyzer. According to exergy analyses, the largest exergy destruction rates are obtained in the parabolic trough collector, PEM fuel cell and turbine. Therefore, any improvements in these components would lead to a better efficiency of the integrated system.

  15. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  16. Exergetic Analysis, Optimization and Comparison of LNG Cold Exergy Recovery Systems for Transportation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Dorosz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas shares in the global energy market is steadily increasing. One possible application of LNG is as a fuel for transportation. Stricter air pollution regulations and emission controls have made the natural gas a promising alternative to liquid petroleum fuels, especially in the case of heavy transport. However, in most LNG-fueled vehicles, the physical exergy of LNG is destroyed in the regasification process. This paper investigates possible LNG exergy recovery systems for transportation. The analyses focus on “cold energy” recovery systems as the enthalpy of LNG, which may be used as cooling power in air conditioning or refrigeration. Moreover, four exergy recovery systems that use LNG as a low temperature heat sink to produce electric power are analyzed. This includes single-stage and two-stage direct expansion systems, an ORC (Organic Rankine Cycle system, and a combined system (ORC + direct expansion. The optimization of the above-mentioned LNG power cycles and exergy analyses are also discussed, with the identification of exergy loss in all components. The analyzed systems achieved exergetic efficiencies in the range of 20 % to 36 % , which corresponds to a net work in the range of 214 to 380 kJ/kg L N G .

  17. Exergetic optimization of shell and tube heat exchangers using a genetic based algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oezcelik, Yavuz [Ege University, Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Engineering Faculty, Chemical Engineering Department

    2007-08-15

    In the computer-based optimization, many thousands of alternative shell and tube heat exchangers may be examined by varying the high number of exchanger parameters such as tube length, tube outer diameter, pitch size, layout angle, baffle space ratio, number of tube side passes. In the present study, a genetic based algorithm was developed, programmed, and applied to estimate the optimum values of discrete and continuous variables of the MINLP (mixed integer nonlinear programming) test problems. The results of the test problems show that the genetic based algorithm programmed can estimate the acceptable values of continuous variables and optimum values of integer variables. Finally the genetic based algorithm was extended to make parametric studies and to find optimum configuration of heat exchangers by minimizing the sum of the annual capital cost and exergetic cost of the shell and tube heat exchangers. The results of the example problems show that the proposed algorithm is applicable to find optimum and near optimum alternatives of the shell and tube heat exchanger configurations. (author)

  18. Putting HLW performance assessment results in perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neall, F.; Smith, P.; Sumerling, T.; Umeki, H.

    1995-01-01

    According to performance assessment results for the different disposal concepts investigated, the maximum radiation doses to the population lie well below the limit set in the official Swiss Protection Objective and below the level of present-day natural background radiation. A comparison of different performance assessments has shown that the following key factors determine radionuclide release from a repository: radionuclide inventory, canister material and failure mode, nuclide solubility limits, the permeability of the buffer material, retardation during transport through the near-field, the presence of an excavation disturbed zone in the rock, the distance to the nearest major water-bearing fracture zone, the conceptual model for transport in fractured rock and near-surface dilution and dose factors. (author) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Assessing the performance of dynamical trajectory estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bröcker, Jochen

    2014-06-01

    Estimating trajectories and parameters of dynamical systems from observations is a problem frequently encountered in various branches of science; geophysicists for example refer to this problem as data assimilation. Unlike as in estimation problems with exchangeable observations, in data assimilation the observations cannot easily be divided into separate sets for estimation and validation; this creates serious problems, since simply using the same observations for estimation and validation might result in overly optimistic performance assessments. To circumvent this problem, a result is presented which allows us to estimate this optimism, thus allowing for a more realistic performance assessment in data assimilation. The presented approach becomes particularly simple for data assimilation methods employing a linear error feedback (such as synchronization schemes, nudging, incremental 3DVAR and 4DVar, and various Kalman filter approaches). Numerical examples considering a high gain observer confirm the theory.

  20. ASSESSING STUDENT PERFORMANCE ON INTERPRETING THROUGH PEER-ASSESSMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titik Ismailia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of translation interpreting is translating spoken discourse orally. It needs some requirements like ability to speak clearly, clarity, fluency, eye contact, and self-confidence. It also needs linguistic proficiency, analytical skill, listening and recall, interpersonal skills, ethical behaviour, speaking skills, cultural knowledge, and subject knowledge. Evaluating students performance on interpreting can be done through peer assessment. Peer- assessment is one of alternative assessment to grade the peers in group or individuals by commenting on and judging other students work. To do this process there is a join work between listening and speaking, and two students. The first student as a speaker and the second student as an interpreter. Both of them should do the same quality on speak clearly as a speaker and as an interpreter should able to listen and translating the spoken discourse orally. Evaluation can use analytical grade that allows teacher to set clear criteria for correction like fluency, grammar, terminology, general content, and mechanics. Students and teacher can give comment on every criteria based on their own competency. During the process on making criteria, students and teacher can discuss and give reasonable suggestion to make the assessment suitable to the students competency. At the end, a rubric of assessment with the score from 0 to 100 and criteria and also the comment included in the paper of assessment.

  1. Analysis and performance assessment of a multigenerational system powered by Organic Rankine Cycle for a net zero energy house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassoun, Anwar; Dincer, Ibrahim

    2015-01-01

    This paper develops a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building and assesses such a system for an application to a net zero energy house in Lebanon. Solar energy is the prime source for the integrated system to achieve multigeneration to supply electricity, fresh and hot water, seasonal heating and cooling. The study starts by optimizing the power system with and without grid connection. Then, a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy, and a parametric study to assess the sensitivity and improvements of the overall system are conducted. Furthermore, exergoeconomic analysis and a follow-up optimization study for optimizing the total system cost to the overall system efficiency using genetic algorithm to obtain the optimal design or a set of optimal designs (Pareto Front), are carried out. The present results show that the optimum solar energy system for a total connected load to the house of 90 kWh/day using a combination of ORC, batteries, convertor has a total net present cost of US $52,505.00 (based on the prices in 2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 1. Moreover, the optimization for the same connected load with ORC, batteries and converter configuration with grid connection results in a total net present cost of $50,868.00 (2013) with a renewable energy fraction of 0.992 with 169 kg/yr of CO 2 emissions. In addition, exergoeconomic analysis of the overall system yields a cost of $117,700.00 (2013), and the multi-objective optimization provides the overall exergetic efficiency by 14% at a total system cost increase of $10,500.00 (2013). - Highlights: • To develop a new Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) based multigenerational system to meet the demands of a net zero energy building. • To perform a comprehensive thermodynamic analysis through energy and exergy approaches. • To apply an exergoeconomic model for exergy-based cost accounting. • To undertake

  2. Evaluación exergética de propuestas de disminución de consumo de vapor en usinas azucareras Exergetic evaluation of proposals for steam consumption reduction in sugar factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora Paz

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un modelado exergético, basado en la 2° ley de la Termodinámica, para la evaluación de las operaciones térmicas de Calentamiento-Evaporación-Cristalización (CEC en un ingenio de Tucumán. Una vez resueltos los balances de masa y energía de sistemas CEC, se determinaron los balances de exergía, evaluando las pérdidas de exergía y la eficiencia exergética. Se emplearon ecuaciones y gráficos existentes en la bibliografía para evaluar las propiedades termodinámicas de los flujos intervinientes. Se simularon y compararon con el caso base (zafra 2000, dos propuestas tendientes a disminuir las pérdidas de exergía, considerando: aumento de efectos de evaporación, mayor aprovechamiento de vapores vegetales, aumento en la concentración de melado, empleo de vapor vegetal para la cristalización y reemplazo de turbinas de vapor ineficientes por motores oleohidráulicos y eléctricos. Los resultados mostraron que las menores eficiencias exergéticas se producen en condensadores barométricos de cristalización y evaporación, y en cristalización. La reducción de irreversibilidades en las propuestas analizadas permitiría eliminar el combustible adicional necesario para operar calderas bagaceras antiguas.Exergetic modelling, based on exergetic analysis (2nd law of Thermodynamics, was applied in assessing Heating-Evaporation-Crystallization (H-E-C thermal operations in a cane sugar mill in Tucumán (Argentina. After solving mass and energy balances in H-E-C systems, exergy balance was determined. Exergy losses and exergetic efficiency were calculated. Equations and graphics found in bibliographic sources were used to calculate thermodynamic properties of intervening flows. Two alternatives for reducing exergy losses were simulated and compared with base case (2000 season. These alternatives aimed at the following goals: more evaporation effects, better use of juice vapours, increase in syrup concentration, and replacement of

  3. Tailored model abstraction in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, J.H.

    1995-01-01

    Total System Performance Assessments (TSPAs) are likely to be one of the most significant parts of making safety cases for the continued development and licensing of geologic repositories for the disposal of spent fuel and HLW. Thus, it is critical that the TSPA model capture the 'essence' of the physical processes relevant to demonstrating the appropriate regulation is met. But how much detail about the physical processes must be modeled and understood before there is enough confidence that the appropriate essence has been captured? In this summary the level of model abstraction that is required is discussed. Approaches for subsystem and total system performance analyses are outlined, and the role of best estimate models is examined. It is concluded that a conservative approach for repository performance, based on limited amount of field and laboratory data, can provide sufficient confidence for a regulatory decision

  4. ASSESSING UNIVERSITY RESEARCH PERFORMANCE WITH MULTIPLE CONSTITUENCIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuang-Liang Liu

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research performance of the university is critical to the national competitiveness. Previous research has established that research performance is based on scholarly publishing. Several studies suggested that journal ranking is the important research quality indicator. However, unilateral measurement for the research performance will seriously corrode the development of university research work. Assessing university research performance with multiple constituencies is a better to enhance the university research. Although substantial studies have been performed on the critical factors that affect knowledge exploration in the university, those in knowledge exploitation are still lacking. With the multiple constituencies, a fully understanding of research performance can be gained. In the research model, knowledge exploration represents the academic research and knowledge exploitation represents the university–industry collaboration. Data collected from 124 university data in online database. The study shows that knowledge exploration and exploitation both are significant positive predictors of university competitiveness. University resources play important roles to affect both knowledge exploration and exploitation in the university. The study also shows that higher knowledge exploration will enhance knowledge exploitation. Implications for theory and practice and suggestions for future research are discussed.

  5. Guidance for performing preliminary assessments under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    EPA headquarters and a national site assessment workgroup produced this guidance for Regional, State, and contractor staff who manage or perform preliminary assessments (PAs). EPA has focused this guidance on the types of sites and site conditions most commonly encountered. The PA approach described in this guidance is generally applicable to a wide variety of sites. However, because of the variability among sites, the amount of information available, and the level of investigative effort required, it is not possible to provide guidance that is equally applicable to all sites. PA investigators should recognize this and be aware that variation from this guidance may be necessary for some sites, particularly for PAs performed at Federal facilities, PAs conducted under EPA`s Environmental Priorities Initiative (EPI), and PAs at sites that have previously been extensively investigated by EPA or others. The purpose of this guidance is to provide instructions for conducting a PA and reporting results. This guidance discusses the information required to evaluate a site and how to obtain it, how to score a site, and reporting requirements. This document also provides guidelines and instruction on PA evaluation, scoring, and the use of standard PA scoresheets. The overall goal of this guidance is to assist PA investigators in conducting high-quality assessments that result in correct site screening or further action recommendations on a nationally consistent basis.

  6. Statistical analysis in MSW collection performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Carlos Afonso; Avelino, Catarina; Ferreira, Fátima; Bentes, Isabel

    2014-09-01

    The increase of Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) generated over the last years forces waste managers pursuing more effective collection schemes, technically viable, environmentally effective and economically sustainable. The assessment of MSW services using performance indicators plays a crucial role for improving service quality. In this work, we focus on the relevance of regular system monitoring as a service assessment tool. In particular, we select and test a core-set of MSW collection performance indicators (effective collection distance, effective collection time and effective fuel consumption) that highlights collection system strengths and weaknesses and supports pro-active management decision-making and strategic planning. A statistical analysis was conducted with data collected in mixed collection system of Oporto Municipality, Portugal, during one year, a week per month. This analysis provides collection circuits' operational assessment and supports effective short-term municipality collection strategies at the level of, e.g., collection frequency and timetables, and type of containers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Tax Performance Assessment in Scandinavian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunescu Liliana

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate fiscal policy performance level in Nordic countries of Europe by quantifying the gap between their performance and an optimum benchmark value. In this study it was selected Denmark, Finland, Sweden and Norway. These countries occupy the first places in the ranking of countries with the highest rate of tax burden in Europe. The first part of paper contains general aspects of fiscal performance in international research and an overview of the Nordic tax systems model. The second part of paper focuses on evaluation of tax policy performance in these countries by using OptimTax scoring analysis. The research is based on a multivariate analysis instrument that uses quantitative data on various aspects of tax policy. OptimTax achieves a score for assessing the degree of optimization of fiscal policy. The results reveal high levels of tax performance in Scandinavian countries and a trend that seems to be more constant than ascending, except Norway.

  8. Exergetic analysis of refrigeration system of the Pelletron-Linac particle accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira Filho, O.B. de

    1993-01-01

    The Pelletron-Linac accelerator of the University of Sao Paulo will use the existing electrostatic Pelletron accelerator as an injector for the linear superconducting accelerator (Linac), to increase the acceleration of the particles. The Linac uses a forced flow circulation helium system to promote continuous refrigeration for long periods of time, at temperatures below or equal to 4,9 K. This paper shows the exergetic analysis of the Pelletron-linac refrigerator, identifying the main sources of irreversibilities and evaluating energetic consumption of the system. An exergy-enthalpy diagram for the helium shows the thermodynamic processes that take place in the refrigeration plant and the exergy losses. (author)

  9. Performance assessment modeling of pyrometallurgical process wasteforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nutt, W.M.; Hill, R.N.; Bullen, D.B.

    1995-01-01

    Performance assessment analyses have been completed to estimate the behavior of high-level nuclear wasteforms generated from the pyrometallurgical processing of liquid metal reactor (LMR) and light water reactor (LWR) spent nuclear fuel. Waste emplaced in the proposed repository at Yucca Mountain is investigated as the basis for the study. The resulting cumulative actinide and fission product releases to the accessible environment within a 100,000 year period from the various pyrometallurgical process wasteforms are compared to those of directly disposed LWR spent fuel using the same total repository system model. The impact of differing radionuclide transport models on the overall release characteristics is investigated

  10. Building Confidence in LLW Performance Assessments - 13386

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rustick, Joseph H.; Kosson, David S.; Krahn, Steven L.; Clarke, James H. [Vanderbilt University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Nashville, Tennessee, 37235 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The performance assessment process and incorporated input assumptions for four active and one planned DOE disposal sites were analyzed using a systems approach. The sites selected were the Savannah River E-Area Slit and Engineered Trenches, Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, Idaho Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, and Nevada National Security Site Area 5. Each disposal facility evaluation incorporated three overall system components (1) site characteristics (climate, geology, geochemistry, etc.), (2) waste properties (waste form and package), and (3) engineered barrier designs (cover system, liner system). Site conceptual models were also analyzed to identity the main risk drivers and risk insights controlling performance for each disposal facility. (authors)

  11. Building Confidence in LLW Performance Assessments - 13386

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rustick, Joseph H.; Kosson, David S.; Krahn, Steven L.; Clarke, James H.

    2013-01-01

    The performance assessment process and incorporated input assumptions for four active and one planned DOE disposal sites were analyzed using a systems approach. The sites selected were the Savannah River E-Area Slit and Engineered Trenches, Hanford Integrated Disposal Facility, Idaho Radioactive Waste Management Complex, Oak Ridge Environmental Management Waste Management Facility, and Nevada National Security Site Area 5. Each disposal facility evaluation incorporated three overall system components (1) site characteristics (climate, geology, geochemistry, etc.), (2) waste properties (waste form and package), and (3) engineered barrier designs (cover system, liner system). Site conceptual models were also analyzed to identity the main risk drivers and risk insights controlling performance for each disposal facility. (authors)

  12. Performance assessment of nuclear waste isolation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W.L.

    1984-01-01

    A number of concepts have been proposed for the isolation of highly radioactive wastes, and it will be necessary to demonstrate the safety of such systems. In many countries including the U.S., the waste isolation system of choice is deep mined geologic repositories. Because of the complex nature of the multiple isolation barriers afforded by mined geologic disposal systems, and the long isolation periods involved, this demonstration can only be indirect. In recent years this indirect demonstration, mostly through mathematical modeling, is called performance assessment. Performance Assessment can be defined to mean the development, testing, and application of a series of mathematical models and computer codes which traces the movement of radionuclides from a waste isolation system to the biosphere and any resultant dose to man. In modeling such a repository system, it is often convenient to divide it into a number of subsystems, there may be several different processes that need to be modeled, individually and interactively. For instance, this waste package will probably consist of a waste form such as borosilicate glass containing the radioisotopes, a canister, an overpack material such as steel or copper, and a buffer material such as bentonite. The processes to be modeled at the waste package scale include radioisotope inventory and decay, thermal radiation, radiolysis effects, corrosion, leading and fluid flow. In tracing radionuclide transport through rock, the processes of importance are probably groundwater flow, and sorption and retardation of radionuclide movement

  13. Modelling saline intrusion for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, C.P.

    1989-04-01

    UK Nirex Ltd are currently considering the possibility of disposal of radioactive waste by burial in deep underground repositories. The natural pathway for radionuclides from such a repository to return to Man's immediate environment (the biosphere) is via groundwater. Thus analyses of the groundwater flow in the neighbourhood of a possible repository, and consequent radionuclide transport form an important part of a performance assessment for a repository. Some of the areas in the UK that might be considered as possible locations for a repository are near the coast. If a repository is located in a coastal region seawater may intrude into the groundwater flow system. As seawater is denser than fresh water buoyancy forces acting on the intruding saline water may have significant effects on the groundwater flow system, and consequently on the time for radionuclides to return to the biosphere. Further, the chemistry of the repository near-field may be strongly influenced by the salinity of the groundwater. It is therefore important for Nirex to have a capability for reliably modelling saline intrusion to an appropriate degree of accuracy in order to make performance assessments for a repository in a coastal region. This report describes work undertaken in the Nirex Research programme to provide such a capability. (author)

  14. Performance assessment task team progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, D.E.; Curl, R.U.; Armstrong, D.R.; Cook, J.R.; Dolenc, M.R.; Kocher, D.C.; Owens, K.W.; Regnier, E.P.; Roles, G.W.; Seitz, R.R.

    1994-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Headquarters EM-35, established a Performance Assessment Task Team (referred to as the Team) to integrate the activities of the sites that are preparing performance assessments (PAs) for disposal of new low-level waste, as required by Chapter III of DOE Order 5820.2A, open-quotes Low-Level Waste Managementclose quotes. The intent of the Team is to achieve a degree of consistency among these PAs as the analyses proceed at the disposal sites. The Team's purpose is to recommend policy and guidance to the DOE on issues that impact the PAs, including release scenarios and parameters, so that the approaches are as consistent as possible across the DOE complex. The Team has identified issues requiring attention and developed discussion papers for those issues. Some issues have been completed, and the recommendations are provided in this document. Other issues are still being discussed, and the status summaries are provided in this document. A major initiative was to establish a subteam to develop a set of test scenarios and parameters for benchmarking codes in use at the various sites. The activities of the Team are reported here through December 1993

  15. Consideration of environmental change in performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, P.; Thorne, M.; Egan, M.; Calvez, M.; Kautsky, U.

    2005-01-01

    Depending on the particular circumstances in which a post-closure performance assessment of a radioactive waste repository is made, it may be appropriate to follow simple or more complex approaches in characterising the biosphere. Several different Example Reference Biospheres were explored in BIOMASS Theme 1 to address a range of issues that arise. Here, consideration is given to Example Reference Biospheres relevant to representing the implications of changes that may occur within the biosphere system during the period over which releases of radionuclides from a disposal facility might take place. Mechanisms of change considered include those extrinsic and intrinsic to the system of interest. An overall methodology for incorporating environmental change into assessments is proposed. This includes screening of primary mechanisms of change; identification of possible time sequences of change; development of a coherent description of the regional landscape response for each time sequence; integration of source term and geosphere-biosphere interface information; identification and description of one or more time series of assessment biospheres; and evaluation of the advantages and disadvantages of simulating the effects of sequences of biosphere systems and the transitions between them, or of defining a set of biosphere systems to be represented individually in a non-sequential analysis. The usefulness of the methodology is explored in two site-specific examples and one generic example

  16. Environmental, economic and exergetic sustainability assessment of power generation from fossil and renewable energy sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stougie, L.; Giustozzi, N.; van der Kooi, H.J.; Stoppato, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Energy conversion systems have assumed a crucial role in current society. The threat of climate change, fossil fuel depletion and the growing world energy demand ask for a more sustainable way of electricity production, eg, by using renewable energy sources, by improving the conversion efficiency

  17. Exergetic Assessment for Resources Input and Environmental Emissions by Chinese Industry during 1997–2006

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Beihua; Liu, Mingchu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997–2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 8343...

  18. Exergetic assessment for resources input and environmental emissions by Chinese industry during 1997-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Beihua; Liu, Mingchu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997-2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from "three wastes" emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002-2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  19. ENERGETIC AND EXERGETIC ASSESSMENT OF DISPLAY CASES USED IN THE MARKET APPLICATIONS FOR PREFERENCE REFRIGERANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ziya SOGUT

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines energy and exergy analyses of display cases used to preserve daily products in market applications for different refrigerants. In the study, vapor compression cooling cycle is taken as a model and R22, R134a, R404A and R507C refrigerants used in common application and R407C, R410A and R422D evaluated as alternative refrigerants are studied under constant load in cycle. According to COP and exergy analyses, R134a gas and alternative gas R407C have come forth among the other gases with values 5.33 and 60.86%, and 5.41 and 62.04% respectively. The study finally emphasizes the importance of exergy analysis which is an important method to determine irreversibility of the systems.

  20. Exergetic Assessment for Resources Input and Environmental Emissions by Chinese Industry during 1997–2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bo Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997–2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from “three wastes” emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002–2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  1. Designing an artificial neural network using radial basis function to model exergetic efficiency of nanofluids in mini double pipe heat exchanger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi, Nahid; Aghayari, Reza; Maddah, Heydar

    2018-06-01

    The present study aims at predicting and optimizing exergetic efficiency of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanofluid at different Reynolds numbers, volume fractions and twisted ratios using Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) and experimental data. Central Composite Design (CCD) and cascade Radial Basis Function (RBF) were used to display the significant levels of the analyzed factors on the exergetic efficiency. The size of TiO2-Al2O3/water nanocomposite was 20-70 nm. The parameters of ANN model were adapted by a training algorithm of radial basis function (RBF) with a wide range of experimental data set. Total mean square error and correlation coefficient were used to evaluate the results which the best result was obtained from double layer perceptron neural network with 30 neurons in which total Mean Square Error(MSE) and correlation coefficient (R2) were equal to 0.002 and 0.999, respectively. This indicated successful prediction of the network. Moreover, the proposed equation for predicting exergetic efficiency was extremely successful. According to the optimal curves, the optimum designing parameters of double pipe heat exchanger with inner twisted tape and nanofluid under the constrains of exergetic efficiency 0.937 are found to be Reynolds number 2500, twisted ratio 2.5 and volume fraction( v/v%) 0.05.

  2. Scientific performance assessments through a gender lens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mathias Wullum

    2018-01-01

    The focus on excellence and quality assurance in the academy has spawned a signifi cant increase in the use of bibliometric measures in performance assessments of individual researchers. This article investigates the organizational consequences of this development through a gender lens. Based...... scholars, evaluators using bibliometrics risk disadvantaging candidates diverging from the norm with implications for gender stratifi cation. Despite these potential biases, bibliometric measures come to function as technologies supporting a managerial narrative of the gender-blind organization....... They adhere to the prevailing ethos of the academic meritocracy by standardizing the criteria for organizational advancement and ensuring transparency and accountability in the selection process. While bibliometric tools in this sense may lead to the recruitment of scientists with a strong CV and track record...

  3. Performing Probabilistic Risk Assessment Through RAVEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. Alfonsi; C. Rabiti; D. Mandelli; J. Cogliati; R. Kinoshita

    2013-06-01

    The Reactor Analysis and Virtual control ENviroment (RAVEN) code is a software tool that acts as the control logic driver and post-processing engine for the newly developed Thermal-Hydraulic code RELAP-7. RAVEN is now a multi-purpose Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) software framework that allows dispatching different functionalities: Derive and actuate the control logic required to simulate the plant control system and operator actions (guided procedures), allowing on-line monitoring/controlling in the Phase Space Perform both Monte-Carlo sampling of random distributed events and Dynamic Event Tree based analysis Facilitate the input/output handling through a Graphical User Interface (GUI) and a post-processing data mining module

  4. Probabilistic Radiological Performance Assessment Modeling and Uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauxe, J.

    2004-12-01

    A generic probabilistic radiological Performance Assessment (PA) model is presented. The model, built using the GoldSim systems simulation software platform, concerns contaminant transport and dose estimation in support of decision making with uncertainty. Both the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) require assessments of potential future risk to human receptors of disposal of LLW. Commercially operated LLW disposal facilities are licensed by the NRC (or agreement states), and the DOE operates such facilities for disposal of DOE-generated LLW. The type of PA model presented is probabilistic in nature, and hence reflects the current state of knowledge about the site by using probability distributions to capture what is expected (central tendency or average) and the uncertainty (e.g., standard deviation) associated with input parameters, and propagating through the model to arrive at output distributions that reflect expected performance and the overall uncertainty in the system. Estimates of contaminant release rates, concentrations in environmental media, and resulting doses to human receptors well into the future are made by running the model in Monte Carlo fashion, with each realization representing a possible combination of input parameter values. Statistical summaries of the results can be compared to regulatory performance objectives, and decision makers are better informed of the inherently uncertain aspects of the model which supports their decision-making. While this information may make some regulators uncomfortable, they must realize that uncertainties which were hidden in a deterministic analysis are revealed in a probabilistic analysis, and the chance of making a correct decision is now known rather than hoped for. The model includes many typical features and processes that would be part of a PA, but is entirely fictitious. This does not represent any particular site and is meant to be a generic example. A

  5. Assessment of the Turkish utility sector through energy and exergy analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Utlu, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2007-01-01

    The present study deals with evaluating the utility sector in terms of energetic and exergetic aspects. In this regard, energy and exergy utilization efficiencies in the Turkish utility sector over a wide range of period from 1990 to 2004 are assessed in this study. Energy and exergy analyses are performed for eight power plant modes, while they are based on the actual data over the period studied. Sectoral energy and exergy analyses are conducted to study the variations of energy and exergy efficiencies for each power plants throughout the years, and overall energy and exergy efficiencies are compared for these power plants. The energy utilization efficiencies for the overall Turkish utility sector range from 32.64% to 45.69%, while the exergy utilization efficiencies vary from 32.20% to 46.81% in the analyzed years. Exergetic improvement potential for this sector are also determined to be 332 PJ in 2004. It may be concluded that the methodology used in this study is practical and useful for analyzing sectoral and subsectoral energy and exergy utilization to determine how efficient energy and exergy are used in the sector studied. It is also expected that the results of this study will be helpful in developing highly applicable and productive planning for energy policies

  6. Performance assessment of a novel hybrid district energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coskun, C.; Oktay, Z.; Dincer, I.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a new hybrid system for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs) is proposed. This hybrid system consists of biogas based electricity production and a water-to-water geothermal heat pump unit (GHPU), which uses the waste heat for both heating and domestic hot water purposes. Electricity generated by the biogas plant (BP) is utilized to drive the GDHS's pumps, BP systems and the heat pump units. Both the biogas reactor heating unit and the heat pump unit utilize the waste heat from the GDHS and use the system as a heat source. The feasibility of utilizing a hybrid system in order to increase the overall system (GDHS + BP + GHPU) efficiency is then investigated for possible efficiency improvements. The Edremit GDHS in Turkey, which is selected for investigation in this case study, reinjects 16.8 MW of thermal power into the river at a low temperature; namely at 40 °C. Such a temperature is ideal for mesophilic bacterial growth in the digestion process during biogas production. 1.45 MW of biogas based electricity production potential is obtainable from the waste heat output of the Edremit GDHS. The average overall system efficiencies through the utilization of this kind of hybridized system approach are increased by 7.5% energetically and 13% for exergetically. - Highlights: ► A new hybrid system is proposed for improving the efficiency of geothermal district heating systems (GDHSs). ► The average overall system efficiencies are increased by 7.5% for energy and 13% for exergy, respectively. ► Various energetic and exergetic parameters are studied.

  7. E-Area Performance Assessment Interim Measures Assessment FY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, M

    2006-01-31

    After major changes to the limits for various disposal units of the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) last year, no major changes have been made during FY2005. A Special Analysis was completed which removes the air pathway {sup 14}C limit from the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). This analysis will allow the disposal of reactor moderator deionizers which previously had no pathway to disposal. Several studies have also been completed providing groundwater transport input for future special analyses. During the past year, since Slit Trenches No.1 and No.2 were nearing volumetric capacity, they were operationally closed under a preliminary closure analysis. This analysis was performed using as-disposed conditions and data and showed that concrete rubble from the demolition of 232-F was acceptable for disposal in the STs even though the latest special analysis for the STs had reduced the tritium limits so that the inventory in the rubble exceeded limits. A number of special studies are planned during the next years; perhaps the largest of these will be revision of the Performance Assessment (PA) for the ELLWF. The revision will be accomplished by incorporating special analyses performed since the last PA revision as well as revising analyses to include new data. Projected impacts on disposal limits of more recent studies have been estimated. No interim measures will be applied during this year. However, it is being recommended that tritium disposals to the Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches be suspended until a limited Special Analysis (SA) currently in progress is completed. This SA will give recommendations for optimum placement of tritiated D-Area tower waste. Further recommendations for tritiated waste placement in the CIG Trenches will be given in the upcoming PA revision.

  8. Performance Analysis of Multipurpose Refrigeration System (MRS on Fishing Vessel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ust Y.

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The use of efficient refrigerator/freezers helps considerably to reduce the amount of the emitted greenhouse gas. A two-circuit refrigerator-freezer cycle (RF reveals a higher energy saving potential than a conventional cycle with a single loop of serial evaporators, owing to pressure drop in each evaporator during refrigeration operation and low compression ratio. Therefore, several industrial applications and fish storage systems have been utilized by using multipurpose refrigeration cycle. That is why a theoretical performance analysis based on the exergetic performance coefficient, coefficient of performance (COP, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratio criteria, has been carried out for a multipurpose refrigeration system by using different refrigerants in serial and parallel operation conditions. The exergetic performance coefficient criterion is defined as the ratio of exergy output to the total exergy destruction rate (or loss rate of availability. According to the results of the study, the refrigerant R32 shows the best performance in terms of exergetic performance coefficient, COP, exergy efficiency, and exergy destruction ratio from among the other refrigerants (R1234yf, R1234ze, R404A, R407C, R410A, R143A and R502. The effects of the condenser, freezer-evaporator and refrigerator-evaporator temperatures on the exergetic performance coefficient, COP, exergy efficiency and exergy destruction ratios have been fully analyzed for the refrigerant R32.

