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Sample records for exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage

  1. Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage: where are we now?

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    Poole DC

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available David C Poole,1,2 Howard H Erickson1 1Department of Anatomy and Physiology, 2Department of Kinesiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS, USA Abstract: As the Thoroughbreds race for the final stretch, 44 hooves flash and thunder creating a cacophony of tortured air and turf. Orchestrated by selective breeding for physiology and biomechanics, expressed as speed, the millennia-old symphony of man and beast reaches its climax. At nearly 73 kilometers per hour (45 mph over half a ton of flesh and bone dwarfs its limpet-like jockey as, eyes wild and nostrils flaring, their necks stretch for glory. Beneath each resplendent livery-adorned, latherin-splattered coat hides a monstrous heart trilling at 4 beats per second, and each minute, driving over 400 L (105 gallons of oxygen-rich blood from lungs to muscles. Matching breath to stride frequency, those lungs will inhale 16 L (4 gallons of air each stride moving >1,000 L/min in and out of each nostril – and yet failing. Engorged with blood and stretched to breaking point, those lungs can no longer redden the arterial blood but leave it dusky and cyanotic. Their exquisitely thin blood–gas barrier, a mere 10.5 μm thick (1/50,000 of an inch, ruptures, and red cells invade the lungs. After the race is won and lost, long after the frenetic crowd has quieted and gone, that blood will clog and inflame the airways. For a few horses, those who bleed extensively, it will overflow their lungs and spray from their nostrils incarnadining the walls of their stall: a horrifically poignant canvas that strikes at horse racing’s very core. That exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH occurs is a medical and physiological reality. That every reasonable exigency is not taken to reduce/prevent it would be a travesty. This review is not intended to provide an exhaustive coverage of EIPH for which the reader is referred to recent reviews, rather, after a brief reminder of its

  2. Thromboelastometric Profiles of Horses Affected by Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhages

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    Alessia Giordano

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH commonly occurs in race horses. Thromboelastometry (TEM investigates the whole hemostatic process by evaluating the viscoelastic properties of the blood clot from its formation to fibrinolysis. The aim of this study was to assess whether horses with EIPH have abnormal thromboelastometric profiles. Intrinsic and extrinsic pathways, fibrinogen activity and fibrinolysis were investigated by TEM before and after the race in negative controls and in horses on which EIPH was confirmed by bronchoscopy. Compared with controls, horses with EIPH had an increased coagulability in both pre- and postrace samplings, especially for the intrinsic pathway and for the fibinrolytic activity. These results suggest that coagulation is preactivated in horses prone to develop EIPH, possibly due to recent or recurrent hemorrhage.

  3. Exercise induced pulmonary hemorrhage in horses: American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine consensus statement.

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    Hinchcliff, K W; Couetil, L L; Knight, P K; Morley, P S; Robinson, N E; Sweeney, C R; van Erck, E

    2015-01-01

    Published studies of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH), when assessed individually, often provide equivocal or conflicting results. Systematic reviews aggregate evidence from individual studies to provide a global assessment of the quality of evidence and to inform recommendations. Evaluate evidence to determine: if EIPH adversely affects the health, welfare or both of horses; if EIPH affects the athletic capacity of horses; the efficacy of prophylactic interventions for EIPH; and if furosemide affects the athletic capacity of horses. None. Systematic review. A panel of 7 experts was formed to assess evidence in the peer reviewed literature addressing each of the 4 objectives. Methodology followed that of the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE). Publications were assessed for quality of evidence by working groups of the panel, and a summary of findings was presented in tables. Recommendations were based on quality of evidence and were determined by a vote of the panel. Much of the evidence was of low to very low quality. Experimental studies frequently lacked adequate statistical power. There was moderate to high quality evidence that EIPH is progressive, is associated with lung lesions, that it adversely affects racing performance, that severe EIPH (Grade 4) is associated with a shorter career duration, that furosemide is efficacious in decreasing the incidence and severity of EIPH, and that administration of furosemide is associated with superior race performance. Strong recommendation that EIPH be considered a disease and a weak recommendation for use of furosemide in management of racehorses with EIPH. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  4. Alveolar macrophage graded hemosiderin score from bronchoalveolar lavage in horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage and controls.

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    Doucet, Michèle Y; Viel, Laurent

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a quantitative scoring system for evaluation of hemosiderin content of alveolar macrophages obtained by bronchoalevolar lavage provides a more sensitive test for the detection of exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) in horses than does endoscopy of the lower airways. A sample population composed of 74 Standardbred racehorses aged 2-5 years was used. Horses were grouped as either control (EIPH-negative) or EIPH-positive based on history and repeated postexertional endoscopic evaluation of the bronchial airways. Bronchoalveolar lavage was performed and cytocentrifuge slides were stained with Perl's Prussian blue. Alveolar macrophages were scored for hemosiderin content by a method described by Golde and associates to obtain the total hemosiderin score (THS). Test performance criteria were determined with a contingency table. All subjects had some degree of hemosiderin in the alveolar macrophages, regardless of group. The distribution of cells among the different grades followed a significantly different pattern for the control group versus horses with EIPH (P hemosiderin by means of the Golde scoring system shows promise as a more sensitive approach than repeated postexertional endoscopy alone to detect EIPH.

  5. Cytokine mRNA expressions after racing at a high altitude and at sea level in horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage.

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    Saulez, Montague N; Godfroid, Jacques; Bosman, Anamarie; Stiltner, Jackie L; Breathnach, Cormac C; Horohov, David W

    2010-04-01

    To determine concentrations of cytokine mRNA in horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) after racing. 97 Thoroughbreds. Following tracheobronchoscopy, the severity of EIPH was graded (scale of 0 to 4), and venous blood samples were collected from 10 horses in each grade. After RNA isolation and cDNA synthesis, real-time PCR assay was conducted to detect cytokinespecific mRNA for interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and IL-10; interferon (INF)-gamma; and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Neither location nor grade of EIPH affected the expression of IL-1 and INF-gamma. There was significantly greater overall expression of IL-6 mRNA at sea level, with significantly more IL-6 expressed in horses with grade 4 EIPH than in horses with grade 0, 1, or 2 EIPH. At a high altitude, no difference was detected for IL-6 expression among the various EIPH grades. There was significantly greater overall expression of TNF-alpha mRNA at a high altitude; however, there was no difference within the various grades of EIPH. Expression of IL-10 was significantly affected by grade of EIPH because horses with grade 3 EIPH expressed significantly more IL-10 mRNA than did horses with grade 0 or 2 EIPH; this expression was not affected by location. At sea level, increased IL-6 expression was associated with more severe EIPH, and altitude may affect gene expressions of the proinflammatory cytokine TNF-alpha and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Studies on protein concentrations of cytokine expression are needed. The pathophysiologic importance of these findings remains to be explained.

  6. Extreme sports: extreme physiology. Exercise-induced pulmonary oedema.

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    Ma, Joyce Lok Gee; Dutch, Martin John

    2013-08-01

    We report five patients who presented to an on-site medical team with concurrent haemoptysis and shortness of breath at a recent triathlon event. After initial management in the field, three of the five patients were transported to hospital via ambulance for further management, resulting in patients with haemoptysis and dyspnoea being 17 times more likely to require hospital transport. It is important to consider the differential diagnoses for this presentation, particularly exercise-induced pulmonary oedema. © 2013 Australasian College for Emergency Medicine and Australasian Society for Emergency Medicine.

  7. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

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    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  8. Pulmonary hemorrhage resulting from leptospirosis

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    Mauro Razuk Filho

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonoses in the world, although the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of spirochetes of the genus Leptospira are largely unknown. Human infection occurs either by direct contact with infected animals or indirectly, through contact with water or soil contaminated with urine, as the spirochetes easily penetrate human skin. The present report exposes the case of a female patient, diagnosed with leptospirosis after having had contact with a dog infected by Leptospira sp. that developed pulmonary hemorrhage, acute respiratory distress syndrome and acute renal failure.

  9. Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage impairs racing performance in Thoroughbred racehorses.

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    Morley, P S; Bromberek, J L; Saulez, M N; Hinchcliff, K W; Guthrie, A J

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) occurs commonly in Thoroughbred racehorses worldwide. While EIPH is believed to be an important cause of impaired performance in these horses, there is limited evidence from sufficiently powered studies to evaluate this association. To evaluate whether EIPH is associated with finishing position, distance finished behind race winners and differences in race earning among Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa. Prospective cross-sectional study. One thousand Thoroughbred horses racing in South Africa were enrolled prior to a single race and underwent tracheobronchoscopic examination within 2 h of racing. Three observers, blinded to the horses' identity and race performance, independently evaluated EIPH occurrence and severity using video recordings of the examination. Data were analysed using multivariable logistic and linear regression while controlling for important horse and race factors as potential confounding variables. Overall, 68% of horses had evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1). Horses without evidence of EIPH (severity grade 0), when compared with horses with any evidence of EIPH (grade ≥1), were >2 times more likely to win races (odds ratio = 2.3; 95% confidence interval 1.4-3.7; P = 0.001), finished an average of one length ahead of horses with EIPH (P = 0.03), and were 2.5 times more likely to be in the highest decile in race earnings (odds ratio = 2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.1, Pmoney when analysed as a continuous variable or analysed as any winnings vs. none. Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage was associated with impaired performance in Thoroughbred racehorses not medicated with furosemide and not using nasal dilator strips. These findings provide strong corroboration of previous research indicating that the occurrence of EIPH has a major impact on the ability of Thoroughbred racehorses to compete successfully as elite athletes. © 2014 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Effects of intravenous aminocaproic acid on exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH).

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    Buchholz, B M; Murdock, A; Bayly, W M; Sides, R H

    2010-11-01

    The antifibrinolytic, 6-aminohexanoic acid, also named aminocaproic acid (ACA), has been used empirically as a treatment for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) on the unsubstantiated basis that transient coagulation dysfunction may contribute to its development. To assess the effect of ACA on bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) erythrocyte counts in horses performing treadmill exercise at an intensity greater than that needed to reach maximal oxygen consumption. Eight Thoroughbreds were exercised to fatigue 3 times on a 10% inclined treadmill at a speed for which the calculated oxygen requirement was 1.15 times VO2max. Horses were treated with a saline placebo, 2 and 7 g ACA i.v. 4 h before exercise, with a crossover design being used to determine the order of the injections. Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage severity was quantified via the erythrocyte count in BALF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected 4 h before and 30-60 min post exercise. Results were expressed as mean ± s.e.m. and analysed by one way repeated measures ANOVA (P < 0.05). Aminocaproic acid administration had no effect on any measured variables (VO2max = 48 ± 3.0 [C]; 148 ± 3.0 [2 g ACA]; 145 ± 3.0 [7 g ACA] ml/kg bwt/min, respectively; run time = 77 ± 3 [C]; 75 ± 2 [2 g ACA]; 79 ± 3 [7 g ACA] seconds, respectively). All horses developed EIPH: 1691 ± 690 vs. 9637 ± 3923 (C); 2149 ± 935 vs. 3378 ± 893 (2 g ACA); 1058 ± 340 vs. 4533 ± 791 (7 g ACA) erythrocytes/µl pre- vs. post exercise recovered in BALF, respectively. Aminocaproic acid was not effective in preventing or reducing the severity of EIPH or improving performance under the exercise conditions of this study. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis; Leptospirosis hemorragica pulmonar

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    Martin, V.; Lopez, P. [Complejo Hospitalario Nuestra Senora de la Candelaria. Sant Cruz de Tenerife (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Leptospirosis is an infectious disease characteristic of humid eastern countries. It is relatively uncommon in the West. it usually presents with either hepatorenal or pulmonary involvement, two forms which generally overlap to a certain degree. We report a case of severe onset hemorrhagic pulmonary leptospirosis in a man who, during the course of the disease, presented multi systemic embolism (spleen, kidney and central nervous system). (Author) 11 refs.

  12. Radiologic findings of diffuse Pulmonary hemorrhage

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    Seo, Mi Ra; Song, Koun Sik; Lee, Jin Seong; Lim, Tae Hwan [Ulsan Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-01

    To describe the chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Two radiologists retrospectively analysed the chest radiographic and CT findings of six patients with diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage. Using open lung biopsy(n=3D2) and transbronchial lung biopsy or bronchoalveolar lavage(n=3D4), diagnosis was based on the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophage or intra-alveolar hemorrhage. Underlying diseases were Wegener's granulomatosis(n=3D2), antiphospholipid antibody syndrome(n=3D2), Henoch-Schonlein purpura(n=3D1), and idopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis(n=3D1). In all patients, sequential chest radiographs, obtained during a one to six-month period, were available. HRCT scans were obtained in five patinets, and conventional CT scans in one. Follow-up HRCT scans were obtained in two. We also analyzed the patterns of involvement, distribution and sequential changes in the pulmonary abnormalities seen on chest radiographs and CT scans. Chest radiographs showed multifocal patchy consolidation(n=3D6), ground-glass opacity(n=3D3), and multiple granular or nodular opacity(n=3D3). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, while in one there was consolidation only. Sequential chest radiographs demonstrated the improvement of initial pulmonary abnormalities and appearance of new lesions elsewhere within 5-6 days, though within 7-25 (average, 13) days, these had almost normalized. HRCT scans showed patchy consolidation(n=3D5), multiple patchy ground-glass opacity(n=3D5), or ill-defined air space nodules(n=3D4). These lesions were intermingled in five patients, and in one, ground-glass opacity only was noted. In two patients there were interlobular septal thickening and intalobular reticular opacity. The distribution of these abnormalities was almost always bilateral, diffuse with no zonal predominancy, and spared the apex of the lung and subpleural region were less affected. Although chest radiographic and CT findings of diffuse pulmonary

  13. [APPLICATIONS ENDOVASCULAR HEMOSTASIS TREATMENT OF PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE].

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    Severgin, V E; Shipulin, P P; Agrahari, A; Tronina, E Yu; Kyrylyuk, A A; Polyak, S D; Kozyar, N

    2015-06-01

    Rentgenoendovascular embolization of bronchial arteries was performed in 222 patients about pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) of different nature. Resistant hemostasis was achieved in 198 (89.9%) patients. The possibility of endovascular hemostasis in patients in advanced lung cancer complicated by PH. Hemostasis was ineffective in 24 (10.8%) patients. Died 5 (2.2%) patients due to unresectable lung cancer. The reasons for ineffective hemostasis were analysed.

  14. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and coexisting hantavirus pulmonary syndrome

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    Young Min Hong

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS is an acute viral disease with fever, hemorrhage and renal failure caused by hantavirus infection. Hantavirus induces HFRS or hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS. HPS progression to a life-threatening pulmonary disease is found primarily in the USA and very rarely in South Korea. Here, we report a case of HFRS and coexisting HPS.

  15. Exercise-induced pulmonary artery hypertension in a patient with compensated cardiac disease: hemodynamic and functional response to sildenafil therapy.

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    Nikolaidis, Lazaros; Memon, Nabeel; O'Murchu, Brian

    2015-02-01

    We describe the case of a 54-year-old man who presented with exertional dyspnea and fatigue that had worsened over the preceding 2 years, despite a normally functioning bioprosthetic aortic valve and stable, mild left ventricular dysfunction (left ventricular ejection fraction, 0.45). His symptoms could not be explained by physical examination, an extensive biochemical profile, or multiple cardiac and pulmonary investigations. However, abnormal cardiopulmonary exercise test results and a right heart catheterization-combined with the use of a symptom-limited, bedside bicycle ergometer-revealed that the patient's exercise-induced pulmonary artery hypertension was out of proportion to his compensated left heart disease. A trial of sildenafil therapy resulted in objective improvements in hemodynamic values and functional class.

  16. [Pulmonary hemorrhage associated with celiac disease].

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    Testa, María Eugenia; Maffey, Alberto; Colom, Alejandro; Agüero, Luis; Rogé, Ignacio; Andrewartha, María Sol; Teper, Alejandro

    2012-08-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a severe and potentially fatal disease characterized by recurrent episodes of alveolar hemorrhage, hemoptysis, and anemia. His association with celiac disease, described as Lane- Hamilton syndrome, could be due to the fact that both entities share a common pathogenic immune pathway. We report two patients of 13 years who consulted for hemoptysis and severe anemia that had not responded to immunosuppressive treatment with pulses of methyl prednisolone, oral meprednisone and hydroxychloroquine. Although both children highlight the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms at the time of consultation, the dosage of anti-endomysial and anti-transglutaminase antibodies was positive and biopsy confirmed the presence of intestinal enteropathy. It is emphasized that in patients with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms, the concomitant presence of celiac disease should be evaluated. If celiac disease is present, the incorporation of a gluten-free diet helps to control the symptoms, allows reducing the immunosuppressive treatment and improves the clinical course of both entities.

  17. Surfactant for pulmonary hemorrhage in neonates.

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    Aziz, Abdul; Ohlsson, Arne

    2008-04-16

    In the late 1960's and 1970's, pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) occurred mainly in full term infants with severe pre-existing illness. The incidence of PH was quoted as 1.3 per 1,000 live births. In the older medical literature, the risk factors associated with PH included the severity of the associated illness, intrauterine growth restriction, patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), coagulopathy, and the need for assisted ventilation. Presently, PH occurs mainly in preterm ventilated infants with severe respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) who often have a PDA and have received surfactant. Currently, PH complicates the hospital course of 3-5% of preterm infants with RDS. Although not clear, the cause of PH is thought to be due to a rapid lowering of intrapulmonary pressure, which facilitates left to right shunting across a patent ductus arteriosus and an increase in pulmonary blood flow. Retrospective case reports and one prospective uncontrolled study that used surfactant for PH in neonates have shown promising results in treating PH. To evaluate the effect of surfactant treatment compared to placebo or no intervention on mortality in neonates with pulmonary hemorrhage. In addition, the review will evaluate the effect of surfactant treatment on neonatal morbidities associated with PH compared to placebo or no intervention. The following databases were searched in January 2008: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, Issue 4, 2007) and MEDLINE from 1966 and EMBASE from 1980 to the time of the full review using the OVID interface. The proceedings of the Annual Meetings of the Pediatric Academic Societies and the European Society of Pediatric Research published in Pediatric Research or electronically on their web sites were searched from 1994 to the time of the full review. Science citation index (Web of Science) was searched for authors quoting key references of observational studies. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials that

  18. Normal pulmonary gas exchange efficiency and absence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in adults with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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    Lovering, Andrew T; Laurie, Steven S; Elliott, Jonathan E; Beasley, Kara M; Yang, Ximeng; Gust, Caitlyn E; Mangum, Tyler S; Goodman, Randall D; Hawn, Jerold A; Gladstone, Igor M

    2013-10-01

    Cardiopulmonary function is reduced in adults born very preterm, but it is unknown if this results in reduced pulmonary gas exchange efficiency during exercise and, consequently, leads to reduced aerobic capacity in subjects with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). We hypothesized that an excessively large alveolar to arterial oxygen difference (AaDO2) and resulting exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) would contribute to reduced aerobic fitness in adults born very preterm with and without BPD. Measurements of pulmonary function, lung volumes and diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco) were made at rest. Measurements of maximal oxygen consumption, peak workload, temperature- and tonometry-corrected arterial blood gases, and direct measure of hemoglobin saturation with oxygen (SaO2) were made preexercise and during cycle ergometer exercise in ex-preterm subjects ≤32-wk gestational age, with BPD (n = 12), without BPD (PRE; n = 12), and full term controls (CONT; n = 12) breathing room air. Both BPD and PRE had reduced pulmonary function and reduced DLco compared with CONT. The AaDO2 was not significantly different between groups, and there was no evidence of EIAH (SaO2 group preexercise or at any workload. Arterial O2 content was not significantly different between the groups preexercise or during exercise. However, peak power output was decreased in BPD and PRE subjects compared with CONT. We conclude that EIAH in adult subjects born very preterm with and without BPD does not likely contribute to the reduction in aerobic exercise capacity observed in these subjects.

  19. Bar shoes and ambient temperature are risk factors for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred racehorses.

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    Crispe, E J; Lester, G D; Robertson, I D; Secombe, C J

    2016-07-01

    Ambient temperature has been identified as a risk factor for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) in racing Thoroughbreds. This warranted a more expansive investigation of climatic conditions on the incidence and severity of EIPH. The impact of other variables such as the type of bit used, tongue ties and nonstandard shoes has not been reported and also warrant investigation. To examine the effect of various climatic variables as contributing risk factors for EIPH. Other previously uninvestigated variables as well as standard track and population factors will also be examined. Cross-sectional study. Thoroughbred racehorses competing at metropolitan racetracks in Perth, Western Australia were examined 30-200 min post race with tracheobronchoscopy. Examination took place at 48 race meetings over a 12 month period. Examinations were graded (0-4), independently by two experienced veterinarians. Univariable analyses were performed and variables with a P<0.25 were entered into a multivariable logistic regression analysis. The analysis was performed twice using the presence of blood (EIPH grade 0 vs. grades ≥1) and EIPH grades ≤1 vs. EIPH grades ≥2 as dependent variables. Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage was diagnosed in 56.6% of observations. Lower ambient temperature was significantly associated with EIPH grades ≥1 (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.93-0.98) and EIPH grades ≥2 (OR 0.97; 95% CI 0.94-1.0). Bar shoes were significantly associated with EIPH grades ≥1 (OR 6.35; 95% CI 2.17-18.54) and EIPH grades ≥2 (OR 2.72; 95% CI 1.3-5.68). Increasing race distance was significantly associated with EIPH grade ≥1 and increasing lifetime starts was significantly associated with EIPH grade ≥2. Ambient temperature is a risk factor for EIPH in Thoroughbred racehorses, with lower temperatures associated with increased risk. Bar shoes are a novel risk factor for EIPH in this population. © 2015 EVJ Ltd.

  20. Pulmonary hemorrhage following anabolic agent abuse: Two cases

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    Hvid-Jensen, Helene S.; Rasmussen, Finn; Bendstrup, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Numerous adverse effects follow anabolic agent abuse. Pulmonary hemorrhage is not considered one of them. We present two cases of young male bodybuilders who developed diffuse alveolar bleeding as a result of anabolic steroid abuse. Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage associated with anabolic agent abuse has not been described previously in the literature. Both patients developed acute dyspnea and hemoptysis with consistent radiological findings. In both cases symptoms promptly resolved with cessatio...

  1. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction

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    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  2. Tracheobronchoscopic Assessment of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Airway Inflammation in Barrel Racing Horses.

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    Léguillette, R; Steinmann, M; Bond, S L; Stanton, B

    2016-07-01

    Poor performance is often suspected to be associated with EIPH in barrel racing horses; however, there are no published reports of EIPH for this discipline. The prevalence of EIPH in barrel racing horses is also unknown. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of EIPH and signs of airway inflammation in barrel racing horses under normal racing conditions in Alberta. About 170 barrel racing horses. Observational cross-sectional study. Tracheobronchoscopic examinations were performed at least 30 minutes postrace. Video recordings were scored off-site independently by two observers for EIPH and tracheal mucus accumulation (TMA). Horses with an EIPH score ≥2 were not assessed for TMA. Interobserver agreement was calculated by weighted κ statistics. Run times, environmental variables, and clinical information were also recorded for analysis. 77/170 (45.3%) of horses examined showed evidence of EIPH (grade ≥ 1). Interobserver agreement was 0.94. 140/141 (99.3%) of horses assessed for TMA showed evidence of tracheal mucus accumulation (grade ≥ 1) with 104/141 (73.8%) having a TMA score ≥ 2. Interobserver agreement was 0.73. A weak positive association was found between EIPH scores and average run speed, the presence of cough at rest reported by the riders, increased recovery time, exercise intolerance, and outdoor pattern. The high prevalence of EIPH observed in the sampled population indicates that barrel racing induces substantial stress on the lungs. The presence of EIPH did not impact negatively on performance. Factors such as environmental dust and frequent traveling might have contributed to the high prevalence of TMA observed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  3. Prospective study of the association between exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage and long-term performance in Thoroughbred racehorses.

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    Sullivan, S L; Anderson, G A; Morley, P S; Hinchcliff, K W

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is associated with impaired short-term race performance but consequences to long-term race performance of Thoroughbred racehorses are unknown. Knowledge of effects of EIPH on performance over a prolonged time would inform the need for management and treatment of this disorder. To determine the relationship between EIPH detected on a single occasion and long-term athletic performance in Thoroughbred racehorses. Prospective, longitudinal, observational epidemiological study conducted from 2003 to 2012. Seven hundred and forty-four Thoroughbred racehorses underwent a single tracheobronchoscopic examination to determine presence and severity of EIPH in 2003. Following retirement of all the horses from racing, career after examination and lifetime performance data (including career duration, earnings, starts, wins and placings) were abstracted from a commercial database. The association between presence and severity of EIPH and individual performance variables were analysed using survival analysis, linear regression and negative binomial regression. No association was detected between the presence of any EIPH (grade ≥1) and all measures of long-term performance examined except that horses with EIPH (grade ≥2) had fewer earnings after endoscopic examination than did horses with mild EIPH or no EIPH (grades ≤1). Multiple associations were detected between the most severe form of EIPH (grade 4) and measures of long-term performance suggesting that the severity of EIPH commonly associated with epistaxis adversely affects either the horse's opportunity to race or physiologic capacity to race. We conclude that there is no association between EIPH grades 0, 1, 2 and 3 and long-term racing performance of Thoroughbred racehorses. These results are based on a single endoscopic evaluation of EIPH grade made during a horse's career. Further studies are required to determine the reasons for an association of severe (grade 4) EIPH

  4. Hemorrhagic Stroke Associated with Pulmonary Edema and Catastrophic Cardiac Failure

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    Jiun-Chang Lee

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral arteriovenous fistula (AVF is a vascular malformation that is rare in the pediatric population. Older children with cerebral AVF tend to present with neurologic problems related to intracranial venous hypertension or intracranial hemorrhage. Cardiac and pulmonary complications following acute neurologic injury such as subarachnoid hemorrhage are common in adults, but are rarely reported in children. However, complications have been reported in cases of enterovirus 71 rhombencephalitis in infants and children and can cause high morbidity and mortality. Here, we report a 14-year-old boy who presented with cardiac failure associated with pulmonary edema following cerebral hemorrhagic stroke due to AVF. After aggressive investigation and management, we intervened before significant hypoxia and hypotension developed, potentially reducing the risk of long-term adverse neurologic consequences in this patient.

  5. Therapeutic implications of coexisting severe pulmonary hemorrhage and pulmonary emboli in a case of Wegener granulomatosis.

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    Dreyer, Gavin; Fan, Stanley

    2009-05-01

    Wegener granulomatosis classically involves the renal, respiratory, and ear, nose, and throat systems. Pulmonary hemorrhage is recognized as a severe respiratory complication. Untreated, the mortality rate approaches 90% at 2 years. We describe a case of Wegener granulomatosis with coexistent severe lung hemorrhage and pulmonary and deep vein thromboses. A 31-year-old man presented with features of vasculitis, including epistaxis, fever, and acute kidney injury with an increased serum creatinine level (3.27 mg/dL). Kidney biopsy confirmed pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis, and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody showing a cytoplasmic staining pattern was strongly positive. Standard immunosuppression therapy (prednisolone and cyclophosphamide) was started. Eleven days later, the patient developed sudden dyspnea. A computed tomographic pulmonary angiogram showed pulmonary emboli, and ultrasound of the limbs showed ileofemoral thrombi bilaterally. Subcutaneous enoxaparin and warfarin therapy was started, but 8 days later, the patient had a massive pulmonary hemorrhage. Anticoagulation therapy was stopped, and plasma exchange was started to prevent further life-threatening hemorrhage. An inferior vena cava filter was inserted to prevent further pulmonary emboli during the period when anticoagulation was withheld. Kidney function improved, and pulmonary hemorrhage resolved after 5 plasma exchanges. Reintroduction of intravenous heparin and subsequently warfarin caused no further bleeding. We discuss the difficult management dilemma this combination of disease manifestations presents and review the current literature.

  6. Fatal pulmonary hemorrhage after taking anticoagulation medication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel P. Hammar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a 64-year-old man with extensive diffuse acute lung hemorrhage, presumably as a result of anticoagulation therapy. We evaluated reports in the literature concerning acute exacerbation (acute lung injury of unknown cause in UIP and other forms of fibrotic interstitial pneumonias. We also evaluated autopsy tissue in this case in order to determine the cause of death in this 64-year-old man, who was initially thought to have an asbestos-related disease. Based on the autopsy findings, this man died as a result of anticoagulation therapy; specifically, the use of Xarelto® (rivaroxaban.

  7. Pulmonary hemorrhage in pediatric lupus anticoagulant hypoprothrombinemia syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Soo; Kim, Min Jae; Bae, E Young; Jeong, Dae Chul

    2014-04-01

    Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS), a very rare disease that is caused by the presence of antifactor II antibodies, is usually counterbalanced by the prothrombotic effect of lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients with LAHPS are treated using fresh frozen plasma, steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and immunoglobulins for managing the disease and controlling hemorrhages. Notably, steroids are the important treatment for treating hypoprothrombinemia and controlling the bleeding. However, some patients suffer from severe, life-threatening hemorrhages, when factor II levels remain very low in spite of treatment with steroids. Here, we report a case of LAHPS in a 15-year-old girl who experienced pulmonary hemorrhage with rapid progression. She was referred to our hospital owing to easy bruising and prolonged bleeding. She was diagnosed with LAHPS that presented with pancytopenia, positive antinuclear antibody, proloned prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, positive LAC antibody, and factor II deficiency. Her treatment included massive blood transfusion, high-dose methylprednisolone, vitamin K, and immunoglobulin. However, she died due to uncontrolled pulmonary hemorrhage.

  8. Abnormal shortened diastolic time length at increasing heart rates in patients with abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bombardini Tonino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The degree of pulmonary hypertension is not independently related to the severity of left ventricular systolic dysfunction but is frequently associated with diastolic filling abnormalities. The aim of this study was to assess diastolic times at increasing heart rates in normal and in patients with and without abnormal exercise-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PASP. Methods. We enrolled 109 patients (78 males, age 62 ± 13 years referred for exercise stress echocardiography and 16 controls. The PASP was derived from the tricuspid Doppler tracing. A cut-off value of PASP ≥ 50 mmHg at peak stress was considered as indicative of abnormal increase in PASP. Diastolic times and the diastolic/systolic time ratio were recorded by a precordial cutaneous force sensor based on a linear accelerometer. Results At baseline, PASP was 30 ± 5 mmHg in patients and 25 ± 4 in controls. At peak stress the PASP was normal in 95 patients (Group 1; 14 patients (Group 2 showed an abnormal increase in PASP (from 35 ± 4 to 62 ± 12 mmHg; P Conclusion The first and second heart sound vibrations non-invasively monitored by a force sensor are useful for continuously assessing diastolic time during exercise. Exercise-induced abnormal PASP was associated with reduced diastolic time at heart rates beyond 100 beats per minute.

  9. Impact of a 12weeks supervised exercise training program on pulmonary functions of patients with exercise induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Heba, Helmy A.; Ashraf, Kotb A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction typically develops within 5–15 min after completing exercise. Patients develop typical asthma symptoms or sometimes troublesome cough, which usually resolve spontaneously within 30–45 min. Previous studies tried to find the best way for these subjects aiming to improve exercise performance, respiratory symptoms and quality of life without provoking this type of asthma. Objective: To investigate the effect of supervised exercise training on s...

  10. Nuclear scan of pulmonary hemorrhage in radiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis. [/sup 99m/Tc-labelled erythrocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, T. (Martin Luther King, Jr. General Hospital, Los Angeles, CA); Tanaka, T.

    1979-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis, a disease of unknown etiology most often occuring in children, is characterized by recurring episodes of alveolar consolidation. Exacerbations of pulmonary hemorrhage coincide with episodes of alveolar filling; repeated episodes lead to progressive interstitial fibrosis and eventually to corpulmonale. Serial nuclear scans of the lungs after injection of radiolabeled red blood cells should parallel the pathologic and radiographic findings. We observed the accumulation of radiolabeled red blood cells in the lungs on scan images, a finding not previously reported.

  11. Methylprednisolone pulse therapy rescued life-threatening pulmonary hemorrhage due to idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ya-Ting; Guo, Yu-Xiong; Cai, Liang-Ming; Pan, Li; Duan, Meng-Qi; Yang, Li-Fen; Sun, Yue-Yu; Tan, Wei-Ping; Chen, Zhuang-Gui

    2017-11-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is an extremely rare cause of massive pulmonary hemorrhage in children. During the acute phase, death due to massive alveolar hemorrhage and subsequent severe respiratory failure. We report two cases of IPH children who developed hypoxemic respiratory failure and massive pulmonary hemorrhage. One case of a 10-year-old boy was treated with methylprednisolone pulse therapy (10mg/kg/d) for the first three days and followed by systemic steroid therapy, he successfully decannulated 10days later and discharged with a favorable quality of life. Another case of a 4year-old female child with Down's syndrome diagnosed as IPH for over one year and treated with oral corticosteroids for maintenance therapy. She sudden suffered severe hypoxemia with rapid falls in the hemoglobin level. We applied methylprednisolone pulse therapy (10mg/kg/d) for three days and other supportive therapies, the girl survived through complicated with oxygen dependence. We suggest that methylprednisolone pulse therapy provides a chance of recovery and survival for patients with IPH at the acute phase, even if accompanied by severe pulmonary hemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage: morphology and differential diagnosis. Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Cambruzzi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemorrhage (IPH is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage (AH with unknown etiology that primarily affects children. The process has a variable clinical progression, and its diagnosis is established after excluding all causes of AH. Herein, the authors report a case of IPH in an adult male patient referring cough and hemoptysis. The conventional radiography computed tomography imaging identified zones of consolidation and areas of ground-glass attenuation in the lower lobes and lingula. Forced spirometry, bronchoscopy, and laboratorial tests yielded normal results. Several alveolar hemosiderin-laden macrophages were identified on bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy. Thus, the histopathological findings associated with clinical data were compatible with IPH.

  13. Descriptive analysis of longitudinal endoscopy for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred racehorses training and racing at the Hong Kong Jockey Club.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, S A; Riggs, C M; Singleton, M D; Troedsson, M H T

    2015-05-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH) is reported as a performance limiting condition in racehorses, yet few longitudinal studies characterising EIPH have been reported. To characterise EIPH during training and racing in the absence of prophylactic medication with furosemide among horses imported to Hong Kong during 2007-2012. Retrospective descriptive study of clinical endoscopy, EIPH status, and racing records. Thoroughbred geldings (n = 822) imported from New Zealand between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively assigned to 4 groups: diagnosed with EIPH via endoscopy (EIPH+), graded using recognised criteria; observed with epistaxis (Epistaxis); free of EIPH on endoscopy (EIPH-); and those in which no endoscopy was performed. The majority of horses (89%) were subjected to endoscopy once or more (median 15, interquartile range 3-18). Of those undergoing endoscopy, 55% of horses were diagnosed EIPH+ which varied in severity. Few (4%) experienced epistaxis. EIPH+ was diagnosed most frequently (63%) after racing. There was no significant difference in the proportion of EIPH+ and EIPH- horses that raced. Racing career longevity was longest for EIPH+ horses. The number of starts in Hong Kong for EIPH+ horses was not significantly different to EIPH- horses. [Correction added on 9 January 2015, after first online publication: The term 'lifetime starts' has been changed to 'starts in Hong Kong' in the preceding sentence.] Days to retirement were longer for EIPH+ horses. Horses with mild EIPH+ (grade <3) were more likely to be retired for other causes whereas severe grades (≥3) were more likely to be retired for EIPH. Exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage is common and varies in severity between individuals and between episodes in the same individual. There is no difference in racing career longevity between EIPH+ and EIPH- horses trained and raced without furosemide. See also correspondences by PS Morley and KW Hinchcliff; AD Richards; and S. Preston and C. M

  14. Short-term Outcome of Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-An Yen

    2013-10-01

    Conclusion: This data suggests that our current strategy is effective for treating severe pulmonary hemorrhage in VLBW infants. Surfactant therapy for severe pulmonary hemorrhage may also be beneficial for improving lung function and may shorten the duration of high oxygen requirement.

  15. Extra pulmonary sequestration with hemorrhage infection in a child: Preoperative imaging diagnosis and pathological correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chae, Joo Ae; Goo, Hyun Woo [Dept. of Radiologyand Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    We describe a rare case of extralobar pulmonary sequestration with hemorrhagic infarction in a 10-year-old boy who presented with acute abdominal pain and fever. In our case, internal branching linear architecture, lack of enhancement in the peripheral portion of the lesion with internal hemorrhage, and vascular pedicle were well visualized on preoperative magnetic resonance imaging that led to successful preoperative diagnosis of extralobar pulmonary sequestration with hemorrhagic infarction probably due to torsion.

  16. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis with severe pulmonary hemorrhage treated with rituximab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Baikunje

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA is characterized by systemic vasculitis, asthma and eosinophilia. Severe pulmonary hemorrhage is rare. Renal involvement is seen in approximately 25% and can vary from isolated urinary abnormality to rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. There is limited evidence to support the use of rituximab in this condition. We present a patient with EGPA who had severe pulmonary hemorrhage and rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis. He responded to standard treatment including prednisolone, cyclophosphamide, and plasma exchange. He subsequently had a relapse of pulmonary hemorrhage that was treated successfully with rituximab.

  17. Supplemental oxygen prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress in muscle-wasted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Meijer, P.L.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Thijs, H.M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although oxygen therapy is of clear benefit in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), recent studies have shown that short-term supplementary oxygen may increase oxidative stress and inflammation within the airways. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether systemic

  18. Circulatory Management Focusing on Preventing Intraventricular Hemorrhage and Pulmonary Hemorrhage in Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai-Horng Su

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The goal of modern neonatal care of extremely preterm infants is to reduce mortality and long-term neurological impairments. Preterm infants frequently experience cerebral intraventricular or pulmonary hemorrhage, which usually occurs within 72 hours after birth and can lead to long-term neurological sequelae and mortality. These serious hemorrhagic complications are closely related to perinatal hemodynamic changes, including an increase in the afterload on the left ventricle of the heart after the infant is separated from the placenta, and an increased preload from a left-to-right shunt caused by a hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA. The left ventricle of a preterm myocardium has limited ability to respond to such an increase in afterload and preload, and this can result in cardiac dysfunction and hemodynamic deterioration. We suggest that delayed umbilical cord clamping or umbilical cord milking to maintain optimal blood pressure and systemic blood flow (SBF, careful assessment to keep the afterload at an acceptable level, and a strategy of early targeted treatment of significant PDA to improve perfusion during this critical time period may reduce or prevent these serious complications in preterm infants.

  19. Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes associated with pulmonary hemorrhage in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Helena Faleiros Ferreira

    2014-05-01

    Conclusions: pulmonary hemorrhage is more prevalent in premature newborns, and is associated with intubation in the delivery room and previous use of blood components, leading to high mortality and worse clinical evolution.

  20. Ventricular-Arterial Coupling and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hypertension During Low-Level Exercise in Heart Failure With Preserved or Reduced Ejection Fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obokata, Masaru; Nagata, Yasufumi; Kado, Yuichiro; Kurabayashi, Masahiko; Otsuji, Yutaka; Takeuchi, Masaaki

    2017-03-01

    Exercise-induced pulmonary hypertension (EIPH) may develop even at low workloads in heart failure (HF) patients. Ventricular-arterial stiffening plays an important role in the pathophysiology of HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). This study aimed to compare the response of ventricular-arterial coupling and PH during low-level exercise between HFpEF and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). Echocardiography was performed at rest and during 10 W of bicycle exercise in HFpEF (n = 37) and HFrEF (n = 43). Load-independent contractility (end-systolic elastance [Ees], preload recruitable stroke work [PRSW], and peak power index [PWRI]), arterial afterload (arterial elastance [Ea]), and ventricular-arterial interaction (Ea/Ees) were measured with the use of a noninvasive single-beat technique. EIPH was defined as an estimated pulmonary arterial systolic pressure (PASP) of ≥50 mm Hg at 10 W of exercise. PASP was significantly increased during 10 W of exercise in both HF types, and ~50% of HFpEF patients developed EIPH. Arterial afterload was increased significantly during exercise in both groups. HFrEF and HFpEF patients showed a significant increase in LV contractility assessed by Ees, PRSW, and PWRI during exercise. Although Ea/Ees ratio decreased significantly in HFrEF, reduction in Ea/Ees was attenuated because of blunted Ees increases in patients with HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Even at low-level exercise, ~50% of HFpEF patients developed EIPH. Reduction in Ea/Ees was attenuated owing to less Ees increase in HFpEF compared with HFrEF. Further studies are needed to elucidate the association between ventricular-arterial coupling and EIPH in HFpEF. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Prevalence, risk factors and outcomes associated with pulmonary hemorrhage in newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Helena Ferreira

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES:to determine the prevalence of pulmonary hemorrhage in newborns and evaluate the associated risk factors and outcomes.METHODS:this was a retrospective case-control study involving 67 newborns who met the criteria for pulmonary hemorrhage. A control was selected for each case: the next-born child of the same gender, similar weight (± 200 g and gestational age (± 1 week, with no previous pulmona ry hemorrhage and no malformation diagnosis. Factors previous to pulmonary hemorrhage onset, as well as aspects associated to the condition, were assessed.RESULTS:the prevalence was 6.7 for 1,000 live births, and the rates observed were: 8% among newborns < 1,500 g, and 11% among newborns < 1,000 g. Intubation in the delivery room (OR = 7.16, SNAPPE II (OR = 2.97, surfactant use (OR = 3.7, and blood components used previously to pulmonary hemorrhage onset (OR = 5.91 were associated with pulmonary hemorrhage. In the multivariate logistic regression model, only intubation in delivery room and previous use of blood components maintained the association. Children with pulmonary hemorrhage had higher mortality (OR = 7.24. Among the survivors, the length of stay (p < 0.01 and mechanical ventilation time were longer (OR = 25.6, and oxygen use at 36 weeks of corrected age was higher (OR = 7.67.CONCLUSIONS:pulmonary hemorrhage is more prevalent in premature newborns, and is associated with intubation in the delivery room and previous use of blood components, leading to high mortality and worse clinical evolution.

  2. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the efficacy of furosemide for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, S L; Whittem, T; Morley, P S; Hinchcliff, K W

    2015-05-01

    Furosemide is the most commonly used medication for exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage (EIPH); however, critical evaluation of the strength of evidence for efficacy of furosemide is lacking and is warranted so that evidence-based treatment decisions can be made. To evaluate the efficacy of furosemide to reduce the severity or frequency of detection of EIPH in Thoroughbred and Standardbred racehorses. Systematic review with meta-analyses. Primary studies were identified via searches of electronic databases, relevant texts and reference lists of published articles. Studies were not restricted by date or publication status. Only studies published in English were eligible for inclusion. Searches were performed using a predetermined search string. Randomised controlled trials, nonrandomised trials and observational studies were included. Three authors independently assessed each study using the Cochrane collaboration guidelines and Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation recommendations for rating quality of evidence. Meta-analysis of studies was performed with pooled data to determine whether furosemide reduced the frequency of detection of EIPH (yes or no) as evaluated by tracheobronchoscopy or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid red blood cell number, or if furosemide reduced the severity of EIPH by at least one tracheobronchoscopic grade. Seventeen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The relative risk of detecting any EIPH by tracheobronchoscopy after administration of furosemide was 0.88 (pooled data from 11 studies, n = 5780; 95% confidence interval 0.79-0.97, P = 0.01). When data from only high-quality randomised controlled trials (2 studies, n = 405) were used, the relative risk of detecting endoscopically evident EIPH was 0.68 (95% confidence interval 0.58-0.79, Pfurosemide was 68% (2 studies, n = 405; 95% confidence interval 61-78%). There is high-quality evidence, albeit limited, that administration of furosemide reduces the

  3. Exercise-induced asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000036.htm Exercise-induced asthma To use the sharing features on this page, ... such as running, basketball, or soccer. Use Your Asthma Medicine Before you Exercise Take your short-acting, ...

  4. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Institute. http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health-pro/resources/lung/naci/discover/action-plans.htm. Accessed Sept. 12, 2014. Mickleborough TD, et al. Exercise-induced asthma: Nutritional management. Current ...

  5. Leptospirosis-Associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome with Lower Back Pain as an Initial Symptom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mads Madsen; tursunovic, Amela; Thye-Roenn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted through urine of infected animals. Symptoms range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS); the latter are often fatal. The serogroup distribution in Denmark has changed from 1988 to 2012, with Icterohaemo......BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted through urine of infected animals. Symptoms range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS); the latter are often fatal. The serogroup distribution in Denmark has changed from 1988 to 2012...... after admission she died from respiratory failure where severe hemoptysis was observed. Leptospiral DNA was later detected in a urine sample. CONCLUSIONS This case represents leptospirosis with severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome. In spite of immediate treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics...

  6. An Unusual Radiologic Manifestation of Pulmonary Tuberculosis with Bilateral Multiple Lung Nodules and Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage: A Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Seo In; Seon, Hyun Ju; Kim, Yun Hyeon [Dept. of Radiology, Chunnam National University Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Sung [Dept. of Radiology, Chunnam National University Hwasun Hospital, Hwasun(Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as bilateral multiple lung nodules or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage is very rare. Here, we report a case of pulmonary tuberculosis presenting as bilateral multiple lung nodules and diffuse alveolar hemorrhage mimicking granulomatous vasculitis, such as Wegener's granulomatosis.

  7. [Diagnosis of pulmonary hemorrhage of the newborn infants using lung ultrasonography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Fu, W; Chen, S W; Wang, Y

    2017-01-02

    Objective: To investigate the accuracy and reliability of lung ultrasound in diagnosis of pulmonary hemorrhage of the newborn infants. Method: From January 2014 to May 2016, 142 neonates from the Army General Hospital of the Chinese PLA were enrolled in the study. They were divided into two groups: a study group of 42 neonates, who were diagnosed with pulmonary hemorrhage according to their medical history, clinical manifestations and chest X-ray findings, and a control group of 100 neonates with no lung disease. All subjects underwent bedside lung ultrasound in a quiet state in a supine, lateral or prone posture, performed by a single experienced physician. The ultrasound findings were compared between the two groups.Fisher's exact test was uesd for comparison between two groups. Result: The lung ultrasound main findings associated with pulmonary hemorrhage included: (1) Shred sign: which was seen in 40 patients(95%). (2) Lung consolidation with air bronchograms: which were seen in 35 patients(83%). (3) Pleural effusion: which was seen in 34 infants(81%), pleurocentesis confirmed that the fluid was really bleeding.(4)Atelectasis: which was seen in 14 cases(33%). (5) Pleural line abnormalities and disappearing A-lines with an incidence of 100%. (6) Alveolar-interstitial syndrome: 5 patients(12%)had the main manifestations of alveolar-interstitial syndrome. The above signs were not seen in normal controls (all Ppulmonary hemorrhage, which is suitable for routine application for the diagnosis of pulmonary hemorrhage in the neonatal intensive care unit.

  8. Leptospirosis-Associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome with Lower Back Pain as an Initial Symptom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mads Madsen; tursunovic, Amela; Thye-Roenn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted through urine of infected animals. Symptoms range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS); the latter are often fatal. The serogroup distribution in Denmark has changed from 1988 to 2012, with Icterohaemo......BACKGROUND Leptospirosis is a zoonosis transmitted through urine of infected animals. Symptoms range from mild influenza-like symptoms to severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS); the latter are often fatal. The serogroup distribution in Denmark has changed from 1988 to 2012...

  9. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... January 2014 More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Can Kids and Teens With Asthma Play Sports? Asthma Center When to Go to the ER if Your Child Has Asthma Kids and Exercise Asthma Triggers Word! Exercise-Induced Asthma ...

  10. Pulmonary hemorrhage in pediatric lupus anticoagulant hypoprothrombinemia syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Kim,Ji Soo; Kim, Min Jae; Bae, E Young; Jeong, Dae Chul

    2014-01-01

    Lupus anticoagulant-hypoprothrombinemia syndrome (LAHPS), a very rare disease that is caused by the presence of antifactor II antibodies, is usually counterbalanced by the prothrombotic effect of lupus anticoagulant (LAC). Patients with LAHPS are treated using fresh frozen plasma, steroids, immunosuppressive agents, and immunoglobulins for managing the disease and controlling hemorrhages. Notably, steroids are the important treatment for treating hypoprothrombinemia and controlling the bleedi...

  11. Successful application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation due to pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hohenforst-Schmidt W

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,1 Arndt Petermann,2 Aikaterini Visouli,3 Paul Zarogoulidis,4 Kaid Darwiche,5 Ioanna Kougioumtzi,6 Kosmas Tsakiridis,3 Nikolaos Machairiotis,6 Markus Ketteler,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,4 Johannes Brachmann11II Medical Clinic, Coburg Clinic, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 2Division of Nephrology, Coburg Clinic, University of Wuerzburg, Coburg, Germany; 3Cardiothoracic Surgery Department, “Saint Luke” Private Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 4Pulmonary Department, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 5Department of Interventional Pneumology, Ruhrlandklinik, West German Lung Center, University Hospital, University of Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany; 6Surgery Department (National Health System, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is increasingly applied in adults with acute refractory respiratory failure that is deemed reversible. Bleeding is the most frequent complication during ECMO support. Severe pre-existing bleeding has been considered a contraindication to ECMO application. Nevertheless, there are cases of successful ECMO application in patients with multiple trauma and hemorrhagic shock or head trauma and intracranial hemorrhage. ECMO has proved to be life-saving in several cases of life-threatening respiratory failure associated with pulmonary hemorrhage of various causes, including granulomatosis with polyangiitis (Wegener’s disease. We successfully applied ECMO in a 65-year-old woman with acute life-threatening respiratory failure due to diffuse massive pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to granulomatosis with polyangiitis, manifested as severe pulmonary-renal syndrome. ECMO sustained life and allowed disease control, together with plasmapheresis, cyclophosphamide, corticoids, and renal replacement therapy. The patient was successfully weaned from ECMO

  12. [Exercise-induced anaphylaxis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wylon, K; Hompes, S; Worm, M

    2013-02-01

    Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a mast cell dependent reaction, which is induced by allergen exposure in combination with physical activity. Typically, the reaction occurs within 2 hours after allergen exposure followed by physical activity. Not only food allergens but all kinds of allergens including drugs can induce this form of anaphylaxis. The clinical symptoms of exercise-induced anaphylaxis are the same as in any other type of anaphylaxis. Thus not only the skin and mucosa but also other organ systems like the lungs, cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract can be affected. The diagnostic work up should cover a detailed clinical history including the assessment of symptoms and possible trigger factors including suspected allergens. Besides classical allergy diagnostics like skin prick tests and specific IgE determination, tryptase should be measured for the differential diagnosis to exclude mast cell dependent diseases. The diagnosis of exercise-induced anaphylaxis is made by the means of a double-blind placebo-controlled provocation test. Both, a sufficient amount of allergen and of physical activity must be achieved for a valid test. After the diagnosis is made, patients should be extensively counseled and provided with an emergency kit including an epinephrine auto injector.

  13. Beneficial effects of finasteride on hepatic and pulmonary immune response after trauma hemorrhage in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunaber, Claudia; Angela, Yenny; Safi, Schabnam; Krettek, Christian; Zeckey, Christian

    2015-07-01

    The literature reveals evidence for a gender specific outcome after major trauma and hemorrhage. Increased levels of male sex hormones such as testosterone and even more dihydrotestosterone (DHT) mediate negative effects on the posttraumatic immune response. Pretreatment with finasteride several days before trauma hemorrhage (TH) led to improved outcomes in mice. We hypothesized that finasteride mediates its protective effects also when administered after TH within the resuscitation process. Male C57BL/6N-mice underwent TH (blood pressure: 35 mmHg, 90 min) followed by finasteride application and fluid resuscitation. Plasma cytokines (MIP-1β, TNF-α, MCP-1, MCP-3, IL-6), productive capacity of alveolar macrophages (AM) and hepatic Kupffer cells (KC) and systemic DHT levels were determined 4 h and 24 h thereafter. Pulmonary and hepatic infiltration of PMN was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Finasteride treatment resulted in reduced levels of systemic cytokines. This was accompanied by a reduced posttraumatic cytokine secretion of AM as well as Kupffer cells, thereby reducing hepatic distant organ damage as measured by reduced PMN infiltration. Systemic DHT levels were decreased following finasteride treatment. Finasteride exerts salutary effects on the pulmonary and hepatic immune response using a therapeutic approach following TH in mice. Therefore, finasteride might represent a potential agent following multiple trauma and hemorrhage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effective treatment of refractory pulmonary hemorrhage with monoclonal anti-CD20 antibody (rituximab).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Luis Fernando; Candia, Liliana; Garcia, Patricia; Marín, Juan Ignacio; Pachón, Ines; Espinoza, Luis R; Marquez, Javier

    2009-01-01

    We report a 19-year-old female with systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis who developed pulmonary hemorrhage (PH) refractory to conventional immunosuppressive treatment. She was initially treated with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide pulses. She required mechanical ventilation due to a lack of responsiveness and her disease was considered refractory to conventional treatment. Rituximab was administered and this was followed by clinical improvement in both PH and nephritis. Rituximab may be a useful therapeutic option for the treatment of refractory PH. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations and embolic complications in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angriman, Federico; Ferreyro, Bruno L; Wainstein, Esteban J; Serra, Marcelo M

    2014-07-01

    Patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation (PAVM) face higher risk of embolic complications. It is not clear whether poor outcomes are related to PAVM severity or pulmonary symptoms. Furthermore, there is currently no available data on HHT patients in Argentina. We conducted a cross sectional study in a teaching hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We describe baseline characteristics of HHT and compare the prevalence of embolic complications in patients with significant PAVM compared to patients without significant PAVM. One hundred and eight consecutive patients were included. Significant PAVM was defined as: contrast echocardiography grade 2 or greater; bilateral PAVM or feeding artery bigger than 3mm; or previous PAVM treatment. Primary composite outcome was defined as: cerebrovascular accident, cerebral abscess or peripheral embolism. 20% of participants had embolic complications, the most frequent one was stroke. Embolic complications were associated with significant PAVM and respiratory symptoms. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use it again if I begin to have exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. True False True: Many people are concerned about the standard prescription: "2 puffs of albuterol before exercise and every ...

  17. [Clinical efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation combined with pulmonary surfactant in treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xin-Zhu; Lai, Ji-Dong; Lv, Mei; Zhu, Yao; Wang, Lian; Chen, Chao

    2015-04-01

    To explore the clinical efficacy of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) combined with pulmonary surfactant (PS) in the treatment of neonatal pulmonary hemorrhage (NPH). A total of 122 neonates diagnosed with NPH between January 2010 and June 2014 were enrolled. After being stratified by gestational age, the neonates were randomly divided into treatment (HFOV+PS) and control (HFOV alone) groups (n=61 each). Both groups were treated with HFOV after the onset of NPH. After 2-4 hours of HFOV treatment, the treatment group received PS via intratracheal injections, followed by continuous use of HFOV. Dynamic changes in the blood gas, oxygenation index (OI), and PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) values of the neonates were determined before HFOV treatment and after 6, 12, and 24 hours of HFOV treatment. The time to hemostasis, duration of ventilation, incidence of complications, and cure rate were compared between groups. After 6, 12, and 24 hours of HFOV treatment, the treatment group had significantly improved PaO2, PaCO2, O/I, and P/F values compared with the control group (P0.05). HFOV combined with PS is an effective treatment to improve oxygenation, shorten the time to hemostasis and the duration of ventilation, and reduce the incidence of complications in neonates with NPH. However, the dual therapy is unable to reduce the mortality of neonates compared with HFOV monotherapy.

  18. Use of Aminocaproic Acid in Combination With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Case of Leptospirosis Pulmonary Hemorrhage Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Pardinas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A 32-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, nonproductive cough, and worsening dyspnea after freshwater swimming in the Caribbean 1 week prior to presentation. Shortly after arrival at the hospital, the patient developed severe respiratory distress with massive hemoptysis. Based on serologic workup, he was diagnosed with leptospirosis pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome leading to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, and multiorgan failure. He received appropriate antibiotic coverage along with hemodynamic support with norepinephrine and vasopressin, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit. Introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated to provide lung-protective ventilation supporting the recovery of his pulmonary function. Aminocaproic acid was used to stop and prevent further alveolar hemorrhage. He fully recovered thereafter; however, it is uncertain whether it was the use of aminocaproic acid that led to the resolution of his disease.