  9. Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Assessment of Health Workers Performance and The Performance ... had very high significant effect on performance of health workers which was independent of ... Keywords: Health Worker Performance Factors Hospitals Nigeria ...

  10. Assessing Ecosystem Model Performance in Semiarid Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, A.; Dietze, M.; Scott, R. L.; Biederman, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    In ecosystem process modelling, comparing outputs to benchmark datasets observed in the field is an important way to validate models, allowing the modelling community to track model performance over time and compare models at specific sites. Multi-model comparison projects as well as models themselves have largely been focused on temperate forests and similar biomes. Semiarid regions, on the other hand, are underrepresented in land surface and ecosystem modelling efforts, and yet will be disproportionately impacted by disturbances such as climate change due to their sensitivity to changes in the water balance. Benchmarking models at semiarid sites is an important step in assessing and improving models' suitability for predicting the impact of disturbance on semiarid ecosystems. In this study, several ecosystem models were compared at a semiarid grassland in southwestern Arizona using PEcAn, or the Predictive Ecosystem Analyzer, an open-source eco-informatics toolbox ideal for creating the repeatable model workflows necessary for benchmarking. Models included SIPNET, DALEC, JULES, ED2, GDAY, LPJ-GUESS, MAESPA, CLM, CABLE, and FATES. Comparison between model output and benchmarks such as net ecosystem exchange (NEE) tended to produce high root mean square error and low correlation coefficients, reflecting poor simulation of seasonality and the tendency for models to create much higher carbon sources than observed. These results indicate that ecosystem models do not currently adequately represent semiarid ecosystem processes.

  11. Thermodynamics, data estimation and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenthe, I.

    2002-01-01

    Performance assessment provides a narrative of a system and its development. One may use a literary metaphor; the procedure is like writing a novel where the 'chapters' are the various sub-systems and where both the 'plot' and the 'grammar' are based on scientific and other information, some hard facts and other more or less reliable guesses. I will begin with some general remarks on models, which may provide a useful starting point for what follows. - Models never provide complete descriptions of real systems; they are used to highlight certain aspects of them and to answer 'what-if' questions; - Modelling is an iterative process that provides guidance as to what are important phenomena and what is less relevant for the description of the system and its function; - It is necessary to distinguish between model uncertainties and parameter uncertainties; - It is often better to estimate a quantity for which no data are available than to exclude the particular process where it is needed. Thermodynamics provide not only numerical values for different chemical processes, but more important a theory framework that can be used for the estimation of data. I will not discuss activity coefficient corrections of thermodynamic data, an important area that has already been addressed by Professor Fanghaenel. In the following overview I will be using examples of estimations of different kinds to illustrate what can be accomplished using thermodynamics in combination with chemical theories. (author)

  12. Policy and Validity Prospects for Performance-Based Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Eva L.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This article describes performance-based assessment as expounded by its proponents, comments on these conceptions, reviews evidence regarding the technical quality of performance-based assessment, and considers its validity under various policy options. (JDD)

  13. Human performance assessment: methods and measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, Gisle; Droeivoldsmo, Asgeir

    2000-10-01

    The Human Error Analysis Project (HEAP) was initiated in 1994. The aim of the project was to acquire insights on how and why cognitive errors occur when operators are engaged in problem solving in advanced integrated control rooms. Since human error had not been studied in the HAlden Man-Machine LABoratory (HAMMLAB) before, it was also necessary to carry out research in methodology. In retrospect, it is clear that much of the methodological work is relevant to human-machine research in general, and not only to research on human error. The purpose of this report is, therefore, to give practitioners and researchers an overview of the methodological parts of HEAP. The scope of the report is limited to methods used throughout the data acquisition process, i.e., data-collection methods, data-refinement methods, and measurement methods. The data-collection methods include various types of verbal protocols, simulator logs, questionnaires, and interviews. Data-refinement methods involve different applications of the Eyecon system, a flexible data-refinement tool, and small computer programs used for rearranging, reformatting, and aggregating raw-data. Measurement methods involve assessment of diagnostic behaviour, erroneous actions, complexity, task/system performance, situation awareness, and workload. The report concludes that the data-collection methods are generally both reliable and efficient. The data-refinement methods, however, should be easier to use in order to facilitate explorative analyses. Although the series of experiments provided an opportunity for measurement validation, there are still uncertainties connected to several measures, due to their reliability still being unknown. (Author). 58 refs.,7 tabs

  14. Exergetic analysis of a steam power plant using coal and rice straw in a co-firing process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Restrepo, Alvaro; Miyake, Raphael Guardini; Bazzo, Edson [Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC), Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], e-mails: arestrep@labcet.ufsc.br, miyake@labcet.ufsc.br, ebazzo@emc.ufsc.br; Bzuneck, Marcelo [Tractebel Energia S.A., Capivari de Baixo, SC (Brazil). U.O. Usina Termeletrica Jorge Lacerda C.], e-mail: marcelob@tractebelenergia.com.br

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents an exergetic analysis concerning an existing 50 M We steam power plant, which operates with pulverized coal from Santa Catarina- Brazil. In this power plant, a co-firing rice straw is proposed, replacing up to 10% of the pulverized coal in energy basis required for the boiler. Rice straw has been widely regarded as an important source for bio-ethanol, animal feedstock and organic chemicals. The use of rice straw as energy source for electricity generation in a co-firing process with low rank coal represents a new application as well as a new challenge to overcome. Considering both scenarios, the change in the second law efficiency, exergy destruction, influence of the auxiliary equipment and the greenhouse gases emissions such as CO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} were considered for analysis. (author)

  15. Exergetic optimization of the part-flow evaporative gas turbine cycles. Paper no. IGEC-1-ID23

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Sarabch, K.

    2005-01-01

    The evaporative gas turbine cycle is a new high efficiency power cycle that has reached the pilot plant testing stage. The latest configuration proposed for this cycle is known as part flow evaporative gas turbine cycle (PEvGT) in which humidification is combined with steam injection. Having advantages of both steam injected and humid air cycles, it is regarded as a very desirable plant for future. In this paper the exergy equations have been added to the mathematical model. Then exergy analysis and optimization of the PEvGT cycles: PEvGT and PEvGT-IC have been done. This study show that the maximum exergy destruction rate related to combustion chamber in both cycles. The exergetic optimization shows, the maximum first and second efficiency occur in the highest values of part-flow humidification rate. (author)

  16. Teachers' Views on Performance-Based Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bruce

    1991-01-01

    Provides personal perspectives from teachers about the prospects and problems illuminated by Stanford University's Teacher Assessment Project. Teacher remarks address the portfolio development process, assessment centers, implications for national board certification for teachers, personal thoughts and perspectives on teaching, and the future of…

  17. Energy performance assessment in urban planning competitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eicker, Ursula; Monien, Dirk; Duminil, Éric; Nouvel, Romain

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Quantification of energy efficiency in urban planning. • Analysis based on 3D (city) model. • Impact evaluation of urban form on energy demand, supply and building costs. • Primary energy balance with and without inclusion of shadowing effects. - Abstract: Many cities today are committed to increase the energy efficiency of buildings and the fraction of renewables especially in new urban developments. However, quantitative data on building energy performance as a function of urban density, building compactness and orientation, building use and supply options are rarely available during the design of new cities or early scenario analysis for existing city quarters, making it difficult for cities to effectively evaluate which concepts work today and in the future. The paper proposes a methodology to assess the energy demand and supply options as a function of the availability of geometry, building standard and use data. An automated procedure was implemented to identify each building’s geometry and volume and transfer the information to a simulation tool, which then calculates heating demand and solar energy generation on roofs and facades. The simulation includes shading calculations for each segment of the façades and roofs and thus allows a very detailed quantification of the building energy demand. By applying the methodology to a case study city quarter designed in an urban competition in Munich, it could be shown how the urban design influences the energy demand of the quarter and which fractions of renewable energy can be integrated into the roofs. While the building insulation standard and use are the is most important criteria for building energy efficiency (with an impact of more than a factor 2), the exact geometrical form, compactness and urban shading effects influences the energy demand by 10–20%. On the other hand, the detailed roof geometry and orientation influences the possible solar coverage of electricity or thermal

  18. Performance Assessment Strategy Plan for the Geologic Repository Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Performance assessment is a major constituent of the program being conducted by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to develop a geologic repository. Performance assessment is the set of activities needed for quantitative evaluations to assess compliance with the performance requirements in the regulations for a geologic repository and to support the development of the repository. The strategy for these evaluations has been documented in the Performance Assessment Strategy Plan (DOE, 1989). The implementation of the performance assessment strategy is defined in this document. This paper discusses the scope and objectives of the implementation plan, the relationship of the plan to other program plans, summarizes the performance assessment areas and the integrated strategy of the performance assessment program. 1 fig., 3 tabs

  19. Distillation of a Complex Mixture. Part II: Performance Analysis of a Distillation Column Using Exergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouadjenia Fatima

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available To analyze the performance of the separation process, we have introduced thethermodynamic concept of exergy through the exergetic efficiency of the column. Thesimulation results show that the exergetic output is relatively low and that the producedirreversibility fluxes are distributed throughout the whole column in a non-uniform manner.They are particularly significant in the condenser, boiler and tray feed. The influence of thevarious operating parameters (temperature, concentration and irreversibility in both sectionsof the column is also established. To emphasize the results, the relation in equation 17, ispresented graphically to evaluate the cumulative irreversibilities from the overhead to thebottom. This presentation is equivalent to the Grassmann diagram.

  20. Structure, conduct and performance paradigm in assessing travel agency performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stănciulescu Gabriela Cecilia

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present and exemplify traditional and neoclassical approaches to market structure and tourism firm performance analysis. The paper tackles some of the industrial economic thinking trends which were meant to fill the gaps left by the traditional approaches. Two approaches stand out from among the industrial economic trends: SCP paradigm and game theory. The results show that the strategy tourism operators prefer is to practise high prices; however there is no certainty that the competitors would adhere to such an idea at the beginning or during the season.

  1. Performance assessment strategy for low-level waste disposal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starmer, R.J.; Deering, L.G.; Weber, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff views on predicting the performance of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. Under the Atomic Energy Act, as amended, and the Low Level Radioactive Waste Policy Act, as amended, the NRC and Agreement States license land disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) using the requirements in 10 CFR Part 61 or comparable state requirements. The purpose of this paper is to briefly describe regulatory requirements for performance assessment in low-level waste licensing, a strategy for performance assessments to support license applications, and NRC staff licensing evaluation of performance assessments. NRC's current activities in developing a performance assessment methodology will provide an overall systems modeling approach for assessing the performance of LLW disposal facilities. NRC staff will use the methodology to evaluate performance assessments conducted by applicants for LLW disposal facilities. The methodology will be made available to states and other interested parties

  2. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N'Guessan

    2008-01-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation

  3. Technical Basis for Assessing Uranium Bioremediation Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PE Long; SB Yabusaki; PD Meyer; CJ Murray; AL N’Guessan

    2008-04-01

    In situ bioremediation of uranium holds significant promise for effective stabilization of U(VI) from groundwater at reduced cost compared to conventional pump and treat. This promise is unlikely to be realized unless researchers and practitioners successfully predict and demonstrate the long-term effectiveness of uranium bioremediation protocols. Field research to date has focused on both proof of principle and a mechanistic level of understanding. Current practice typically involves an engineering approach using proprietary amendments that focuses mainly on monitoring U(VI) concentration for a limited time period. Given the complexity of uranium biogeochemistry and uranium secondary minerals, and the lack of documented case studies, a systematic monitoring approach using multiple performance indicators is needed. This document provides an overview of uranium bioremediation, summarizes design considerations, and identifies and prioritizes field performance indicators for the application of uranium bioremediation. The performance indicators provided as part of this document are based on current biogeochemical understanding of uranium and will enable practitioners to monitor the performance of their system and make a strong case to clients, regulators, and the public that the future performance of the system can be assured and changes in performance addressed as needed. The performance indicators established by this document and the information gained by using these indicators do add to the cost of uranium bioremediation. However, they are vital to the long-term success of the application of uranium bioremediation and provide a significant assurance that regulatory goals will be met. The document also emphasizes the need for systematic development of key information from bench scale tests and pilot scales tests prior to full-scale implementation.

  4. Performance assessment of Point Lepreau Generating Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alikhan, S [Point Lepreau Generating Station, Lepreau, NB (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station, a 680 MWe CANDU unit, is located about 40 km southwest of the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. It was declared in-service on 1 February, 1983 and, since then, has demonstrated an average cross capacity factor of over 93% up to the end of 1990. This paper compared the performance of the station with other sister CANDU units and the Light Water Reactors world-wide using the following ten performance indicators, as applicable: - gross capacity factor; - fuel burn-up; - heavy water upkeep; - unplanned reactor trips while critical; - forced outage rate; - fuel handling performance; - derived emission of radioactive effluents to environment; - personnel radiation dose; - industrial safety; - low-level solid radioactive wastes. The paper examines various areas of station activities including management and organization, operations and maintenance, technical support, fuel handling and health physics in order to highlight some of the 'good practices' which are believed to have made a significant contribution towards achieving the demonstrated performance of Point Lepreau G.S. In addition, several areas of potential improvement are discussed in order to maintain and enhance, where practicable, the safety, reliability and economic performance of the station. In this context, a careful review of the operating experiences, both in-house and at other stations, and a judicious application of lessons learned plays a significant role. (author)

  5. Performance assessment of Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alikhan, S.

    1991-01-01

    The Point Lepreau Generating Station, a 680 MWe CANDU unit, is located about 40 km southwest of the city of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. It was declared in-service on 1 February, 1983 and, since then, has demonstrated an average cross capacity factor of over 93% up to the end of 1990. This paper compared the performance of the station with other sister CANDU units and the Light Water Reactors world-wide using the following ten performance indicators, as applicable: - gross capacity factor; - fuel burn-up; - heavy water upkeep; - unplanned reactor trips while critical; - forced outage rate; - fuel handling performance; - derived emission of radioactive effluents to environment; - personnel radiation dose; - industrial safety; - low-level solid radioactive wastes. The paper examines various areas of station activities including management and organization, operations and maintenance, technical support, fuel handling and health physics in order to highlight some of the 'good practices' which are believed to have made a significant contribution towards achieving the demonstrated performance of Point Lepreau G.S. In addition, several areas of potential improvement are discussed in order to maintain and enhance, where practicable, the safety, reliability and economic performance of the station. In this context, a careful review of the operating experiences, both in-house and at other stations, and a judicious application of lessons learned plays a significant role. (author)

  6. Energetic and exergetic efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in district heating systems of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liao, Chunhui; Ertesvåg, Ivar S.; Zhao, Jianing

    2013-01-01

    The efficiencies of coal-fired CHP (combined heat and power) plants used in the district heating systems of China were analyzed with a thermodynamic model in the Hysys program. The influences of four parameters were evaluated by the Taguchi method. The results indicated that the extraction steam flow rate and extraction steam pressure are the most important parameters for energetic and exergetic efficiencies, respectively. The relations between extraction steam flow rate, extraction steam pressure and the energetic and exergetic efficiencies were investigated. The energetic and exergetic efficiencies were compared to the RPES (relative primary energy savings) and the RAI (relative avoided irreversibility). Compared to SHP (separate heat and power) generation, the CHP systems save fuel energy when extraction ratio is larger than 0.15. In the analysis of RAI, the minimum extraction ratio at which CHP system has advantages compared with SHP varies between 0.25 and 0.6. The higher extraction pressure corresponds to a higher value. Two of the examined plants had design conditions giving RPES close to zero and negative RAI. The third had both positive RPES and RAI at design conditions. The minimum extraction ratio can be used as an indicator to design or choose CHP plant for a given district heating system. - Highlights: • Extraction flow rate and extraction pressure are the most important parameters. • The exergetic efficiency depends on the energy to exergy ratio and system boundary. • The minimum extraction ratio is a key indicator for CHP plants. • Program Hysys and Taguchi method are used in this research

  7. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN OPERATING DRY PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciortescu Cezar-Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for recognizing and defining correct and operable performance will be presented with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of processes in dry ports (inland intermodal hubs. The challenge in evaluating the possible improvements of the underlying processes lies in the special nature and the complex structure of dry ports. It is important to consider that all the processes are highly interconnected and that changes in parameters in one process also have an impact on parameters in other processes. Furthermore, the performance of dry ports, seen as the backbone of the system, has a significant impact on the overall performance of the whole transportation network.

  8. A resource efficiency assessment of the industrial mushroom production chain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zisopoulos, Filippos K.; Becerra Ramírez, Henry A.; Goot, van der Atze Jan; Boom, Remko M.

    2016-01-01

    We compare the exergetic performance of a conventional industrial mushroom production chain with a mushroom production chain where part of the compost waste is recycled and reused as raw material. The critical exergy loss points (CEPs) identified are the cooking-out process of the spent mushroom

  9. Irrigation performance assessment in Crimea, Ukraine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlov, S.S.; Roerink, G.J.; Hellegers, P.J.G.J.; Popovych, V.F.

    2006-01-01

    After the collapse of the Soviet Union the performance of irrigated agriculture decreased drastically in Ukraine, due to problems related to the transition from a centrally planned economy to a market economy. Before formulating recommendations on required actions to modify this problematic

  10. Using urbanization profiles to assess screening performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, ME; Kok, LP

    The large Dutch data sets acquired as a result of population-based cervical smear screening programs can be further exploited to obtain an urbanization-weighted score to gain insight into the quality of the performance of the individual cytology laboratories. Based on the first four digits of the

  11. Assessing heat exchanger performance data using temperature ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In addition, any calculated performance acceptance criteria must also consider uncertainty and error in the experimental measurements of temperature and flow. However, most statistical methods are complex and not easily applied to heat exchangers such as those that serve the power plant industry where data are difficult ...

  12. Tajikistan - Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability Assessment : Performance Report

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    This assessment is based on work undertaken between October 2006 and May 2007. The summary assessment covers the following three areas: an integrated assessment of PFM performance based on the 28+3 PEFA indicators, an assessment of the impact of PFM weaknesses, and the prospects for reform planning and implementation. The main report consists of four sections: an introduction, the country ...

  13. WIPP performance assessment: impacts of human intrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, D.R.; Hunter, R.L.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Lappin, A.R.

    1989-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is a research and development facility that may become the USA's first and only mined geologic repository for transuranic waste. Human intrusion into the WIPP repository after closure has been shown by preliminary sensitivity analyses and calculations of consequences to be an important, and perhaps the most important, factor in long-term repository performance

  14. Cost performance assessment of in situ vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Showalter, W.E.; Letellier, B.C.; Booth, S.R.; Barnes-Smith, P.

    1992-01-01

    In situ vitrification (ISV) is a thermal treatment technology with promise for the destruction or immobilization of hazardous materials in contaminated soils. It has developed over the past decade to a level of maturity where meaningful cost effectiveness studies may be performed. The ISV process melts 4 to 25 m 2 of undisturbed soil to a maximum depth of 6 m into an obsidian-like glass waste form by applying electric current (3750 kill) between symmetrically spaced electrodes. Temperatures of approximately 2000 degree C drive off and destroy complex organics which are captured in an off-gas treatment system, while radio-nuclides are incorporated into the homogeneous glass monolith. A comparative life-cycle cost evaluation between mobile rotary kiln incineration and ISV was performed to quantitatively identify appropriate performance regimes and components of cost which are sensitive to the implementation of each technology. Predictions of melt times and power consumption were obtained from an ISV performance model over ranges of several parameters including electrode spacing, soil moisture, melt depth, electrical resistivity, and soil density. These data were coupled with manpower requirements, capitalization costs, and a melt placement optimization routine to allow interpolation over a wide variety of site characteristics. For the purpose of this study, a single site scenario representative of a mixed waste evaporation pond was constructed. Preliminary comparisons between ISV and incineration show that while operating costs are comparable, ISV avoids secondary treatment and monitored storage of radioactive waste that would be required following conventional incineration. It is the long term storage of incinerated material that is the most expensive component

  15. Some viewpoints on reference biospheres in Finnish performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasilainen, K.; Kattilakoski, E.; Suolanen, V.; Vieno, T.; Vuori, S.

    2002-01-01

    Viewpoints are presented concerning biosphere studies in performance assessments of nuclear waste disposal. The points are based on experiences from several Finnish performance assessments. The latest performance assessment for spent fuel disposal, TILA-99, was considered in the Decision in Principle process for the site selection of the repository. The points given are also based on experiences from participation in international projects dealing with biosphere modelling, for instance BIOMOVS and BIOMASS. (author)

  16. Performance objectives for the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Performance objectives for the disposal of low activity waste from Hanford Waste Tanks have been developed. These objectives have been based on DOE requirements, programmatic requirements, and public involvement. The DOE requirements include regulations that direct the performance assessment and are cited within the Radioactive Waste Management Order (DOE Order 435.1). Performance objectives for other DOE complex performance assessments have been included

  17. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenhouse, M.J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment has many applications in the field of radioactive waste management, none more important than demonstrating the suitability of a particular repository system for waste disposal. The role of performance assessment in radioactive waste disposal is discussed with reference to assessments performed in civilian waste management programmes. The process is, however, relevant, and may be applied directly to the disposal of defence-related wastes. When used in an open and transparent manner, performance assessment is a powerful methodology not only for convincing the authorities of the safety of a disposal concept, but also for gaining the wider acceptance of the general public for repository siting. 26 refs

  18. Tools for Performance Assessment of OLSR Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makoto Ikeda

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we evaluate the performance of Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR protocol by experimental and simulation results. The experiments are carried out by using our implemented testbed and the simulations by using ns-2 simulator. We also designed and implemented a new interface for the ad-hoc network testbed in order to make more easier the experiments. The comparison between experimental and simulation results shows that for the same parameters set, in the simulation we did not notice any packet loss. On the other hand, in the experiments we experienced packet loss because of the environment effects and traffic interference.

  19. Thorium fuel performance assessment in HTRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allelein, H.-J. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); RWTH Aachen, D-52072 Aachen (Germany); Kania, M.J.; Nabielek, H. [Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Verfondern, K., E-mail: k.verfondern@fz-juelich.de [Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany)

    2014-05-01

    Thorium as a nuclear fuel is receiving renewed interest, because of its widespread availability and the good irradiation performance of Th and mixed (Th,U) oxide compounds as fuels in nuclear power systems. Early HTR development employed thorium together with high-enriched uranium. After 1980, most HTR fuel systems switched to low-enriched uranium. After completing fuel development for AVR and THTR with BISO coated particles, the German program expanded efforts on a new program utilizing thorium and high-enriched uranium TRISO coated particles for advanced HTR concepts for process heat applications (PNP) and direct-cycle electricity production (HHT). The combination of LTI inner and outer pyrocarbon layers surrounding a strong, stable SiC layer greatly improved manufacturing conditions and the subsequent contamination and defective particle fractions in production fuel elements. In addition, this combination provided improved mechanical strength and a higher degree of solid fission product retention, not known previously with HTI-BISO coatings. The improved performance of the HEU (Th,U)O{sub 2} TRISO fuel system was successfully demonstrated in three primary areas of development: manufacturing, irradiation testing under normal operating conditions, and accident simulation testing. In terms of demonstrating performance for advanced HTR applications, the experimental failure statistic from manufacture and irradiation testing are significantly below the coated particle requirements specified for PNP and HHT designs at the time. Covering a range to 1300 °C in normal operations and 1600 °C in accidents, with burnups up to 13% FIMA and fast fluences to 8 × 10{sup 25} m{sup −2} (E > 16 fJ), the results exceed the design limits on manufacturing and operational requirements for the German HTR Modul concept, which were: <6.5 × 10{sup −5} for manufacturing; <2 × 10{sup −4} for normal operating conditions; and <5 × 10{sup −4} for accident conditions. These

  20. Performance Assessment as a Diagnostic Tool for Science Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruit, Patricia; Oostdam, Ron; van den Berg, Ed; Schuitema, Jaap

    2018-04-01

    Information on students' development of science skills is essential for teachers to evaluate and improve their own education, as well as to provide adequate support and feedback to the learning process of individual students. The present study explores and discusses the use of performance assessments as a diagnostic tool for formative assessment to inform teachers and guide instruction of science skills in primary education. Three performance assessments were administered to more than 400 students in grades 5 and 6 of primary education. Students performed small experiments using real materials while following the different steps of the empirical cycle. The mutual relationship between the three performance assessments is examined to provide evidence for the value of performance assessments as useful tools for formative evaluation. Differences in response patterns are discussed, and the diagnostic value of performance assessments is illustrated with examples of individual student performances. Findings show that the performance assessments were difficult for grades 5 and 6 students but that much individual variation exists regarding the different steps of the empirical cycle. Evaluation of scores as well as a more substantive analysis of students' responses provided insight into typical errors that students make. It is concluded that performance assessments can be used as a diagnostic tool for monitoring students' skill performance as well as to support teachers in evaluating and improving their science lessons.

  1. Performance Assessment of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) Enterprise Workflows

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hurley, M. B; Jones, P. B

    2007-01-01

    ... on how to assess the performance of these systems. The framework delineates how measurements from laboratory tests, operational experiments, and field deployments can be analyzed to produce accurate, quantitative descriptions of system performance...

  2. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-08

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Assessing The Performance of Hydrological Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Knijff, Johan

    The performance of hydrological models is often characterized using the coefficient of efficiency, E. The sensitivity of E to extreme streamflow values, and the difficulty of deciding what value of E should be used as a threshold to identify 'good' models or model parameterizations, have proven to be serious shortcomings of this index. This paper reviews some alternative performance indices that have appeared in the litera- ture. Legates and McCabe (1999) suggested a more generalized form of E, E'(j,B). Here, j is a parameter that controls how much emphasis is put on extreme streamflow values, and B defines a benchmark or 'null hypothesis' against which the results of the model are tested. E'(j,B) was used to evaluate a large number of parameterizations of a conceptual rainfall-runoff model, using 6 different combinations of j and B. First, the effect of j and B is explained. Second, it is demonstrated how the index can be used to explicitly test hypotheses about the model and the data. This approach appears to be particularly attractive if the index is used as a likelihood measure within a GLUE-type analysis.

  4. Assessing Bus Performance Rating in Kajang, Selangor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhisham, S.; Ismail, A.; Sidek, L. M.; Borhan, M. N.; Zaini, N.; Yen, A. T. G.

    2018-04-01

    The Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (TCQSM) was chosen based on the review with four manuals and guidelines for the method will be applied. Six (6) attributes, namely Hours of Service, Passenger Load, Transit Auto Travel Time, Service Frequency, Punctuality Performance and Service Coverage were chosen for evaluation.[6][7][8]. A total of three (3) operators with seven (7) routes were identified in Kajang. Based on the final results, the Quality of Service (QOS) findings was rated as D, which was regarded as minimum or satisfactory. Most stakeholders’ recommendations were: for the operators to provide information on bus scheduling and have accurate information for the passengers. It was suggested that in future this study can be extended to all routes and could be repeated after the opening of the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) stations in Kajang, so as to provide a comparison and better evaluation of the public buses in Kajang.

  5. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cutler, Dylan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dean, Jesse [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Acosta, Jason [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  6. Assessing ventilation system performance in isolation rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balocco, Carla [Department of Energy Engineering ' ' Sergio Stecco' ' , via S. Marta 3, Firenze (Italy); Lio, Pietro [Computer Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 15 JJ Thompson Avenue, CB03FD Cambridge (United Kingdom)

    2011-01-15

    In this paper numerical transient simulations were used to investigate the air flow patterns, distribution and velocity, and the particulate dispersion inside an existing typical hospitalization room equipped with an advanced Heating Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC), with Variable Air Volume (VAV) primary air system designed for immune-suppressed patients never modelled before. The three-dimensional models of the room consider different, most typical, positions of the patients. Results indicate the best conditions for the high induction air inlet diffuser and the scheme of pressures imposed in the room to provide the effective means of controlling flows containing virus droplets. We believe that our work exemplifies the usefulness of numerical investigations of HVAC performances in real situations and provides important recommendations towards disease control and careful design and optimization of ventilation in hospital settings. (author)

  7. An Empirical Study of a Solo Performance Assessment Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of solo music performance assessment. Specifically, this study investigates the influence of technique and musical expression on perceptions of overall performance quality. The Aural Musical Performance Quality (AMPQ) measure was created to measure overall performance quality, technique,…

  8. Peer mentoring in doctor performance assessment: strategies, obstacles and benefits.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, K.; Driessen, E.W.; Arah, O.A.; Lombarts, K.M.; Wollersheim, H.C.H.; Grol, R.P.T.M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mentors are increasingly involved in doctor performance assessments. Mentoring seems to be a key determinant in achieving the ultimate goal of those assessments, namely, improving doctor performance. Little is known, however, about how mentors perceive and fulfil this role. OBJECTIVE: The

  9. Peer mentoring in doctor performance assessment: strategies, obstacles and benefits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, Karlijn; Driessen, Erik W.; Arah, Onyebuchi A.; Lombarts, Kiki M. J. M. H.; Wollersheim, Hub C.; Grol, Richard P. T. M.

    2010-01-01

    CONTEXT: Mentors are increasingly involved in doctor performance assessments. Mentoring seems to be a key determinant in achieving the ultimate goal of those assessments, namely, improving doctor performance. Little is known, however, about how mentors perceive and fulfil this role. OBJECTIVE: The

  10. Performance Assessment Framework for Private Finance Initiative Projects in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lop Nor Suzila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Private Finance Initiative (PFI is viewed as restructuring the previous privatisation concept in delivering value for money for the Malaysian public infrastructure. Among the restructuring efforts in the privatisation is specifying the standard assessment of private concessionaires’ performance through the execution of key performance indicators (KPIs where the private concessionaires’ performance is benchmarked against the government’s standard. KPIs have served as useful tools in assessing performance of PFI projects. However, there is still lacking on determination methods performed to define and measure this KPIs and the absence of guidelines or a framework is also an issue in the implementation of the PFI procurement in Malaysia. Therefore, the objectives of this paper is to investigate the notion of performance assessment model approaches globally (i.e. UK, China, Australia, Serbia and Malaysia and to identify direction for PFI performance assessment tools (KPIs to be practiced in Malaysia. Based on the consideration of these models, this research paper propose an initial framework of performance assessment for PFI projects in Malaysia. The framework is deliberate to cover the performance of PFI at the operation and maintenance phase. The outcomes of this paper can serve as a theoretical base for the development of comprehensive and effective performance assessment for PFI projects in Malaysia.

  11. Determination of Safety Performance Grade of NPP Using Integrated Safety Performance Assessment (ISPA) Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Dae Wook

    2011-01-01

    Since the beginning of 2000, the safety regulation of nuclear power plant (NPP) has been challenged to be conducted more reasonable, effective and efficient way using risk and performance information. In the United States, USNRC established Reactor Oversight Process (ROP) in 2000 for improving the effectiveness of safety regulation of operating NPPs. The main idea of ROP is to classify the NPPs into 5 categories based on the results of safety performance assessment and to conduct graded regulatory programs according to categorization, which might be interpreted as 'Graded Regulation'. However, the classification of safety performance categories is highly comprehensive and sensitive process so that safety performance assessment program should be prepared in integrated, objective and quantitative manner. Furthermore, the results of assessment should characterize and categorize the actual level of safety performance of specific NPP, integrating all the substantial elements for assessing the safety performance. In consideration of particular regulatory environment in Korea, the integrated safety performance assessment (ISPA) program is being under development for the use in the determination of safety performance grade (SPG) of a NPP. The ISPA program consists of 6 individual assessment programs (4 quantitative and 2 qualitative) which cover the overall safety performance of NPP. Some of the assessment programs which are already implemented are used directly or modified for incorporating risk aspects. The others which are not existing regulatory programs are newly developed. Eventually, all the assessment results from individual assessment programs are produced and integrated to determine the safety performance grade of a specific NPP

  12. Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices TEA HI Threat Headset

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    AFRL-RH-WP-TR-2015-0076 Performance Assessment of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset Hilary L. Gallagher...of Communication Enhancement Devices: TEA HI Threat Headset 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-14-D-6501 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER...technology in military applications. Objective performance data provided an assessment of the performance of these devices. The TEA HI Threat headset

  13. Análisis exergético comparativo entre intercambiadores de calor // A comparative exergetic analysis of compact heat exchangers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Borrajo-Pérez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Los intercambiadores de calor son equipos de importancia primordial en la industria y enaplicaciones domésticas en general. El trabajo está relacionado con el area de la intensificacion de latransferencia de calor en intercambiadores de calor compactos y la comparación entre diferentestipos de superficies intensificadas. La comparación es realizada a partir del análisis de la exergíadestruída por la superfície de intercambio como resultado de las perdidas por fricción y delintercambio térmico entre cuerpos con diferencia finita de temperaturas. El análisis de Segunda Leyde la Termodinámica permite identificar en que superfície de intercambio se genera mas entropía.Como resultado fundamental se obtiene la dependencia entre la exergía destruída y elespaciamiento transversal para una superfície formada por una fila de tubos elipticos a diferentesvalores del numero de Reynolds. Se identifica al intercambio térmico como la de mayor aporte a laentropía generada. Finalmente se demuestra la viabilidad de la intensificación de la transferencia decalor empleando generadores de vórtices en intercambiadores de calor.Palabras claves: generadores de vórtices, intecambiadores de calor compactos, tubos elípticos, exergía.__________________________________________________________________AbstractThe heat exchangers are important devices in both industry and household applications. This work isabout heat transfer enhancement in heat exchangers surface. Many heat transfer enhancementtechniques can be applied and then a comparative tool is needed to evaluate its performance.Thermodynamics is one of these tools and the exergetic analysis can be applied to heat exchangersurfaces. The exergy destroyed because both of thermal exchange between bodies with differenttemperatures and destroyed by friction drag is calculated. These results are used to compare heatexchanger surfaces. Heat exchanger surfaces in smooth configuration and the same surfaces

  14. The Empirical Testing of a Musical Performance Assessment Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brian E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test a hypothesized model of aurally perceived performer-controlled musical factors that influence assessments of performance quality. Previous research studies on musical performance constructs, musical achievement, musical expression, and scale construction were examined to identify the factors that influence…

  15. Maximum Exergetic Efficiency Operation of a Solar Powered H2O-LiBr Absorption Cooling System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available A solar driven cooling system consisting of a single effect H2O-LiBr absorbtion cooling module (ACS, a parabolic trough collector (PTC, and a storage tank (ST module is analyzed during one full day operation. The pressurized water is used to transfer heat from PTC to ST and to feed the ACS desorber. The system is constrained to operate at the maximum ACS exergetic efficiency, under a time dependent cooling load computed on 15 July for a one storey house located near Bucharest, Romania. To set up the solar assembly, two commercial PTCs were selected, namely PT1-IST and PTC 1800 Solitem, and a single unit ST was initially considered. The mathematical model, relying on the energy balance equations, was coded under Engineering Equation Solver (EES environment. The solar data were obtained from the Meteonorm database. The numerical simulations proved that the system cannot cover the imposed cooling load all day long, due to the large variation of water temperature inside the ST. By splitting the ST into two units, the results revealed that the PT1-IST collector only drives the ACS between 9 am and 4:30 pm, while the PTC 1800 one covers the entire cooling period (9 am–6 pm for optimum ST capacities of 90 kg/90 kg and 90 kg/140 kg, respectively.

  16. The link between performance assessment and quality of data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csullog, G.W.

    1990-11-01

    Performance assessments, using both individual and cumulative inventories, produce estimates of the risk or dose consequences for repository concepts. Unacceptable risk or dose for a given contaminant identify it as a problem contaminant. While risk or dose consequences are common outputs of safety assessments, results can also be reported as estimates of the safe inventory limit for each contaminant in a repository scenario. Once problem contaminants are identified, it may be useful to: validate the data used in the performance assessment; restrict contaminant inventories in the repository; or, improve the containment capability of the repository (including improved packaging). A key point is that performance assessments define the quality of data to be collected. If a contaminant's inventory will be far below its estimated safe inventory limit for a repository, then it is reasonable to accept inventory estimates that have high variances and low confidence. For contaminants that have a significant impact upon performance assessments, efforts must be made to provide the best inventory (source term) estimates practicable. One important goal of characterization programs should be to establish the adequacy of data used in performance assessments. There is little value in striving to improve confidence in data for some waste streams if they are assessed to have a minor impact upon repository performance. Streams that have a major impact upon performance deserve the time, attention and money to be characterized adequately. Waste acceptance must be linked to the quality of characterization data provided by generators. This link sets compliance monitoring requirements

  17. How Do States Integrate Performance Assessment in Their Systems of Assessment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stosich, Elizabeth Leisy; Snyder, Jon; Wilczak, Katie

    2018-01-01

    This paper reviews state strategies for incorporating performance assessment in policy and practice. Specifically, the paper reviews the use of performance assessment in 12 states in the Innovation Lab Network, a group committed to developing systems of assessment that provide meaningful measures of college and career readiness. This review…

  18. Performance assessment for low-level radioactive waste disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.R.; Hsu, R.H.; Wilhite, E.L.; Yu, A.D.

    1996-01-01

    In October 1994 the Savannah River Site became the first US DOE complex to use concrete vaults to dispose of low-level radioactive solid waste and better prevent soil and groundwater contamination. This article describes the design and gives a performance assessment of the vaults. Topics include the following: Performance objectives; scope; the performance assessment process-assemble a multidisciplinary working group; collect available data; define credible pathways/scenarios; develop conceptual models; conduct screening and detailed model calculations; assess sensitivity/uncertainty; integrate and interpret results; report. 9 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Performance assessment review for DOE LLW disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, Elmer L.

    1992-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy (US DOE) disposes of low-level radioactive waste in near-surface disposal facilities. Safety of the disposal operations is evaluated for operational safety as well as long-term safety. Operational safety is evaluated based on the perceived level of hazard of the operation and may vary from a simple safety assessment to a safety analysis report. Long-term safety of all low-level waste disposal systems is evaluated through the conduct of a radiological performance assessment. The US DOE has established radiological performance objectives for disposal of low-level waste. They are to protect a member of the general public from receiving over 25 mrem/y, and an inadvertent intruder into the waste from receiving over 100 mrem/y continuous exposure or 500 mrem from a single exposure. For a disposal system to be acceptable, a performance assessment must be prepared which must be technically accurate and provide reasonable assurance that these performance objectives are met. Technical quality of the performance assessments is reviewed by a panel of experts. The panel of experts is used in two ways to assure the technical quality of performance assessment. A preliminary (generally 2 day) review by the panel is employed in the late stages of development to provide guidance on finalizing the performance assessment. The comments from this review are communicated to the personnel responsible for the performance assessment for consideration and incorporation. After finalizing the performance assessment, it is submitted for a formal review. The formal review is accomplished by a much more thorough analysis of the performance assessment over a multi-week time period. The panel then formally reports their recommendations to the US DOE waste management senior staff who make the final determination on acceptability of the performance assessment. A number of lessons have been learned from conducting several preliminary reviews of performance

  20. Assessment Training Effects on Student Assessment Skills and Task Performance in a Technology-Facilitated Peer Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiongyi; Li, Lan

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the impact of an assessment training module on student assessment skills and task performance in a technology-facilitated peer assessment. Seventy-eight undergraduate students participated in the study. The participants completed an assessment training exercise, prior to engaging in peer-assessment activities. During the…

  1. [Teaching performance assessment in Public Health employing three different strategies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Adrián; Moreno-Altamirano, Laura; Ponce-Rosas, Efrén Raúl; Martínez-Franco, Adrián Israel; Urrutia-Aguilar, María Esther

    2011-01-01

    The educational system depends upon the quality and performance of their faculty and should therefore be process of continuous improvement. To assess the teaching performance of the Public Health professors, at the Faculty of Medicine, UNAM through three strategies. Justification study. The evaluation was conducted under a mediational model through three strategies: students' opinion assessment, self-assessment and students' academic achievement. We applied descriptive statistics, Student t test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation. Twenty professors were evaluated from the Public Health department, representing 57% of all them who teach the subject. The professor's performance was highly valued self-assessment compared with assessment of student opinion, was confirmed by statistical analysis the difference was significant. The difference amongst the three evaluation strategies became more evident between self-assessment and the scores obtained by students in their academic achievement. The integration of these three strategies offers a more complete view of the teacher's performance quality. Academic achievement appears to be a more objective strategy for teaching performance assessment than students' opinion and self-assessment.

  2. Hanford low-level tank waste interim performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1997-01-01

    The Hanford Low-Level Tank Waste Interim Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the disposal of the low-level fraction of the Hanford single and double-shell tank waste in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. This report was prepared as a good management practice to provide needed information about the relationship between the disposal system design and performance early in the disposal system project cycle. The calculations in this performance assessment show that the disposal of the low-level fraction can meet environmental and health performance objectives

  3. Development of Integrated Assessment Technology of Risk and Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun Eon; Kang, Dae Il; Kang, Hyun Gook

    2010-04-01

    The main idea and contents are summarized as below 1) Development of new risk/performance assessment system innovating old labor-intensive risk assessment structure - New consolidated risk assessment technology from various hazard(flood, fire, seismic in NPP) - BOP model development for performance monitoring - Consolidated risk/performance management system for consistency and efficiency of NPP 2) Resolution technology for pending issues in PSA - Base technology for PSA of digital I and C system - Base technology for seismic PSA reflecting domestic seismic characteristics and aging effect - Uncertainty reduction technology for level 2 PSA and best estimation of containment failure frequency 3) Next generation risk/performance assessment technology - Human-induced error reduction technology for efficient operation of a NPP

  4. performance assessment of substation site earthing using fluke ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... Earthing is the fundamental requirement for protection in all electrical ... for the performance assessment of this instrument as compare to the conventional system. ... tem and the reference earth at a given operating fre- quency ...

  5. Organic migration forms of radionuclides and performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Gouqing

    2010-01-01

    Much attention is paid to inorganic migration forms of radionuclides in groundwater during performance assessment before and organic migration forms, are seldom noted. Therefore some question may come into confidence level in performance assessment. This paper mainly discusses the distribution of organic substances in groundwater and their potential effect on performance assessment. The results obtained in recent years show that clay rocks are generally impermeable to water, but in some cases the interstitial water may be observed in them and the concentration of DOC, HA and FA is rather higher than that in granitic groundwater. The concentration of DOC is relatively low in granitic groundwater, but up to now the effect of organic migration forms of radionuclides in granitic groundwater on performance assessment is not finally determined, it is necessary to make further investigations. (authors)

  6. economic assessment of the performance of private sector ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Admin

    Economic and Extension, Delta State University, Asaba Campus, Nigeria ... This paper critically attempts to assess the performance of the private sector ... economy would depend to a large extent on the quantity ..... New York, USA: McGraw.

  7. An assessment of organisational values, culture and performance in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An assessment of organisational values, culture and performance in Cape Town's ... confusion, control, manipulation, blame, power, results orientation, hierarchy, ... Conclusion: The organisational culture of the Metro District Health Services is ...

  8. ASSESSING INDIVIDUAL PERFORMANCE ON INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ADOPTION: A NEW MODEL

    OpenAIRE

    Diah Hari Suryaningrum

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to propose a new model in assessing individual performance on information technology adoption. The new model to assess individual performance was derived from two different theories: decomposed theory of planned behavior and task-technology fit theory. Although many researchers have tried to expand these theories, some of their efforts might lack of theoretical assumptions. To overcome this problem and enhance the coherence of the integration, I used a theory from social scien...

  9. Performance assessment for underground radioactive waste disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    A waste disposal system comprises a number of subsystems and components. The performance of most systems can be demonstrated only indirectly because of the long period that would be required to test them. This report gives special attention to performance assessment of subsystems within the total waste disposal system, and is an extension of an IAEA report on Safety Assessment for the Underground Disposal of Radioactive Wastes

  10. Conceptual framework for performance assessment: competency, competence and performance in the context of assessments in healthcare--deciphering the terminology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Ramachandran, Sankaranarayanan

    2012-01-01

    The definitions of performance, competence and competency are not very clear in the literature. The assessment of performance and the selection of tools for this purpose depend upon a deep understanding of each of the above terms and the factors influencing performance. In this article, we distinguish between competence and competency and explain the relationship of competence and performance in the light of the Dreyfus model of skills acquisition. We briefly critique the application of the principles described by Miller to the modern assessment tools and distinguish between assessment of actual performance in workplace settings and the observed performance, demonstrated by the candidates in the workplace or simulated settings. We describe a modification of the Dreyfus model applicable to assessments in healthcare and propose a new model for the assessment of performance and performance rating scale (PRS) based on this model. We propose that the use of adapted versions of this PRS will result in benchmarking of performance and allowing the candidates to track their progression of skills in various areas of clinical practice.

  11. Performance and Cognitive Assessment in 3-D Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrer, Nolan E.; Ernst, Jeremy V.; Branoff, Theodore J.; Clark, Aaron C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate identifiable differences between performance and cognitive assessment scores in a 3-D modeling unit of an engineering drafting course curriculum. The study aimed to provide further investigation of the need of skill-based assessments in engineering/technical graphics courses to potentially increase…

  12. Visual art teachers and performance assessment methods in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the competencies of visual arts teachers in using performance assessment methods, and to ascertain the extent to which the knowledge, skills and experiences of teachers affect their competence in using assessment strategies in their classroom. The study employs a qualitative research design; ...

  13. Data on Student Performance Under Different Forms of Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Russell

    1976-01-01

    Recognition of various abilities and skills in university degree work, and the development of an appropriate range of assessment modes to test these abilities, presupposes that students will perform differently under the various forms of assessment. The limited data available to test this supposition are reviewed and analysis of one geography…

  14. Performance Assessment of the Masses in 30 Seconds or Less

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunbar, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Performance assessment does not have to be a time-consuming ordeal; it is a great way to assess our students' skills. It is essential to create a rubric that is simple, quick, and objective. This article discusses the process of creating a rubric as well as showing a rubric used by the author in her general music classroom for several years.…

  15. Self- and peer-assessments of ambulance drivers' driving performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sundström

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to develop and examine the quality of the Ambulance Driver Self-assessment Questionnaire (ADSQ and the Ambulance Driver Peer-assessment Questionnaire (ADPQ measuring aspects of, driving performance, driving style and driving competence. In addition the ADSQ measures self-reflection and safety-attitudes. The aim of the study was also to examine ambulance drivers' self- and peer-assessments as well as to examine the accuracy of self-assessments by comparing self-assessed and peer-assessed driving performance, driving style and competence. 76 ambulance drivers employed at two ambulance stations in northern Sweden completed ADSQ and ADPQ. Item analyses were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the items, and based on the results some revisions were made to improve the questionnaires. The revised questionnaires were functioning rather well, although some subscale demonstrated low internal consistency. Subscale inter-correlations provided support for construct validity. Self- and peer-assessments indicated safe driving performance and good driver competence, which is positive from a traffic safety perspective. A comparison of mean self- and peer-assessment ratings, controlling for age, gender and driving experience showed no significant differences, except for the subscale overtaking. This indicates that ambulance drivers' self-assessments are realistic in most areas.

  16. Performance Objective for Tank Farm Closure Risk Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.; KNEPP, A.J.; BADDEN, J.

    2003-01-01

    To be meaningful, results from a numeric risk assessment of the consequences of an action must be compared against the standards for such an action. That is, before one disposes of waste or closes a facility with waste, one must show that the disposal or closure action protects the public health and safety and the environment. These standards are called performance objectives. Regulations requiring performing performance assessments, (whether federal ones like the Department of Energy [DOE] Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management and its implementing guides or Washington State ones like the regulations implementing the Washington Administrative Code [WAC] 173-340 ''Model Toxics Control Act - Cleanup''), usually require that the determination of performance objectives be one of the first steps performed. These performance objectives not only set comparison level for the numeric results, but also define the media, pathways, exposure scenarios (receptors), spatial locations, and times that the performance assessment must consider. Thus, a performance objective consists of a compliance level, place(s) of compliance, and time(s) of compliance. Performance objectives are not the levels that a regulatory agency will enforce in a permit or authorization. Those levels, often called enforcement levels, will be set in the permit or authorization. Rather, performance objectives are those levels against which the results of the numeric simulation will be compared to judge the success of the proposed cleanup or disposal actions. Additional comparison levels may be requested for information purposes, but are not officially part of the decision on the adequacy of the proposed action. To emphasize that the performance objectives discussed in this document are not regulatory performance objectives, the three components of the performance objective will be renamed in this document as assessment standard, point(s) of assessment, and time(s) of assessment. However, whenever

  17. Subjective and objective performance assessment : Performance pay at Trelleborg Forsheda AB

    OpenAIRE

    Luotonen, David; Hasselström, Markus

    2009-01-01

      The purpose of this thesis is to understand the opinions and potential effects of objective and subjective assessments of performance as a basis for performance pay for blue-collar workers. The study takes a qualitative approach to find out how and why four companies - Trelleborg Forsheda, Finnveden Powertrain, Isaberg Rapid and Parker Hannifin- work with salaries, incentive system and performance assessment the way they do. The concept of individual salary is central in this thesis, and in...

  18. 10 CFR 63.114 - Requirements for performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... processes of engineered barriers in the performance assessment, including those processes that would adversely affect the performance of natural barriers. Degradation, deterioration, or alteration processes of... surrounding region to the extent necessary, and information on the design of the engineered barrier system...

  19. The Concept of Performance Levels in Criterion-Referenced Assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitson, Mal

    The concept of performance levels in criterion-referenced assessment is explored by applying the idea to different types of tests commonly used in schools, mastery tests (including diagnostic tests) and achievement tests. In mastery tests, a threshold performance standard must be established for each criterion. Attainment of this threshold…

  20. The assessment and treatment of performance anxiety in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D B; Agras, W S

    1991-05-01

    Performance anxiety in musicians may be severe enough to require intervention but has been the subject of relatively little clinical research. The authors' objectives were to describe the results of a comprehensive clinical and laboratory assessment and to perform a double-blind, placebo-controlled study comparing buspirone, cognitive-behavior therapy, and the combination of these treatments for performance anxiety. Ninety-four subjects were recruited by mass media announcements and were seen in a university-based outpatient psychiatric clinic. Assessments were 1) questionnaires for all 94 subjects, 2) diagnostic interview of 50 subjects, and 3) laboratory performance of 34 subjects. Treatment conditions were 1) 6 weeks of buspirone, 2) 6 weeks of placebo, 3) a five-session, group cognitive-behavior therapy program with buspirone, or 4) the cognitive-behavior therapy program with placebo. Treatment outcome measures included subjective anxiety ratings and heart rate measures during a laboratory performance, a questionnaire measure of performance confidence, and a blind rating of musical performance quality. All subjects fulfilled criteria for DSM-III-R social phobia. Of the 15 full-time professional musicians, ten had tried propranolol and three had stopped performing. Most of the subjects had substantial anxiety and heart rate increases during laboratory speech and musical performances. Cognitive-behavior therapy resulted in statistically significant reductions in subjective anxiety, improved quality of musical performance, and improved performance confidence. Buspirone was not an effective treatment. Cognitive-behavior therapy is a viable treatment approach for performance anxiety in musicians.

  1. ANALYSING PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN PUBLIC SERVICES: HOW USEFUL IS THE CONCEPT OF A PERFORMANCE REGIME?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Steve; Nutley, Sandra; Downe, James; Grace, Clive

    2016-03-01

    Approaches to performance assessment have been described as 'performance regimes', but there has been little analysis of what is meant by this concept and whether it has any real value. We draw on four perspectives on regimes - 'institutions and instruments', 'risk regulation regimes', 'internal logics and effects' and 'analytics of government' - to explore how the concept of a multi-dimensional regime can be applied to performance assessment in public services. We conclude that the concept is valuable. It helps to frame comparative and longitudinal analyses of approaches to performance assessment and draws attention to the ways in which public service performance regimes operate at different levels, how they change over time and what drives their development. Areas for future research include analysis of the impacts of performance regimes and interactions between their visible features (such as inspections, performance indicators and star ratings) and the veiled rationalities which underpin them.

  2. Performance assessment techniques for groundwater recovery and treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, G.L. [Environmental Resources Management, Inc., Exton, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    Groundwater recovery and treatment (pump and treat systems) continue to be the most commonly selected remedial technology for groundwater restoration and protection programs at hazardous waste sites and RCRA facilities nationwide. Implementing a typical groundwater recovery and treatment system includes the initial assessment of groundwater quality, characterizing aquifer hydrodynamics, recovery system design, system installation, testing, permitting, and operation and maintenance. This paper focuses on methods used to assess the long-term efficiency of a pump and treat system. Regulatory agencies and industry alike are sensitive to the need for accurate assessment of the performance and success of groundwater recovery systems for contaminant plume abatement and aquifer restoration. Several assessment methods are available to measure the long-term performance of a groundwater recovery system. This paper presents six assessment techniques: degree of compliance with regulatory agency agreement (Consent Order of Record of Decision), hydraulic demonstration of system performance, contaminant mass recovery calculation, system design and performance comparison, statistical evaluation of groundwater quality and preferably, integration of the assessment methods. Applying specific recovery system assessment methods depends upon the type, amount, and quality of data available. Use of an integrated approach is encouraged to evaluate the success of a groundwater recovery and treatment system. The methods presented in this paper are for engineers and corporate management to use when discussing the effectiveness of groundwater remediation systems with their environmental consultant. In addition, an independent (third party) system evaluation is recommended to be sure that a recovery system operates efficiently and with minimum expense.

  3. Machine performance assessment and enhancement for a hexapod machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mou, J.I. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); King, C. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States). Integrated Manufacturing Systems Center

    1998-03-19

    The focus of this study is to develop a sensor fused process modeling and control methodology to model, assess, and then enhance the performance of a hexapod machine for precision product realization. Deterministic modeling technique was used to derive models for machine performance assessment and enhancement. Sensor fusion methodology was adopted to identify the parameters of the derived models. Empirical models and computational algorithms were also derived and implemented to model, assess, and then enhance the machine performance. The developed sensor fusion algorithms can be implemented on a PC-based open architecture controller to receive information from various sensors, assess the status of the process, determine the proper action, and deliver the command to actuators for task execution. This will enhance a hexapod machine`s capability to produce workpieces within the imposed dimensional tolerances.

  4. Incorrect Weighting of Absolute Performance in Self-Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey, Scott A.; Cozzarin, Brian

    Students spend much of their life in an attempt to assess their aptitude for numerous tasks. For example, they expend a great deal of effort to determine their academic standing given a distribution of grades. This research finds that students use their absolute performance, or percentage correct as a yardstick for their self-assessment, even when relative standing is much more informative. An experiment shows that this reliance on absolute performance for self-evaluation causes a misallocation of time and financial resources. Reasons for this inappropriate responsiveness to absolute performance are explored.

  5. Treatment of uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Olague, N.E.; Gallegos, D.P.; Rao, R.R.

    1991-01-01

    Uncertainties arise from a number of different sources in low-level waste performance assessment. In this paper the types of uncertainty are reviewed, and existing methods for quantifying and reducing each type of uncertainty are discussed. These approaches are examined in the context of the current low-level radioactive waste regulatory performance objectives, which are deterministic. The types of uncertainty discussed in this paper are model uncertainty, uncertainty about future conditions, and parameter uncertainty. The advantages and disadvantages of available methods for addressing uncertainty in low-level waste performance assessment are presented. 25 refs

  6. Performance Assessment for Pump-and-Treat Closure or Transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truex, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Johnson, Christian D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Becker, Dave J. [U.S. Army Corps of Engineers Environmental and Munitions Center of Expertise, Huntsville, AL (United States); Lee, Michelle H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Nimmons, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-29

    A structured performance assessment approach is useful to evaluate pump-and-treat (P&T) groundwater remediation, which has been applied at numerous sites. Consistent with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Groundwater Road Map, performance assessment during remedy implementation may be needed, and should consider remedy optimization, transition to alternative remedies, or remedy closure. In addition, a recent National Research Council study examined groundwater remediation at complex contaminated sites and concluded that it may be beneficial to evaluate remedy performance and the potential need for transition to alternative approaches at these sites. The intent of this document is to provide a structured approach for assessing P&T performance to support a decision to optimize, transition, or close a P&T remedy. The process presented in this document for gathering information and performing evaluations to support P&T remedy decisions includes use of decision elements to distinguish between potential outcomes of a remedy decision. Case studies are used to augment descriptions of decision elements and to illustrate each type of outcome identified in the performance assessment approach. The document provides references to resources for tools and other guidance relevant to conducting the P&T assessment.

  7. Performance Analysis of the Capability Assessment Tool for Sustainable Manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enda Crossin

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the performance of a novel capability assessment tool, developed to identify capability gaps and associated training and development requirements across the supply chain for environmentally-sustainable manufacturing. The tool was developed to assess 170 capabilities that have been clustered with respect to key areas of concern such as managing energy, water, material resources, carbon emissions and waste as well as environmental management practices for sustainability. Two independent expert teams used the tool to assess a sample group of five first and second tier sports apparel and footwear suppliers within the supply chain of a global sporting goods manufacturer in Asia. The paper addresses the reliability and robustness of the developed assessment method by formulating the expected links between the assessment results. The management practices of the participating suppliers were shown to be closely connected to their performance in managing their resources and emissions. The companies’ initiatives in implementing energy efficiency measures were found to be generally related to their performance in carbon emissions management. The suppliers were also asked to undertake a self-assessment by using a short questionnaire. The large gap between the comprehensive assessment and these in-house self-assessments revealed the suppliers’ misconceptions about their capabilities.

  8. Assessing performance and validating finite element simulations using probabilistic knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolin, Ronald M.; Rodriguez, E. A. (Edward A.)

    2002-01-01

    Two probabilistic approaches for assessing performance are presented. The first approach assesses probability of failure by simultaneously modeling all likely events. The probability each event causes failure along with the event's likelihood of occurrence contribute to the overall probability of failure. The second assessment method is based on stochastic sampling using an influence diagram. Latin-hypercube sampling is used to stochastically assess events. The overall probability of failure is taken as the maximum probability of failure of all the events. The Likelihood of Occurrence simulation suggests failure does not occur while the Stochastic Sampling approach predicts failure. The Likelihood of Occurrence results are used to validate finite element predictions.

  9. Avaliação exergética de processos psicrométricos Exergetic evaluation of psychrometric processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Martins Leal

    2000-12-01

    the SIGEP's control volume. These variables, plus the local atmospheric pressure, were enough to determine the state of the air inlet and outlet, which made possible the energetic and exergetic analysis. It was possible to conclude that the methodology based on the evaluation through the First and Second Principle of Thermodynamics was technically viable on the analysis of psychrometric processes. It can be observed that energetic evaluation, in almost every process generated by the SIGEP, provided less rigorous criteria than exergetic analysis. It can be also concluded that the equipments attached to the SIGEP had a high level of irreversibility due to the fact they were designed to meet a specific psychrometric condition, regardless of the level of efficiency at that time.

  10. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, Frederick W.; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  11. Self-assessed performance improves statistical fusion of image labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bryan, Frederick W., E-mail: frederick.w.bryan@vanderbilt.edu; Xu, Zhoubing; Asman, Andrew J.; Allen, Wade M. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Reich, Daniel S. [Translational Neuroradiology Unit, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland 20892 (United States); Landman, Bennett A. [Electrical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); Biomedical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States); and Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235 (United States)

    2014-03-15

    Purpose: Expert manual labeling is the gold standard for image segmentation, but this process is difficult, time-consuming, and prone to inter-individual differences. While fully automated methods have successfully targeted many anatomies, automated methods have not yet been developed for numerous essential structures (e.g., the internal structure of the spinal cord as seen on magnetic resonance imaging). Collaborative labeling is a new paradigm that offers a robust alternative that may realize both the throughput of automation and the guidance of experts. Yet, distributing manual labeling expertise across individuals and sites introduces potential human factors concerns (e.g., training, software usability) and statistical considerations (e.g., fusion of information, assessment of confidence, bias) that must be further explored. During the labeling process, it is simple to ask raters to self-assess the confidence of their labels, but this is rarely done and has not been previously quantitatively studied. Herein, the authors explore the utility of self-assessment in relation to automated assessment of rater performance in the context of statistical fusion. Methods: The authors conducted a study of 66 volumes manually labeled by 75 minimally trained human raters recruited from the university undergraduate population. Raters were given 15 min of training during which they were shown examples of correct segmentation, and the online segmentation tool was demonstrated. The volumes were labeled 2D slice-wise, and the slices were unordered. A self-assessed quality metric was produced by raters for each slice by marking a confidence bar superimposed on the slice. Volumes produced by both voting and statistical fusion algorithms were compared against a set of expert segmentations of the same volumes. Results: Labels for 8825 distinct slices were obtained. Simple majority voting resulted in statistically poorer performance than voting weighted by self-assessed performance

  12. Assessment of Student Music Performances Using Deep Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar Ashis Pati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Music performance assessment is a highly subjective task often relying on experts to gauge both the technical and aesthetic aspects of the performance from the audio signal. This article explores the task of building computational models for music performance assessment, i.e., analyzing an audio recording of a performance and rating it along several criteria such as musicality, note accuracy, etc. Much of the earlier work in this area has been centered around using hand-crafted features intended to capture relevant aspects of a performance. However, such features are based on our limited understanding of music perception and may not be optimal. In this article, we propose using Deep Neural Networks (DNNs for the task and compare their performance against a baseline model using standard and hand-crafted features. We show that, using input representations at different levels of abstraction, DNNs can outperform the baseline models across all assessment criteria. In addition, we use model analysis techniques to further explain the model predictions in an attempt to gain useful insights into the assessment process. The results demonstrate the potential of using supervised feature learning techniques to better characterize music performances.