  19. Use of Aminocaproic Acid in Combination With Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation in a Case of Leptospirosis Pulmonary Hemorrhage Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardinas, Miguel; Mendirichaga, Rodrigo; Budhrani, Gaurav; Garg, Rajan; Rosario, Luis; Rico, Rene; Panos, Anthony; Baier, Horst; Krick, Stefanie

    2017-01-01

    A 32-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of fever, chills, nausea, vomiting, myalgia, nonproductive cough, and worsening dyspnea after freshwater swimming in the Caribbean 1 week prior to presentation. Shortly after arrival at the hospital, the patient developed severe respiratory distress with massive hemoptysis. Based on serologic workup, he was diagnosed with leptospirosis pulmonary hemorrhage syndrome leading to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, severe hypoxemic respiratory failure, and multiorgan failure. He received appropriate antibiotic coverage along with hemodynamic support with norepinephrine and vasopressin, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy in an intensive care unit. Introduction of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation was initiated to provide lung-protective ventilation supporting the recovery of his pulmonary function. Aminocaproic acid was used to stop and prevent further alveolar hemorrhage. He fully recovered thereafter; however, it is uncertain whether it was the use of aminocaproic acid that led to the resolution of his disease.

  20. Casein protein results in higher prandial and exercise induced whole body protein anabolism than whey protein in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelen, Mariëlle P K J; Rutten, Erica P A; De Castro, Carmen L N; Wouters, Emiel F M; Schols, Annemie M W J; Deutz, Nicolaas E P

    2012-09-01

    Exercise is known to improve physical functioning and health status in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD). Recently, disturbances in protein turnover and amino acid kinetics have been observed after exercise in COPD. The objective was to investigate which dairy protein is able to positively influence the protein metabolic response to exercise in COPD. 8 COPD patients and 8 healthy subjects performed a cycle test on two days while ingesting casein or whey protein. Whole body protein breakdown (WbPB), synthesis (WbPS), splanchnic amino acid extraction (SPE), and NetWbPS (=WbPS-WbPB) were measured using stable isotope methodology during 20 min of exercise (at 50% peak work load of COPD group). The controls performed a second exercise test at the same relative workload. Exercise was followed by 1 h of recovery. In the healthy group, WbPS, SPE, and NetPS were higher during casein than during whey feeding (Panabolism than whey protein which was maintained during and following exercise in COPD. Optimizing protein intake might be of importance for muscle maintenance during daily physical activities in COPD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Rapid Progression of Metastatic Pulmonary Calcification and Alveolar Hemorrhage in a Patient with Chronic Renal Failure and Primary Hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Eun Joo; Kim, Dong Hun; Yoon, Seong Ho [Chosun University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Suk, Eun Ha [Dept. of Anaesthesiology and Pain Medicine, Seonam University College of Medicine, Namwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    Metastatic pulmonary calcification (MPC) is common in patients with chronic renal failure. The authors experienced a patient with chronic renal failure and primary hyperparathyroidism by parathyroid adenoma accompanied with rapid progressions of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage. Recent chest radiographs, compared with previous chest radiographs, showed rapid accumulation of calcification in both upper lungs. Following up on the high-resolution CT scan after five years demonstrates more increased nodules in size and ground glass opacity. The patient was diagnosed with MPC and alveolar hemorrhage by transbronchial lung biopsy. We assumed rapid progression of MPC and alveolar hemorrhage in underlying chronic renal failures could be a primary hyperparathyroidism which may be caused by parathyroid adenoma detected incidentally. Therefore parathyroid adenoma was treated with ethanol injections. Herein, we have reported on CT findings of MPC with alveolar hemorrhage and reviewed our case along with other articles.

  2. Leptospirosis-Associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome with Lower Back Pain as an Initial Symptom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Mads Madsen; tursunovic, Amela; Thye-Roenn, Peter

    2016-01-01

    , with Icterohaemorrhagiae and Sejroe now being predominant. CASE REPORT A 45-year-old Danish woman living in an area endemic for Hanta virus, without prior medical history, was admitted because of lower back pain radiating to the left hip, fever, headache, nausea, and malaise. Two weeks before admission she had been bitten...... by a mouse or a rat. Blood tests revealed raised white cells and CRP, electrolyte imbalances, raised creatinine, low thrombocytes, and a slightly decreased clotting factor (II, VII, and X). Treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics and supporting therapy was initiated very quickly. Eight hours...... after admission she died from respiratory failure where severe hemoptysis was observed. Leptospiral DNA was later detected in a urine sample. CONCLUSIONS This case represents leptospirosis with severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome. In spite of immediate treatment with broad-spectrum antibiotics...

  3. How a mild influenza B infection can kill: A case of pulmonary hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Abi Hatem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Viral influenza is a seasonal infection associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Rapidly fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia has been described in previously healthy individuals with β-hemolytic Streptococcus pneumoniae in a small series of patients, but it is not common in patients coinfected with influenza B and β-hemolytic Streptococcus, particularly since influenza B is considered less pathogenic than influenza A. However, despite being uncommon, this coinfection seems to be associated with high morbidity and mortality, particularly in healthy individuals. We present a case of a 46-year-old previously healthy white woman presenting with 4 days of shortness of breath, sore throat, subjective fevers, and nonproductive cough with rapidly fatal hemorrhagic pneumonia confirmed to have Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus and influenza B coinfection. On admission, she had a temperature of 103° F, room air oxygen saturation of 95%, a positive nasal swab for influenza B, and negative rapid strep test. Initial chest radiograph showed increased bibasilar interstitial markings. She was admitted to a regular floor and started on oseltamivir. Preliminary throat culture was positive for Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus and penicillin V was started. Respiratory status deteriorated requiring intubation and transfer to Intensive Care Unit. Subsequently, copious bleeding was noted in her endotracheal tube. A bedside bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage revealed a hemorrhagic pneumonitis. Despite aggressive efforts, she developed shock, arrested, and died Western District Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Roanoke, VA, USA postadmission. Blood cultures, bronchoalveolar lavage, and postmortem pulmonary tissue grew Group A β-hemolytic Streptococcus, only resistant to erythromycin.

  4. Clinical Features of Patients with Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Negative-Pressure Pulmonary Edema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contou, Damien; Voiriot, Guillaume; Djibré, Michel; Labbé, Vincent; Fartoukh, Muriel; Parrot, Antoine

    2017-08-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) with negative-pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) is an uncommon yet life-threatening condition. We aimed at describing the circumstances, clinical, radiological, and bronchoscopic features, as well as the outcome of patients with NPPE-related DAH. We performed a retrospective, observational cohort study, using data prospectively collected over 35 years in an intensive care unit (ICU). Of the 149 patients admitted for DAH, we identified 18 NPPE episodes in 15 patients, one admitted four times for recurrent NPPE-related DAH. The patients were primarily young, male, and athletic. The NPPE setting was postoperative (n = 12/18, 67%) or following generalized tonic-clonic seizures (n = 6/18, 33%). Hemoptysis was almost constant (n = 17/18, 94%), yet rarely massive (>200 cc, n = 1/18, 6%), with anemia observed in 10 (56%) episodes. The DAH triad (hemoptysis, anemia, and pulmonary infiltrates) was observed in 50% of episodes (n = 9/18), and acute respiratory failure in 94% (n = 17/18). Chest computed tomography revealed diffuse bilateral ground glass opacities (n = 10/10, 100%), while bronchoscopy detected bilateral hemorrhage (n = 12/12, 100%) and macroscopically bloody bronchoalveolar lavage, with siderophage absence in most (n = 7/8, 88%), indicating acute DAH. While one episode proved fatal, the other 17 recovered rapidly, with a mean ICU stay lasting 4.6 (2-15) days. Typically, the evolution was rapidly favorable under supportive care. NPPE-related DAH is a rare life-threatening condition occurring primarily after tonic-clonic generalized seizure or generalized anesthesia. Clinical circumstances are a key to its diagnosis. Early diagnosis and recognition likely allow for successful management of this potentially serious complication, whereas ictal-DAH appears ominous in epileptic patients.

  5. Automatic detection and quantification of pulmonary arterio-venous malformations in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetita, Catalin; Fortemps de Loneux, Thierry; Kouvahe, Amélé Florence; El Hajjam, Mostafa

    2017-03-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomic dominant disorder, which is characterized by the development of multiple arterio-venous malformations in the skin, mucous membranes, and/or visceral organs. Pulmonary Arterio-Venous Malformation (PAVM) is an abnormal connection where feeding arteries shunt directly into draining veins with no intervening capillary bed. This condition may lead to paradoxical embolism and hemorrhagic complications. PAVMs patients should systematically be screened as the spontaneous complication rate is high, reaching almost 50%. Chest enhanced contrast CT scanner is the reference screening and follow-up examination. When performed by experienced operators as the prime treatment, percutaneous embolization of PAVMs is a safe, efficient and sustained therapy. The accuracy of PAVM detection and quantification of its progression over time is the key of embolotherapy success. In this paper, we propose an automatic method for PAVM detection and quantification relying on a modeling of vessel deformation, i.e. local caliber increase, based on mathematical morphology. The pulmonary field and vessels are first segmented using geodesic operators. The vessel caliber is estimated by means of a granulometric measure and the local caliber increase is detected by using a geodesic operator, the h-maxdomes. The detection sensitivity can be tuned up according to the choice of the h value which models the irregularity of the vessel caliber along its axis and the PAVM selection is performed according to a clinical criterion of >3 mm diameter of the feeding artery of the PAVM. The developed method was tested on a 20 patient dataset. A sensitivity study allowed choosing the irregularity parameter to maximize the true positive ratio reaching 85.4% in average. A specific false positive reduction procedure targeting the vessel trunks of the arterio-venous tree near mediastinum allows a precision increase from 13% to 67% with an average number of 1

  6. Adolescents and Exercise Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pamela; Bickanse, Shanna; Bogenreif, Mike; VanSickle, Kyle

    2008-01-01

    This article defines asthma and exercise induced asthma, and provides information on the triggers, signs, and symptoms of an attack. It also gives treatments for these conditions, along with prevention guidelines on how to handle an attack in the classroom or on the practice field. (Contains 2 tables and 1 figure.)

  7. Sequential development of pulmonary hemorrhage with MPO-ANCA complicating anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody-mediated glomerulonephritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peces, R; Rodríguez, M; Pobes, A; Seco, M

    2000-05-01

    We report a case of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis caused by anti-glomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibodies that progressed to end-stage renal disease in a 67-year-old woman with diabetes. Intensive combined immunosuppressive therapy with methylprednisolone bolus, oral prednisone, and cyclophosphamide led to negativity of anti-GBM antibodies but was not able to restore renal function. After 28 months of hemodialysis, the patient suddenly presented with pulmonary hemorrhage. In this setting, high levels of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) and negative anti-GBM antibodies were found. Therapy with oral prednisone and cyclophosphamide led to resolution of pulmonary hemorrhage and negativity of MPO-ANCA.

  8. Life-saving systemic thrombolysis in a patient with massive pulmonary embolism and a recent hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottinor, Wendy; Turlington, Jeremy; Raza, Syed; Roberts, Charlotte S; Malhotra, Rajiv; Jovin, Ion S; Abbate, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Massive pulmonary embolism is associated with mortality rates exceeding 50%. Current practice guidelines include the immediate administration of thrombolytic therapy in the absence of contraindications. However, thrombolysis for pulmonary embolism is said to be absolutely contraindicated in the presence of recent hemorrhagic stroke and other conditions. The current contraindications to thrombolytic therapy have been extrapolated from data on acute coronary syndrome and are not specific for venous thromboembolic disease. Some investigators have proposed that the current contraindications be viewed as relative, rather than absolute, in cases of high-risk pulmonary embolism. We present the case of a 60-year-old woman in whom massive pulmonary embolism led to cardiac arrest with pulseless electrical activity. Eight weeks earlier, she had sustained a hemorrhagic cerebrovascular accident-a classic absolute contraindication to thrombolytic therapy. Despite this practice guideline, we administered tissue plasminogen activator systemically in order to save the patient's life. This therapy did not evoke intracranial bleeding, and the patient was eventually discharged from the hospital. Until guidelines specific to venous thromboembolic disease are developed, we think that the current contraindications to thrombolysis should be considered on an individual basis in patients who are at high risk of death from massive pulmonary embolism.

  9. Pancreatitis and myocarditis followed by pulmonary hemorrhage, a rare presentation of leptospirosis- A case report and literature survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranawaka Nuwan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Leptospirosis is a potentially fatal disease which can cause multi-organ dysfunction. It can rarely present as acute pancreatitis. This is the first ever report of leptospirosis presenting with acute pancreatitis and myocarditis followed by diffuse pulmonary hemorrhages to the best of our knowledge. Case presentation A 15-year-old South Asian boy presented with high grade fever, epigastric discomfort and was anicteric on admission. He developed tachycardia, transient hypotension, changes of electro-cardiogram and positive troponin I suggestive of myocarditis. Acute pancreatitis was diagnosed with 12 fold high serum amylase and with the evidence of computerized tomography. Then he developed diffuse pulmonary hemorrhages and later acute renal failure. Leptospirosis was confirmed by positive leptospira IgM, negative IgG and strongly positive Microscopic Agglutination Test. Other possible infective and autoimmune causes were excluded. Patient recovered completely with antibiotics and the supportive care. Conclusion This case illustrates diagnostic difficulties especially in resource poor settings where leptospirosis is common. Additionally it highlights the fact that leptospirosis should be considered in patients presenting with pancreatitis which can be complicated with myocarditis and diffuse pulmonary hemorrhages. We hypothesize that Toll like receptors may play a role in such systemic involvement.

  10. Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarelli, C.; TERZI V.; Perrone, F.; Cavagni, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods...

  11. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia with bilateral pulmonary vascular malformations: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lončarević Olivera

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT also known as Osler-Weber-Rendu syndrome is an autosomal dominant disease that occurs due to vascular dysplasia associated with the disorder in the signaling pathway of transforming growth factor β (TGF-β. The clinical consequence is a disorder of blood vessels in multiple organ systems with the existence of telangiectasia which causes dilation of capillaries and veins, are present from birth and are localized on the skin and mucosa of the mouth, respiratory, gastrointestinal and urinary tract. They can make a rupture with consequent serious bleeding that can end up with fatal outcome. Since there is a disruption of blood vessels of more than one organic system, the diagnosis is very complex and requires a multidisciplinary approach. Case report. We reported a 40-year-old female patient with a long-time evolution of problems, who was diagnosed and treated at the Clinic for Lung Diseases of the Military Medical Academy in Belgrade, Serbia, because of bilaterally pulmonary arteriovenous malformations associated with HHT. Embolization was performed in two acts, followed with normalization of clinical, radiological and functional findings with the cessation of hemoptysis, effort intolerance with a significant improvement of the quality of life. Conclusion. HHT is a rare dominant inherited multisystem disease that requires multidisciplinary approach to diagnosis and treatment. Embolization is the method of choice in the treatment of arteriovenous malformations with minor adverse effects and very satisfying therapeutic effect.

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension and portal hypertension in a patient with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pousada, Guillermo; Baloira, Adolfo; Valverde, Diana

    2015-03-15

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare disease that could be inherited with an autosomal dominant pattern. Mutations in BMPR2 gene are described in over 70% of cases, although other genes are involved in lesser extend in PAH. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is another rare autosomal dominant disease. PAH is a rare complication of HHT that occurs in less than 1% of cases. Liver cirrhosis with portal hypertension is also associated with the presence of PAHs in 1-2% of cases. We present here a patient with HHT who developed PAH shortly after showing portal hypertension. Some genes (BMPR2, ACVRL1, ENG) seem to play an important role in PAH pathogenesis. We analyzed these genes, detecting mutations in BMPR2 gene (c.1021G>A (V341L), c.327G>A (p.Q109Q)), ACVRL1 (c.313+20C>A, c.1502+7A>G) and ENG (c.498G>A (Q166Q)). The patient also had 3 polymorphisms in the TRPC6 gene (c.1-361A>T, c.1-254C>G, c.1-218C>T). The study of these genes will help us to identify and track individuals susceptible for developing PAH associated with other diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Surfactant impairs coagulation in-vitro: a risk factor for pulmonary hemorrhage?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, Tzipora; Rozenzweig, Naomi; Rosenberg, Nurit; Shenkman, Boris; Livnat, Tami; Morag, Iris; Fruchtman, Yariv; Martinowitz, Uri; Kenet, Gili

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary hemorrhage (PHEM) complicates the hospital course of 3-5% of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS), and bears a high mortality rate. Impaired thrombin generation and poor clot formation in premature neonates affect PHEM severity. We evaluated the impact of surfactant upon in-vitro clot formation in order to assess the role of surfactant in the pathogenesis of PHEM. Blood samples were obtained from healthy volunteers for measuring complete blood count, PT, PTT, and platelet function. Surfactant at increasing concentrations was added to blood samples, and whole blood clotting assays were performed using rotation thromboelastogram (ROTEM®, Pentapharm Munich, Germany) and whole blood platelet adhesion and aggregation (Impact-R®, Diamed, Switzerland). The mean PT level increased from 10.05 ± 033 to 11.64 ± 0.85 sec (p=0.06) in the presence of surfactant. Platelet aggregation with the agonists adenosine diphosphate and epinephrine significantly decreased with escalating surfactant concentration (psurfactant concentration: mean SC 9.25 ± 2.96 compared to 6.1 ± 0.96 and 0.05 ± 0.058 with 0/0.1/5mg/ml surfactant, respectively, psurfactant concentration and lower clot strength. The presence of surfactant impairs coagulation in-vitro. The risk of PHEM may therefore be greater in extremely premature infants. Future studies are required to assess the clinical significance and relevance of our preliminary findings. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms in school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Phillipsen, Lue Drasbaek; Hjuler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) have multiple causes, one of which is exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). There is limited knowledge regarding EIIS in children, both in primary care practices and in pediatric asthma clinics. The aim of this study...... was to describe the feasibility of a diagnostic methodology and its results in a cohort of children with EIIS referred to our tertiary pediatric pulmonary center. METHODS: This study analyzed consecutively collected data in children from East Denmark and Greater Copenhagen referred during a 3½ years period....... The continuous laryngoscopy exercise (CLE) test directly visualizes the larynx using a flexible laryngoscope during a maximal exercise test. A post-test questionnaire evaluated the subjective impact of the examination. RESULTS: The study included 60 children (37 girls/23 boys) with a mean age of 14 years (range...

  15. N-Acetylcysteine and Desferoxamine Reduce Pulmonary Oxidative Stress Caused by Hemorrhagic Shock in a Porcine Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Alexandra; Staikou, Chryssoula; Karmaniolou, Iosifina; Orfanos, Nikolaos; Mylonas, Anastassios; Nomikos, Tzortzis; Pafiti, Agathi; Papalois, Apostolos; Arkadopoulos, Nikolaos; Smyrniotis, Vassilios; Theodoraki, Kassiani

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the pulmonary oxidative stress and possible protective effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and Desferoxamine (DFX)in a porcine model subjected to hemorrhagic shock. Twenty-one pigs were randomly allocated to Group-A (sham, n = 5), Group-B (fluid resuscitation, n = 8) and Group-C (fluid, NAC and DFX resuscitation, n = 8). Groups B and C were subjected to a 40-min shock period induced by liver trauma, followed by a 60-min resuscitation period. During shock, the mean arterial pressure (MAP) was maintained at 30-40 mmHg. Resuscitation consisted of crystalloids (35 mL/kg) and colloids (18 mL/kg) targeting to MAP normalization (baseline values ± 10%). In addition, Group-C received pretreatment with NAC 200 mg/kg plus DFX 2 g as intravenous infusions. Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were determined in lung tissue homogenates. Also, histological examination of pulmonary tissue specimens was performed. TBARS were higher in Group-B than in Group-A or Group-C: 2.90 ± 0.47, 0.57 ± 0.10, 1.78 ± 0.47 pmol/μg protein, respectively (p 0.05). GPx activity did not differ significantly between the three groups (p > 0.05). Lung histology was improved in Group-C versus Group-B, with less alveolar collapse, interstitial edema and inflammation. NAC plus DFX prevented the increase of pulmonary oxidative stress markers and protein damage after resuscitated hemorrhagic shock and had beneficial effect on lung histology. NAC/DFX combination may be used in the multimodal treatment of hemorrhagic shock, since it may significantly prevent free radical injury in the lung.

  16. Recombinant Activated Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) Treatment in Very-Low-Birth-Weight (VLBW) Premature Infants with Acute Pulmonary Hemorrhage: A Single-Center, Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, Hese; Isik, Halil; Cakır, Salih Cagrı; Yar, Nese; Goksen, Bulent; Tokbay, Hakan; Kertmen, Hasan; Erdoğan, Nihal; Durak, Ikbal

    2017-02-01

    We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of intravenous administration of recombinant activated factor VIIa (rFVIIa) for acute pulmonary hemorrhage treatment in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) premature infants. This study was carried out retrospectively in premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage that were ≤30 weeks gestational age or premature infants with pulmonary hemorrhage who were hospitalized in our neonatal intensive care unit between 01 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 were evaluated. Group 1 (n = 21) received rFVIIa support within the first 30 min of pulmonary hemorrhage plus conventional treatment, while Group 2 (n = 21) received conventional treatment only. The number of patients whose pulmonary hemorrhage was stopped within the first 2 h was significantly higher in Group 1 than Group 2 (n = 14 vs n = 4; p = 0.002). After pulmonary hemorrhage, hemoglobin values of Group 1 were higher than Group 2 (11.12 ± 1.06 vs 10.14 ± 1.59 g/dL; p = 0.024). Erythrocyte suspension (1.43 ± 4.51 vs 5.71 ± 7.46 mL/kg; p = 0.030) and fresh frozen plasma use (5.71 ± 8.10 vs 19.52 ± 12.44 mL/kg; p premature infants.

  17. Top Differential Diagnosis Should Be Microscopic Polyangiitis in ANCA-Positive Patient with Diffuse Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemosiderosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Nicholas D.; Cosner, Diane E.; Lamb, Colleen A.; Li, Wei; Macknis, Jacqueline K.; Rooney, Michele T.; Zhang, Ping L.

    2014-01-01

    A rat model of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA) associated vasculitides reveals crescentic glomerulonephritis as seen in human renal biopsies and diffuse lung hemorrhage that is not well documented in human lung biopsies. A 64-year-old male, with shortness of breath and mild elevation of serum creatinine, was found to have a positive serum test for ANCA, but negative antiglomerular basement membrane antibody. A renal biopsy showed pauci-immune type of crescentic glomerulonephritis and focal arteritis. The prior lung wedge biopsy was retrospectively reviewed to show diffuse hemorrhage and hemosiderosis with focal giant cells. In addition, small arteries revealed subtle neutrophil aggregation, and margination along vascular endothelium, but no definitive vasculitis. The pathology of ANCA associated vasculitides results from activated neutrophils by ANCA and subsequent activation of the alternative complement cascade with endothelial injury, neutrophil aggregation and margination. Our findings, after the correlation between lung biopsy and renal biopsy, imply that the top differential diagnosis in the lung biopsy should be microscopic polyangiitis when diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis are present in this ANCA-positive patient. PMID:25525543

  18. Top Differential Diagnosis Should Be Microscopic Polyangiitis in ANCA-Positive Patient with Diffuse Pulmonary Hemorrhage and Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas D. Ward

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A rat model of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA associated vasculitides reveals crescentic glomerulonephritis as seen in human renal biopsies and diffuse lung hemorrhage that is not well documented in human lung biopsies. A 64-year-old male, with shortness of breath and mild elevation of serum creatinine, was found to have a positive serum test for ANCA, but negative antiglomerular basement membrane antibody. A renal biopsy showed pauci-immune type of crescentic glomerulonephritis and focal arteritis. The prior lung wedge biopsy was retrospectively reviewed to show diffuse hemorrhage and hemosiderosis with focal giant cells. In addition, small arteries revealed subtle neutrophil aggregation, and margination along vascular endothelium, but no definitive vasculitis. The pathology of ANCA associated vasculitides results from activated neutrophils by ANCA and subsequent activation of the alternative complement cascade with endothelial injury, neutrophil aggregation and margination. Our findings, after the correlation between lung biopsy and renal biopsy, imply that the top differential diagnosis in the lung biopsy should be microscopic polyangiitis when diffuse pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis are present in this ANCA-positive patient.

  19. QUANTIFICATION OF SIDEROPHORE AND HEMOLYSIN FROM STACHYBOTRYS CHARTARUM STRAINS, INCLUDING A STRAIN ISOLATED FROM THE LUNG OF A CHILD WITH PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AND HEMOSIDEROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A strain of Stachybotrys chartarum was recently isolated from the lung of a pulmonary hemorrhage and hemosiderosis (PH) patient in Texas (designated the Houston strain). This is the first time that S. chartarum has been isolated from the lung of a PH patient. In this study, the ...

  20. Local pulmonary administration of factor VIIa (rFVIIa) in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) - a review of a new treatment paradigm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heslet, Lars; Nielsen, Jørn Dalsgaard; Nepper-Christensen, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a clinical syndrome with typical symptoms dyspnea and hemoptysis. DAH is a complication of specific diseases, in some cases with acute catastrophic hemoptysis, while other patients present low grade alveolar bleeding with a need of chronic transfusion as in pu...... as in pulmonary hemosiderosis....

  1. Morphometric evaluation of murine pulmonary mast cells in experimental hemorrhagic shock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Kasacka

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory failure resulting frequently in death is one of the complications in the course of post-hemorrhagic changes. A systemic inflammatory reaction plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of this syndrome. Mast cells also contribute to this effect. To broaden our knowledge of the pathogenesis of respiratory insufficiency, we evaluated morphometrically lung mast cells in hemorrhagically shocked rats. Lung sections were stained with alcian blue and safranin, and four separate locations were distinguished: under the lung pleura, around the bronchi and the large vessels, and in the interalveolar septa. A decrease in the area and volume of mast cells and an increase in their circularity index in interalveolar septa and around the bronchi was observed. An enlargement of mast cells around lung vessels was also found. There were no changes in the morphometric parameters of mast cells under pleura. The results suggest an activation and degranulation of mast cells and a role in the inflammatory process causing acute lung injury in hemorrhagic shock.

  2. Hemorrhagic Onset of Hemangioblastoma Located in the Dorsal Medulla Oblongata Presenting with Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy and Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Gekka

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present a case of dorsal medulla oblongata hemangioblastoma with fourth ventricular hemorrhage. A 23-year-old female developed sudden consciousness disturbance, and CT revealed hemorrhage in all cerebral ventricles and a hyperdense mass in the cisterna magna. Although the reddish tumor located in the dorsal medulla oblongata was successfully removed, she suffered from severe tako-tsubo cardiomyopathy (TTC and neurogenic pulmonary edema (NPE because of baroreflex failure and damage to the solitary tract nuclei. After intensive care for 12 weeks following surgery, she was discharged without any neurological or radiological deficits. Pathogenesis of TTC/NPE is discussed in this paper.

  3. Risk factor analysis of pulmonary hemorrhage complicating CT-guided lung biopsy in coaxial and non-coaxial core biopsy techniques in 650 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nour-Eldin, Nour-Eldin A., E-mail: nour410@hotmail.com [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, Cairo University Hospital, Cairo (Egypt); Alsubhi, Mohammed [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Naguib, Nagy N. [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology Department, Alexandria University Hospital, Alexandria (Egypt); Lehnert, Thomas; Emam, Ahmed; Beeres, Martin; Bodelle, Boris; Koitka, Karen; Vogl, Thomas J.; Jacobi, Volkmar [Institute for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Johan Wolfgang Goethe – University Hospital, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the risk factors involved in the development of pulmonary hemorrhage complicating CT-guided biopsy of pulmonary lesions in coaxial and non-coaxial techniques. Materials and methods: Retrospective study included CT-guided percutaneous lung biopsies in 650 consecutive patients (407 males, 243 females; mean age 54.6 years, SD: 5.2) from November 2008 to June 2013. Patients were classified according to lung biopsy technique in coaxial group (318 lesions) and non-coaxial group (332 lesions). Exclusion criteria for biopsy were: lesions <5 mm in diameter, uncorrectable coagulopathy, positive-pressure ventilation, severe respiratory compromise, pulmonary arterial hypertension or refusal of the procedure. Risk factors for pulmonary hemorrhage complicating lung biopsy were classified into: (a) patient's related risk factors, (b) lesion's related risk factors and (d) technical risk factors. Radiological assessments were performed by two radiologists in consensus. Mann–Whitney U test and Fisher's exact tests for statistical analysis. p values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Incidence of pulmonary hemorrhage was 19.6% (65/332) in non-coaxial group and 22.3% (71/318) in coaxial group. The difference in incidence between both groups was statistically insignificant (p = 0.27). Hemoptysis developed in 5.4% (18/332) and in 6.3% (20/318) in the non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively. Traversing pulmonary vessels in the needle biopsy track was a significant risk factor of the development pulmonary hemorrhage (incidence: 55.4% (36/65, p = 0.0003) in the non-coaxial group and 57.7% (41/71, p = 0.0013) in coaxial group). Other significant risk factors included: lesions of less than 2 cm (p value of 0.01 and 0.02 in non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively), basal and middle zonal lesions in comparison to upper zonal lung lesions (p = 0.002 and 0.03 in non-coaxial and coaxial groups respectively), increased lesion

  4. Molecular Mechanisms in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is increasingly recognized as modifiable behavioral risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A partial list of proposed mechanisms for exercise-induced cardioprotection include induction of heat shock proteins, increase in cardiac antioxidant capacity, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, anatomical and physiological changes in the coronary arteries, changes in nitric oxide production, adaptational changes in cardiac mitochondria, increased autophagy, and improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. It is currently unclear which of these protective mechanisms are essential for exercise-induced cardioprotection. However, most investigations focus on sarcolemmal KATP channels, NO production, and mitochondrial changes although it is very likely that other mechanisms may also exist. This paper discusses current information about these aforementioned topics and does not consider potentially important adaptations within blood or the autonomic nervous system. A better understanding of the molecular basis of exercise-induced cardioprotection will help to develop better therapeutic strategies.

  5. Amplatzer Vascular Plugs Versus Coils for Embolization of Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations in Patients with Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tau, Noam, E-mail: taunoam@gmail.com; Atar, Eliyahu [Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson and HaSharon Campuses, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel); Mei-Zahav, Meir [Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, Department of Pulmonology and National HHT Center (Israel); Bachar, Gil N. [Rabin Medical Center – Beilinson and HaSharon Campuses, Department of Diagnostic Imaging (Israel); Dagan, Tamir; Birk, Einat; Bruckheimer, Elchanan [Schneider Children’s Medical Center of Israel, Institute of Pediatric Cardiology (Israel)

    2016-08-15

    PurposeCoil embolization of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) has a high re-canalization/re-perfusion rate. Embolization with Amplatzer plugs has been previously described, but the long-term efficacy is not established. This study reports the experience of a referral medical center with the use of coils and Amplatzer plugs for treating PAVMs in patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.MethodsThe study was approved by the Institutional Review Board with waiver of informed consent. The cohort included all patients who underwent PAVM embolization in 2004–2014 for whom follow-up imaging scans were available. The medical files were retrospectively reviewed for background data, embolization method (coils, Amplatzer plugs, both), and complications. Re-canalization of treated PAVMs was assessed from intrapulmonary angiograms (following percutaneous procedures) or computed tomography angiograms. Fisher’s exact test and Pearson Chi-squared test or t test were used for statistical analysis, with significance at p < 0.05.Results16 patients met the study criteria. Imaging scans were available for 63 of the total 110 PAVMs treated in 41 procedures. Coils were used for embolization in 37 PAVMs, Amplatzer plugs in 21, and both in five. Median follow-up time was 7.7 years (range 1.4–18.9). Re-canalization was detected in seven vessels, all treated with coils; there were no cases of re-canalization in plug-occluded vessels (p = 0.0413).ConclusionThe use of Amplatzer plugs for the embolization of PAVMs in patients with hemorrhagic telangiectasia is associated with a significantly lower rate of re-canalization of feeding vessels than coils. Long-term prospective studies are required to confirm these findings.

  6. [Clinical characteristics and genetic analysis of two cases with Leigh syndrome with acute pulmonary hemorrhage as predominant manifestation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danqun, Jin; Jie, Ding; Wenjia, Tong; Kefei, Hu

    2015-04-01

    To analyze clinical and imaging features and genetic characteristics of Leigh syndrome with emergent pulmonary edema. The clinical features and imaging data of 2 cases (1 male, 1 female) seen in Anhui Provincial Children's Hospital from 2012 to 2014 were analyzed and summarized. Venous blood samples were sent to Guangzhou Jinyu Medical Examination Center for genetic analysis. Peripheral blood DNA was extracted and amplified, then sent to a sequencing facility for presence of genetic mutation by comparing with the reference sequence (NC_012920.1). (1) The first patient was a 7 months old boy. The second patient was a 7 months and 21 days old girl. They were presented with abnormal respiration and pulmonary hemorrhage required mechanical ventilation. The first patient had a similar attack after 4 months of his birth, whose psychomotor development was normal, and no abnormal neurological findings. The value of blood lactate was 1.58 mmol/L. The value of pyruvic acid was 0.25 mmol/L. The value of cerebrospinal fluid lactate was 6. 4 mmol/L, which was an abnormal increase. The second patient had abnormal nervous system development, which included motor development retardation and hypotonia. The value of blood lactate was 6. 8 mmol/L, pyruvic acid was 0.31 mmol/L. Cerebrospinal fluid lactate was 8.2 mmol/L. (2) Imaging data: chest X-ray revealed double lung effusion. Bilateral caudate nucleus and lentiform nucleus had high signal, and bilateral internal capsule forelimbs were affected in DWI sequence of head MRI. Hemispheres, basal ganglia, cerebral peduncle, cerebellum, pons, and splenium of corpus callosum had multiple abnormal signals in head MRI of the second patient. NAA peak showed significantly reduced lesion area in magnetic resonance blood-flow scanning, and Cho peak increased significantly, which were double lactate-peak. (3) Genetic testing: ATPase6 m.9185 t > C mutation was found in case 1 that was consistent with Leigh syndrome pathogenesis. Hybrid mutations

  7. Incidental lung volume reduction following fulminant pulmonary hemorrhage in a patient with severe emphysema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hetzel, Juergen; Spengler, Werner; Horger, Marius; Boeckeler, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Endoscopic lung volume reduction is an emerging technique meant to improve lung function parameters, quality of life, and exercise tolerance in patients with severe lung emphysema. This is the first report of lung volume reduction by autologous blood in a patient with non-bullous lung emphysema. A 74-year-old woman with heterogeneous lung emphysema developed accidentally diffuse lobar bleeding immediately after valve placement. Due to persistent hemorrhage, the valves had to be removed shortly thereafter. Despite extraction of the valves, respiratory function of the patient improved rapidly indicated also by a drop in the COPD assessment test questionnaire, 3 months later. This was consistent with both improvement of lung function tests and six-minute walking test.

  8. Nedocromil sodium and exercise induced asthma.

    OpenAIRE

    Chudry, N; Correa, F; Silverman, M.

    1987-01-01

    Serial exercise tests were carried out by 12 children with asthma on two study days. After a control exercise test either nedocromil sodium 4 mg or placebo were given double blind by metered dose inhaler. Highly significant inhibition of exercise induced asthma occurred after nedocromil, lasting for over two hours.

  9. Orthodeoxia without Platypnea in Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia in the Presence of a Cerebral Abscess and Multiple Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations: Unusual Complications and Transcatheter Endovascular Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Salazar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is a rare autosomal-dominant condition affecting visceral blood vessel development. Cerebral and most commonly pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are found in the majority of symptomatic patients. The most common complications include embolic strokes and cerebral abscesses, which have been attributed to abnormal vessel communications. Platypnea orthodeoxia is a rare condition that presents dyspnea and oxygen desaturation when adopting an upright position and is relieved on decubitus. The association between hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, and platypnea orthodeoxia has been described in medical literature; however, orthodeoxia as a single entity without platypnea has not been described yet, especially associated with complications of this hereditary condition. We present the case of a 38-year-old male with persistent headaches, in whom a cerebral lesion was detected. Orthostatic tachycardia and severe orthodeoxia without platypnea were evidenced during physical examination. The patient was subsequently diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia and underwent cerebral abscess drainage as well as transcatheter endovascular closure of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. For this reason, the concept of platypnea orthodeoxia syndrome needs further revision. Patients presenting refractory hypoxemia should warn physicians to initially evaluate their oxygen saturation measurements during standing and decubitus position, even though platypnea may not be present.

  10. A Case of Leptospirosis-Associated Severe Pulmonary Hemorrhagic Syndrome Successfully Treated with Venovenous Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Umei

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. In patients with leptospirosis-associated severe pulmonary hemorrhagic syndrome (SPHS, hypoxemia is the most common cause of death despite maximal mechanical ventilation. Case. A 50-year-old male sushi chef who had never traveled outside Japan presented with a 2-day history of fever and muscle pain. On admission, the patient had thrombocytopenia, renal insufficiency, and jaundice. His condition continued to deteriorate, with decreasing platelet count, worsening renal function, hyperbilirubinemia, hypotension, and respiratory distress. On day 5 after onset of symptoms, he required intubation and mechanical ventilation. Bronchoscopy showed diffuse endobronchial bleeding. His respiratory status worsened rapidly with a partial pressure of arterial oxygen to fraction of inspired oxygen ratio of 70, necessitating venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO and treatment with an inotrope, renal replacement therapy, and broad-spectrum antibiotics including benzylpenicillin. Anticoagulation was maintained at the minimum level. His condition improved, and he was weaned off ECMO on day 15 and discharged on day 19 after onset of symptoms. The leptospirosis diagnosis was confirmed by leptospiral DNA detection in urine samples by polymerase chain reaction and the results of paired serum antibody titer testing. Conclusions. V-V ECMO may prevent mortality in patients with leptospirosis-induced SPHS that does not respond to conventional therapy.

  11. Sport and exercise-induced migraines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadelson, Craig

    2006-02-01

    Sport and exercise-induced migraines are difficult to distinguish from benign exertional headaches and other headache syndromes. Exertion can be the sole cause, or may be among multiple triggers for an individual's headache. Because approximately 10% of these headaches have an organic origin, a careful history and physical examination is necessary. The hallmark of treatment for exercise-induced migraines tends to be proper warm-up before exercise, minimization of environmental risks, proper sleep hygiene, and good nutrition and hydration; however, in many cases, the pharmacologic solutions that are applied to other types of headaches may also be necessary. Because there is a lack of large trial studies on the athletic headache population, more research on the topic is needed in the future to help clarify the mechanisms, classification, and treatments of these headaches.

  12. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis and antileukotriene montelukast

    OpenAIRE

    Sapna Gajbhiye; Rajendra Prasad Agrawal; Shubham Atal; Vikalp Tiwari; Pradeep Phadnis

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA), occurring exclusively with exercise, without any other associated trigger, detected in the prodromal phase, and prevented from additional anaphylaxis episodes by treatment with cetirizine and 10 mg daily of antileukotriene montelukast to date. EIA is a syndrome in which patients experience a spectrum of the symptoms of anaphylaxis ranging from mild cutaneous signs to severe systemic manifestations such as hypotension, syncope, and e...

  13. Imitators of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiss Pnina

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is described by transient narrowing of the airways after exercise. It occurs in approximately 10% of the general population, while athletes may show a higher prevalence, especially in cold weather and ice rink athletes. Diagnosis of EIB is often made on the basis of self-reported symptoms without objective lung function tests, however, the presence of EIB can not be accurately determined on the basis of symptoms and may be under-, over-, or misdiagnosed. The goal of this review is to describe other clinical entities that mimic asthma or EIB symptoms and can be confused with EIB.

  14. Beta₂-agonists for exercise-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonini, Matteo; Di Mambro, Corrado; Calderon, Moises A; Compalati, Enrico; Schünemann, Holger; Durham, Stephen; Canonica, Giorgio W

    2013-10-02

    It is well known that physical exercise can trigger asthma symptoms and can induce bronchial obstruction in people without clinical asthma. International guidelines on asthma management recommend the use of beta2-agonists at any stage of the disease. At present, however, no consensus has been reached about the efficacy and safety of beta2-agonists in the pretreatment of exercise-induced asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. For the purpose of the present review, both of these conditions are referred to by the acronymous EIA, independently from the presence of an underlying chronic clinical disease. To assess the effects of inhaled short- and long-acting beta2-agonists, compared with placebo, in the pretreatment of children and adults with exercise-induced asthma (or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction). Trials were identified by electronic searching of the Cochrane Airways Group Specialised Register of Trials and by handsearching of respiratory journals and meetings. Searches are current as of August 2013. We included randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of any study design, published in full text, that assessed the effects of inhaled beta2-agonists on EIA in adults and children. We excluded studies that did not clearly state diagnostic criteria for EIA. We used standard methodological procedures as expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included 53 trials consisting of 1139 participants. Forty-eight studies used a cross-over design, and five were performed in accordance with a parallel-group design. Forty-five studies addressed the effect of a single beta2-agonist administration, and eight focused on long-term treatment. We addressed these two different intervention regimens as different comparisons.Among primary outcomes for short-term administration, data on maximum fall in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) showed a significant protective effect for both short-acting beta-agonists (SABA) and long-acting beta

  15. Psychosocial Influences on Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brellenthin, Angelique G; Crombie, Kevin M; Cook, Dane B; Sehgal, Nalini; Koltyn, Kelli F

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine psychosocial influences on exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). Randomized controlled trial. Clinical research unit in a hospital. Fifty-eight healthy men and women (mean age = 21 ± 3 years) participated in this study. Participants were first asked to complete a series of baseline demographic and psychological questionnaires including the Pain Catastrophizing Scale, the Fear of Pain Questionnaire, and the Family Environment Scale. Following this, they were familiarized with both temporal summation of heat pain and pressure pain testing protocols. During their next session, participants completed the Profile of Mood States, rated the intensity of heat pulses, and indicated their pressure pain thresholds and ratings before and after three minutes of submaximal, isometric exercise. Situational catastrophizing was assessed at the end of the experimental session. Results indicated that experimental pain sensitivity was significantly reduced after exercise ( P   0.05). Positive family environments predicted attenuated pain sensitivity and greater EIH, whereas negative and chronic pain-present family environments predicted worse pain and EIH outcomes. Situational catastrophizing and negative mood state also predicted worse pain and EIH outcomes and were additionally associated with increased ratings of perceived exertion and muscle pain during exercise. This study provides preliminary evidence that psychosocial variables, such as the family environment and mood states, can affect both pain sensitivity and the ability to modulate pain through exercise-induced hypoalgesia.

  16. Gastrodia elata Blume extract ameliorates exercise- induced fatigue

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... GEB extract ameliorates exercise-induced fatigue. Key words: Gastrodia elata Blume, exercise, fatigue. INTRODUCTION. Fatigue is a complex phenomenon that can be described as a time-dependent exercise-induced reduction in the maximal force generating capacity of a muscle (Gandevia,. 2001).

  17. Local pulmonary administration of factor VIIa (rFVIIa in diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH – a review of a new treatment paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nielsen JD

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Lars Heslet1, Jørn Dalsgaard Nielsen2, Steen Nepper-Christensen31Serendex ApS, Parkovsvej 20, Gentofte, DK 2820 Denmark; 2Department of Hematology, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, Denmark; 3Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, University Hospital of Copenhagen, Rigshospitalet, DenmarkBackground: Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH is a clinical syndrome with typical symptoms dyspnea and hemoptysis. DAH is a complication of specific diseases, in some cases with acute catastrophic hemoptysis, while other patients present low grade alveolar bleeding with a need of chronic transfusion as in pulmonary hemosiderosis.Methods: Current literature in the PubMed database and other sources was reviewed in order to evaluate the current treatment recommendations, efficacy of this treatment, and finally the risk of complications after off-label use of rFVIIa in respect to DAH.Objectives: (i To elucidate the clinical aspects of alveolar hemorrhage, (ii to develop a simple diagnostic algorithm in order to separate DAH from other important pulmonary diseases with similar clinical picture and comparably high mortality. Such an algorithm has important therapeutic consequences because these diseases: acute lung injury (ALI, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS and bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP have different therapies, (iii to evaluate and discuss whether local pulmonary administration may improve outcome and reduce mortality in DAH, and (iv to suggest a treatment schedule.Results: Hitherto the diagnosis and treatment of DAH has been based on anecdotal reports. The treatment has relied on different unspecific treatment modalities based on a mixture of treatment of the underlying disease and treatment without evidence targeted to stop the alveolar bleeding. However, recently a number of publications have advocated the use of intrapulmonary rFVIIa. Even in severe bleeding DAH has been shown to respond promptly

  18. Exercise inducible laryngeal obstruction: diagnostics and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Røksund, Ola Drange; Heimdal, John-Helge; Clemm, Hege; Vollsæter, Maria; Halvorsen, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Obstruction of the central airways is an important cause of exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) in young and otherwise healthy individuals. This is a large, heterogeneous and vastly understudied group of patients. The symptoms are too often confused with those of asthma. Laryngoscopy performed as symptoms evolve during increasing exercise is pivotal, since the larynx plays an important role in symptomatology for the majority. Abnormalities vary between patients, and laryngoscopic findings are important for correct treatment and handling. The simplistic view that all EIIS is due to vocal cord dysfunction [VCD] still hampers science and patient management. Causal mechanisms are poorly understood. Most treatment options are based on weak evidence, but most patients seem to benefit from individualised information and guidance. The place of surgery has not been settled, but supraglottoplasty may cure well-defined severe cases. A systematic clinical approach, more and better research and randomised controlled treatment trials are of utmost importance in this field of respiratory medicine. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm and Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Caggiano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an essential part of childhood, with precious and acknowledged positive health effects but the impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB significantly reduces participation in physical activity. It is important to recognize EIB, differentiating EIB with or without asthma if the transient narrowing of the airways after exercise is associated with asthmatic symptoms or not, in the way to select the most appropriate treatment among the many treatment options available today. Therapy is prescribed based on symptoms severity but diagnosis of EIB is established by changes in lung function provoked by exercise evaluating by direct and indirect tests. Sometimes, in younger children it is difficult to obtain the registration of difference between the preexercise forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 value and the lowest FEV1 value recorded within 30 min after exercise, defined as the gold standard, but interrupter resistance, in association with spirometry, has been showed to be a valid alternative in preschool age. Atopy is the main risk factor, as demonstrated by epidemiologic data showing that among the estimated pediatric population with EIB up to 40% of them have allergic rhinitis and 30% of these patients may develop adult asthma, according with atopic march. Adopting the right treatment and prevention, selecting sports with no marked hyperventilation and excessive cooling of the airways, children with EIB can be able to take part in physical activity like all others.

  20. Perception of exercise induced asthma by children and their parents

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Panditi, S; Silverman, M

    2003-01-01

    Exercise induced asthma (EIA) plays an important role in clinical evaluation. There has been little previous work validating EIA as reported directly by children and indirectly by their parents. (1...

  1. Pulmonary hypoplasia on preterm infant associated with diffuse chorioamniotic hemosiderosis caused by intrauterine hemorrhage due to massive subchorial hematoma: report of a neonatal autopsy case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Sohsuke; Marutani, Takamitsu; Hisaoka, Masanori; Tasaki, Takashi; Nabeshima, Atsunori; Shiraishi, Mika; Sasaguri, Yasuyuki

    2012-08-01

    A male infant born prematurely at 31 weeks of gestation weighed 789 g and had mildly brown-colored oral/tracheal aspirates at delivery. The amniotic fluid was also discolored, and its index was below 5. The patient died of hypoxemic respiratory and cardiac failure 2 hours after birth. The maternal profiles showed placenta previa and intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) at 22 weeks of gestation, and revealed recurrent episodes of antenatal and substantial vaginal bleeding and oligohydramnios, indicating chronic abruption-oligohydramnios sequence. The thickened placenta, weighing 275 g, grossly displayed unevenness and diffuse opacity with green to brown discoloration in the chorioamniotic surface, and revealed chronic massive subchorial hematomas (Breus' mole) with old peripheral blood clot, circumvallation, and infarction. Microscopically, diffuse Berlin-blue staining-positive hemosiderin deposits were readily encountered in the chorioamniotic layers of the chorionic plate, consistent with diffuse chorioamniotic hemosiderosis (DCH) due to Breus' mole, accompanied by diffuse amniotic necrosis. At autopsy, an external examination showed several surface anomalies and marked pulmonary hypoplasia, 0.006 (less 0.012) of lung:body weight ratio. Since Breus' mole has a close relationship with intrauterine hemorrhage, resulting in DCH, IUGR, and/or pulmonary hypoplasia of the newborn, the present features might be typical. © 2012 The Authors. Pathology International © 2012 Japanese Society of Pathology and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Gunbatar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3. During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML.

  3. Successful management of pulmonary hemorrhage and aspergillosis in a patient with acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunbatar, Hulya; Demir, Cengiz; Kara, Erdal; Esen, Ramazan; Sertogullarindan, Bunyamin; Asker, Selvi

    2015-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with a one month history of gingival bleeding. He was diagnosed with Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML-M3). During treatment he developed alveolar hemorrhage for which he was treated with a steroid. After the steroid treatment he developed a nodule, a cavitary lesion and atelectasia in the left lung. He was treated with voriconazole. After therapy with voriconazole his lesion significantly decreased. This case illustrates the efficacy and safety of antifungal therapy with voriconazole for aspergillosis complicated by AML.

  4. Exercise-Induced Hypoxemia in Juvenile Thyroid Carcinoma With Lung Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segerer, Florian J; Biko, Johannes; Reiners, Christoph; Wirth, Clemens; Hebestreit, Helge

    2017-08-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) has been reported in patients with juvenile thyroid cancer treated with radioiodine for lung metastases. This retrospective study tested the hypothesis that EIAH is due to ventilation-perfusion-mismatch in this rare pulmonary condition. 50 patients (age 13-23 years) treated for juvenile thyroid carcinoma and lung metastasis with (131)I and 24 controls with thyroid cancer but without lung metastases and prior (131)I-treatment were assessed in a state of acute hypothyroidism by com-puted tomography of the lungs, pulmonary function testing, cardiopulmonary exercise test with measurements of gas exchange, oxygen saturation, alveolar-arterial difference in pO2 (p(A-a)O2) and pCO2 (p(ET-a)CO2). 10 of the 50 patients with lung metastases showed EIAH. They had more pronounced pulmonary fibrosis on computed tomography, a widened p(A-a)O2, and p(ET-a)CO2, a lower DVE/DVCO2-slope, a lower respiratory rate and no increased dead space ventilation. A more pronounced EIAH was associated with male gender, younger age, lower diffusion capacity, higher p(ET-a)CO2 during exercise and a higher peak exercise tidal volume over vital capacity ratio. EIAH in patients with thyroid carcinoma and pulmonary metastases is not related to ventilation-perfusion mismatch but to alveolar hypoventilation, possibly related to an increased work of breathing with pulmonary fibrosis.

  5. Exercise-induced bronchospasm among athletes in Lower Silesia Province.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolanczyk-Medrala, Anna; Dor, Anna; Szczepaniak, Wioletta; Tomkowicz, Tomasz; Liebhart, Jerzy; Panaszek, Bernard; Medrala, Wojciech

    2008-11-01

    A few studies have reported data on the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in high school and university athletes. Recently published data suggest that exercise-induced bronchospasm may affect up to 39% of American university athletes. To date, no data describing this pathology in athletes from Central Europe have been published. The aim of the present study was to establish the prevalence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in pupils attending sports mastership classes in secondary school as well as students of the University of Physical Education in Wroclaw. The participants were 77 athletes (30 women and 47 men) aged 16-27 years (mean 17.3 years). Only one athlete (1.29%) diagnosed with atopic asthma before testing experienced a fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (12.9% FEV(1)) compared with baseline, which showed that the exercise test result was positive. From a clinical point of view, the ventilation disturbance was asymptomatic. In the other participants, there were slight but statistically significant rises in FEV(1) (P exercise-induced bronchospasm in the population of athletes examined.

  6. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm among School Children in Gusau ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of these, the Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm (EIB) which is a reduction in post exercise Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), is widely used to define childhood asthma in epidemiological studies. To determine the current prevalence of asthma in childhood in a Northwestern Nigerian town, pupils aged 5–14years were ...

  7. Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms not due to asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandit, Chetan A; Batterby, Eugenie; Van Asperen, Peter; Cooper, Peter; Selvadurai, Hiran; Fitzgerald, Dominic A

    2014-10-01

    This manuscript describes two interesting patients who had exercise-induced symptoms that unmasked an alternative underlying diagnosis. The first is an 8-year-old boy who was treated for asthma all his life but really had exercise-induced stridor (labelled as wheeze) causing significant exercise limitation, which was due to a double aortic arch with the right arch compressing the trachea. The second case describes the diagnosis of vocal cord dysfunction in a 13-year-old anxious high achiever. He also initially had exercise-induced symptoms treated as exercise-induced wheeze but again had a stridor due to vocal cord dysfunction. Both these cases demonstrate the importance of detailed history including during exercise, which can unmask alternative diagnosis. Another important message is that if there is no response to bronchodilator treatment with absence of typical signs and symptoms of asthma, alternative diagnosis should be considered. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  8. WEST AFRICAN JOURNAL OF MEDICINE Exercise-Induced

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... of the bronchi of asthmatic children to various challenge tests differentiate them from ... determine the current prevalence of asthma in childhood in a ... Abbreviations: EIB, Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm; ISAAC, International Study on Asthma and Allergy in Childhood; PEFR, Peak Expiratory. Flow Rate.

  9. The prevalence of exercise-induced asthma among school children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is one of the major factors that affect optimal performance in sport. The prevalence of EIA is reported to be on the increase among school children worldwide. The aim of this study was to indicate EIA prevalence among primary-school children in South Africa. A field study determined the ...

  10. Bronchial provocation testing does not detect exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Sverrild, Asger

    2017-01-01

    and possible asthma referred over 6 months. All subjects received comprehensive assessment including a detailed clinical evaluation; pulmonary function testing, indirect and direct bronchial provocation testing, and CLE testing. RESULTS: Out of 37 subjects, moderate or severe EILO was diagnosed in 8 subjects......INTRODUCTION: Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is a key differential diagnosis for asthma in the presence of exertional respiratory symptoms. Continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), the current gold standard diagnostic test for EILO, has practical limitations. We aimed...... (22%, all female) while 5 (14%) had both asthma and EILO. There was no correlation between degree of EILO during CLE and mean decrease in forced inspiratory flow (%FIF50) obtained during neither the Methacholine (r = -0.15; p = 0.38) nor Mannitol (r = 0.04; p = 0.84) provocation tests. CONCLUSION...

  11. Hemorrhagic Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    A stroke is a medical emergency. There are two types - ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic stroke is the less common type. It happens when ... an artery wall that breaks open. Symptoms of stroke are Sudden numbness or weakness of the face, ...

  12. Dengue hemorrhagic fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemorrhagic dengue; Dengue shock syndrome; Philippine hemorrhagic fever; Thai hemorrhagic fever; Singapore hemorrhagic fever ... Four different dengue viruses are known to cause dengue hemorrhagic fever. Dengue hemorrhagic fever occurs when a person is bitten by ...

  13. Exercise-Induced Acute Bilateral Upper-Arm Compartment Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian C. Traub

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a rare case of acute exercise-induced bilateral upper-arm compartment syndrome in a patient who, after a year-long hiatus from exercise, subjected his upper-extremities to the stress of over 100 pushups. The patient presented with severe pain of the bilateral biceps and triceps and complaints of dark urine. Decompressive fasciotomy was performed followed by an intensive care unit (ICU stay for associated myoglobinuria secondary to rhabdomyolysis. The patient suffered no long-term sequelae as a result of his conditions and recovered full function of the bilateral upper-extremities. Albeit rare, acute exercise-induced compartment syndrome should be considered as a diagnosis following unaccustomed bouts of exercise.

  14. Exercise-induced phospho-proteins in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, A S; Hawley, J A; Zierath, J R

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to identify exercise-induced signaling events in skeletal muscle have been influenced by ground-breaking discoveries in the insulin action field. Initial discoveries demonstrating that exercise enhances insulin sensitivity raised the possibility that contraction directly modulates insulin...... receptor signaling events. Although the acute effects of exercise on glucose metabolism are clearly insulin-independent, the canonical insulin signaling cascade has been used as a framework by investigators in an attempt to resolve the mechanisms by which muscle contraction governs glucose metabolism....... This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of exercise-induced signaling pathways governing glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis will be placed on the characterization of AS160, a novel Akt substrate that plays a role in the regulation of glucose transport....

  15. Exercise-Induced Syncope in a Sedentary Woman

    OpenAIRE

    Elashery, Ahmad Ramy; Rickard, John W.; Zakaria, Sammy

    2014-01-01

    Vasovagal (neurocardiogenic) syncope, a subtype of reflex syncope, has many well-known triggers. However, we found no previous report of vasovagal exercise-induced syncope in a sedentary person. We present the case of a 35-year-old sedentary woman who experienced vasovagal syncope as she underwent an exercise stress test. Results of evaluations, including resting and stress electrocardiography and echocardiography, were normal. Her presentation is highly unusual: syncope has typically not bee...

  16. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis to flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Gall

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on a 26-year-old atopic patient suffering from seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and flexural eczemas. On two occasions, he experienced nausea, generalized urticaria and dyspnea within 2 h after consumption of a wholemeal roll and subsequent exercise (football training or walking. In each case, the episode necessitated intravenous emergency therapy with an antihistamine and a corticosteroid. In order to elucidate the two exercise-induced anaphylactic events we performed prick tests and the radioallergosorbent test (RAST with the ingredients of the wholemeal roll. Only flaxseed gave positive results. In addition, we performed an exercise test on a bicycle ergometer (15 min at 150 W and an oral challenge test with foods, using a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Only oral challenge with a teaspoon of flaxseed with additional exercise on the bicycle ergometer elicited itching, urticaria, nausea, coughing and dyspnea. The oral challenge with flaxseed followed by exercise induced immediate-type reactions and, thus, led to the diagnosis of food-dependent exercise- induced anaphylaxis to flaxseed.

  17. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Sunilkumar, B M; Sathishkumar, K M; Somashekhar, A R; Maiya, P P

    2010-01-01

    Recurrent or chronic pulmonary hemorrhage is rare in children. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) manifests as hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on chest radiographs and microcytic hypochromic anemia. The hemoptysis present may be mistaken for more common diseases, delaying the diagnosis and further management. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a disorder of unknown etiology. Treatment of IPH includes immunosuppressive drugs along with supportive measures.

  18. Preretinal hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Felippe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available A case of Valsalva hemorrhagic retinopathy treated with Nd:YAGlaser indescribed. The patient presented decreased visual acuityafter coughing, and a preretinal hemorrhage was diagnosed in theposterior pole; puncturing the posterior hyaloid face was performedwith Nd:Yag laser. Rapid hemorrhage absorption was observedafter the therapy proposed and visual acuity was recovered. Nd:Yaglaser proved to be safe and efficient in the management of preretinalhemorrhage.

  19. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsted, Emil S; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J; Swanton, Laura L; Pavitt, Matthew J; Luo, Yuan-Ming; Backer, Vibeke; Polkey, Michael I; Hull, James H

    2018-02-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate exercise-related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics, and respiratory neural drive. We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (6 with EILO and 6 healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video and gastric, esophageal, and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography, and respiratory airflow. The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation (V̇e) (work rate: 227 ± 35 vs. 237 ± 35 W; V̇e: 103 ± 20 vs. 98 ± 23 l/min; P > 0.05). At submaximal work rates (140-240 W), subjects with EILO demonstrated increased work of breathing ( P respiratory neural drive ( P respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video, we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure in causing exertional dyspnea and exercise limitation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals; yet, how laryngeal closure affects breathing is unknown. In this study we synchronized endoscopic video with respiratory physiological measurements, thus providing the first detailed commensurate assessment of respiratory mechanics and neural drive in relation to laryngeal closure. Laryngeal closure was associated with increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive preceded by an

  20. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  1. Prevalence of Exercise Induced Asthma in Female School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Marefati; Helimeh Nikbine; Mohammad Hossein Boskabady

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of exercise induced asthma (EIA) in Iran is not known. In the present study the  prevalence of  EIA  among female students  of  guidance school  in the  city of Mashhad was evaluated.A total of 1690 female students aged 12-14 years in ten randomly selected schools in north east of Iran (Mashhad) completed an asthma symptoms- specific questionnaire. One hundred forty four randomly selected students including 49 symptomatic and 95 asymptomatic cases participated in a 6 minutes fr...

  2. Vitamin C for asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, Stephen J; Hart, Anna; Wilkinson, Mark

    2013-10-23

    Dietary antioxidants, such as vitamin C, in the epithelial lining and lining fluids of the lung may be beneficial in the reduction of oxidative damage (Arab 2002). They may therefore be of benefit in reducing symptoms of inflammatory airway conditions such as asthma, and may also be beneficial in reducing exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, which is a well-recognised feature of asthma and is considered a marker of airways inflammation. However, the association between dietary antioxidants and asthma severity or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is not fully understood. To examine the effects of vitamin C supplementation on exacerbations and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adults and children with asthma or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction compared to placebo or no vitamin C. We identified trials from the Cochrane Airways Group's Specialised Register (CAGR). The Register contains trial reports identified through systematic searches of a number of bibliographic databases, and handsearching of journals and meeting abstracts. We also searched trial registry websites. The searches were conducted in December 2012. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs). We included both adults and children with a diagnosis of asthma. In separate analyses we considered trials with a diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (or exercise-induced asthma). We included trials comparing vitamin C supplementation with placebo, or vitamin C supplementation with no supplementation. We included trials where the asthma management of both treatment and control groups provided similar background therapy. The primary focus of the review is on daily vitamin C supplementation to prevent exacerbations and improve HRQL. The short-term use of vitamin C at the time of exacerbations or for cold symptoms in people with asthma are outside the scope of this review. Two review authors independently screened the titles and abstracts of potential studies, and subsequently

  3. Alveolar Hemorrhage After Scuba Diving: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Ju Tsai

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba diving is increasingly popular in Taiwan. There are few references in the literature regarding pulmonary hemorrhage as the sole manifestation of pulmonary barotrauma in scuba divers, and no study from Taiwan was found in the literature. We present the case of a 25-year-old man who suffered alveolar hemorrhage related to pulmonary barotrauma as a complication of scuba diving. To our knowledge, this is the first case report describing a Taiwanese subject suffering from non-fatal pulmonary hemorrhage after scuba diving.

  4. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  5. Pulmonary Arteriovenous Malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjeldsen, A D; Oxhøj, H; Andersen, P E

    1999-01-01

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease with a high prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). The first symptom of HHT may be stroke or fatal hemoptysis associated with the presence of PAVM.......Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is a dominantly inherited disease with a high prevalence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs). The first symptom of HHT may be stroke or fatal hemoptysis associated with the presence of PAVM....

  6. The influence of exercise-induced fatigue on cognitive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert D; Romine, Mathew W; O'connor, Patrick J; Tomporowski, Phillip D

    2012-05-01

    Although anecdotal reports suggest that information processing and decision making is impaired immediately following prolonged periods of physical activity, results obtained from laboratory studies of exercise-induced fatigue have been inconsistent. Fatigue effects may be task specific and related to the time of post-exercise testing. The present study examined the effects on adults' performance of two cognitive tasks that differed in processing demands over an 80-min period of fatigue. Thirty young adult men and women were randomly assigned to either an exercise group and completed a 60-min bout of cycle ergometry at 90% ventilatory threshold or a control group and rested for 60 min. Following interventions, each participant completed a simple and complex version of a visual perceptual discrimination test, a 40-min memory-based vigilance test and a repetition of the visual perceptual discrimination tests. Those who exercised evidenced significant decrements in performance on complex perceptual-discrimination tasks compared to participants who rested. The response time of exercisers during a memory-demanding vigilance test were significantly slower than those of participants who rested; however, detection performance did not differ between groups neither was there a decrease in target detection across the vigil. The effects of exercise-induced fatigue may be task specific, with greater effects on perceptual tasks, which involve relatively automatic processing, compared to effortful memory-based tasks.

  7. Eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation in diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Pernille M; Rasmussen, Niels

    2013-11-01

    Exercise-induced laryngeal obstructions (EILOs) cause exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and are important differential diagnoses to exercise-induced asthma. The diagnostic method for EILOs includes provocation to induce the obstruction followed by a verification of the obstruction and the degree thereof. The objective of the present study was to examine if a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test could induce laryngeal obstructions laryngoscopically identical in subtypes and development as seen during an exercise test. EVH and exercise testing with continuous laryngoscopy were performed during a screening of two national athletic teams (n = 67). The laryngoscopic recordings were examined for usability, abnormalities and maximal supraglottic and glottic obstruction using two currently available methods (Eilomea and CLE-score). The participants were asked questions on ERRS, and whether the symptoms experienced during each provocation matched those experienced during regular training. A total of 39 completed both tests. There were no significant differences in subtypes and development thereof, the experience of symptoms, and specificity and sensitivity between the methods. Significantly more recordings obtained during the exercise test were usable for evaluation primarily due to resilient mucus on the tip of the fiber-laryngoscope in the EVH test. Only recordings of six athletes from both provocation methods were usable for evaluation using the Eilomea method (high-quality demand). Amongst these, a linear correlation was found for the glottic obstruction. EVH tests can induce EILOs. However, the present test protocol needs adjustments to secure better visualisation of the larynx during provocation.

  8. Effect of simulated weightlessness on exercise-induced anaerobic threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Convertino, V. A.; Karst, G. M.; Kirby, C. R.; Goldwater, D. J.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of simulated weightlessness, induced by ten days of continuous bedrest (BR) in the -6 deg head-down position, on the exercise-induced anaerobic threshold (AT) was determined by comparing specific ventilatory and gas-exchange measurements during an incremental ergometer test performed before and after BR. The primary index for determining the exercise-induced AT values of each subject was visual identification of the workrate or oxygen uptake (VO2) at which the ratio of the expired minute ventilation volume (VE) to VO2 exhibited a systematic increase without a concomitant increase in the VE/VCO2 value. Following BR, the mean VO2max of the subjects decreased by 7.0 percent, and the AT decreased from a mean of 1.26 L/min VO2 before BR to 0.95 L/min VO2 after BR. The decrease in AT was manifested by a decrease in both absolute and relative workrates. The change in AT correlated significantly with the change in plasma volume but not with the change in VO2max. The results suggest that the reduction in AT cannot be completely explained by the reduction in VO2, and that the AT decrease is associated with the reduction in intravascular fluid volume.

  9. Exercise-induced oxidative stress: A tool for “hormesis” and “adaptive response”

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2014-01-01

    ... adaptation to physical exercise. It is becoming increasingly clear that exercise-related beneficial adaptations are strongly regulated by exercise-induced oxidative stress, consistent with hormesis theory...

  10. Neumonía aguda de la comunidad y hemorragia pulmonar por leptospirosis en el área metropolitana Buenos Aires Community acquired pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del trabajo es comunicar los hallazgos epidemiológicos, clínicos y de diagnóstico de la neumonía y hemorragia pulmonar por leptospirosis, en el período enero 2007 a octubre 2009. Un 64% (20/31 de pacientes con diagnóstico de leptospirosis tuvieron neumonía. Quince de ellos (75% presentaron neumonía grave, de los cuales siete (35% desarrollaron hemorragia pulmonar. En diez enfermos (32% el motivo de consulta e inicio del cuadro clínico fue una gastroenteritis secretoria con fiebre y dolor abdominal. La ictericia sólo se manifestó en once pacientes (35%. La técnica de reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR fue útil para el diagnóstico en muestra obtenida post mortem. De un hemocultivo se aisló una cepa clasificada dentro del serogrupo canicola. Se clasificaron las neumonías en tres tipos: neumonías de curso no grave con escasa repercusión general; neumonías graves asociadas a formas clínicas sistémicas con ictericia, insuficiencia renal, trombocitopenia y hemorragia pulmonar; también de curso grave, no asociada a ictericia, insuficiencia renal o trombocitopenia grave. El tratamiento antibiótico iniciado en los primeros días de enfermedad (promedio 3.2 días no tuvo influencia en la evolución de las neumonías graves. Se plantea además considerar tres formas clínicas de leptospirosis: anictérica, ictérica (con sus variantes evolutivas y hemorragia pulmonar.The aim of this paper is to report the epidemiological, clinical and diagnosis findings of pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage observed in patients with leptospirosis in the period January 2007 to October 2009. A 64% (20/31 of patients diagnosed with leptospirosis presented pneumonia. Fifteen of them (75% had severe pneumonia, of which seven (35% were pulmonary hemorrhage. In ten patients (32% reason for consultation and clinical early stage was a secretory gastroenteritis with fever and abdominal pain. Jaundice was only expressed in eleven patients (35

  11. Dietary strategies to recover from exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Mónica; Teixeira, Vítor H; Soares, José

    2014-03-01

    Exhaustive or unaccustomed intense exercise can cause exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and its undesirable consequences may decrease the ability to exercise and to adhere to a training programme. This review briefly summarises the muscle damage process, focusing predominantly on oxidative stress and inflammation as contributing factors, and describes how nutrition may be positively used to recover from EIMD. The combined intake of carbohydrates and proteins and the use of antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients within physiological ranges are interventions that may assist the recovery process. Although the works studying food instead of nutritional supplements are very scarce, their results seem to indicate that food might be a favourable option as a recovery strategy. To date, the only tested foods were milk, cherries, blueberries and pomegranate with promising results. Other potential solutions are foods rich in protein, carbohydrates, antioxidants and/or anti-inflammatory nutrients.

  12. Oral biomarkers in exercise-induced neuroplasticity in Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mougeot, J-Lc; Hirsch, M A; Stevens, C B; Mougeot, Fkb

    2016-11-01

    In this article, we review candidate biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD) in oral cavity, potential of oral biomarkers as markers of neuroplasticity, and literature on the effects of exercise on oral cavity biomarkers in PD. We first describe how pathophysiological pathways of PD may be transduced from brain stem and ganglia to oral cavity through the autonomic nervous system or transduced by a reverse path. Next we describe the effects of exercise in PD and potential impact on oral cavity. We propose that biomarkers in oral cavity may be useful targets for describing exercise-induced brain neuroplasticity in PD. Nevertheless, much research remains to be carried out before applying these biomarkers for the determination of disease state and therapeutic response to develop strategies to mitigate motor or non-motor symptoms in PD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Supraglottoplasty as treatment of exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlum, Camilla Slot; Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Godballe, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Breathing difficulties during exertion may be caused by exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). The diagnosis depends on visualization of the larynx during exercise, i.e. by continuous laryngoscopic exercise (CLE) test. In case of severe supraglottic collapse and pronounced symptoms during...... or on very few patients. This study is the second larger-scale study that documents the positive effect of supraglottoplasty as treatment of EILO in terms of reduced respiratory symptoms and decreased laryngeal obstruction assessed by post-operative CLE test. We suggest that surgery is a well...... strenuous exertion, surgical treatment (supraglottoplasty) has been suggested. The aims of this study were to evaluate outcome and patient satisfaction after supraglottoplasty for EILO and to compare our results with previously reported data. During the period December 2010 to October 2013, 17 patients...

  14. Exercise-induced syncope in a sedentary woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elashery, Ahmad Ramy; Rickard, John W; Zakaria, Sammy

    2014-12-01

    Vasovagal (neurocardiogenic) syncope, a subtype of reflex syncope, has many well-known triggers. However, we found no previous report of vasovagal exercise-induced syncope in a sedentary person. We present the case of a 35-year-old sedentary woman who experienced vasovagal syncope as she underwent an exercise stress test. Results of evaluations, including resting and stress electrocardiography and echocardiography, were normal. Her presentation is highly unusual: syncope has typically not been associated with exercise except in young athletes, people with structural heart abnormalities, or people with a prolonged QT syndrome. To our knowledge, this is the first report of vasovagal syncope associated with exercise in a sedentary patient who had normal cardiac and electrophysiologic function. We suggest possible physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic strategies.

  15. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis mechanisms and prevention: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis (exRML, a pathophysiological condition of skeletal muscle cell damage that may cause acute renal failure and in some cases death. Increased Ca2+ level in cells along with functional degradation of cell signaling system and cell matrix have been suggested as the major pathological mechanisms associated with exRML. The onset of exRML may be exhibited in athletes as well as in general population. Previous studies have reported that possible causes of exRML were associated with excessive eccentric contractions in high temperature, abnormal electrolytes balance, and nutritional deficiencies possible genetic defects. However, the underlying mechanisms of exRML have not been clearly established among health professionals or sports medicine personnel. Therefore, we reviewed the possible mechanisms and correlated prevention of exRML, while providing useful and practical information for the athlete and general exercising population.

  16. Exercise-induced muscle cramp. Proposed mechanisms and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, S

    1996-06-01

    Muscle cramp is a common, painful, physiological disturbance of skeletal muscle. Many athletes are regularly frustrated by exercise-induced muscle cramp yet the pathogenesis remains speculative with little scientific research on the subject. This has resulted in a perpetuation of myths as to the cause and treatment of it. There is a need for scientifically based protocols for the management of athletes who suffer exercise-related muscle cramp. This article reviews the literature and neurophysiology of muscle cramp occurring during exercise. Disturbances at various levels of the central and peripheral nervous system and skeletal muscle are likely to be involved in the mechanism of cramp and may explain the diverse range of conditions in which cramp occurs. The activity of the motor neuron is subject to a multitude of influences including peripheral receptor sensory input, spinal reflexes, inhibitory interneurons in the spinal cord, synaptic and neurotransmitter modulation and descending CNS input. The muscle spindle and golgi tendon organ proprioceptors are fundamental to the control of muscle length and tone and the maintenance of posture. Disturbance in the activity of these receptors may occur through faulty posture, shortened muscle length, intense exercise and exercise to fatigue, resulting in increased motor neuron activity and motor unit recruitment. The relaxation phase of muscle contraction is prolonged in a fatigued muscle, raising the likelihood of fused summation of action potentials if motor neuron activity delivers a sustained high firing frequency. Treatment of cramp is directed at reducing muscle spindle and motor neuron activity by reflex inhibition and afferent stimulation. There are no proven strategies for the prevention of exercise-induced muscle cramp but regular muscle stretching using post-isometric relaxation techniques, correction of muscle balance and posture, adequate conditioning for the activity, mental preparation for competition and

  17. Familial Paroxysmal Exercise-Induced Dystonia: Atypical Presentation of Autosomal Dominant GTP-Cyclohydrolase 1 Deficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Russell C.; Melchers, Anna; Fung, Victor S. C.; Grattan-Smith, Padraic; Houlden, Henry; Earl, John

    2010-01-01

    Paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia (PED) is one of the rarer forms of paroxysmal dyskinesia, and can occur in sporadic or familial forms. We report a family (male index case, mother and maternal grandfather) with autosomal dominant inheritance of paroxysmal exercise-induced dystonia. The dystonia began in childhood and was only ever induced…

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Exercise-Induced Arousal and Cognition Using Fractionated Response Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Etnier, Jennifer L.; Barella, Lisa A.

    2009-01-01

    Although a generally positive effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance has been demonstrated, the specific nature of the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance remains unclear. This study was designed to identify the relationship between exercise-induced arousal and cognitive performance for the central…

  19. The impact of exercise-induced core body temperature elevations on coagulation responses.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Barteling, W.; Verbeek-Knobbe, K.; Heerde, W.L. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. DESIGN: Observational study. METHODS: CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in

  20. Determinants of exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation in patients with acute coronary syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pecini, Redi; Hammer-Hansen, Sophia; Dalsgaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Mechanisms behind exercise-induced increase of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease have been described earlier. We describe the determinants of exercise-induced changes in MR in patients with non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTACS)....

  1. Incidence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in prepubescent females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, Paul B; Tsang, Garry C K; Smith, Gareth J; van Velzen, Min V; Ignatova, B B; Sprules, Erica B; Chu, Kelly S; Coutts, Kenneth D; McKenzie, Donald C

    2002-07-01

    Due to the recent discovery of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) in healthy active women with normal levels of peak oxygen uptake (V'(O(2)peak), this study examined the incidence of EIAH in prepubescent females. Nineteen healthy, active, prepubescent females (X +/- SD: age = 11.1 +/- 1.6 years; height = 145.8 +/- 9.1 cm; weight = 35.6 +/- 7.0 kg) performed a progressive maximal exercise test on an electronically braked cycle ergometer starting at 0 W and increasing power by 15 W. min(-1). During this test, expired gases, heart rate (HR), and percent arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (%SaO(2)) were measured. Results for physiological variables at maximal exercise were as follows: V'(O(2)peak) = 43.7 +/- 7.0 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1); HR(max) = 199 +/- 5 beats x min(-1); %SaO(2) = 96.6 +/- 1.2%. For nearly all subjects, the %SaO(2) at maximal exercise was above levels that would reduce V'(O(2)peak). Therefore, in comparison to previous reports of EIAH in adult women with similar V'(O(2)peak), EIAH does not appear to occur in the prepubescent female population. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The effect of exercise modality on exercise-induced hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavin, T P; Stager, J M

    1999-05-03

    To investigate the effect of exercise mode on arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2), 13 healthy, actively training men who displayed exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) performed two incremental maximal exercise tests: uphill treadmill running and cycle ergometry. At maximum, treadmill running resulted in a lower SaO2 (88.6+/-2% versus 92.6+/-2.0%) a lower ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2; 28.8+/-0.6 versus 31.2+/-0.9), and a higher maximal oxygen consumption (VO2, MAX; 4.83+/-0.11 l x min(-1) versus 4.61+/-0.14 l x min(-1) when compared to cycle ergometry. When data were combined from maximal running and cycling. SaO2 was correlated to VE/VCO2 (r = 0.54). However, there was no relationship between the differences in SaO2 and ventilation between exercise modes. This suggests that ventilation is important in the maintenance of SaO2, but that the difference observed in SaO2 between treadmill running and cycle ergometry cannot be explained by differences in ventilation and must be due to differences in diffusion limitation or ventilation-perfusion inequality.

  3. Diaphragmatic Breathing Reduces Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Martarelli

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic breathing is relaxing and therapeutic, reduces stress, and is a fundamental procedure of Pranayama Yoga, Zen, transcendental meditation and other meditation practices. Analysis of oxidative stress levels in people who meditate indicated that meditation correlates with lower oxidative stress levels, lower cortisol levels and higher melatonin levels. It is known that cortisol inhibits enzymes responsible for the antioxidant activity of cells and that melatonin is a strong antioxidant; therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of diaphragmatic breathing on exercise-induced oxidative stress and the putative role of cortisol and melatonin hormones in this stress pathway. We monitored 16 athletes during an exhaustive training session. After the exercise, athletes were divided in two equivalent groups of eight subjects. Subjects of the studied group spent 1 h relaxing performing diaphragmatic breathing and concentrating on their breath in a quiet place. The other eight subjects, representing the control group, spent the same time sitting in an equivalent quite place. Results demonstrate that relaxation induced by diaphragmatic breathing increases the antioxidant defense status in athletes after exhaustive exercise. These effects correlate with the concomitant decrease in cortisol and the increase in melatonin. The consequence is a lower level of oxidative stress, which suggests that an appropriate diaphragmatic breathing could protect athletes from long-term adverse effects of free radicals.

  4. EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA: FRESH INSIGHTS AND AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAJOTIA R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced asthma (EIA is a common condition affecting 12-15% of the population. Ninety percent of asthmatic individuals and 35-45% of patients with allergic rhinitis are afflicted by EIA, while 3-10% of the general population is also believed to suffer from this condition. EIA is a condition which is more prevalent in strenuous outdoor, cold weather and winter sports. The pathophysiology of EIA continues to intrigue medical physiologists. However, the water-loss hypothesis and the post-exertional airway-rewarming hypothesis are as yet the best accepted theories. EIA is best diagnosed by a good medical history and a free-run challenge test. A post-exertion decrease by 15% in FEV1 and PEFR is diagnostic of EIA. Sensitivity of exercise testing ranges from 55% to 80% while specificity is as high as 93%. EIA is a disorder that can be successfully treated by combining both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is vital if we hope to provide our patients with better overall health, better social life and a better self-image.

  5. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio de Oliveira Assumpção

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Running economy (RE, defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days, have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max. However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max. Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE.

  6. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Running Economy in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15–30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO2max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO2max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE. PMID:23431253

  7. Exercise-Induced Fatigue Impairs Bidirectional Corticostriatal Synaptic Plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Chen, Huimin; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhang, Lingtao; Qiao, Decai

    2018-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue (EF) is a ubiquitous phenomenon in sports competition and training. It can impair athletes' motor skill execution and cognition. Corticostriatal synaptic plasticity is considered to be the cellular mechanism of movement control and motor learning. However, the effect of EF on corticostriatal synaptic plasticity remains elusive. In the present study, using field excitatory postsynaptic potential recording, we found that the corticostriatal long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD) were both impaired in EF mice. To further investigate the cellular mechanisms underlying the impaired synaptic plasticity in corticostriatal pathway, whole-cell patch clamp recordings were carried out on striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs). MSNs in EF mice exhibited increased spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current (sEPSC) frequency and decreased paired-pulse ratio (PPR), while with normal basic electrophysiological properties and normal sEPSC amplitude. Furthermore, the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate (AMPA) ratio of MSNs was reduced in EF mice. These results suggest that the enhanced presynaptic glutamate (Glu) release and downregulated postsynaptic NMDA receptor function lead to the impaired corticostriatal plasticity in EF mice. Taken together, our findings for the first time show that the bidirectional corticostriatal synaptic plasticity is impaired after EF, and suggest that the aberrant corticostriatal synaptic plasticity may be involved in the production and/or maintenance of EF.

  8. Los hantavirus causantes de la fiebre hemorrágica con síndrome renal y del síndrome pulmonar The hantaviruses causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and pulmonary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Ramos

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Este trabajo de revisión se enfoca en el análisis de la información básica sobre los hantavirus, agentes causales de dos enfermedades importantes en salud pública: la fiebre hemorrágica con síndrome renal (FHSR y el síndrome pulmonar por hantavirus (SPH, dos zoonosis distribuidas en Asia/Europa y el continente americano, respectivamente. Los hantavirus se transmiten al hombre a través de la manipulación y contacto directos de roedores infectados o tejidos y secreciones (orina, heces y saliva. La FHSR y el SPH comparten algunas características clínicas, aunque las hemorragias y la afectación renal son propias de la FHSR,y los problemas respiratorios del SPH. Se aportan algunos datos sobre estudios realizados en México sobre hantavirus y se mencionan las condiciones ecológicas vinculadas con la distribución de los virus y sus reservorios naturales, así como algunas medidas para evitar o reducir el riesgo de infección.The goal of this review is to provide basic information on hantaviruses as causative agents of Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome (HFRS and Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS, two zoonotic diseases widely distributed in Asia/Europe, and the American continent, respectively. Hantaviruses are rodent-borne and transmitted to humans by direct contact with infected rodents or their secretions (urine, feces and saliva. Both, HFRS and HPS share some clinical aspects, however, hemorrhage and renal failure are the hallmark of HFRS, while respiratory problems are distinctive signs and symptoms of patients with HPS. Studies on hantavirus infection in rodents from Mexico are included, some recomendations to prevent or avoid contact with rodents are mentioned, and some determinant ecologic factors of hantaviruses distribution and their natural rodents, are also included.

  9. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  10. Assessment of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Adolescents and Young Children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Kersten, Elin T. G.; Thio, Bernard J.

    Recent research shows important differences in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) between children and adults, suggesting a different pathophysiology of EIB in children. Although exercise can trigger classic symptoms of asthma, in children symptoms can be subtle and nonspecific; parents,

  11. Cold- and Exercise-Induced Peak Metabolic Rates in Tropical Birds

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Popko Wiersma; Mark A. Chappell; Joseph B. Williams

    2007-01-01

    ...." To test predictions from this hypothesis, we measured exercise-induced peak metabolic rates in 45 species of tropical lowland forest birds and compared these data with for three temperate species...

  12. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Measured by Standardized Testing in Healthy College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, David M; Burns, Steve; Merritt, Samantha; Wick, Jo; Sharpe, Matthew

    2016-05-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can lead to long-term respiratory illness and even death. EIB prevalence rates are both high and variable in college athletes. Prevalence rates may be underestimated due to ineffective testing and screening. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of EIB in college athletes by a standardized EIB test that can be used on many college campuses. In addition, we assessed the usefulness of self-reporting EIB/asthma (1) history, (2) symptoms, and (3) respiratory medication obtained from a simple screening questionnaire for predicting an EIB-positive athlete. A standardized EIB test and self-report questionnaire were administered to college athletes on 10 different sports teams. Information collected included pulmonary function (spirometry), expired gas analysis (maximal oxygen uptake), CO2 production, minute ventilation, EIB/asthma history, current symptoms, and medication use. Results showed that 34 of 80 athletes (42.5%) were EIB-positive by standardized exercise testing. The majority (76.5 and 58.8%) of the 34 athletes who tested positive self-reported a negative history or no symptoms, respectively. Also, 79.4% of the athletes who tested positive for EIB reported not using a respiratory medication. There were no significant differences in a positive EIB test when assessing interactions for history (P = .93), current symptoms (P = .12), or respiratory medication use (P = .66). A high proportion of college athletes tested positive for EIB when using a standardized test. Positive history, current symptoms of EIB/asthma, and respiratory medication use were not predictive of a positive test. Many EIB-positive athletes are not using a respiratory medication. More work is needed to develop an effective screening tool and improve education for EIB in college athletes. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  13. Evaluation of tracheal wash of horses with exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage treated with furosemide Avaliação do lavado traqueal de eqüinos portadores de hemorragia pulmonar induzida pelo exercício tratados com furosemida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Hegedüs

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se os efeitos da furosemida sobre o lavado traqueal de eqüinos portadores de hemorragia pulmonar induzida pelo exercício (HPIE. Nove animais foram distribuídos em três grupos experimentais: grupo-controle, formado por três eqüinos hígidos e não portadores da doença; grupo 1, com três eqüinos portadores e não submetidos a tratamento; e grupo 2, com três eqüinos portadores da doença e tratados com furosemida na dose de 1mg/kg, quatro horas antes da atividade atlética. As amostras do lavado traqueal foram obtidas duas horas após o exercício físico e sua avaliação demonstrou que o uso do medicamento reduziu a severidade da HPIE, refletida pela redução no número relativo de hemossiderófagos (de 7,8% no grupo 1 para 4,2% no grupo 2 e no número de eritrócitos (de 77666 x 10³/ml no grupo 1 para 8000x10³/ml no grupo 2.

  14. BDNF Expression in Perirhinal Cortex is Associated with Exercise-Induced Improvement in Object Recognition Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Michael E.; Bucci, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise induces widespread neurobiological adaptations and improves learning and memory. Most research in this field has focused on hippocampus-based spatial tasks and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a putative substrate underlying exercise-induced cognitive improvements. Chronic exercise can also be anxiolytic and causes adaptive changes in stress reactivity. The present study employed a perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition task as well as the eleva...

  15. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis: improvement after removal of amalgam in dental caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsunuma, T; Iikura, Y; Nagakura, T; Saitoh, H; Akimoto, K; Akasawa, A; Kindaichi, S

    1990-05-01

    We present a case of exercise-induced anaphylaxis with improvement following the removal of dental amalgam. Although her symptoms were unresponsive to various kinds of therapy until removal of the amalgam, her symptoms related to exercise improved remarkably after the removal. The increase in plasma histamine levels for exercise provocation test also improved. This suggests that sensitivity to metals might cause exercise-induced asthma in some patients.

  16. Mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma in elite athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ali, Zarqa; Norsk, Peter; Ulrik, Charlotte Suppli

    2012-01-01

    Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes.......Asthma is often reported by elite athletes, especially endurance athletes. The aim of this article is to review current knowledge of mechanisms and management of exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in adult elite athletes....

  17. Exercise-induced bronchospasm, asthma control, and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostrom, Nancy K; Parsons, Jonathan P; Eid, Nemr S; Craig, Timothy J; Stoloff, Stuart; Hayden, Mary Lou; Colice, Gene L

    2013-01-01

    Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) commonly affects patients with asthma. However, the relationship between EIB and asthma control remains unclear. Exercise limitation due to asthma might lead to reduced physical activity, but little information is available regarding obesity and EIB in asthma. A recent survey evaluated the frequency of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms in a large number of patients with asthma. The survey results were reanalyzed to address any relationship between EIB and asthma control and obesity. A nationwide random sample of children aged 4-12 years (n = 250), adolescents aged 13-17 years (n = 266), and adults aged ≥18 years (n = 1001) with asthma were interviewed by telephone. Questions in the survey addressed asthma symptoms in general, medication use, and height and weight. Asthma control was categorized using established methods in the Expert Panel Report 3. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated using standard nomograms and obesity was defined as a BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2). Most children (77.6%), adolescents (71.1%), and adults (83.1%) had either "not well" or "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children with "not well" controlled asthma reported a history of EIB significantly more often than those with "well" controlled" asthma. Asthma patients of all ages who had "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma described multiple (four or more) exercise-related respiratory symptoms significantly more often than those with "well-controlled" asthma. Obesity was significantly more common in adolescents with "not well" and "very poorly" controlled asthma and adults with "very poorly" controlled asthma. Children, adolescents, and adults with asthma infrequently have well-controlled disease. A history of EIB and exercise-related respiratory symptoms occur more commonly in patients with not well and very poorly controlled asthma. Obesity was found more often in adolescents and adults, but not children, with asthma, which was not well and

  18. Air quality and temperature effects on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundell, Kenneth W; Anderson, Sandra D; Sue-Chu, Malcolm; Bougault, Valerie; Boulet, Louis-Philippe

    2015-04-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is exaggerated constriction of the airways usually soon after cessation of exercise. This is most often a response to airway dehydration in the presence of airway inflammation in a person with a responsive bronchial smooth muscle. Severity is related to water content of inspired air and level of ventilation achieved and sustained. Repetitive hyperpnea of dry air during training is associated with airway inflammatory changes and remodeling. A response during exercise that is related to pollution or allergen is considered EIB. Ozone and particulate matter are the most widespread pollutants of concern for the exercising population; chronic exposure can lead to new-onset asthma and EIB. Freshly generated emissions particulate matter less than 100 nm is most harmful. Evidence for acute and long-term effects from exercise while inhaling high levels of ozone and/or particulate matter exists. Much evidence supports a relationship between development of airway disorders and exercise in the chlorinated pool. Swimmers typically do not respond in the pool; however, a large percentage responds to a dry air exercise challenge. Studies support oxidative stress mediated pathology for pollutants and a more severe acute response occurs in the asthmatic. Winter sport athletes and swimmers have a higher prevalence of EIB, asthma and airway remodeling than other athletes and the general population. Because of fossil fuel powered ice resurfacers in ice rinks, ice rink athletes have shown high rates of EIB and asthma. For the athlete training in the urban environment, training during low traffic hours and in low traffic areas is suggested. © 2015 American Physiological Society.

  19. Exercise-induced Bronchoconstriction with Firefighting Contained Breathing Apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seccombe, Leigh M; Buddle, Lachlan; Brannan, John D; Peters, Matthew J; Farah, Claude S

    2017-09-12

    Protective self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) used for firefighting delivers decompressed (cold), dehumidified air that may enhance the severity of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in those susceptible. We investigated the effect of SCBA during exercise on airway caliber in people with asthma and healthy controls. Two exercise challenges (EC) designed to elicit EIB were performed on separate days within one week. The initial challenge was breathing room air (ECRA) with workload titrated to elicit >60% estimated maximum voluntary ventilation. The exercise intensity was repeated for the second challenge using SCBA (ECSCBA). Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) was measured before and up to 20min after exercise. Bronchial hyperresponsivenss (BHR) to the hyperosmolar mannitol test was measured in the subjects with asthma. Twenty subjects with current asthma (mean[SD] age 27[6] years) and 10 healthy controls (31[5] years, p=0.1) were studied. The % fall in FEV1 following ECSCBA was greater in the mannitol positive asthma subjects (14.4 [15.1]%) compared to mannitol negative asthmatic subjects (1.6 [1.7]%, p=0.02) and controls (2.3 [2.3]%, p=0.04). The FEV1 response was not different between ECRA and ECSCBA (0.49 [5.57] %, p=0.6). No BHR to mannitol (n=7) was highly sensitive for identifying a negative response to ECSCBA (negative predictive value 100%). SCBA does not increase the propensity or severity for EIB in subjects with BHR. Those subjects with asthma but no BHR to inhaled mannitol did not exhibit EIB. BHR to a hyperosmolar stimulus maybe considered a useful screening tool for potential recruits with a history of asthma.

  20. Recurrent childhood wheezing and exercise induced asthma in later life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenhagen, A; Vogt, L; Thiel, C; Bernhörster, M; Banzer, W

    2012-12-01

    Exercise induced asthma (EIA) common in endurance and other athletes limits physical activity. Although a correlation between recurrent childhood bronchitis and the development of asthma has been reported, its relation to EIA in adult athletes has not been assessed. The study evaluates the EIA risk after recurrent childhood wheezing (RCW) and its aggravating influence on the known risk factors outdoor and professional sports. To evaluate the effect of RCW on EIA, 570 multiple choice questionnaires were evaluated, assessing the history of RCW and the EIA occurrence. The latter was defined either according to physician-derived diagnosis, by typical symptoms or by decrease of the 1-second forced expiratory volume after a 6-minute running test. Contingency tables and a logistic regression model were worked out to describe referring parameters of EIA incidence. Almost one quarter of the athletes with RCW were attributed positive for EIA. Contingency calculations revealed a 2.6 times higher chance of symptoms of EIA after RCW which further increased in outdoor sports on a professional level. The duration of sports participation, cold environment and self-limiting of symptoms are predicting factors of a higher risk of EIA, being responsible for 53% of the prevalence variance. The results point towards a facilitating effect of recurrent affections of the respiratory tract in young age in addition to generally accepted factors of EIA in adults. For safe sports participation, the athlete, as well as involved caregivers (parents, coach) should have an adequate knowledge of EIA and prevention/intervention strategies like warming up or the use of inhalers.

  1. Prevalence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Jennifer C; McKenzie, Donald C; Warburton, Darren E R; Road, Jeremy D; Sheel, A William

    2004-09-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) is reported to occur in approximately 50% of highly trained male endurance athletes. Few studies have examined EIAH in women and the prevalence remains unclear. It has been reported that some female subjects who develop EIAH possess maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) values that are within 15% of their predicted value. This is unique to women, where EIAH has generally been reported in men who have a high VO2max. The primary objective of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of EIAH in a large female population with a wide range of VO2max values. It was hypothesized that EIAH would occur with a greater prevalence and at relatively lower predicted VO2max than that previously reported in males. Young women (N = 52; 26.5 +/- 4.9 yr) performed a cycle test to exhaustion to determine VO2max, and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2) was monitored via pulse oximetry. All subjects were tested during the early follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. A >/= 4% drop in SaO2 represented EIAH. Values for VO2max were variable (VO2max range: 28.0-61.3 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)). EIAH was present in 67% of the women with N = 19 displaying mild EIAH (92-94%SaO2) and N = 16 displaying moderate EIAH (87-91%SaO2). It appears that the prevalence of EIAH in women is slightly greater than the 50% prevalence value that is typically reported for highly fit men.

  2. Morning-to-evening variation in exercise-induced bronchospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, Elcio O; Boaventura, Luiz C; Terra-Filho, João; Nakama, Gilberto Y; Martinez, José A B; Martin, Richard J

    2002-08-01

    Exercise is one of the most common triggers of asthmatic symptoms. Many factors, including hyperventilation, determine the prevalence and severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). However, the influence of time of day has not been adequately described. We sought to compare morning and evening EIB and minute ventilation during exercise (VE). Twenty-two patients with stable asthma and 12 control subjects underwent exercise challenge at 7 am and 6 pm. The time of the first challenge was randomly assigned; the second challenge was performed within 1 week of the first. The primary outcomes were EIB intensity (maximum fall in FEV(1)) and VE. The asthma group exhibited lower EIB values in the morning: 14.8% +/- 3.7% at 7 am vs 21.4% +/- 4.2% at 6 pm (P =.004)-ie, 0.37 +/- 0.09 L vs 0.53 +/- 0.10 L, respectively (P =.002). VE was higher at 7 am (55.4 +/- 4.7 L/min) than at 6 pm (52.4 +/- 4.3 L/min; P =.03). Baseline FEV(1) increased from 2.33 +/- 0.13 L (morning) to 2.49 +/- 0.15 L (evening; P =.04), and a significant correlation between baseline FEV(1) and EIB was found in the evening (r = +0.5; P =.049) but not in the morning. Post-exercise FEV(1) was similar at 7 am (1.96 +/- 0.13 L) and 6 pm (1.97 +/- 0.14 L). For the control group, no changes were detected in FEV(1) fall or VE. Baseline airway caliber contributes to the mechanisms of the morning-to-evening EIB enhancement.

  3. The prevention and treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howatson, Glyn; van Someren, Ken A

    2008-01-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) can be caused by novel or unaccustomed exercise and results in a temporary decrease in muscle force production, a rise in passive tension, increased muscle soreness and swelling, and an increase in intramuscular proteins in blood. Consequently, EIMD can have a profound effect on the ability to perform subsequent bouts of exercise and therefore adhere to an exercise training programme. A variety of interventions have been used prophylactically and/or therapeutically in an attempt to reduce the negative effects associated with EIMD. This article focuses on some of the most commonly used strategies, including nutritional and pharmacological strategies, electrical and manual therapies and exercise. Long-term supplementation with antioxidants or beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate appears to provide a prophylactic effect in reducing EIMD, as does the ingestion of protein before and following exercise. Although the administration of high-dose NSAIDs may reduce EIMD and muscle soreness, it also attenuates the adaptive processes and should therefore not be prescribed for long-term treatment of EIMD. Whilst there is some evidence that stretching and massage may reduce muscle soreness, there is little evidence indicating any performance benefits. Electrical therapies and cryotherapy offer limited effect in the treatment of EIMD; however, inconsistencies in the dose and frequency of these and other interventions may account for the lack of consensus regarding their efficacy. Both as a cause and a consequence of this, there are very few evidence-based guidelines for the application of many of these interventions. Conversely, there is unequivocal evidence that prior bouts of eccentric exercise provide a protective effect against subsequent bouts of potentially damaging exercise. Further research is warranted to elucidate the most appropriate dose and frequency of interventions to attenuate EIMD and if these interventions attenuate the

  4. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia - interval versus continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodesh, Einat; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic exercise at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity moderately reduces pain sensitivity and attenuates pain, even after a single session. If the analgesic effects depend on exercise intensity, then high-intensity interval exercise at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity should further reduce pain. The aim of this study was to explore the exercise-induced analgesic effects of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise and to compare them with the analgesic effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise. Twenty-nine young untrained healthy males were randomly assigned to aerobic-continuous (70% heart rate reserve (HRR)) and interval (4 × 4 min at 85% HRR and 2 min at 60% HRR between cycles) exercise modes, each lasting 30 min. Psychophysical pain tests, pressure and heat pain thresholds (HPT), and tonic heat pain (THP) were conducted before and after exercise sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. HPT increased (p = 0.056) and THP decreased (p = 0.013) following exercise unrelated to exercise type. However, the main time effect (pre-/postexercise) was a trend of increased HPT (45.6 ± 1.9 °C to 46.2 ± 1.8 °C; p = 0.082) and a significant reduction in THP (from 50.7 ± 25 to 45.9 ± 25.4 numeric pain scale; p = 0.043) following interval exercise. No significant change was found for the pressure pain threshold following either exercise type. In conclusion, interval exercise (85% HRR) has analgesic effects on experimental pain perception. This, in addition to its cardiovascular, muscular, and metabolic advantages may promote its inclusion in pain management programs.

  6. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  7. Beneficial effects of neuropeptide galanin on reinstatement of exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Fang, Penghua; Guo, Lili; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Xu, Bo; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-04-01

    Galanin is a versatile neuropeptide that is distinctly upregulated by exercise in exercise-related tissues. Although benefits from exercise-induced upregulation of this peptide have been identified, many issues require additional exploration. This Review summarizes the information currently available on the relationship between galanin and exercise-induced physical and psychological damage. On the one hand, body movement, exercise damage, and exercise-induced stress and pain significantly increase local and circulatory galanin levels. On the other hand, galanin plays an exercise-protective role to inhibit the flexor reflex and prevent excessive movement of skeletal muscles through enhancing response threshold and reducing acetylcholine release. Additionally, elevated galanin levels can boost repair of the exercise-induced damage in exercise-related tissues, including peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, skin, bone, articulation, and ligament. Moreover, elevated galanin levels may serve as effective signals to buffer sport-induced stress and pain via inhibiting nociceptive signal transmission and enhancing pain threshold. This Review deepens our understanding of the profitable roles of galanin in exercise protection, exercise injury repair, and exercise-induced stress and pain. Galanin and its agonists may be used to develop a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of different antiasthmatic treatments on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelmach, Iwona; Grzelewski, Tomasz; Majak, Pawel; Jerzynska, Joanna; Stelmach, Wlodzimierz; Kuna, Piotr

    2008-02-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction occurs in a large proportion of children with asthma, limiting everyday activities important for their physical and social development. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was to compare the ability of different patterns of antiasthmatic treatment, recommended in childhood asthma, to protect patients from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Children 6 to 18 years of age with atopic asthma were randomized to a 4-week, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial. Patients were randomly allocated to receive daily 200 microg budesonide (twice daily, 100 microg per dose) + 9 microg formoterol (twice daily, 4.5 microg per dose; n = 20); 200 microg budesonide + 5 or 10 mg montelukast (once daily at bedtime; n = 20); 5 or 10 mg montelukast (n = 20); 200 microg budesonide (n = 20); or placebo (n = 20). A standardized treadmill exercise challenge was performed before and after treatment. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction, reflected by area under the curve for the FEV1 values from exercise over the 20-minute period and by maximum percent fall in FEV1 after exercise, was significantly diminished after 4 weeks in all active treatment groups, and compared with placebo. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction protection improved more significantly in the budesonide + montelukast and montelukast groups compared with other therapeutic options. These data indicate differences in effects on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction between therapeutic options recommended in childhood asthma. Control of childhood asthma with exercise-induced bronchoconstriction can be obtained by using regular controller treatment.

  9. Caffeine stimulates ventilation in athletes with exercise-induced hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert F; Stager, Joel M

    2008-06-01

    Many athletes with exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH) show an insufficient ventilatory response to exercise and low resting ventilatory responsiveness. The purpose of this project was to determine whether a moderate dosage of caffeine, a common ventilatory stimulant, could augment resting ventilatory responsiveness, exercise ventilation (V E), end-tidal O2 partial pressure (PetO2), and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (HbSaO2) in athletes with EIH. Eight highly trained males (V[spacing dot above]O2max, 69.2 +/- 4.0 mL.[kg.min]) who demonstrated EIH at V[spacing dot above]O2max (HbSaO2, 88.0 +/- 1.7%), ingested in a randomized design a placebo or caffeine (CAF, 8 mg.kg body wt) 1 h before testing. Ventilatory responsiveness at rest was assessed via the isocapnic hypoxic and hyperoxic hypercapnic ventilatory responses (HVR and HCVR, respectively). Dependent measures of metabolic variables, ventilation, and saturation were determined during progressive treadmill exercise to exhaustion. V E was higher at 75%, 80%, and 100% of V[spacing dot above]O2max with CAF (P < 0.05). V E/V O2, PetO2, and HbSaO2 were increased at 75%, 80%, and 90% of [formula: see text] with CAF but were not different at V[spacing dot above]O2max despite an increase in V e. No change in V[spacing dot above]O2max was observed between treatments. HVR and HCVR were not different between the two conditions, indicating that the increased V E likely came from central stimulation or secondary effects of CAF. The failure of HbSaO2 to increase at [formula: see text] despite an increase in V E suggests that mechanisms influencing HbSaO2 other than an inadequate hyperventilatory response may operate to different degrees across individuals as V[spacing dot above]O2max is approached.

  10. Exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human Parkinson's disease: What is the evidence telling us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Mark A; Iyer, Sanjay S; Sanjak, Mohammed

    2016-01-01

    While animal models of exercise and PD have pushed the field forward, few studies have addressed exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD. As a first step toward promoting greater international collaboration on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD, we present data on 8 human PD studies (published between 2008 and 2015) with 144 adults with PD of varying disease severity (Hoehn and Yahr stage 1 to stage 3), using various experimental (e.g., randomized controlled trial) and quasi-experimental designs on the effects of cognitive and physical activity on brain structure or function in PD. We focus on plasticity mechanisms of intervention-induced increases in maximal corticomotor excitability, exercise-induced changes in voxel-based gray matter volume changes and increases in exercise-induced serum levels of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Finally, we provide a future perspective for promoting international, collaborative research on exercise-induced neuroplasticity in human PD. An emerging body of evidence suggests exercise triggers several plasticity related events in the human PD brain including corticomotor excitation, increases and decreases in gray matter volume and changes in BDNF levels. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    OpenAIRE

    Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency De...

  12. Effect of exercise-induced arterial O2 desaturation on VO2max in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harms, C A; McClaran, S R; Nickele, G A; Pegelow, D F; Nelson, W B; Dempsey, J A

    2000-06-01

    We have recently reported that many healthy habitually active women experience exercise induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH). We questioned whether EIAH affected VO2max in this population and whether the effect was similar to that reported in men. Twenty-five healthy young women with widely varying fitness levels (VO2max, 56.7 +/- 1.5 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1); range: 41-70 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and normal resting lung function performed two randomized incremental treadmill tests to VO2max (FIO2: 0.21 or 0.26) during the follicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Arterial blood samples were taken at rest and near the end of each workload during the normoxic test. During room air breathing at VO2max, SaO2 decreased to 91.8 +/- 0.4% (range 87-95%). With 0.26 FIO2, SaO2, at VO2max remained near resting levels and averaged 96.8 +/- 0.1% (range 96-98%). When arterial O2 desaturation was prevented via increased FIO2, VO2max increased in 22 of the 25 subjects and in proportion to the degree of arterial O2 desaturation experienced in normoxia (r = 0.88). The improvement in VO2max when systemic normoxia was maintained averaged 6.3 +/- 0.3% (range 0 to +15%) and the slope of the relationship was approximately 2% increase in VO2max for every 1% decrement in the arterial oxygen saturation below resting values. About 75% of the increase in VO2max resulted from an increase in VO2 at a fixed maximal work rate and exercise duration, and the remainder resulted from an increase in maximal work rate. These data demonstrate that even small amounts of EIAH (i.e., >3% delta SaO2 below rest) have a significant detrimental effect on VO2max in habitually active women with a wide range of VO2max. In combination with our previous findings documenting EIAH in females, we propose that inadequate pulmonary structure/function in many habitually active women serves as a primary limiting factor in maximal O2 transport and utilization during maximal exercise.

  13. Control of exercise-induced muscular glycogenolysis by adrenal medullary hormones in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1981-01-01

    We have previously shown that adrenodemedullation combined with chemical sympathectomy decreases the exercise-induced muscular glycogen breakdown in rats. Now we have elucidated to what extent the effect of combined adrenodemedullation and sympathectomy can be ascribed to the lack of either...... or continued swimming to exhaustion. The exercise-induced muscular glycogenolysis was markedly impeded by adrenodemedullation but not by sympathectomy. During the first 75 min of exercise, hepatic glycogenolysis was decreased in adrenodemedullated rats compared with sham-operated rats, and blood glucose only...... muscular glycogenolysis, glucagon secretion, and the early hepatic glycogenolysis but inhibit insulin secretion....

  14. High-fat feeding inhibits exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial respiratory flux in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovbro, Mette; Boushel, Robert Christopher; Hansen, Christina Neigaard

    2011-01-01

    ) and intramyocellular triacylglycerol content did not change with the intervention in either group. Indexes of mitochondrial density were similar across the groups and intervention. Mitochondrial respiratory rates, measured in permeabilized muscle fibers, showed a 31 ± 11 and 26 ± 9% exercise-induced increase (P ... and in exercise-induced mitochondrial substrate oxidation rates, with the effects being present hours after the exercise. The effect of HFD is present even without effects on insulin sensitivity and intramyocellular lipid accumulation. An isocaloric high-fat diet does not cause insulin resistance....

  15. Diagnostic value of exercise-induced changes in circulating high sensitive troponin T in stable chest pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Pedersen, Ole Dyg

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects.......We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects....

  16. IDIOPATHIC PULMONARY HEMOSIDEROSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yettra, Maurice; Goldenberg, Erwin; Weiner, Herman

    1960-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare condition manifested by recurrent pulmonary hemorrhage of unknown cause, diffuse radiologic abnormalities, cough, hemoptysis and moderate to severe hypochromic anemia. Diagnosis can be confirmed by iron stains of the sputum or lung aspiration or by biopsy. Prolonged spontaneous remission may occur without the use of corticosteroid therapy. Studies here reported indicated that the anemia is hypochromic and microcytic anemia of blood loss and iron deficiency, in spite of the presence of large amounts of iron in the pulmonary tissue. Correction of the anemia by intensive iron therapy and transfusion is considered an important part of therapy. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:13787318

  17. Pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Gulati

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis has a spectrum of presentation which ranges from mild disease to a severe form comprising of jaundice and renal failure. Involvement of the lung can vary from subtle clinical features to deadly pulmonary hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Of late, it has been identified that leptospirosis can present atypically with predominant pulmonary manifestations. This can delay diagnosis making and hence optimum treatment. The purpose of this review is to bring together all the reported pulmonary manifestations of leptospirosis and the recent trends in the management.

  18. PGC-1alpha mediates exercise-induced skeletal muscle VEGF expression in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Hellsten, Ylva; Fentz, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that PGC-1alpha is required for exercise-induced VEGF expression in both young and old mice and that AMPK activation leads to increased VEGF expression through a PGC-1alpha-dependent mechanism. Whole body PGC-1alpha knockout (KO) and litterm...

  19. Effect of an intranasal corticosteroid on exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Elin T. G.; van Leeuwen, Janneke C.; Brand, Paul L. P.; Duiverman, Eric J.; de Jongh, Frans H. C.; Thio, Bernard J.; Driessen, Jean M. M.

    Rationale Allergic rhinitis and exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) are common in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to investigate whether treatment of allergic rhinitis with an intranasal corticosteroid protects against EIB in asthmatic children. Methods: This was a double-blind,

  20. Sputum eosinophils and the response of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction to corticosteroid in asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duong, MyLinh; Subbarao, Padmaja; Adelroth, Ellinor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationship between eosinophilic airway inflammation and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB), and the response to inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) therapy was examined. METHODS: Twenty-six steroid-naïve asthmatic patients with EIB were randomized to two parallel, double-blind,...

  1. Green Tea Catechin Consumption Enhances Exercise-Induced Abdominal Fat Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aim: This study evaluated the influence of a green tea catechin beverage on body composition and fat distribution in overweight and obese adults during exercised-induced weight loss. Methods: Participants (N=132) were randomly assigned to receive a 500 mL beverage containing approximately 625 mg of...

  2. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral...

  3. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central postulation of the present approach to metabolic rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent (V) of an animal. Total fractal extent can be calculated from the sum of the fractal extents of the capillary service units, as specified by the formula V ...

  4. Can a single dose response predict the effect of montelukast on exercise-induced bronchoconstriction?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Elin T. G.; Akkerman-Nijland, Anne M.; Driessen, Jean M. M.; Diamant, Zuzana; Thio, Bernard J.

    RationaleExercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can be prevented by a single dose of montelukast (MLK). The effect is variable, similar to the variable responsiveness observed after daily treatment with MLK. We hypothesized that the effect of a single MLK-dose (5 or 10mg) on EIB could predict

  5. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebr...