  13. Performance Standards': Utility for Different Uses of Assessments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Linn

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance standards are arguably one of the most controversial topics in educational measurement. There are uses of assessments such as licensure and certification where performance standards are essential. There are many other uses, however, where performance standards have been mandated or become the preferred method of reporting assessment results where the standards are not essential to the use. Distinctions between essential and nonessential uses of performance standards are discussed. It is argued that the insistence on reporting in terms of performance standards in situations where they are not essential has been more harmful than helpful. Variability in the definitions of proficient academic achievement by states for purposes of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 is discussed and it is argued that the variability is so great that characterizing achievement is meaningless. Illustrations of the great uncertainty in standards are provided.

  14. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govaerts, M J B; Van de Wiel, M W J; Schuwirth, L W T; Van der Vleuten, C P M; Muijtjens, A M M

    2013-08-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using theoretical frameworks of social cognition and person perception, we explored raters' implicit performance theories, use of task-specific performance schemas and the formation of person schemas during WBA. We used think-aloud procedures and verbal protocol analysis to investigate schema-based processing by experienced (N = 18) and inexperienced (N = 16) raters (supervisor-raters in general practice residency training). Qualitative data analysis was used to explore schema content and usage. We quantitatively assessed rater idiosyncrasy in the use of performance schemas and we investigated effects of rater expertise on the use of (task-specific) performance schemas. Raters used different schemas in judging trainee performance. We developed a normative performance theory comprising seventeen inter-related performance dimensions. Levels of rater idiosyncrasy were substantial and unrelated to rater expertise. Experienced raters made significantly more use of task-specific performance schemas compared to inexperienced raters, suggesting more differentiated performance schemas in experienced raters. Most raters started to develop person schemas the moment they began to observe trainee performance. The findings further our understanding of processes underpinning judgment and decision making in WBA. Raters make and justify judgments based on personal theories and performance constructs. Raters' information processing seems to be affected by differences in rater expertise. The results of this study can help to improve rater training, the design of assessment instruments and decision making in WBA.

  15. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading

  16. Effect of Engaging Trainees by Assessing Peer Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loumann Krogh, Charlotte; Ringsted, Charlotte; Kromann, Charles B

    2014-01-01

    during training. Outcome measures were in-training performance and performance, both of which were measured two weeks after the course. Trainees' performances were videotaped and assessed by two expert raters using a checklist that included a global rating. Trainees' satisfaction with the training...... was also evaluated. RESULTS: The intervention group obtained a significantly higher overall in-training performance score than the control group: mean checklist score 20.87 (SD 2.51) versus 19.14 (SD 2.65) P = 0.003 and mean global rating 3.25 SD (0.99) versus 2.95 (SD 1.09) P = 0.014. Postcourse...

  17. White paper updating conclusions of 1998 ILAW performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MANN, F.M.

    2000-05-11

    The purpose of this document is to provide a comparison of the estimated immobilized low-activity waste (LAW) disposal system performance against established performance objectives using the beat estimates for parameters and models to describe the system. The principal advances in knowledge since the last performance assessment (known as the 1998 ILAW PA [Mann 1998a]) have been in site specific information and data on the waste form performance for BNFL, Inc. relevant glass formulations. The white paper also estimates the maximum release rates for technetium and other key radionuclides and chemicals from the waste form. Finally, this white paper provides limited information on the impact of changes in waste form loading.

  18. Current perspectives on performance assessment at the NRC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coplan, S.M.; Eisenberg, N.A.; Federline, M.V.; Randall, J.D.

    1992-01-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff is engaging in a number of activities involving performance assessment in order to support NRC's program in high-level waste management. Broad areas of activity include: (1) reactive work responding to products and activities of the Department of Energy (DOE), (2) proactive work, including development of an independent performance assessment capability, development of guidance for DOE, support for technical and programmatic integration, (3) a program of regulatory research, and (4) participation in a number of international activities. As the U.S. high-level waste program continues to mature, performance assessment is seen as playing a more prominent role in evaluating safety and focussing technical activities

  19. Assessment of Work Performance (AWP)--development of an instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandqvist, Jan L; Törnquist, Kristina B; Henriksson, Chris M

    2006-01-01

    Adequate work assessments are a matter of importance both for individuals and society [5,29,31,38,40,46,52]. However, there is a lack of adequate and reliable instruments for use in work rehabilitation [14,15,20,21,31,44]. The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate an observation instrument for assessing work performance, the AWP (Assessment of Work Performance). The purpose of the 14-item instrument is to assess the individual's observable working skills in three different areas: motor skills, process skills, and communication and interaction skills. This article describes the development and results of preliminary testing of the AWP. The testing indicates a satisfactory face validity and utility for the AWP and supports further research and testing of the instrument.

  20. SKI SITE-94. Deep Repository Performance Assessment Project. Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-02-01

    The function of SITE-94 is to provide the Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) with the capacity and supporting knowledge needed for reviewing the Swedish nuclear industry's R and D programs and for reviewing license applications, as stipulated in Swedish legislation. The report is structured as a Performance Assessment exercise needed for input to decisions regarding repository safety, but the SITE-94 is neither a safety assessment nor a model for future assessments to be undertaken by the prospective licensee. The specific project objectives of SITE-94 comprise site evaluation, performance assessment methodology, canister integrity and radionuclide release and transport calculations. The main report (SKI-R--96-36) gives a detailed description of the many inter-related studies undertaken as part of the research project, while the present report presents a condensed summary of the main report. 46 refs

  1. User's guide for remote access of the Performance Assessment Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.R.; Kostelnik, K.M.

    1991-03-01

    The Performance Assessment Center (PAC) was established by the Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program to provide technical assistance to support the development of low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. This user's manual provides guidance to remote users of the PAC. Information is presented on how remote users may most effectively access and use the systems available at the Performance Assessment Center in Idaho Falls, Idaho. Access requirements and operating procedures are presented to assist the first-time PAC user. This manual also provides brief descriptions of each code available on the system

  2. Input data required for specific performance assessment codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, R.R.; Garcia, R.S.; Starmer, R.J.; Dicke, C.A.; Leonard, P.R.; Maheras, S.J.; Rood, A.S.; Smith, R.W.

    1992-02-01

    The Department of Energy's National Low-Level Waste Management Program at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory generated this report on input data requirements for computer codes to assist States and compacts in their performance assessments. This report gives generators, developers, operators, and users some guidelines on what input data is required to satisfy 22 common performance assessment codes. Each of the codes is summarized and a matrix table is provided to allow comparison of the various input required by the codes. This report does not determine or recommend which codes are preferable

  3. Building quality into performance and safety assessment software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojciechowski, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Quality assurance is integrated throughout the development lifecycle for performance and safety assessment software. The software used in the performance and safety assessment of a Canadian deep geological repository (DGR) follows the CSA quality assurance standard CSA-N286.7 [1], Quality Assurance of Analytical, Scientific and Design Computer Programs for Nuclear Power Plants. Quality assurance activities in this standard include tasks such as verification and inspection; however, much more is involved in producing a quality software computer program. The types of errors found with different verification methods are described. The integrated quality process ensures that defects are found and corrected as early as possible. (author)

  4. Iodine-129 Dose in LLW Disposal Facility Performance Assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilhite, E.L.

    1999-01-01

    Iodine-129 has the lowest Performance Assessment derived inventory limit in SRS disposal facilities. Because iodine is concentrated in the body to one organ, the thyroid, it has been thought that dilution with stable iodine would reduce the dose effects of 129I.Examination of the dose model used to establish the Dose conversion factor for 129I shows that, at the levels considered in performance assessments of low-level waste disposal facilities, the calculated 129I dose already accounts for ingestion of stable iodine. At higher than normal iodine ingestion rates, the uptake of iodine by the thyroid itself decrease, which effectively cancels out the isotopic dilution effect

  5. Comparison Based on Exergetic Analyses of Two Hot Air Engines: A Gamma Type Stirling Engine and an Open Joule Cycle Ericsson Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houda Hachem

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a comparison of exergetic models between two hot air engines (a Gamma type Stirling prototype having a maximum output mechanical power of 500 W and an Ericsson hot air engine with a maximum power of 300 W is made. Referring to previous energetic analyses, exergetic models are set up in order to quantify the exergy destruction and efficiencies in each type of engine. The repartition of the exergy fluxes in each part of the two engines are determined and represented in Sankey diagrams, using dimensionless exergy fluxes. The results show a similar proportion in both engines of destroyed exergy compared to the exergy flux from the hot source. The compression cylinders generate the highest exergy destruction, whereas the expansion cylinders generate the lowest one. The regenerator of the Stirling engine increases the exergy resource at the inlet of the expansion cylinder, which might be also set up in the Ericsson engine, using a preheater between the exhaust air and the compressed air transferred to the hot heat exchanger.

  6. THE NEED AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN HIGHER EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella KECZER

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Motivating employees is one of the highly important areas of human resources management (HRM. As people are best motivated by their intention to satisfy their own needs, the task of HRM is to satisfy the employees’ need for remuneration in a fair and just manner. This can be achieved if an organization operates a formal and professional system of performance assessment. The importance of having such a system in place is further confirmed by the fact that six out of the seven large Hungarian corporations reviewed operate a global system of performance assessment. In areas where intellectual activity plays a dominant role, as is the case with higher education, omitting an evaluation of the performance of „white collar workers” is, of course, out of the question. Satisfying the employees’ need for fair remuneration in the public sphere, including higher education (HE, is essentially hindered by a lack of evaluating individual performance and, hence, performance-dependent wages and financial benefits derived from extra performance. Given the centrally determined and uniform wage schedule, there is almost no opportunity to differentiate between the performance of one person in a given wage category and another. This entails, at least for a large part of public employees and public servants, a lack of drive to perform better than average. These people could be forced to make greater efforts only by way of measuring their performance on an individual basis and applying a wage system that would rely on individual output and represent a system of wages that would be both differentiated and motivating. In the first part of my paper, I will present the performance assessment methods applied by the large Hungarian enterprises included in the investigation. The second part will deal with the issue of how all of this can be actually implemented in HE.

  7. Assessing the impact of blended learning on student performance

    OpenAIRE

    Do Won Kwak; Flavio Menezes; Carl Sherwood

    2013-01-01

    This paper assesses quantitatively the impact on student performance of a blended learning experiment within a large undergraduate first year course in statistics for business and economics students. We employ a differences- in-difference econometric approach, which controls for differences in student characteristics and course delivery method, to evaluate the impact of blended learning on student performance. Although students in the course manifest a preference for live lectures over online...

  8. Guidance on the Technology Performance Level (TPL) Assessment Methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Jochem [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Roberts, Jesse D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Babarit, Aurelien [Ecole Centrale de Nantes (France). Lab. of Research in Hydrodynamics, Energetics and Atmospheric Environment (LHEEA); Costello, Ronan [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Bull, Diana L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Neilson, Kim [Ramboll, Copenhagen (Denmark); Bittencourt, Claudio [DNV GL, London (United Kingdom); Kennedy, Ben [Wave Venture, Penstraze (United Kingdom); Malins, Robert Joseph [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Dykes, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-09-01

    This document presents the revised Technology Performance Level (TPL) assessment methodology. There are three parts to this revised methodology 1) the Stakeholder Needs and Assessment Guidance (this document), 2) the Technical Submission form, 3) the TPL scoring spreadsheet. The TPL assessment is designed to give a technology neutral or agnostic assessment of any wave energy converter technology. The focus of the TPL is on the performance of the technology in meeting the customer’s needs. The original TPL is described in [1, 2] and those references also detail the critical differences in the nature of the TPL when compared to the more widely used technology readiness level (TRL). (Wave energy TRL is described in [3]). The revised TPL is particularly intended to be useful to investors and also to assist technology developers to conduct comprehensive assessments in a way that is meaningful and attractive to investors. The revised TPL assessment methodology has been derived through a structured Systems Engineering approach. This was a formal process which involved analyzing customer and stakeholder needs through the discipline of Systems Engineering. The results of the process confirmed the high level of completeness of the original methodology presented in [1] (as used in the Wave Energy Prize judging) and now add a significantly increased level of detail in the assessment and an improved more investment focused structure. The revised TPL also incorporates the feedback of the Wave Energy Prize judges.

  9. The balanced scorecard: sustainable performance assessment for forensic laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houck, Max; Speaker, Paul J; Fleming, Arron Scott; Riley, Richard A

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of the balanced scorecard into the laboratory management environment. The balanced scorecard is a performance measurement matrix designed to capture financial and non-financial metrics that provide insight into the critical success factors for an organization, effectively aligning organization strategy to key performance objectives. The scorecard helps organizational leaders by providing balance from two perspectives. First, it ensures an appropriate mix of performance metrics from across the organization to achieve operational excellence; thereby the balanced scorecard ensures that no single or limited group of metrics dominates the assessment process, possibly leading to long-term inferior performance. Second, the balanced scorecard helps leaders offset short term performance pressures by giving recognition and weight to long-term laboratory needs that, if not properly addressed, might jeopardize future laboratory performance. Copyright © 2012 Forensic Science Society. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessment of Residents Readiness to Perform Lumbar Puncture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Mikael Johannes Vuokko; Wienecke, Troels; Thagesen, Helle

    2017-01-01

    and 18 novices performing the procedure in a simulated, ward-like setting with a standardized patient. Procedural performance was assessed by three content experts. We used generalizability theory to explore reliability. The discriminative ability of the tool was explored by comparing performance scores......Background: Lumbar puncture is a common procedure in many specialties. The procedure serves to diagnose life-threatening conditions, often requiring rapid performance. However, junior doctors possess uncertainties regarding performing the procedure and frequently perform below expectations. Hence...... between the two groups. The contrasting groups method was used to set a pass/fail standard and the consequences of this was explored. Key results: The interviews identified that in addition to the technical aspects of the procedure, non-technical elements involving planning and conducting the procedure...

  11. Peer assessment of aviation performance: inconsistent for good reasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Wolff-Michael; Mavin, Timothy J

    2015-03-01

    Research into expertise is relatively common in cognitive science concerning expertise existing across many domains. However, much less research has examined how experts within the same domain assess the performance of their peer experts. We report the results of a modified think-aloud study conducted with 18 pilots (6 first officers, 6 captains, and 6 flight examiners). Pairs of same-ranked pilots were asked to rate the performance of a captain flying in a critical pre-recorded simulator scenario. Findings reveal (a) considerable variance within performance categories, (b) differences in the process used as evidence in support of a performance rating, (c) different numbers and types of facts (cues) identified, and (d) differences in how specific performance events affect choice of performance category and gravity of performance assessment. Such variance is consistent with low inter-rater reliability. Because raters exhibited good, albeit imprecise, reasons and facts, a fuzzy mathematical model of performance rating was developed. The model provides good agreement with observed variations. Copyright © 2014 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  12. Assessing vocal performance in complex birdsong: a novel approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberzahn, Nicole; Aubin, Thierry

    2014-08-06

    Vocal performance refers to the ability to produce vocal signals close to physical limits. Such motor skills can be used by conspecifics to assess a signaller's competitive potential. For example it is difficult for birds to produce repeated syllables both rapidly and with a broad frequency bandwidth. Deviation from an upper-bound regression of frequency bandwidth on trill rate has been widely used to assess vocal performance. This approach is, however, only applicable to simple trilled songs, and even then may be affected by differences in syllable complexity. Using skylarks (Alauda arvensis) as a birdsong model with a very complex song structure, we detected another performance trade-off: minimum gap duration between syllables was longer when the frequency ratio between the end of one syllable and the start of the next syllable (inter-syllable frequency shift) was large. This allowed us to apply a novel measure of vocal performance ¿ vocal gap deviation: the deviation from a lower-bound regression of gap duration on inter-syllable frequency shift. We show that skylarks increase vocal performance in an aggressive context suggesting that this trait might serve as a signal for competitive potential. We suggest using vocal gap deviation in future studies to assess vocal performance in songbird species with complex structure.

  13. Assessing Performance and Learning in Interprofessional Health Care Teams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekmekci, Ozgur; Sheingold, Brenda; Plack, Margaret; LeLacheur, Susan; Halvaksz, Jennifer; Lewis, Karen; Schlumpf, Karen; Greenberg, Larrie

    2015-01-01

    Teamwork has become an integral part of health care delivery. Such emphasis on teamwork has generated the need to systematically measure and improve the learning and performance of health care teams. The purpose of this study was to develop a comprehensive assessment instrument, the Interprofessional Education and Practice Inventory (IPEPI), to evaluate learning and performance in interprofessional health care teams. The 12-month study commenced in three 4-month phases: (1) a panel of 25 national and international experts participated in the Delphi process to identify factors influencing team learning and team performance; (2) the research team analyzed the findings from the two Delphi rounds to develop the IPEPI; and (3) a cohort of 27 students at the university engaged in clinical simulations to test and refine the IPEPI. Findings suggest key factors that significantly influence team learning and performance include whether the group is able to foster a climate of mutual respect, adopt effective communication strategies, develop a sense of trust, and invite contributions from others. Additionally, in assessing organizational factors, participants indicated those factors that significantly influence team learning and performance include whether the organization is patient-centered, creates a culture of safety (not blame), and supports individual and team learning. These findings highlight the critical role assessment plays in enhancing not just interprofessional education or interprofessional practice, but in essence advancing interprofessional education and practice--which requires an integrated examination of how health care professionals learn and perform in teams.

  14. Technology-Supported Performance Assessments for Middle School Geoscience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalles, D. R.; Quellmalz, E.; Rosenquist, A.; Kreikemeier, P.

    2002-12-01

    Under funding from the World Bank, the U.S. Department of Education, the National Science Foundation, and the Federal Government's Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment Program (GLOBE), SRI International has developed and piloted web-accessible performance assessments that measure K-12 students' abilities to use learning technologies to reason with scientific information and communicate evidence-based conclusions to scientific problems. This presentation will describe the assessments that pertain to geoscience at the middle school level. They are the GLOBE Assessments and EPA Phoenix, an instantiation of SRI's model of assessment design known as Integrative Performance Assessments in Technology (IPAT). All are publicly-available on the web. GLOBE engages students in scientific data collection and observation about the environment. SRI's classroom assessments for GLOBE provide sample student assessment tools and frameworks that allow teachers and students to assess how well students can use the data in scientific inquiry projects. Teachers can use classroom assessment tools on the site to develop integrated investigations for assessing GLOBE within their particular science curricula. Rubrics are provided for measuring students' GLOBE-related skills, and alignments are made to state, national, and international science standards. Sample investigations are provided about atmosphere, hydrology, landcover, soils, earth systems, and visualizations. The IPAT assessments present students with engaging problems rooted in science or social science content, plus sets of tasks and questions that require them to gather relevant information on the web, use reasoning strategies to analyze and interpret the information, use spreadsheets, word processors, and other productivity tools, and communicate evidence-based findings and recommendations. In the process of gathering information and drawing conclusions, students are assessed on how well they can operate

  15. Assessment of Innovation and Performance in the Fruit Chain; The Innovation-Performance Matrix

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trienekens, J.H.; Uffelen, van R.L.M.; Debaire, J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - This paper aims to bridge the concepts of innovation and performance and to develop a framework to assess innovation and performance in food chains. Design/methodology/approach - Based on an extensive literature search the paper identifies critical success factors (CSFs) and related

  16. Organizational Performance Assessment: Overview of Publications in National Journals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Mara Iesbik Valmorbida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the literature there are several tools that aim to assess organizational performance, such as Balanced Scorecard (BSC, National Quality Award (PNQ, Multicriteria Methodology for Decision Aiding (MCDA, Data envelopment analysis (DEA, Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP, among others. However, it is perceived in practice doubts as to choose the most appropriate for each organizational context. In this sense, it is argued that to measure the performance of the organization it is necessary that this measure is based on an instrument that allows transparency in the evaluation form, and insert those interested in the evaluation process. The credibility of an evaluation therefore depends on the ability to produce consistent information for all subjects involved in the intervention. The search for tools to improve the way to evaluate organizational performance it is increasingly necessary. The objective of this study is to identify the main tools of organizational performance assessment published in national journals in the area of Administration, Accounting and Tourism, classified by CAPES Qualis A1 to B5. The study is characterized as descriptive and qualitative documentation. We analyzed 489 articles, which resulted in the following results:(i identified the main theme of the authors and regular assessment of organizational performance, (ii from the year 2000 publications on the subject grew substantially, (iii Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA, Balanced Scorecard (BSC and Multicriteria for decision aiding methodology(MCDA-C are the most commonly used tools for evaluating performance, (iv most of the tools found in the literature are multiple criteria, (v described the process used by the tools to assess organizational performance.

  17. Methodology for assessing performance of waste management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meshkov, N.K.; Herzenberg, C.L.; Camasta, S.F.

    1988-01-01

    The newly revised draft DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, requires that DOE low-level waste shall be managed on a systematic basis using the most appropriate combination of waste generation reduction, segregation, treatment, and disposal practices so that the radioactive components are contained and the overall cost effectiveness is minimized. This order expects each site to prepare and maintain an overall waste management systems performance assessment supporting the combination of waste management practices used in generation reduction segregation, treatment, packaging, storage, and disposal. A document prepared by EG and G Idaho, Inc. for the Department of Energy called Guidance for Conduct of Waste Management Systems Performance Assessment is specifically intended to provide the approach necessary to meet the systems performance assessment requirement of DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and other applicable state regulations dealing with LLW (low-level radioactive wastes). Methods and procedures are needed for assessing the performance of a waste management system. This report addresses this need. The purpose of the methodology provided in this report is to select the optimal way to manage particular sets of waste streams from generation to disposal in a safe and cost-effective manner, and thereby assist the DOE LLW mangers in complying with the DOE Order 5820.2, Chapter 3, and the associated guidance document

  18. Counselor Competence, Performance Assessment, and Program Evaluation: Using Psychometric Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Kevin A.; Bloom, Margaret L.; Tassara, Marcel H.; Caperton, William

    2014-01-01

    Psychometric instruments have been underutilized by counselor educators in performance assessment and program evaluation efforts. As such, we conducted a review of the literature that revealed 41 instruments fit for such efforts. We described and critiqued these instruments along four dimensions--"Target Domain," "Format,"…

  19. Workplace-based assessment: raters' performance theories and constructs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govaerts, M.J.; Wiel, M.W.J. van de; Schuwirth, L.W.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der; Muijtjens, A.M.M.

    2013-01-01

    Weaknesses in the nature of rater judgments are generally considered to compromise the utility of workplace-based assessment (WBA). In order to gain insight into the underpinnings of rater behaviours, we investigated how raters form impressions of and make judgments on trainee performance. Using

  20. Data farming in support of HLA performance assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramp, A.J.; Berg, T.W. van den; Huiskamp, W.

    2014-01-01

    Performance assessment is a key factor in designing distributed simulation environments that are fit-forpurpose and cost-effective. Simulations used for training applications should provide the required level of responsiveness and interactivity. Simulations used for analysis or decision support

  1. Personnel Performance Assessment in Information Systems Outsourcing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casado-Lumbreras, Cristina; Soto-Acosta, Pedro; Colomo-Palacios, Ricardo; de Pablos, Patricia Ordonez

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a tool which uses semantic technologies for personnel performance and workplace learning assessment in outsourced information technology environments. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the tool from a technical perspective and introduces a use case that depicts the main features related to…

  2. Annual Performance Reports: 2002-2003 State Assessment Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurlow, Martha L.; Moen, Ross E.; Wiley, Hilda I.

    2005-01-01

    States and other educational entities receiving Part B funding under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) submitted their Annual Performance Reports to the U.S. Secretary of Education on or before March 31, 2004. These reports contained information on a variety of indicators, including assessment participation and performance…

  3. Performance assessment development for a LILW repository in Slovenia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeleznik, N.; Mele, I.

    2001-01-01

    Simultaneously with the site selection process for a low and intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) repository, the preliminary assessment of the influence of the specific disposal concept on the environment and on the population was developed. The performance assessment team, organized in 1997 by ARAO, prepared several basic studies in order to clarify the objectives of the performance and safety assessment (PA/SA) procedure. In 1999 also the first performance assessment of two safety cases (surface and underground) for generic site for a LILW repository was realized. In the year 2000 activities on PA/SA analyses continued. A systematic, generic list was prepared of all possible features, events and processes (FEP list) predictable for surface or underground LILW disposal in Slovenia. Recommended and selected were the most reliable scenarios with conceptual models for LILW disposal in normal and altered evolution conditions. New verification of the obtained results was done with more powerful and accurate models for the surface repository over an aquifer of lower water permeability and an underground repository in a plastic rock. The results for both generic cases under normal evolution scenarios showed that there is a negligible dose influence on members of the critical population due to the migration of radionuclides from the foreseen LILW repository. The results of the already performed work as well as plans for the future activities are presented in the paper.(author)

  4. Optimal Designs for Performance Assessments: The Subject Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkes, Jay

    Much speculation abounds concerning how expensive performance assessments are or are going to be. Recent projections indicate that, in order to achieve an acceptably high generalizability coefficient, many additional tasks may need to be added, which will enlarge costs. Such projections are, to some degree, correct, and to some degree simplistic.…

  5. Measuring the Impact of Rater Negotiation in Writing Performance Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trace, Jonathan; Janssen, Gerriet; Meier, Valerie

    2017-01-01

    Previous research in second language writing has shown that when scoring performance assessments even trained raters can exhibit significant differences in severity. When raters disagree, using discussion to try to reach a consensus is one popular form of score resolution, particularly in contexts with limited resources, as it does not require…

  6. Reliable and Valid Assessment of Clinical Bronchoscopy Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Larsen, Klaus Richter; Clementsen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    : The interrater reliability was high, with Cronbach's a = 0.86. Assessment of 3 bronchoscopies by a single rater had a generalizability coefficient of 0.84. The correlation between experience and performance was good (Pearson correlation = 0.76). There were significant differences between the groups for all...

  7. Performance Assessment of a Class of Industrial Fans With ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a statistical quality control study for on-condition monitoring of draught fans in a steelmaking process. The study proposes a procedure for obtaining consistent estimates of peak vibration levels for performance assessment the machines based on independent measurements of the variable assuming the ...

  8. Radionuclide release rates from spent fuel for performance assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtis, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    In a scenario of aqueous transport from a high-level radioactive waste repository, the concentration of radionuclides in water in contact with the waste constitutes the source term for transport models, and as such represents a fundamental component of all performance assessment models. Many laboratory experiments have been done to characterize release rates and understand processes influencing radionuclide release rates from irradiated nuclear fuel. Natural analogues of these waste forms have been studied to obtain information regarding the long-term stability of potential waste forms in complex natural systems. This information from diverse sources must be brought together to develop and defend methods used to define source terms for performance assessment models. In this manuscript examples of measures of radionuclide release rates from spent nuclear fuel or analogues of nuclear fuel are presented. Each example represents a very different approach to obtaining a numerical measure and each has its limitations. There is no way to obtain an unambiguous measure of this or any parameter used in performance assessment codes for evaluating the effects of processes operative over many millennia. The examples are intended to suggest by example that in the absence of the ability to evaluate accuracy and precision, consistency of a broadly based set of data can be used as circumstantial evidence to defend the choice of parameters used in performance assessments

  9. An importance-performance assessment of delegates' satisfaction ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An importance-performance assessment of delegates' satisfaction with the catering component of courses offered by continuing education at the University of ... of its catering component, a company would be able to make appropriate and necessary managerial decisions in order to retain and expand its customer base.

  10. Assessment of the Outreach Performance of Special Programme on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of the Outreach Performance of Special Programme on Food Security in Abia State, Nigeria. ... Four variables namely level of education, skill acquisition in off farm activities, farm size, and loan transaction costs produced significant influence on the amount of loan demanded. R2 value of 0.529 indicates that the ...

  11. The Neglected Situation: Assessment Performance and Interaction in Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Bryan

    2015-01-01

    Informed by Goffman's influential essay on "The neglected situation" this paper examines the contextual and interactive dimensions of performance in large-scale educational assessments. The paper applies Goffman's participation framework and associated theory in linguistic anthropology to examine how testing situations are framed and…

  12. Teacher Performance Assessment in Teacher Education: An Example in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Andrea; Mayer, Diane

    2012-01-01

    As part of a cross-cultural collaboration, a teacher performance assessment (TPA) was implemented during 2009 in three Malaysian institutes of teacher education. This paper reports on the TPA for graduating primary teachers in Malaysia. The investigation focused on the pre-service teachers' perceptions about whether the TPA provided them with an…

  13. Self-Assessment in Mathematics as Correlate of Performance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between students self assessment in Mathematics and academic performance in Senior Secondary School Physics. The research is descriptive and of the survey type as there was no treatment and manipulation of subjects. Instead it involves the use of questionnaire ...

  14. Operational risk assessments by supply chain professionals : process and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tazelaar, F.; Snijders, C.C.P.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the "process-performance paradox" in the assessment of operational risks by professionals in the field of operations and supply chain management (OSCM). The paradox states that although professionals with more expertise tend to decide in different ways, they often do not make better

  15. Thermodynamic analyses and assessments of various thermal energy storage systems for buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caliskan, Hakan; Dincer, Ibrahim; Hepbasli, Arif

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposing a novel latent (PCM), thermochemical and sensible (aquifer) TES combination for building heating. ► Performing comprehensive environmental, energy, exergy and sustainability analyses. ► Investigating the effect of varying dead state temperatures on the TESs. - Abstract: In this study, energetic, exergetic, environmental and sustainability analyses and their assessments are carried out for latent, thermochemical and sensible thermal energy storage (TES) systems for phase change material (PCM) supported building applications under varying environment (surrounding) temperatures. The present system consists of a floor heating system, System-I, System-II and System-III. The floor heating system stays at the building floor supported with a floor heating unit and pump. The System-I includes a latent TES system and a fan. The latent TES system is comprised of a PCM supported building envelope, in which from outside to inside; glass, transparent insulation material, PCM, air channel and insulation material are placed, respectively. Furthermore, System-II mainly has a solar-thermochemical TES while there are an aquifer TES and a heat pump in System-III. Among the TESs, the hot and cold wells of the aquifer TES have maximum exergetic efficiency values of 88.782% and 69.607% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. According to the energy efficiency aspects of TESs, the discharging processes of the latent TES and the hot well of the aquifer TES possess the minimum and maximum values of 5.782% and 94.118% at 8 °C dead state temperature, respectively. Also, the fan used with the latent TES is the most environmentally-benign system component among the devices. Furthermore, the most sustainable TES is found for the aquifer TES while the worst sustainable system is the latent TES.