  6. Nuclear receptors and myokines : mediators of exercise-induced skeletal muscle metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gogh, IJA

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle is a crucial organ in mediating (exercise-induced) beneficial health effects. In this thesis we gained important knowledge on the molecular biology of the muscle. With our focus on the muscle, we investigated the crosstalk with other organs, the regulation of myokines and the role of

  7. Thyroid Hormone and Estrogen Regulate Exercise-Induced Growth Hormone Release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Daniele Leão; da S. Silvestre, Diego H.; Cavalcanti-de-Albuquerque, João Paulo Albuquerque; Louzada, Ruy Andrade

    2015-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) regulates whole body metabolism, and physical exercise is the most potent stimulus to induce its secretion in humans. The mechanisms underlying GH secretion after exercise remain to be defined. The aim of this study was to elucidate the role of estrogen and pituitary type 1 deiodinase (D1) activation on exercise-induced GH secretion. Ten days after bilateral ovariectomy, animals were submitted to 20 min of treadmill exercise at 75% of maximum aerobic capacity and tissues were harvested immediately or 30 min after exercise. Non-exercised animals were used as controls. A significant increase in D1 activity occurred immediately after exercise (~60%) in sham-operated animals and GH was higher (~6-fold) 30 min after exercise. Estrogen deficient rats exhibited basal levels of GH and D1 activity comparable to those found in control rats. However, after exercise both D1 activity and serum GH levels were blunted compared to sedentary rats. To understand the potential cause-effect of D1 activation in exercise-induced GH release, we pharmacologically blocked D1 activity by propylthiouracil (PTU) injection into intact rats and submitted them to the acute exercise session. D1 inhibition blocked exercise-induced GH secretion, although basal levels were unaltered. In conclusion, estrogen deficiency impairs the induction of thyroid hormone activating enzyme D1 in the pituitary, and GH release by acute exercise. Also, acute D1 activation is essential for exercise-induced GH response. PMID:25874614

  8. Influence of artistic gymnastics on iron nutritional status and exercise-induced hemolysis in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sureira, Thaiz Mattos; Amancio, Olga Silverio; Pellegrini Braga, Josefina Aparecida

    2012-08-01

    This study evaluates the relationship between body iron losses and gains in artistic gymnastics female athletes. It shows that despite the low iron intake and exercise-induced hemolysis, iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia does not occur, but partial changes in the hematological profile do. The hypothesis that gymnasts' nutritional behavior contributes to anemia, which may be aggravated by exercise-induced hemolysis, led to this cross-sectional study, conducted with 43 female artistic gymnasts 6-16 yr old. The control group was formed by 40 nontraining girls, paired by age. Hemogram, serum iron, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor, haptoglobin, total and fractional bilirubin, Type I urine, and parasitologic and occult fecal blood tests were evaluated. The athletes presented mean hematimetric and serum iron values (p = .020) higher than those of the control group. The bilirubin result discarded any hemolytic alteration in both groups. The haptoglobin results were lower in the athlete group (p = .002), confirming the incidence of exercise-induced hemolysis. Both groups presented low iron intake. The results suggest that artistic gymnastics practice leads to exercise-induced hemolysis and partially changes the hematological profile, although not causing iron deficiency or iron-deficiency anemia, even in the presence of low iron intake.

  9. The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Bente K

    2010-01-01

    and exert their effects on signalling pathways involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake. By mediating anti-inflammatory effects in the muscle itself, myokines may also counteract TNF-driven insulin resistance. In conclusion, exercise-induced myokines appear to be involved in mediating both systemic...

  10. Exercise-induced asthma in a group of South African schoolchildren ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. The study was conducted to ascertain whether physical education teachers, using a peak flow meter, could reliably screen for exercise-induced asthma (EIA) in children during free running. Design, setting and subjects. The study was conducted using a convenience sample of male pupils between the ages of 12 ...

  11. Effects of alpha-AMPK knockout on exercise-induced gene activation in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Viollet, Benoit

    2005-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays an important role in regulating the acute, exercise-induced activation of metabolic genes in skeletal muscle, which were dissected from whole-body a2- and a1-AMPK knockout (KO) and wild-type (WT) mice at rest, after treadmi...

  12. Impact of statin use on exercise-induced cardiac troponin elevations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Januzzi, J.L., Jr.; Taylor, B.A.; Isaacs, S.K.; D'Hemecourt, P.; Zaleski, A.; Dyer, S.; Troyanos, C.; Weiner, R.B.; Thompson, P.D.; Baggish, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running commonly causes a transient elevation of creatine kinase and cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The use of statins before marathon running exacerbates the release of creatine kinase from skeletal muscle, but the effect of statin use on exercise-induced cTnI release is unknown. We therefore

  13. Update on Exercise-Induced Asthma. A Report of the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storms, William W.; Joyner, David M.

    1997-01-01

    Summarizes results from the Olympic Exercise Asthma Summit Conference, offering the latest on identifying and managing exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Concludes that effective pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic treatment is available, but EIA is underrecognized and underdiagnosed. Physicians should look for it in all patients, including school…

  14. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  15. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  16. Influence of performance level on exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia during prolonged and successive exercise in triathletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Olivier; Hue, Olivier; Chamari, Karim; Boussana, Alain; Chaouachi, Anis; Préfaut, Christian

    2008-12-01

    To study the relationship between performance and exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), 5 internationally ranked (INT) and 8 regionally ranked (REG) triathletes performed cycle-run successions (CR) and control runs (R) in competition-like conditions: at approximately 75% VO2max. Ventilatory parameters and oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) data were collected continuously. Arteriolized partial pressure in O2 (PaO2) and alveolar ventilation (VA) were measured before and after cycling (CRcycle), the successive run (CRrun), and R. Pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLco) was measured at rest and 10 minutes post-CR. Training and short-distance triathlon data were collected. INT showed significantly greater experience than REG in competition years (P>.05), training regimen (P>.05), and swimming (P>.05), and cycling (P>.05) volumes; running showed a trend (P.01). SpO2 during CR dropped significantly more in INT than in REG. Both groups showed significant inverse correlations between the magnitude of the SpO2 change from CRcycle to CRrun and the triathlon running time (r=-0.784; P<.05 and r=-0.699; P<.05; respectively). When compared with CRcycle, PaO2 significantly decreased and VA significantly increased after CRrun and R in both groups (P<.01). DLco significantly dropped between pre- and postexercise in CR and R with no between-group difference (P<.05). EIAH was aggravated in higher performers during simulated cycle-run segments, related to longer experience and heavier training regimens. Possibly, relative hypoventilation caused this aggravated EIAH in INT, although pulmonary diffusion limitation was observed in both groups. Beyond EIAH severity, the magnitude of SpO2 variations during the cycle-run transition may affect triathlon running performance.

  17. Evidence of exercise-induced O2 arterial desaturation in non-elite sportsmen and sportswomen following high-intensity interval-training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucci, P; Blondel, N; Fabre, C; Nourry, C; Berthoin, S

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the development of exercise-induced hypoxemia (EIH defined as an exercise decrease > 4 % in oxygen arterial saturation, i. e. SaO (2) measured with a portable pulse oximeter) in twelve sportsmen and ten sportswomen (18.5 +/- 0.5 years) who were non-elite and not initially engaged in endurance sport or training. They followed a high-intensity interval-training program to improve V.O (2)max for eight weeks. The training running speeds were set at approximately 140 % V.O (2)max running speed up to 100 % 20-m maximal running speed. Pre- and post-training pulmonary gas exchanges and SaO (2) were measured during an incremental running field-test. After the training period, men and women increased their V.O (2)max (p arterial oxyhemoglobin desaturation developing during exercise.

  18. Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 4 viruses that cause two other hemorrhagic fevers, dengue hemorrhagic fever and yellow fever. Virus Families Information ... 2014 Content source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases ( ...

  19. [Pulmonary arteriovenous malformation: two sibling cases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenigün, Bülent Mustafa; Yüksel, Cabir; Enön, Serkan; Kayı Cangır, Ayten; Atasoy, Kayhan Cetin

    2011-01-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations, are abnormal connections between pulmonary arteries and veins. However it can be presented as an isolated single anomaly, also may be multiple when accompanying with autosomal dominant hereditary hemorrhagic telengiectasia (Rendu-Osler-Weber Syndrome; ROWS). In this case report, two patients operated with the diagnosis of multiple pulmonary arteriovenous malformation familial screening done with the possibility of ROWS and pulmonary arteriovenous malformation found in her sister, are presented.

  20. Intracerebral hemorrhage in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ihab Zidan

    2012-04-01

    Apr 1, 2012 ... count for 14%17 to 46%18 of hemorrhagic stroke in children and nearly 50%13 of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Hematologic abnormalities are reported to be the major risk factor in 10% to 30% of hemorrhagic strokes in most series. ..... We are grateful to our patients, paramedical staff, nurses, lab-.

  1. Intracerebral hemorrhage in children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ihab Zidan

    2012-04-01

    Apr 1, 2012 ... count for 14%17 to 46%18 of hemorrhagic stroke in children and nearly 50%13 of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Hematologic abnormalities are reported to be the major risk factor in 10% to 30% of hemorrhagic strokes in most series. ... specific symptoms like: deterioration of general condition, in- creased ...

  2. The effectiveness of the treatment of severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.N. Garas

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic multifactorial diseases of the lungs. At least 10–12 % of patients with bronchial asthma are suffering from a severe form of the disease. One aspect of inadequate severe asthma control is its phenotypic heterogeneity, interest of experts increases to the problem of exercise-induced asthma. The purpose of the study was to increase efficiency of treatment for severe exercise-induced asthma in schoolchildren based on the analysis of the attack dynamics and to achieve disease control according to main inflammatometric and spirometric indices. Materials and methods. We examined 46 children with severe persistent bronchial asthma, in particular, 15 schoolchildren suffering from severe exercise-induced asthma, the second clinical group (comparison one consisted of 31 children suffering from severe type of the disease, with no signs of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Basic therapy effectiveness was determined prospectively by assessing the disease control using AST-test with an interval of 3 months. The severity of bronchial obstruction syndrome in patients on admission to hospital during exacerbation was assessed by score scale. Airway hyperresponsiveness was evaluated according to the results of bronchoprovocation with histamine. Results. Children of I clinical group had more significant manifestations of bronchial obstruction during the week of inpatient treatment than the comparison group of patients, including significantly more severe manifestations of bronchial obstruction were verified on 1st and 7th day of hospitalization. Due to the analysis of basic therapy effectiveness, only a quarter of I clinical group patients and a larger part of schoolchildren in comparison group achieved the partial control after a 3-month course of anti-inflammatory treatment. Eosinophilic inflammation was observed in most children with severe exercise-induced asthma (60.1 % and in 47.2 % of

  3. ANESTHETIC MANAGEMENT OF ATONIC POST - PARTUM HEMORRHAGE WITH HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK AND IMPENDING CARDIAC ARREST FOR EMERGENCY PERIPARTUM HYSTERECTOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravishankar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Post - partum hemorrhagic complication is a critical situation for an anesthesiologist, which requires timely and skillful anesthetic management. A massive post - partum bleeding leading to severe hypovolemic shock may result in life threatening cardio - pulmonary arrest. Here is a case report of 25 year old with atonic post - partum hemorrhage resulting in hypovolemic shock & impending cardiac arrest and successful anesthetic management for emergency peripartum hysterectomy to save the life of the patient.

  4. Hereditary Hemorrhagic Telangiectasia (HHT) and Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PH Find a Doctor PH Care Centers PHA Classroom PHA Registry Insurance Guide Specialty Pharmacy Other Resources ... Forums PH Associations Worldwide Tom Lantos Awards Take Action ... Research PHA’s Research Program Named Research Grants Other Opportunities ...

  5. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....... a DEXA scanner. The RSF subjects showed significantly lower L2-L4 BMD: RSF: 1.22+/-0.05 g cm(-2) (mean+/-SEM) (median 1.19 g cm(-2), range 1.02-1.37 g cm(-2)) compared to C: 140+/-0.04 g cm(-2) (median 1.41 g cm(-2), range 1.27-1.57 g cm(-2)) (P=0.028). The present results suggest that low bone mineral...

  6. On the value of certain genotypic properties for forming exercise-induced bronchial asthma in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Лорина Алімівна Іванова

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Exercise-induced bronchial asthma is a separate phenotype of bronchial asthma (BA that defines an exercise-associated transitory obstruction of bronchial tubes, especially decrease of the forced expiration volume for 1 sec. (FEV1 by 10 % and more of an output quantity after the relevant bronchial provocation test. At the same time there is not sufficient elucidation of the role of genetic component especially GSTT1 і GSTM1 gene deletions and\\or mutational polymorphism of еNOS gene in development of exercise-induced bronchial asthma in children.Aim. To study the value of deletion (GSTT1 and GSTM1 genes and mutational (еNOS gene polymorphism in formation of bronchial tubes lability in children with exercise-induced bronchial asthma to optimize individual medioprophylactic recommendations.Materials and methods. During the study there were examined 102 school-aged children with BA in pulmo-allergology department of RSCH in Chernovtsy. To verify the exercise-induced bronchial asthma (EIBA there was studied an exercise tolerance of patients and their bronchial tubes lability in the response to the dosed run and bronchomotor test with inhalation with 200 mkg of salbutamol. And the received results were represented as a bronchial tubes lability indicator (BTLI, % and its components – bronchospasm index (BSI, % and bronchodilation index (BDI, %. 2 clinical groups were formed in examination of children. The first (I, main included 50 schoolchildren with EIBA and the comparative one (II group – 52 children with BA without the signs of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIBS. Results of research. There was established that the “null” genotype of aforesaid genes is three times more often (10,0 % against 3,85 %, P<0,05in children with exercise-induced bronchial asthma and mutations of еNOS gene ( GT, ТТ genotype take place in every second children. There was detected that the highest bronchospasm indicators are in patients with GSTT1

  7. The impact of metabolic syndrome and endothelial dysfunction on exercise-induced cardiovascular changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Amanda M; Davies, Elaine; Lavoie, Kim L; Arsenault, André; Gordon, Jennifer L; Meloche, Bernard; Bacon, Simon L

    2013-01-01

    There is limited information regarding the synergistic or additive effects of metabolic syndrome (MS) and endothelial dysfunction (ED) on cardiovascular disease (CVD). Altered cardiovascular responses to exercise have been shown to predict future cardiovascular events as well as assess autonomic function. The present study evaluated the impact of MS and brachial artery reactivity (a proxy of ED) on peak exercise-induced cardiovascular changes. Individuals (n = 303) undergoing a standard nuclear medicine exercise stress test were assessed for MS. Participants underwent a Forearm Hyperaemic Reactivity test and were considered to have dysfunctional reactivity if their rate of uptake ratio (RUR) was exercise-induced cardiovascular changes, indicates that these patients may have some degree of parasympathetic dysregulation. Further longitudinal studies are needed to understand the long-term implications of MS and endothelial abnormalities in this context. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  8. Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling: Lessons from Humans, Horses, and Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Shave

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is dependent upon the cardiovascular system adequately delivering blood to meet the metabolic and thermoregulatory demands of exercise. Animals who regularly exercise therefore require a well-adapted heart to support this delivery. The purpose of this review is to examine cardiac structure, and the potential for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling, in animals that regularly engage in strenuous activity. Specifically, we draw upon the literature that has studied the “athlete’s heart” in humans, horses, and dogs, to enable the reader to compare and contrast cardiac remodeling in these three athletic species. The available literature provides compelling evidence for exercise-induced cardiac remodeling in all three species. However, more work is required to understand the influence of species/breed specific genetics and exercise-related hemodynamics, in order to fully understand the impact of exercise on cardiac structure.

  9. Approach to the diagnosis and management of suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by primary care physicians

    OpenAIRE

    Hull, James H; Hull, Peter J; Parsons, Jonathan P; Dickinson, John W; Ansley, Les

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise-related respiratory symptoms in the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) have poor predictive value. The aim of this study was to evaluate how athletes presenting with these symptoms are diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to a random selection of family practitioners in England. The survey was designed to assess the frequency with which family practitioners encounter adults with exercise-related r...

  10. The Role of Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Adaptation in Brain Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarumi, Takashi; Zhang, Rong

    2015-10-01

    Regular aerobic exercise improves brain health; however, a potential dose-response relationship and the underling physiological mechanisms remain unclear. Existing data support the following hypotheses: 1) exercise-induced cardiovascular adaptation plays an important role in improving brain perfusion, structure, and function, and 2) a hormetic relation seems to exist between the intensity of exercise and brain health, which needs to be further elucidated.

  11. Sample size estimation in studies monitoring exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstra, W. B.; Sont, J. K.; Sterk, P. J.; Neijens, H J; Kuethe, M. C.; Duiverman, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repeatability of the response to standardised treadmill exercise testing using dry air and monitoring of heart rate in asthmatic children suffering from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been well established. METHODS: Twenty seven asthmatic children with known EIB performed standardised exercise testing twice within a period of three weeks. The tests were performed on a treadmill while breathing dry air. During both tests heart rate had to reach 90% of ...

  12. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

    OpenAIRE

    McLeay, Yanita; Barnes, Matthew J; Mundel, Toby; Hurst, Suzanne M; Hurst, Roger D; Stannard, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on ...

  13. Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Foster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak et al., we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The inward continuum from isocortex (neocortex to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal outward continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ levels by increased clearance via the choroid plexus. Growth factors

  14. Allergies and Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in a Youth Academy and Reserve Professional Soccer Team.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bougault, Valérie; Drouard, François; Legall, Franck; Dupont, Grégory; Wallaert, Benoit

    2017-09-01

    A high prevalence of respiratory allergies and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has been reported among endurance athletes. This study was designed to analyze the frequency of sensitization to respiratory allergens and EIB in young soccer players. Prospective cohort design. Youth academy and reserve professional soccer team during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Eighty-five soccer players (mean age: 20 ± 4 years) participated. Players underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) during the seasons 2012 to 2013 and 2013 to 2014. Spirometry and a eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea test were performed on soccer players during the first season 2012 to 2013 (n = 51) to detect EIB. Two self-administered questionnaires on respiratory history and allergic symptoms (European Community Respiratory Health Survey and Allergy Questionnaire for Athletes) were also distributed during both seasons (n = 59). The number of positive SPTs, exercise-induced respiratory symptoms, presence of asthma, airway obstruction, and EIB. Forty-nine percent of players were sensitized to at least one respiratory allergen, 33% reported an allergic disease, 1 player presented airway obstruction at rest, and 16% presented EIB. Factors predictive of EIB were self-reported exercise-induced symptoms and sensitization to at least 5 allergens. Questioning players about exercise-induced respiratory symptoms and allergies as well as spirometry at the time of the inclusion medical checkup would improve management of respiratory health of soccer players and would constitute inexpensive preliminary screening to select players requiring indirect bronchial provocation test or SPTs. This study showed that despite low frequencies, EIB and allergies are underdiagnosed and undertreated in young soccer players.

  15. The impact of exercise-induced core body temperature elevations on coagulation responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Barteling, Wideke; Verbeek-Knobbe, Kitty; van Heerde, Waander L; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-02-01

    Exercise induces changes in haemostatic parameters and core body temperature (CBT). We aimed to assess whether exercise-induced elevations in CBT induce pro-thrombotic changes in a dose-dependent manner. Observational study. CBT and haemostatic responses were measured in 62 participants of a 15-km road race at baseline and immediately after finishing. As haemostasis assays are routinely performed at 37°C, we corrected the assay temperature for the individual's actual CBT at baseline and finish in a subgroup of n=25. All subjects (44±11 years, 69% male) completed the race at a speed of 12.1±1.8km/h. CBT increased significantly from 37.6±0.4°C to 39.4±0.8°C (ptemperature to the subjects' actual CBT resulted in additional differences and stronger acceleration of thrombin generation parameters. This study demonstrates that exercise induces a prothrombotic state, which might be partially dependent on the magnitude of the exercise-induced CBT rise. Synchronizing the assay temperature to approximate the subject's CBT is essential to obtain more accurate insight in the haemostatic balance during thermoregulatory challenging situations. Finally, this study shows that short-lasting exposure to a CBT of 41.2°C does not result in clinical symptoms of severe coagulation. We therefore hypothesize that prolonged exposure to a high CBT or an individual-specific CBT threshold needs to be exceeded before derailment of the haemostatic balance occurs. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. A Comparison of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage Following Maximal Eccentric Contractions in Men and Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deli, Chariklia K; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Paschalis, Vassilis; Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Zalavras, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2017-08-01

    Research regarding exercise-induced muscle-damage mainly focuses on adults. The present study examined exercise-induced muscle-damage responses in adults compared with children. Eleven healthy boys (10-12 y) and 15 healthy men (18-45 y) performed 5 sets of 15 maximal eccentric contractions of the knee extensors. Range of motion (ROM), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) during squat and walking, and peak isometric, concentric and eccentric torque were assessed before, post, 24, 48, 72, and 96 hr postexercise. Creatine kinase (CK) activity was assessed before and 72 hr postexercise. Eccentric exercise resulted in DOMS during squat that persisted for up to 96h in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .05), and DOMS during walking that persisted for up to 72 hr in men, and 48 hr in boys (p < .01). The ROM was lower in both age groups 48 hr postexercise (p < .001). Isometric (p < .001), concentric (p < .01) and eccentric (p < .01) force decreased post, and up to 48 hr postexercise in men. Except for a reduction in isometric force immediately after exercise, no other changes occurred in boys' isokinetic force. CK activity increased in men at 72 hr postexercise compared with pre exercise levels (p = .05). Our data provide further confirmation that children are less susceptible to exercise-induced muscle damage compared with adults.

  17. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis due to wheat in a young woman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahanchian, Hamid; Farid, Reza; Ansari, Elham; Kianifar, Hamid Reza; Jabbari Azad, Farahzad; Jafari, Seyed Ali; Purreza, Reza; Noorizadeh, Shadi

    2013-03-01

    Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy is a rare condition. However, the occurrence of anaphylaxis is increasing especially in young people. The diagnosis of anaphylaxis is based on clinical criteria and can be supported by laboratory tests such as serum tryptase and positive skin test results for specific IgE to potential triggering allergens. Anaphylaxis prevention needs strict avoidance of confirmed relevant allergen. Food-exercise challenge test may be an acceptable method for diagnosis of Food Dependent Exercise-Induced Allergy and dietary elimination of food is recommended to manage it. In this study, a 32 year-old woman visited the allergy clinic with a history of several episodes of hives since 11 years ago and 3 life-threatening attacks of anaphylaxis during the previous 6 months. The onsets of majority of these attacks were due to physical activity after breakfast. On Blood RAST test, the panel of common food Allergens was used and she had positive test only to wheat flour. On skin prick tests for common food allergens she showed a 6 millimeter wheal with 14 mm flare to Wheat Extract. The rest of allergens were negative.The patient was diagnosed as wheat-dependent exercise-induced, and all foods containing wheat were omitted from her diet. In this report we emphasized on the importance of careful history taking in anaphylaxis diagnosis.

  18. Effects of sleep deprivation on anaerobic exercise-induced changes in auditory brainstem evoked potentials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztürk, Levent; Bulut, Erdoğan; Vardar, Selma Arzu; Uzun, Cem

    2007-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess how anaerobic exercise affects auditory brainstem response (ABR) parameters, and whether one night of sleep deprivation could alter these possible exercise-induced changes in ABRs. Seven healthy, audiologically normal male students (mean age 22.4 +/- 1.0 years) participated in the study. All subjects underwent anaerobic Wingate test for three times: (i) baseline, (ii) following a full-night of habitual sleep and (iii) following one night of sleep deprivation. ABR measurements were performed before and after the second and the third Wingate tests. Oral body temperatures were recorded at the beginning of all ABR measurements. The latencies of wave III and V significantly shortened by anaerobic loading performed in the day after habitual sleep (4.13 +/- 0.10 versus 4.01 +/- 0.17 ms, Pexercise latencies and altered exercise-induced changes in ABRs. The findings obtained in the present study show that acute anaerobic exercise is effective on ABR wave latencies independent from body temperature changes, and sleep deprivation has some modulatory effects on exercise-induced changes in ABR.

  19. The effect of sports specialization on musculus quadriceps function after exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurvydas, Albertas; Brazaitis, Marius; Venckūnas, Tomas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Stanislovaitis, Aleksas; Zuoza, Aurelijus

    2011-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to examine the effect of eccentric exercise-induced (100 submaximal eccentric contractions at an angular velocity of 60° s⁻¹, with 20-s rest intervals) muscle damage on peripheral and central fatigue of quadriceps muscle in well-trained long-distance runners, sprint runners, volleyball players, and untrained subjects. We found that (i) indirect symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage (prolonged decrease in maximal voluntary contraction, isokinetic concentric torque, and electrically induced (20 Hz) torque) were most evident in untrained subjects, while there were no significant differences in changes of muscle soreness and plasma creatine kinase 48 h after eccentric exercise between athletes and untrained subjects; (ii) low-frequency fatigue was greater in untrained subjects and volleyball players than in sprint runners and long-distance runners; (iii) in all subjects, electrically induced (100 Hz) torque decreased significantly by about 20%, while central activation ratio decreased significantly by about 8% in untrained subjects and sprint runners, and by about 3%-5% in long-distance runners and volleyball players. Thus, trained subjects showed greater resistance to exercise-induced muscle damage for most markers, and long-distance runners had no advantage over sprint runners or volleyball players.

  20. Exercise-induced asthma: critical analysis of the protective role of montelukast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terrence W Carver Jr

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Terrence W Carver JrThe Children’s Mercy Hospital and Clinics, Kansas City, MO, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced asthma/exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIA/EIB is a prevalent and clinically important disease affecting young children through older adulthood. These terms are often used interchangeably and the differences are not clearly defined in the literature. The pathogenesis of EIA/EIB may be different in those with persistent asthma compared to those with exercise-induced symptoms only. The natural history of EIA is unclear and may be different for elite athletes. Leukotriene biology has helped the understanding of EIB. The type and intensity of exercise are important factors for EIB. Exercise participation is necessary for proper development and control of EIA is recommended. Symptoms of EIB should be confirmed by proper testing. Biologic markers may also be helpful in diagnosis. Not all exercise symptoms are from EIB. Many medication and nonpharmacologic treatments are available. Asthma education is an important component of managing EIA. Many medications have been tested and the comparisons are complicated. Montelukast is a US Food and Drug Administration-approved asthma and EIB controller and has a number of potential advantages to other asthma medications including short onset of action, ease of use, and lack of tolerance. Not all patients improve with montelukast and rescue medication should be available.Keywords: exercise, asthma, montelukast, Singulair, bronchospasm, leukotrienes

  1. PERSONALITY DOES NOT INFLUENCE EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD ENHANCEMENT AMONG FEMALE EXERCISERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25, stable extroverts (n = 20, neurotic introverts (n = 26, and neurotic extroverts (n = 19. Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood

  2. Evidence of a Redox-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses to Exercise-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sakelliou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used thiol-based antioxidant supplementation (n-acetylcysteine, NAC to determine whether immune mobilisation following skeletal muscle microtrauma induced by exercise is redox-sensitive in healthy humans. According to a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures design, 10 young men received either placebo or NAC (20 mg/kg/day immediately after a muscle-damaging exercise protocol (300 eccentric contractions and for eight consecutive days. Blood sampling and performance assessments were performed before exercise, after exercise, and daily throughout recovery. NAC reduced the decline of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and the increase of plasma protein carbonyls, serum TAC and erythrocyte oxidized glutathione, and TBARS and catalase activity during recovery thereby altering postexercise redox status. The rise of muscle damage and inflammatory markers (muscle strength, creatine kinase activity, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules was less pronounced in NAC during the first phase of recovery. The rise of leukocyte and neutrophil count was decreased by NAC after exercise. Results on immune cell subpopulations obtained by flow cytometry indicated that NAC ingestion reduced the exercise-induced rise of total macrophages, HLA+ macrophages, and 11B+ macrophages and abolished the exercise-induced upregulation of B lymphocytes. Natural killer cells declined only in PLA immediately after exercise. These results indicate that thiol-based antioxidant supplementation blunts immune cell mobilisation in response to exercise-induced inflammation suggesting that leukocyte mobilization may be under redox-dependent regulation.

  3. SHORT AND LONGER-TERM EFFECTS OF CREATINE SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE INDUCED MUSCLE DAMAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rosene

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this investigation was to determine if creatine supplementation assisted with reducing the amount of exercise induced muscle damage and if creatine supplementation aided in recovery from exercise induced muscle damage. Two groups of subjects (group 1 = creatine; group 2 = placebo participated in an eccentric exercise protocol following 7 and 30 days of creatine or placebo supplementation (20 g.d-1 for 7 d followed by 6g.d-1 for 23 d = 30 d. Prior to the supplementation period, measurements were obtained for maximal dynamic strength, maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH. Following 7 days of creatine supplementation, on day 8, subjects began consuming 6 g.d-1 of creatine for 23 days. Additionally on days 8 and 31, subjects performed an eccentric exercise protocol using the knee extensors to induce muscle damage. Indirect markers of muscle damage, including maximal isometric force, knee range of motion, muscle soreness, and serum levels of CK and LDH, were collected at 12, 24, and 48 hours following each exercise bout. The results indicated that acute bouts of creatine have no effect on indirect markers of muscle damage for the acute (7 days bout. However, maximal isometric force was greater for the creatine group versus placebo for the chronic (30 days bout. This suggests that the ergogenic effect of creatine following 30 days of supplementation may have a positive impact on exercise induced muscle damage

  4. The effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue on shooting accuracy and cognitive performance in infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Ubink, E.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Operational performance in military settings involves physical and mental skills that are generally investigated separately in lab settings, leading to reduced ecological validity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue, separately and in combination, on

  5. Effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue on shooting accuracy and cognitive performance in infantry soldiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Ubink, E.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    Operational performance in military settings involves physical and mental skills that are generally investigated separately in lab settings, leading to reduced ecological validity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue, separately and in combination, on

  6. Expression profiling reveals differences in metabolic gene expression between exercise-induced cardiac effects and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm, Claes C; Aplin, Mark; Ploug, Thorkil

    2005-01-01

    While cardiac hypertrophy elicited by pathological stimuli eventually leads to cardiac dysfunction, exercise-induced hypertrophy does not. This suggests that a beneficial hypertrophic phenotype exists. In search of an underlying molecular substrate we used microarray technology to identify cardiac...... by quantitative PCR. The exercise program resulted in cardiac hypertrophy without impaired cardiac function. Principal component analysis identified an exercise-induced change in gene expression that was distinct from the program observed in maladaptive hypertrophy. Statistical analysis identified 267 upregulated...... translocase (CD36). DNA microarray analysis of gene expression changes in exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy suggests that a set of genes involved in fatty acid and glucose metabolism could be fundamental to the beneficial phenotype of exercise-induced hypertrophy, as these changes are absent or reversed...

  7. Duration of action of formoterol and salbutamol dry-powder inhalation in prevention of exercise-induced asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daugbjerg, Peer Schrøder; Nielsen, K G; Skov, M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect and tolerability of formoterol 12 micrograms on exercise-induced asthma in children for 12 h as compared to the effect of salbutamol 400 micrograms and placebo. The drugs were inhaled as dry powder from a flow-dependent metered-dose inhaler (DP....... Formoterol 12 micrograms administered as dry powder offers significantly better protection against exercise-induced asthma after 3 and 12 h as compared to salbutamol 400 micrograms and placebo....

  8. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glisezinski, I. de; Larrouy, D.; Bajzova, M.

    2009-01-01

    . Under placebo, propranolol infusion in the probe containing phentolamine reduced by about 45% exercise-induced glycerol release; this effect was fully suppressed under octreotide infusion while noradrenaline was still elevated and exercise-induced lipid mobilization maintained in both lean and obese...... specifically to SCAT and exercise only or if conclusions could be extended to all forms of lipolysis in humans Udgivelsesdato: 2009/7/1...

  9. Hantavirus Pulmonary Syndrome in the Atlantic Argentinean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... a hemorrhagic disease and in 1993 was responsible for an outbreak of a pulmonary syndrome in the south of the United States of America. The disease is endemic in the north of Argentina where the Oran strain is prevalent. A fatal case of the Hanta Pulmonary Syndrome (HPS) occurring in a migrant agricultural worker is ...

  10. Is cerebral hemorrhage approaching?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawano, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Yukiko; Yoneyama, Takumi; Hamasuna, Ryouichi; Fujime, Kenichi; Goya, Tomokazu [Junwakai Memorial Hospital, Miyazaki (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    In Junwakai Memorial Hospital, from May, 2000 to April, 2001, 1042 patients underwent MRI examination to detect intracerebral microbleed (MB). This series included 481 hypertensive cases and 109 intra-cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhage patients. MB was identified by MRI GRASS image that detects hemosiderin with high sensitivity. The occurrence of MB is high in men and increased with the age. The hypertensive patients showed increased frequency of MB in proportion to the duration of hypertension. Almost all of the symptomatic cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhage cases showed multiple MBs except for massive hemorrhagic lesions. Therefore, MB can be an antecedant feature of the inpending symptomatic intracerebral and cerebellar hemorrhages. (author)

  11. Control of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise in health and pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkus, Daphne; de Beer, Vincent J; Houweling, Birgit; Duncker, Dirk J

    2008-09-01

    Despite the importance of the pulmonary circulation as a determinant of exercise capacity in health and disease, studies into the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone in the healthy lung during exercise are scarce. This review describes the current knowledge of the role of various endogenous vasoactive mechanisms in the control of pulmonary vascular tone at rest and during exercise. Recent studies demonstrate an important role for endothelial factors (NO and endothelin) and neurohumoral factors (noradrenaline, acetylcholine). Moreover, there is evidence that natriuretic peptides, reactive oxygen species and phosphodiesterase activity can influence resting pulmonary vascular tone, but their role in the control of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise remains to be determined. K-channels are purported end-effectors in control of pulmonary vascular tone. However, K(ATP) channels do not contribute to regulation of pulmonary vascular tone, while the role of K(V) and K(Ca) channels at rest and during exercise remains to be determined. Pulmonary hypertension is associated with alterations in pulmonary vascular function and structure, resulting in blunted pulmonary vasodilatation during exercise and impaired exercise capacity. Although there is a paucity of studies pertaining to the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise in idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, the few studies that have been performed in models of pulmonary hypertension secondary to left ventricular dysfunction suggest altered control of pulmonary vascular tone during exercise. Since the increased pulmonary vascular tone during exercise limits exercise capacity, future studies are needed to investigate the vasomotor mechanisms that are responsible for the blunted exercise-induced pulmonary vasodilatation in pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Relationship between anxiety and dyspnea on exertion in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Voogd, J.N.; Sanderman, R.; Postema, K.; van Sonderen, E.; Wempe, J.B.

    2011-01-01

    Dyspnea limits exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and is known to induce anxiety. Little is known whether anxiety contributes to exercise-induced dyspnea, which in turn might influence the outcome of diagnostic tests. The aim of the present study was to examine

  13. CYTOLOGY PULMONARY IN HORSES (EQUUS CABALLUS MAINTAINED THE FIELD OR STABLED

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. F. Fortes Júnior

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Tracheobronchial secretion was collected by endoscopy (Welch-AllynÒ, 200cm long and 9mm diameter, from equines with different ages, races and sex, for posterior cytological analysis. Thirty-six equines were divided into two groups (Group I = stabled, n = 18; Group II = field regimen, n = 18. Animals of Group I (age = 3.5 years were lodged in the Tarumã´s Jockey Club in Curitiba, Parana State. The equines of Group II always were maintained at field condition (never were stabled, in the farm located in Jacarezinho, Paraná State. Following endoscopic exams, tracheobronchial secretion smears were stained by Pappenhein´s method and submitted to cytological analysis. Group I had higher frequency of tracheal discharge than Group II. The cytological analysis showed more presence of macrophages (58.8%, foamy cells (2.3%, body giant cells (0.2%, neutrophils (4.57%, eosinophils (0.7% and Curshmann´s spirals (0.04% on 3 of the 18 animals. The cytological analysis of Group II showed higher frequency of ciliated epithelial cells than Group I, and no Curshmann´s spirals were observed. In conclusion, data showed that horses stabled had more cytological alterations than the animals maintained at field, therefore more tracheobronchial complications. Thus, the care of place where horse are stabled have influence on development of respiratory diseases, may predispose to affections as Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease and Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Hemorrhage, as well athletic horses may be never reach their full respiratory potential.

  14. Hemorrhagic prepatellar bursitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donahue, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Turkel, D. [Dept. of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Section, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Mnaymneh, W. [Dept. of Orthopedics, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States); Ghandur-Mnaymneh, L. [Dept. of Pathology, Univ. of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Simple prepatellar bursitis is easily diagnosed both clinically and by MRI. MRI shows the typical T1 and T2 lengthening of fluid within the bursa. However, because of complex MRI appearance of hemorrhage, chronic hemorrhagic bursitis and the size of the prepatellar mass the clinical and MRI appearance can be very different. (orig.)

  15. BDNF expression in perirhinal cortex is associated with exercise-induced improvement in object recognition memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Michael E; Bucci, David J

    2010-09-01

    Physical exercise induces widespread neurobiological adaptations and improves learning and memory. Most research in this field has focused on hippocampus-based spatial tasks and changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a putative substrate underlying exercise-induced cognitive improvements. Chronic exercise can also be anxiolytic and causes adaptive changes in stress-reactivity. The present study employed a perirhinal cortex-dependent object recognition task as well as the elevated plus maze to directly test for interactions between the cognitive and anxiolytic effects of exercise in male Long Evans rats. Hippocampal and perirhinal cortex tissue was collected to determine whether the relationship between BDNF and cognitive performance extends to this non-spatial and non-hippocampal-dependent task. We also examined whether the cognitive improvements persisted once the exercise regimen was terminated. Our data indicate that 4weeks of voluntary exercise every-other-day improved object recognition memory. Importantly, BDNF expression in the perirhinal cortex of exercising rats was strongly correlated with object recognition memory. Exercise also decreased anxiety-like behavior, however there was no evidence to support a relationship between anxiety-like behavior and performance on the novel object recognition task. There was a trend for a negative relationship between anxiety-like behavior and hippocampal BDNF. Neither the cognitive improvements nor the relationship between cognitive function and perirhinal BDNF levels persisted after 2weeks of inactivity. These are the first data demonstrating that region-specific changes in BDNF protein levels are correlated with exercise-induced improvements in non-spatial memory, mediated by structures outside the hippocampus and are consistent with the theory that, with regard to object recognition, the anxiolytic and cognitive effects of exercise may be mediated through separable mechanisms. Copyright 2010 Elsevier

  16. Personality Does not Influence Exercise-Induced Mood Enhancement Among Female Exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Andrew M; Milton, Karen E; Terry, Peter C

    2005-09-01

    The present study investigated the influence of personality on exercise-induced mood changes. It was hypothesised that (a) exercise would be associated with significant mood enhancement across all personality types, (b) extroversion would be associated with positive mood and neuroticism with negative mood both pre- and post-exercise, and (c) personality measures would interact with exercise-induced mood changes. Participants were 90 female exercisers (M = 25.8 yr, SD = 9.0 yr) who completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) once and the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS) before and after a 60-minute exercise session. Median splits were used to group participants into four personality types: stable introverts (n = 25), stable extroverts (n = 20), neurotic introverts (n = 26), and neurotic extroverts (n = 19). Repeated measures MANOVA showed significant mood enhancement following exercise across all personality types. Neuroticism was associated with negative mood scores pre- and post-exercise but the effect of extroversion on reported mood was relatively weak. There was no significant interaction effect between exercise-induced mood enhancement and personality. In conclusion, findings lend support to the notion that exercise is associated with improved mood. However, findings show that personality did not influence this effect, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood. Key PointsResearch in general psychology has found that stable personality trait are associated changes in mood states. Ninety females exercisers completed a personality test and mood scales before and after exercise. Results indicated mood changes were not associated with personality, although neuroticism was associated with negative mood.

  17. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one's physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depiazzi, Julie; Everard, Mark L

    2016-06-01

    Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy.The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice.Dysfunctional breathing is an umbrella term for an alteration in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing that result in intermittent or chronic symptoms, which may be respiratory and/or nonrespiratory. This alteration may be due to structural causes or, much more commonly, be functional as exemplified by thoracic pattern disordered breathing (PDB) and extrathoracic paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (pVFMD).Careful history and examination together with spirometry may identify those likely to have PDB and/or pVFMD. Where there is doubt about aetiology, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be required to identify the deconditioned, unfit or fit individual reaching their physiological limit and PDB, while continuous laryngoscopy during exercise is increasingly becoming the benchmark for assessing extrathoracic causes.Accurate assessment and diagnosis can prevent excessive use of drug therapy and result in effective management of the cause of the individual's complaint through cost-effective approaches such as reassurance, advice, breathing retraining and vocal exercises. This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise--induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of the need for

  18. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis with negative allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiman, Jacob; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2014-02-06

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA) is a disorder where exercise following allergen ingestion triggers anaphylaxis although exercise and allergen exposure are independently tolerated. The diagnosis of FDEIA is based on a characteristic clinical history. The culprit allergen is usually confirmed through the use of skin prick testing (SPT) serum-specific IgE levels and a food-exercise challenge. We present a case of FDEIA suggested by clinical history and open food-exercise challenge with negative specific IgE levels and SPT that highlights the challenges involved in diagnosing and managing this rare disorder.

  19. Acute exercise induced oxidative stress is prevented in erythrocytes of male long distance athletes

    OpenAIRE

    A Gunal; F Akcay; Gul, M.; S Taysi; Dane, S.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the redox status in blood of long distance running athletes if it is favourably affected, and help to prevent acute exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen sedentary males and 20 male long distance runners, volunteered to participate in this study. Acute exercise was applied as treadmill run, which was continued until the heart rate of the subject has reached 80-90% of the maximum and stopped after 5 min. Acute exercise increased the hematocrit per...

  20. Increased Releasability of Skin Mast Cells after Exercise in Patients with Exercise-induced Asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Inseon S Choi; Koh, Youngil I.; Chung, Se-Woong; Lim, Ho

    2004-01-01

    The role of lung mast cells in exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is controversial. To investigate whether the skin mast cell releasability is increased after exercise in EIA, 49 young atopic men with or without asthma took part in a free-running test for 6 min and were given skin prick tests using morphine, a mast cell secretagogue, before and after the exercise. The mean diameters of the wheal induced by morphine in patients with EIA were not significantly different from those in patients withou...

  1. [Measurement of cytokines in patients with exercise-induced asthma treated with anti-leukotrienes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores Sandoval, Graciela; Orea Solano, Modesto; Cortés Padilla, V; Santos Argumedo, L

    2002-01-01

    Exercise-induced asthma is defined as the transient broncho-spasm, that occurs after 3 to 8 minutes of continuous exercise; one of two mechanisms are implicated: the first is given by a hyper-osmolar environment interchange with the warm respiratory air and the water loss, the second due to reactive hyperemia or bronchial blood vessels edema. To determine the effectiveness and safety of Zafirlukast treatment in exercise induce asthma, and in mild and moderated persistent bronchial asthma. Evaluate the security with laboratory test IL-2, IL-4, INFg, and CD69, to determinate TH1 and Th2 cells, laboratory and thorax x-ray determinations before and after zafirlukast treatment in exercise induce asthma, plus the functional respiratory test, and assert the clinical and adverse reaction with Zafirlukast. A open, prospective, longitudinal study. Challenge test on a treadmill for 8 minutes. Twenty patients from the Allergy Service at Lic. Adolfo López Mateos Hospital, ISSSTE, in México City, fifteen female and five males. Aged 15 to 35 years. There was a control group of ten healthy subjects with similar age and sex. The drug Zafirlukast was administered 20 mg twice a day for eight weeks, with patient's informed and signed consent. Laboratory test: Blood Cell count, transaminases, bilirubins A, G, M and E immunoglobulins thorax X-ray, electrocardiogram, functional respiratory test before and after treatment. Zafirlukast blocked exercise induced asthma in the early and late phases. There was a statistically significant improvement of a VEF-1 after exercise with a p > 0.001; furthermore, there was significant improvement in the mid-spiratory speed before the exercise with a p > 0.05. The mid-spiratory speed after the exercise, improved (p > 0.01). There were no collateral reactions, such as Churg-Strauss, only transitory headache in six and nauseas in two. There were no statistically significant changes in the cytokines assessment. There were no statistically significant

  2. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke J J Klinkenberg

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists.Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1·min(-1, Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1; mean ± SD were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day, or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min.The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2 to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7, immediately post-exercise (p<0.001. Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg(-1. However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24, as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation.Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations

  3. Long-term leucine supplementation aggravates prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular changes in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Gustavo Barbosa; de Oliveira, André Gustavo; Ramos, Luiz Alberto Ferreira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Areas, Miguel Arcanjo

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can long-term leucine supplementation prevent prolonged strenuous endurance exercise induced cardiac injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged endurance exercise does not seem to exceed cardiac energetic capacity, hence it does not represent an energy threat to this organ, at least in trained subjects. However, it may induce, in susceptible individuals, a state of cardiac electrical instability, which has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This situation might be worsened when combined with leucine supplementation, which leads to increased blood pressure and cardiac injury. Leucine supplementation failed to prevent cardiac fatigue symptoms and may aggravate prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular disturbances in trained rats. Observational studies have raised concerns that prolonged strenuous exercise training may be associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and even primary cardiac arrest or sudden death. It has been demonstrated that leucine can reduce prolonged exercise-induced muscle damage and accelerate the recovery process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged strenuous endurance exercise on cardiovascular parameters and biomarkers of cardiac injury in trained adult male rats and assess the use of leucine as an auxiliary substance to prevent the likely cardiac adverse effects caused by strenuous exercise. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to receive a balanced control diet (18% protein) or a leucine-rich diet (15% protein plus 3% leucine) for 6 weeks. The rats were submitted to 1 h of exercise, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Three days after the training period, the rats were submitted to swimming exercise until exhaustion, and cardiac parameters were assessed. Exercising until exhaustion significantly increased cardiac biomarker levels, cytokines and glycogen content inhibited protein

  4. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Related to Chickpea Ingestion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Chet G

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s. Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  5. The endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galdino, Giovane; Romero, Thiago R L; Silva, José Felipe P; Aguiar, Daniele C; de Paula, Ana Maria; Cruz, Jader S; Parrella, Cosimo; Piscitelli, Fabiana; Duarte, Igor D; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Perez, Andrea C

    2014-02-01

    Exercise-induced antinociception is widely described in the literature, but the mechanisms involved in this phenomenon are poorly understood. Systemic (s.c.) and central (i.t., i.c.v.) pretreatment with CB₁ and CB₂ cannabinoid receptor antagonists (AM251 and AM630) blocked the antinociception induced by an aerobic exercise (AE) protocol in both mechanical and thermal nociceptive tests. Western blot analysis revealed an increase and activation of CB₁ receptors in the rat brain, and immunofluorescence analysis demonstrated an increase of activation and expression of CB₁ receptors in neurons of the periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) after exercise. Additionally, pretreatment (s.c., i.t. and i.c.v.) with endocannabinoid metabolizing enzyme inhibitors (MAFP and JZL184) and an anandamide reuptake inhibitor (VDM11) prolonged and intensified this antinociceptive effect. These results indicate that exercise could activate the endocannabinoid system, producing antinociception. Supporting this hypothesis, liquid-chromatography/mass-spectrometry measurements demonstrated that plasma levels of endocannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol) and of anandamide-related mediators (palmitoylethanolamide and oleoylethanolamide) were increased after AE. Therefore, these results suggest that the endocannabinoid system mediates aerobic exercise-induced antinociception at peripheral and central levels. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute exercise induced oxidative stress is prevented in erythrocytes of male long distance athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gunal

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the redox status in blood of long distance running athletes if it is favourably affected, and help to prevent acute exercise-induced oxidative stress. Nineteen sedentary males and 20 male long distance runners, volunteered to participate in this study. Acute exercise was applied as treadmill run, which was continued until the heart rate of the subject has reached 80-90% of the maximum and stopped after 5 min. Acute exercise increased the hematocrit percentage in sedentary males but not in male athletes. It decreased the number of erythrocytes and also Hb level in sedentary males, but not in male athletes when they were adjusted to the changes in hematocrit level. There was no difference in erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels between sedentary males and male athletes at rest. Acute treadmill run increased the erythrocyte malondialdehyde level in sedentary males, however, it did not affect it in male athletes. Erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were not affected by acute exercise in both groups. Our results show that erythrocytes in long distance male athletes are better protected against acute exercise-induced oxidative stress compared with the ones from sedentary counterparts.

  7. PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glenn C Rowe

    Full Text Available Exercise confers numerous health benefits, many of which are thought to stem from exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis (EIMB in skeletal muscle. The transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α, a potent regulator of metabolism in numerous tissues, is widely believed to be required for EIMB. We show here that this is not the case. Mice engineered to lack PGC-1α specifically in skeletal muscle (Myo-PGC-1αKO mice retained intact EIMB. The exercise capacity of these mice was comparable to littermate controls. Induction of metabolic genes after 2 weeks of in-cage voluntary wheel running was intact. Electron microscopy revealed no gross abnormalities in mitochondria, and the mitochondrial biogenic response to endurance exercise was as robust in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice as in wildtype mice. The induction of enzymatic activity of the electron transport chain by exercise was likewise unperturbed in Myo-PGC-1αKO mice. These data demonstrate that PGC-1α is dispensable for exercise-induced mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle, in sharp contrast to the prevalent assumption in the field.

  8. Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levi W. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma. Exercise can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a trend of antioxidant supplementation to combat its assumed detriments. Vitamin C is a popular antioxidant supplement in the realm of sports and exercise. One potential avenue for evaluating exercise induced oxidative stress is through assessment of biomarkers like vitamin C and malondialdehyde in saliva. At present, limited research has been done in this area. The current state of research involving exercise-induced oxidative stress, salivary biomarkers, and vitamin C supplementation is reviewed in this article.

  9. Exercise-induced bronchospasm: implications for patients with or without asthma in primary care practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayden ML

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Stuart W Stoloff1, Gene L Colice2, Mary Lou Hayden3, Timothy J Craig4, Nancy K Ostrom5, Nemr S Eid6, Jonathan P Parsons71University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, NV, 2Washington Hospital Center, Washington, DC, 3University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 4Pennsylvania State University, Hershey, PA, 5Allergy and Asthma Medical Group and Research Center, San Diego, CA, 6University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, 7Ohio State University Asthma Center, Columbus, OH, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB can represent a substantial barrier to physical activity. We present the cases of two patients with EIB, one with asthma, and one without asthma, who were evaluated at our primary care practice. The first case was a 44-year-old man with a history of seasonal allergic rhinitis but no asthma, who reported difficulty breathing when playing tennis. The second case was a 45-year-old woman who presented with persistent, generally well-controlled asthma, who was now experiencing bouts of coughing and wheezing during exercise. In both cases, an exercise challenge was used to diagnose EIB, and patients were prescribed a short-acting beta agonist to be used immediately before initiating exercise. EIB is a frequently encountered problem among patients presenting to primary care specialists. Affected patients should be made aware of the importance of proactive treatment with a short-acting beta agonist before initiating any exercise.Keywords: asthma, compliance, exercise-induced bronchospasm

  10. Influence of menstrual status on fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration in healthy young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; McArthur, M; Shirreffs, S M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To determine whether fluid replacement after exercise induced dehydration varies over the normal menstrual cycle. METHODS--Five subjects, with a regular menstrual cycle lasting 28 (SEM 2) d, were dehydrated by 1.8(0.1)% of their pre-exercise mass by cycle exercise in the heat. Trials were undertaken 2 d before (trial -2) and 5 and 19 d after the onset of menses (trials 6 and 20 respectively). After exercise, subjects ingested a fixed volume, equivalent to 150% of mass loss, of a commercially available sports drink over a 60 min period. RESULTS--Cumulative urine output [median (range)] over the 6 h following ingestion was the same on all trials: 714(469-750) ml on trial -2; 476(433-639) ml on trial 6; 534(195-852) ml on trial 20. There was no menstrual cycle effect on urinary electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) excretion or serum electrolyte (Na+, K+, Cl-) concentrations. Plasma volume increased by 8-12% of the postexercise value following rehydration. The percentage of ingested fluid retained did not differ between trials at any time. Six hours after drink ingestion, net fluid balance was not different from the initial value on any of the trials. CONCLUSIONS--Acute replacement of exercise induced fluid losses is not affected by the normal menstrual cycle. PMID:8665117

  11. Montelukast administered in the morning or evening to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajaron-Fernandez, Manuel; Garcia-Rubia, Servando; Sanchez-Solis, Manuel; Garcia-Marcos, Luis

    2006-03-01

    Montelukast is recommended to be taken in the evening. The effectiveness of this drug to prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in children was already evaluated. However, there is no information to determine if this effectiveness could vary depending on dosage time. Children (n = 24) with a documented history of EIB performed an exercise challenge test before starting montelukast treatment. Twelve children were randomly allocated to receive the drug in the morning for 2 weeks, and another 12 to receive it in the evening. After this treatment period and after a week of washout, the children were crossed over. An exercise test was repeated after the first and second periods of treatment. Values obtained after morning or evening dosage were compared with pretreatment values for the whole group of children. There was a significant effect of montelukast for protecting against EIB, measured both as percent of maximum fall in forced expired volume in 1 sec (FEV1) (18.9 +/- 9.7, morning, 18.7 +/- 11.3, evening, vs. 27.5 +/- 9.8, pretreatment; P evening, vs. 294.3 +/- 156.5, pretreatment; P evening. In conclusion, montelukast, taken for 2 weeks, is equally effective in exercise-induced bronchoconstriction when dosing either in the morning or in the evening. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Exercise-induced changes in EEG alpha power depend on frequency band definition mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, Boris; Hülsdünker, Thorben; Mierau, Julia; Strüder, Heiko K; Mierau, Andreas

    2017-10-18

    In the majority of studies investigating cortical alpha oscillations the alpha frequency is defined as a fixed band thus, neglecting recommendations in the EEG literature to adjust the alpha band according to the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF). Based on our previous findings indicating exhaustive exercise induces an increase of the post-exercise iAPF, we scrutinized the influence of exercise on post-exercise alpha power by comparing fixed and iAPF-adjusted alpha frequency bands. Resting EEG was recorded from 13 scalp locations in nine subjects before, immediately after as well as ten minutes following an exhaustive exercise protocol on a cycle ergometer. Lower and upper band alpha power was calculated for fixed and iAPF-adjusted frequency bands. Post-exercise lower alpha power increased in both fixed and individually defined bands while a higher upper alpha power was only observed in the fixed frequency band condition. Further, the increase in iAPF was positively related to the changes in fixed-band upper alpha power. It is concluded that lower alpha power is significantly increased following exhaustive exercise whereas the results for upper alpha power are substantially influenced by the method of frequency band definition. Therefore, caution is indicated when analyzing and interpreting exercise-induced changes in alpha power. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise-induced muscle glucose uptake in mice with graded, muscle-specific GLUT-4 deletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlett, Kirsten F; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Proietto, Joseph; Hargreaves, Mark

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the importance of the glucose transporter GLUT-4 for muscle glucose uptake during exercise, transgenic mice with skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression approximately 30–60% of normal (CON) and approximately 5–10% of normal (KO) were generated using the Cre/Lox system and compared with wild-type (WT) mice during approximately 40 min of treadmill running (KO: 37.7 ± 1.3 min; WT: 40 min; CON: 40 min, P = 0.18). In WT and CON animals, exercise resulted in an overall increase in muscle glucose uptake. More specifically, glucose uptake was increased in red gastrocnemius of WT mice and in the soleus and red gastrocnemius of CON mice. In contrast, the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake in all muscles was completely abolished in KO mice. Muscle glucose uptake increased during exercise in both red and white quadriceps of WT mice, while the small increases in CON mice were not statistically significant. In KO mice, there was no change at all in quadriceps muscle glucose uptake. No differences in muscle glycogen use during exercise were observed between any of the groups. However, there was a significant increase in plasma glucose levels after exercise in KO mice. The results of this study demonstrated that a reduction in skeletal muscle GLUT-4 expression to approximately 10% of normal levels completely abolished the exercise-induced increase in muscle glucose uptake. PMID:24303141

  14. Exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow and vascular function is impaired in systemic sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machin, Daniel R; Clifton, Heather L; Garten, Ryan S; Gifford, Jayson R; Richardson, Russell S; Wray, D Walter; Frech, Tracy M; Donato, Anthony J

    2016-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a rare autoimmune disease characterized by debilitating fibrosis and vascular dysfunction; however, little is known about the circulatory response to exercise in this population. Therefore, we examined the peripheral hemodynamic and vasodilatory responses to handgrip exercise in 10 patients with SSc (61 ± 4 yr) and 15 age-matched healthy controls (56 ± 5 yr). Brachial artery diameter, blood flow, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were determined at rest and during progressive static-intermittent handgrip exercise. Patients with SSc and controls were similar in body stature, handgrip strength, and MAP; however, brachial artery blood flow at rest was nearly twofold lower in patients with SSc compared with controls (22 ± 4 vs. 42 ± 5 ml/min, respectively; P exercise, there were no differences in MAP between the groups, exercise-induced hyperemia and therefore vascular conductance were ∼35% lower at all exercise workloads in patients with SSc (P exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow and conduit arterial vasodilatory dysfunction during handgrip exercise in SSc and suggest that elevated oxidative stress may play a role.

  15. Possible in vivo tolerance of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil to low-grade exercise-induced endotoxaemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available To address the question of whether translocation of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS into the blood could be involved in the process of exercise-induced polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN activation, 12 healthy male subjects who took part in a sprint triathlon (1.5 km river swim, 40 km bicycle race, 10 km road race were studied. While there was no detectable amount of endotoxin in the blood samples drawn at rest, exercise was followed by the appearance of circulating endotoxin molecules at the end of competition in four subjects, and after one and 24 h recovery in three and seven athletes, respectively. The concentrations of plasma granulocyte myeloperoxidase ([MPO], were significantly higher immediately after exercise and one hour later than baseline values (P<0.001. This variable returned to pre-race levels the day after exercise, despite the presence of detectable amounts of LPS, at that time, in seven athletes. The absence of significant correlation (r=0.26;P=0.383 and temporal association between [MPO]and plasma endotoxin levels led us to conclude that endotoxaemia was not involved in the process of exercise-induced PMN degranulation observed in our subjects.

  16. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of biliverdin administration on acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Junko; Morimatsu, Hiroshi; Takahashi, Toru; Shimizu, Hiroko; Kawanishi, Susumu; Omori, Emiko; Endo, Yasumasa; Tamaki, Naofumi; Morita, Manabu; Morita, Kiyoshi

    2013-01-01

    Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation resulted in prominent histopathological damage, including congestion, edema, cellular infiltration, and hemorrhage. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation significantly ameliorated these lung injuries as judged by histopathological improvement. After hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, inflammatory gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased by 18- and 8-fold, respectively. Inflammatory gene expression significantly decreased when biliverdin was administered prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Moreover, after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, lung 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in mitochondrial DNA expressed in the pulmonary interstitium increased by 1.5-fold. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation decreased mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels to almost the same level as that in the control animals. We also

  18. Effects of biliverdin administration on acute lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junko Kosaka

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation induces pulmonary inflammation that leads to acute lung injury. Biliverdin, a metabolite of heme catabolism, has been shown to have potent cytoprotective, anti-inflammatory, and anti-oxidant effects. This study aimed to examine the effects of intravenous biliverdin administration on lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation in rats. Biliverdin or vehicle was administered to the rats 1 h before sham or hemorrhagic shock-inducing surgery. The sham-operated rats underwent all surgical procedures except bleeding. To induce hemorrhagic shock, rats were bled to achieve a mean arterial pressure of 30 mmHg that was maintained for 60 min, followed by resuscitation with shed blood. Histopathological changes in the lungs were evaluated by histopathological scoring analysis. Inflammatory gene expression was determined by Northern blot analysis, and oxidative DNA damage was assessed by measuring 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in the lungs. Hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation resulted in prominent histopathological damage, including congestion, edema, cellular infiltration, and hemorrhage. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation significantly ameliorated these lung injuries as judged by histopathological improvement. After hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, inflammatory gene expression of tumor necrosis factor-α and inducible nitric oxide synthase were increased by 18- and 8-fold, respectively. Inflammatory gene expression significantly decreased when biliverdin was administered prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. Moreover, after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation, lung 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels in mitochondrial DNA expressed in the pulmonary interstitium increased by 1.5-fold. Biliverdin administration prior to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation decreased mitochondrial 8-hydroxy-2' deoxyguanosine levels to almost the same level as that in the

  19. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limme, Boris; Nicolescu, Ramona; Misson, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage). The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images) is strongly suggestive. PMID:25389504

  20. Neonatal Pulmonary Hemosiderosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Limme

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH is a rare complex entity characterized clinically by acute or recurrent episodes of hemoptysis secondary to diffuse alveolar hemorrhage. The radiographic features are variable, including diffuse alveolar-type infiltrates, and interstitial reticular and micronodular patterns. We describe a 3-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis and moderate respiratory distress. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was the first working diagnosis at the Emergency Department and was confirmed, 2 weeks later, by histological studies (bronchoalveolar lavage. The immunosuppressive therapy by 1 mg/kg/d prednisone was immediately started, the baby returned home on steroid therapy at a dose of 0,5 mg/kg/d. The diagnosis of idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis should be evocated at any age, even in the neonate, when the clinical presentation (hemoptysis and abnormal radiological chest images is strongly suggestive.

  1. Mortality after hemorrhagic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    González-Pérez, Antonio; Gaist, David; Wallander, Mari-Ann

    2013-01-01

    , 54.6% for 80-89 years; SAH: 20.3% for 20-49 years, 56.7% for 80-89 years; both p-trend stroke patients...... = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: More than one-third of individuals die in the first month after hemorrhagic stroke, and patients younger than 50 years are more likely to die after ICH than SAH. Short-term case fatality has decreased over time. Patients who survive hemorrhagic stroke have a continuing elevated...

  2. Exercise-Induced Secretion of FGF21 and Follistatin Are Blocked by Pancreatic Clamp and Impaired in Type 2 Diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob Schiøler; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Xu, Guowang

    2016-01-01

    of the study was to investigate the regulatory roles of glucagon to insulin ratio and T2D on exercise-induced FGF21 and follistatin secretion. Design /Interventions: Young healthy males performed a 2-hour bicycle exercise bout followed by 5 hours of rest in supine position with and without a pancreatic clamp...... blocking the increase in the glucagon to insulin ratio. In addition, we evaluated exercise-induced plasma FGF21 and follistatin in patients with T2D compared with healthy controls in response to 1 hour of bicycle exercise followed by a 3-hour recovery period. RESULTS: In healthy individuals, we observed...

  3. Extracorporeal life support for a 5-week-old infant with idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez, Sherrill; Shaw, Susanna; Huseni, Shehlanoor; Sachdeva, Shagun; Costello, John P; Basu, Sonali; Nath, Dilip S; Klugman, Darren

    2014-12-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is a rare disease defined by the triad of iron deficiency anemia, hemoptysis, and diffuse pulmonary infiltrates on chest radiograph. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis is known to cause dyspnea and, in some cases, acute onset of massive pulmonary hemorrhage which is traditionally treated with conventional mechanical ventilation or high-frequency oscillation in conjunction with immunosuppressive therapy. In this case report, we describe a 5-week-old infant presenting with hemoptysis, massive pulmonary hemorrhage, and significant hypercapnic respiratory failure. The patient failed conventional ventilation but responded well to extracorporeal life support that was initiated early in his course. Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis was suspected in light of his response to high-dose steroids and was confirmed by subsequent lung biopsies. Patients with severe pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis can be safely supported with extracorporeal life support when conventional therapies have been exhausted.

  4. The effect of exercise-induced hypoxemia on blood redox status in well-trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyparos, Antonios; Riganas, Christos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Sampanis, Michalis; Koskolou, Maria D; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2012-06-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), characterized by decline in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)), is a common phenomenon in endurance athletes. Acute intensive exercise is associated with the generation of reactive species that may result in redox status disturbances and oxidation of cell macromolecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether EIAH augments oxidative stress as determined in blood plasma and erythrocytes in well-trained male rowers after a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race. Initially, athletes were assigned into either the normoxemic (n = 9, SaO(2) >92%, [Formula: see text]: 62.0 ± 1.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) or hypoxemic (n = 12, SaO(2) <92%, [Formula: see text]: 60.5 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1 )min(-1), mean ± SEM) group, following an incremental [Formula: see text] test on a wind resistance braked rowing ergometer. On a separate day the rowers performed a 2,000-m all-out effort on the same rowing ergometer. Following an overnight fast, blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before and immediately after the termination of the 2,000-m all-out effort and analyzed for selective oxidative stress markers. In both the normoxemic (SaO(2): 94.1 ± 0.9%) and hypoxemic (SaO(2): 88.6 ± 2.4%) rowers similar and significant exercise increase in serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyls, catalase and total antioxidant capacity concentration were observed post-2,000 m all-out effort. Exercise significantly increased the oxidized glutathione concentration and decreased the ratio of reduced (GSH)-to-oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the normoxemic group only, whereas the reduced form of glutathione remained unaffected in either groups. The increased oxidation of GSH to GSSG in erythrocytes of normoxemic individuals suggest that erythrocyte redox status may be affected by the oxygen saturation degree of hemoglobin. Our findings indicate that exercise-induced hypoxemia did not further affect the increased blood

  5. ACTN3 genotype influences exercise-induced muscle damage during a marathon competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Salinero, Juan José; Lara, Beatriz; Díaz, Germán; Gallo-Salazar, César; Ruiz-Vicente, Diana; Areces, Francisco; Puente, Carlos; Carril, Juan Carlos; Cacabelos, Ramón

    2017-03-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage has been identified as one of the main causes of the progressive decrease in running and muscular performance in marathoners. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of the ACTN3 genotype on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Seventy-one experienced runners competed in a marathon race. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained and maximal voluntary leg muscle power was measured during a countermovement jump. In the blood samples, the ACTN3 genotype (R577X) and the changes in serum creatine kinase and myoglobin concentrations were measured. Data from RX heterozygotes and XX mutant homozygotes were grouped as X allele carriers and compared to RR homozygotes. At the end of the race, X allele carriers presented higher serum myoglobin (774 ± 852 vs 487 ± 367 U L -1 ; P = 0.02) and creatine kinase concentrations (508 ± 346 vs 359 ± 170 ng mL -1 ; P = 0.04) than RR homozygotes. Pre-to-post-race maximal voluntary leg muscle power reduction was more pronounced in X allele carriers than RR homozygotes (-34.4 ± 16.1 vs -27.3 ± 15.4%; P = 0.05). X allele carriers self-reported higher levels of lower limb muscle pain (7 ± 2 vs 6 ± 2 cm; P = 0.02) than RR homozygotes at the end of the race. In comparison to RR homozygotes, X allele carriers for the R577X polymorphism of the ACTN3 gene presented higher values for typical markers of exercise-induced muscle damage during a competitive marathon. Thus, the absence of a functional α-actinin-3 produced by the X allele might induce higher levels of muscle breakdown during prolonged running events.

  6. Troponin elevation in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis N. Mavridis

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Troponin (tr elevation in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH patients is often difficult to be appropriately assessed by clinicians, causing even disagreements regarding its management between neurosurgeons and cardiologists. The purpose of this article was to review the literature regarding the clinical interpretation of tr elevation in SAH. We searched for articles in PubMed using the key words: “troponin elevation” and “subarachnoid hemorrhage”. All of them, as well as relative neurosurgical books, were used for this review. Some type of cardiovascular abnormality develops in most SAH patients. Neurogenic stunned myocardium is a frequent SAH complication, due to catecholamine surge which induces cardiac injury, as evidenced by increased serum tr levels, electrocardiographic (ECG changes and cardiac wall motion abnormalities. Tr elevation, usually modest, is an early and specific marker for cardiac involvement after SAH and its levels peak about two days after SAH. Cardiac tr elevation predictors include poor clinical grade, intraventricular hemorrhage, loss of consciousness at ictus, global cerebral edema, female sex, large body surface area, lower systolic blood pressure, higher heart rate and prolonged Q-Tc interval. Elevated tr levels are associated with disability and death (especially tr >1 μg/L, worse neurological grade, systolic and diastolic cardiac dysfunction, pulmonary congestion, longer intensive care unit stay and incidence of vasospasm. Tr elevation is a common finding in SAH patients and constitutes a rightful cause of worry about the patients' cardiac function and prognosis. It should be therefore early detected, carefully monitored and appropriately managed by clinicians.

  7. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    could also regulate muscle metabolism during exercise and long-term adaptations to exercise training. However, responses to exercise and exercise training are largely normal in AMPK KO/KD mice. At first hand this could mean that AMPK is not important to exercise/exercise training metabolic regulation......-regulated metabolism and exercise training-induced adaptations are abnormal. This could be due to a more complete ablation of AMPK function and perhaps related to the catalytic properires of the α-subunits. In study 1 we show that deletion of both AMPKα subunits in skeletal muscle of mice decreases exerciseinduced......-subunit. It is proposed to be involved in acute exercise-induced regulation of substrate metabolism as well as the adaptations in muscle protein expression that arise from repeated bouts of exercise, i.e. exercise training. Exercise regulates a plethora of signaling pathways in muscle which includes the activation...

  8. Basal and exercise-induced neuroendocrine activation in patients with heart failure and in normal subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, Andreas; Appel, Jon; Hildebrandt, Per

    2004-01-01

    : Twenty-three newly-diagnosed CHF patients and 18 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects were exercised at two workloads, which were calculated to correspond to 50 and 75% of each individual's heart rate response. RESULTS: In CHF patients, baseline levels of ANP, BNP, AVP, PRA and ET-1 were elevated...... compared to healthy subjects. Exercise induced an increase in ANP, A and NA in both CHF patients and in normal subjects, however BNP was only increased in CHF patients and not in normal subjects. CONCLUSION: When CHF patients exercise at the same relative and submaximal level as age-matched healthy...... subjects, the relative increases in ANP, A and NA were similar, however, BNP levels only increased in the CHF group....

  9. Exercise-induced changes in circulating levels of transforming growth factor-beta-1 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Kjaer, Michael

    2003-01-01

    eight healthy resting subjects. Plasma was sampled from each subject on five successive days according to a procedure designed to minimize activation of platelets, as platelet alpha-granules contain large amounts of transforming growth factor-beta-1. The mean plasma level was relatively low [1155 (30......Mechanical loading of cells induces the expression of transforming growth factor-beta-1, and acute exercise, which involves mechanical loading of several tissues, could thus increase its circulating level in humans. However, no consensus exists regarding the plasma concentration of this cytokine...... in resting subjects (reported values range from 500 to 18,300 pg ml(-1)) and also the extent of intra-individual variation is unknown. As a basis for detecting exercise-induced changes in transforming growth factor-beta-1, we measured its concentration, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, in plasma from...

  10. The exercise-induced stress response of skeletal muscle, with specific emphasis on humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, James P; Kayani, Anna C; McArdle, Anne; Drust, Barry

    2009-01-01

    Skeletal muscle adapts to the stress of contractile activity via changes in gene expression to yield an increased content of a family of highly conserved cytoprotective proteins known as heat shock proteins (HSPs). These proteins function to maintain homeostasis, facilitate repair from injury and provide protection against future insults. The study of the exercise-induced production of HSPs in skeletal muscle is important for the exercise scientist as it may provide a valuable insight into the molecular mechanisms by which regular exercise can provide increased protection against related and non-related stressors. As molecular chaperones, HSPs are also fundamental in facilitating the cellular remodelling processes inherent to the training response. Whilst the exercise-induced stress response of rodent skeletal muscle is relatively well characterized, data from humans are more infrequent and less insightful. Data indicate that acute endurance- and resistance-type exercise protocols increase the muscle content of ubiquitin, alphaB-crystallin, HSP27, HSP60, HSC70 and HSP70. Although increased HSP transcription occurs during exercise, immediately post-exercise or several hours following exercise, time-course studies using western blotting techniques have typically demonstrated a significant increase in protein content is only detectable within 1-2 days following the exercise stress. However, comparison amongst studies is complicated by variations in exercise protocol (mode, intensity, duration, damaging, non-damaging), muscle group examined, predominant HSP measured and, perhaps most importantly, differences in subject characteristics both within and between studies (training status, recent activity levels, nutritional status, age, sex, etc.). Following 'non-damaging' endurance-type activities (exercise that induces no overt structural and functional damage to the muscle), the stress response is thought to be mediated by redox signalling (transient and reversible

  11. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis - Kasuistik med hydrolyseret valleprotein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Junker Christensen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Formål / Introduktion: Patienter med Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis (FDEIA) eller løbershock kan udvikle livstruende allergiske reaktioner (anafylaksi), når de kombinere fysisk anstrengelse med samtidig indtagelse af et normalt tolereret fødeemne - oftest hvede. Hydrolysering af...... selv tager sin Epipen kl 19:40. Kort herefter ankommer patientens fader med ny Epipen som dog ikke anvendes. Udredningsmæssigt findes der efterfølgende normal s-IgE for komælk, og s-tryptase, positiv SPT for komælk samt negative SPT for kogt mælk, rå/kogt yoghurt naturel, rå/kogt ost, kokosmælk, hvede...

  12. Exercise-related respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in industrial bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Jordan B; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka D; Vasilevska, Kristin V; Stoleski, Saso B; Mijakoski, Dragan G

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess prevalence and characteristics of exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in industrial bakery, the authors performed a cross-sectional study including 57 bakers and an equal number of office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire, skin prick tests to common inhalant and occupational allergens, spirometry, and exercise and histamine challenge. The authors found a similar prevalence of ERRS and EIB in both bakers and controls. EIB was significantly associated with atopy, asthma, family history of asthma, and positive histamine challenge in either group, whereas in bakers it was closely related to sensitization to occupational allergens (p = .032). Bronchial reaction to exercise was significantly higher in bakers with EIB (25.7% vs 19.2%; p = .021). These findings suggest that occupational exposure in industrial bakery may accentuate bronchoconstrictive response to exercise.

  13. Exercise-induced left bundle branch block: an infrequent phenomenon: Report of two cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Salah AM; Bultje-Peters, Marisa; Nijhuis, Rogier LG

    2013-01-01

    Exercise-induced left bundle branch block (EI-LBBB) is infrequent phenomenon. We present two patients with angina pectoris who developed EI-LBBB during exercise tolerance test. The first patient with typical angina pectoris had significant obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) requiring percutaneous coronary intervention of multiple lesions including placement of drug eluting stents. The second patient had atypical chest pain without signs of CAD at all. EI-LBBB occurred at a heart rate of 80 bpm and 141 bpm in the first and second patient, respectively. EI-LBBB remained visible through the test till the recovery period in the first patient at a heart rate of 83 bpm and disappeared at 96 bpm in the second patient. Both patients with this infrequent phenomenon are discussed and the literature is reviewed. PMID:24109500

  14. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-fold; P trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1a transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator...

  15. A Study To Assess The Prevalence Of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction In Inter-County Hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hunt, EB

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) is an acute, transient airway narrowing occurring after exercise which may impact athletic performance. Studies report 10% of the general population and up to 90% of asthmatics experience EIB. Ninety-two players from three elite hurling squads underwent a spirometric field-based provocation test with real-time heart rate monitoring and lactate measurements to ensure adequate exertion. Players with a new diagnosis of EIB and those with a negative field-test but with a previous label of EIB or asthma underwent further reversibility testing and if negative, methacholine challenge. Eight (8.7%) of players had EIB, with one further athlete having asthma with a negative field test. Interestingly, only three out of 12 players who had previously been physician-labelled with EIB or asthma had their diagnosis objectively confirmed. Our study highlights the role of objective testing in EIB.

  16. Prevention of exercised induced cardiomyopathy following Pip-PMO treatment in dystrophic mdx mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, Corinne A; Saleh, Amer F; Carr, Carolyn A; Hammond, Suzan M; Coenen-Stass, Anna M L; Godfrey, Caroline; McClorey, Graham; Varela, Miguel A; Roberts, Thomas C; Clarke, Kieran; Gait, Michael J; Wood, Matthew J A

    2015-03-11

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a fatal neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in the Dmd gene. In addition to skeletal muscle wasting, DMD patients develop cardiomyopathy, which significantly contributes to mortality. Antisense oligonucleotides (AOs) are a promising DMD therapy, restoring functional dystrophin protein by exon skipping. However, a major limitation with current AOs is the absence of dystrophin correction in heart. Pip peptide-AOs demonstrate high activity in cardiac muscle. To determine their therapeutic value, dystrophic mdx mice were subject to forced exercise to model the DMD cardiac phenotype. Repeated peptide-AO treatments resulted in high levels of cardiac dystrophin protein, which prevented the exercised induced progression of cardiomyopathy, normalising heart size as well as stabilising other cardiac parameters. Treated mice also exhibited significantly reduced cardiac fibrosis and improved sarcolemmal integrity. This work demonstrates that high levels of cardiac dystrophin restored by Pip peptide-AOs prevents further deterioration of cardiomyopathy and pathology following exercise in dystrophic DMD mice.

  17. Validity and reliability of grade scoring in the diagnosis of exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Hull, James H; Hvedstrup, Jeppe

    2017-01-01

    The current gold-standard method for diagnosing exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO) is continuous laryngoscopy during exercise (CLE), with severity classified by a visual grade scoring system. We evaluated the precision of this approach, by evaluating test-retest reliability of CLE...... and both inter- and intra-rater variability. In this prospective case-control study, subjects completed four consecutive treadmill CLE tests under identical conditions. Laryngoscopic video recordings were anonymised and graded by three expert raters. 2 months following initial scoring, videos were re......-randomised and rating repeated to assess intra-rater agreement. 20 subjects (16 cases and four controls) completed four CLE tests. The time to exhaustion increased by 30 s (95% CI 0.02-57.8, pidentical in the subsequent tests. Only one...

  18. Contribution of respiratory muscle blood flow to exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in trained cyclists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; Athanasopoulos, Dimitris; Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2008-01-01

    We investigated whether the greater degree of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue previously reported in highly trained athletes in hypoxia (compared with normoxia) could have a contribution from limited respiratory muscle blood flow. Seven trained cyclists completed three constant load 5 min...... normoxia and hypoxia, diaphragmatic fatigue is greater in hypoxia as intercostal muscle blood flow is not increased (compared with normoxia) to compensate for the reduction in PaO2, thus further compromising O(2) supply to the respiratory muscles....... exercise tests at inspired O(2) fractions (FIO2) of 0.13, 0.21 and 1.00 in balanced order. Work rates were selected to produce the same tidal volume, breathing frequency and respiratory muscle load at each FIO2 (63 +/- 1, 78 +/- 1 and 87 +/- 1% of normoxic maximal work rate, respectively). Intercostals...

  19. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (Ptrained...... after exercise at 85% of VO2 peak. Likewise, PDK4 and HKII mRNA expression were only increased (Ptrained subjects. HIF2alpha mRNA only increased (Ptrained, with no difference between the 70% and 85% of VO2 peak...

  20. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Arterial Hypoxemia in Distance Runners at Sea Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantini, Keren; Tanner, David A; Gavin, Timothy P; Harms, Craig A; Stager, Joel M; Chapman, Robert F

    2017-05-01

    It has been reported that ~50% of endurance-trained men demonstrate exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH) during heavy exercise. However, this often-cited prevalence rate comes from a single study using a cohort of 25 highly trained men who completed maximal cycle ergometry. As arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2) during maximal exercise is reported to be significantly lower during treadmill versus cycle ergometry in the same subjects, we hypothesized that the prevalence of EIAH would be greater than previously reported (and commonly referenced) in a larger cohort of highly endurance-trained men during maximal treadmill running. Data from 124 highly trained male distance runners (V˙O2max range = 60.3-84.7 mL·kg·min) were retrospectively examined from previously published studies completed in the Indiana University Human Performance Laboratory. Subjects completed a constant speed, progressive-grade treadmill exercise test to volitional exhaustion, and arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2ear) in all subjects was estimated using the same oximeter (Hewlett Packard 47201A). Using similar inclusion criteria as previously published for highly trained (V˙O2max > 68 mL·kg·min) and for EIAH (SaO2ear ≤ 91%), 55 of 79 subjects (70%) exhibited exercise-induced arterial desaturation. Across all 124 subjects, 104 (84%) demonstrated at least moderate EIAH (SaO2ear ≤ 93%) during maximal treadmill exercise. SaO2ear was significantly yet weakly correlated with V˙E/V˙O2 (P < 0.01, r = 0.28) and V˙E/V˙CO2 (P < 0.001, r = 0.33) but not with V˙O2max. These results indicate that the prevalence of EIAH in highly trained men during maximal treadmill exercise at sea level is greater compared with previously suggested data, with exercise mode perhaps playing a factor in the number of athletes who experience EIAH.

  1. The Guardian of the Genome p53 Regulates Exercise-Induced Mitochondrial Plasticity Beyond Organelle Biogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smiles, William J; Camera, Donny M

    2017-11-27

    The Guardian of the Genome p53 has been established as a potent tumor suppressor. However, culminating from seminal findings in rodents more than a decade ago, several studies have demonstrated that p53 is required to maintain basal mitochondrial function [i.e., respiration and reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis]. Specifically, via its role(s) as a tumor suppressor, p53 intimately surveys cellular DNA damage, in particular mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), to ensure that the mitochondrial network is carefully monitored and cell viability is upheld, since aberrant mtDNA damage leads to apoptosis and widespread cellular perturbations. Indeed, data from rodents and humans have demonstrated that p53 forms an integral component of the exercise-induced signal transduction network regulating skeletal muscle mitochondrial remodeling. In response to exercise-induced disruptions to cellular homeostasis that have the potential to harm mtDNA (e.g., contraction-stimulated ROS emissions), appropriate p53-regulated, mitochondrial turnover responses prevail to protect the genome and ultimately facilitate a shift from aerobic glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation; adaptations critical for endurance-based exercise that are commensurate with p53's role as a tumor suppressor. Despite these observations, several discrepancies exist between rodent and human studies pinpointing p53 subcellular trafficking from nuclear to mitochondrial compartments following acute exercise. Such interspecies differences in p53 activity and the plausible p53-mediated adaptions to chronic exercise training will be discussed herein. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Exercise-induced albuminuria and circadian blood pressure abnormalities in type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tankeu, Aurel T; Kaze, François Folefack; Noubiap, Jean Jacques; Chelo, David; Dehayem, Mesmin Yefou; Sobngwi, Eugene

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate the relationship between circadian variations in blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria at rest, and during exercise in non-hypertensive type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients. METHODS We conducted a cross-sectional study in well controlled T2D patients, non-hypertensive, without clinical proteinuria and normal creatinine clearance. In each participant, we recorded the BP using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) for 24-h, and albuminuria at rest and after a standardized treadmill exercise. RESULTS We enrolled 27 type 2 patients with a median age of 52; and a mean duration of diabetes and HbA1c of 3.6 ± 0.8 years and 6.3% ± 0.5% respectively. Using a 24-h ABPM, we recorded a mean diurnal systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 128 ± 17 mmHg vs nocturnal of 123 ± 19 mmHg (P = 0.004), and mean diurnal diastolic blood pressure (DBP) of 83 ± 11 mmHg vs nocturnal 78 ± 14 mmHg (P = 0.002). There was a significant difference between albuminuria at rest [median = 23 mg, interquartile range (IQR) = 10-51] and after exercise (median = 35 mg, IQR = 23-80, P albuminuria had an increase in nocturnal BP values on all three components (128 mmHg vs 110 mmHg, P = 0.03 for SBP; 83 mmHg vs 66 mmHg, P = 0.04; 106 vs 83, P = 0.02 for mean arterial pressure), as well as albuminuric patients at rest. Moreover, exercise induced albuminuria detect a less increase in nocturnal DBP (83 vs 86, P = 0.03) than resting albuminuria. CONCLUSION Exercise induced albuminuria is associated with an increase in nocturnal BP values in T2D patients. PMID:28729969

  3. Effects of Massage on Muscular Strength and Proprioception After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Mal-Soon; Sung, Yun-Hee

    2015-08-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), which is commonly associated with eccentric exercise, unaccustomed exercise, and resistance training, may lead to delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, decreased muscle strength, and range of motion. Many researchers have evaluated various interventions to treat the signs and symptoms of EIMD. However, the effects of massage after EIMD are unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of massage on muscle strength and proprioception after EIMD. All subjects randomly were divided into an EIMD-treated control group (n = 10) and a massage-treated after EIMD experimental group (n = 11). Exercise-induced muscle damage was induced by repeated exercise. Massage treatment was provided by physiotherapist for 15 minutes. It consists of light stroking, milking, friction, and skin rolling. Lactate was evaluated by Lactate Pro analyzer in pre- and postexercise. Surface electromyography (muscle activity) and sonography (muscle thickness) were used to confirm the muscular characteristics. Proprioception was investigated by dual inclinometer. As a result, massage treatment on the gastrocnemius after EIMD increased activation of the medial gastrocnemius during contraction (p ≤ 0.05). In the lateral and medial gastrocnemius, the θs, which is the angle between muscle fibers and superficial aponeurosis, showed a significant change (p ≤ 0.05). However, there are no differences in the θd, which is the angle between muscle fibers and deep aponeurosis. We also found that proprioceptive acuity in the ankle joint was significantly greater in the massage-treated experimental group compared with that in the control group (p ≤ 0.05). These findings suggest that massage of the gastrocnemius after EIMD can improve muscle strength and proprioception by influencing the superficial layer of the gastrocnemius.

  4. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK) Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Valero, Marjorie; Lara, Beatriz; Salinero, Juan José; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC) of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A) of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1%) were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9%) were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30) and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21) and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29). However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03) and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05) than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts.

  5. Exercise-induced release of cytokines in patients with major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallberg, Ludvig; Janelidze, Shorena; Engstrom, Gunnar; Wisén, Anita G M; Westrin, Asa; Brundin, Lena

    2010-10-01

    Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) may display elevated plasma levels of pro-inflammatory substances. Although the underlying mechanisms are unknown, inflammation has been proposed to play a direct role in the generation of depressive symptoms. Skeletal muscle is a potent producer of cytokines, and physical exercise has been suggested to alleviate symptoms of depression. In this study we therefore addressed the question of whether MDD patients display altered levels of pro-, anti-inflammatory and regulatory factors in the blood in response to acute exercise. Eighteen MDD patients and 18 healthy controls performed a maximal-workload exercise challenge. Blood samples were taken before the test, at sub-maximal and maximal workload, as well as 30 and 60 min after testing. The plasma levels of SAA, TNF-alpha, S-VCAM, S-ICAM, CRP, IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-13 were assayed using multiplex sandwich ELISA. Exercise-induced significant changes in the plasma levels of inflammatory substances in both MDD patients and controls. IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-alpha increased, and IL-4 decreased during the challenge in both groups. In addition, IFN-gamma decreased in the controls. There was a significant difference in IL-6 reactivity between the groups at the sub-max timepoint. Group sizes are comparably limited. Exercise induces changes in the blood levels of cytokines in unmedicated MDD patients. Whether these changes affect symptoms of depression should be evaluated in long-term studies of the anti-depressive effects of exercise. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Exercise-induced bronchospasm among healthy elite cross country skiers and non-athletic students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohjantähti, H; Laitinen, J; Parkkari, J

    2005-10-01

    Regular exercise in cold, dry air is believed to be a predisposing factor for exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). The aim of this study was to compare the occurrence of EIB among previously healthy elite cross country skiers and their non-athletic control subjects. Twenty healthy elite cross country skiers and 18 non-asthmatic controls were challenged by a standardized free exercise test. Thereafter, subjects' respiratory function was followed by flow-volume spirometry up to 30 min. EIB was defined in the post-exercise spirometry as at least one of the following: a >or=10% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), a >or=20% decrease in mean maximal expiratory flow (MMEF) or a >or=25% decrease in peak expiratory flow rate (PEF). EIB was found in two skiers and one control according to FEV1, for seven skiers and two controls according to MMEF. Two skiers and one control had exercise-induced asthma (EIA) according to both parameters. The largest decrease in PEF was 13%, that did not result in additional diagnoses. All nine of the subjects with a positive test result reported asthma-like symptoms (dyspnea, cough or increased mucus excretion) after the exercise challenge. Accordingly, seven previously healthy skiers (35%) and two controls (11%) were diagnosed as having EIB. In addition, three skiers of the original cohort were excluded because of an earlier asthma diagnosis, making the total asthma prevalence 10/23 (42%) among the elite skiers. It was concluded that EIB is more common in elite cross country skiers than in non-athletic controls. The bronchoconstriction induced by exercise is usually mild or moderate, and flow-volume spirometry with sensitive flow parameters is needed for it to be diagnosed. Even a mild asthma decreases minute ventilation and maximal performance of winter sport athletes. Therefore, skiers with long-term respiratory symptoms or decreased performance should be studied for EIA and treated adequately.

  7. Flavanol-rich cocoa consumption enhances exercise-induced executive function improvements in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Ishibashi, Aya; Takenaka, Saki; Tanaka, Daichi; Hirano, Yoshitaka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Goto, Kazushige; Ebi, Kumiko; Isaka, Tadao; Hashimoto, Takeshi

    2018-02-01

    Aerobic exercise is known to acutely improve cognitive functions, such as executive function (EF) and memory function (MF). Additionally, consumption of flavanol-rich cocoa has been reported to acutely improve cognitive function. The aim of this study was to determine whether high cocoa flavanol (CF; HCF) consumption would enhance exercise-induced improvement in cognitive function. To test this hypothesis, we examined the combined effects of HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise on EF and MF during postexercise recovery. Ten healthy young men received either an HCF (563 mg of CF) or energy-matched low CF (LCF; 38 mg of CF) beverage 70 min before exercise in a single-blind counterbalanced manner. The men then performed moderate-intensity cycling exercise at 60% of peak oxygen uptake for 30 min. The participants performed a color-word Stroop task and face-name matching task to evaluate EF and MF, respectively, during six time periods throughout the experimental session. EF significantly improved immediately after exercise compared with before exercise in both conditions. However, EF was higher after HCF consumption than after LCF consumption during all time periods because HCF consumption improved EF before exercise. In contrast, HCF consumption and moderate-intensity exercise did not improve MF throughout the experiment. The present findings demonstrated that HCF consumption before moderate-intensity exercise could enhance exercise-induced improvement in EF, but not in MF. Therefore, we suggest that the combination of HCF consumption and aerobic exercise may be beneficial for improving EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A semiquantitative scoring tool to evaluate eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in trained rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rizo-Roca

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Unaccustomed eccentric exercise is a well-documented cause of exercise-induced muscle damage. However, in trained subjects muscle injury involves only light or moderate tissue damage. Since trained rats are widely used as a model for skeletal muscle injury, here we propose a semiquantitative scoring tool to evaluate muscle damage in trained rats. Twenty male Sprague-Dawley rats were trained fortwo weeks following a two-week preconditioning period, and randomly divided into two groups: control rats (CTL; n=5 and rats with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (INJ; n=15. Injured rats were sacrificed at three time points: 1, 3 and 7 days post injury (n=5 each. Transverse sections from the right soleus were cut (10 µm and stained with haematoxylin-eosin. Samples were evaluated by two groups of observers (four researchers experienced in skeletal muscle histopathology and four inexperienced using the proposed tool, which consisted of six items organised in three domains: abnormal fibre morphology, necrotic/(redegenerating fibres (muscle fibre domain, endomysial and perimysial infiltration (inflammatory state domain and endomysium and perimysium distension (interstitial compartment domain. We observed the expected time course in the six evaluated items. Furthermore, agreement among observers was evaluated by measuring the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC. Within the experienced group, items from the muscle fibre and interstitial compartment domains showed good agreement and the two items from the infiltration compartment domain showed excellent agreement. in conclusion, the proposed tool allowed quick and correct evaluation of light to moderate muscle damage in trained rats with good agreement between observers.

  9. Physical activity levels determine exercise-induced changes in brain excitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulic, Tea; El-Sayes, Jenin; Fassett, Hunter J; Nelson, Aimee J

    2017-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that regular physical activity can impact cortical function and facilitate plasticity. In the present study, we examined how physical activity levels influence corticospinal excitability and intracortical circuitry in motor cortex following a single session of moderate intensity aerobic exercise. We aimed to determine whether exercise-induced short-term plasticity differed between high versus low physically active individuals. Participants included twenty-eight young, healthy adults divided into two equal groups based on physical activity level determined by the International Physical Activity Questionnaire: low-to-moderate (LOW) and high (HIGH) physical activity. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to assess motor cortex excitability via motor evoked potential (MEP) recruitment curves for the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle at rest (MEPREST) and during tonic contraction (MEPACTIVE), short-interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (SICF), and intracortical facilitation (ICF). All dependent measures were obtained in the resting FDI muscle, with the exception of AMT and MEPACTIVE recruitment curves that were obtained during tonic FDI contraction. Dependent measures were acquired before and following moderate intensity aerobic exercise (20 mins, ~60% of the age-predicted maximal heart rate) performed on a recumbent cycle ergometer. Results indicate that MEPREST recruitment curve amplitudes and area under the recruitment curve (AURC) were increased following exercise in the HIGH group only (p = 0.002 and p = 0.044, respectively). SICI and ICF were reduced following exercise irrespective of physical activity level (p = 0.007 and p = 0.04, respectively). MEPACTIVE recruitment curves and SICF were unaltered by exercise. These findings indicate that the propensity for exercise-induced plasticity is different in high versus low physically active individuals. Additionally, these data highlight that a single session of

  10. Increased pain sensitivity but normal function of exercise induced analgesia in hip and knee osteoarthritis - treatment effects of neuromuscular exercise and total joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kosek, E; Roos, Ewa M.; Ageberg, E

    2013-01-01

    To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters.......To assess exercise induced analgesia (EIA) and pain sensitivity in hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) and to study the effects of neuromuscular exercise and surgery on these parameters....

  11. Alleviating exercise-induced muscular stress using neat and processed bee pollen: oxidative markers, mitochondrial enzymes, and myostatin expression in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Ketkar

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The study establishes the antioxidant, mitochondrial upregulatory, and myostatin inhibitory effects of both MIMBP and PMIMBP in exercise-induced oxidative stress conditions, suggesting their usefulness in effective management of exercise-induced muscular stress. Further, processing of MIMBP with an edible lipid-surfactant mixture was found to improve the therapeutic efficiency of pollen.

  12. Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shovlin, Claire L

    2014-12-01

    Within the past decade, pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs) have evolved from rare curiosities to not uncommon clinical states, with the latest estimates suggesting a prevalence of ~1 in 2,600. PAVMs provide anatomic right-to-left shunts, allowing systemic venous blood to bypass gas exchange and pulmonary capillary bed processing. Hypoxemia and enhanced ventilatory demands result, although both are usually asymptomatic. Paradoxical emboli lead to strokes and cerebral abscesses, and these commonly occur in individuals with previously undiagnosed PAVMs. PAVM hemorrhage is rare but is the main cause of maternal death in pregnancy. PAVM occlusion by embolization is the standard of care to reduce these risks. However, recent data demonstrate that currently recommended management protocols can result in levels of radiation exposure that would be classified as harmful. Recent publications also provide a better appreciation of the hematologic and cardiovascular demands required to maintain arterial oxygen content and oxygen consumption in hypoxemic patients, identify patient subgroups at higher risk of complications, and emphasize the proportion of radiologically visible PAVMs too small to treat by embolization. This review, therefore, outlines medical states that exacerbate the consequences of PAVMs. Chief among these is iron deficiency, which is commonly present due to concurrent hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia: iron deficiency impairs hypoxemia compensations by restricting erythropoiesis and increases the risk of ischemic strokes. Management of periodontal disease, dental interventions, pulmonary hypertension, and pregnancy also requires specific consideration in the setting of PAVMs. The review concludes by discussing to what extent previously recommended protocols may benefit from modification or revision.

  13. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 is an exercise-induced hepatokine in humans, regulated by glucagon and cAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodil Ingerslev

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: The data suggest that exercise-induced ANGPTL4 is secreted from the liver and driven by a glucagon-cAMP-PKA pathway in humans. These findings link the liver, insulin/glucagon, and lipid metabolism together, which could implicate a role of ANGPTL4 in metabolic diseases.

  14. Prevalence of exercise-induced left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in symptomatic patients with non-obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shah, J S

    2008-10-01

    Resting left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO) occurs in 25% of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and is an important cause of symptoms and disease progression. The prevalence and clinical significance of exercise induced LVOTO in patients with symptomatic non-obstructive HCM is uncertain.

  15. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veltmeijer, M.T.W.; Veeneman, D.; Bongers, C.C.W.G.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated

  16. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis to chickpea in a 17-year-old female: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Hannah; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2015-09-03

    Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a subtype of anaphylaxis and, although rare, it is an important condition to be familiar with as it can ultimately lead to death. We present a case of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis in a 17-year-old white girl due to chickpea. She had a history of anaphylaxis after eating crackers and hummus before exercising. Skin prick testing and serum-specific immunoglobulin E level confirmed chickpea to be the causative allergen. This case demonstrates the challenge in identifying specific causative food allergens when foods are eaten in combination, when the food is processed, and when cross-reactivity is possible. These challenges add complexity to a condition that is already rare and unfamiliar to some health care providers. We hope that this case will serve as an important reminder that although rare, food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis exists and making a diagnosis can lead to life-saving preventative strategies. As legumes are not a common food associated with food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis, this will add to our current knowledge base in the field of allergy.

  17. Relation between exercise-induced hypertension and sustained hypertension in adult patients after successful repair of aortic coarctation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriend, Joris W. J.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Romkes, Hans H.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Veen, Gerrit; Tijssen, Jan G. P.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To investigate whether exercise-induced hypertension in successfully repaired adult post-coarctectomy patients is associated with hypertension on 24-h blood pressure measurement and increased left ventricular mass. Methods One hundred and forty-four consecutive postcoarctectomy patients

  18. Exercise-induced liver chemokine CXCL-1 expression is linked to muscle-derived interleukin-6 expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hansen, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    interleukin-6 (IL-6) and muscle IL-6 mRNA. In contrast, exercise-induced regulation of liver CXCL-1 mRNA expression was completely blunted in IL-6 knockout mice. Based on these findings, we examined the possible existence of a muscle-to-liver axis by overexpressing IL-6 in muscles. This resulted in increases...

  19. The effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue on shooting accuracy and cognitive performance in infantry soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nibbeling, Nicky; Oudejans, Raôul R D; Ubink, Emiel M; Daanen, Hein A M

    2014-01-01

    Operational performance in military settings involves physical and mental skills that are generally investigated separately in lab settings, leading to reduced ecological validity. Therefore, we investigated the effects of anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue, separately and in combination, on cognitive and shooting performance of 22 soldiers in a real-world setting. Findings indicated that soldiers' shooting accuracy and decision-making and mathematical skills decreased significantly under anxiety. Whether exercise-induced fatigue was beneficial or detrimental to task performance depended on the task at hand. The increased arousal levels through exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating in the decision task. In contrast, cognitive performance suffered from the increased arousal: participants more often failed to shoot when being fired at by an opponent and also math performance seemed to decrease. We conclude that anxiety can deteriorate soldier performance and that exercise-induced fatigue may improve or deteriorate performance in combination with anxiety depending on the nature of the task. Soldiers encounter anxiety and exercise-induced fatigue. We investigated to what degree these factors influence soldiers' shooting and cognitive performance. Experimental manipulation of anxiety and exercise during a representative field course indicated decreased performance under anxiety. Exercise prevented shooting accuracy from deteriorating under anxiety, although cognitive performance was negatively affected after exercise.

  20. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...

  1. Accuracy of exercise-induced left axis QRS deviation as a specific marker of left anterior descending coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiran, A; Halon, D A; Merdler, A; Makhoul, N; Khader, N; Ben-David, J; Lewis, B S

    1998-05-01

    In this prospective study, we examined the diagnostic accuracy of exercise-induced left QRS axis deviation as a marker of LAD coronary artery stenosis. The mean frontal QRS axis of 66 consecutive patients with chest pain and exercise-induced ST segment depression referred for diagnostic coronary angiography was analyzed and related to the angiographic findings. An exercise-induced leftward QRS axis deviation was found in 9/40 patients with and 0/26 patients without obstructive (> or = 70%) LAD disease (sensitivity 23%, specificity 100%, p = 0.025). In 7 of the 9 patients with left axis deviation, the lesion was proximal to and in 2 in the region of the first septal perforator. Inclusion of patients with 0 degrees exercise-induced QRS axis deviation provided a more sensitive but less specific marker of LAD disease [sensitivity 53% (21/40), specificity 81% (21/26), p = 0.015]. The findings were similar in patients with single and with multivessel coronary artery disease. Grouping all patients in the present prospective and two previous retrospective studies (n = 165), the sensitivity was 29% and specificity 100% (p left QRS axis deviation was a highly specific marker of LAD coronary artery stenosis.

  2. Left ventricular deformation at rest predicts exercise-induced elevation in pulmonary artery wedge pressure in patients with unexplained dyspnoea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, Tor; Santos, Mário; Rivero, Jose

    2017-01-01

    referred for evaluation of dyspnoea. All patients underwent rest echocardiography followed by right heart catheterization and cardiopulmonary exercise testing with concomitant invasive haemodynamic monitoring. The LS, CS and CS/LS ratio were measured by two-dimensional speckle-tracking echocardiography...

  3. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batts, William N.; Winton, James R.

    2012-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) is one of the most important viral diseases of finfish worldwide. In the past, VHS was thought to affect mainly rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reared at freshwater facilities in Western Europe where it was known by various names including Egtved disease and infectious kidney swelling and liver degeneration (Wolf 1988). Today, VHS is known as an important source of mortality for cultured and wild fish in freshwater and marine environments in several regions of the northern hemisphere (Dixon 1999; Gagné et al. 2007; Kim and Faisal 2011; Lumsden et al. 2007; Marty et al. 1998, 2003; Meyers and Winton 1995; Skall et al. 2005b; Smail 1999; Takano et al. 2001). Viral hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by the fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), a member of the genus Novirhabdovirus of the family Rhabdoviridae

  4. Blunting of exercise-induced salivary testosterone in elite-level triathletes with a 10-day training camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hough, John; Robertson, Caroline; Gleeson, Michael

    2015-10-01

    This study examined the influence of 10 days of intensified training on salivary cortisol and testosterone responses to 30-min, high-intensity cycling (55/80) in a group of male elite triathletes. Seven elite male triathletes (age 19 ± 1 y, VO2max 67.6 ± 4.5 mL · kg-1 · min-1) completed the study. Swim distances increased by 45%. Running and cycling training hours increased by 25% and 229%, respectively. REST-Q questionnaires assessed mood status before, during, and after the training period. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected before, after, and 30 min after a continuous, high-intensity exercise test. Salivary cortisol and testosterone concentrations were assessed. Compared with pretraining, blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone responses to the posttraining 55/80 were found (P = .004). The absolute response of salivary testosterone concentrations to the 55/80 decreased pretraining to posttraining from 114% to 85%. No changes were found in exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration responses to the 55/80. REST-Q scores indicated no changes in the participants' psychological stress-recovery levels over the training camp. The blunted exercise-induced salivary testosterone is likely due to decreased testicular testosterone production and/or secretion, possibly attributable to hypothalamic dysfunction or reduced testicular blood flow. REST-Q scores suggest that the triathletes coped well with training-load elevations, which could account for the finding of no change in the exercise-induced salivary cortisol concentration. Overall, these findings suggest that the 55/80 can detect altered exercise-induced salivary testosterone concentrations in an elite athletic population due to increased training stress. However, this alteration occurs independently of a perceived elevation of training stress.

  5. Postpartum hemorrhage: a continuing challenge

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lockhart, Evelyn

    2015-01-01

    .... Many postpartum hemorrhages (PPHs) do not have identifiable risk factors; maternity units should therefore have obstetric hemorrhageprotocols in place for all parturients as every pregnancy has the potential to be complicated by hemorrhage...

  6. Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever (Marburg HF)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Submit Search the CDC Marburg hemorrhagic fever (Marburg HF) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported ... Fever (VHF) Information for Specific Groups, References... Marburg HF Outbreak Distribution Map Factsheet: Marburg Hemorrhagic Fever [PDF – ...

  7. Ebola hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Mark W

    2014-01-01

    Ebola hemorrhagic fever is an often-fatal disease caused by a virus of the Filoviridae family, genus Ebolavirus. Initial signs and symptoms of the disease are nonspecific, often progressing on to a severe hemorrhagic illness. Special Operations Forces Medical Providers should be aware of this disease, which occurs in sporadic outbreaks throughout Africa. Treatment at the present time is mainly supportive. Special care should be taken to prevent contact with bodily fluids of those infected, which can transmit the virus to caregivers. 2014.

  8. Mechanisms of hemorrhagic cystitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haldar, Subhash; Dru, Christopher; Bhowmick, Neil A

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of cases of infectious cystitis are easily treated, and most patients have no long-term complications. However, hemorrhagic cystitis is a potentially deadly complication associated with pelvic radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and stem-cell transplant therapy. The focus of current understanding, and hence therapy, is directed toward urothelial cell death. However, the primary functional ramification of inflammatory bladder disease is the loss of compliance due to muscular expansion. Recent studies on smooth muscle response in models of bladder inflammation demonstrate a process of pyroptotic cell death that potentiates further muscle hyperplasia. These findings may support alternative interventions for subjects with hemorrhagic cystitis refractive to current therapy. PMID:25374922

  9. Pulmonary Aspects of Exercise and Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Alfred A

    2016-01-01

    Although the lungs are a critical component of exercise performance, their response to exercise and other environmental stresses is often overlooked when evaluating pulmonary performance during high workloads. Exercise can produce capillary leakage, particularly when left atrial pressure increases related to left ventricular (LV) systolic or diastolic failure. Diastolic LV dysfunction that results in elevated left atrial pressure during exercise is particularly likely to result in pulmonary edema and capillary hemorrhage. Data from race horses, endurance athletes, and triathletes support the concept that the lungs can react to exercise and immersion stress with pulmonary edema and pulmonary hemorrhage. Immersion in water by swimmers and divers can also increase stress on pulmonary capillaries and result in pulmonary edema. Swimming-induced pulmonary edema and immersion pulmonary edema in scuba divers are well-documented events caused by the fluid shifts that occur with immersion, elevated pulmonary venous pressure during extreme exercise, and negative alveolar pressure due to inhalation resistance. Prevention strategies include avoiding extreme exercise, avoiding over hydration, and assuring that inspiratory resistance is minimized.

  10. Non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bashir, Asma; Mikkelsen, Ronni; Sørensen, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Repeat imaging in patients with non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (NASAH) remains controversial. We aim to report our experience with NASAH with different hemorrhage patterns, and to investigate the need for further diagnostic workup to determine the underlying cause of hemorrhage. M...

  11. Early extracorporeal life support as rescue for Wegener granulomatosis with diffuse alveolar hemorrhage and acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Mark; Charles, Anthony G

    2011-12-01

    The study's objective was to report a case and review the literature on the use of extracorporeal life support in the face of severe pulmonary hemorrhage for acute respiratory distress syndrome. This study is a single case report of a pediatric patient who was successfully managed on venovenous extracorporeal life support for severe acute respiratory distress syndrome with acute pulmonary hemorrhage secondary to Wegener disease. Extracorporeal life support can be used successfully in selected patients with respiratory failure with pulmonary hemorrhage. The cautious use of anticoagulation should be balanced with the risk of bleeding, mindful of the need for other measures to mitigate severe bleeding if this should occur.

  12. Pulmonary tuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    TB; Tuberculosis - pulmonary; Mycobacterium - pulmonary ... Pulmonary TB is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M tuberculosis) . TB is contagious. This means the bacteria is easily spread from an infected person ...

  13. Magnesium in subarachnoid hemorrhage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergh, W.M. (Walter Marcel) van den

    2004-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis was to determine the role of serum magnesium in the pathophysiology after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and to assess the effect of magnesium treatment in reducing cerebral ischemia in experimental SAH and in improving clinical outcome in patients with

  14. Exercise-induced mobilisation of endothelial progenitor cells in patients with premature coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierski, Maciej; Wojakowski, Wojciech; Michalewska-Włudarczyk, Aleksandra; Podolecka, Ewa; Kotowski, Maciej; Machaliński, Bogusław; Tendera, Michał

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) derive from bone marrow and participate in both endothelial regeneration and development of new blood vessels. EPC also play a role in the atherosclerotic process, and their number correlates negatively with the presence of classical risk factors. To evaluate circulating EPC count and their exercise-induced mobilisation in patients with premature coronary artery disease (CAD). The study group included 60 patients with stable CAD diagnosed before 45 years of age. The control group consisted of 33 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers. Venous blood was sampled 3 times in order to assess circulating EPC count immediately before an exercise test (EPC 0) and at 15 min (EPC 15) and 60 min (EPC 60) after the exercise test. Circulating EPC count in the study group at rest and at 15 min after exercise was comparable (2.1 vs. 2.1 cell/μL, p = 0.35) and increased significantly at 60 min after exercise in comparison to resting values (2.1 vs. 3.2 cell/μL, p group, circulating EPC count increased significantly at 15 min after exercise (2.0 vs. 3.5 cell/μL, p exercise, although it remained greater than at rest (2.7 vs. 2.0 cell/μL, p exercise was comparable in the two groups (2.1 vs. 2.0 cell/μL, p = 0.96; and 3.2 vs. 2.7 cell/μL, p = 0.13, respectively) but it was significantly lower in the study group compared to the control group at 15 min after exercise (2.1 vs. 3.5 cell/μL, p exercise did not correlate with the number of stenosed coronary arteries but at 60 min after exercise it was greater in patients with one-vessel disease compared to those with two- or three-vessel disease (4.2 vs. 3.4 cell/μL, p = 0.01; and 4.2 vs. 2.3 cell/μL, p = 0.00003). However, no difference in circulating EPC count was seen at 60 min after exercise between patients with two- or three-vessel disease (3.4 vs. 2.3 cell/μL, p = 0.3). 1. Circulating EPC count at rest is comparable between subjects with premature atherosclerosis and healthy volunteers

  15. Myosin Light Chain Kinase (MLCK Gene Influences Exercise Induced Muscle Damage during a Competitive Marathon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK phosphorylates the regulatory light chain (RLC of myosin producing increases in force development during skeletal muscle contraction. It has been suggested that MLCK gene polymorphisms might alter RLC phosphorylation thereby decreasing the ability to produce force and to resist strain during voluntary muscle contractions. Thus, the genetic variations in the MLCK gene might predispose some individuals to higher values of muscle damage during exercise, especially during endurance competitions. The aim of this investigation was to determine the influence of MLCK genetic variants on exercise-induced muscle damage produced during a marathon. Sixty-seven experienced runners competed in a marathon race. The MLCK genotype (C37885A of these marathoners was determined. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to assess changes in serum myoglobin concentrations and leg muscle power changes were measured during a countermovement jump. Self-reported leg muscle pain and fatigue were determined by questionnaires. A total of 59 marathoners (88.1% were CC homozygotes and 8 marathoners (11.9% were CA heterozygotes. The two groups of participants completed the race with a similar time (228 ± 33 vs 234 ± 39 min; P = 0.30 and similar self-reported values for fatigue (15 ± 2 vs 16 ± 2 A.U.; P = 0.21 and lower-limb muscle pain (6.2 ± 1.7 vs 6.6 ± 1.8 cm; P = 0.29. However, CC marathoners presented higher serum myoglobin concentrations (739 ± 792 vs 348 ± 144 μg·mL-1; P = 0.03 and greater pre-to-post- race leg muscle power reduction (-32.7 ± 15.7 vs -21.2 ± 21.6%; P = 0.05 than CA marathoners. CA heterozygotes for MLCK C37885A might present higher exercise-induced muscle damage after a marathon competition than CC counterparts.

  16. Exercise-induced changes in left ventricular global longitudinal strain in asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Agnieszka K; Dobrowolski, Piotr P; Klisiewicz, Anna; Hoffman, Piotr

    2017-01-01

    The management of patients with asymptomatic severe aortic stenosis (ASAS) is still under discussion. Therefore, it is advisable to search for the parameters of early damage to left ventricular (LV) function. The aim of the study was to assess exercise-induced changes in LV global longitudinal strain (GLS) in ASAS. The ASAS group consisted of 50 patients (26 women and 24 men, aged 38.4 ± 18.1 years) meeting the echocardiographic criteria of severe aortic stenosis (AVA 4 m/s, mean aortic gradient > 40 mm Hg), with normal LV ejection fraction (LVEF ≥ 55%) and sinus rhythm on electrocardiogram, and without significant concomitant valvular heart diseases. The control group consisted of 21 people matched for age and sex. Echocardiographic examinations and echocardiographic stress tests with the assessment of GLS using the speckle tracking imaging were performed. The ASAS group was characterised by statistically significantly higher LV mass index (LVMI) and higher LVEF. GLS values at rest in both groups were within normal limits but were significantly higher in the control group (-18.9 ± 2.4% vs. -20.7 ± 1.7%, p = 0.006). An increase in GLS at peak exercise in both groups was observed, lower in the ASAS group (the difference was not statistically significant: -0.8 ± 3.0% vs. -2.2 ± 3.1%, p = 0.086). Changes in GLS during exercise (ΔGLS) did not correlate with the parameters of the severity of aortic stenosis. In the multivariate model, LVMI proved to be a factor associated with GLS at rest and during exercise. In patients with ASAS, GLS is a non-invasive marker of an early stage of LV myocardial damage associated with myocardial hypertrophy. An increase in GLS during exercise in the ASAS group, smaller than in the control group, indicates a preserved functional reserve of the LV myocardium but smaller than in healthy individuals. The assessment of the clinical usefulness of exercise-induced changes in GLS requires further research.