  16. Deep geologic disposal. Lessons learnt from recent performance assessment studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pescatore, C.; Andersson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Performance assessment (PA) studies are part of the decision basis for the siting, operation, and closure of deep repositories of long-lived nuclear wastes. In 1995 the NEA set up the Working Group on Integrated Performance Assessments of Deep Repositories (IPAG) with the goals to analyse existing PA studies, learn about what has been produced to date, and shed light on what could be done in future studies. Ten organisations submitted their most recent PA study for analysis and discussion, including written answers to over 70 questions. Waste management programmes, disposal concepts, geologies, and different types and amounts of waste offered a unique opportunity for exchanging information, assessing progress in PA since 1990, and identifying recent trends. A report was completed whose main lessons are overviewed. (author)

  17. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to describe the performance assessment (PA) context in which near-field models have been developed and applied. An overview is given of a number of PA studies. Although the focus is on near-field models, the overview covers the full context in which the PAs have been performed, including the purpose of the studies and regulatory context. Special emphasis has been given to the scenarios analyzed in the assessments; the scenarios set the framework for model development and application. Another aspect to consider in a study of near-field modeling from the perspective of total PA is the linking between near-field and far-field assessment. (R.P.) 6 tabs

  18. Environmental performance assessment of a company of aluminum surface treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Catieri Ramalho

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to evaluate the environmental performance of a medium-sized company that provides services for surface treatment of aluminum. The treatment is known as anodizing. The research method was qualitative numerical modeling. The environmental performance of the company was organized into five constructs: atmosphere, wastewater, energy and natural resources, solid waste, and legislation and management. Nineteen indicators were chosen to explain the five constructs. Ten employees of the company prioritized the constructs and evaluated the situation of the indicators by means of a scale of assessment. By means of a mathematical model, the general performance of the environmental operation was calculated at 74.5% of the maximum possible. The indicators that most contributed to the performance not to reach 100% were consumption of electricity and water consumption. The construct of worse performance was natural and energy resources. These are the priorities for future environmental improvement actions that the company may promote.

  19. Performance assessment experience at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.W.

    1994-01-01

    The development of a performance assessment (PA) for low-level radioactive waste disposal operations at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was initiated in 1989 and is continuing. A draft PA was prepared in September 1990 and submitted to the DOE Peer Review Panel for review and comment. Recommendations were received that formed the basis for a revised PA that was completed in December 1993. The review of the revised PA is continuing. This paper reviews the experience gained in the preparation of the PA including the technical difficulties associated with performance assessment in Oak Ridge and an overview of the methods used in the PA. Changes in waste operations that resulted from the findings in the PA include improved waste acceptance criteria, waste certification, and waste management practices. The discussion includes issues that relate to the application of current performance objectives to older disposal facilities, which are being addressed as part of the CERCLA process

  20. Total-System Performance Assessment for the Yucca Mountain Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, M.L.

    2001-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is under consideration as a potential site for a repository for high-level radioactive waste. Total-system performance-assessment simulations are performed to evaluate the safety of the site. Features, events, and processes have been systematically evaluated to determine which ones are significant to the safety assessment. Computer models of the disposal system have been developed within a probabilistic framework, including both engineered and natural components. Selected results are presented for three different total-system simulations, and the behavior of the disposal system is discussed. The results show that risk is dominated by igneous activity at early times, because the robust waste-package design prevents significant nominal (non-disruptive) releases for tens of thousands of years or longer. The uncertainty in the nominal performance is dominated by uncertainties related to waste-package corrosion at early times and by uncertainties in the natural system, most significantly infiltration, at late times

  1. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  2. Hardware performance assessment recommendations and tools for baropodometric sensor systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Giacomozzi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Accurate plantar pressure measurements are mandatory in both clinical and research contexts. Differences in accuracy, precision, reliability of pressure measurement devices (PMDs prevented so far the onset of standardization processes and of reliable reference datasets. The Italian National Institute of Health (ISS approved and conducted a scientific project aimed to design, validate and implement dedicated testing methods for both in-factory and on-the-field PMD assessment. A general-purpose experimental set-up was built, complete and suitable for the assessment of PMDs based on different sensor technology, electronic conditioning and mechanical solutions. Preliminary assessments have been conducted on 5 commercial PMDs. The study lead to the definition of: i an appropriate set of instruments and procedures for PMD technical assessment; ii a minimum set of significant parameters for the technical characterization of the PMD performance; iii some recommendations to both manufacturers and end users for an appropriate use in clinics and in research context

  3. Consideration of liners and covers in performance assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phifer, Mark A. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Seitz, Robert R. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Aiken, SC (United States); Suttora, Linda C. [USDOE Enviromental Management, Washington, DC (United States)

    2014-09-18

    On-site disposal cells are in use and being considered at several United States Department of Energy (USDOE) sites as the final disposition for large amounts of waste associated with cleanup of contaminated areas and facilities. These disposal cells are typically regulated by States and/or the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) in addition to having to comply with requirements in DOE Order 435.1, Radioactive Waste Management due to the radioactive waste. The USDOE-Environmental Management Office of Site Restoration formed a working group to foster improved communication and sharing of information for personnel associated with these CERCLA disposal cells and work towards more consistent assumptions, as appropriate, for technical and policy considerations related to CERCLA risk assessments and DOE Order 435.1 performance assessments in support of a Record of Decision and Disposal Authorization Statement, respectively. One of the issues considered by the working group, which is addressed in this report, was how to appropriately consider the performance of covers and liners/leachate collections systems in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 performance assessment (PA). This same information may be appropriate for consideration within CERCLA risk assessments for these facilities. These OSDCs are generally developed to meet hazardous waste (HW) disposal design standards under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) as well as the DOE Order 435.1 performance based standards for disposal of radioactive waste. To meet the standards for HW, the facilities typically include engineered covers and liner/leachate collection systems. Thus, when considering such facilities in the context of a DOE Order 435.1 PA, there is a need to address the evolution of performance of covers and liner/leachate collection systems in the context of meeting a performance standard considering time

  4. Performance Assessment and Geometric Calibration of RESOURCESAT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhadevi, P. V.; Solanki, S. S.; Akilan, A.; Jyothi, M. V.; Nagasubramanian, V.

    2016-06-01

    Resourcesat-2 (RS-2) has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs). These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  5. Circadian rhythms in cognitive performance: implications for neuropsychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdez P

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Pablo Valdez, Candelaria Ramírez, Aída GarcíaLaboratory of Psychophysiology, School of Psychology, University of Nuevo León, Monterrey, Nuevo León, MéxicoAbstract: Circadian variations have been found in human performance, including the efficiency to execute many tasks, such as sensory, motor, reaction time, time estimation, memory, verbal, arithmetic calculations, and simulated driving tasks. Performance increases during the day and decreases during the night. Circadian rhythms have been found in three basic neuropsychological processes (attention, working memory, and executive functions, which may explain oscillations in the performance of many tasks. The time course of circadian rhythms in cognitive performance may be modified significantly in patients with brain disorders, due to chronotype, age, alterations of the circadian rhythm, sleep deprivation, type of disorder, and medication. This review analyzes the recent results on circadian rhythms in cognitive performance, as well as the implications of these rhythms for the neuropsychological assessment of patients with brain disorders such as traumatic head injury, stroke, dementia, developmental disorders, and psychiatric disorders.Keywords: human circadian rhythms, cognitive performance, neuropsychological assessment, attention, working memory, executive functions

  6. Drawing students' attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fastré, Greet; Van der Klink, Marcel; Sluijsmans, Dominique; Van Merriënboer, Jeroen

    2012-01-01

    Fastré, G. M. J., Van der Klink, M. R., Sluijsmans, D., & Van Merriënboer, J. J. G. (2012). Drawing students’ attention to relevant assessment criteria: effects on self-assessment skills and performance. Journal of Vocational Education & Training, 64(2), 185-198. doi:10.1080/13636820.2011.630537

  7. Performance assessment plans and methods for the Salt Repository Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    This document presents the preliminary plans and anticipated methods of the Salt Repository Project (SRP) for assessing the postclosure and radiological aspects of preclosure performance of a nuclear waste repository in salt. This plan is intended to be revised on an annual basis. The emphasis in this preliminary effort is on the method of conceptually dividing the system into three subsystems (the very near field, the near field, and the far field) and applying models to analyze the behavior of each subsystem and its individual components. The next revision will contain more detailed plans being developed as part of Site Characterization Plan (SCP) activities. After a brief system description, this plan presents the performance targets which have been established for nuclear waste repositories by regulatory agencies (Chapter 3). The SRP approach to modeling, including sensitivity and uncertainty techniques is then presented (Chapter 4). This is followed by a discussion of scenario analysis (Chapter 5), a presentation of preliminary data needs as anticipated by the SRP (Chapter 6), and a presentation of the SRP approach to postclosure assessment of the very near field, the near field, and the far field (Chapters 7, 8, and 9, respectively). Preclosure radiological assessment is discussed in Chapter 10. Chapter 11 presents the SRP approach to code verification and validation. Finally, the Appendix lists all computer codes anticipated for use in performance assessments. The list of codes will be updated as plans are revised

  8. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Performance Assessment Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, J.; Coons, W.E.; Eastmond, R.; Morse, J.; Chakrabarti, S.; Zurkoff, J.; Colton, I.D.; Banz, I.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Program involves a comprehensive analysis of the WIPP project with respect to the recently finalized Environmental Protection Agency regulations regarding the long-term geologic isolation of radioactive wastes. The performance assessment brings together the results of site characterization, underground experimental, and environmental studies into a rigorous determination of the performance of WIPP as a disposal system for transuranic radioactive waste. The Program consists of scenario development, geochemical, hydrologic, and thermomechanical support analyses and will address the specific containment and individual protection requirements specified in 40 CFR 191 sub-part B. Calculated releases from these interrelated analyses will be reported as an overall probability distribution of cumulative release resulting from all processes and events occurring over the 10,000 year post-closure period. In addition, results will include any doses to the public resulting from natural processes occurring over the 1,000 year post-closure period. The overall plan for the WIPP Performance Assessment Program is presented along with approaches to issues specific to the WIPP project

  9. Self-assessment of human performance errors in nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambliss, K.V.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most important approaches to improving nuclear safety is to have an effective self-assessment process in place, whose cornerstone is the identification and improvement of human performance errors. Experience has shown that significant events usually have had precursors of human performance errors. If these precursors are left uncorrected or not understood, the symptoms recur and result in unanticipated events of greater safety significance. The Institute of Nuclear Power Operations (INPO) has been championing the cause of promoting excellence in human performance in the nuclear industry. INPO's report, open-quotes Excellence in Human Performance,close quotes emphasizes the importance of several factors that play a role in human performance. They include individual, supervisory, and organizational behaviors; real-time feedback that results in specific behavior to produce safe and reliable performance; and proactive measures that remove obstacles from excellent human performance. Zack Pate, chief executive officer and president of INPO, in his report, open-quotes The Control Room,close quotes provides an excellent discussion of serious events in the nuclear industry since 1994 and compares them with the results from a recent study by the National Transportation Safety Board of airline accidents in the 12-yr period from 1978 to 1990 to draw some common themes that relate to human performance issues in the control room

  10. Assessing the performance of the Nagra HLW disposal concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, P.; Zuidema, P.; McKinley, I.G.

    1995-01-01

    This article outlines the procedures used in safety assessment and illustrates their application in evaluating the performance of a high-level waste repository. Nagra's general safety assessment methodology has five main components: formulating the aims of the analysis, defining the safety concept, scenario development, consequence analysis and interpretation of results. A safety analysis based on conservative assumptions shows that the engineered barriers of the high-level waste repository are very effective in preventing release of radionuclides; this alone is sufficient to ensure that regulatory requirements can be met. The function of the host rock is to provide a favourable environment for the engineered barrier system. (author) 8 figs

  11. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1992-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following-sections: Section I presents the most recent SALE report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALE report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  12. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1991-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  13. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1993-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following-sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  14. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.; Wharton, R.

    1990-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  15. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1993-08-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  16. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1992-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  17. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-05-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following three sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities under construction and in operation. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction SALP ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  18. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.; Nease, R.

    1990-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  19. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramey-Smith, A.M.

    1987-10-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following three sections: the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities under construction and in operation, a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility, a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction SALP ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed

  20. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allenspach, F.

    1991-02-01

    The Historical Data Summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) is produced periodically by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. This summary provides the results of the assessment for each facility by NRC region and is further divided into the following sections: Section 1 presents the most recent SALP report ratings for facilities in operation and under construction. Section 2 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each operating facility. Section 3 presents a chronological listing of all SALP report ratings for each facility under construction. For historical purposes, past construction ratings for facilities that recently have been licensed also are listed in Section 3

  1. Energetic, Exergetic, and Economic Analysis of MED-TVC Water Desalination Plant with and without Preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuri Eshoul

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Desalination is the sole proven technique that can provide the necessary fresh water in arid and semi-arid countries in sufficient quantities and meet the modern needs of a growing world population. Multi effect desalination with thermal vapour compression (MED-TVC is one of most common applications of thermal desalination technologies. The present paper presents a comprehensive thermodynamic model of a 24 million litres per day thermal desalination plant, using specialised software packages. The proposed model was validated against a real data set for a large-scale desalination plant, and showed good agreement. The performance of the MED-TVC unit was investigated using different loads, entrained vapour, seawater temperature, salinity and number of effects in two configurations. The first configuration was the MED-TVC unit without preheating system, and the second integrated the MED-TVC unit with a preheating system. The study confirmed that the thermo-compressor and its effects are the main sources of exergy destruction in these desalination plants, at about 40% and 35% respectively. The desalination plant performance with preheating mode performs well due to high feed water temperature leading to the production of more distillate water. The seawater salinity was proportional to the fuel exergy and minimum separation work. High seawater salinity results in high exergy efficiency, which is not the case with membrane technology. The plant performance of the proposed system was enhanced by using a large number of effects due to greater utilisation of energy input and higher generation level. From an economic perspective, both indicators show that using a preheating system is more economically attractive.

  2. Energetic and exergetic analysis of combined cycle Energas Boca de Jaruco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dominguez, F. J.; Tapanez, A.; Castillo, E. del; Castillo, R.; Perez, R.

    2015-01-01

    The work shows the energy and exergy evaluation of the combined cycle Energas Boca de Jaruco, which consists of five gas turbines 30 MWh five heat recovery steam OTSGs type and a steam turbine of 150 MW. This evaluation is performed without additional burning and for different percentages of utilization of these burners. The results allow to have a criterion of the efficiency of the system with and without supplementary burned, which can define strategies most appropriate system operation. (full text)

  3. Probabilistic performance assessments for evaluations of the Yucca Mountain site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rickertsen, L.D.; Noronha, C.J.

    1992-01-01

    Site suitability evaluations are conducted to determine if a repository system at a particular site will be able to meet the performance objectives for that system. Early evaluations to determine if the Yucca Mountain site is suitable for repository development have been made in the face of large uncertainties in site features and conditions. Because of these large uncertainties, the evaluations of the site have been qualitative in nature, focusing on the presence or absence of particular features or conditions thought to be important to performance, rather than on results of quantitative performance assessments. Such a qualitative approach was used in the recently completed evaluation of the Yucca Mountain site, the Early Site-Suitability Evaluation (ESSE). In spite of the qualitative approach, the ESSE was able to conclude that no disqualifying conditions are likely to be present at the site and that all of the geologic conditions that would qualify the site are likely to be met. At the same time, because of the qualitative nature of the approach used in the ESSE, the precise importance of the identified issues relative to performance could not be determined. Likewise, the importance of the issues relative to one another could not be evaluated, and, other than broad recommendations, specific priorities for future testing could not be set. The authors have conducted quantitative performance assessments for the Yucca Mountain site to address these issues

  4. Quantitative assessment of finger motor performance: Normative data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessio Signori

    Full Text Available Finger opposition movements are the basis of many daily living activities and are essential in general for manipulating objects; an engineered glove quantitatively assessing motor performance during sequences of finger opposition movements has been shown to be useful to provide reliable measures of finger motor impairment, even subtle, in subjects affected by neurological diseases. However, the obtained behavioral parameters lack published reference values.To determine mean values for different motor behavioral parameters describing the strategy adopted by healthy people in performing repeated sequences of finger opposition movements, examining associations with gender and age.Normative values for finger motor performance parameters were obtained on a sample of 255 healthy volunteers executing sequences of finger-to-thumb opposition movements, stratified by gender and over a wide range of ages. Touch duration, inter-tapping interval, movement rate, correct sequences (%, movements in advance compared with a metronome (% and inter-hand interval were assessed.Increasing age resulted in decreased movement speed, advance movements with respect to a cue, correctness of sequences, and bimanual coordination. No significant performance differences were found between male and female subjects except for the duration of the finger touch, the interval between two successive touches and their ratio.We report age- and gender-specific normal mean values and ranges for different parameters objectively describing the performance of finger opposition movement sequences, which may serve as useful references for clinicians to identify possible deficits in subjects affected by diseases altering fine hand motor skills.

  5. Performance of GPS-devices for environmental exposure assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beekhuizen, Johan; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke; Vermeulen, Roel

    2013-01-01

    Integration of individual time-location patterns with spatially resolved exposure maps enables a more accurate estimation of personal exposures to environmental pollutants than using estimates at fixed locations. Current global positioning system (GPS) devices can be used to track an individual's location. However, information on GPS-performance in environmental exposure assessment is largely missing. We therefore performed two studies. First, a commute-study, where the commute of 12 individuals was tracked twice, testing GPS-performance for five transport modes and two wearing modes. Second, an urban-tracking study, where one individual was tracked repeatedly through different areas, focused on the effect of building obstruction on GPS-performance. The median error from the true path for walking was 3.7 m, biking 2.9 m, train 4.8 m, bus 4.9 m, and car 3.3 m. Errors were larger in a high-rise commercial area (median error=7.1 m) compared with a low-rise residential area (median error=2.2 m). Thus, GPS-performance largely depends on the transport mode and urban built-up. Although ~85% of all errors were 50 m. Modern GPS-devices are useful tools for environmental exposure assessment, but large GPS-errors might affect estimates of exposures with high spatial variability.

  6. Using an energetic and exergetic life cycle analysis to assess the best applications of legumes within a biobased economy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Struik, P.C.; Sanders, J.P.M.

    2008-01-01

    In symbiosis with bacteria, legumes are able to biologically fix nitrogen from the atmosphere and therefore require less artificial nitrogen fertilizer. As the manufacturing of nitrogen fertilizers demands a lot of process energy, growing legumes may give large overall energy savings. The reduction

  7. A method for performance assessment of medical radioisotope equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerin, T.; Slavtchev, Ath.; Nedeltchev, M.; Kjurktchiev, T.

    1984-01-01

    A variety of tests and procedures exist for the performance assessment of radioisotope diagnostic equipment. The complex performance index which has been introduced to date is based on an heuristic approach. The present work tries to interconnect algorithmically the most important factors as the influence of the measurement geometry, the statistic peculiarities for lower activities and the information loss at high count rates. All this is reflected in a criterion which integrates the spatial resolution, the effective detector's field of vision, the radionuclide's sensitivity, the background count rate and the effective dead-time of the system under investigation. (Auth.)

  8. Energetic, Exergetic and Exergoeconomic Analysis of CO2 Refrigeration Systems Operating in Hot Climates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gullo, Paride; Elmegaard, Brian; Cortella, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    of the product of a R744 refrigeration solution with auxiliary compressor with those of a R744 conventional system, both of them operating in transcritical conditions. The results pointed out that the adoption of an auxiliary compressor resulted in an increase of the COP by approximately 18.7% over...... conditions. CO2 refrigeration system with parallel compression represents one of the solutions which have been proposed in the last few years in order to enhance the performance of a single-stage refrigeration system. The main target of this study is to compare the thermodynamic efficiency and the final cost...

  9. Assessing performance of flaw characterization methods through uncertainty propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miorelli, R.; Le Bourdais, F.; Artusi, X.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, we assess the inversion performance in terms of crack characterization and localization based on synthetic signals associated to ultrasonic and eddy current physics. More precisely, two different standard iterative inversion algorithms are used to minimize the discrepancy between measurements (i.e., the tested data) and simulations. Furthermore, in order to speed up the computational time and get rid of the computational burden often associated to iterative inversion algorithms, we replace the standard forward solver by a suitable metamodel fit on a database built offline. In a second step, we assess the inversion performance by adding uncertainties on a subset of the database parameters and then, through the metamodel, we propagate these uncertainties within the inversion procedure. The fast propagation of uncertainties enables efficiently evaluating the impact due to the lack of knowledge on some parameters employed to describe the inspection scenarios, which is a situation commonly encountered in the industrial NDE context.

  10. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2002-09-13

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issue (KTI) agreements, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (CNWRA 2002 [158449]), and 10 CFR Part 63. This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are utilized in this document.

  11. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeish, J.

    2003-01-01

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document

  12. Influence choreographic readiness to gymnasts final assessment of performance skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.A. Omelichyk-Ziurkalova

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : to provide a quantitative assessment and expert choreographic preparedness gymnasts. Material : the study involved eight gymnasts competition finalists in the floor exercise - female members of the Ukrainian national team in gymnastics. Results : the quantitative indicators of acrobatic and dance elements to determine the baseline assessment. Defined methods complications composition on the floor exercise by reducing the number of acrobatic lines and diagonals and increase the number of gymnastic elements. The theoretical performance of the composite sequence is improved structure and increases the difficulty of the exercise. Conclusions : in the process of composition complications need to pay more attention to the technique of performing gymnastic elements. In improving exercise choreography element replace (in some cases acrobatic element. Based on the results is planned future direction of research in order to improve the training process in gymnastics.

  13. SKI SITE-94, deep repository performance assessment project, summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    SITE-94 is a comprehensive performance assessment exercise for a hypothetical repository for spent nuclear fuel at a real site in Sweden. SITE-94 was carried out to develop the capability and tools to enable Swedish Nuclear Power Inspectorate (SKI) to review fully the proposals for a deep repository which are expected to be made by the Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company, SKB (the implementor). Sweden is one of the leading countries in the research and development of geological disposal of radioactive waste. The developed methodology for performance assessment has attracted interests from other countries. The Summary of the main report of the SITE-94 project is translated here into Japanese to allow to make the information on the methodology and the related issues available among Japanese concerned. (author)

  14. Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses for performance assessment modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doctor, P.G.

    1988-08-01

    Sensitivity and uncertainty analyses methods for computer models are being applied in performance assessment modeling in the geologic high level radioactive waste repository program. The models used in performance assessment tend to be complex physical/chemical models with large numbers of input variables. There are two basic approaches to sensitivity and uncertainty analyses: deterministic and statistical. The deterministic approach to sensitivity analysis involves numerical calculation or employs the adjoint form of a partial differential equation to compute partial derivatives; the uncertainty analysis is based on Taylor series expansions of the input variables propagated through the model to compute means and variances of the output variable. The statistical approach to sensitivity analysis involves a response surface approximation to the model with the sensitivity coefficients calculated from the response surface parameters; the uncertainty analysis is based on simulation. The methods each have strengths and weaknesses. 44 refs

  15. Empirical Assessment on Financial Regulations and Banking Sector Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igbinosa S.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examines financial regulation and banking sector performance in Nigeria. Specifically, the study determines the impact of reforms on banking sector performance and also assesses the nexus between capital adequacy and banking sector performance. Time series data for the period 1993 to 2014 was used. As an analytical tool, the study uses unit root test to determine the stationary state of the variables. We also employed the Johansson co-integration and error correction model (ECM statistical techniques to establish both short-run and long-run dynamic relationships between the endogenous and exogenous variables. The empirical findings indicate that financial regulation significantly impacts the banking sector performance while financial regulation has both short-run and long-run dynamic relationships with the banking sector performance in Nigeria. It was found that the four-period lag of capital adequacy negatively affects banking sector performance and is not statistically significant. The paper suggests that the Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN should continually make public the impacts that the various financial regulations and reforms have on the performance of Nigerian banks. Majority of the policies on financial regulation by the apex bank (CBN need to be long-run which can enable confidence of stakeholders, shareholders and the general public in the Nigerian banking industry when critically evaluated.

  16. An energetic-exergetic analysis of a residential CHP system based on PEM fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barelli, L.; Bidini, G.; Gallorini, F.; Ottaviano, A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A zero-dimensional of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) has been developed. → The electrochemical model has been validated with experimental data. → The performances of this CHP system have been evaluated through a series of simulations. → An energy/exergy analysis of the simulation results has allowed to define the PEMFC optimal operating conditions. → The PEMFC optimal operating conditions detected are: 1 atm, 353.15 K and 100% RH. -- Abstract: The use of fuel cell systems for distributed residential power generation represents an interesting alternative to traditional thermoelectric plants due to their high efficiency and the potential recovering of the heat generated by the internal electrochemical reactions. In this paper the study of a micro cogenerative (CHP) energy system based on a Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is reported. With the aim to evaluate the performance and then the feasibility of this non-conventional energy system, in consideration of thermal and electrical basic demand of a multifamily apartment blocks, a zero-dimensional PEMFC model in Aspen Plus environment has been developed. A simulations sequence has been carried out at different operating conditions of the fuel cell (varying temperature, pressure and relative humidity). Subsequently, on the basis of the obtained results, an energy/exergy analysis has been conducted to define the optimal operating conditions of the PEMFC that ensures the most efficient use of the energy and exergy inputs.

  17. SCHRAADLO: Assessment of SCHRAADLO-T performance for S scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horyna, J.

    1996-01-01

    The model SCHRAADLO has been developed to assess the environmental impact of nuclear facilities. It is a dynamic compartmental model. The model is driven by daily air concentration and daily precipitation rate. The output are time dependent concentrations in soil, different types of meat and plants, milk and whole body. There are not included aquatic and seminatural food chains. Calculations of contamination of fungi have been performed separately. 8 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Historical data summary of the Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, M.R.; Waterman, D.K.

    1987-04-01

    This report presents a history of Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) ratings for nuclear power plant facilities in operation and under construction. The SALP results are listed by NRC region in three sections: the most recent report, operating facilities, and facilities under construction. The historical data summary report has been prepared by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE). Information contained in this report has been updated to include those published SALP reports received before March 13, 1987

  19. Historical data summary of the systematic assessment of licensee performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-10-01

    This report presents a history of Systematic Assessment of Licensee Performance (SALP) ratings for nuclear power plant facilities in operation and under construction. The SALP results are listed by NRC region in three sections: the most recent report, operating facilities, and facilities under construction. The historical data summary report has been prepared by the NRC Office of Inspection and Enforcement (IE). Information contained in this report has been updated to include those published SALP reports received before September 16, 1986

  20. Using Performance in Multiple Simulated Scenarios to Assess Bronchoscopy Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konge, Lars; Arendrup, Henrik; Buchwald, Christian von

    2011-01-01

    using a standardized scoring form. Methods: The test was administered on a virtual reality bronchoscopy simulator to a total of 42 test subjects (14 senior consultants, 14 trainees and 14 medical students). The inter-rater reliability of the test procedure was explored according to examination of test......Background: International guidelines suggest that trainees should perform at least 100 flexible bronchoscopies in a supervised setting, but this number is not evidence based. An objective assessment method could provide educational feedback to trainees and help supervisors decide when basic...... competency is established. No former assessment instrument has been able to distinguish between trainees and experts. Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the validity and reliability of a new assessment procedure relating to testing operators across multiple tasks with increasing difficulty...

  1. Assessing reservoir performance risk in CO2 storage projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowden, A.R.; Rigg, A.

    2005-01-01

    One of the main issues for researchers involved with geological storage of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) has been the development of a proper methodology to assess and compare alternative CO 2 injection projects on the basis of risk. Consideration needs to be given to technical aspects, such as the risk of leakage and the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, as well as less tangible aspects such as the value and safety of geological storage of CO 2 , and potential impacts on the community and environment. The Geological Disposal of Carbon Dioxide (GEODISC), was a research program of the Australian Petroleum Cooperative Research Centre which identified 56 potential environmentally sustainable sites for CO 2 injection (ESSCIs) within Australia. Several studies were carried out, involving detailed evaluation of the suitability of 4 selected sites, including Dongara, Petrel, Gippsland and Carnarvon. The GEODISC program included a risk assessment research module which required a complete and quantified risk assessment of CO 2 injection as a storage option. Primary goals were to assess the risk of leakage, to assess the effectiveness of the intended reservoir, and to assess negative consequences to facilitate comparison of alternative sites. This paper discussed the background and risk assessment model. Key performance indicators (KPIs) were also developed to address the purpose of risk assessment. It was concluded that the RISQUE method is an appropriate approach and that potential injection projects can be measured against six KPIs including containment; effectiveness; self-funding potential; wider community benefits; community safety and community amenity. 6 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs

  2. Characterisation of radionuclide migration and plant uptake for performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathias, S. A.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Jackson, B. M.; Wheater, H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Unsaturated vegetated soils are an important component in performance assessment models used to quantify risks associated with deep engineered repositories for underground radioactive waste disposal. Therefore, experimental studies, funded by Nirex over nearly 20 years, have been undertaken at Imperial College to study the transfer of radionuclides (Cl-36, I-129, Tc-99) from contaminated groundwater into crops. In parallel to this has been a modelling programme to aid interpretation of the experimental data, obtain parameter values characterising transport in soil and plant uptake and provide new representations of near-surface processes for performance assessment. A particular challenge in achieving these objectives is that the scale of the experimental work (typically ≤1 m) is much smaller than that required in performance assessment. In this paper, a new methodology is developed for up-scaling model results obtained at the experimental scale for use in catchment scale models. The method is based on characterising soil heterogeneity using soil texture. This has the advantage of allowing hydrological and radionuclide transport parameters to be correlated in a consistent manner. An initial investigation into the calculation of effective (i.e. up-scaled) hydrological and transport parameters has been undertaken and shows the results to be potentially highly (and non-linearly) sensitive to soil properties. Consequently, they have important implications for future site characterisation programmes supporting a proposed underground waste repository. (authors)

  3. Risk-adjusted payment and performance assessment for primary care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ash, Arlene S; Ellis, Randall P

    2012-08-01

    Many wish to change incentives for primary care practices through bundled population-based payments and substantial performance feedback and bonus payments. Recognizing patient differences in costs and outcomes is crucial, but customized risk adjustment for such purposes is underdeveloped. Using MarketScan's claims-based data on 17.4 million commercially insured lives, we modeled bundled payment to support expected primary care activity levels (PCAL) and 9 patient outcomes for performance assessment. We evaluated models using 457,000 people assigned to 436 primary care physician panels, and among 13,000 people in a distinct multipayer medical home implementation with commercially insured, Medicare, and Medicaid patients. Each outcome is separately predicted from age, sex, and diagnoses. We define the PCAL outcome as a subset of all costs that proxies the bundled payment needed for comprehensive primary care. Other expected outcomes are used to establish targets against which actual performance can be fairly judged. We evaluate model performance using R(2)'s at patient and practice levels, and within policy-relevant subgroups. The PCAL model explains 67% of variation in its outcome, performing well across diverse patient ages, payers, plan types, and provider specialties; it explains 72% of practice-level variation. In 9 performance measures, the outcome-specific models explain 17%-86% of variation at the practice level, often substantially outperforming a generic score like the one used for full capitation payments in Medicare: for example, with grouped R(2)'s of 47% versus 5% for predicting "prescriptions for antibiotics of concern." Existing data can support the risk-adjusted bundled payment calculations and performance assessments needed to encourage desired transformations in primary care.