  17. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delecroix, Barthélémy; Abaïdia, Abd Elbasset; Leduc, Cédric; Dawson, Brian; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition) or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES) = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%): -2.17 to -0.06), the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80) and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32) in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98). This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline) in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W) in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W) (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86). However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  18. Effects of macro- and micronutrients on exercise-induced hepcidin response in highly trained endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Stellingwerff, Trent; Dieter, Brad P; McKenzie, Donald C; Koehle, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    Iron deficiency has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise-induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by upregulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micronutrients on blunting exercise-induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postexercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the postexercise hepcidin response. Ten highly trained male cyclists (age: 26.9 ± 6.4 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 67.4 ± 4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1 completed 4 cycling sessions in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, triple-crossover study. Experimental days consisted of an 8-min warm-up at 50% power output at maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 8 × 3-min intervals at 85% power output at maximal oxygen uptake with 1.5 min at 60% power output at maximal oxygen uptake between each interval. Blood samples were collected pre- and postexercise, and at 3 h postexercise. Three different drinks consisting of CHO (75 g) and protein (25 g) with (VPRO) or without (PRO) vitamins D3 (5000 IU) and K2 (1000 μg), or a zero-calorie control drink (PLA) were consumed immediately after the postexercise blood sample. Results showed that the postexercise drinks had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on any biomarker measured. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in hepcidin and interleukin-6 following intense cycling intervals in the participants. Hepcidin increased significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline (nmol·L-1: 9.94 ± 8.93, 14.18 ± 14.90, 10.44 ± 14.62) to 3 h postexercise (nmol·L-1: 22.27 ± 13.41, 25.44 ± 11.91, 22.57 ± 15.57) in VPRO, PRO, and PLA, respectively. Contrary to our hypothesis, the drink compositions used did not blunt the postexercise hepcidin response in highly trained athletes.

  19. Optimizing Cold-Water Immersion for Exercise-Induced Hyperthermia: An Evidence-Based Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nye, Emma A; Edler, Jessica R; Eberman, Lindsey E; Games, Kenneth E

    2016-06-02

    Reference: Zhang Y, Davis JK, Casa DJ, Bishop PA. Optimizing cold water immersion for exercise-induced hyperthermia: a meta-analysis. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015;47(11):2464-2472. Clinical Questions: Do optimal procedures exist for implementing cold-water immersion (CWI) that yields high cooling rates for hyperthermic individuals? One reviewer performed a literature search using PubMed and Web of Science. Search phrases were cold water immersion, forearm immersion, ice bath, ice water immersion, immersion, AND cooling. Studies were included based on the following criteria: (1) English language, (2) full-length articles published in peer-reviewed journals, (3) healthy adults subjected to exercise-induced hyperthermia, and (4) reporting of core temperature as 1 outcome measure. A total of 19 studies were analyzed. Pre-immersion core temperature, immersion water temperature, ambient temperature, immersion duration, and immersion level were coded a priori for extraction. Data originally reported in graphical form were digitally converted to numeric values. Mean differences comparing the cooling rates of CWI with passive recovery, standard deviation of change from baseline core temperature, and within-subjects r were extracted. Two independent reviewers used the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale to assess the risk of bias. Cold-water immersion increased the cooling rate by 0.03°C/min (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.03, 0.04°C/min) compared with passive recovery. Cooling rates were more effective when the pre-immersion core temperature was ≥38.6°C (P = .023), immersion water temperature was ≤10°C (P = .036), ambient temperature was ≥20°C (P = .013), or immersion duration was ≤10 minutes (P < .001). Cooling rates for torso and limb immersion (mean difference = 0.04°C/min, 95% CI = 0.03, 0.06°C/min) were higher (P = .028) than those for forearm and hand immersion (mean difference = 0.01°C/min, 95% CI = -0.01, 0.04°C/min). Hyperthermic

  20. Curcumin and Piperine Supplementation and Recovery Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barthélémy Delecroix, Abd Elbasset Abaïdia, Cédric Leduc, Brian Dawson, Grégory Dupont

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of oral consumption of curcumin and piperine in combination on the recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Forty-eight hours before and following exercise-induced muscle damage, ten elite rugby players consumed curcumin and piperine (experimental condition or placebo. A randomized cross-over design was performed. Concentric and isometric peak torque for the knee extensors, one leg 6 seconds sprint performance on a non-motorized treadmill, counter movement jump performance, blood creatine kinase concentration and muscle soreness were assessed immediately after exercise, then at 24h, 48h and 72h post-exercise. There were moderate to large effects of the exercise on the concentric peak torque for the knee extensors (Effect size (ES = -1.12; Confidence interval at 90% (CI90%: -2.17 to -0.06, the one leg 6 seconds sprint performance (ES=-1.65; CI90% = -2.51to -0.80 and the counter movement jump performance (ES = -0.56; CI90% = -0.81 to -0.32 in the 48h following the exercise. There was also a large effect of the exercise on the creatine kinase level 72h after the exercise in the control group (ES = 3.61; CI90%: 0.24 to 6.98. This decrease in muscle function and this elevation in creatine kinase indicate that the exercise implemented was efficient to induce muscle damage. Twenty four hours post-exercise, the reduction (from baseline in sprint mean power output was moderately lower in the experimental condition (-1.77 ± 7.25%; 1277 ± 153W in comparison with the placebo condition (-13.6 ± 13.0%; 1130 ± 241W (Effect Size = -1.12; Confidence Interval 90%=-1.86 to -0.86. However, no other effect was found between the two conditions. Curcumin and piperine supplementation before and after exercise can attenuate some, but not all, aspects of muscle damage.

  1. Dysfunctional breathing and reaching one’s physiological limit as causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everard, Mark L.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Excessive exercise-induced shortness of breath is a common complaint. For some, exercise-induced bronchoconstriction is the primary cause and for a small minority there may be an alternative organic pathology. However for many, the cause will be simply reaching their physiological limit or be due to a functional form of dysfunctional breathing, neither of which require drug therapy. The physiological limit category includes deconditioned individuals, such as those who have been through intensive care and require rehabilitation, as well as the unfit and the fit competitive athlete who has reached their limit with both of these latter groups requiring explanation and advice. Dysfunctional breathing is an umbrella term for an alteration in the normal biomechanical patterns of breathing that result in intermittent or chronic symptoms, which may be respiratory and/or nonrespiratory. This alteration may be due to structural causes or, much more commonly, be functional as exemplified by thoracic pattern disordered breathing (PDB) and extrathoracic paradoxical vocal fold motion disorder (pVFMD). Careful history and examination together with spirometry may identify those likely to have PDB and/or pVFMD. Where there is doubt about aetiology, cardiopulmonary exercise testing may be required to identify the deconditioned, unfit or fit individual reaching their physiological limit and PDB, while continuous laryngoscopy during exercise is increasingly becoming the benchmark for assessing extrathoracic causes. Accurate assessment and diagnosis can prevent excessive use of drug therapy and result in effective management of the cause of the individual’s complaint through cost-effective approaches such as reassurance, advice, breathing retraining and vocal exercises. This review provides an overview of the spectrum of conditions that can present as exercise-­induced breathlessness experienced by young subjects participating in sport and aims to promote understanding of

  2. Cyclin D2 is a critical mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckey, Stephen W; Haines, Chris D; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Messmer-Kratzsch, Antke; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2017-12-01

    A number of signaling pathways underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy have been identified. However, few studies have probed the functional significance of these signaling pathways in the context of exercise or physiological pathways. Exercise studies were performed on females from six different genetic mouse models that have been shown to exhibit alterations in pathological cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy. These include mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3βS9A), an inhibitor of CaMK II (AC3-I), both GSK-3βS9A and AC3-I (GSK-3βS9A/AC3-I), constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), mice deficient in MAPK/ERK kinase kinase-1 (MEKK1 -/- ), and mice deficient in cyclin D2 (cyclin D2 -/- ). Voluntary wheel running performance was similar to NTG littermates for five of the mouse lines. Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2 -/- mice. Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2 -/- mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2 -/- mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. Impact statement This research is relevant as the hypertrophic signaling pathways tested here have only been characterized for their role in pathological hypertrophy, and not in the context of exercise or physiological hypertrophy. By using the same transgenic mouse lines utilized in previous studies, our findings provide a novel and important understanding for the role of these signaling pathways in physiological hypertrophy. We found that alterations in the signaling pathways tested here had no impact on exercise performance. Exercise

  3. Injury Pattern and Mortality of Noncompressible Torso Hemorrhage in UK Combat Casualties

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    injury to the liver, kidney, or spleen) or pelvic fracture with ring disruption. Patients with ongoing hemorrhage were identified using either a...of a named axial vessel or vessels within the pulmonary parenchyma of the chest, the solid organs of the abdomen, or those of the boney pelvis .8 This...Grade 4 or greater solid-organ injury (liver, kidney, or spleen), or pelvic fracture associated with ring disruption and hemorrhage. Named torso vessel

  4. Radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alesawi, Anwar M; El-Hakim, Assaad; Zorn, Kevin C; Saad, Fred

    2014-09-01

    To better understand the mechanism of radiation-induced hemorrhagic cystitis and the advantages and disadvantages of available treatment options for bladder hemorrhage as well as preventive measures. There have been several attempts recently to manage hemorrhagic cystitis with hyperbaric oxygen therapy, transurethral coagulation using Greenlight potassium-titanyl-phosphate laser and other different treatment modalities, but we still need more investigation on larger cohort studies. Hemorrhagic cystitis is an uncommon urological problem. It is most often caused by radiation therapy and cyclophosphamide, but can be associated with other contributing factors. Technological advances in radiation therapy have resulted in greater treatment efficacy, with significant reduction in side-effects such as hemorrhagic cystitis. Higher dose radiation treatment, however, is more often associated with problematic hemorrhagic cystitis. Treatment of hemorrhagic cystitis is multifactorial and can range from simple bladder irrigation to cystectomy with urinary diversion.

  5. Hemorrhagic colitis as a presenting feature of Wegener granulomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Qi; Cornell, Lynn; Chandan, Vishal; Hartman, Robert; Caples, Sean

    2010-12-01

    Wegener granulomatosis (WG) is an idiopathic small vessel vasculitis involving primarily airway and kidneys. Intestinal involvement of WG is rare and usually occurs after several years of WG and its treatment. We report a case of WG, presented initially as rapid-onset hemorrhagic pancolitis without any preexisting or concurrent illness or any medication use. A 79-year-old previously healthy woman presented with 2-day duration of bloody diarrhea. Colonoscopy showed pancolitis with numerous ulcers; the biopsy showed foci of inflammation, ulceration and hemorrhage in the lamina propria, without features of chronic inflammatory bowel disease. Her stool studies were negative for infection. She subsequently developed pulmonary hemorrhage and kidney dysfunction. Kidney biopsy showed pauci-immune necrotizing glomerulonephritis. She responded to a combination therapy of steroids, cyclophosphamide and plasmapheresis with resolution of intestinal and pulmonary symptoms and improvement of kidney function. This case represents the first known example of colitis as an initial presentation of WG without confounding etiologic factors. Hemorrhagic colitis, although uncommon, may be the major presenting feature of WG.

  6. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Relieves Intractable Angina Due to Exercise-Induced Left Bundle Branch Block Without Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction: A Detailed Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czuriga, Daniel; Lim, Pitt O

    2016-05-01

    Exercise-induced left bundle branch block is rare and can be demonstrated with exercise testing. When the heart rate reaches a certain threshold, the QRS widens into left bundle branch block. This paper describes a patient with exercise-induced left bundle branch block related angina and dyspnea, who responded to cardiac resynchronization therapy. We documented the potential benefits of cardiac resynchronization therapy with a left ventricular rapid pacing study prior to its implantation. Although exercise-induced left bundle branch block is not a current indication for cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients such as ours, it could be considered when conventional drug therapy fails. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. The Role of Exercise-Induced Myokines in Muscle Homeostasis and the Defense against Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claus Brandt

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, atherosclerosis, neurodegeneration, and tumour growth. Regular exercise offers protection against type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, colon cancer, breast cancer, and dementia. Evidence suggests that the protective effect of exercise may to some extent be ascribed to the antiinflammatory effect of regular exercise. Here we suggest that exercise may exert its anti-inflammatory effect via a reduction in visceral fat mass and/or by induction of an anti-inflammatory environment with each bout of exercise. According to our theory, such effects may in part be mediated via muscle-derived peptides, so-called “myokines”. Contracting skeletal muscles release myokines with endocrine effects, mediating direct anti-inflammatory effects, and/or specific effects on visceral fat. Other myokines work locally within the muscle and exert their effects on signalling pathways involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake. By mediating anti-inflammatory effects in the muscle itself, myokines may also counteract TNF-driven insulin resistance. In conclusion, exercise-induced myokines appear to be involved in mediating both systemic as well as local anti-inflammatory effects.

  8. Detection and characterization of exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD) via thermography and image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avdelidis, N. P.; Kappatos, V.; Georgoulas, G.; Karvelis, P.; Deli, C. K.; Theodorakeas, P.; Giakas, G.; Tsiokanos, A.; Koui, M.; Jamurtas, A. Z.

    2017-04-01

    Exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD), is usually experienced in i) humans who have been physically inactive for prolonged periods of time and then begin with sudden training trials and ii) athletes who train over their normal limits. EIMD is not so easy to be detected and quantified, by means of commonly measurement tools and methods. Thermography has been used successfully as a research detection tool in medicine for the last 6 decades but very limited work has been reported on EIMD area. The main purpose of this research is to assess and characterize EIMD, using thermography and image processing techniques. The first step towards that goal is to develop a reliable segmentation technique to isolate the region of interest (ROI). A semi-automatic image processing software was designed and regions of the left and right leg based on superpixels were segmented. The image is segmented into a number of regions and the user is able to intervene providing the regions which belong to each of the two legs. In order to validate the image processing software, an extensive experimental investigation was carried out, acquiring thermographic images of the rectus femoris muscle before, immediately post and 24, 48 and 72 hours after an acute bout of eccentric exercise (5 sets of 15 maximum repetitions), on males and females (20-30 year-old). Results indicate that the semi-automated approach provides an excellent bench-mark that can be used as a clinical reliable tool.

  9. Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis Sensitized with Hydrolyzed Wheat Protein in Soap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuko Chinuki

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP, has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  10. Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis sensitized with hydrolyzed wheat protein in soap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinuki, Yuko; Morita, Eishin

    2012-12-01

    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a specific form of wheat allergy typically induced by exercise after ingestion of wheat products. Wheat ω-5 gliadin is a major allergen associated with conventional WDEIA, and detection of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) specific to recombinant ω-5 gliadin is a reliable method for its diagnosis. Recently, an increased incidence of a new subtype of WDEIA, which is likely to be sensitized via a percutaneous and/or rhinoconjunctival route to hydrolyzed wheat protein (HWP), has been observed. All of the patients with this new subtype had used the same brand of soap, which contained HWP. Approximately half of these patients developed contact allergy several months later and subsequently developed WDEIA. In each of these patients, contact allergy with soap exposure preceded food ingestion-induced reactions. Other patients directly developed generalized symptoms upon ingestion of wheat products. The predominant observed symptom of the new WDEIA subtype was angioedema of the eyelids; a number of patients developed anaphylaxis. This new subtype of WDEIA has little serum ω-5 gliadin-specific serum IgE.

  11. Ammonium Chloride Ingestion Attenuates Exercise-Induced mRNA Levels in Human Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann Edge

    Full Text Available Minimizing the decrease in intracellular pH during high-intensity exercise training promotes greater improvements in mitochondrial respiration. This raises the intriguing hypothesis that pH may affect the exercise-induced transcription of genes that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis. Eight males performed 10x2-min cycle intervals at 80% VO2speak intensity on two occasions separated by ~2 weeks. Participants ingested either ammonium chloride (ACID or calcium carbonate (PLA the day before and on the day of the exercise trial in a randomized, counterbalanced order, using a crossover design. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before and after exercise. The mRNA level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor co-activator 1α (PGC-1α, citrate synthase, cytochome c and FOXO1 was elevated at rest following ACID (P0.05; the difference in PGC-1α mRNA content 2 h post-exercise between ACID and PLA was not significant (P = 0.08. Thus, metabolic acidosis abolished the early post-exercise increase of PGC-1α mRNA and the mRNA of downstream mitochondrial and glucose-regulating proteins. These findings indicate that metabolic acidosis may affect mitochondrial biogenesis, with divergent responses in resting and post-exercise skeletal muscle.

  12. The relationship between exercise-induced oxidative stress and the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Mi Hyun; Maehata, Eisuke; Adachi, Tetsuo; Ishida, Akiko; Murai, Fumie; Mesaki, Noboru

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between exercise-induced oxidative stress and the menstrual cycle in healthy sedentary woman. Eighteen women with regular menstrual cycles participated in this research. The subjects monitored their basal body temperature (BBT) and carried out a urinary ovulation test (twice) for 2 months prior to the study to determine their menstrual cycle. The subjects performed bicycle ergometer exercise (for 30 min at 60% V(.)>O(2max)) in each phase (menses, follicular and luteal phases) of the menstrual cycle. Serum estradiol and progesterone concentrations were determined from blood that was collected at rest. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (EC-SOD) were determined as markers of oxidative stress in blood samples collected at rest and after exercise. TBARS was significantly lower after exercise [2.4 (0.5) nmol/ml] in the follicular phase, and T-SOD was significantly lower after exercise [3.2 (1.2) U/ml] in the luteal phase. EC-SOD did not show a significant change after exercise during each phase of the menstrual cycle. Furthermore, there was a negative correlation between estradiol and DeltaT-SOD ( r=-0.46, Pmenstrual cycle, free radicals produced as a consequence of exercise may be easily eliminated by sedentary women with normal menstrual cycles.

  13. Does exercise-induced muscle damage play a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2012-05-01

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) occurs primarily from the performance of unaccustomed exercise, and its severity is modulated by the type, intensity, and duration of training. Although concentric and isometric actions contribute to EIMD, the greatest damage to muscle tissue is seen with eccentric exercise, where muscles are forcibly lengthened. Damage can be specific to just a few macromolecules of tissue or result in large tears in the sarcolemma, basal lamina, and supportive connective tissue, and inducing injury to contractile elements and the cytoskeleton. Although EIMD can have detrimental short-term effects on markers of performance and pain, it has been hypothesized that the associated skeletal muscle inflammation and increased protein turnover are necessary for long-term hypertrophic adaptations. A theoretical basis for this belief has been proposed, whereby the structural changes associated with EIMD influence gene expression, resulting in a strengthening of the tissue and thus protection of the muscle against further injury. Other researchers, however, have questioned this hypothesis, noting that hypertrophy can occur in the relative absence of muscle damage. Therefore, the purpose of this article will be twofold: (a) to extensively review the literature and attempt to determine what, if any, role EIMD plays in promoting skeletal muscle hypertrophy and (b) to make applicable recommendations for resistance training program design.

  14. Reducing exercise-induced muscular injury in kendo athletes with supplementation of coenzyme Q10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kon, Michihiro; Tanabe, Kai; Akimoto, Takayuki; Kimura, Fuminori; Tanimura, Yuko; Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Tadashi; Kono, Ichiro

    2008-10-01

    Intensive physical exercise may cause muscular injury and increase oxidative stress. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an antioxidant, coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), on muscular injury and oxidative stress during exercise training. Eighteen male students, all elite Japanese kendo athletes, were randomly assigned to either a CoQ10 group (n 10) or a placebo group (n 8) in a double-blind manner. Subjects in the CoQ10 group took 300 mg CoQ10 per d for 20 d, while subjects in the placebo group took the same dosage of a placebo. All subjects practised kendo 5.5 h per d for 6 d during the experimental period. Blood samples were taken 2 weeks before, during (1 d, 3 d, 5 d) and 1 week after the training. Serum creatine kinase (CK) activity and myoglobin (Mb) concentration significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum CK (at 3 d), Mb (at 3 d) and lipid peroxide (at 3 d and 5 d) of the CoQ10 group were lower than those of the placebo group. The leucocyte counts in the placebo group significantly increased (at 3 d) and neutrophils significantly increased in both groups (at 3 d and 5 d). Serum scavenging activity against superoxide anion did not change in either group. These results indicate that CoQ10 supplementation reduced exercise-induced muscular injury in athletes.

  15. Hyperpolarized Helium-3 MRI of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction during challenge and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Stanley J; Niles, David J; Dardzinski, Bernard; Harman, Amy; Jarjour, Nizar N; Ruddy, Marcella; Nagle, Scott K; Francois, Christopher J; Sorkness, Ronald L; Burton, Ryan M; Munoz del Rio, Alejandro; Fain, Sean B

    2014-05-01

    To investigate the utility of hyperpolarized He-3 MRI for detecting regional lung ventilated volume (VV) changes in response to exercise challenge and leukotriene inhibitor montelukast, human subjects with exercise induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) were recruited. This condition is described by airway constriction following exercise leading to reduced forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) coinciding with ventilation defects on hyperpolarized He-3 MRI. Thirteen EIB subjects underwent spirometry and He-3 MRI at baseline, postexercise, and postrecovery at multiple visits. On one visit montelukast was given and on two visits placebo was given. Regional VV was calculated in the apical/basilar dimension, in the anterior/posterior dimension, and for the entire lung volume. The whole lung VV was used as an end-point and compared with spirometry. Postchallenge FEV1 dropped with placebo but not with treatment, while postchallenge VV dropped more with placebo than treatment. Sources of variability for VV included region (anterior/posterior), scan, and treatment. VV correlated with FEV1/ forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC and showed gravitational dependence after exercise challenge. A paradigm testing the response of ventilation to montelukast revealed both a whole-lung and regional response to exercise challenge and therapy in EIB subjects. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Role of ghrelin in exhaustive exercise- induced oxidative stress in rat Brain and liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen Samir

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercise increases oxygen consumption and causes disturbance of intracellular pro-oxidant–antioxidant homeostasis. Ghrelin has been reported to possess free radical scavenging and antioxidant effect. in this study we aim to evaluate the beneficial effect of ghrelin on the oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme systems in brain cortex and liver of rats after exhaustive swimming exercise. Sprague- Dawley rats (50 were subdivided into 3 main groups: control, exercise, exercise and ghrelin (50,100,200 ng group. Animals in the two exercise groups swam for 5 days/week for 4 weeks. stress induced a decrease in the level of GSH and the activities of SOD, GST and catalase, while the levels of TBARS were found elevated. Ghrelin groups’ animals, especially G3 subgroup, have higher SOD, CAT, GSH and GST activity which reflect higher antioxidant enzyme activity and can be attributed to lower rates of oxidative stress which can be proved by reduced level of TBARS. The results of the study provides evidence that ghrelin pretreatment even in low dose reduces the level of lipid peroxidation and enhances the antioxidant defense against exercise-induced stress oxidative injury in rats’ vital organs like brain and liver.

  17. Syndecan-4 Signaling Is Required for Exercise-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jun; He, Guixin; Chen, Qinhua; Sun, Jiayin; Dai, Qin; Lu, Jianrong; Li, Guannan; Wu, Han; Li, Ran; Chen, Jianzhou; Xu, Wei; Xu, Biao

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy can be broadly classified as either physiological or pathological. Physiological stimuli such as exercise cause adaptive cardiac hypertrophy and normal heart function. Pathological stimuli including hypertension and aortic valvular stenosis cause maladaptive cardiac remodeling and ultimately heart failure. Syndecan-4 (synd4) is a transmembrane proteoglycan identified as being involved in cardiac adaptation after injury, but whether it takes part in physiological cardiac hypertrophy is unclear. We observed upregulation of synd4 in exercise-induced hypertrophic myocardium. To evaluate the role of synd4 in the physiological form of cardiac hypertrophy, mice lacking synd4 (synd4–/–) were exercised by swimming for 4 wks. Ultrasonic cardiogram (UCG) and histological analysis revealed that swimming induced the hypertrophic phenotype but was blunted in synd4–/– compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The swimming-induced activation of Akt, a key molecule in physiological hypertrophy was also more decreased than in WT controls. In cultured cardiomyocytes, synd4 overexpression could induce cell enlargement, protein synthesis and distinct physiological molecular alternation. Akt activation also was observed in synd4-overexpressed cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) prevented the synd4-induced hypertrophic phenotype and Akt phosphorylation. This study identified an essential role of synd4 in mediation of physiological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:26835698

  18. Increased releasability of skin mast cells after exercise in patients with exercise-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Inseon S; Koh, Youngil I; Chung, Se-Woong; Lim, Ho

    2004-10-01

    The role of lung mast cells in exercise-induced asthma (EIA) is controversial. To investigate whether the skin mast cell releasability is increased after exercise in EIA, 49 young atopic men with or without asthma took part in a free-running test for 6 min and were given skin prick tests using morphine, a mast cell secretagogue, before and after the exercise. The mean diameters of the wheal induced by morphine in patients with EIA were not significantly different from those in patients without EIA before exercise, although the baseline lung function was significantly lower and the airway hyperresponsiveness, the peripheral blood eosinophil count, and the size of the wheal in response to Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus were significantly higher in patients with EIA. However, the differences of the morphine-induced wheal diameter between patients with EIA and those without EIA became significant at 120 min after exercise (presponses to histamine were not significantly different. These results suggest that exercise increases the releasability of skin mast cells in EIA patients whose asthma/allergy are relatively severe.

  19. Contribution of β-adrenergic receptors to exercise-induced bronchodilatation in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonelli, Andrea; Torchio, Roberto; Bertolaccini, Luca; Terzi, Alberto; Rolfo, Fabrizio; Agostoni, Piergiuseppe; Gulotta, Carlo; Brusasco, Vito; Pellegrino, Riccardo

    2012-10-15

    Exercise in healthy subjects is usually associated with progressive bronchodilatation. Though the decrease in vagal tone is deemed to be the main underlying mechanism, activation of bronchial β(2)-receptors may constitute an additional cause. To examine the contribution of β(2)-adrenergic receptors to bronchodilatation during exercise in healthy humans, we studied 15 healthy male volunteers during maximum exercise test at control conditions and after a non-selective β-adrenergic blocker (carvedilol 12.5mg twice a day until heart rate decreased at least by 10beats/min) and inhaled β(2)-agonist (albuterol 400μg). Airway caliber was estimated from the partial flow at 40% of control forced vital capacity (V˙(part40)) and its changes during exercise from the slope of linear regression analysis of V˙(part40) values against the corresponding minute ventilation during maximal exercise until exhaustion. At control, V˙(part40) increased progressively and significantly with exercise. After albuterol, resting V˙(part40) was significantly larger than at control increased but did not further increase during exercise. After carvedilol, V˙(part40) was similar to control but its increase with exercise was significantly attenuated. These findings suggest that β(2)-adrenergic system plays a major role in exercise-induced bronchodilation in healthy subjects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Carbohydrate-protein drinks do not enhance recovery from exercise-induced muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Michael S; Corona, Benjamin T; Doyle, J Andrew; Ingalls, Christopher P

    2008-02-01

    This study examined the effects of carbohydrate (CHO), carbohydrate-protein (CHO+PRO), or placebo (PLA) beverages on recovery from novel eccentric exercise. Female participants performed 30 min of downhill treadmill running (-12% grade, 8.0 mph), followed by consumption of a CHO, CHO+PRO, or PLA beverage immediately, 30, and 60 min after exercise. CHO and CHO+PRO groups (n=6 per group) consumed 1.2 g x kg body weight(-1) x hr(-1) CHO, with the CHO+PRO group consuming an additional 0.3 g x kg body weight(-1) x hr(-1) PRO. The PLA group (n=6) received an isovolumetric noncaloric beverage. Maximal isometric quadriceps strength (QUAD), lower extremity muscle soreness (SOR), and serum creatine kinase (CK) were assessed preinjury (PRE) and immediately and 1, 2, and 3 d postinjury to assess exercise-induced muscle injury and rate of recovery. There was no effect of treatment on recovery of QUAD (p= .21), SOR (p= .56), or CK (p= .59). In all groups, QUAD was reduced compared with PRE by 20.6%+/-1.5%, 17.2%+/-2.3%, and 11.3%+/-2.3% immediately, 1, and 2 d postinjury, respectively (pdrink.

  1. Hyperthermia, dehydration, and osmotic stress: unconventional sources of exercise-induced reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Michelle A; Clanton, Thomas L; Laitano, Orlando

    2016-01-15

    Evidence of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production is observed in the circulation during exercise in humans. This is exacerbated at elevated body temperatures and attenuated when normal exercise-induced body temperature elevations are suppressed. Why ROS production during exercise is temperature dependent is entirely unknown. This review covers the human exercise studies to date that provide evidence that oxidant and antioxidant changes observed in the blood during exercise are dependent on temperature and fluid balance. We then address possible mechanisms linking exercise with these variables that include shear stress, effects of hemoconcentration, and signaling pathways involving muscle osmoregulation. Since pathways of muscle osmoregulation are rarely discussed in this context, we provide a brief review of what is currently known and unknown about muscle osmoregulation and how it may be linked to oxidant production in exercise and hyperthermia. Both the circulation and the exercising muscle fibers become concentrated with osmolytes during exercise in the heat, resulting in a competition for available water across the muscle sarcolemma and other tissues. We conclude that though multiple mechanisms may be responsible for the changes in oxidant/antioxidant balance in the blood during exercise, a strong case can be made that a significant component of ROS produced during some forms of exercise reflect requirements of adapting to osmotic challenges, hyperthermia challenges, and loss of circulating fluid volume. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Topical cooling (icing) delays recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Ching-Yu; Lee, Jo-Ping; Tsai, Yung-Shen; Lee, Shin-Da; Kao, Chung-Lan; Liu, Te-Chih; Lai, Cheng- Hsiu; Harris, M Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-05-01

    It is generally thought that topical cooling can interfere with blood perfusion and may have positive effects on recovery from a traumatic challenge. This study examined the influence of topical cooling on muscle damage markers and hemodynamic changes during recovery from eccentric exercise. Eleven male subjects (age 20.2 ± 0.3 years) performed 6 sets of elbow extension at 85% maximum voluntary load and randomly assigned to topical cooling or sham groups during recovery in a randomized crossover fashion. Cold packs were applied to exercised muscle for 15 minutes at 0, 3, 24, 48, and 72 hours after exercise. The exercise significantly elevated circulating creatine kinase-MB isoform (CK-MB) and myoglobin levels. Unexpectedly, greater elevations in circulating CK-MB and myoglobin above the control level were noted in the cooling trial during 48-72 hours of the post-exercise recovery period. Subjective fatigue feeling was greater at 72 hours after topical cooling compared with controls. Removal of the cold pack also led to a protracted rebound in muscle hemoglobin concentration compared with controls. Measures of interleukin (IL)-8, IL-10, IL-1β, and muscle strength during recovery were not influenced by cooling. A peak shift in IL-12p70 was noted during recovery with topical cooling. These data suggest that topical cooling, a commonly used clinical intervention, seems to not improve but rather delay recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

  3. An exploration of exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and transfer effects to dietary self-control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Cassandra J; Kolev, Dimitar; Hall, Peter A

    2016-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine the effects of aerobic exercise on executive function, specifically inhibitory control, and the transfer to self-control in the dietary domain. It was hypothesized that exercise would enhance inhibitory control, and that this enhancement would facilitate self-control in a laboratory taste test paradigm. Using a crossover design, 51 participants completed counterbalanced sessions of both moderate exercise (experimental condition) and minimal effort walking (control condition) using a treadmill; the intersession interval was 7days. Prior to each exercise bout participants completed a Stroop task. Following each bout participants completed a second Stoop task, as well as a bogus taste test involving three appetitive calorie dense snack foods and two control foods; the amount of each food type consumed during the taste test was covertly measured. Results revealed that moderate exercise significantly improved performance on the Stroop task, and also reduced food consumption during the taste test for appetitive calorie dense snack foods; there was no exercise effect on control food consumption. Exercise-induced gains in Stroop performance mediated the effects of moderate exercise on appetitive snack food consumption. Together these findings provide evidence that a bout of a moderate aerobic exercise can enhance inhibitory control, and support for cross-domain transfer effects to dietary self-control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ibuprofen intake increases exercise time to exhaustion: A possible role for preventing exercise-induced fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, F D; Stamm, D N; Della Pace, I D; Ribeiro, L R; Rambo, L M; Bresciani, G; Ferreira, J; Rossato, M F; Silva, M A; Pereira, M E; Ineu, R P; Santos, A R; Bobinski, F; Fighera, M R; Royes, L F F

    2016-10-01

    Although the intake of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) intake by athletes prevents soreness, little is known concerning their role in exercise performance. This study assessed the effects of ibuprofen intake on an exhaustive protocol test after 6 weeks of swimming training in rats. Animals were divided into sedentary and training groups. After training, animals were subdivided into two subsets: saline or ibuprofen. Afterwards, three repeated swimming bouts were performed by the groups. Ibuprofen (15 mg/kg) was administered once a day. Pain measurements were performed and inflammatory and oxidative stress parameters were assayed in cerebral cortex and gastrocnemius muscle. Training, ibuprofen administration, or both combined (P exercise time to exhaustion. Training decreased the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity (P Fatigue elicited by this exhaustive protocol may involve disturbances of the central nervous system. Additive anti-inflammatory effects of exercise and ibuprofen intake support the hypothesis that this combination may constitute a more effective approach. In addition, ergogenic aids may be a useful means to prevent exercise-induced fatigue. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Massive insulin secretion in response to anaerobic exercise in exercise-induced hyperinsulinism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meissner, T; Friedmann, B; Okun, J G; Schwab, M A; Otonkoski, T; Bauer, T; Bärtsch, P; Mayatepek, E

    2005-11-01

    Exercise-induced hyperinsulinism (EIHI) is a recently described entity characterised by recurrent episodes of hypoglycaemia induced by physical exercise. The index patient for this disorder and a matched control were subjected to aerobic and anaerobic exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. Aerobic exercise was performed at an intensity of 60% of the respective 4 mmol/l lactate threshold (40 min). Anaerobic exercise with an intensity corresponding to 130% VO2max lead to exertion within 2-3 min and elicited comparable maximal lactate levels in both subjects (10-11 mmol/l). The patient experienced a massive increase in insulin from 34 to 649 mU/l after the anaerobic test, and a lower increase in insulin from 27 to 79 mU/l during the aerobic test. Insulin concentration remained unchanged during both tests in the control. Epinephrine increased in the EIHI patient, which was probably a counterregulatory response to hypoglycaemia. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase of the index patient in isolated leukocytes as well as the response to inhibition of oxamate was normal. The hypothesis of abnormal transport or metabolism of lactate/pyruvate in the beta-cells of patients with EIHI was further supported by the parallel increase of lactate and insulin in this study elicited in particular by anaerobic exercise.

  6. Exercise-induced transcription of the muscle glucose transporter (GLUT 4) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Paul S; Zheng, Donghai; Jones, Jared P; Olson, Ann Louise; Dohm, G Lynis

    2002-03-29

    We studied the effects of exercise on GLUT4 gene transcription in several lines of transgenic mice expressing the chloramphenicol acyltransferase (CAT) reporter gene, driven by various lengths of the human GLUT4 promoter (2400, 1600, 895, and 730 bp). In all transgenic lines examined, endogenous GLUT4 mRNA increased in response to exercise (19-90%, P < 0.05). Exercise increased CAT mRNA (51-83%, P < 0.05) in mice when the transgene was driven by at least 895 bp of the promoter but showed no effect in mice in which the transgene was driven by only 730 bp. These results suggest that the exercise-induced increase in the transcriptional activity of the human GLUT4 gene is mediated, at least in part, by element(s) within -895 bp of the promoter. These observations reveal a striking similarity to the time course and regional promoter requirements of AMPK-induced GLUT4 gene expression, providing further evidence that AMPK may be mediating the effects of exercise on GLUT4 expression. (c)2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  7. Whey protein hydrolysate supplementation accelerates recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-11-06

    A number of different forms of protein and their analogues have been investigated for their efficacy in ameliorating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) and recovery. Preliminary data regarding whey protein hydrolysate (WPH) supplementation are promising. However, its efficacy beyond acute eccentric/resistance exercise bouts or longer-term training programmes are limited and all investigations have been conducted in male or mixed-sex groups. This study sought to elucidate whether the benefits of WPH previously reported can be demonstrated in females following repeated-sprint exercise. Twenty physically active females were assigned to consume two doses of 70 ml WPH or isoenergetic carbohydrate (CHO) for 4 days post EIMD. Measures of muscle soreness, limb girth, flexibility, muscle function and creatine kinase were collected pre, immediately post, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Time effects were observed for all variables (p recovery in the WPH group compared to CHO (p = 0.016). Reductions in creatine kinase were greater following WPH compared to CHO at 48 h post EIMD (p = 0.031). The findings suggest that four day supplementation of WPH is beneficial for reducing symptoms of EIMD and improving recovery of muscle function in physically active females.

  8. Eucapnic Voluntary Hyperventilation to Detect Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in Cystic Fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirkby, Stephen E; Hayes, Don; Parsons, Jonathan P; Wisely, Clayton E; Kopp, Ben; McCoy, Karen S; Mastronarde, John G

    2015-10-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been well studied in cystic fibrosis (CF), and eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) testing has not been used as an objective assessment of EIB in CF to date. A prospective cohort pilot study was completed where standard EVH testing was completed by 10 CF patients with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) ≥70% of predicted. All patients also completed a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) with pre- and post-CPET spirometry as a comparative method of detecting EIB. No adverse events occurred with EVH testing. A total of 20% (2/10) patients were diagnosed with EIB by means of EVH. Both patients had clinical symptoms consistent with EIB. No patient had a CPET-based exercise challenge consistent with EIB. EVH testing was safe and effective in the objective assessment for EIB in patients with CF who had well-preserved lung function. It may be a more sensitive method of detecting EIB then exercise challenge.

  9. Effects Of Whole Body Vibration On Vertical Jump Performance Following Exercise Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole C. Dabbs

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Enhancing vertical jump performance is critical for many sports. Following high intensity training, individuals often experience exercise induced muscle damage (EIMD. Many recovery modalities have been tested with conflicting results. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effect of whole-body vibration (WBV on vertical jump performance following EIMD. 27 females volunteered for 7 sessions and were randomly assigned to a treatment or control group and administered each testing day. Vertical jump performance was assessed via vertical jump height (VJH, peak power output (PPO, rate of force development (RFD, relative ground reaction force (GRFz, and peak activation ratio of the vastus medialis (VM via electromyography (EMG before and after 3 days of EIMD via split squats. Two testing sets were collected each day, consisting of pre measures followed by WBV or control, and then post second measures. A 2x8 (group x time mixed factor analysis of variance (ANOVA was conducted for each variable. No significant interactions or group differences were found in any variable. Significant main effects for time were found in any variable, indicating performance declined following muscle damage. These results indicate that WBV does not aid in muscle recovery or vertical jump performance following EIMD.

  10. Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm by laboratory exercise challenge among Ragunan Sport School athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is a common condition among adolescent athletes. There has been no study examining the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes in Indonesia. This study aimed to get the prevalence of EIB among Ragunan Sport School athletes by laboratory exercise challenge. Subjects performed static cycle ergometer exercise (Monark, Sweden to reach minimal workload of 90% maximal heart rate. Force expiratory ventilation (FEV₁ was examined by spirometry (Minato AS-PAL, Japan at minute 0, 5, 10 and 20 post exercise. The EIB was defined as a decline of FEV₁ as much as 10% or more from baseline value. Room temperature and humidity were 28°C-31°C and 74%-82% respectively. There were 168 athletes from 12 sport types who participated in this study. Among them, 23 athletes (13.7% were EIB positive. The highest percentage of EIB was in taekwondo (54.5%. Sixteen athletes with EIB (70% were from less asthmogenic sports. Athletes with EIB consisted of 17 (17.5% females and 6 (8.4% males. In conclusion, the prevalence of EIB among adolescent athletes was moderately high, and was more prevalent in female. More over, laboratory exercise challenge could elicit EIB in less asthmogenic sport. (Med J Indones 2008; 17: 33-6Keywords: adolescent athlete, asthmogenic sports

  11. Acute exercise induces FGF21 expression in mice and in healthy humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kook Hwan Kim

    Full Text Available Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21 plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis during starvation and has an excellent therapeutic potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes in rodents and monkeys. Acute exercise affects glucose and lipid metabolism by increasing glucose uptake and lipolysis. However, it is not known whether acute exercise affects FGF21 expression. Here, we showed that serum FGF21 level is increased in mice after a single bout of acute exercise, and that this is accompanied by increased serum levels of free fatty acid, glycerol and ketone body. FGF21 gene expression was induced in the liver but not in skeletal muscle and white adipose tissue of mice after acute exercise, and further, the gene expression levels of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4 were also increased. In addition, we observed increased FGF21 level in serum of healthy male volunteers performing a treadmill run at 50 or 80% VO2max. These results suggest that FGF21 may also be associated with exercise-induced lipolysis in addition to increased catecholamines and reduced insulin.

  12. Could a vegetarian diet reduce exercise-induced oxidative stress? A review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, Denise; Knez, Wade; Sinclair, Wade

    2010-10-01

    Oxidative stress is a natural physiological process that describes an imbalance between free radical production and the ability of the antioxidant defence system of the body to neutralize free radicals. Free radicals can be beneficial as they may promote wound healing and contribute to a healthy immune response. However, free radicals can have a detrimental impact when they interfere with the regulation of apoptosis and thus play a role in the promotion of some cancers and conditions such as cardiovascular disease. Antioxidants are molecules that reduce the damage associated with oxidative stress by counteracting free radicals. Regular exercise is a vital component of a healthy lifestyle, although it can increase oxidative stress. As a typical vegetarian diet comprises a wide range of antioxidant-rich foods, it is plausible that the consumption of these foods will result in an enhanced antioxidant system capable of reducing exercise-induced oxidative stress. In addition, a relationship between a vegetarian diet and lower risks of cardiovascular disease and some cancers has been established. This review explores the current available evidence linking exercise, vegetarians, antioxidants, and oxidative stress.

  13. Attenuation of eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage conferred by maximal isometric contractions: a mini review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Coelho Rabello Lima

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Although beneficial in determined contexts, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD might be unwanted during training regimens, competitions and daily activities. There are a vast number of studies investigating strategies to attenuate EIMD response after damaging exercise bouts. Many of them consist of performing exercises that induce EIMD, consuming supplements or using equipment that are not accessible for most people. It appears that performing maximal isometric contractions (ISOs 2-4 days prior to damaging bouts promotes significant attenuation of EIMD symptoms that are not related to muscle function. It has been shown that the volume of ISOs, muscle length in which they are performed, and interval between them and the damaging bout influence the magnitude of this protection. Additionally, it appears that this protection is not long-lived, lasting no longer than 4 days. Although no particular mechanisms for these adaptations were identified, professionals should consider applying this non-damaging stimulus before submitting their patients to unaccustomed exercised. However, it seems not to be the best option for athletes or relatively trained individuals. Future studies should focus on establishing if ISOs protect other populations (i.e., trained individuals or muscle groups (i.e., knee extensors against EIMD, as well as investigate different mechanisms for ISO-induced protection.

  14. Insights into the molecular etiology of exercise-induced inflammation: opportunities for optimizing performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatouros IG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Ioannis G Fatouros, Athanasios Z Jamurtas School of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Karies, Trikala, Greece Abstract: The study of exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD is of paramount importance not only because it affects athletic performance but also because it is an excellent model to study the mechanisms governing muscle cachexia under various clinical conditions. Although, a large number of studies have investigated EIMD and its associated inflammatory response, several aspects of skeletal muscles responses remain unclear. In the first section of this article, the mechanisms of EIMD are reviewed in an attempt to follow the events that result in functional and structural alterations of skeletal muscle. In the second section, the inflammatory response associated with EIMD is presented with emphasis in leukocyte accumulation through mechanisms that are largely coordinated by pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines released either by injured muscle itself or other cells. The practical applications of EIMD and the subsequent inflammatory response are discussed with respect to athletic performance. Specifically, the mechanisms leading to performance deterioration and development of muscle soreness are discussed. Emphasis is given to the factors affecting individual responses to EIMD and the resulting interindividual variability to this phenomenon. Keywords: muscle damage, exercise, aseptic inflammation, recovery, immune system, redox status

  15. Conventional and novel body temperature measurement during rest and exercise induced hyperthermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towey, Colin; Easton, Chris; Simpson, Robert; Pedlar, Charles

    2017-01-01

    Despite technological advances in thermal sensory equipment, few core temperature (TCORE) measurement techniques have met the established validity criteria in exercise science. Additionally, there is debate as to what method serves as the most practically viable, yet upholds the proposed measurement accuracy. This study assessed the accuracy of current and novel TCORE measurement techniques in comparison to rectal temperature (TREC) as a reference standard. Fifteen well-trained subjects (11 male, 4 female) completed 60min of exercise at an intensity equating to the lactate threshold; measured via a discontinuous exercise test. TREC was significantly elevated from resting values (37.2±0.3°C) at the end of moderate intensity exercise (39.6±0.04°C; P=0.001). Intestinal telemetric pill (TPILL) temperature and temporal artery temperature (TTEM) did not differ significantly from TREC at rest or during exercise (P>0.05). However, aural canal temperature (TAUR) and thermal imaging temperature (TIMA) were both significantly lower than TREC (P0.27°C). Against TREC, these results support the use of TPILL over all other techniques as a valid measure of TCORE at rest and during exercise induced hyperthermia. Novel findings illustrate that TIMA (when measured at the inner eye canthus) shows poor agreement to TREC during rest and exercise, which is similar to other 'surface' measures. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Age affects exercise-induced improvements in heart rate response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciolac, E G; Roberts, C K; da Silva, J M Rodrigues; Guimarães, G V

    2014-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of age on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), muscle strength and heart rate (HR) response to exercise adaptation in women in response to a long-term twice-weekly combined aerobic and resistance exercise program. 85 sedentary women, divided into young (YG; n=22, 30.3 ± 6.2 years), early middle-aged (EMG; n=28, 44.1 ± 2.5 years), late middle-aged (LMG; n=20, 56.7 ± 3.5 years) and older (OG; n=15, 71.4 ± 6.9 years) groups, had their CRF, muscle strength (1-repetition maximum test) and HR response to exercise (graded exercise test) measured before and after 12 months of combined exercise training. Exercise training improved CRF and muscle strength in all age groups (Pdifferences were observed between groups. Exercise training also improved resting HR and recovery HR in YG and EMG (Pgroup. Combined aerobic and resistance training at a frequency of 2 days/week improves CRF and muscle strength throughout the lifespan. However, exercise-induced improvements in the HR recovery response to exercise may be impaired in late middle-aged and older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  18. Treadmill exercise induces age and protocol-dependent epigenetic changes in prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cechinel, Laura Reck; Basso, Carla Giovana; Bertoldi, Karine; Schallenberger, Bruna; de Meireles, Louisiana Carolina Ferreira; Siqueira, Ionara Rodrigues

    2016-10-15

    Some studies have linked age-related beneficial effects of exercise and epigenetic mechanisms. Although, the impact of treadmill exercise on histone acetylation, histone and DNA methylation marks in aged cortices yet remains poorly understood. Considering the role of frontal cortex on brain functions, we investigated the potential of different exercise protocols, single session and daily exercise, to modulate epigenetic marks, namely global H4 acetylation, histone methyltransferase activity (HMT H3K27) and levels of DNA methytransferase (DNMT1 and DNMT3b) in prefrontal cortices from 3 and 21-months aged Wistar rats. The animals were submitted to two treadmill exercise protocols, single session (20min) or daily moderate (20min/day during 14days). The daily exercise protocol induced an increased in histone H4 acetylation levels in prefrontal cortices of 21-months-old rats, without any effects in young adult group. DNMT3b levels were increased in aged cortices of animals submitted to single session of exercise. These results indicate that prefrontal cortex is susceptible to epigenetic changes in a protocol dependent-manner and that H4 acetylation levels and DNMT3b content changes might be linked at least in part to exercise-induced effects on brain functions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Vitamin D2 supplementation amplifies eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in NASCAR pit crew athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Gillitt, Nicholas D; Shanely, R Andrew; Dew, Dustin; Meaney, Mary Pat; Luo, Beibei

    2013-12-20

    This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day) had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD), and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS) in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n=13) and placebo (n=15), and ingested supplements (double-blind) for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test). Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OH)D2 456% and decreased 25(OH)D3 21% versus placebo (pNASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  20. Exercise-induced thallium-201 myocardial perfusion defects in angina pectoris without significant coronary artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakazato, Masayasu; Maruoka, Yuji; Sunagawa, Osahiko; Kinjo, Kunihiko; Tomori, Masayuki; Fukiyama, Koshiro (Ryukyu Univ., Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1990-01-01

    We performed exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in 32 patients with angina pectoris to study the incidence of perfusion defects, who had no significant organic stenosis on coronary angiography. None of them had myocardial infarction or cardiomyopathy. Thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy and 12-lead ECG recording were performed during supine bicycle ergometer exercise. Perfusion defects in thallium-201 scintigrams in SPECT images were assessed during visual analysis by two observers. In the coronary angiograms obtained during intravenous infusion of nitroglycerin, the luminal diameter of 75% stenosis or less in the AHA classification was regarded as an insignificant organic stenosis. Myocardial perfusion defects in the thallium-201 scintigrams were detected in eight (25%) of the 32 patients. Six of these eight patients had variant angina documented during spontaneous attacks with ST elevations in standard 12-lead ECGs. Perfusion defects were demonstrated at the inferior or infero-posterior regions in six patients, one of whom had concomitant anteroseptal defect. The defects were not always accompanied by chest pain. All but one patient demonstrating inferior or inferoposterior defects showed ST depression in leads II, III and aV{sub F} on their ECGs, corresponding to inferior wall ischemia. The exception was a case with right bundle branch block. Thus, 25% of the patients with angina pectoris, who had no evidence of significant organic stenosis on their coronary angiograms, exhibited exercise-induced perfusion defects in their thallium-201 scintigrams. Coronary spasms might have caused myocardial ischemia in these patients. (author).

  1. Contrast water therapy and exercise induced muscle damage: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Bieuzen

    Full Text Available The aim of this systematic review was to examine the effect of Contrast Water Therapy (CWT on recovery following exercise induced muscle damage. Controlled trials were identified from computerized literature searching and citation tracking performed up to February 2013. Eighteen trials met the inclusion criteria; all had a high risk of bias. Pooled data from 13 studies showed that CWT resulted in significantly greater improvements in muscle soreness at the five follow-up time points (<6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in comparison to passive recovery. Pooled data also showed that CWT significantly reduced muscle strength loss at each follow-up time (<6, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours in comparison to passive recovery. Despite comparing CWT to a large number of other recovery interventions, including cold water immersion, warm water immersion, compression, active recovery and stretching, there was little evidence for a superior treatment intervention. The current evidence base shows that CWT is superior to using passive recovery or rest after exercise; the magnitudes of these effects may be most relevant to an elite sporting population. There seems to be little difference in recovery outcome between CWT and other popular recovery interventions.

  2. Detection of titin fragments in urine in response to exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Kanda

    Full Text Available Many studies have attempted to determine the associations between blood biomarkers and exercise-induced muscle damage. However, poor correlations between the changes in biomarker levels and the magnitude of muscle symptoms have been reported. Recent advances in proteomic tools offer a strategy for the comprehensive analysis of protein expression, which can be used to identify biomarkers. Here, we used a proteomic analysis to identify urinary proteins that appear in response to a calf-raise exercise, including repetitive eccentric muscle contractions, and found that a titin (also known as connectin N-terminal fragment molecule appears in the urine after eccentric exercise. We measured the titin fragment in urine samples from nine individuals before and after eccentric exercise using a newly-established enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and found that the titin fragment excretion rate increased 96 h after the exercise (5.1 to 77.6 pg/min, p <0.01. The changes in the titin fragment excretion rate were correlated strongly with blood markers of muscle damage and with muscle symptoms. These findings suggest that the urinary titin fragment is potentially a noninvasive biomarker of muscle damage.

  3. The effects of pre-exercise vibration stimulation on the exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Yun; Kang, Da-Haeng; Lee, Joon-Hee; O, Se-Min; Jeon, Jae-Keun

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation on the pressure-pain threshold and muscle-fatigue-related metabolites of exercise-induced muscle damage. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty healthy, adult male subjects were randomly assigned to the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group, or control group (n=10 per group). To investigate the effects of pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation, changes in the pressure-pain threshold (lb), creatine kinase level (U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase level (U/L) were measured and analyzed at baseline and at 24 hours, 48 hours, and 72 hours after exercise. [Results] The pressure-pain thresholds and concentrations of creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase varied significantly in each group and during each measurement period. There were interactions between the measurement periods and groups, and results of the post-hoc test showed that the pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation group had the highest efficacy among the groups. [Conclusion] Pre-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation is more effective than post-induced muscle damage vibration stimulation for preventing muscle damage.

  4. Recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion in a child due to diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhshi Sameer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion in children with no identifiable cause is a rare presentation. Case presentation We report the case of a 4-year-old Indian girl who presented with recurrent hemorrhagic pericardial effusion. Diffuse lymphangiomatosis was suspected when associated pulmonary involvement, soft tissue mediastinal mass, and lytic bone lesions were found. Pericardiectomy and lung biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis. Partial clinical improvement occurred with thalidomide and low-dose radiotherapy, but our patient died from progressive respiratory failure. Conclusion Diffuse lymphangiohemangiomatosis should be considered in the differential diagnosis of hemorrhagic pericardial effusion of unclear cause.

  5. Bed rest reduces metabolic protein content and abolishes exercise-induced mRNA responses in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Biensø, Rasmus S; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Background: The aim was to test the hypothesis that one week of bed rest will reduce mitochondrial number and expression and activity of oxidative proteins in human skeletal muscle, but that exercise-induced intracellular signaling as well as mRNA and microRNA (miR) responses are maintained after...... kinase phosphorylation, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ¿ coactivator-1a and VEGF mRNA content in skeletal muscle before bed rest, but the responses were abolished after bed rest. Conclusion: The present findings indicate that only 7 days of physical inactivity reduce skeletal muscle metabolic...... capacity as well as abolish exercise-induced adaptive gene responses likely reflecting the interference with the ability of skeletal muscle to adapt to exercise....

  6. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.

    2010-01-01

    Exercise-induced adaptations in skeletal muscle oxidative enzymes are suggested to result from the cumulative effects of transient changes in gene expression after each single exercise session. However, for several oxidative enzymes, no changes in mRNA expression are detected up to 8 h after......-responsive oxidative enzymes is up-regulated in human skeletal muscle at 10-24 h of recovery, supporting that exercise-induced adaptations of these oxidative enzymes can be the result of the cumulative effects of transient changes in mRNA expression....... exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery...

  7. Exercise-induced regulation of matrix metalloproteinases in the skeletal muscle of subjects with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Bergdahl, Andreas; Schjerling, Peter

    2014-01-01

    is maintained in the skeletal muscle of patients with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Subjects [12 T2DM, 9 healthy control subjects (CON)] underwent 8 weeks of physical training. Messenger RNA (mRNA) was measured at baseline, during and after 8 weeks of training. Protein was measured pre- and post......-training. At baseline, there were no effects of diabetes on MMP or TIMP mRNA or protein. mRNA and protein response to training was similar in both groups, except active MMP-2 protein was elevated post training in T2DM only. Our results indicate that exercise-induced stimulation of MMPs is preserved in skeletal muscle......Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMP) play a critical role during vascular remodelling, in both health and disease. Impaired MMP regulation is associated with many diabetes-related complications. This study examined whether exercise-induced regulation of MMPs...

  8. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 is an exercise-induced hepatokine in humans, regulated by glucagon and cAMP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingerslev, Bodil; Hansen, Jakob S; Hoffmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    . METHODS: We investigated the origin of exercise-induced ANGPTL4 in humans by measuring the arterial-to-venous difference over the leg and the hepato-splanchnic bed during an acute bout of exercise. Furthermore, the impact of the glucagon-to-insulin ratio on plasma ANGPTL4 was studied in healthy...... individuals. The regulation of ANGPTL4 was investigated in both hepatic and muscle cells. RESULTS: The hepato-splanchnic bed, but not the leg, contributed to exercise-induced plasma ANGPTL4. Further studies using hormone infusions revealed that the glucagon-to-insulin ratio is an important regulator of plasma......RNA levels in hepatic cells, which was prevented by inhibition of PKA. In humans, muscle ANGPTL4 mRNA increased during fasting, with only a marginal further induction by exercise. In human muscle cells, no inhibitory effect of AMPK activation could be demonstrated on ANGPTL4 expression. CONCLUSIONS: The data...

  9. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  10. Effects of carbohydrate supplements on exercise-induced menstrual dysfunction and ovarian subcellular structural changes in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Zhao

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Female adult rats with 9-week continuous exercise can cause menstrual dysregulation as a model for EAMD. Post-EAMD intervention with glucose and oligosaccharide intake can normalize the menstrual cycle, restore the follicular subcellular structure, and reverse the exercise-induced reduction of ovary sex hormones. It suggests a positive feedback of hypothalamus–pituitary–ovary axis might be involved in the molecular mechanisms of energy intake in treating EAMD.

  11. Exercise Induced Left Bundle Branch Block Treated with Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nathan S.; Ramirez, Alexies; Slim, Ahmad; Malik, Jamil

    2014-01-01

    Exercise induced bundle branch block is a rare observation in exercise testing, accounting for 0.5 percent of exercise tests. The best treatment of this condition and its association with coronary disease remain unclear. We describe a case associated with normal coronary arteries which was successfully treated with exercise training. While this treatment has been used previously, our case has a longer followup than previously reported and demonstrates that the treatment is not durable in the absence of continued exercise. PMID:24716091

  12. Relationship between dynamin 1 mutation status and characteristics of recurrent episodes of exercise-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furrow, Eva; Minor, Katie M; Taylor, Susan M; Mickelson, James R; Patterson, Edward E

    2013-03-15

    To identify characteristics of exercise-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers and compare characteristics for dogs with various dynamin 1 gene (DNM1) mutation statuses. Retrospective cross-sectional study. 109 Labrador Retrievers with a history of recurrent exercise-induced collapse, clinically normal behavior and gait between episodes, and no reason for collapse identified via medical evaluation. Data were collected via surveys from owners of dogs that were tested for an autosomal recessive DNM1 mutation causing DNM1-associated exercise-induced collapse (d-EIC). Dogs were identified as having d-EIC (homozygous for the mutation) or not having d-EIC (heterozygous for or without the mutation). Survey data were reviewed by an investigator unaware of the genotypes of dogs, and collapse characteristics were compared between groups. 74 dogs had d-EIC; 35 dogs did not have d-EIC. Dogs with d-EIC were young (median age, 12 months) at the time of the first collapse episode; collapse in such dogs typically originated in the hind limbs and was characterized by low muscle tone, clinically normal mentation, and rapid recovery. Dogs without d-EIC were older (median age, 23 months) than dogs with d-EIC; such dogs had various characteristics of collapse that were not consistent with a single disease. Characteristics of exercised-induced collapse in Labrador Retrievers with various DNM1 genotypes were identified in this study; findings may help distinguish dogs with d-EIC from those with other types of collapse conditions. Characteristics of collapse in Labrador Retrievers that were not homozygous for the DNM1 mutation differed substantially among dogs and may have been attributable to multiple causes.

  13. Korean Hemorrhagic Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-03-01

    STANDARDS-1963-A ?H "LEVEtf® AD <o KOREAN HEMORRHAGIC F EVER A D A 09 47 Final Report HO WANG LEE, M. D. March 1980 i MIL . IIB«I . Mm k iw...Korea Med. Univ. 10: 817-827, 1983. 23. Umenai, T., Lee, H. W., Lee, P. W., Saito, T., Toyoda, T., Hongo , M., Yoshinaga, K., Nobunaga, T. Horiuchi, T

  14. Pulmonary manifestation of leptospirosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Im, Jung Gi; Yeon, Kyung Mo; Han, Man Chung; Kim, Chu Wan; Lee, Jung Sang; Kim, Suhng Gwon; Han, Yong Chol; Chang, Woo Hyun; Chi, Je Geun [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1986-02-15

    Authors analysed and present chest X-ray findings of serologically proven leptospirosis from Seoul National University Hospital, either admitted or referred for serological verification, during recent 2 years. Radiological findings were correlated with the lung specimen findings of experimentally induced leptospirosis in guinea pig. The results are as follows: 1. 24 cases (56%) showed positive X-ray findings. 2. Predominant radiological patterns of involved lung were tiny dot, small nodule, rosette density in 11 cases, massive confluent consolidation in 4 cases, and diffuse ill-defined velly increased density in 9 cases. 3. Distribution of pulmonary lesions were bilateral (100%), non-lobar, non-segmental (95%), and there were conspicuous tendency of peripheral lung predominance. 4. Extrapulmonary manifestation, such as pleural effusion or cardiomegaly was rate. 5. Pulmonary lesions resolved completely usually 5 to 10 days after their appearance. 6. From the gross and microscopic findings of serially sacrificed guinea pig's lung and a case of autopsy, authors concluded that fine dot-like density in chest X-ray was due to paleolithic hemorrhage in intraalveolar space at initial stage, growing up to ressette density or confluent consolidation as the pathetic extends to surrounding lung forming purpura and coalescent hemorrhage.

  15. Bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ina, Kenji; Kusugami, Kazuo; Ohta, Michio

    2003-01-01

    Bacterial diarrhea can be classified into two clinical entities, noninflammatory diarrhea and inflammatory diarrhea syndromes. The latter type of diarrhea is characterized by bloody and puruloid mucus stool, and is often accompanied by fever, tenesmus, and severe abdominal pain. Pathogenic bacteria causing the inflammatory diarrhea syndrome include Salmonella, Vibrio, Shigella, enteroinvasive and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli, Campylobacter, Yersinia, Chlamydia, and Clostridium difficile. The pathologic changes in the inflammatory diarrhea syndrome range from a superficial exudative enterocolitis to a transmural enterocolitis with overt ulceration. This syndrome is also designated as bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis because of its usual manifestation by bloody diarrhea. The diagnostic approach needs information on the patient's age, travel history, epidemiological associations, sexual practice, and medical history, including usage of antibiotics. Bacterial information can be obtained by microscopic study, culture, and the identification of specific bacterial toxins. Flexible colonoscopy with biopsy is useful for the differentiation of bacterial hemorrhagic enterocolitis from idiopathic ulcerative colitis and ischemic colitis. Physicians should be familiar with the diagnostic modalities used to detect the specific pathogens causing hemorrhagic bacterial enterocolitis; namely, bacterial culture, serology, histology, and nucleic acid technologies.

  16. Pulmonary embolism and pulmonary infarction; Lungenembolie und Lungeninfarkt - pathologische Anatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, K.M.; Mueller, A.M. [Berufsgenossenschaftliche Kliniken Bergmannsheil, Bochum (Germany). Inst. fuer Pathologie]|[Bochum Univ. (Germany). Universitaetsklinikum

    1998-03-01

    Radiological and nuclear medical evaluation of pulmonary embolisms and their consequences is often problematic, since parenchymal alterations in the form of possible pulmonary infarctions occur in only 10-15% after vessel obliteration. Small embolisms rather frequently cause hemorrhagic pulmonary infarctions, which can clinically be demonstrated by radiological and nuclear medical methods, after obliteration of the pre-capillary arterio-arterial anastomoses type I. In pre-existing chronic lung diseases with often markedly developed bronchial artery systems and additional anastomoses hemorrhagic pulmonary infarctions are extremely rare. Thus, today, radiological and nuclear medical studies, such as spiral computer scanning, have to rely largely on the results of thrombembolic vessel obstruction and transitory perfusion deficits and less on parenchymal infiltration patterns. (orig./MG) [Deutsch] Die radiologischen und nuklearmedizinischen Begutachtungen von Lungenembolien und deren Folgen sind oft problematisch, weil Parenchymveraenderungen in Form moeglicher Lungeninfarkte in nur 10-15% nach der Gefaessverlegung entstehen. Kleine Embolien fuehren haeufiger zu haemorrhagischen Lungeninfarkten, die mit radiologischen und nukelarmedizinischen Verfahren fassbar werden. Bei vorbestehenden chronischen Lungenerkrankungen mit meist verstaerkt ausgebautem Bronchialartheriensystem und zusaetzlichen Anatomosen sind haemorrhagische Lungeninfarkte besonders selten. Die radiologische und nuklearmedizinische Diagnostik muss sich daher heute nach vielversprechenden Studien, z.B. unter Einsatz der Spiralcomputertomographie, wesentlich auf die Befunde der thrombembolischen Gefaessobstruktion und transitorische Perfusionsausfaelle und weniger auf parenchymatoese Infiltratmuster stuetzen. (orig./MG)

  17. Pulmonary Manifestations of Lymphoma and Leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashoura, Lara; Eapen, George A; Faiz, Saadia A

    2017-06-01

    Pulmonary manifestations of lymphoma and leukemia may involve multiple structures within the thoracic cavity. Malignant lymphoma typically originates in lymph nodes, but concomitant or primary presentations with parenchymal, pleural, or tracheobronchial disease may occur. Once infection is excluded, leukemic infiltrates may be related to malignancy, hemorrhage, or secondary pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Confirmation with cytology or flow cytometry is recommended to diagnose malignant pleural effusions in hematologic malignancies. In chronic leukemia with progressive pulmonary findings, exclusion of a synchronous malignancy or Richter syndrome should be performed. Venous thromboembolism may present in patients with leukemia and lymphoma despite the presence of thrombocytopenia. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection of the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System in Parkinson's Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Lijuan; Chen, Wei; Liu, Xiaoli; Qiao, Decai; Zhou, Fu-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity and exercise may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD), and clinical observations suggest that physical exercise can reduce the motor symptoms in PD patients. In experimental animals, a profound observation is that exercise of appropriate timing, duration, and intensity can reduce toxin-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system in animal PD models, although negative results have also been reported, potentially due to inappropriate timing and intensity of the exercise regimen. Exercise may also minimize DA denervation-induced medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic atrophy and other abnormalities such as enlarged corticostriatal synapse and abnormal MSN excitability and spiking activity. Taken together, epidemiological studies, clinical observations, and animal research indicate that appropriately dosed physical activity and exercise may not only reduce the risk of developing PD in vulnerable populations but also benefit PD patients by potentially protecting the residual DA neurons or directly restoring the dysfunctional cortico-basal ganglia motor control circuit, and these benefits may be mediated by exercise-triggered production of endogenous neuroprotective molecules such as neurotrophic factors. Thus, exercise is a universally available, side effect-free medicine that should be prescribed to vulnerable populations as a preventive measure and to PD patients as a component of treatment. Future research needs to establish standardized exercise protocols that can reliably induce DA neuron protection, enabling the delineation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that in turn can maximize exercise-induced neuroprotection and neurorestoration in animal PD models and eventually in PD patients. PMID:29163139

  19. Exercise-Induced Neuroprotection of the Nigrostriatal Dopamine System in Parkinson's Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Hou

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies indicate that physical activity and exercise may reduce the risk of developing Parkinson's disease (PD, and clinical observations suggest that physical exercise can reduce the motor symptoms in PD patients. In experimental animals, a profound observation is that exercise of appropriate timing, duration, and intensity can reduce toxin-induced lesion of the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA system in animal PD models, although negative results have also been reported, potentially due to inappropriate timing and intensity of the exercise regimen. Exercise may also minimize DA denervation-induced medium spiny neuron (MSN dendritic atrophy and other abnormalities such as enlarged corticostriatal synapse and abnormal MSN excitability and spiking activity. Taken together, epidemiological studies, clinical observations, and animal research indicate that appropriately dosed physical activity and exercise may not only reduce the risk of developing PD in vulnerable populations but also benefit PD patients by potentially protecting the residual DA neurons or directly restoring the dysfunctional cortico-basal ganglia motor control circuit, and these benefits may be mediated by exercise-triggered production of endogenous neuroprotective molecules such as neurotrophic factors. Thus, exercise is a universally available, side effect-free medicine that should be prescribed to vulnerable populations as a preventive measure and to PD patients as a component of treatment. Future research needs to establish standardized exercise protocols that can reliably induce DA neuron protection, enabling the delineation of the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms that in turn can maximize exercise-induced neuroprotection and neurorestoration in animal PD models and eventually in PD patients.

  20. Resistance exercise-induced fluid shifts: change in active muscle size and plasma volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, L. L.; Convertino, V. A.; Dudley, G. A.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that the reduction in plasma volume (PV) induced by resistance exercise reflects fluid loss to the extravascular space and subsequently selective increase in cross-sectional area (CSA) of active but not inactive skeletal muscle. We compared changes in active and inactive muscle CSA and PV after barbell squat exercise. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify muscle involvement in exercise and to determine CSA of muscle groups or individual muscles [vasti (VS), adductor (Add), hamstring (Ham), and rectus femoris (RF)]. Muscle involvement in exercise was determined using exercise-induced contrast shift in spin-spin relaxation time (T2)-weighted MR images immediately postexercise. Alterations in muscle size were based on the mean CSA of individual slices. Hematocrit, hemoglobin, and Evans blue dye were used to estimate changes in PV. Muscle CSA and PV data were obtained preexercise and immediately postexercise and 15 and 45 min thereafter. A hierarchy of muscle involvement in exercise was found such that VS > Add > Ham > RF, with the Ham and RF showing essentially no involvement. CSA of the VS and Add muscle groups were increased 10 and 5%, respectively, immediately after exercise in each thigh with no changes in Ham and RF CSA. PV was decreased 22% immediately following exercise. The absolute loss of PV was correlated (r2 = 0.75) with absolute increase in muscle CSA immediately postexercise, supporting the notion that increased muscle size after resistance exercise reflects primarily fluid movement from the vascular space into active but not inactive muscle.

  1. Approach to the diagnosis and management of suspected exercise-induced bronchoconstriction by primary care physicians

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    Hull James H

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-related respiratory symptoms in the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB have poor predictive value. The aim of this study was to evaluate how athletes presenting with these symptoms are diagnosed and managed in primary care. Methods An electronic survey was distributed to a random selection of family practitioners in England. The survey was designed to assess the frequency with which family practitioners encounter adults with exercise-related respiratory symptoms and how they would approach diagnostic work-up and management. The survey also evaluated awareness of and access to diagnostic tests in this setting and general knowledge of prescribing asthma treatments to competitive athletes. Results 257 family practitioners completed the online survey. One-third of respondents indicated they encountered individuals with this problem at a frequency of more than one case per month. Over two-thirds of family practitioners chose investigation as an initial management strategy, while one-quarter would initiate treatment based on clinical information alone. PEFR pre- and post-exercise was the most commonly selected test for investigation (44%, followed by resting spirometry pre- and post-bronchodilator (35%. Short-acting β2-agonists were the most frequently selected choice of treatment indicated by respondents (90%. Conclusion Family practitioners encounter individuals with exercise-related respiratory symptoms commonly and although objective testing is often employed in diagnostic work-up, the tests most frequently utilised are not the most accurate for diagnosis of EIB. This diagnostic approach may be dictated by the reported lack of access to more precise testing methods, or may reflect a lack of dissemination or awareness of current evidence. Overall the findings have implications both for the management and hence welfare of athletes presenting with this problem to family practitioners and also for the

  2. Evaluation of frequency of positive exercise-induced bronchospasm between swimmers and sedentary individuals

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    Laricy Martins da Mata

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Despite the prevalence of prescribed asthma, there is uncertainty about the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB. Objective: Compare the frequency of EIB between swimmers and sedentary individuals, and observe heart rate variability during bronchial activity. Methods: In total, 18 swimmers (group 1 and 18 sedentary individuals (group 2 were included. The participants rested for 30 minutes for evaluation of HRV. Blood pressure (PA, respiratory rate (RR, and pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 were measured. The volunteers remained seated for the spirometry test (maneuver of forced vital capacity - FVC. This was repeated 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after the exercise test. The statistical analysis used the Student t, Mann Whitney, and Shapiro-Wilks tests. The significance level was p <0.05. Results: The spirometry findings showed 3 sedentary individuals and 10 swimmers with obstructive ventilatory disorder (OVD. Only 2 of the sedentary and none of the swimmer group demonstrated positive bronchial provocation. A key criterion for diagnosing OVD, the relationship between forced expiratory volume in one second and FVC (FEV1/FVC, was statistically lower in the swimmer group. The measures of the root mean square of the successive differences between adjacent normal RR intervals, in a time interval (RMSSD, and the standard deviation of all normal RR intervals recorded in a time interval (SDNN were significantly higher among the athletes. Conclusion: The bronchial provocation test identified a higher prevalence of bronchospasm among sedentary individuals. However, there was a reduction in the FEV1/FVC ratio and higher HRV in the group of swimmers.

  3. Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis: a retrospective case review from a tertiary hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalayasingam, Meera; Allameen, Nur Azizah; Soh, Jian Yi; Bigliardi, Paul; Van Bever, Hugo; Shek, Lynette Pei-Chi

    2014-09-01

    Wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA) is a specific form of wheat allergy caused by the combination of wheat ingestion and physical exercise and has been reported in other parts of Asia. At present, there are no published reports of WDEIA in Singapore. The objective of this study is to characterise the common local clinical and laboratory manifestations of WDEIA. This was a retrospective descriptive study of all WDEIA who presented to a tertiary Singaporean Hospital over a 5-year-period from 1 January 2009 to 30 June 2013. Eight patients aged 9-41 years old were characterised. Six were males and the majority (5) was of Chinese ethnicity. An atopic history was found in four patients. The symptoms of anaphylaxis included cutaneous manifestations such as urticaria (n=7), angioedema (n=6), respiratory symptoms of dyspnoea and wheezing (n=5) and hypotension (n=5). The symptoms occurred 20-75 min after consumption of wheat-based products, often upon cessation of exercise [running (n=3), walking (n=4) and swimming (n=1)]. The WDEIA was recurrent in seven patients. The skin prick tests were positive to wheat in seven patients, and ω-5 gliadin test to wheat was positive in five patients. With the emergence of wheat allergy in East Asian countries, WDEIA has become an important condition for physicians and Singapore is no exception. Under-recognition combined with life-threatening symptoms warrants better public awareness measures. In addition, further studies are necessary to identify possible unique genetic and environmental exposures that could explain the inter-regional differences of WDEIA. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  4. Exercise-induced muscle damage following dance and sprint-specific exercise in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Meghan A; Howatson, Glyn; Keane, Karen; Stevenson, Emma J

    2016-11-01

    There is a paucity of studies investigating exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) in females and only one in response to dance-type exercise. This study sought to firstly elucidate the physiological profile of EIMD following a dance-specific protocol, and second to compare the magnitude of damage to that experienced following a sport-specific protocol in physically active females. Twenty-nine female recreational dancers (19±1 years) were recruited. Participants completed either a dance-specific protocol (DPFT; N.=15) or sport-specific repeated sprint protocol (SSRS; N.=14). Muscle soreness, limb girths, creatine kinase (CK), countermovement jump height (CMJ), reactive strength index (RSI), maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 30 m sprint time were recorded pre, 0-, 24-, 48-, and 72 h post exercise. The DPFT induced muscle damage, with significant time effects for all variables except RSI. However the response was acute, and muscle function returned to near-baseline levels by 48 h. Although no group differences existed, there were significant interaction effects; notably in CMJ (P=0.038) where the decline at 0 h (-6.9%) was smaller and recovery was greater at 72 h (which exceeded pre-exercise levels by 3.7%) post DPFT compared to post SSRS. The results offer new information showing that dance-specific activity results in EIMD in females. In addition, the magnitude of damage was similar to repeated sprint exercise and demonstrated that, in this population, recovery from these strenuous activities takes several days. These data have important implications for understanding the consequences of dance activity and other strenuous exercise in females.

  5. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanita McLeay

    2017-10-01

    daily for 72 h following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage may help improve eccentric performance recovery of the biceps brachii.

  6. Effects of Exercise Induced Low Back Pain on Intrinsic Trunk Stiffness and Paraspinal Muscle Reflexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Emily M.; Bazrgari, Babak; Nussbaum, Maury A.; Madigan, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to 1) compare trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with no history of low back pain (LBP) and individuals who experience exercise-induced LBP (eiLBP) when pain free, and 2) investigate changes in trunk neuromuscular behavior with eiLBP. Seventeen young adult males participated including eight reporting recurrent, acute eiLBP and nine control participants reporting no history of LBP. Intrinsic trunk stiffness and paraspinal muscle reflex delay were determined in both groups using sudden trunk flexion position perturbations 1-2 days following exercise when the eiLBP participants were experiencing an episode of LBP (termed post-exercise) and 4-5 days following exercise when eiLBP had subsided (termed post-recovery). Post-recovery, when the eiLBP group was experiencing minimal LBP, trunk stiffness was 26% higher in the eiLBP group compared to the control group (p=0.033) and reflex delay was not different (p=0.969) between groups. Trunk stiffness did not change (p=0.826) within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery, but decreased 22% within the control group (p=0.002). Reflex delay decreased 11% within the eiLBP group from post-exercise to post-recovery (p=0.013), and increased 15% within the control group (p=0.006). Although the neuromuscular mechanisms associated with eiLBP and chronic LBP may differ, these results suggest that previously-reported differences in trunk neuromuscular behavior between individuals with chronic LBP and healthy controls reflect a combination of inherent differences in neuromuscular behavior between these individuals as well as changes in neuromuscular behavior elicited by pain. PMID:23182221

  7. Vitamin D2 Supplementation Amplifies Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in NASCAR Pit Crew Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Nieman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study determined if 6-weeks vitamin D2 supplementation (vitD2, 3800 IU/day had an influence on muscle function, eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD, and delayed onset of muscle soreness (DOMS in National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR NASCAR pit crew athletes. Subjects were randomized to vitD2 (n = 13 and placebo (n = 15, and ingested supplements (double-blind for six weeks. Blood samples were collected and muscle function tests conducted pre- and post-study (leg-back and hand grip dynamometer strength tests, body weight bench press to exhaustion, vertical jump, 30-s Wingate test. Post-study, subjects engaged in 90 min eccentric-based exercise, with blood samples and DOMS ratings obtained immediately after and 1- and 2-days post-exercise. Six weeks vitD2 increased serum 25(OHD2 456% and decreased 25(OHD3 21% versus placebo (p < 0.001, p = 0.036, respectively, with no influence on muscle function test scores. The post-study eccentric exercise bout induced EIMD and DOMS, with higher muscle damage biomarkers measured in vitD2 compared to placebo (myoglobin 252%, 122% increase, respectively, p = 0.001; creatine phosphokinase 24 h post-exercise, 169%, 32%, p < 0.001, with no differences for DOMS. In summary, 6-weeks vitD2 (3800 IU/day significantly increased 25(OHD2 and decreased 25(OHD3, had no effect on muscle function tests, and amplified muscle damage markers in NASCAR pit crew athletes following eccentric exercise.

  8. Effects of allopurinol on exercise-induced muscle damage: new therapeutic approaches?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Gomar, F; Pareja-Galeano, H; Perez-Quilis, C; Santos-Lozano, A; Fiuza-Luces, C; Garatachea, N; Lippi, G; Lucia, A

    2015-01-01

    Intensive muscular activity can trigger oxidative stress, and free radicals may hence be generated by working skeletal muscle. The role of the enzyme xanthine oxidase as a generating source of free radicals is well documented and therefore is involved in the skeletal muscle damage as well as in the potential transient cardiovascular damage induced by high-intensity physical exercise. Allopurinol is a purine hypoxanthine-based structural analog and a well-known inhibitor of xanthine oxidase. The administration of the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol may hence be regarded as promising, safe, and an economic strategy to decrease transient skeletal muscle damage (as well as heart damage, when occurring) in top-level athletes when administered before a competition or a particularly high-intensity training session. Although continuous administration of allopurinol in high-level athletes is not recommended due to its possible role in hampering training-induced adaptations, the drug might be useful in non-athletes. Exertional rhabdomyolysis is the most common form of rhabdomyolysis and affects individuals participating in a type of intense exercise to which they are not accustomed. This condition can cause exercise-related myoglobinuria, thus increasing the risk of acute renal failure and is also associated with sickle cell trait. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the recent evidence about the effects of allopurinol on exercise-induced muscle damage. More research is needed to determine whether allopurinol may be useful for preventing not only exertional rhabdomyolysis and acute renal damage but also skeletal muscle wasting in critical illness as well as in immobilized, bedridden, sarcopenic or cachectic patients.

  9. Exercise-induced neuronal plasticity in central autonomic networks: role in cardiovascular control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelini, Lisete C; Stern, Javier E

    2009-09-01

    more comprehensive studies aimed at understanding cellular and molecular mechanisms within CNS neuronal networks that contribute to exercise-induced neuroplasticity and cardiovascular adjustments.

  10. A sport-specific protocol for diagnosing exercise-induced asthma in cross-country skiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogston, Jena; Butcher, Janus D

    2002-09-01

    This study evaluates a sport-specific protocol to evaluate cross-country skiers for exercise-induced asthma (EIA). Participants completed an asthma symptom questionnaire prior to participation. They were then tested by portable digital spirometer with measurements prior to exercise and at 5-minute increments following a 15-minute cross-country skiing exercise session on a groomed ski trail. All spirometry measurements were collected indoors at Nordic ski areas in the Duluth, Minnesota, area. Each ski area was groomed for both skating and classical technique. 99 high school skiers, 55 female and 44 male, of various skill levels were tested. All were members of their respective high school cross-country ski team. Testing was open to all ski team members. Skiers from seven different high schools participated. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to exercise measured by the change in forced expiratory volume at 1 s (FEV1) following exercise. A result was considered positive if the decrement in FEV1 was greater than 10% in any two of the postexercise test increments in comparison with the preexercise baseline. 28 of 99 (28%) skiers met the criteria for EIA. No significant differences were found with regards to gender, age, or previous experience. Several individual items on the Asthma Symptom Questionnaire were associated with a positive spirometry test. Using a simple protocol of pre- and postexercise spirometry with a defined exercise challenge, a large number of athletes were screened objectively for this condition. Both the equipment and protocol worked well in the field environment and could easily be adapted to most any sports environment.

  11. Case Study: Utilizing a Low FODMAP Diet to Combat Exercise-Induced Gastrointestinal Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lis, Dana; Ahuja, Kiran D K; Stellingwerff, Trent; Kitic, Cecilia M; Fell, James

    2016-10-01

    Athletes employ various dietary strategies in attempts to attenuate exercise-induced gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms to ensure optimal performance. This case-study outlines one of these GI-targeted approaches via the implementation of a short-term low FODMAP (Fermentable Oligosaccharides, Disaccharides, Monosaccharides and Polyols) diet, with the aim to attenuate persistent running specific GI symptoms in a recreationally competitive multisport athlete (male, 86 kg, 57.9 ml·kg·min(-1) V02max, 10-15 hr/week training, with no diagnosed GI disorder). Using a single-blinded approach a habitual diet was compared with a 6-day low FODMAP intervention diet (81 ± 5g vs 7.2 ± 5.7g FODMAP s/day) for their effect on GI symptoms and perceptual wellbeing. Training was similar during the habitual and dietary intervention periods. Postexercise (During) GI symptom ratings were recorded immediately following training. Daily GI symptoms and the Daily Analysis of Life Demands for Athletes (DALDA) were recorded at the end of each day. Daily and During GI symptom scores (scale 0-9) ranged from 0-4 during the habitual dietary period while during the low FODMAP dietary period all scores were 0 (no symptoms at all). DALDA scores for worse than normal ranged from 3-10 vs 0-8 in the habitual and low FODMAP dietary periods, respectively, indicating improvement. This intervention was effective for this GI symptom prone athlete; however, randomized-controlled trials are required to assess the suitability of low FODMAP diets for reducing GI distress in other symptomatic athletes.

  12. Asthma symptoms, mannitol reactivity and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in adolescent swimmers versus tennis players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romberg, Kerstin; Tufvesson, Ellen; Bjermer, Leif

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity at an elite level is associated with an increased risk for asthma and, in some sports, also prevalence of allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and allergy among elite swimmers and tennis players and compare airway hyperreactivity to mannitol and exercise. One hundred and one adolescent swimmers and 86 tennis players answered a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and allergy and performed mannitol challenge and sport-specific exercise challenge. Atopy was assessed and fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured. Mannitol positivity was defined as drop in FEV1 ≥15% (ordinary criteria) and/or β2-reversibility (≥15%) after provocation (extended criteria). A positive exercise test was defined as a drop in FEV1 ≥10% (ordinary criteria) and/or β2-reversibility (≥15%) after provocation (extended criteria). Club cell protein (CC16) was measured in urine before and after the challenges. Asthma symptoms were common in both groups. More swimmers had exercise-induced symptoms (77% versus 50%) and current asthma symptoms (56% versus 38%), compared to the tennis players. More swimmers also had a positive mannitol challenge test both using ordinary (26% versus 6%) and extended criteria (43% versus 17%), while the number of positive exercise tests did not differ. After exercise (but not mannitol) challenge, CC16 level was increased in both groups, but to a higher extent in tennis players. There were no differences in atopy, rhinitis or fractional exhaled nitric oxide. We found a high prevalence of asthma among elite swimmers and tennis players and a higher frequency of current asthma and positive mannitol challenge tests among the swimmers. This indicates an unfavorable exercise environment.

  13. Causes of differences in exercise-induced changes of base excess and blood lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böning, Dieter; Klarholz, Carola; Himmelsbach, Bärbel; Hütler, Matthias; Maassen, Norbert

    2007-01-01

    It has been concluded from comparisons of base excess (BE) and lactic acid (La) concentration changes in blood during exercise-induced acidosis that more H+ than La- leave the muscle and enter interstitial fluid and blood. To examine this, we performed incremental cycle tests in 13 untrained males and measured acid-base status and [La] in arterialized blood, plasma, and red cells until 21 min after exhaustion. The decrease of actual BE (-deltaABE) was 2.2 +/- 0.5 (SEM) mmol l(-1) larger than the increase of [La]blood at exhaustion, and the difference rose to 4.8 +/- 0.5 mmol l(-1) during the first minutes of recovery. The decrease of standard BE (SBE), a measure of mean BE of interstitial fluid (if) and blood, however, was smaller than the increase of [La] in the corresponding volume (delta[La](if+blood)) during exercise and only slightly larger during recovery. The discrepancy between -deltaABE and delta[La]blood mainly results from the Donnan effect hindering the rise of [La]erythrocyte to equal values like [La]plasma. The changing Donnan effect during acidosis causes that Cl- from the interstitial fluid enter plasma and erythrocytes in exchange for HCO3(-). A corresponding amount of La- remains outside the blood. SBE is not influenced by ion shifts among these compartments and therefore is a rather exact measure of acid movements across tissue cell membranes, but changes have been compared previously to delta[La]blood instead to delta[La](if+blood). When performing correct comparisons and considering Cl-/HCO3(-) exchange between erythrocytes and extracellular fluid, neither the use of deltaABE nor of deltaSBE provides evidence for differences in H+ and La- transport across the tissue cell membranes.

  14. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, Yanita; Barnes, Matthew J; Mundel, Toby; Hurst, Suzanne M; Hurst, Roger D; Stannard, Stephen R

    2012-07-11

    Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD) is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. A significant (p blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage's inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise and blueberry consumption. These findings may benefit the sporting community who should consider dietary interventions that specifically target health and performance adaptation.

  15. Similarities between exercise-induced hypoalgesia and conditioned pain modulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Handberg, Gitte; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Pain inhibitory mechanisms are often assessed by paradigms of exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) and conditioned pain modulation (CPM). In this study it was hypothesized that the spatial and temporal manifestations of EIH and CPM were comparable. The participants were 80 healthy subjects (40 females), between 18 and 65 years of age in this randomized, repeated-measures cross-over trial that involved data collection on 2 different days. CPM was assessed by 2 different cold pressor tests (hand and foot). EIH was assessed by 2 intensities of aerobic bicycling exercises and 2 intensities of isometric muscle contraction exercises (arm and leg). Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were recorded before, during, after, and 15 minutes after conditioning/exercise at sites local to and remote from the extremity used for cold pressor stimulation and exercise. PPTs increased at local as well as at remote sites during both cold pressor tests and after all of the exercise conditions except low-intensity bicycling. EIH after bicycling was higher in women than in men. CPM and the EIH responses after isometric exercises were comparable in men and women and were not affected by age. The EIH response was larger in the exercising body part compared with nonexercising body parts for all exercise conditions. High-intensity exercise produced greater EIH responses than did low-intensity exercise. The change in PPTs during cold pressor tests and the change in PPTs after exercises were not correlated. The CPM response was not dominated by local manifestations, and the effect was seen only during the stimulation, whereas exercise had larger local manifestations, and the effects were also found after exercise. Copyright © 2013 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Recovery From Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage: Cold-Water Immersion Versus Whole-Body Cryotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaïdia, Abd-Elbasset; Lamblin, Julien; Delecroix, Barthélémy; Leduc, Cédric; McCall, Alan; Nédélec, Mathieu; Dawson, Brian; Baquet, Georges; Dupont, Grégory

    2017-03-01

    To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage. Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at -110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise. Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = -0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = -0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = -0.68; 90% CI = -1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = -0.62; 90% CI = -1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes. CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24-48 h postexercise.

  17. The Effect of Taurine on the Recovery from Eccentric Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage in Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeay, Yanita; Stannard, Stephen; Barnes, Matthew

    2017-10-17

    Eccentric exercise is known to bring about microstructural damage to muscle, initiating an inflammatory cascade involving various reactive oxygen species. This, in turn, can significantly impair physical performance over subsequent days. Taurine, a powerful endogenous antioxidant, has previously been shown to have a beneficial effect on muscle damage markers and recovery when taken for a few days to several weeks prior to eccentric exercise. However, to date no studies have looked at the effects of supplementing over the days following eccentric exercise on performance recovery. Thus, this study aimed to determine whether supplementing with taurine over three days following eccentric exercise attenuated the rise in serum creatine kinase and improved performance recovery in males. In a blinded, randomized, crossover design, ten recreationally-fit male participants completed 60 eccentric contractions of the biceps brachii muscle at maximal effort. Following this, participants were supplemented with 0.1 g∙kg-1 body weight∙day-1 of either taurine or rice flour in capsules. Over the next three mornings participants underwent blood tests for the analysis of the muscle damage marker creatine kinase and carried out performance measures on the isokinetic dynamometer. They also continued to consume the capsules in the morning and evening. The entire protocol was repeated two weeks later on the alternate arm and supplement. Significant decreases were seen in all performance measures from pre- to 24-h post-eccentric exercise (p time × treatment effects were observed (all p > 0.05). Serum creatine kinase levels did not significantly differ over time for either treatments, nor between treatments (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that taurine supplementation taken twice daily for 72 h following eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage may help improve eccentric performance recovery of the biceps brachii.

  18. Incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm in Olympic winter sport athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilber, R L; Rundell, K W; Szmedra, L; Jenkinson, D M; Im, J; Drake, S D

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the incidence of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB) among U.S. Olympic winter sport athletes. Subjects included female and male members of the 1998 U.S. Winter Olympic Team from the following sports: biathlon, cross-country ski, figure skating, ice hockey, Nordic combined, long-track speedskating, and short-track speedskating. Assessment of EIB was conducted in conjunction with an "actual competition" (Olympic Trials, World Team Trials, World Cup Event, U.S. National Championships) or a "simulated competition" (time trial, game), which served as the exercise challenge. Standard spirometry tests were performed preexercise and at 5, 10, and 15 min postexercise. An athlete was considered EIB-positive based on a postexercise decrement in FEV1 > or = 10%. For the seven sports evaluated on the 1998 U.S. Winter Olympic Team, the overall incidence of EIB across all sports and genders was 23%. The highest incidence of EIB was found in cross-country skiers, where 50% of the athletes (female = 57%; male = 43%) were diagnosed with EIB. Across the seven sports evaluated, the prevalence of EIB among the female and male athletes was 26% and 18%, respectively. Among those individuals found to be EIB-positive were athletes who won a team gold medal, one individual silver medal, and one individual bronze medal at the Nagano Winter Olympics. These data suggest that: 1) EIB is prevalent in several Olympic winter sports and affects nearly one of every four elite winter sport athletes; 2) the winter sport with the highest incidence of EIB is cross-country skiing; 3) in general, EIB is more prevalent in female versus male elite winter sport athletes; and 4) athletes may compete successfully at the international level despite having EIB.

  19. Type of Ground Surface during Plyometric Training Affects the Severity of Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Arazi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the changes in the symptoms of exercise-induced muscle damage from a bout of plyometric exercise (PE; 10 × 10 vertical jumps performed in aquatic, sand and firm conditions. Twenty-four healthy college-aged men were randomly assigned to one of three groups: Aquatic (AG, n = 8, Sand (SG, n = 8 and Firm (FG, n = 8. The AG performed PE in an aquatic setting with a depth of ~130 cm. The SG performed PE on a dry sand surface at a depth of 20 cm, and the FG performed PE on a 10-cm-thick wooden surface. Plasma creatine kinase (CK activity, delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS, knee range of motion (KROM, maximal isometric voluntary contraction (MIVC of the knee extensors, vertical jump (VJ and 10-m sprint were measured before and 24, 48 and 72 h after the PE. Compared to baseline values, FG showed significantly (p < 0.05 greater changes in CK, DOMS, and VJ at 24 until 48 h. The MIVC decreased significantly for the SG and FG at 24 until 48 h post-exercise in comparison to the pre-exercise values. There were no significant (p > 0.05 time or group by time interactions in KROM. In the 10-m sprint, all the treatment groups showed significant (p < 0.05 changes compared to pre-exercise values at 24 h, and there were no significant (p > 0.05 differences between groups. The results indicate that PE in an aquatic setting and on a sand surface induces less muscle damage than on a firm surface. Therefore, training in aquatic conditions and on sand may be beneficial for the improvement of performance, with a concurrently lower risk of muscle damage and soreness.

  20. Exercise-induced left septal fascicular block: an expression of severe myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Hiroshi Uchida

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available The electrocardiogram (ECG criteria for the left septal fascicular block (LSFB are not universally accepted and many other denominations can be seen in literature: focal septal block, septal focal block, left septal fascicular block, left anterior septal block, septal fascicular conduction disorder of the left branch, left septal Purkinje network block, left septal subdivision block of the left bundle branch, anterior conduction delay, left median hemiblock, left medial subdivision block of the left bundle branch, middle fascicle block, block of the anteromedial division of the left bundle branch of His, and anteromedial divisional block. During exercise stress test, fascicular blocks (left anterior and posterior seem to indicate severe coronary artery narrowing of left main coronary or proximal left anterior descending artery disease1 and transient exercise-induced left septal fascicular block has been reported a few times2,3. 54-year-old male, with a history of essential arterial systemic hypertension, primary hyperlipidemia and six-month typical chest pain during exercise (Class II – Canadian Cardiovascular Society underwent an exercise stress test. During the exercise stress test, ECG demonstrated abrupt prominent anterior forces, an increase in R wave amplitude from V1 to V4, extreme left axis deviation and minor ST segment depression in DII, DIII and aVF (Figure 1. The post-exercise period showed progressive return of the QRS axis in both frontal and horizontal planes and the ST depression worsened by 1 mm. Coronary angiogram (Figure 2A showed a critical proximal left anterior descending artery lesion. An exercise stress test done three months after coronary artery bypass surgery grafting was normal (Figure 2B.

  1. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Reveals Exercise-Induced Perfusion Deficits in Claudicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundi, Rishi; Prior, Steven J; Addison, Odessa; Lu, Michael; Ryan, Alice S; Lal, Brajesh K

    2017-01-01

    Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is an imaging modality allowing perfusion quantification in targeted regions of interest of the lower extremity that has not been possible with color-flow imaging or with measurement of ankle brachial indices. We developed a protocol to quantify lower extremity muscle perfusion impairment in PAD patients in response to exercise. Thirteen patients with Rutherford Class I-III Peripheral Arterial Disease (PAD) and no prior revascularization procedures were recruited from the Baltimore Veterans Affairs Medical Center and compared with eight control patients without PAD. CEUS interrogation of the index limb gastrocnemius muscle was performed using an intravenous bolus of lipid-stabilized microsphere contrast before and after a standardized treadmill protocol. Peak perfusion (PEAK) and time to peak perfusion (TTP) were measured before and after exercise. Between and within group differences were assessed. Control subjects demonstrated a more rapid TTP (p<0.01) and an increase in peak perfusion (PEAK, p=0.02) after exercise, when compared to their baseline measures. Patients with PAD demonstrated TTP and PEAK measures equivalent to controls at baseline (p=0.39, p=0.71, respectively). However, they exhibited no significant exercise-induced changes in perfusion (TTP p=0.49 and PEAK 0.67, respectively compared to baseline). After exercise, normal subjects had significantly shorter TTP (p=0.04) and greater PEAK (p=0.02) than PAD patients. Consistent with their lack of ischemic symptoms at rest, class I to III claudicant PAD patients showed similar perfusion measures (TTP and PEAK) at rest. PAD patients, however, were unable to increase perfusion in response to exercise, whereas controls increased perfusion significantly. This corresponds with claudication and limited walking capacity observed in PAD. CEUS with bolus injection offers a convenient, objective, quantitative and visual physiologic assessment of perfusion limitation in

  2. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation reduces exercise-induced perceived pain and improves endurance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astokorki, Ali H Y; Mauger, Alexis R

    2017-03-01

    Muscle pain is a natural consequence of intense and prolonged exercise and has been suggested to be a limiter of performance. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and interferential current (IFC) have been shown to reduce both chronic and acute pain in a variety of conditions. This study sought to ascertain whether TENS and IFC could reduce exercise-induced pain (EIP) and whether this would affect exercise performance. It was hypothesised that TENS and IFC would reduce EIP and result in an improved exercise performance. In two parts, 18 (Part I) and 22 (Part II) healthy male and female participants completed an isometric contraction of the dominant bicep until exhaustion (Part I) and a 16.1 km cycling time trial as quickly as they could (Part II) whilst receiving TENS, IFC, and a SHAM placebo in a repeated measures, randomised cross-over, and placebo-controlled design. Perceived EIP was recorded in both tasks using a validated subjective scale. In Part I, TENS significantly reduced perceived EIP (mean reduction of 12%) during the isometric contraction (P = 0.006) and significantly improved participants' time to exhaustion by a mean of 38% (P = 0.02). In Part II, TENS significantly improved (P = 0.003) participants' time trial completion time (~2% improvement) through an increased mean power output. These findings demonstrate that TENS can attenuate perceived EIP in a healthy population and that doing so significantly improves endurance performance in both submaximal isometric single limb exercise and whole-body dynamic exercise.

  3. Impact of age on exercise-induced ATP supply during supramaximal plantar flexion in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layec, Gwenael; Trinity, Joel D; Hart, Corey R; Kim, Seong-Eun; Groot, H Jonathan; Le Fur, Yann; Sorensen, Jacob R; Jeong, Eun-Kee; Richardson, Russell S

    2015-08-15

    Currently, the physiological factors responsible for exercise intolerance and bioenergetic alterations with age are poorly understood due, at least in art, to the confounding effect of reduced physical activity in the elderly. Thus, in 40 healthy young (22 ± 2 yr) and old (74 ± 8 yr) activity-matched subjects, we assessed the impact of age on: 1) the relative contribution of the three major pathways of ATP synthesis (oxidative ATP synthesis, glycolysis, and the creatine kinase reaction) and 2) the ATP cost of contraction during high-intensity exercise. Specifically, during supramaximal plantar flexion (120% of maximal aerobic power), to stress the functional limits of the skeletal muscle energy systems, we used (31)P-labeled magnetic resonance spectroscopy to assess metabolism. Although glycolytic activation was delayed in the old, ATP synthesis from the main energy pathways was not significantly different between groups. Similarly, the inferred peak rate of mitochondrial ATP synthesis was not significantly different between the young (25 ± 8 mM/min) and old (24 ± 6 mM/min). In contrast, the ATP cost of contraction was significantly elevated in the old compared with the young (5.1 ± 2.0 and 3.7 ± 1.7 mM·min(-1)·W(-1), respectively; P age-related mitochondrial and glycolytic dysfunction. However, this study does confirm an abnormal elevation in exercise-induced skeletal muscle metabolic demand in the old that may contribute to the decline in exercise capacity with advancing age.

  4. Effect of New Zealand blueberry consumption on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage

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    McLeay Yanita

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD is accompanied by localized oxidative stress / inflammation which, in the short-term at least, is associated with impaired muscular performance. Dietary antioxidants have been shown to reduce excessive oxidative stress; however, their effectiveness in facilitating recovery following EIMD is not clear. Blueberries demonstrate antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In this study we examine the effect of New Zealand blueberries on EIMD after strenuous eccentric exercise. Methods In a randomized cross-over design, 10 females consumed a blueberry smoothie or placebo of a similar antioxidant capacity 5 and 10 hours prior to and then immediately, 12 and 36 hours after EIMD induced by 300 strenuous eccentric contractions of the quadriceps. Absolute peak and average peak torque across the knee, during concentric, isometric, and eccentric actions were measured. Blood biomarkers of oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity, and inflammation were assessed at 12, 36 and 60 hours post exercise. Data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA. Results A significant (p p = 0.047 interaction effect was seen for peak isometric tension suggesting a faster rate of recovery in the blueberry intervention group. A similar trend was observed for concentric and eccentric strength. An increase in oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers was also observed in both treatment groups following EIMD. Although a faster rate of decrease in oxidative stress was observed in the blueberry group, it was not significant (p  Conclusions This study demonstrates that the ingestion of a blueberry smoothie prior to and after EIMD accelerates recovery of muscle peak isometric strength. This effect, although independent of the beverage’s inherent antioxidant capacity, appears to involve an up-regulation of adaptive processes, i.e. endogenous antioxidant processes, activated by the combined actions of the eccentric exercise

  5. Surgery for Patients With Spontaneous Deep Supratentorial Intracerebral Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhao, He-Xiang; Guo, Rui; Lin, Sen; Dong, Wei; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most dangerous cerebrovascular diseases, especially when in deep brain. The treatment of spontaneous deep supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study using propensity score matching to compare the efficacy of surgery and conservative treatment for patients with deep surpatentorial hemorrhage. We observed the outcomes of consecutive patients with spontaneous deep supratentorial hemorrhage retrospectively from December 2008 to July 2013. Clinical outcomes of surgery and conservative treatments were compared in patients with deep sICH using propensity score matching method. The primary outcome was neurological function status at 6 months post ictus. The second outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 6 months, and the incidence of complications. Subgroup analyses of 6-month outcome were conducted. Sixty-three (22.66%) of the 278 patients who received surgery had a favorable neurological function status at 6 months, whereas in the conservative group, 66 of 278 (23.74%) had the same result (P = 0.763). The 30-day mortality in the surgical group was 19.06%, whereas 30.58% in the conservative group (P = 0.002). There was significant difference in the mortality at 6 months after ictus as well (23.38% vs 36.33%, P = 0.001). The subgroup analyses showed significantly better outcomes for the surgical group when hematoma was >40 mL (13.33% vs 0%, P = 0.005) or complicated with intraventricular hemorrhage (16.67% vs 7.27%, P = 0.034). For complications, the risk of pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, urinary infection, pulmonary embolus, and need for tracheostomy/long term ventilation in the surgical group was higher than the conservative group (31.29% vs 15.47%, P < 0.001; 6.83% vs 3.96%, P = 0.133; 2.88% vs 1.80%, P = 0.400; 1.80% vs 1.08%, P = 0.476; 32.73% vs 23.38%, P = 0

  6. Neurogenic Pulmonary Edema (A Case Report

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    Funda Gümüş

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Neurogenic pulmonary edema is a life threatening complication of severe central nervous system injury. The most common cause of neurogenic pulmonary edema is subarachnoid hemorrhage followed by head trauma and epilepsy. The rare causes are cervical spine trauma, multiplesclerosis, cerebellar hemorrhage and intracranial tumors. Neurogenic pulmonary edema is characterized by an increase in extravascular lung water in patients who have sustained a sudden change in neurologic condition. The exact pathophysiology is unclear but it probably involves an adrenergic response to the central nervous system injury which leads to increased catecholamine, pulmonary hydrostatic pressure and increased lung capillary permeability. The presenting symptoms are nonspecific and often include dyspnea, tachypnea, tachycardia, hypoxemia, pinkfroty secretion, bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and crackles. These symptoms start within minutes or hours and resolves 48-72 hours that typically for neurogenic pulmonary edema. Basic principles of treatment, surgical decompression, reduce intracranial pressure, controlled ventilation with suplemental oxygen, positive end expiratory pressure and diuresis. We report a case with neurogenic pulmonary edema that occured after head trauma. (Journal of the Turkish Society Intensive Care 2012; 10: 59-62

  7. The effect of body posture during medication inhalation on exercise induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, R.; Wind, M.; de Graaf, B.J.; de Jong, F.H.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria; Thio, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    RATIONALE: Inhaling medication in a standard body posture leads to impaction of particles in the sharp angle of the upper airway. Stretching the upper airway by extending the neck in a forward leaning body posture may improve pulmonary deposition. A single dose of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS)

  8. Hemorrhagic radiation cystitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, William M; Henderson, Randal H; Costa, Joseph A; Hoppe, Bradford S; Dagan, Roi; Bryant, Curtis M; Nichols, Romaine C; Williams, Christopher R; Harris, Stephanie E; Mendenhall, Nancy P

    2015-06-01

    The optimal management of persistent hemorrhagic radiation cystitis is ill-defined. Various options are available and include oral agents (ie, sodium pentosan polysulfate), intravenous drugs (ie, WF10), topical agents (ie, formalin), hyperbaric oxygen, and endoscopic procedures (ie, electrical cautery, argon plasma coagulation, laser coagulation). In general, it is best to manage patients conservatively and intervene only when necessary with the option least likely to exacerbate the cystitis. More aggressive measures should be employed only when more conservative approaches fail. Bladder biopsies should be avoided, unless findings suggest a bladder tumor, because they may precipitate a complication.

  9. Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heidemann, Christian; Wallén, Mia; Aakesson, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage (PTH) is a relatively common and potentially life-threatening complication. The objective of this study was to examine the rate of PTH and identify risk factors. A retrospective cohort study was carried out including all tonsillectomies (430 patients) performed...... at Odense University Hospital (OUH) or Svendborg Hospital (SH), Denmark. PTH occurred in 52 patients (12.1%). Of the 180 patients treated with coblation technique, 41 (22.7%) had PTH. There were no fatal bleeding episodes. Multiple regression analysis resulted in three significant covariates: "Coblation...

  10. Pulmonary Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... by viral infections such as the hantavirus and dengue virus. Lung injury. Pulmonary edema can occur after ... it may be fatal even if you receive treatment. Prevention Pulmonary edema is not always preventable, but ...

  11. Pulmonary atresia

    Science.gov (United States)

    As with most congenital heart diseases, there is no known cause of pulmonary atresia. The condition is linked with another type of congenital heart defect called a patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Pulmonary atresia may occur with or without a ventricular ...

  12. Pulmonary Embolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    A pulmonary embolism is a sudden blockage in a lung artery. The cause is usually a blood clot in the ... and travels through the bloodstream to the lung. Pulmonary embolism is a serious condition that can cause Permanent ...

  13. Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a condition in which the tissue deep in your lungs becomes scarred over time. This ... blood may not get enough oxygen. Causes of pulmonary fibrosis include environmental pollutants, some medicines, some connective tissue ...

  14. Angioembolization for pelvic hemorrhage control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauschild, Oliver; Aghayev, Emin; von Heyden, Johanna

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage from pelvic vessels is a potentially lethal complication of pelvic fractures. There is ongoing controversy on the ideal treatment strategy for patients with pelvic hemorrhage. The aim of the study was to analyze the role of angiography and subsequent embolization in patient...

  15. Pulmonary Hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    Goetting, Michael; Schwarzer, Mario; Gerber, Alexander; Klingelhoefer, Doris; David A. Groneberg

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is characterized by the increase of the mean pulmonary arterial pressure in the lung circulation. Despite the large number of experimental and clinical studies conducted on pulmonary hypertension, there is no comprehensive work that analyzed the global research activity on PH so far. We retrieved the bibliometric data of the publications on pulmonary hypertension for two periods from the Web of science database. Here, we set the first investigation period from 1900...

  16. Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Eclampsia

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    Ye. M. Shifman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The classical triad of symptoms is a basis for making the diagnosis of eclampsia. Nevertheless, none pregnancy complication fails to differ in clinical manifestations, the uncertainty and ambiguity of maternal and fetal prognosis, and in the direct causes of fatal outcomes. The authors present an account of a case of maternal mortality. A 17-year-old primigravida with a history of arterial hypertension at gestational weeks 31—32 developed a series of seizures and lost consciousness. She was diagnosed as having eclampsia complicated by acute ischemic attack. Emergency cesarean delivery was made. Postoperatively, the puerpera was transferred to the neurosurgery unit to be examined and treated. Computed tomography revealed intracerebral hemorrhage, with blood entering the brain ventricles, and occlusive hydrocephalus from the fourth ventricular level. Ventricular drainage was made as described by Arendt. The prognosis was poor. The patient’s death was stated on postpartum day 5. The authors consider that the publication and discussion of such cases should give a better insight into the development of eclampsia and its life-threatening complications. Fortunately, eclampsia is rare, the incidence of its complications is even less. But each such a case deserves a detailed and thoughtful discussion. Key words: eclampsia, intracerebral hemorrhage.

  17. Polygenic Profile and Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage by a Competitive Half-Ironman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Salinero, Juan J; Lara, Beatriz; Gallo-Salazar, César; Areces, Francisco; Herrero, David; Puente, Carlos

    2017-11-14

    Del Coso, J, Salinero, JJ, Lara, B, Gallo-Salazar, C, Areces, F, Herrero, D, and Puente, C. Polygenic profile and exercise-induced muscle damage by a competitive half-ironman. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2017-To date, it is still unknown why some individuals develop higher levels of muscle damage than other individuals, despite participating in exercise with comparable levels of physical intensity. The aim of this investigation was to analyze 7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are candidates to explain individual variations in the level of muscle damage attained during a half-ironman competition. Using the model of Williams and Folland (2, 1, and 0 points for optimal, intermediate, and suboptimal genotype), we determined the total genotype score from the accumulated combination of 7 SNPs (ACE = 287bp Ins/Del; ACTN3 = p.R577X; creatine kinase, muscle type = NcoI; insulin-like growth factor 2 = C13790G; interleukin-6 = 174G>C; myosin light chain kinase = C37885A; and tumor necrosis factor-α = 308G>A) in 22 experienced triathletes. Before and after the race, a sample of venous blood was obtained to measure serum markers of muscle damage. Two groups of triathletes were established according to their postcompetition serum CK concentration: low CK responders (n = 10; 377 ± 86 U·L) vs. high CK responders (n = 12; 709 ± 136 U·L). At the end of the race, low CK responders had lower serum myoglobin concentrations (384 ± 243 vs. 597 ± 293 ng·ml, p = 0.04). Although the groups were similar in age, anthropometric characteristics, and training habits, total genotype score was higher in low CK responders than in high CK responders (7.7 ± 1.1 vs. 5.5 ± 1.1 point, p < 0.01). A favorable polygenic profile can contribute to reducing the level of muscle damage developed during endurance exercise.

  18. Effects of Exercise Induced Dehydration and Glycerol Rehydration on Anaerobic Power in Male Collegiate Wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Zachary J; Gillum, Trevor L

    2017-11-01

    McKenna, ZJ and Gillum, TL. Effects of exercise induced dehydration and glycerol rehydration on anaerobic power in male collegiate wrestlers. J Strength Cond Res 31(11): 2965-2968, 2017-Wrestlers attempting to reach a specific weight class often use rapid weight loss (RWL). Rapid weight loss is associated with high levels of dehydration, which may hinder athletic performance. Thus, there is a need for wrestlers to optimize rehydration after achieving a specific weight. We sought to observe the effects of RWL on anaerobic power and the impact of glycerol on rehydration and power in male collegiate wrestlers (n = 7, 19.75 ± 1.67 years, 76.8 ± 4.32 kg, 11.6 ± 4.32% body fat, 59.9 ± 6.42 ml·kg·min). Subjects were assessed for body mass (BM), hydration, and mean power output (Wmean) before exercise (pre), immediately after exercise (3% dehydrated), and 60 minutes after exercise (rehydrated). Participants ran at 70% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2max in a heated room (30° C) until 3% BM loss (BML). Subjects rehydrated drinking either 26 ml·kg of water (control) or a 3% glycerol (treatment) solution containing 26 ml·kg of water and 1 g·kg of glycerol. Participants lost 3.00 ± 0.31% (control) and 2.89 ± 0.26% (treatment) of their BM from the pre- to dehydrated conditions. Wmean (control: 659.29 ± 79.12, 651.43 ± 70.71, 659.71 ± 82.78; treatment: 647.71 ± 110.64, 644.57 ± 118.15, 638.14 ± 100.71) did not differ across time (p = 0.87) nor condition (p = 0.80). In addition, glycerol had no significant impact on acute hydration (control: urine-specific gravity [SG] = 1.019 ± 0.010; treatment: SG = 1.017 ± 0.017). These data show that 3% BML did not impair anaerobic performance, and furthermore that glycerol proved ineffective for rehydration in a match like scenario for the competing wrestler.