  4. Studying effect of heating plant parameters on performances of a geothermal-fuelled series cogeneration plant based on Organic Rankine Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Habka, Muhsen; Ajib, Salman

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed performances of a series ORC–CHP plant versus the heating plant parameters. • ORC–CHP power is destructed when raising the heat demand or the return temperature. • Only the high supply temperatures of the heating plant affect negatively the performances. • Reducing the return temperature optimizes both the energetic and exergetic criteria. • Increasing the heat demand improves the exergetic efficiency of the total CHP system. - Abstract: The present work aims to analyze the performance characteristics of the series Combined Heat and Power (CHP) system based on Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) under influence of the heating plant parameters without considering the chemistry of the geothermal water considered as heat source. For evaluation, energetic and exergetic criteria along with the heat transfer capacities have been determined, and also the working fluid R134a has been used. The results showed that increasing the heat demand or the return temperature and only the high supply temperatures lead to destruct the net power generated by the ORC–CHP system. While, influence of the last parameters on the total exergy efficiency and losses is different; whereas raising the heat demands optimizes these exergetic indicators, variation of the supply temperature leads to an optimum for these performances. Since increasing the return temperature has purely negative impacts on all exergetic and energetic criteria, the latter can be improved by reducing this temperature with attention to the heat transfer capacities. Thus, reduction of the return temperature about 5 °C lowers the exhausted stream losses by app. 25% and enhances the power generation by app. 52% and the total exergy efficiency by 9%

  5. Some considerations for validation of repository performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, N.

    1991-01-01

    Validation is an important aspect of the regulatory uses of performance assessment. A substantial body of literature exists indicating the manner in which validation of models is usually pursued. Because performance models for a nuclear waste repository cannot be tested over the long time periods for which the model must make predictions, the usual avenue for model validation is precluded. Further impediments to model validation include a lack of fundamental scientific theory to describe important aspects of repository performance and an inability to easily deduce the complex, intricate structures characteristic of a natural system. A successful strategy for validation must attempt to resolve these difficulties in a direct fashion. Although some procedural aspects will be important, the main reliance of validation should be on scientific substance and logical rigor. The level of validation needed will be mandated, in part, by the uses to which these models are put, rather than by the ideal of validation of a scientific theory. Because of the importance of the validation of performance assessment models, the NRC staff has engaged in a program of research and international cooperation to seek progress in this important area. 2 figs., 16 refs

  6. Geotechnical Issues in Total System Performance Assessments of Yucca Mountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HO, CLIFFORD K.; HOUSEWORTH, JIM; WILSON, MICHAEL L.

    1999-01-01

    A Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) of Yucca Mountain consists of integrated sub-models and analyses of natural and engineered systems. Examples of subsystem models include unsaturated-zone flow and transport, seepage into drifts, coupled thermal hydrologic processes, transport through the engineered barrier system, and saturated-zone flow and transport. The TSPA evaluates the interaction of important processes among these subsystems, and it determines the impact of these processes on the overall performance measures (e.g., dose rate to humans). This paper summarizes the evaluation, abstraction, and combination of these subsystem models in a TSPA calculation, and it provides background on the individual TSPA subsystem components that are most directly impacted by geotechnical issues. The potential impact that geologic features, events, and processes have on the overall performance is presented, and an evaluation of the sensitivity of TSPA calculations to these issues is also provided

  7. Individual Performance: From Common Source Bias to Institutionalized Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lotte Bøgh; Heinesen, Eskil; Pedersen, Lene Holm

    2016-01-01

    theory and the sociology of professions. Empirically, we ask whether different measures of individual performance produce different results. The investigated performance measures vary with regard to risk of common data source bias, standardization of assessment criteria, and external verification...... dimension for the same teachers: the teachers' self-reported contributions to students' academic skills, the students' marks for the year's work given by the teacher, marks in oral exams with one external examiner and the teacher, and marks in written exams with at least one external examiner....... The associations are systematically stronger when the performance measure comes from the same data source as the explanatory variables, but when separate data sources are used and the measurement scale is institutionalized, the level of external verification does not matter much. Based on institutional theory...

  8. Survey and review of near-field performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Apted, M.J.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical reactions control the performance, stability, and rate of degradation of natural and engineered barriers to waste repositories of the near field. Chemical processes are overviewed in this context. Temperature, and associated temperature gradients, are also important parameters in near-field performance assessment. The mechanical conditions of the near-field rock will be perturbed by construction of the underground repository. Mechanical analysis in the near field is further complicated by the introduction of HLW canisters and associated engineered barrier materials. Hydrological processes important to near-field performance include those associated with fluid transport. Considerable discussions and studies have been conducted on the issue of coupling among chemical-thermal-mechanical-hydrological processes; they are overviewed. (R.P.) 2 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Examining the Extremes: High and Low Performance on a Teaching Performance Assessment for Licensure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandholtz, Judith Haymore; Shea, Lauren M.

    2015-01-01

    In assessing the teaching practice of preservice teacher candidates, observers, particularly trained observers, will readily identify those who are exceptionally effective or ineffective. The anticipation is that university supervisors and mentor teachers will agree on who demonstrates extraordinary performance for a preservice candidate and who…

  10. Proposed evaluation framework for assessing operator performance with multisensor displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Despite aggressive work on the development of sensor fusion algorithms and techniques, no formal evaluation procedures have been proposed. Based on existing integration models in the literature, an evaluation framework is developed to assess an operator's ability to use multisensor, or sensor fusion, displays. The proposed evaluation framework for evaluating the operator's ability to use such systems is a normative approach: The operator's performance with the sensor fusion display can be compared to the models' predictions based on the operator's performance when viewing the original sensor displays prior to fusion. This allows for the determination as to when a sensor fusion system leads to: 1) poorer performance than one of the original sensor displays (clearly an undesirable system in which the fused sensor system causes some distortion or interference); 2) better performance than with either single sensor system alone, but at a sub-optimal (compared to the model predictions) level; 3) optimal performance (compared to model predictions); or, 4) super-optimal performance, which may occur if the operator were able to use some highly diagnostic 'emergent features' in the sensor fusion display, which were unavailable in the original sensor displays. An experiment demonstrating the usefulness of the proposed evaluation framework is discussed.

  11. Twelve tips for assessing surgical performance and use of technical assessment scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strandbygaard, Jeanett; Scheele, Fedde; Sørensen, Jette Led

    2017-01-01

    Using validated assessment scales for technical competence can help structure and standardize assessment and feedback for both the trainee and the supervisor and thereby avoid bias and drive learning. Correct assessment of operative skills can establish learning curves and allow adequate monitoring....... However, the assessment of surgical performance is not an easy task, since it includes many proxy parameters, which are hard to measure. Although numerous technical assessment scales exist, both within laparoscopic and open surgery, the validity evidence is often sparse, and this can raise doubts about...... reliability and educational outcome. Furthermore, the implementation of technical assessment scales varies due to several obstacles and doubts about accurate use. In this 12-tips article, we aim to give the readers a critical and useful appraisal of some of the common questions and misunderstandings regarding...

  12. Exergetic analysis of cogeneration plants through integration of internal combustion engine and process simulators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Leonardo de Oliveira [Petroleo Brasileiro S.A. (PETROBRAS), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)], E-mail: leonardo.carvalho@petrobras.com.br; Leiroz, Albino Kalab; Cruz, Manuel Ernani [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Mecanica], Emails: leiroz@mecanica.ufrj.br, manuel@mecanica.ufrj.br

    2010-07-01

    Internal combustion engines (ICEs) have been used in industry and power generation much before they were massively employed for transportation. Their high reliability, excellent power-to-weight ratio, and thermal efficiency have made them a competitive choice as main energy converters in small to medium sized power plants. Process simulators can model ICE powered energy plants with limited depth, due to the highly simplified ICE models used. Usually a better understanding of the global effects of different engine parameters is desirable, since the combustion process within the ICE is typically the main cause of exergy destruction in systems which utilize them. Dedicated commercial ICE simulators have reached such a degree of maturity, that they can adequately model a wide spectrum of phenomena that occur in ICEs. However, ICE simulators are unable to incorporate the remaining of power plant equipment and processes in their models. This paper presents and exploits the integration of an internal combustion engine simulator with a process simulator, so as to evaluate the construction of a fully coupled simulation platform to analyze the performance of ICE-based power plants. A simulation model of an actual cogeneration plant is used as a vehicle for application of the proposed computational methodology. The results show that by manipulating the engine mapping parameters, the overall efficiency of the plant can be improved. (author)

  13. Beginning science teachers' performances: Assessment in times of reform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budzinsky, Fie K.

    2000-10-01

    The current reform in science education and the research on effective teaching and student learning have reinforced the importance of teacher competency. To better measure performances in the teaching of science, performance assessment has been added to Connecticut's licensure process for beginning science teachers. Teaching portfolios are used to document teaching and learning over time. Portfolios, however, are not without problems. One of the major concerns with the portfolio assessment process is its subjectivity. Assessors may not have opportunities to ask clarifying or follow-up questions to enhance the interpretation of a teacher's performance. In addition, portfolios often contain components based on self-documentation, which are subjective. Furthermore, the use of portfolios raises test equity issues. These concerns present challenges for persons in charge of establishing the validity of a portfolio-based licensure process. In high-stakes decision processes, such as teaching licensure, the validity of the assessment instruments must be studied. The primary purpose of this study was to explore the criterion-related validity of the Connecticut State Department of Education's Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio by comparing the interpretations of performances from science teaching portfolios to those derived from another assessment method, the Expert Science Teaching Educational and Evaluation Model, (ESTEEM). The analysis of correlations between the Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM instrument scores was the primary method for establishing support for validity. The results indicated moderate correlations between all Beginning Science Teaching Portfolio and ESTEEM category and total variables. Multiple regression was used to examine whether differences existed in beginning science teachers' performances based on gender, poverty group, school level, and science discipline taught. None of these variables significantly contributed to the

  14. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-01-01

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  15. Hanford immobilized low-activity tank waste performance assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, F.M.

    1998-03-26

    The Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Tank Waste Performance Assessment examines the long-term environmental and human health effects associated with the planned disposal of the vitrified low-level fraction of waste presently contained in Hanford Site tanks. The tank waste is the by-product of separating special nuclear materials from irradiated nuclear fuels over the past 50 years. This waste has been stored in underground single and double-shell tanks. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low and high-activity fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The US Department of Energy (DOE) will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and plans to dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The high-level fraction will be stored at Hanford until a national repository is approved. This report provides the site-specific long-term environmental information needed by the DOE to issue a Disposal Authorization Statement that would allow the modification of the four existing concrete disposal vaults to provide better access for emplacement of the immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) containers; filling of the modified vaults with the approximately 5,000 ILAW containers and filler material with the intent to dispose of the containers; construction of the first set of next-generation disposal facilities. The performance assessment activity will continue beyond this assessment. The activity will collect additional data on the geotechnical features of the disposal sites, the disposal facility design and construction, and the long-term performance of the waste. Better estimates of long-term performance will be produced and reviewed on a regular basis. Performance assessments supporting closure of filled facilities will be issued seeking approval of those actions necessary to conclude active disposal facility operations. This report also analyzes the long-term performance of the currently planned disposal system as a basis

  16. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT AND GEOMETRIC CALIBRATION OF RESOURCESAT-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. V. Radhadevi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resourcesat-2 (RS-2 has successfully completed five years of operations in its orbit. This satellite has multi-resolution and multi-spectral capabilities in a single platform. A continuous and autonomous co-registration, geo-location and radiometric calibration of image data from different sensors with widely varying view angles and resolution was one of the challenges of RS-2 data processing. On-orbit geometric performance of RS-2 sensors has been widely assessed and calibrated during the initial phase operations. Since then, as an ongoing activity, various geometric performance data are being generated periodically. This is performed with sites of dense ground control points (GCPs. These parameters are correlated to the direct geo-location accuracy of the RS-2 sensors and are monitored and validated to maintain the performance. This paper brings out the geometric accuracy assessment, calibration and validation done for about 500 datasets of RS-2. The objectives of this study are to ensure the best absolute and relative location accuracy of different cameras, location performance with payload steering and co-registration of multiple bands. This is done using a viewing geometry model, given ephemeris and attitude data, precise camera geometry and datum transformation. In the model, the forward and reverse transformations between the coordinate systems associated with the focal plane, payload, body, orbit and ground are rigorously and explicitly defined. System level tests using comparisons to ground check points have validated the operational geo-location accuracy performance and the stability of the calibration parameters.

  17. Post-closure performance assessment treatment of the biosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, M A [UK Nirex Ltd., Harwell, Oxfordshire (United Kingdom); Egan, M J [AEA Technology, Risley, Cheshire (United Kingdom); Thorne, M C [Electrowatt, Horsham, Sussex (United Kingdom); Williams, J A [AEA Technology, Risley, Cheshire (United Kingdom)

    1996-07-01

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term isolation of the waste from those parts of the environment that are in contact with or readily available for use by humans (i.e. the biosphere). Even so, there remains the possibility that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly-sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Biosphere models are used in post-closure performance assessments to quantify the competing effects of dilution and accumulation processes on radionuclide concentrations in the accessible environment. Understanding biosphere processes and their time dependence is necessary not only to determine the radiological impact of possible future releases, but also to characterise the dynamics of transport in groundwater and the location, duration and extent of any such releases. Nirex is developing a new biosphere model for use in post-closure radiological assessments for the proposed Sellafield repository. A compartment modelling approach has been adopted, as in studies performed previously, but the system will be dynamic, allowing changes with time in both the properties of compartments and the transfers between compartments. The transport model considers both mass transport within the biosphere and the migration of radionuclides, thereby ensuring that a self-consistent description of the biosphere, in a spatially-extensive domain is maintained. The above approach is designed to link the assessment models used by the Nirex assessment team more closely into the Nirex biosphere research programme than has hitherto been possible with time-invariant assessment models. (author)

  18. Post-closure performance assessment treatment of the biosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broderick, M.A.; Egan, M.J.; Thorne, M.C.; Williams, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The Nirex strategy for radioactive waste disposal is based on a system of engineered and natural barriers, providing long-term isolation of the waste from those parts of the environment that are in contact with or readily available for use by humans (i.e. the biosphere). Even so, there remains the possibility that, on a timescale of thousands to tens of thousands of years, small quantities of poorly-sorbed, long-lived radionuclides may be released from the engineered disposal system, ultimately to emerge into the biosphere. Biosphere models are used in post-closure performance assessments to quantify the competing effects of dilution and accumulation processes on radionuclide concentrations in the accessible environment. Understanding biosphere processes and their time dependence is necessary not only to determine the radiological impact of possible future releases, but also to characterise the dynamics of transport in groundwater and the location, duration and extent of any such releases. Nirex is developing a new biosphere model for use in post-closure radiological assessments for the proposed Sellafield repository. A compartment modelling approach has been adopted, as in studies performed previously, but the system will be dynamic, allowing changes with time in both the properties of compartments and the transfers between compartments. The transport model considers both mass transport within the biosphere and the migration of radionuclides, thereby ensuring that a self-consistent description of the biosphere, in a spatially-extensive domain is maintained. The above approach is designed to link the assessment models used by the Nirex assessment team more closely into the Nirex biosphere research programme than has hitherto been possible with time-invariant assessment models. (author)

  19. Energetic and exergetic analyses of a variable compression ratio spark ignition gas engine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javaheri, A.; Esfahanian, V.; Salavati-Zadeh, A.; Darzi, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Effects of CR and λ on CNG SI ICE 1st and 2nd law analyses are experimentally studied. • The performance of pure methane and a real CNG are observed and compared. • The ratio of actual to Otto cycle thermal efficiencies is 0.78 for all cases. • At least 25.5% of destructed availability is due to combustion irreversibility. • With decrease in methane content, CNG shows more combustion irreversibility. - Abstract: Considering the significance of obtaining higher efficiencies from internal combustion engines (ICE) along with the growing role of natural gas as a fuel, the present work is set to explore the effects of compression ratio (CR hereafter) and air/fuel equivalence ratio (AFER hereafter) on the energy and exergy potentials in a gas-fueled spark ignition internal combustion engine. Experiments are carried out using a single cylinder, port injection, water cooled, variable compression ratio (VCR hereafter), spark ignition engine at a constant engine speed of 2000 rpm. The study involves CRs of 12, 14 and 16 and 10 AFERs between 0.8 and 1.25. Pure methane is utilized for the analysis. In addition, a natural gas blend with the minimum methane content among Iranian gas sources is also tested in order to investigate the effect of real natural gas on findings. The energy analysis involves input fuel power, indicated power and losses due to high temperature of exhaust gases and their unburned content, blow-by and heat loss. The exergy analysis is carried out for availability input and piston, exhaust, and losses availabilities along with destructed entropy. The analysis indicates an increase in the ratio of thermo-mechanical exhaust availability to fuel availability by CR with a maximum near stoichiometry, whereas it is shown that chemical exhaust exergy is not dependent on CR and reduces with AFER. In addition, it is indicated that the ratio of actual cycle to Otto cycle thermal efficiencies is about constant (about 0.784) with changing CR

  20. Comments on SKB's SFL 3-5 preliminary performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.D.; Crawford, M.B.

    2000-01-01

    Recently introduced regulations in Sweden have established an individual risk criterion ( -6 per year) for the long-term performance of repositories for the disposal of radioactive wastes. SKB has not focused its assessment of SFL 3-5 on demonstrating compliance with this regulation. Instead, SKB has calculated individual dose and provided a comparison with an annual individual dose of 14 iSv (derived from the risk criteria using the ICRP's dose-risk conversion factor of 0.073 per Sv). The justification of this approach is that probabilities do not need to be determined if doses are less than the dose equivalent to the risk criterion. However, there is insufficient information regarding uncertainty provided in the documentation of the SFL 3-5 assessment to determine whether this approach is reasonable. SKB's parallel assessment of a repository for spent fuel using the KBS-3 concept (SR 97) accounts for uncertainty by specifying a 'reasonable' and a 'pessimistic' value for uncertain parameters in the assessment calculations. Although there are problems with the way probabilities have been assigned to these values, this approach does indicate where there are significant uncertainties. The SFL 3-5 PA does not include a structured approach to defining uncertainty, although a number of assumptions and parameter values are stated to be conservative. As a preliminary assessment, there is insufficient information to identify key uncertainties or sensitivities, or to determine where further work should be focused. Any assessment requires the use of expert judgement to determine how the assessment is conducted, what modelling approach to use, what features, events and processes (FEPs) could potentially affect the disposal system, which FEPs should be included in the conceptual models, and which scenarios should be assessed. Judgements are also required in determining how to parameterize the models, and this may extend to formal expert elicitation for particular parameter

  1. A Thermographic Measurement Approach to Assess Supercapacitor Electrical Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislaw Galla

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a proposal for the qualitative assessment of condition of supercapacitors based on the conducted thermographic measurements. The presented measurement stand was accompanied by the concept of methodology of performing tests. Necessary conditions, which were needed to minimize the influence of disturbing factors on the performance of thermal imaging measurements, were also indicated. Mentioned factors resulted from both: the hardware limitations and from the necessity to prepare samples. The algorithm that was used to determine the basic parameters for assessment has been presented. The article suggests to use additional factors that may facilitate the analysis of obtained results. Measuring the usefulness of the proposed methodology was tested on commercial samples of supercapacitors. All of the tests were taken in conjunction with the classical methods based on capacitance (C and equivalent series resistance (ESR measurements, which were also presented in the paper. Selected results presenting the observed changes occurring in both: basic parameters of supercapacitors and accompanying fluctuations of thermal fields, along with analysis, were shown. The observed limitations of the proposed assessment method and the suggestions for its development were also described.

  2. A multimodal assessment of driving performance in HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, T D; Wolfson, T; Rosenthal, T J; Heaton, R K; Gonzalez, R; Ellis, R J; Grant, I

    2004-10-26

    To examine if HIV-seropositive (HIV+) individuals are at risk for impaired driving. Sixty licensed drivers (40 HIV+, 20 HIV-) completed a neuropsychological (NP) test battery and driving assessments. Eleven HIV+ subjects were NP-impaired. Driving-related skills were assessed using 1) two driving simulations (examining accident avoidance and navigational abilities), 2) the Useful Field of View (UFOV) test, and 3) an on-road evaluation. HIV+ NP-impaired subjects had greater difficulty than cognitively intact subjects on all driving measures, whereas the HIV- and HIV+ NP-normal groups performed similarly. On the UFOV, the HIV+ NP-impaired group had worse performance on Visual Processing and Divided Attention tasks but not in overall risk classification. They also had a higher number of simulator accidents (1.3 vs 2.0; p = 0.03), were less efficient at completing the navigation task (3.2 vs 9.2 blocks; p = 0.001), and were more likely to fail the on-road evaluation (6 vs 36%; p = 0.02). Impairment in Executive Functioning was the strongest NP predictor of failing the on-road drive test. NP performance and both simulations independently contributed to a model predicting 48% of the variance in on-road performance. HIV+ NP-impaired individuals are at increased risk for on-road driving impairments, whereas HIV+ individuals with normal cognition are not at a significantly higher risk than HIV- subjects. Executive Functioning is most strongly associated with impaired on-road performance. Cognitive and simulator testing may each provide data in identifying driving-impaired individuals.

  3. Predicting work Performance through selection interview ratings and Psychological assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziwe Nzama

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to establish whether selection interviews used in conjunction with psychological assessments of personality traits and cognitive functioning contribute to predicting work performance. The sample consisted of 102 managers who were appointed recently in a retail organisation. The independent variables were selection interview ratings obtained on the basis of structured competency-based interview schedules by interviewing panels, fve broad dimensions of personality defned by the Five Factor Model as measured by the 15 Factor Questionnaire (15FQ+, and cognitive processing variables (current level of work, potential level of work, and 12 processing competencies measured by the Cognitive Process Profle (CPP. Work performance was measured through annual performance ratings that focused on measurable outputs of performance objectives. Only two predictor variables correlated statistically signifcantly with the criterion variable, namely interview ratings (r = 0.31 and CPP Verbal Abstraction (r = 0.34. Following multiple regression, only these variables contributed signifcantly to predicting work performance, but only 17.8% of the variance of the criterion was accounted for.

  4. Performance assessment of simple and modified cycle turboshaft gas turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barinyima Nkoi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on investigations encompassing comparative assessment of gas turbine cycle options. More specifically, investigation was carried out of technical performance of turboshaft engine cycles based on existing simple cycle (SC and its projected modified cycles for civil helicopter application. Technically, thermal efficiency, specific fuel consumption, and power output are of paramount importance to the overall performance of gas turbine engines. In course of carrying out this research, turbomatch software established at Cranfield University based on gas turbine theory was applied to conduct simulation of a simple cycle (baseline two-spool helicopter turboshaft engine model with free power turbine. Similarly, some modified gas turbine cycle configurations incorporating unconventional components, such as engine cycle with low pressure compressor (LPC zero-staged, recuperated engine cycle, and intercooled/recuperated (ICR engine cycle, were also simulated. In doing so, design point (DP and off-design point (OD performances of the engine models were established. The percentage changes in performance parameters of the modified cycle engines over the simple cycle were evaluated and it was found that to a large extent, the modified engine cycles with unconventional components exhibit better performances in terms of thermal efficiency and specific fuel consumption than the traditional simple cycle engine. This research made use of public domain open source references.

  5. Making robust assessments of specialist trainees' workplace performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weller, J M; Castanelli, D J; Chen, Y; Jolly, B

    2017-02-01

    Workplace-based assessments should provide a reliable measure of trainee performance, but have met with mixed success. We proposed that using an entrustability scale, where supervisors scored trainees on the level of supervision required for the case would improve the utility of compulsory mini-clinical evaluation exercise (CEX) assessments in a large anaesthesia training program. We analysed mini-CEX scores from all Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists trainees submitted to an online database over a 12-month period. Supervisors' scores were adjusted for the expected supervision requirement for the case for trainees at different stages of training. We used generalisability theory to determine score reliability. 7808 assessments were available for analysis. Supervision requirements decreased significantly (P  0.7) with a feasible number of assessments. Adjusting scores against the expected supervision requirement considerably improved reliability, with G > 0.8 achieved with only nine assessments. Three per cent of trainees generated average mini-CEX scores below the expected standard. Using an entrustment scoring system, where supervisors score trainees on the level of supervision required, mini-CEX scores demonstrated moderate reliability within a feasible number of assessments, and evidence of validity. When scores were adjusted against an expected standard, underperforming trainees could be identified, and reliability much improved. Taken together with other evidence on trainee ability, the mini-CEX is of sufficient reliability for inclusion in high stakes decisions on trainee progression towards independent specialist practice. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Performance assessment of the proposed Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chockie, A.D.; Hostick, C.J.; Winter, C.

    1986-02-01

    Pacific Northwest laboratory (PNL) has completed a performance evaluation of the proposed monitored retrievable storage (MRS) facility. This study was undertaken as part of the Department of Energy MRS Program at PNL. The objective of the performance evaluation was to determine whether the conceptual MRS facility would be able to process spent fuel at the specified design rate of 3600 metric tons of uranium (MTU) per year. The performance of the proposed facility was assessed using the computer model COMPACT (Computer Optimization of Processing and Cask Transport) to simulate facility operations. The COMPACT model consisted of three application models each of which addressed a different aspect of the facility's operation: MRS/waste transportation interface; cask handling capability; and disassembly/consolidation (hot cell) operations. Our conclusions, based on the assessment of design criteria for the proposed facility, are as follows: Facilities and equipment throughout the facility have capability beyond the 3600 MTU/y design requirement. This added capability provides a reserve to compensate for unexpected perturbations in shipping or handling of the spent fuel. Calculations indicate that the facility's maximum maintainable processing capability is approximately 4800 MTU/y

  7. Total System Performance Assessment: Enhanced Design Alternative V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    N. Erb; S. Miller; V. Vallikat

    1999-01-01

    This calculation documents the total system performance assessment modeling of Enhanced Design Analysis (EDA) V. EDA V is based on the TSPA-VA base design which has been modified with higher thermal loading, a quartz sand invert, and line loading with 21 PWR waste packages that have 2-cm thick titanium grade 7 corrosion resistance material (CRM) drip shields placed over dual-layer waste packages composed of 'inside out' VA reference material (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This document details the changes and assumptions made to the VA reference Performance Assessment Model (CRWMS M and O 1998a) to incorporate the design changes detailed for EDA V. The performance measure for this evaluation is expected value dose-rate history. Time histories of dose rate are presented for EDA V and a Defense in Depth (DID) analysis base on EDA V. Additional details concerning the Enhanced Design Alternative II are provided in the 'LADS 3-12 Requests' interoffice correspondence (CRWMS M and O 1999a)

  8. Performance objectives for the Hanford immobilized low-activity waste (ILAW) performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MANN, F.M.

    1999-01-01

    Before low-level waste may be disposed of, a performance assessment must be written and then approved by the DOE (DOE 1988a, DOE 1999a). The performance assessment is to determine whether ''reasonable assurance'' exists that the performance objectives of the disposal facility will be met. The DOE requirements for waste disposal (DOE 1988a, DOE 1999a) require (see Appendix B): The protection of public health and safety; and The protection of the environment. Although quantitative limits are sometimes stated (for example, the all-pathways exposure limit is 25 mredyear), usually the requirements are stated in a general nature. Quantitative limits were established by: investigating all potentially applicable regulations as well as interpretations of the review panels which DOE has established to review performance assessments; interacting with program management to establish the additional requirements of the program; and interacting with the public (i.e., the Hanford Advisory Board members; as well as affected Tribal Governments) to understand the values of residents in the Pacific Northwest. Because of space considerations, not all radionuclides and dangerous chemicals are listed in this document. The radionuclides listed here are those which were explicitly treated in the ILAW PA (Mann 1998). The dangerous chemicals listed here are those most often detected in Hanford tank waste as documented in the Regulatory Data Quality Objectives Supporting Tank Waste Remediation System Privatization Project (Wiemers 1998)

  9. Low-level radioactive waste performance assessments: Source term modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Icenhour, A.S.; Godbee, H.W.; Miller, L.F.

    1995-01-01

    Low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) generated by government and commercial operations need to be isolated from the environment for at least 300 to 500 yr. Most existing sites for the storage or disposal of LLW employ the shallow-land burial approach. However, the U.S. Department of Energy currently emphasizes the use of engineered systems (e.g., packaging, concrete and metal barriers, and water collection systems). Future commercial LLW disposal sites may include such systems to mitigate radionuclide transport through the biosphere. Performance assessments must be conducted for LUW disposal facilities. These studies include comprehensive evaluations of radionuclide migration from the waste package, through the vadose zone, and within the water table. Atmospheric transport mechanisms are also studied. Figure I illustrates the performance assessment process. Estimates of the release of radionuclides from the waste packages (i.e., source terms) are used for subsequent hydrogeologic calculations required by a performance assessment. Computer models are typically used to describe the complex interactions of water with LLW and to determine the transport of radionuclides. Several commonly used computer programs for evaluating source terms include GWSCREEN, BLT (Breach-Leach-Transport), DUST (Disposal Unit Source Term), BARRIER (Ref. 5), as well as SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 (which are used in this study). The SOURCE1 and SOURCE2 codes were prepared by Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation for the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). SOURCE1 is designed for tumulus-type facilities, and SOURCE2 is tailored for silo, well-in-silo, and trench-type disposal facilities. This paper focuses on the source term for ORNL disposal facilities, and it describes improved computational methods for determining radionuclide transport from waste packages

  10. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Srikanta [INTERA Inc., Austin, TX (United States)

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available.

  11. Assigning probability distributions to input parameters of performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishra, Srikanta

    2002-02-01

    This study presents an overview of various approaches for assigning probability distributions to input parameters and/or future states of performance assessment models. Specifically,three broad approaches are discussed for developing input distributions: (a) fitting continuous distributions to data, (b) subjective assessment of probabilities, and (c) Bayesian updating of prior knowledge based on new information. The report begins with a summary of the nature of data and distributions, followed by a discussion of several common theoretical parametric models for characterizing distributions. Next, various techniques are presented for fitting continuous distributions to data. These include probability plotting, method of moments, maximum likelihood estimation and nonlinear least squares analysis. The techniques are demonstrated using data from a recent performance assessment study for the Yucca Mountain project. Goodness of fit techniques are also discussed, followed by an overview of how distribution fitting is accomplished in commercial software packages. The issue of subjective assessment of probabilities is dealt with in terms of the maximum entropy distribution selection approach, as well as some common rules for codifying informal expert judgment. Formal expert elicitation protocols are discussed next, and are based primarily on the guidance provided by the US NRC. The Bayesian framework for updating prior distributions (beliefs) when new information becomes available is discussed. A simple numerical approach is presented for facilitating practical applications of the Bayes theorem. Finally, a systematic framework for assigning distributions is presented: (a) for the situation where enough data are available to define an empirical CDF or fit a parametric model to the data, and (b) to deal with the situation where only a limited amount of information is available

  12. Total System Performance Assessment for the Site Recommendation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-10-02

    As mandated in the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been investigating a candidate site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, to determine whether it is suitable for development of the nation's first repository for permanent geologic disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW). The Nuclear Waste Policy Amendments Act of 1987 directed that only Yucca Mountain be characterized to evaluate the site's suitability. Three main components of the DOE site characterization program are testing, design, and performance assessment. These program components consist of: Investigation of natural features and processes by analyzing data collected from field tests conducted above and below ground and from laboratory tests of rock, gas, and water samples Design of a repository and waste packages tailored to the site features, supported by laboratory testing of candidate materials for waste packages and design related testing in the underground tunnels where waste would be emplaced Quantitative estimates of the performance of the total repository system, over a range of possible conditions and for different repository configurations, by means of computer modeling techniques that are based on site and materials testing data and accepted principles of physics and chemistry. To date, DOE has completed and documented four major iterations of total system performance assessment (TSPA) for the Yucca Mountain site: TSPA-91 (Barnard et al. 1992), TSPA-93 (Wilson et al. 1994; CRWMS M and O 1994), TSPA-95 (CRWMS M and O 1995), and the Total System Performance Assessment-Viability Assessment (TSPA-VA) (DOE 1998a, Volume 3). Each successive TSPA iteration has advanced the technical understanding of the performance attributes of the natural features and processes and enhanced engineering designs. The next major iteration of TSPA is to be conducted in support of the next major programmatic milestone for the DOE, namely the

  13. Historical relationship between performance assessment for radioactive waste disposal and other types of risk assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rechard, R.P.

    1999-01-01

    This article describes the evolution of the process for assessing the hazards of a geologic disposal system for radioactive waste and, similarly, nuclear power reactors, and the relationship of this process with other assessments of risk, particularly assessments of hazards from manufactured carcinogenic chemicals during use and disposal. This perspective reviews the common history of scientific concepts for risk assessment developed until the 1950s. Computational tools and techniques developed in the late 1950s and early 1960s to analyze the reliability of nuclear weapon delivery systems were adopted in the early 1970s for probabilistic risk assessment of nuclear power reactors, a technology for which behavior was unknown. In turn, these analyses became an important foundation for performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal in the late 1970s. The evaluation of risk to human health and the environment from chemical hazards is built on methods for assessing the dose response of radionuclides in the 1950s. Despite a shared background, however, societal events, often in the form of legislation, have affected the development path for risk assessment for human health, producing dissimilarities between these risk assessments and those for nuclear facilities. An important difference is the regulator's interest in accounting for uncertainty

  14. Discriminant analysis in Polish manufacturing sector performance assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Dziechciarz

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a presentation of the preliminary results of a larger project on the determination of the attractiveness of manufacturing branches. Results of the performance assessment of Polish manufacturing branches in 2000 (section D „Manufacturing” – based on NACE – Nomenclatures des Activites de Communite Europeene are shown. In the research, the classical (Fisher’s linear discriminant analysis technique was used for the analysis of the profit generation ability by the firms belonging to a certain production branch. For estimation, the data describing group level was used – for cross-validation, the classes data.

  15. Designing a database for performance assessment: Lessons learned from WIPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martell, M.A.; Schenker, A.

    1997-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA) Performance Assessment (PA) used a relational database that was originally designed only to supply the input parameters required for implementation of the PA codes. Reviewers used the database as a point of entry to audit quality assurance measures for control, traceability, and retrievability of input information used for analysis, and output/work products. During these audits it became apparent that modifications to the architecture and scope of the database would benefit the EPA regulator and other stakeholders when reviewing the recertification application. This paper contains a discussion of the WPP PA CCA database and lessons learned for designing a database

  16. Performance assessment of advanced engineering workstations for fuel management applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turinsky, P.J.

    1989-07-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the performance of an advanced engineering workstation [AEW] with regard to applications to incore fuel management for LWRs. The attributes of most interest to us that define an AEW are parallel computational hardware and graphics capabilities. The AEWs employed were super microcomputers manufactured by MASSCOMP, Inc. These computers utilize a 32-bit architecture, graphics co-processor, multi-CPUs [up to six] attached to common memory and multi-vector accelerators. 7 refs., 33 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...

  18. Sorption, Diffusion and Solubility Databases for Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Gutierrez, M.

    2000-01-01

    This report presents a deterministic and probabilistic databases for application in Performance Assessment of a high-level radioactive waste disposal. This work includes a theoretical description of sorption, diffusion and solubility phenomena of radionuclides in geological media. The report presents and compares the databases of different nuclear wastes management agencies, describes the materials in the Spanish reference system, and the results of sorption diffusion and solubility in this system, with both the deterministic and probabilistic approximation. The probabilistic approximation is presented in the form of probability density functions (pdf). (Author) 52 refs

  19. Review of SFL 3-5 performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glynn, P.D.

    2000-01-01

    This 'performance assessment' report has 1) several logical flaws and 2) is not scientifically objective. There is a lot of good work done by individual SKB consultants. The problem is that the report does not consider all the available research that has been conducted, both by SKB consultants and by other scientists. The report only seems to select evidence/research pieces that fit preconceived notions supporting SKB's ultimate objectives. This is done rather poorly, which is why one can easily pick out inconsistencies and logical flaws

  20. Comfort Indicators for the Assessment of Indoor Environmental Building Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brohus, Henrik; Bendtsen, A.; Sørensen, M.

    2006-01-01

    Indoor environmental building performance assessment requires efficient indicators of the indoor comfort. In order to be effective and useful the comfort indicators must be able to include the temporal variation of indoor comfort as well as the degree of discomfort perceived by the occupants....... This paper discusses and presents a number of comfort indicators that includes both the temporal variation and the degree of discomfort in the calculations. A test case comprising a ventilated office building is used to show the application of the various comfort indices. It is found that the new comfort...

  1. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Senger, R.K.; Leem, J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes analyses of a potential post-closure pyrophoric event in a waste package containing uranium metal spent fuel. The analyses include temperature at adjacent waste packages caused by the event and the dose to humans due to the event. The thermal analyses show that the event would not be expected to damage the adjacent waste packages. The dose analyses show that the doses due to the event are small. These analyses provide support to screening arguments used to demonstrate that the pyrophoric event should not be considered in the total system performance assessment model

  2. Annual Summary of the Integrated Disposal Facility Performance Assessment 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khaleel, R. [INTERA, Austin, TX (United States); Nichols, W. E. [CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company, Richland, WA (United States)

    2012-12-27

    An annual summary of the adequacy of the Hanford Immobilized Low-Activity Waste (ILAW) Performance Assessment (PA) is required each year (DOE O 435.1 Chg 1,1 DOE M 435.1-1 Chg 1;2 and DOE/ORP-2000-013). The most recently approved PA is DOE/ORP-2000-24.4 The ILAW PA evaluated the adequacy of the ILAW disposal facility, now referred to as the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF), for the safe disposal of vitrified Hanford Site tank waste.

  3. Predicting Performance on MOOC Assessments using Multi-Regression Models

    OpenAIRE

    Ren, Zhiyun; Rangwala, Huzefa; Johri, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    The past few years has seen the rapid growth of data min- ing approaches for the analysis of data obtained from Mas- sive Open Online Courses (MOOCs). The objectives of this study are to develop approaches to predict the scores a stu- dent may achieve on a given grade-related assessment based on information, considered as prior performance or prior ac- tivity in the course. We develop a personalized linear mul- tiple regression (PLMR) model to predict the grade for a student, prior to attempt...

  4. Employment of kernel methods on wind turbine power performance assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrimpas, Georgios Alexandros; Sweeney, Christian Walsted; Marhadi, Kun S.

    2015-01-01

    A power performance assessment technique is developed for the detection of power production discrepancies in wind turbines. The method employs a widely used nonparametric pattern recognition technique, the kernel methods. The evaluation is based on the trending of an extracted feature from...... the kernel matrix, called similarity index, which is introduced by the authors for the first time. The operation of the turbine and consequently the computation of the similarity indexes is classified into five power bins offering better resolution and thus more consistent root cause analysis. The accurate...

  5. A Fuzzy Knowledge Representation Model for Student Performance Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badie, Farshad

    Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth/completene......Knowledge representation models based on Fuzzy Description Logics (DLs) can provide a foundation for reasoning in intelligent learning environments. While basic DLs are suitable for expressing crisp concepts and binary relationships, Fuzzy DLs are capable of processing degrees of truth....../completeness about vague or imprecise information. This paper tackles the issue of representing fuzzy classes using OWL2 in a dataset describing Performance Assessment Results of Students (PARS)....

  6. Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation Assessment, Diagnosis and Improvement of Control Loop Performance

    CERN Document Server

    Jelali, Mohieddine

    2013-01-01

    Control Performance Management in Industrial Automation provides a coherent and self-contained treatment of a group of methods and applications of burgeoning importance to the detection and solution of problems with control loops that are vital in maintaining product quality, operational safety, and efficiency of material and energy consumption in the process industries. The monograph deals with all aspects of control performance management (CPM), from controller assessment (minimum-variance-control-based and advanced methods), to detection and diagnosis of control loop problems (process non-linearities, oscillations, actuator faults), to the improvement of control performance (maintenance, re-design of loop components, automatic controller re-tuning). It provides a contribution towards the development and application of completely self-contained and automatic methodologies in the field. Moreover, within this work, many CPM tools have been developed that goes far beyond available CPM packages. Control Perform...

  7. Performance Assessment Method for a Forged Fingerprint Detection Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yong Nyuo; Jun, In-Kyung; Kim, Hyun; Shin, Woochang

    The threat of invasion of privacy and of the illegal appropriation of information both increase with the expansion of the biometrics service environment to open systems. However, while certificates or smart cards can easily be cancelled and reissued if found to be missing, there is no way to recover the unique biometric information of an individual following a security breach. With the recognition that this threat factor may disrupt the large-scale civil service operations approaching implementation, such as electronic ID cards and e-Government systems, many agencies and vendors around the world continue to develop forged fingerprint detection technology, but no objective performance assessment method has, to date, been reported. Therefore, in this paper, we propose a methodology designed to evaluate the objective performance of the forged fingerprint detection technology that is currently attracting a great deal of attention.

  8. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment source term codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.; Rogers, R.D.; Sullivan, T.

    1992-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigation: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-II c prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. In this paper, radionuclide releases from waste forms in the first seven years of sampling are presented and discussed. Application of lysimeter data to be used in performance assessment source term models is presented. Initial results from use of data in two models are discussed

  9. Lysimeter data as input to performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, J.W. Jr.

    1998-01-01

    The Field Lysimeter Investigations: Low-Level Waste Data Base Development Program is obtaining information on the performance of radioactive waste forms in a disposal environment. Waste forms fabricated using ion-exchange resins from EPICOR-117 prefilters employed in the cleanup of the Three Mile Island (TMI) Nuclear Power Station are being tested to develop a low-level waste data base and to obtain information on survivability of waste forms in a disposal environment. The program includes reviewing radionuclide releases from those waste forms in the first 7 years of sampling and examining the relationship between code input parameters and lysimeter data. Also, lysimeter data are applied to performance assessment source term models, and initial results from use of data in two models are presented

  10. Experimental Methods for UAV Aerodynamic and Propulsion Performance Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan ANTON

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental method for assessing the performances and the propulsion power of a UAV in several points based on telemetry. The points in which we make the estimations are chosen based on several criteria and the fallowing parameters are measured: airspeed, time-to-climb, altitude and the horizontal distance. With the estimated propulsion power and knowing the shaft motor power, the propeller efficiency is determined at several speed values. The shaft motor power was measured in the lab using the propeller as a break. Many flights, using the same UAV configuration, were performed before extracting flight data, in order to reduce the instrumental or statistic errors. This paper highlights both the methodology of processing the data and the validation of theoretical results.

  11. Performance Assessment of a Post-Closure Pyrophoric Event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, James; Senger, R.; Leem, J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (DSNF) is categorized into eleven different spent fuel groups. Group 7, is predominantly uranium metal spent fuel from N Reactor that could oxidize rapidly in the presence of air when a waste package is breached. Such rapid oxidation constitutes a pyrophoric event. The consequences of a post closure pyrophoric event were evaluated in terms of its potential to damage adjacent waste packages and consequences of it in terms of long-term dose to humans. This work was conducted as part of the total system performance assessment (TSPA) of DOE spent fuel for the National Spent Nuclear Fuel Program. These analyses were performed in support of the site recommendation for a repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

  12. WIPP [Waste Isolation Pilot Plant] test phase plan: Performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for managing the disposition of transuranic (TRU) wastes resulting from nuclear weapons production activities of the United States. These wastes are currently stored nationwide at several of the DOE's waste generating/storage sites. The goal is to eliminate interim waste storage and achieve environmentally and institutionally acceptable permanent disposal of these TRU wastes. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in southeastern New Mexico is being considered as a disposal facility for these TRU wastes. This document describes the first of the following two major programs planned for the Test Phase of WIPP: Performance Assessment -- determination of the long-term performance of the WIPP disposal system in accordance with the requirements of the EPA Standard; and Operations Demonstration -- evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of the DOE TRU waste management system's ability to emplace design throughput quantities of TRU waste in the WIPP underground facility. 120 refs., 19 figs., 8 tabs

  13. Personality Profiles of Effective Leadership Performance in Assessment Centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Alissa D; Lanza, Stephanie T; Bernthal, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Most research examining the relationship between effective leadership and personality has focused on individual personality traits. However, profiles of personality traits more fully describe individuals, and these profiles may be important as they relate to leadership. This study used latent class analysis to examine how personality traits combine and interact to form subpopulations of leaders, and how these subpopulations relate to performance criteria. Using a sample of 2,461 executive-level leaders, six personality profiles were identified: Unpredictable Leaders with Low Diligence (7.3%); Conscientious, Backend Leaders (3.6%); Unpredictable Leaders (8.6%); Creative Communicators (20.8%); Power Players (32.4%); and Protocol Followers (27.1%). One profile performed well on all criteria in an assessment center; remaining profiles exhibited strengths and weaknesses across criteria. Implications and future directions for research are highlighted.

  14. Video Quality Assessment and Machine Learning: Performance and Interpretability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari

    2015-01-01

    In this work we compare a simple and a complex Machine Learning (ML) method used for the purpose of Video Quality Assessment (VQA). The simple ML method chosen is the Elastic Net (EN), which is a regularized linear regression model and easier to interpret. The more complex method chosen is Support...... Vector Regression (SVR), which has gained popularity in VQA research. Additionally, we present an ML-based feature selection method. Also, it is investigated how well the methods perform when tested on videos from other datasets. Our results show that content-independent cross-validation performance...... on a single dataset can be misleading and that in the case of very limited training and test data, especially in regards to different content as is the case for many video datasets, a simple ML approach is the better choice....

  15. Waste package performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.; Thatcher, R.M.

    1989-01-01

    The authors completed a first cycle of model development from a specification to a computer program, PANDORA-1, for long-term performance assessment of waste packages. The model for one waste package at a time incorporates processes specific to the unsaturated environment at the proposed Yucca Mountain, NV, site. PANDORA-1 models the most likely processes and several modes of waste alteration and release. The development identified information needs for future models; many processes, local details, and combinations will have to be examined. Integration of ensemble performance and quantification of uncertainties are modeling steps at higher aggregation. Methodologies for these steps include sampling, which is well studied; we have focused on several open questions. The authors can now calculate the amount of variance reduction available from Latin hypercube sampling; it is a limited reduction. A new method, uncertainty analysis test-bed program compares the new with old sampling methods

  16. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-01-01

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator

  17. PORFLOW Modeling Supporting The H-Tank Farm Performance Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, J. M.; Flach, G. P.; Westbrook, M. L.

    2012-08-31

    Numerical simulations of groundwater flow and contaminant transport in the vadose and saturated zones have been conducted using the PORFLOW code in support of an overall Performance Assessment (PA) of the H-Tank Farm. This report provides technical detail on selected aspects of PORFLOW model development and describes the structure of the associated electronic files. The PORFLOW models for the H-Tank Farm PA, Rev. 1 were updated with grout, solubility, and inventory changes. The aquifer model was refined. In addition, a set of flow sensitivity runs were performed to allow flow to be varied in the related probabilistic GoldSim models. The final PORFLOW concentration values are used as input into a GoldSim dose calculator.

  18. Performance Shaping Factors Assessments and Application to PHWR Outages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2007-02-15

    Human reliability analysis is definitely related to the quality of PSA because human errors have been identified as major contributors to PSA. According to NRC's 'Office of analysis and evaluation of operational data (AEOD)',82% of the reactor trips and accident during outage is caused by the events related to human errors. There is, however, no one HRA method universally accepted. Furthermore, HRA during PHWR outages has not been performed around the world yet. HRA during PHWR outages is especially important since manual management of operator is more required during PHWR. In this study, accident scenarios which HYU developed are used to perform a quantification of human error probability. In this study, overall procedures of standard HRA methodology are introduced and follows the quantification of 10 possible selected human actions during PHWR outages based on standard HRA methodology. To see the verification, quantified values were compared with the values from 'Generic CANDU Probabilistic Safety Assessment' and the values estimated by ASEP.Core Damage Frequency was estimated 3.35 x 10{sup -4} more higher than CDF estimated by AECL data. It was considered that the differences between the HEPs for OPAFW and OPECC3 make CDF higher. Therefore, complementary study of reestimating HEP for OPAFW and OPECC3 in detail is required for increasing the qualities of HRA and PSA. Moreover, one of the difficulties in performing human reliability analysis is to evaluate performance shaping factors which represent the characteristics and circumstances. For assessing a specific human action more exactly, it is necessary to consider all of the PSFs at the same time which makes an effect on the human action. Also, it requires the effect comparison among PSFs to minimize the uncertainties which are usually caused by the subjective judgements of HRA analysts. To see the sensitivity, performance shaping factors of each decision rule are changed which resulted

  19. Performance Shaping Factors Assessments and Application to PHWR Outages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Woo

    2007-02-01

    Human reliability analysis is definitely related to the quality of PSA because human errors have been identified as major contributors to PSA. According to NRC's 'Office of analysis and evaluation of operational data (AEOD)',82% of the reactor trips and accident during outage is caused by the events related to human errors. There is, however, no one HRA method universally accepted. Furthermore, HRA during PHWR outages has not been performed around the world yet. HRA during PHWR outages is especially important since manual management of operator is more required during PHWR. In this study, accident scenarios which HYU developed are used to perform a quantification of human error probability. In this study, overall procedures of standard HRA methodology are introduced and follows the quantification of 10 possible selected human actions during PHWR outages based on standard HRA methodology. To see the verification, quantified values were compared with the values from 'Generic CANDU Probabilistic Safety Assessment' and the values estimated by ASEP.Core Damage Frequency was estimated 3.35 x 10 -4 more higher than CDF estimated by AECL data. It was considered that the differences between the HEPs for OPAFW and OPECC3 make CDF higher. Therefore, complementary study of reestimating HEP for OPAFW and OPECC3 in detail is required for increasing the qualities of HRA and PSA. Moreover, one of the difficulties in performing human reliability analysis is to evaluate performance shaping factors which represent the characteristics and circumstances. For assessing a specific human action more exactly, it is necessary to consider all of the PSFs at the same time which makes an effect on the human action. Also, it requires the effect comparison among PSFs to minimize the uncertainties which are usually caused by the subjective judgements of HRA analysts. To see the sensitivity, performance shaping factors of each decision rule are changed which resulted in changes of core damage

  20. [Software for performing a global phenotypic and genotypic nutritional assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García de Diego, L; Cuervo, M; Martínez, J A

    2013-01-01

    The nutritional assessment of a patient needs the simultaneous managing a extensive information and a great number of databases, as both aspects of the process of nutrition and the clinical situation of the patient are analyzed. The introduction of computers in the nutritional area constitutes an extraordinary advance in the administration of nutrition information, providing a complete assessment of nutritional aspects in a quick and easy way. To develop a computer program that can be used as a tool for assessing the nutritional status of the patient, the education of clinical staff, for epidemiological studies and for educational purposes. Based on a computer program which assists the health specialist to perform a full nutritional evaluation of the patient, through the registration and assessment of the phenotypic and genotypic features. The application provides nutritional prognosis based on anthropometric and biochemical parameters, images of states of malnutrition, questionnaires to characterize diseases, diagnostic criteria, identification of alleles associated with the development of specific metabolic illnesses and questionnaires of quality of life, for a custom actuation. The program includes, as part of the nutritional assessment of the patient, food intake analysis, design of diets and promotion of physical activity, introducing food frequency questionnaires, dietary recalls, healthy eating indexes, model diets, fitness tests, and recommendations, recalls and questionnaires of physical activity. A computer program performed under Java Swing, using SQLite database and some external libraries such as JfreeChart for plotting graphs. This brand new designed software is composed of five blocks categorized into ten modules named: Patients, Anthropometry, Clinical History, Biochemistry, Dietary History, Diagnostic (with genetic make up), Quality of life, Physical activity, Energy expenditure and Diets. Each module has a specific function which evaluates a

  1. Real-Time Assessment and Diagnosis of Process Operating Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shabnam Sedghi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Over time, the performance of processes may deviate from the initial design due to process variations and uncertainties, making it necessary to develop systematic methods for online optimality assessment based on routine operating process data. Some processes have multiple operating modes caused by the set point change of the critical process variables to achieve different product specifications. On the other hand, the operating region in each operating mode can alter, due to uncertainties. In this paper, we will establish an optimality assessment framework for processes that typically have multi-mode, multi-region operations, as well as transitions between different modes. The kernel density approach for mode detection is adopted and improved for operating mode detection. For online mode detection, the model-based clustering discriminant analysis (MclustDA approach is incorporated with some a priori knowledge of the system. In addition, multi-modal behavior of steady-state modes is tackled utilizing the mixture probabilistic principal component regression (MPPCR method, and dynamic principal component regression (DPCR is used to investigate transitions between different modes. Moreover, a probabilistic causality detection method based on the sequential forward floating search (SFFS method is introduced for diagnosing poor or non-optimum behavior. Finally, the proposed method is tested on the Tennessee Eastman (TE benchmark simulation process in order to evaluate its performance.

  2. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G. Saulnier and W. Statham

    2006-04-16

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO{sub 2} uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table.

  3. THE PENA BLANCA NATURAL ANALOGUE PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Saulnier; W. Statham

    2006-01-01

    The Nopal I uranium mine in the Sierra Pena Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico serves as a natural analogue to the Yucca Mountain repository. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model simulates the mobilization and transport of radionuclides that are released from the mine and transported to the saturated zone. The Pena Blanca Natural Analogue Performance Assessment Model uses probabilistic simulations of hydrogeologic processes that are analogous to the processes that occur at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I uranium deposit lies in fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs that overlie carbonate rocks, a setting analogous to the geologic formations at the Yucca Mountain site. The Nopal I mine site has the following analogous characteristics as compared to the Yucca Mountain repository site: (1) Analogous source--UO 2 uranium ore deposit = spent nuclear fuel in the repository; (2) Analogous geology--(i.e. fractured, welded, and altered rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs); (3) Analogous climate--Semiarid to arid; (4) Analogous setting--Volcanic tuffs overlie carbonate rocks; and (5) Analogous geochemistry--Oxidizing conditions Analogous hydrogeology: The ore deposit lies in the unsaturated zone above the water table

  4. Spatial variability and parametric uncertainty in performance assessment models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pensado, Osvaldo; Mancillas, James; Painter, Scott; Tomishima, Yasuo

    2011-01-01

    The problem of defining an appropriate treatment of distribution functions (which could represent spatial variability or parametric uncertainty) is examined based on a generic performance assessment model for a high-level waste repository. The generic model incorporated source term models available in GoldSim ® , the TDRW code for contaminant transport in sparse fracture networks with a complex fracture-matrix interaction process, and a biosphere dose model known as BDOSE TM . Using the GoldSim framework, several Monte Carlo sampling approaches and transport conceptualizations were evaluated to explore the effect of various treatments of spatial variability and parametric uncertainty on dose estimates. Results from a model employing a representative source and ensemble-averaged pathway properties were compared to results from a model allowing for stochastic variation of transport properties along streamline segments (i.e., explicit representation of spatial variability within a Monte Carlo realization). We concluded that the sampling approach and the definition of an ensemble representative do influence consequence estimates. In the examples analyzed in this paper, approaches considering limited variability of a transport resistance parameter along a streamline increased the frequency of fast pathways resulting in relatively high dose estimates, while those allowing for broad variability along streamlines increased the frequency of 'bottlenecks' reducing dose estimates. On this basis, simplified approaches with limited consideration of variability may suffice for intended uses of the performance assessment model, such as evaluation of site safety. (author)

  5. Variables and Challenges in Assessing EU Experts’ Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathrine Holst

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Expert advice in political processes is supposed to improve decisions. If expertise fails in this function, a legitimacy problem occurs: granting political power to experts may be defensible, but only on the grounds that it contributes to enlightening political processes and facilitate problem-solving. The paper provides a theoretical exploration of four variables that are key when assessing the epistemic quality of expert deliberations: the degree to which these deliberations are 1 informed by technical expertise, 2 regulated by epistemically optimal respect and inclusion norms, 3 focused on politically relevant and applicable knowledge, and 4 approaching questions involving moral judgment and standard setting competently. Previous research on the European Commission’s use of expert advice has more or less overlooked the question of experts’ epistemic performance, and this paper discusses the possible reasons for this in light of well-known methodological challenges in studies of elite behaviour; access and bias problems. A discussion of the merits and limitations of different available data on the Commission experts shows that the biggest obstacle in the study of experts’ epistemic performance is rather the problem of epistemic asymmetry, i.e. of how researchers as non-experts can assess the epistemic quality of experts’ contributions and behaviour. The paper offers, finally, a set of strategies to get research going despite this problem.

  6. Total System Performance Assessment - License Application Methods and Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. McNeish

    2003-12-08

    ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application (TSPA-LA) Methods and Approach'' provides the top-level method and approach for conducting the TSPA-LA model development and analyses. The method and approach is responsive to the criteria set forth in Total System Performance Assessment Integration (TSPAI) Key Technical Issues (KTIs) identified in agreements with the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the ''Yucca Mountain Review Plan'' (YMRP), ''Final Report'' (NRC 2003 [163274]), and the NRC final rule 10 CFR Part 63 (NRC 2002 [156605]). This introductory section provides an overview of the TSPA-LA, the projected TSPA-LA documentation structure, and the goals of the document. It also provides a brief discussion of the regulatory framework, the approach to risk management of the development and analysis of the model, and the overall organization of the document. The section closes with some important conventions that are used in this document.

  7. The role of natural analogues in performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewing, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    One of the unique and scientifically most challenging aspects of nuclear waste isolation is the extrapolation of short-term laboratory data (hours to years) to the long time periods (10 3 - 10 5 years) required by regulatory agencies for performance assessment. The direct verification of these extrapolations is not possible, but methods must be developed to demonstrate compliance with government regulations and to satisfy the lay public that there is a demonstrable and reasonable basis for accepting the long-term extrapolations. Natural systems provide perhaps the only means of partial verification, as well as data that may be used directly in the models that are used in the extrapolation. Natural systems provide data on very large spatial (m to km) and temporal (10 3 - 10 8 years) scales, and in highly complex terranes in which unknown synergisms may effect radionuclide migration. This paper reviews the application (and most importantly, the limitations) of data from natural analogue systems to the verification of performance assessments

  8. Performance assessment of DOE spent nuclear fuel and surplus plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duguid, J.O.; Vallikat, V.; McNeish, J.

    1998-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, in southern Nevada, is under consideration by the US Department of Energy (DOE) as a potential site for the disposal of the nation's radioactive wastes in a geologic repository. The wastes consist of commercial spent fuel, DOE spent nuclear fuel (SNF), high level waste (HLW), and surplus plutonium. The DOE was mandated by Congress in the fiscal 1997 Energy and Water Appropriations Act to complete a viability assessment (VA) of the repository in September of 1998. The assessment consists of a preliminary design concept for the critical elements of the repository, a total system performance assessment (TSPA), a plan and cost estimate for completion of the license application, and an estimate of the cost to construct and operate the repository. This paper presents the results of the sensitivity analyses that were conducted to examine the behavior of DOE SNF and plutonium waste forms in the environment of the base case repository that was modeled for the TSPA-VA. Fifteen categories of DOE SNF and two Plutonium waste forms were examined and their contribution to radiation dose to humans was evaluated

  9. Cracking pattern and seismic performance assessment of the Orvieto cathedral

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Canio, G.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper are described the in situ cracking pattern measurement and ambient vibration monitoring for the seismic performance evaluation of the Orvieto Cathedral Italy, according the deplacement based safety assessment. This requires, as a first step, the direct measurement of the cracking pattern and dynamic response of the structural macro elements of the cathedral due to weak vibrations induced by traffic and seismic micro tremors. Seismic assessment for this type of structure require also the proper limit states definitions. In fact, in the case historic monuments like churches, due to the presence of specific typology of macro elements: rigid blocks, complex vault systems, slenderness of the walls, presence of wide halls, domes and drums with particular geometry, is necessary to define the proper assessment procedures which are slightly different with respect those required for conventional civil industrial buildings. Regarding the Ambient vibration monitoring, a new approach to estimate the participating masses associated to the macro element kinematics is defined: it is based on the frequency contribution to the Root Main Square Acceleration, obtained by numerical integration of the Power Spectral Density (PSD) function. This information, when associated to the analysis of the Real and Imaginary part of the Cross Spectral Density (CSD) function between the acceleration time histories at different points, allow to identify the principal (at least first and second) mode shapes of the structure.

  10. ITER-EDA physics design requirements and plasma performance assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uckan, N.A.; Galambos, J.; Wesley, J.; Boucher, D.; Perkins, F.; Post, D.; Putvinski, S.

    1996-01-01

    Physics design guidelines, plasma performance estimates, and sensitivity of performance to changes in physics assumptions are presented for the ITER-EDA Interim Design. The overall ITER device parameters have been derived from the performance goals using physics guidelines based on the physics R ampersand D results. The ITER-EDA design has a single-null divertor configuration (divertor at the bottom) with a nominal plasma current of 21 MA, magnetic field of 5.68 T, major and minor radius of 8.14 m and 2.8 m, and a plasma elongation (at the 95% flux surface) of ∼1.6 that produces a nominal fusion power of ∼1.5 GW for an ignited burn pulse length of ≥1000 s. The assessments have shown that ignition at 1.5 GW of fusion power can be sustained in ITER for 1000 s given present extrapolations of H-mode confinement (τ E = 0.85 x τ ITER93H ), helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E = 10), representative plasma impurities (n Be /n e = 2%), and beta limit [β N = β(%)/(I/aB) ≤ 2.5]. The provision of 100 MW of auxiliary power, necessary to access to H-mode during the approach to ignition, provides for the possibility of driven burn operations at Q = 15. This enables ITER to fulfill its mission of fusion power (∼ 1--1.5 GW) and fluence (∼1 MWa/m 2 ) goals if confinement, impurity levels, or operational (density, beta) limits prove to be less favorable than present projections. The power threshold for H-L transition, confinement uncertainties, and operational limits (Greenwald density limit and beta limit) are potential performance limiting issues. Improvement of the helium exhaust (τ* He /τ E ≤ 5) and potential operation in reverse-shear mode significantly improve ITER performance

  11. Sensitivity assessment of fuel performance codes for LOCA accident scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abe, Alfredo; Gomes, Daniel; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Muniz, Rafael O.R. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo, E-mail: ayabe@ipen.br, E-mail: claudia.giovedi@labrisco.usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (LABRISCO/USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Lab. de Análise, Avaliação e Gerenciamento de Risco

    2017-07-01

    FRAPCON code predicts fuel rod performance in LWR (Light Water Reactor) by modeling fuel responses under normal operating conditions and anticipated operational occurrences; FRAPTRAN code is applied for fuel transient under fast transient and accident conditions. The codes are well known and applied for different purposes and one of the use is to address sensitivity analysis considering fuel design parameters associated to fabrication, moreover can address the effect of physical models bias. The objective of this work was to perform an assessment of fuel manufacturing parameters tolerances and fuel models bias using FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN codes for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. The preliminary analysis considered direct approach taken into account most relevant manufacturing tolerances (lower and upper bounds) related to design parameters and physical models bias without considering their statistical distribution. The simulations were carried out using the data available in the open literature related to the series of LOCA experiment performed at the Halden reactor (specifically IFA-650.5). The manufacturing tolerances associated to design parameters considered in this paper were: enrichment, cladding thickness, pellet diameter, pellet density, and filling gas pressure. The physical models considered were: fuel thermal expansion, fission gas release, fuel swelling, irradiation creep, cladding thermal expansion, cladding corrosion, and cladding hydrogen pickup. The results obtained from sensitivity analysis addressed the impact of manufacturing tolerances and physical models in the fuel cladding burst time observed for the IFA-650.5 experiment. (author)

  12. Performance Assessment for e-Government Services: An Experience Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Zhu, Liming; Gorton, Ian

    2007-08-14

    The transformation and integration of government services, enabled by the use of new technologies such as application servers and Web services, is fundamental to reduce the cost of government and improving service outcomes to citizens. Many core Government information systems comprise applications running on legacy mainframes, databases and transaction processing monitors. As Governments worldwide provide direct access over the Internet to these legacy applications from the general public, they may be exposed to workloads well above the origin design parameters of these back-end systems. This creates a significant risk of high profile failures for Government agencies whose newly integrated systems become overloaded. In this paper we describe how we conducted a performance assessment of a business-critical, Internet-facing Web services that integrated new and legacy systems from two Australian Government agencies. We leveraged prototype tools from our own research along with known techniques in performance modeling. We were able to clearly demonstrate that the existing hardware and software would be adequate to handle the predicted workload for the next financial year. We were also able to do ‘what-if’ analysis and predict how the system can perform with alternative strategies to scale the system. We conclude by summarizing the lessons learnt, including the importance of architecture visibility, benchmarking data quality, and measurement feasibility due to issues of outsourcing, privacy legislation and cross-agency involvement.

  13. Self-assessment: Strategy for higher standards, consistency, and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ide, W.E.

    1996-01-01

    In late 1994, Palo Verde operations underwent a transformation from a unitized structure to a single functional unit. It was necessary to build consistency in watchstanding practices and create a shared mission. Because there was a lack of focus on actual plant operations and because personnel were deeply involved with administrative tasks, command and control of evolutions were weak. Improvement was needed. Consistent performance standards have been set for all three operating units. These expectation focus on nuclear, radiological, and industrial safety. Straightforward descriptions of watchstanding and monitoring practices have been provided to all department personnel. The desired professional and leadership qualities for employee conduct have been defined and communicated thoroughly. A healthy and competitive atmosphere developed with the successful implementation of these standards. Overall performance improved. The auxiliary operators demonstrated increased pride and ownership in the performance of their work activities. In addition, their morale improved. Crew teamwork improved as well as the quality of shift briefs. There was a decrease in the noise level and the administrative functions in the control room. The use of self-assessment helped to anchor and define higher and more consistent standards. The proof of Palo Verde's success was evident when an Institute of Nuclear Power Operations finding was turned into a strength within 1 yr

  14. Assessment of gamma camera performance at some Sudanese hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, Nour El huda Ibrahim Ali

    2016-05-01

    The study aims to investigate the performance quality of the gamma cameras used in three public hospitals in Sudan. It is widely recognized that the attainment of high standards of efficiency and reliability in the practice of nuclear medicine, as in other specialties based on advanced technology, requires an appropriate quality assurance program. In this study we have focused on four of the main tests in order to assess the performance of the three units in question, such as uniformity, resolution/ linearity, center of rotation, photopeak. The values were within the acceptable range (according to the adopted protocols). Overall performance of the units was acceptable. Although all the results were within the acceptable range, some of them were at border, thus an action of preventive maintenance should be considered. It is noticed that a minor to negligible co-operation exists between the centers experts and /or equipment. The establishment of an external and internal auditing program is recommended. More co-operation between the centers should be considered.(Author)

  15. Sensitivity assessment of fuel performance codes for LOCA accident scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Alfredo; Gomes, Daniel; Silva, Antonio Teixeira e; Muniz, Rafael O.R.; Giovedi, Claudia; Martins, Marcelo

    2017-01-01

    FRAPCON code predicts fuel rod performance in LWR (Light Water Reactor) by modeling fuel responses under normal operating conditions and anticipated operational occurrences; FRAPTRAN code is applied for fuel transient under fast transient and accident conditions. The codes are well known and applied for different purposes and one of the use is to address sensitivity analysis considering fuel design parameters associated to fabrication, moreover can address the effect of physical models bias. The objective of this work was to perform an assessment of fuel manufacturing parameters tolerances and fuel models bias using FRAPCON and FRAPTRAN codes for Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) scenario. The preliminary analysis considered direct approach taken into account most relevant manufacturing tolerances (lower and upper bounds) related to design parameters and physical models bias without considering their statistical distribution. The simulations were carried out using the data available in the open literature related to the series of LOCA experiment performed at the Halden reactor (specifically IFA-650.5). The manufacturing tolerances associated to design parameters considered in this paper were: enrichment, cladding thickness, pellet diameter, pellet density, and filling gas pressure. The physical models considered were: fuel thermal expansion, fission gas release, fuel swelling, irradiation creep, cladding thermal expansion, cladding corrosion, and cladding hydrogen pickup. The results obtained from sensitivity analysis addressed the impact of manufacturing tolerances and physical models in the fuel cladding burst time observed for the IFA-650.5 experiment. (author)

  16. Performance assessment for the class L-II disposal facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This draft radiological performance assessment (PA) for the proposed Class L-II Disposal Facility (CIIDF) on the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been prepared to demonstrate compliance with the requirements of the US Department of Energy Order 5820.2A. This PA considers the disposal of low-level radioactive wastes (LLW) over the operating life of the facility and the long-term performance of the facility in providing protection to public health and the environment. The performance objectives contained in the order require that the facility be managed to accomplish the following: (1) Protect public health and safety in accordance with standards specified in environmental health orders and other DOE orders. (2) Ensure that external exposure to the waste and concentrations of radioactive material that may be released into surface water, groundwater, soil, plants, and animals results in an effective dose equivalent (EDE) that does not exceed 25 mrem/year to a member of the public. Releases to the atmosphere shall meet the requirements of 40 CFR Pt. 61. Reasonable effort should be made to maintain releases of radioactivity in effluents to the general environment as low as reasonably achievable. (1) Ensure that the committed EDEs received by individual who inadvertently may intrude into the facility after the loss of active institutional control (100 years) will not exceed 100 mrem/year for continuous exposure of 500 mrem for a single acute exposure. (4) Protect groundwater resources, consistent with federal, state, and local requirements.

  17. Assessing Port Governance, Devolution and Terminal Performance in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. E. Onwuegbuchunam

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Concerns about performance and efficiency in port terminals led many national governments to embark on port reforms. The Federal government of Nigeria, for example, adopted the Landlord port model which brought about concessioning of port terminals to private operators. Despite high investments in terminal facilities by the private terminal operators, there are still complaints about level of service offered to port users. This paper applied key performance indicator metrics and parameters of queuing model in assessing performance of Nigeria’s concessioned port terminals. Data for the study were obtained from terminal level records of cargo and ship handling activities for years 2000 to 2015. Major findings indicate that cargo and vessel throughputs improved after the reforms in the six ports examined. However, much variability was observed in trends in ships’ turnround times across all ports after the concession policy implementation. Additional results from the queuing model analysis suggest that the high ships turnround times observed in some ports are associated to delays in ship operation at the berths. The paper recommends that policy interventions be focused on ship operations at the berths as a step in improving service level in the port terminals.

  18. Functional Performance and Associations between Performance Tests and Neurological Assessment Differ in Men and Women with Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Medijainen, Kadri; Pääsuke, Mati; Lukmann, Aet; Taba, Pille

    2015-01-01

    Background. Neurological assessment of a patient with Parkinson's disease (PD) is expected to reflect upon functional performance. As women are known to report more limitations even for same observed functional performance level, present study was designed to examine whether associations between neurological assessments and functional performance differ across genders. Methods. 14 men and 14 women with PD participated. Functional performance was assessed by measuring walking speeds on 10-mete...

  19. A performance assessment methodology for low-level waste facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozak, M.W.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Mattingly, P.A.

    1990-07-01

    A performance assessment methodology has been developed for use by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating license applications for low-level waste disposal facilities. This report provides a summary of background reports on the development of the methodology and an overview of the models and codes selected for the methodology. The overview includes discussions of the philosophy and structure of the methodology and a sequential procedure for applying the methodology. Discussions are provided of models and associated assumptions that are appropriate for each phase of the methodology, the goals of each phase, data required to implement the models, significant sources of uncertainty associated with each phase, and the computer codes used to implement the appropriate models. In addition, a sample demonstration of the methodology is presented for a simple conceptual model. 64 refs., 12 figs., 15 tabs

  20. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geier, J.; Tiren, S.; Dverstorp, B.; Glynn, P.

    1996-06-01

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB's preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs

  1. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes. 86 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  2. Application of fuzzy expert system on LILW performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, F.L. de; Sullivan, T.

    2002-01-01

    A complete LILW repository performance assessment requires the involvement between several experts in many fields of science. Many sources of uncertainties arise due to complexity of interaction of environmental parameters, lack of data and ignorance, this makes predictive analysis and interpretation difficult. This difficulty in understanding the impact of the ambiguities is even higher when it comes to public and decision makers involvement. Traditional methods of data analysis, while having strong mathematical basis, many times are not adequate to deal with ambiguous data. These ambiguities can be an obstacle to make the results easier to understand and defensible. A methodology of decision making, based on fuzzy logic, can help the interaction between experts, decision makers and the public. This method is the basis of an expert system which can help the analysis of very complex and ambiguous processes. (author)

  3. Sorption data base for performance assessment of radwaste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.H.; Jung, J.; Lee, J.K.; Hahn, P.S.

    2001-01-01

    Sorption data base (SDB) provides readily available data for the performance assessment of radwaste repository when site-specific data are not available and/or more reference data are needed. The software developed in the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI), SDB-21C, is a graphic user interface (GUI) program that provides efficient and user friendly tools for evaluating the large amount of sorption data. The data base of distribution coefficients compiled in the program contains about 11,000 Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA) data and 2,000 KAERI data up to now while the addition of new data is under progress. Furthermore, the parametric model and its compiled data sets are also included in SDB-21C. (author)

  4. Validation of geotechnical software for repository performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeGore, T.; Hoover, J.D.; Khaleel, R.; Thornton, E.C.; Anantatmula, R.P.; Lanigan, D.C.

    1989-01-01

    An important step in the characterization of a high level nuclear waste repository is to demonstrate that geotechnical software, used in performance assessment, correctly models validation. There is another type of validation, called software validation. It is based on meeting the requirements of specifications documents (e.g. IEEE specifications) and does not directly address the correctness of the specifications. The process of comparing physical experimental results with the predicted results should incorporate an objective measure of the level of confidence regarding correctness. This paper reports on a methodology developed that allows the experimental uncertainties to be explicitly included in the comparison process. The methodology also allows objective confidence levels to be associated with the software. In the event of a poor comparison, the method also lays the foundation for improving the software

  5. Technology integration performance assessment using lean principles in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico, Florentino; Yalcin, Ali; Eikman, Edward A

    2015-01-01

    This study assesses the impact of an automated infusion system (AIS) integration at a positron emission tomography (PET) center based on "lean thinking" principles. The authors propose a systematic measurement system that evaluates improvement in terms of the "8 wastes." This adaptation to the health care context consisted of performance measurement before and after integration of AIS in terms of time, utilization of resources, amount of materials wasted/saved, system variability, distances traveled, and worker strain. The authors' observations indicate that AIS stands to be very effective in a busy PET department, such as the one in Moffitt Cancer Center, owing to its accuracy, pace, and reliability, especially after the necessary adjustments are made to reduce or eliminate the source of errors. This integration must be accompanied by a process reengineering exercise to realize the full potential of AIS in reducing waste and improving patient care and worker satisfaction. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Conceptual adsorption models and open issues pertaining to performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serne, R.J.

    1991-10-01

    Recently several articles have been published that question the appropriateness of the distribution coefficient, Rd, concept to quantify radionuclide migration. Several distinct issues are raised by various critics. In this paper I provide some perspective on issues surrounding the modeling of nuclide retardation. The first section defines adsorption terminology and discusses various adsorption processes. The next section describes five commonly used adsorption conceptual models, specifically emphasizing what attributes that affect adsorption are explicitly accommodated in each model. I also review efforts to incorporate each adsorption model into performance assessment transport computer codes. The five adsorption conceptual models are (1) the constant Rd model, (2) the parametric Rd model, (3) isotherm adsorption models, (4) mass-action adsorption models, and (5) surface-complexation with electrostatics models. The final section discusses the adequacy of the distribution ratio concept, the adequacy of transport calculations that rely on constant retardation factors and the status of incorporating sophisticated adsorption models into transport codes

  7. Performance Assessments of Generic Nuclear Waste Repositories in Shale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, E. R.; Sevougian, S. D.; Mariner, P. E.; Hammond, G. E.; Frederick, J.

    2017-12-01

    Simulations of deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste in a generic shale formation showcase Geologic Disposal Safety Assessment (GDSA) Framework, a toolkit for repository performance assessment (PA) whose capabilities include domain discretization (Cubit), multiphysics simulations (PFLOTRAN), uncertainty and sensitivity analysis (Dakota), and visualization (Paraview). GDSA Framework is used to conduct PAs of two generic repositories in shale. The first considers the disposal of 22,000 metric tons heavy metal of commercial spent nuclear fuel. The second considers disposal of defense-related spent nuclear fuel and high level waste. Each PA accounts for the thermal load and radionuclide inventory of applicable waste types, components of the engineered barrier system, and components of the natural barrier system including the host rock shale and underlying and overlying stratigraphic units. Model domains are half-symmetry, gridded with Cubit, and contain between 7 and 22 million grid cells. Grid refinement captures the detail of individual waste packages, emplacement drifts, access drifts, and shafts. Simulations are run in a high performance computing environment on as many as 2048 processes. Equations describing coupled heat and fluid flow and reactive transport are solved with PFLOTRAN, an open-source, massively parallel multiphase flow and reactive transport code. Additional simulated processes include waste package degradation, waste form dissolution, radioactive decay and ingrowth, sorption, solubility, advection, dispersion, and diffusion. Simulations are run to 106 y, and radionuclide concentrations are observed within aquifers at a point approximately 5 km downgradient of the repository. Dakota is used to sample likely ranges of input parameters including waste form and waste package degradation rates and properties of engineered and natural materials to quantify uncertainty in predicted concentrations and sensitivity to input parameters. Sandia National

  8. Analytical performance specifications for external quality assessment - definitions and descriptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Graham R D; Albarede, Stephanie; Kesseler, Dagmar; MacKenzie, Finlay; Mammen, Joy; Pedersen, Morten; Stavelin, Anne; Thelen, Marc; Thomas, Annette; Twomey, Patrick J; Ventura, Emma; Panteghini, Mauro

    2017-06-27

    External Quality Assurance (EQA) is vital to ensure acceptable analytical quality in medical laboratories. A key component of an EQA scheme is an analytical performance specification (APS) for each measurand that a laboratory can use to assess the extent of deviation of the obtained results from the target value. A consensus conference held in Milan in 2014 has proposed three models to set APS and these can be applied to setting APS for EQA. A goal arising from this conference is the harmonisation of EQA APS between different schemes to deliver consistent quality messages to laboratories irrespective of location and the choice of EQA provider. At this time there are wide differences in the APS used in different EQA schemes for the same measurands. Contributing factors to this variation are that the APS in different schemes are established using different criteria, applied to different types of data (e.g. single data points, multiple data points), used for different goals (e.g. improvement of analytical quality; licensing), and with the aim of eliciting different responses from participants. This paper provides recommendations from the European Federation of Laboratory Medicine (EFLM) Task and Finish Group on Performance Specifications for External Quality Assurance Schemes (TFG-APSEQA) and on clear terminology for EQA APS. The recommended terminology covers six elements required to understand APS: 1) a statement on the EQA material matrix and its commutability; 2) the method used to assign the target value; 3) the data set to which APS are applied; 4) the applicable analytical property being assessed (i.e. total error, bias, imprecision, uncertainty); 5) the rationale for the selection of the APS; and 6) the type of the Milan model(s) used to set the APS. The terminology is required for EQA participants and other interested parties to understand the meaning of meeting or not meeting APS.

  9. Assessing the performance of reinforced concrete structures under impact loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, Akanshu; Reddy, G.R.; Vaze, K.K.; Ozbolt, Josko; Hofmann, J.

    2011-01-01

    Reinforced concrete (RC) structures housing nuclear facilities must qualify against much stringent requirements of operating and accidental loads than conventional structures. One such accidental load that must be considered while assessing the performance of safety related RC structures is impact load. It is known that the behavior of concrete/reinforced concrete structures is strongly influenced by the loading rate. The RC structural members subjected to impact loads behave quite differently as compared to the same subjected to quasi-static loading due to the strain-rate influence on strength, stiffness, and ductility as well as to the activation of inertia forces. Moreover, for concrete structures, which exhibit damage and fracture phenomena, the failure mode and cracking pattern depend significantly on loading rate. In general, there is a tendency that with the increase of loading rate the failure mode changes from mode-I to mixed mode. In order to assess the performance of existing structures against impact loads that may be generated mainly due to man-made accidental conditions, it is important to have models that can realistically predict the impact behavior of concrete structures. The present paper focuses on a relatively new approach for 3D finite element analysis of RC structures under impact loads. The approach uses rate sensitive micro-plane model as constitutive law for concrete, while the strain-rate influence is captured by the activation energy. Inertia forces are implicitly accounted for through dynamic finite element analysis. It is shown with the help of different examples that the approach can very well simulate the behavior of RC structural elements under high rate loading. (author)

  10. Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, M; Turolla, A; Mezzanotte, V; Nurizzo, C

    2013-01-01

    The paper is a review of previous research on secondary effluent disinfection by peracetic acid (PAA) integrated with new data about the effect of a preliminary flash-mixing step. The process was studied at bench and pilot scale to assess its performance for discharge in surface water and agricultural reuse (target microorganisms: Escherichia coli and faecal coliform bacteria). The purposes of the research were: (1) determining PAA decay and disinfection kinetics as a function of operating parameters, (2) evaluating PAA suitability as a disinfectant, (3) assessing long-term disinfection efficiency, (4) investigating disinfected effluent biological toxicity on some aquatic indicator organisms (Vibrio fischeri, Daphnia magna and Selenastrum capricornutum), (5) comparing PAA with conventional disinfectants (sodium hypochlorite, UV irradiation). PAA disinfection was capable of complying with Italian regulations on reuse (10 CFU/100 mL for E. coli) and was competitive with benchmarks. No regrowth phenomena were observed, as long as needed for agricultural reuse (29 h after disinfection), even at negligible concentrations of residual disinfectant. The toxic effect of PAA on the aquatic environment was due to the residual disinfectant in the water, rather than to chemical modification of the effluent.

  11. Standardized assessment of infrared thermographic fever screening system performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemi, Pejhman; Pfefer, Joshua; Casamento, Jon; Wang, Quanzeng

    2017-03-01

    Thermal modalities represent the only currently viable mass fever screening approach for outbreaks of infectious disease pandemics such as Ebola and SARS. Non-contact infrared thermometers (NCITs) and infrared thermographs (IRTs) have been previously used for mass fever screening in transportation hubs such as airports to reduce the spread of disease. While NCITs remain a more popular choice for fever screening in the field and at fixed locations, there has been increasing evidence in the literature that IRTs can provide greater accuracy in estimating core body temperature if appropriate measurement practices are applied - including the use of technically suitable thermographs. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop a battery of evaluation test methods for standardized, objective and quantitative assessment of thermograph performance characteristics critical to assessing suitability for clinical use. These factors include stability, drift, uniformity, minimum resolvable temperature difference, and accuracy. Two commercial IRT models were characterized. An external temperature reference source with high temperature accuracy was utilized as part of the screening thermograph. Results showed that both IRTs are relatively accurate and stable (<1% error of reading with stability of +/-0.05°C). Overall, results of this study may facilitate development of standardized consensus test methods to enable consistent and accurate use of IRTs for fever screening.

  12. 2011 PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT COMMUNITY OF PRACTICE TECHNICAL EXCHANGE - SUMMARY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitz, R.

    2011-12-30

    The Performance Assessment Community of Practice (PA CoP) was developed in 2008 to improve consistency and quality in the preparation of performance assessments (PAs) and risk assessments across the Department of Energy (DOE) Complex. The term, PA, is used to represent all of these modeling applications in this report. The PA CoP goals are to foster the exchange of information among PA practitioners and to share lessons learned from PAs conducted for DOE, commercial disposal facilities, and international entities. Technical exchanges and workshops are a cornerstone of PA CoP activities. Previous technical exchanges have addressed Engineered Barriers (2009 - http://www.cresp.org/education/workshops/pacop/), the Advanced Simulation Capability for Environmental Management and the Cementitious Barriers Partnership (2010 - http://srnl.doe.gov/copexchange/links.htm). Each technical exchange also includes summary presentations regarding activities at DOE, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and other organizations (e.g., International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)) as well as a number of presentations from selected sites to provide insight and perspective from on-going modeling activities. Through the deployment of PA Assistance Teams, the PA CoP has also been engaged in the development of new PAs across the DOE Complex. As a way of improving consistency in the preparation of new PAs, the teams provide technical advice and share experiences, noteworthy practices, and lessons learned from previous Low-Level Waste Disposal Facility Federal Review Group (LFRG) reviews. Teams have provided support for PAs at Hanford, Idaho, Paducah and Portsmouth. The third annual PA CoP Technical Exchange was held on May 25-26, 2011 in Atlanta, GA. The PA CoP Steering Committee Meeting held its first meeting on May 24 prior to the Technical Exchange. Decision making using models and software quality assurance were the topical emphasis for the exchange. A new feature at the 2011 technical

  13. Waste package performance assessment for the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Connell, W.J.; Lappa, D.A.; Thatcher, R.M.

    1989-02-01

    We completed a first cycle of model development from a specification to a computer program, PANDORA-1, for long-term performance assessment of waste packages. The model for one waste package at a time incorporates processes specific to the unsaturated environment at the proposed Yucca Mountain, NV, site. PANDORA-1 models the most likely processes and several modes of waste alteration and release. The development identified information needs for future models; many processes, local details, and combinations will have to be examined. Integration of ensemble performance and quantification of uncertainties are modeling steps at higher aggregation. Methodologies for these steps include sampling, which is well studied; we have focused on several open questions. We can now calculate the amount of variance reduction available from Latin hypercube sampling; it is a limited reduction. A new method, controlled sampling, provides substantial variance reduction for a broad range of model functions. An uncertainty analysis test-bed program compares the new with old sampling methods. 7 refs., 1 tab

  14. Approach to geologic repository post closure system performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahwa, S.B.; Felton, W.; Duguid, J.O.

    1992-01-01

    An essential part of the license application for a geologic repository will be the demonstration of compliance with the standards set by the Environmental Protection Agency. The performance assessments that produce the demonstration must rely on models of various levels of detail. The most detailed of these models are needed for understanding thoroughly the complex physical and chemical processes affecting the behavior of the system. For studying the behavior of major components of the system, less detailed models are often useful. For predicting the behavior of the total system, models of a third kind may be needed. These models must cover all the important processes that contribute to the behavior of the system, because they must estimate the behavior under all significant conditions for 10,000 years. In addition, however, computer codes that embody these models must calculate very rapidly because of the EPA standard's requirement for probabilistic estimates, which will be produced by sampling thousands of times from probability distributions of parameters. For this reason, the total-system models must be less complex than the detailed-process and subsystem models. The total-system performance is evaluated through modeling of the following components: Radionuclide release from the engineered-barrier system. Fluid flow in the geologic units. Radionuclide transport to the accessible environment. Radionuclide release to the accessible environment and dose to man

  15. Uncertainty evaluation methods for waste package performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Y.T.; Nair, P.K.; Journel, A.G.; Abramson, L.R.

    1991-01-01

    This report identifies and investigates methodologies to deal with uncertainties in assessing high-level nuclear waste package performance. Four uncertainty evaluation methods (probability-distribution approach, bounding approach, expert judgment, and sensitivity analysis) are suggested as the elements of a methodology that, without either diminishing or enhancing the input uncertainties, can evaluate performance uncertainty. Such a methodology can also help identify critical inputs as a guide to reducing uncertainty so as to provide reasonable assurance that the risk objectives are met. This report examines the current qualitative waste containment regulation and shows how, in conjunction with the identified uncertainty evaluation methodology, a framework for a quantitative probability-based rule can be developed that takes account of the uncertainties. Current US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulation requires that the waste packages provide ''substantially complete containment'' (SCC) during the containment period. The term ''SCC'' is ambiguous and subject to interpretation. This report, together with an accompanying report that describes the technical considerations that must be addressed to satisfy high-level waste containment requirements, provides a basis for a third report to develop recommendations for regulatory uncertainty reduction in the ''containment''requirement of 10 CFR Part 60. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. Scramjet Performance Assessment Using Water Absorption Diagnostics (U)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Loomis, Mark P.; Deiwert, George

    1995-01-01

    balance measuring thrust and integrated pressure measurements along the length of the nozzle. Assessment of its value as a combustor performance evaluation tool will be conducted.

  17. Sorption databases for increasing confidence in performance assessment - 16053

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richter, Anke; Brendler, Vinzenz; Nebelung, Cordula; Payne, Timothy E.; Brasser, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    World-wide activities focus on the remediation of radioactively contaminated sites. One common aim is to deliver a more profound chemical base for risk assessment, namely all those physico-chemical phenomena governing the contamination plume development in time and space. Coupled transport codes able to tackle this challenge have to simplify the resulting very complex reaction pattern. To do so in an adequate way requires extending the knowledge about retardation and mobilisation phenomena and the underlying basic processes and interactions (e.g. physisorption, chemisorption, surface precipitation). Interactions at the solid-liquid interface can be described by complementary approaches, the empirical K d concept and the mechanistic Surface Complexation Models (SCM). K d 's are used by most reactive transport and risk assessment codes due to the straightforward numerics involved. In addition, the K d concept is often the only feasible option for complex solid phases. However, the K d concept is a rather simplistic approach. Many very different basic physicochemical phenomena are subsumed in just one conditional parameter. Therefore, extrapolating K d values may yield very large uncertainties. SCM account adsorption of ions on surface sites as complexation reaction comparable to complexation in solution. The electrical charge at the surface is determined by the chemical reactions of the mineral functional groups, including acid-base reactions and formation of ion pairs and coordinative complexes. The required parameters are site-independent and applicable despite large variations in geochemical conditions. This presents a high potential to increase confidence in safety analysis and risk assessment studies (performance assessment). The mechanistic description of sorption processes with SCM allows a thermodynamically consistent calculation of the species distribution between liquid and solid phase combined with more reliable inter- and extrapolations. However, this

  18. A Control Variate Method for Probabilistic Performance Assessment. Improved Estimates for Mean Performance Quantities of Interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKinnon, Robert J.; Kuhlman, Kristopher L

    2016-05-01

    We present a method of control variates for calculating improved estimates for mean performance quantities of interest, E(PQI) , computed from Monte Carlo probabilistic simulations. An example of a PQI is the concentration of a contaminant at a particular location in a problem domain computed from simulations of transport in porous media. To simplify the presentation, the method is described in the setting of a one- dimensional elliptical model problem involving a single uncertain parameter represented by a probability distribution. The approach can be easily implemented for more complex problems involving multiple uncertain parameters and in particular for application to probabilistic performance assessment of deep geologic nuclear waste repository systems. Numerical results indicate the method can produce estimates of E(PQI)having superior accuracy on coarser meshes and reduce the required number of simulations needed to achieve an acceptable estimate.

  19. Performance assessment instrument to assess the senior high students' psychomotor for the salt hydrolysis material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahadi, Firman, Harry; Yulina, Erlis

    2016-02-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a performance assessment instrument for assessing the competence of psychomotor high school students on salt hydrolysis concepts. The design used in this study was the Research & Development which consists of three phases: development, testing and application of instruments. Subjects in this study were high school students in class XI science, which amounts to 93 students. In the development phase, seven validators validated 17 tasks instrument. In the test phase, we divided 19 students into three-part different times to conduct performance test in salt hydrolysis lab work and observed by six raters. The first, the second, and the third groups recpectively consist of five, six, and eight students. In the application phase, two raters observed the performance of 74 students in the salt hydrolysis lab work in several times. The results showed that 16 of 17 tasks of performance assessment instrument developed can be stated to be valid with CVR value of 1,00 and 0,714. While, the rest was not valid with CVR value was 0.429, below the critical value (0.622). In the test phase, reliability value of instrument obtained were 0,951 for the five-student group, 0,806 for the six-student group and 0,743 for the eight-student group. From the interviews, teachers strongly agree with the performance instrument developed. They stated that the instrument was feasible to use for maximum number of students were six in a single observation.

  20. Study on the barrier performance of molten solidified waste (I). Review of the performance assessment research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeda, Toshikatsu; Sakamoto, Yoshiaki; Nakayama, Shinichi; Yamaguchi, Tetsuji; Ogawa, Hiromichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    2001-02-01

    Application of melting technique is thought as one of the effective methods to treatment of the waste from the view point of its homogeneity and waste volume reduction. Solidified products by melting are expected as potential candidates of engineered barrier in a repository due to the good properties for their stabilization of radionuclides and hazardous elements. However, the methodology of performance evaluation has not been estimated so far. In this report, a literature survey on the properties of molten solidified waste was performed. It is clarified that the leachability of waste elements such as Co or Sr in molten waste form would be controlled by the corrosion behaviors of iron or silica which are the matrix elements of the waste form. While, no investigations into the durability of waste form have performed so far. Also noticed that the research items on performance evaluation such as the leachability for long-lived radionuclides and durability of waste form would be necessary for the long-term barrier assessment on the disposal. (author)