  19. Asthma symptoms, mannitol reactivity and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in adolescent swimmers versus tennis players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romberg K

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kerstin Romberg,1,2 Ellen Tufvesson,1 Leif Bjermer1 1Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund, Lund University, Lund, 2Health Care Center, Näsets Läkargrupp, Höllviken, Sweden Background: Strenuous physical activity at an elite level is associated with an increased risk for asthma and, in some sports, also prevalence of allergies. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of asthma and allergy among elite swimmers and tennis players and compare airway hyperreactivity to mannitol and exercise.Materials and methods: One hundred and one adolescent swimmers and 86 tennis players answered a questionnaire about respiratory symptoms and allergy and performed mannitol challenge and sport-specific exercise challenge. Atopy was assessed and fractional exhaled nitric oxide was measured. Mannitol positivity was defined as drop in FEV1 ≥15% (ordinary criteria and/or β2-reversibility (≥15% after provocation (extended criteria. A positive exercise test was defined as a drop in FEV1 ≥10% (ordinary criteria and/or β2-reversibility (≥15% after provocation (extended criteria. Club cell protein (CC16 was measured in urine before and after the challenges.Results: Asthma symptoms were common in both groups. More swimmers had exercise-induced symptoms (77% versus 50% and current asthma symptoms (56% versus 38%, compared to the tennis players. More swimmers also had a positive mannitol challenge test both using ordinary (26% versus 6% and extended criteria (43% versus 17%, while the number of positive exercise tests did not differ. After exercise (but not mannitol challenge, CC16 level was increased in both groups, but to a higher extent in tennis players. There were no differences in atopy, rhinitis or fractional exhaled nitric oxide.Conclusion: We found a high prevalence of asthma among elite swimmers and tennis players and a higher frequency of current asthma and positive mannitol challenge tests among

  20. Exercise-induced inhibition of remodelling is focally offset with fatigue fracture in racehorses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, R C; Mirams, M; Mackie, E J; Anderson, G A; Seeman, E

    2013-07-01

    Bone remodelling is inhibited by high repetitive loading. However, in subchondral bone of racehorses in training, eroded surface doubled in association with fatigue fracture and there was greater surrounding trabecular bone volume suggesting trabecular modelling unloads the bone focally, allowing damage repair by remodelling. Remodelling replaces damaged bone with new bone but is suppressed during high magnitude repetitive loading when damage is most likely. However, in cortical bone of racehorses, at sites of fatigue fracture, focal porosity, consistent with remodelling, is observed in proportion to the extent of surrounding callus. Focal areas of porosity are also observed at sites of fatigue damage in subchondral bone. We hypothesised that fatigued subchondral bone, like damaged cortical bone, is remodelled focally in proportion to the modelling of surrounding trabecular bone. Eroded and mineralizing surfaces and bone area were measured using backscattered scanning electron microscopy of post-mortem specimens of the distal third metacarpal bone in 11 racehorses with condylar fractures (cases) and eight racehorses in training without fractures (controls). Cases had a two-fold greater eroded surface per unit area at the fracture site than controls (0.81 ± 0.10 vs. 0.40 ± 0.12 mm(-1), P = 0.021) but not at an adjacent site (0.22 ± 0.09 vs. 0.30 ± 0.11 mm(-1), P = 0.59). Area fraction of surrounding trabecular bone was higher in cases than controls (81 ± 2 vs. 72 ± 2 %, P = 0.0020) and the eroded surface at the fracture site correlated with the surrounding trabecular area (adjusted R (2) = 0.63, P = 0.0010). In conclusion, exercise-induced inhibition of remodelling is offset at sites of fatigue fracture. Modelling of trabecular bone may contribute to unloading these regions, allowing repair by remodelling.

  1. Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction: The effects of montelukast, a leukotriene receptor antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James P Kemp

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available James P KempClinical Professor of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology and Allergy, University of California School of Medicine, San Diego, CA, USAAbstract: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB is very common in both patients with asthma and those who are otherwise thought to be normal. The intensity of exercise as well as the type of exercise is important in producing symptoms. This may make some types of exercise such as swimming more suitable and extended running more difficult for patients with this condition. A better understanding of EIB will allow the physician to direct the patient towards a type of exercise and medications that can result in a more active lifestyle without the same concern for resulting symptoms. This is especially important for schoolchildren who are usually enrolled in physical education classes and elite athletes who may desire to participate in competitive sports. Fortunately several medications (short- and long-acting β2-agonists, cromolyn, nedocromil, inhaled corticosteroids, and more recently leukotriene modifiers have been shown to be effective in preventing or attenuating the effects of exercise in many patients. In addition, inhaled β2-agonists have been shown to quickly reverse the airway obstruction that develops in patients and continue to be the reliever medications of choice. Inhaled corticosteroids are increasingly being recommended as regular therapy now that the role of inflammation and airway injury has been identified in EIB. With the discovery that there is a release of mediators such as histamine and leukotrienes from cells in the airway following exercise with resulting airway obstruction in susceptible individuals, interest has turned to attenuating their effects with mediator antagonists especially those that block the effects of leukotrienes. Studies with an oral leukotriene antagonist, montelukast, have shown beneficial effects in adults and children aged as young as 6 years with EIB

  2. The effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise-induced hypoalgesia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher D; Gonglach, Alexander R; Renfroe, Jessica B; Hight, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    Exercise acutely reduces pain sensitivity, termed exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The mechanisms underlying EIH remain unclear. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist has been shown to attenuate EIH in animals-suggesting the involvement of the adenosinergic system. This pilot study investigated the effects of caffeine on pain sensitivity following cycling exercise in college-aged men. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and thermal pain threshold (TPT) were assessed in thirteen low caffeine consuming men prior to ingestion of a counter-balanced 5mg·kg(-1) dose of caffeine or a placebo (Pre), 60min following ingestion (Post-In), and then following a 15min bout of cycling exercise (Post-Ex) at an intensity eliciting a quadriceps muscle pain rating of 3 out of 10. Nine of the men completed follow-up testing which was identical except that the exercise consisted of 10min of cycling eliciting a pain rating of 5 out of 10. Caffeine had no effect compared to placebo on PPT (p≥0.15) or TPT (p≥0.41) 60min following ingestion and following exercise. PPT increased from 599±176kPa to 648±202kPa (p=0.009) and from 578±217kPa to 666±278kPa (p=0.01) following 15 and 10min of cycling, respectively. TPT increased from 46.2±2.9°C to 46.8±2.6°C (p=0.008) following the 15min exercise bout, but did not change (46.4±3.6°C vs. 46.8±3.3°C; p=0.24) following the shorter, higher intensity exercise bout. The results from this study indicate cycling exercise reduces pain sensitivity, especially to pressure stimuli. Caffeine ingestion did not alter the EIH response-suggesting adenosine may not play a prominent role in the EIH response in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noble Paul W

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a non-neoplastic pulmonary disease that is characterized by the formation of scar tissue within the lungs in the absence of any known provocation. IPF is a rare disease which affects approximately 5 million persons worldwide. The prevalence is estimated to be slightly greater in men (20.2/100,000 than in women (13.2/100,000. The mean age at presentation is 66 years. IPF initially manifests with symptoms of exercise-induced breathless and dry coughing. Auscultation of the lungs reveals early inspiratory crackles, predominantly located in the lower posterior lung zones upon physical exam. Clubbing is found in approximately 50% of IPF patients. Cor pulmonale develops in association with end-stage disease. In that case, classic signs of right heart failure may be present. Etiology remains incompletely understood. Some environmental factors may be associated with IPF (cigarette smoking, exposure to silica and livestock. IPF is recognized on high-resolution computed tomography by peripheral, subpleural lower lobe reticular opacities in association with subpleural honeycomb changes. IPF is associated with a pathological lesion known as usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP. The UIP pattern consists of normal lung alternating with patches of dense fibrosis, taking the form of collagen sheets. The diagnosis of IPF requires correlation of the clinical setting with radiographic images and a lung biopsy. In the absence of lung biopsy, the diagnosis of IPF can be made by defined clinical criteria that were published in guidelines endorsed by several professional societies. Differential diagnosis includes other idiopathic interstitial pneumonia, connective tissue diseases (systemic sclerosis, polymyositis, rheumatoid arthritis, forme fruste of autoimmune disorders, chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis and other environmental (sometimes occupational exposures. IPF is typically progressive and leads to significant

  4. Leptospirose pulmonar Pulmonary leptospirosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Cláudio Barroso Pereira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available No presente artigo, os autores discutem brevemente sobre a leptospirose, realçando a forma pulmonar da doença. Revê-se a patologia, achados clínicos, diagnóstico por métodos de imagem e broncoscopia e tratamento da leptospirose pulmonar. É também lembrado o diagnóstico clínico e radiológico precoces, para que se possa iniciar terapêutica adequada. Os autores concluem que a forma pulmonar da leptospirose deve ser sempre considerada como causa e diagnóstico diferencial da hemorragia alveolar difusa e síndroma de dificuldade respiratória do adulto.In this article, the authors discuss briefly the leptospirosis, emphasizing mainly the pulmonary form of disease. The authors review pathology, clinical findings, imaging and broncoscopy diagnosis, treatment of pulmonary leptospirosis. It is also remembered about early clinics and radiology diagnosis to start therapeutics. The authors conclude that pulmonary form of disease must always be remembered and considered as cause and differential diagnosis of Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage and Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome.

  5. Single molecular image of cytosolic free Ca2+ of skeletal muscle cells in rats pre- and post-exercise-induced fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Zhang, Heming; Zhao, Yanping; Liu, Zhiming

    2009-08-01

    A growing body of literature indicated the cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells changes significantly during exercise-induced fatigue. But it is confusing whether cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration increase or decrease. Furthermore, current researches mainly adopt muscle tissue homogenate as experiment material, but the studies based on cellular and subcellular level is seldom. This study is aimed to establish rat skeletal muscle cell model of exercise-induced fatigue, and confirm the change of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells in rats preand post- exercise-induced fatigue. In this research, six male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control group (n=3) and exercise-induced fatigue group (n=3). The former group were allowed to freely move and the latter were forced to loaded swimming to exhaustive. Three days later, all the rats were sacrificed, the muscle tissue from the same site of skeletal muscle were taken out and digested to cells. After primary culture of the two kinds of skeletal muscle cells from tissue, a fluorescent dye-Fluo-3 AM was used to label the cytosolic free Ca2+. The fluorescent of Ca2+ was recorded by confocal laser scanning microscopy. The results indicated that, the Ca2+ fluorescence intensity of cells from the rat of exercise-induced fatigue group was significantly higher than those in control group. In conclusion, cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration of skeletal muscle cells has a close relation with exercise-induced fatigue, and the increase of cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration may be one of the important factors of exercise-induced fatigue.

  6. Characterizing exercise-induced feelings after one bout of exercise among adolescents with and without bipolar disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniapillai, Mehala; Goldstein, Benjamin I; MacIntosh, Bradley J; Korczak, Daphne J; Ou, Xiao; Scavone, Antonette; Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly; Faulkner, Guy

    2016-01-15

    Exercise may be a practical, non-pharmacological strategy for symptom and health management for adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD). The purpose of this study was to determine if adolescents with BD experience changes in exercise-induced feelings from one bout of exercise similar to their otherwise healthy peers. Thirty-two adolescents with BD (Age (SD)=16.91 (1.4)) and 31 healthy adolescents (Age (SD)=15.68 (1.76)) completed the Exercise-Induced Feeling Inventory (EFI) before and after a 20-min bout of moderate intensity exercise (heart rate goal of 60-80% of the age estimated maximum [220 - 0.7*age]) on a cycle ergometer. Repeated-Measures ANCOVA was conducted on the four EFI subscales, controlling for age and BMI. There were no significant between-group differences on any subscales. An increase in Physical Exhaustion was of negligible effect size in both groups (BD: d=0.05; d=0.16). There was an improvement in Revitalization (BD: d=0.49; d=0.61) and a reduction in Tranquility (BD: d=-0.33; d=-0.29) post-exercise of moderate and small effect size, respectively. The control group reported an increase in Positive Engagement that was of small-to-medium effect size, (d=0.41) with negligible change in the BD group (d=0.17). Healthy adolescents reported a significantly greater tolerance for high intensity exercise than adolescents with BD. Emotions were only assessed at two time points. Adolescents with BD experience similar exercise-induced emotional benefits as their healthy peers. Experimental research is needed to examine the role of exercise as a strategy to regulate mood-related symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The Impact of Central and Peripheral Cyclooxygenase Enzyme Inhibition on Exercise-Induced Elevations in Core Body Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veltmeijer, Matthijs T W; Veeneman, Dineke; Bongers, Coen C C W; Netea, Mihai G; van der Meer, Jos W; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Hopman, Maria T E

    2017-05-01

    Exercise increases core body temperature (TC) due to metabolic heat production. However, the exercise-induced release of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-6 (IL-6) may also contribute to the rise in TC by increasing the hypothalamic temperature set point. This study investigated whether the exercise-induced increase in TC is partly caused by an altered hypothalamic temperature set point. Fifteen healthy, active men age 36 ± 14 y were recruited. Subjects performed submaximal treadmill exercise in 3 randomized test conditions: (1) 400 mg ibuprofen and 1000 mg acetaminophen (IBU/APAP), (2) 1000 mg acetaminophen (APAP), and (3) a control condition (CTRL). Acetaminophen and ibuprofen were used to block the effect of IL-6 at a central and peripheral level, respectively. TC, skin temperature, and heart rate were measured continuously during the submaximal exercise tests. Baseline values of TC, skin temperature, and heart rate did not differ across conditions. Serum IL-6 concentrations increased in all 3 conditions. A significantly lower peak TC was observed in IBU/APAP (38.8°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL (39.2°C ± 0.5°C, P = .02) but not in APAP (38.9°C ± 0.4°C) vs CTRL. Similarly, a lower ΔTC was observed in IBU/APAP (1.7°C ± 0.3°C) vs CTRL (2.0°C ± 0.5°C, P skin temperature and heart-rate responses across conditions. The combined administration of acetaminophen and ibuprofen resulted in an attenuated increase in TC during exercise compared with a CTRL. This observation suggests that a prostaglandin-E2-induced elevated hypothalamic temperature set point may contribute to the exercise-induced rise in TC.

  8. Diagnostic accuracy of exhaled nitric oxide in exercise-induced bronchospasm: Systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A.S. Feitosa

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The gold-standard method for the diagnosis of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB is an exercise test combined with spirometry. However, this test is expensive, time consuming and requires specialized equipment and trained personnel. Exhaled nitric oxide (eNO is a fast, easy, noninvasive method for the diagnosis of EIB. The aim of the present study was to assess the accuracy of the measurement of eNO for the diagnosis of EIB through a systematic review of the literature. Methods: A search was carried out in the PubMed, Lilacs, SciELO and SCOPUS databases by two independent researchers. Results: Fifty-six papers were found. Following the application of the eligibility criteria to the title, abstract and text, six papers remained for analysis. There was a significant heterogeneity in sex (X2 = 56.44, p = 0.000 and clinical spectrum (X2 = 504.00, p = 0.000 between studies. In children between 3.8 and 7.8 years old a cutoff point >28 ppb EIB can be ruled in and in children between 5 and 16 years old at a cutoff point 12. Four papers reported negative predictive values above 88%. Conclusion: The measurement of eNO seems to be effective for ruling in and ruling out EIB in some specific groups. Therefore, the meansurement of eNO levels could be an important tool to safely avoid the need for an exercise test when the result is negative, reducing the individual and economic impact of this disease. Resumo: Introdução: O método padrão de ouro para o diagnóstico de broncoespasmos induzidos por exercício (BIE é a prova de esforço combinada com a espirometria. Contudo, esta prova é dispendiosa, demorada e requer equipamento específico e pessoal especializado. O óxido nítrico exalado (eNO é um método rápido, simples e não invasivo para o diagnóstico de BIE. O objectivo do presente estudo foi o de aferir a acurácia do eNO para o diagnóstico do BIE através da revisão sistemática da literatura. Métodos: Foi efectuada

  9. Effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness evaluated by ultrasound real-time tissue elastography

    OpenAIRE

    Yanagisawa, Osamu; Sakuma, Jun; Kawakami, Yasuo; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the effect of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hardness and evaluate the relationship between muscle hardness and muscle damage indicators. Methods Seven men (mean 25.3?years; 172.7?cm; 66.8?kg) performed the single-leg ankle plantar flexion exercise involving both concentric and eccentric contractions (10 sets of 40 repetitions). The hardness of the medial gastrocnemius (MG) was evaluated using ultrasound real-time tissue elastography before, from day 1 to 4, and da...

  10. More pronounced effect of acute exercise-induced increase in circulating inflammatory markers in obese compared to lean subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Tore; Paulsen, Søren Kildeberg; Bruun, Jens Meldgaard

    2010-01-01

    the expression of IL-6 was increased significantly (pacute exercise is associated with an increase in circulating level of infammatory markers. Moreover, the fndings suggest that the systemic infammatory response to acute exercise is different in lean and obese......Objective: Exercise modulates the immune system and in young males acute exercise has been found associated with increased systemic level of infam-matory markers such as IL-6 and IL-8. In this study we investigated the impact of obesity on the exercise induced release of infammatory markers...

  11. Exercise-induced acute renal failure in a trainee cyclist without hypouricemia: Successful athletic career post-treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Yoko; Takaori, Koji; Maeda, Sayako

    2017-12-01

    Acute renal failure with severe loin pain and patchy renal ischemia after anaerobic exercise (ALPE) is exercise-induced acute renal failure that occurs without myoglobinuria. We describe a typical case involving an 18-year-old man. Generally, patients with ALPE are advised to avoid anaerobic exercise due to risk of recurrence, but our patient continued and went on to become a professional cyclist without relapse. About 51% of ALPE cases involve patients with renal hypouricemia. His serum uric acid levels were rather high, at 6.4 mg/dL. He is the first patient with ALPE to succeed as a professional athlete in an anaerobic sport.

  12. Exercise Induced Left Bundle Branch Block Treated with Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Case Report and a Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan S. Anderson

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced bundle branch block is a rare observation in exercise testing, accounting for 0.5 percent of exercise tests. The best treatment of this condition and its association with coronary disease remain unclear. We describe a case associated with normal coronary arteries which was successfully treated with exercise training. While this treatment has been used previously, our case has a longer followup than previously reported and demonstrates that the treatment is not durable in the absence of continued exercise.

  13. Effect of coenzyme Q10 supplementation on exercise-induced response of inflammatory indicators and blood lactate in male runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armanfar, Mostafa; Jafari, Afshar; Dehghan, Gholam Reza; Abdizadeh, Leila

    2015-01-01

    Heavy exercise cause muscle damage associated with production of inflammatory agents. The purpose of present study was to determine the effect of acute and 14-day Coenzyme Q10 supplementation on inflammatory, blood lactate and muscle damage in male middle-distance runners. Eighteen male middle-distance runners in a randomized and quasi experimental study were allocated into two equal groups: supplement group (n=9, Coenzyme Q10: 5mg/kg/day) and placebo group (n= 9, Dextrose: 5mg/kg/day). After acute (1day) and 14-day supplementation, all subjects were participated in a training like running (competitive 3000 meters). Blood samples were obtained in the four phases: one hour before and 18-24 hours after two running protocols. Lactate, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), C-reactive protein (CRP) and creatine kinase (CK) were analyzed. Repeated ANOVA and Bonferuni as a post hoc tests were used to determine the changes in four stages. Differences between groups were determined by t-test. The results showed that acute and short-term Coenzyme Q10 supplementation had not significant effect on basal parameters. The acute coenzyme Q10 supplementation attenuated only the exercise-induced increase in response of the plasma CRP. The short-term (14-day) coenzyme Q10 supplementation attenuated the exercise-induced increase in response of the lactate, serum interleukin- 6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and CRP in male middle-distance runners. However, the acute and short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation had not any significant effect on the exerciseinduced increase response of total serum creatine kinase. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that the 14-day coenzyme Q10 supplementation (5mg.kg-1.day-1) is more effective than the acute supplementation to overcome the exercise-induced adverse responses in some oxidative, inflammatory and biochemical parameters. Therefore, short-term coenzyme Q10 supplementation is recommended to reduce

  14. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling....... We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status...

  15. Specific Oral Tolerance Induction Using IFN-Gamma in 2 Cases of Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geunwoong Noh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis induced by exercise after the intake of certain foods is referred to as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA. Only the preventive medication such as oral sodium cromoglycate and oral combined cetirizine-montelukast was tried in FDEIA. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI using IFN-gamma was tried in 2 cases of FDEIA for wheat. Merely, exercise accompanied every treatment just after the intake of allergenic foods during treatment. Patients acquired tolerance for wheat in both cases successfully. After treatment, two patients take wheat in their food living freely. Conclusively, SOTI using IFN-gamma was effective as the causative treatment for allergenic foods in FDEIA.

  16. Exercise-induced increase in glucose transport, GLUT-4, and VAMP-2 in plasma membrane from human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, S; Hargreaves, Mark; Richter, Erik

    1996-01-01

    contractions may induce trafficking of GLUT-4-containing vesicles via a mechanism similar to neurotransmitter release. Our results demonstrate for the first time exercise-induced translocation of GLUT-4 and VAMP-2 to the plasma membrane of human muscle and increased sarcolemmal glucose transport.......A major effect of muscle contractions is an increase in sarcolemmal glucose transport. We have used a recently developed technique to produce sarcolemmal giant vesicles from human muscle biopsy samples obtained before and after exercise. Six men exercised for 10 min at 50% maximal O2 uptake (Vo2max...

  17. Acute hepatic response to diet modification and exercise-induced endotoxemia during a laboratory-based duathlon

    OpenAIRE

    PW Grandjean; ML Mestek; L Ratcliff; JK Taylor; F Araya-Ramírez; EP Plaisance; J Moncada-Jiménez; LF Aragon Vargas

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the acute hepatic response to diet modification and exercise-induced endotoxemia, and to determine if associations exist between liver damage markers, body core temperature, and IL-6 responses to a laboratory-based duathlon. Eleven moderately-trained healthy males followed a low-carbohydrate (CHO) and a high CHO diet to change their glycogen stores two-days before completing a duathlon. Blood samples were obtained at rest, immediately after and 1- and 2...

  18. Goodpasture's syndrome associated with pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komadina, K H; Houk, R W; Vicks, S L; Desrosier, K F; Ridley, D J; Boswell, R N

    1988-08-01

    Lung hemorrhage and antiglomerular basement membrane (anti-GBM) antibody mediated nephritis define Goodpasture's syndrome. We present the case of a 19-year-old Caucasian woman with unique clinical findings of Goodpasture's syndrome. Our patient initially presented with leukocytoclastic vasculitis of the skin followed by the development of nephritis and lung hemorrhage. An open lung biopsy done prior to diagnosing anti-GBM antibody disease demonstrated an intense eosinophilic vasculitis. Skin vasculitis has only been rarely reported, and to our knowledge this is the first reported case of pulmonary eosinophilic vasculitis associated with Goodpasture's syndrome.

  19. Surgical Embolectomy for Acute Pulmonary Thromboembolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ikuo; Daitoku, Kazuyuki

    2017-01-01

    Acute pulmonary thromboembolism is a catastrophic event, especially for hospitalized patients. The prognosis of pulmonary thromboembolism depends on the degree of pulmonary arterial occlusion. The mortality of massive pulmonary embolism is reportedly as high as 25% without cardiopulmonary arrest and 65% with cardiopulmonary arrest. In patients with unstable hemodynamics due to pulmonary thromboembolism, surgical pulmonary embolectomy is indicated for patients with a contraindication to thrombolysis, failed catheter therapy, or failed thrombolysis. Thrombolytic therapy adds an additional burden on patients who are at risk of potential hemorrhagic complications. It is also indicated if patients are already on a veno-arterial extra-corporate membrane oxygenator for circulatory collapse or cardiopulmonary arrest. The outcome for patients who require cardiopulmonary resuscitation for longer than 30 minutes is poor. Therefore, early triage for massive and sub-massive pulmonary embolism is crucial. A team approach including a cardiovascular surgeon may be effective to save critically ill patients. Prompt removal of emboli reduces the right ventricular load with quick recovery of cardiopulmonary function in the early postoperative period. A recent series reported excellent results, with in-hospital mortality of less than 10%. Surgical pulmonary embolectomy is an effective, safe, and easy procedure to save critical patients due to pulmonary thromboembolism. PMID:29034035

  20. Hemorrhagic shock: The "physiology approach"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrizio Giuseppe Bonanno

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A shift of approach from ′clinics trying to fit physiology′ to the one of ′physiology to clinics′, with interpretation of the clinical phenomena from their physiological bases to the tip of the clinical iceberg, and a management exclusively based on modulation of physiology, is finally surging as the safest and most efficacious philosophy in hemorrhagic shock. ATLS® classification and recommendations on hemorrhagic shock are not helpful because antiphysiological and potentially misleading. Hemorrhagic shock needs to be reclassified in the direction of usefulness and timing of intervention: in particular its assessment and management need to be tailored to physiology.

  1. Epidemic hemorrhagic fever complicated with late pregnancy: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao-Li; Hao, Dong; Wang, Xiao-Zhi; Wang, Tao; Lu, Feng; Liu, Weili; Lv, Bingjie; Lv, Chang-Jun

    2017-10-01

    Hantaviruses cause two forms of diseases in humans, namely hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) and hantavirus pulmonary syndrome. Hantavirus infections can occur in pregnant women, and could influence the maternal and fetal outcomes, although this is a rare finding, even in endemic areas. In this report, we describe anunusual case involving a pregnant woman with HFRS who was in a state of shock. Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome and septic shock. Timely termination of pregnancyalong with correction of the shock is very important to curb the inflammation and reduce organ damage. Although HFRS in pregnancy could pose a serious threat to the lives of the mother and the child. Our patient was successfully treated. Early and accurate diagnosis, anti-shock treatment, and timely termination of pregnancyare the key aspects of therapy for HFRS with late pregnancy.

  2. Effects of oral cetirizine, a selective H1 antagonist, on allergen- and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with asthma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gong, H

    1990-03-01

    The protective efficacy of oral cetirizine, a selective and potent H1-receptor antagonist, against the immediate bronchoconstrictive response to allergen inhalation and exercise challenge was evaluated in 16 subjects with stable, predominantly mild asthma. The subjects underwent double-blind, crossover pretreatments in randomized order in two separate protocols with (1) three daily oral doses of 20 mg of cetirizine and placebo, followed by allergen inhalation, and (2) single oral doses of cetirizine (5, 10, and 20 mg), albuterol (4 mg), and placebo, followed by exercise with cold-air inhalation. Cetirizine failed to decrease bronchial sensitivity to inhaled allergen in eight of 10 subjects. Neither cetirizine nor albuterol uniformly inhibited exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Serum concentrations of cetirizine were consistent with systemic H1-blocking activity. Modest bronchodilation occurred after administration of cetirizine and albuterol before exercise but not after the third dose of cetirizine in the allergen protocol. One subject developed moderate drowsiness during multiple dosing with cetirizine. Thus, cetirizine, in the doses studied, is not uniformly effective in preventing allergen- or exercise-induced bronchoconstriction. Histamine is one of many mediators participating in immediate asthmatic responses, and selective H1 antagonists do not completely block these airway events. However, cetirizine may still clinically benefit some patients with asthma, such as patients with allergic rhinitis or urticaria.

  3. Fatty acid synthase as a factor required for exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and dentate gyrus cellular proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorna, Nataliya E; Santos-Soto, Iván J; Carballeira, Nestor M; Morales, Joan L; de la Nuez, Janneliz; Cátala-Valentin, Alma; Chornyy, Anatoliy P; Vázquez-Montes, Adrinel; De Ortiz, Sandra Peña

    2013-01-01

    Voluntary running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Given that fatty acid synthase (FASN), the key enzyme for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, is critically involved in proliferation of embryonic and adult neural stem cells, we hypothesized that FASN could mediate both exercise-induced cell proliferation in the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the dentate gyrus (DG) and enhancement of spatial learning and memory. In 20 week-old male mice, voluntary running-induced hippocampal-specific upregulation of FASN was accompanied also by hippocampal-specific accumulation of palmitate and stearate saturated fatty acids. In experiments addressing the functional role of FASN in our experimental model, chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) microinfusions of C75, an irreversible FASN inhibitor, and significantly impaired exercise-mediated improvements in spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. Unlike the vehicle-injected mice, the C75 group adopted a non-spatial serial escape strategy and displayed delayed escape latencies during acquisition and memory tests. Furthermore, pharmacologic blockade of FASN function with C75 resulted in a significant reduction, compared to vehicle treated controls, of the number of proliferative cells in the DG of running mice as measured by immunoreactive to Ki-67 in the SGZ. Taken together, our data suggest that FASN plays an important role in exercise-mediated cognitive enhancement, which might be associated to its role in modulating exercise-induced stimulation of neurogenesis.

  4. Fatty acid synthase as a factor required for exercise-induced cognitive enhancement and dentate gyrus cellular proliferation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya E Chorna

    Full Text Available Voluntary running is a robust inducer of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Given that fatty acid synthase (FASN, the key enzyme for de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, is critically involved in proliferation of embryonic and adult neural stem cells, we hypothesized that FASN could mediate both exercise-induced cell proliferation in the subgranular zone (SGZ of the dentate gyrus (DG and enhancement of spatial learning and memory. In 20 week-old male mice, voluntary running-induced hippocampal-specific upregulation of FASN was accompanied also by hippocampal-specific accumulation of palmitate and stearate saturated fatty acids. In experiments addressing the functional role of FASN in our experimental model, chronic intracerebroventricular (i.c.v. microinfusions of C75, an irreversible FASN inhibitor, and significantly impaired exercise-mediated improvements in spatial learning and memory in the Barnes maze. Unlike the vehicle-injected mice, the C75 group adopted a non-spatial serial escape strategy and displayed delayed escape latencies during acquisition and memory tests. Furthermore, pharmacologic blockade of FASN function with C75 resulted in a significant reduction, compared to vehicle treated controls, of the number of proliferative cells in the DG of running mice as measured by immunoreactive to Ki-67 in the SGZ. Taken together, our data suggest that FASN plays an important role in exercise-mediated cognitive enhancement, which might be associated to its role in modulating exercise-induced stimulation of neurogenesis.

  5. Clinical significance of exercise-induced left ventricular wall motion abnormality occurring at a low heart rate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kimchi, A.; Rozanski, A.; Fletcher, C.; Maddahi, J.; Swan, H.J.; Berman, D.S.

    1987-10-01

    We studied the relationship between the heart rate at the time of onset of exercise-induced wall motion abnormality and the severity of coronary artery disease in 89 patients who underwent exercise equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography as part of their evaluation for coronary artery disease. Segmental wall motion was scored with a five-point system (3 = normal; -1 = dyskinesis); a decrease of one score defined the onset of wall motion abnormality. The onset of wall motion abnormality at less than or equal to 70% of maximal predicted heart rate had 100% predictive accuracy for coronary artery disease and higher sensitivity than the onset of ischemic ST segment depression at similar heart rate during exercise: 36% (25 of 69 patients with coronary disease) vs 19% (13 of 69 patients), p = 0.01. Wall motion abnormality occurring at less than or equal to 70% of maximal predicted heart rate was present in 49% of patients (23 of 47) with critical stenosis (greater than or equal to 90% luminal diameter narrowing), and in only 5% of patients (2 of 42) without such severe stenosis, p less than 0.001. The sensitivity of exercise-induced wall motion abnormality occurring at a low heart rate for the presence of severe coronary artery disease was similar to that of a deterioration in wall motion by more than two scores during exercise (49% vs 53%) or an absolute decrease of greater than or equal to 5% in exercise left ventricular ejection fraction (49% vs 45%).

  6. Endogenous Cannabinoid Signaling Is Required for Voluntary Exercise-induced Enhancement of Progenitor Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Matthew N.; Titterness, Andrea K.; Morrish, Anna C.; Carrier, Erica J.; Lee, Tiffany T.-Y.; Gil-Mohapel, Joana; Gorzalka, Boris B.; Hillard, Cecilia J.; Christie, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Voluntary exercise and endogenous cannabinoid activity have independently been shown to regulate hippocampal plasticity. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the endocannabinoid system is regulated by voluntary exercise and if these changes contribute to exercise-induced enhancement of cell proliferation. In Experiment 1, eight days of free access to a running wheel increased the agonist binding site density of the cannabinoid CB1 receptor; CB1 receptor-mediated GTPγS binding; and the tissue content of the endocannabinoid anandamide in the hippocampus but not in the prefrontal cortex. In Experiment 2, the CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 (1 mg/kg) was administered daily to animals given free access to a running wheel for 8 days, after which cell proliferation in the hippocampus was examined through immunohistochemical analysis of the cell cycle protein Ki-67. Voluntary exercise increased proliferation of progenitor cells, as evidenced by the increase in the number of Ki-67 positive cells in the granule cell layer of the dentate gyrus in the hippocampus. However, this effect was abrogated by concurrent treatment with AM251, indicating that the increase in endocannabinoid signaling in the hippocampus is required for the exercise-induced increase in cell proliferation. These data demonstrate that the endocannabinoid system in the hippocampus is sensitive to environmental change and suggest that it is a mediator of experience-induced plasticity. PMID:19489006

  7. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Carfagna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

  8. Oral Rg1 supplementation strengthens antioxidant defense system against exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat skeletal muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Szu-Hsien

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies reported divergent results on nutraceutical actions and free radical scavenging capability of ginseng extracts. Variations in ginsenoside profile of ginseng due to different soil and cultivating season may contribute to the inconsistency. To circumvent this drawback, we assessed the effect of major ginsenoside-Rg1 (Rg1 on skeletal muscle antioxidant defense system against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. Methods Forty weight-matched rats were evenly divided into control (N = 20 and Rg1 (N = 20 groups. Rg1 was orally administered at the dose of 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight per day for 10-week. After this long-term Rg1 administration, ten rats from each group performed an exhaustive swimming, and remaining rats considered as non-exercise control. Tibialis anterior (TA muscles were surgically collected immediately after exercise along with non-exercise rats. Results Exhaustive exercise significantly (p Conclusions This study provide compelling evidences that Rg1 supplementation can strengthen antioxidant defense system in skeletal muscle and completely attenuate the membrane lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive exercise. Our findings suggest that Rg1 can use as a nutraceutical supplement to buffer the exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  9. No influence of noradrenaline manipulation on acute exercise-induced increase of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goekint, Maaike; Heyman, Elsa; Roelands, Bart; Njemini, Rose; Bautmans, Ivan; Mets, Tony; Meeusen, Romain

    2008-11-01

    To examine the influence of a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) on the exercise-induced increase in circulating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 11 young, healthy male subjects were treated with either placebo or reboxetine. On each occasion, they performed a 60-min cycling exercise at 55% of their maximal power output (Wmax) followed by a time trial (TT) at 75% of Wmax. HR and ratings of perceived exertion were measured. Blood samples were taken at four time points. An increase in serum BDNF was found after exercise without any influence of drug administration on BDNF levels. Serum BDNF returned to resting levels after 15 min of recovery. Time trial (TT) performance was significantly worse after reboxetine intake. Serum cortisol increased in both trials during and after exercise and was significantly higher in the reboxetine trial. Also, HR was increased with reboxetine intake, probably because of the sympathomimetic effect of SNRI. Midterm memory was significantly impaired after the exercise protocol without difference between reboxetine and placebo trial. The administration of an SNRI has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in BDNF. However, effects were seen on serum cortisol, HR, and memory. Future research should focus on the effect of regular exercise training in combination with several reuptake inhibitors in both healthy and depressed subjects on BDNF and memory.

  10. Effects of methylprednisolone on exercise-induced increases of plasma levels of polymorphonuclear elastase and myeloperoxidase in man. Preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Camus

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify whether a single oral dose of methylprednisolone could modulate the exercise-induced release of polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN elastase and myeloperoxidase. Four healthy, male subjects were submitted to a 20 min downhill run (−20% at 60% VO2 max, 3 h after oral absorption of a placebo or a single dose of 32 mg methylprednisolone. A marked neutrophilia (+103% of basal PMN count; p < 0.02 was observed 3 h after methylprednisolone ingestion. During both exercise trials, placebo and methylprednisolone, PMN counts were increased by 46% and 19% (p < 0.05, respectively. The running test caused marked and significant (p < 0.05 increases in plasma myeloperoxidase concentration (MPO. The magnitude of MPO changes was the same in the two trials (+110%. Exercise also resulted in significant changes in plasma elastase concentration (EL in both experimental conditions (placebo: +104%, p < 0.05; methylprednisolone: +338%, p < 0.005. Plasma elastase levels reached at the end of exercise on methylprednisolone were significantly higher than after placebo (p < 0.05. A significant relationship was found between EL and PMN in methylprednisolone trial only (r = 0.72; l0 < 0.005. These results showed that the transient exercise-induced release of elastase and myeloperoxidase were not decreased by methylprednisolone.

  11. Hemorrhagic Lacrimation and Epistaxis in Acute Hemorrhagic Edema of Infancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shireen Mreish

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute hemorrhagic edema of infancy is an uncommon benign cutaneous vasculitis. Despite its worrisome presentation, it carries good prognosis with rarely reported systemic involvement. Management of these cases has been an area of debate with majority of physicians adopting conservative modalities. We report a case that presented with classic triad of rash, low grade fever, and peripheral edema along with two rarely reported manifestations in literature: hemorrhagic lacrimation and epistaxis.

  12. [Subarachnoid hemorrhage associated to subhyaloid hemorrhage: "Terson syndrome"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castaño-Duque, C H; Pons-Irazazabal, L C; López-Moreno, J L

    1997-07-01

    The combination of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and subhyaloid hemorrhage is known as 'Terson syndrome'. Retinal hemorrhage is commonly observed clinically in the optic fundi of patients with SAH, however, subhyaloid hemorrhage of the globe in the setting of SAH has been rarely on CT of the brain. Several mechanisms of subhyaloid hemorrhage have been proposed: a. A sudden increase in intracranial pressure (ICP) forces blood from the subarachnoid space directly into the preretinal space. b. A sudden rise in ICP is thought to decrease venous return to the cavernous sinus from the veins draining the globe. The increased retinal venous pressure results in stasis followed by vessel rupture. c. A sudden rise in ICP obstructs both the retinochoroidal anastomoses and the central retinal vein due to a rapid effusion of CSF through the communication of the subarachnoid space with the optic nerve sheat. This produces an acute decrease in venous drainage from the retina and results in stasis and hemorrhage. A 35 year old man, with a history of a non controlled arterial hypertension, dilated cardiopathy and 'agitation episodes'. He had a spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, consistent in a parenchymal hematoma ruptured into ventricles and subarachnoid space. The CT showed through optic nerve sheath this hemorrhage extended to subhyaloid space. The patient came in coma 'dépassé' and brain death. We report a case of Terson syndrome demonstrated by CT. This CT allow see the blood from the subarachnoid space erupt directly into the preretinal space through optic nerve sheath, confirming one the proposed mechanism for this syndrome.

  13. Neuroprotective strategies following intraparenchymal hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babadjouni, Robin Moshe; Radwanski, Ryan E; Walcott, Brian P; Patel, Arati; Durazo, Ramon; Hodis, Drew M; Emanuel, Benjamin A; Mack, William J

    2017-12-01

    Intracerebral hemorrhage and, more specifically, intraparenchymal hemorrhage, are devastating disease processes with poor clinical outcomes. Primary injury to the brain results from initial hematoma expansion while secondary hemorrhagic injury occurs from blood-derived products such as hemoglobin, heme, iron, and coagulation factors that overwhelm the brains natural defenses. Novel neuroprotective treatments have emerged that target primary and secondary mechanisms of injury. Nonetheless, translational application of neuroprotectants from preclinical to clinical studies has yet to show beneficial clinical outcomes. This review summarizes therapeutic agents and neuroprotectants in ongoing clinical trials aimed at targeting primary and secondary mechanisms of injury after intraparenchymal hemorrhage. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  14. Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Report and Review of the Diagnosis and Treatment of a Rare but Potentially Life-Threatening Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan T. Jaqua

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old male Marine with an uncomplicated medical history and a long history of strenuous, daily exercise presented to the emergency department after experiencing anaphylactic shock while running. Symptoms resolved following administration of intramuscular diphenhydramine, ranitidine, intravenous methylprednisolone, and intravenous fluids. On followup in the allergy clinic, a meticulous clinical history was obtained which elucidated a picture consistent with exercise-induced anaphylaxis. He had experienced diffuse pruritus and urticaria while exercising on multiple occasions over the last three years. His symptoms would usually increase as exercise continued. Prior to the first episode, he regularly exercised without symptoms. Exercise-induced anaphylaxis is a rare but potentially life-threatening syndrome that requires a careful clinical history and is a diagnosis of exclusion. Treatment is primarily exercise avoidance. Prophylactic mediations are inconsistently effective but are empirically used. Successful treatment with omalizumab was recently reported in a case of refractory exercise-induced anaphylaxis.

  15. Severe bleeding complications other than intracranial hemorrhage in neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia: a case series and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelhorst, Dian; Kamphuis, Marije M; de Kloet, Liselotte C; Zwaginga, Jaap Jan; Oepkes, Dick; Lopriore, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    The most feared bleeding complication in fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). However, FNAIT may also lead to other severe bleeding problems. The aim was to analyze this spectrum and evaluate the occurrence of severe hemorrhages other than ICH in fetuses or neonates with FNAIT. A retrospective chart analysis of cases of FNAIT presenting with severe bleeding complications other than ICH at our institution from 1990 to 2015 was conducted. Additionally, a review of the literature was performed to identify case reports and case series on FNAIT presenting with extracranial hemorrhage. Of 25 fetuses or neonates with severe bleeding due to FNAIT, three had isolated severe internal organ hemorrhage other than ICH, two pulmonary hemorrhages and one gastrointestinal hemorrhage. Two of these three neonates died due to this bleeding. Eighteen cases of extracranial bleeding complications as a first presentation of FNAIT were found in the literature, including ocular, gastrointestinal, spinal cord, pulmonary, renal, subgaleal, and genitourinary hemorrhages. Bleeding complications other than ICH may be more extensive, and the presentation of FNAIT may have a greater spectrum than previously described. A high index of suspicion on the possible diagnosis of FNAIT with any bleeding complication in a fetus or neonate may enable adequate diagnostics, adequate treatment, and appropriate follow-up in future pregnancies, as is especially relevant for FNAIT. © 2016 AABB.

  16. Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever

    OpenAIRE

    Ergonul, O.

    2016-01-01

    Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a geographically widespread pathogen that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with high mortality. Although it is primarily zoonosis, sporadic cases and outbreaks of CCHF affecting humans do occur. The disease is endemic in many countries in Africa, Europe and Asia, and during 2002-2006, is has been reported in Turkey. People become infected through tick bites (especially Hyalomma spp.), by crushing infected ticks, after contact with a patient with...

  17. Pulmonary hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauro Martins Júnior

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary hypertension is a pathological condition associated with various diseases, which must be remembered by the physicians, since early diagnosis may anticipate and avoid dangerous complications and even death if appropriate measures were not taken. The relationship with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, important pathological process that is in increasing prevalence in developing countries, and leading position as cause of death, emphasizes its importance. Here are presented the classifications, pathophysiology, and general rules of treatment of pulmonary hypertension.

  18. Free fatty acid kinetics in the late phase of postexercise recovery: importance of resting fatty acid metabolism and exercise-induced energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magkos, Faidon; Mohammed, B Selma; Patterson, Bruce W; Mittendorfer, Bettina

    2009-09-01

    Free fatty acid (FFA) availability increases several-fold during exercise and remains significantly elevated for at least 3 to 6 hours after exercise cessation. Little, however, is known regarding the duration of the postexercise rise in FFA flux. In the present study, we used stable isotope-labeled palmitate infusion to examine fatty acid metabolism in 27 healthy untrained men and women (age, 29 +/- 7 years; body mass index, 25 +/- 4 kg/m2) between 13 to 16 hours and 21 to 24 hours after a single bout of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (1-2 hours at 60% of peak oxygen consumption), performed in the evening, and after a time-matched resting trial. Postabsorptive FFA rate of appearance (Ra) and FFA concentration in plasma were significantly greater after exercise than rest throughout the recovery period (P exercise-induced increases declined from approximately 40% at 13 to 16 hours to approximately 10% at 21 to 24 hours postexercise (P = .001). The magnitude of the exercise-induced increase in plasma FFA concentration was proportional to the increase in FFA Ra. Correlation analysis demonstrated that exercise-induced changes in plasma FFA Ra at 13 to 16 hours are (1) negatively associated with resting plasma FFA Ra and (2) positively associated with the net energy expenditure of exercise and the exercise-induced changes in whole-body fat oxidation rate (all P values exercise (P exercise-induced change in plasma FFA Ra at 13 to 16 hours. We conclude that the exercise-induced increase in FFA mobilization is (1) long-lived, persisting for 12 to 24 hours after exercise, with a progressive decline with time; (2) greater in subjects with low than high resting plasma FFA availability; and (3) greater after exercise with high than low energy demand.

  19. Assessment of Pulmonary Capillary Blood Volume, Membrane Diffusing Capacity, and Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Anastomoses During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedjasaputra, Vincent; van Diepen, Sean; Collins, Sophie É; Michaelchuk, Wade M; Stickland, Michael K

    2017-02-20

    Exercise is a stress to the pulmonary vasculature. With incremental exercise, the pulmonary diffusing capacity (DLCO) must increase to meet the increased oxygen demand; otherwise, a diffusion limitation may occur. The increase in DLCO with exercise is due to increased capillary blood volume (Vc) and membrane diffusing capacity (Dm). Vc and Dm increase secondary to the recruitment and distension of pulmonary capillaries, increasing the surface area for gas exchange and decreasing pulmonary vascular resistance, thereby attenuating the increase in pulmonary arterial pressure. At the same time, the recruitment of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses (IPAVA) during exercise may contribute to gas exchange impairment and/or prevent large increases in pulmonary artery pressure. We describe two techniques to evaluate pulmonary diffusion and circulation at rest and during exercise. The first technique uses multiple-fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) DLCO breath holds to determine Vc and Dm at rest and during exercise. Additionally, echocardiography with intravenous agitated saline contrast is used to assess IPAVAs recruitment. Representative data showed that the DLCO, Vc, and Dm increased with exercise intensity. Echocardiographic data showed no IPAVA recruitment at rest, while contrast bubbles were seen in the left ventricle with exercise, suggesting exercise-induced IPAVA recruitment. The evaluation of pulmonary capillary blood volume, membrane diffusing capacity, and IPAVA recruitment using echocardiographic methods is useful to characterize the ability of the lung vasculature to adapt to the stress of exercise in health as well as in diseased groups, such as those with pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  20. A Toddler Presenting with Pulmonary Renal Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florence A. Aeschlimann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary renal syndrome refers to an association of pulmonary and glomerular disease and includes disorders, such as the ANCA-associated vasculitides, anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, and IgA vasculitis (Henoch-Schönlein purpura. We present the medical history of a 26-month-old boy with an extensive purpuric rash, involving the limbs, trunk, and face, who developed clinically significant pulmonary hemorrhage and renal involvement. Rapid recognition of this rare but potentially life-threatening condition is crucial. In this report, we discuss the differential diagnosis, diagnostic studies, and treatment options to consider when facing a young child presenting with a pulmonary renal syndrome.

  1. Exercise-induced skeletal muscle deoxygenation in O-supplemented COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogiatzis, I; Athanasopoulos, D; Stratakos, G

    2009-01-01

    This study was designed to assess quadriceps oxygenation during symptom-limited and constant-load exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and healthy age-matched controls. Thirteen male COPD patients [FEV(1): 43 +/- 5% predicted (mean +/- SEM)] and seven healthy male...... hemoglobin to total hemoglobin and reflects the relative contributions of tissue O2 delivery and tissue O2 utilization. Oxygen was supplemented to all patients in order to maintain arterial O2 saturation normal (> 95%). The StO2 decreased during symptom-limited exercise, reaching the nadir at peak WR...... subjects (19.0 +/- 5.2 and 15.6 +/- 2.5 s, respectively). In O2-supplemented COPD patients, peripheral muscle oxygenation for a given work load is similar to that in healthy subjects, thus suggesting that skeletal muscle O2 consumption becomes normal for a given O2 delivery in COPD patients...

  2. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    understood. Objectives: To evaluate exercise related changes in laryngeal aperture on ventilation, pulmonary mechanics and respiratory neural drive. Methods: We prospectively evaluated 12 subjects (six with EILO and six healthy age- and gender-matched controls). Subjects underwent baseline spirometry...... of respiratory mechanics and diaphragm electromyography with endoscopic video we demonstrate, for the first time, increased work of breathing and respiratory neural drive in association with the development of EILO. Future detailed investigations are now needed to understand the role of upper airway closure...... and a symptom-limited incremental exercise test with simultaneous and synchronized recording of endoscopic video, gastric-, esophageal- and transdiaphragmatic pressures, diaphragm electromyography and respiratory airflow. Results: The EILO and control groups had similar peak work rates and minute ventilation...

  3. Massive fetomaternal hemorrhage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rune; Berkowicz, Adela; Lousen, Thea

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The clearance of D+ red blood cells (RBCs) from the circulation in D- individuals mediated by passively administered anti-D occurs by opsonization with the antibody and subsequent removal in the spleen. Few data exist on the kinetics of clearance of large volumes of D+ RBCs from...... the maternal circulation by anti-D in clinical cases of massive fetomaternal hemorrhage (FMH). CASE REPORT: A 33-year-old D- woman delivered a D+ female infant by emergency cesarean section for suspected fetal anemia. A massive FMH, initially estimated to be approximately 142 mL of RBCs, was found. In addition...... had no detectable anti-D 6 months after delivery. RESULTS: No clearance of fetal cells was apparent after the insufficient dose of IM anti-D. The IV administration of anti-D caused accelerated clearance of D+ fetal RBCs with a t1/2 of 24.5 hours. D+ reticulocytes comprised 4.2 percent of all D+ cells...

  4. Spontaneous Intracapsular Tonsillar Hemorrhage

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    Güçlü Beriat

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this case report, we discussed a case of spontaneous intracapsular tonsillar haemorrhage appearing as a tumor medial to the left palatine tonsil and clinging to the tonsillar tissue with a pedicle. The patient was a 30 years old healthy pregnant woman. She had a growing sensation of a lump in her oropharynx and dysphagia in the past three months. She had no history of acute and chronic tonsillitis or trauma. On examination, a mobile brown mass with a 2 cm diameter having a small pedicle at the upper pole of the left palatine tonsil was seen. Other laboratory results were normal. The mass was excised under general anesthesia. Histological evaluation revealed tonsillar intracapsular bleeding with lymphoepi-thelial tissue and acute hemorrhagic fields bounded by a capsule. A postpartum tonsillectomy was planned for our patient. Tonsillectomy must be performed to patients followed up with this diagnosis in order to differentiate between dyspha-gia, risks of bleeding and aspiration, and malignant tumors.

  5. Learn About Pulmonary Fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Become An Advocate Volunteer Ways To Give Pulmonary Fibrosis www.lung.org > Lung Health and Diseases > Lung ... Pulmonary Fibrosis > Introduction Share this page: Introduction to Pulmonary Fibrosis What Is Pulmonary Fibrosis? Pulmonary fibrosis is a ...

  6. The role of nutritional supplements in the prevention and treatment of resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J

    2007-01-01

    The topic of exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury has received considerable attention in recent years. Likewise, strategies to minimise the injury resulting from heavy resistance exercise have been studied. Over the past 15 years, several investigations have been performed focused on the role of nutritional supplements to attenuate signs and symptoms of muscle injury. Of these, some have reported favourable results, while many others have reported no benefit of the selected nutrient. Despite these mixed findings, recommendations for the use of nutritional supplements for the purposes of attenuating muscle injury are rampant within the popular fitness media and athletic world, largely without scientific support. Those nutrients include the antioxidant vitamin C (ascorbic acid) and vitamin E (tocopherol), N-acetyl-cysteine, flavonoids, L-carnitine, astaxanthin, beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate, creatine monohydrate, essential fatty acids, branched-chain amino acids, bromelain, proteins and carbohydrates. A discussion of all published peer-reviewed articles in reference to these nutrients and their impact on resistance exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury is presented, in addition to a brief view into the potential mechanism of action for each nutrient.Based on the current state of knowledge, the following conclusions can be made with regard to nutritional supplements and their role in attenuating signs and symptoms of skeletal muscle injury occurring as a consequence of heavy resistance exercise: (i) there appears to be a potential role for certain supplements (vitamin C, vitamin E, flavonoids, and L-carnitine); (ii) these supplements cannot effectively eliminate muscle injury, only attenuate certain signs and symptoms; (iii) it is presently unclear what the optimal dosage of these nutrients is (whether used alone or in combination); (iv) it is unclear what the optimal pretreatment period is; and (v) the effectiveness is largely specific to non

  7. The Harmful Effects of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage on Extracerebral Organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH is a devastating neurological disorder. Patients with aneurysmal SAH develop secondary complications that are important causes of morbidity and mortality. Aside from secondary neurological injuries, SAH has been associated with nonneurologic medical complications, such as neurocardiogenic injury, neurogenic pulmonary edema, hyperglycemia, and electrolyte imbalance, of which cardiac and pulmonary complications are most common. The related mechanisms include activation of the sympathetic nervous system, release of catecholamines and other hormones, and inflammatory responses. Extracerebral complications are directly related to the severity of SAH-induced brain injury and indicate the clinical outcome in patients. This review provides an overview of the extracerebral complications after SAH. We also aim to describe the manifestations, underlying mechanisms, and the effects of those extracerebral complications on outcome following SAH.

  8. Acute pulmonary edema after intramyometrial prostodin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Baduni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 25 year old, 68 kg, primigravida, was taken up for emergency caesarean section for meconium stained liquor and fetal distress. She was a known case of pre eclampsia and her blood pressure was controlled on tab methyl dopa. she was administered general anaesthesia. after delivery of baby she went into postpartum hemorrhage which was controlled with intramyometrial prostodin. but immediately after its administration she went into acute pulmonary edema.

  9. Effect of acute exercise-induced fatigue on maximal rate of heart rate increase during submaximal cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Rebecca L; Rogers, Daniel K; Howe, Peter R C; Buckley, Jonathan D

    2016-01-01

    Different mathematical models were used to evaluate if the maximal rate of heart rate (HR) increase (rHRI) was related to reductions in exercise performance resulting from acute fatigue. Fourteen triathletes completed testing before and after a 2-h run. rHRI was assessed during 5 min of 100-W cycling and a sigmoidal (rHRIsig) and exponential (rHRIexp) model were applied. Exercise performance was assessed using a 5-min cycling time-trial. The run elicited reductions in time-trial performance (1.34 ± 0.19 to 1.25 ± 0.18 kJ · kg(-1), P exercise HR (73.0 ± 8.4 to 90.5 ± 11.4 beats · min(-1), P exercise and steady-state HR. rHRIsig was reduced following acute exercise-induced fatigue, and correlated with difference in performance.

  10. Exercise-induced left bundle branch block and subsequent mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony -resolved with pharmacological therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with depressed ejection fraction (EF) of 35% and QRS width of 88 ms at rest was admitted to our institution with a complaint of exertional chest discomfort and dyspnea. During treadmill exercise, left bundle-branch block (LBBB) with a QRS width of 152 ms occurred at a heart rate of 100 bpm. During LBBB, the patient showed significant mechanical dyssynchrony as evidenced by a two-dimensional speckle tracking radial strain of 260 ms (≥130 ms), defined as the time difference between anterior-septum and posterior wall. Five-month after carvedilol and candesartan administration, EF had improved to 49% and LBBB did not occur until a heart rate of 126 bpm was attained during treadmill exercise. It appears that pharmacological therapy may be useful for patients with heart failure and exercise-induced LBBB. PMID:21294925

  11. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) is considered an important role in the muscular adaptations to exercise. It has been proposed that exercise-induced signaling to mTORC1 do not require classic growth factor PI3K/Akt signaling. Activation of IKKβ and the mitogen-activated protein......), TSC1, MAPK, and upstream Akt activators, along with gene expression of selected cytokines, in skeletal muscles from these subjects. Biopsies were sampled prior to, immediately after, and in the recovery period following resistance exercise, endurance exercise, and control interventions. The major...... other groups immediately after the intervention. Resistance and endurance exercise increased IL6, IL8, and TNFα gene expression immediately after exercise. The non-exercise control group demonstrated that cytokine gene expression is also sensitive to repeated biopsy sampling, whereas no effect...

  12. Comparison of exercise-induced hypertension in low birth weight and normal birth weight young black adults in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chifamba, Jephat; Chakanyuka, Kudakwashe E; Longo-Mbenza, Benjamin; Mahachi, Carol B; Mufunda, Jacob

    2012-09-01

    The objective of the study was to compare blood pressure changes during exercise between low and normal birth weight young Black adults. Eighty medical students in their first and second year who had neonatal clinic cards as proof of birth weight were included in the study. Resting blood pressures and heart rates were recorded. Participants then underwent a multistage 9-minute exercise stress test while blood pressure responses were recorded at 3-minute intervals. The study was conducted in the Department of Physiology, University of Zimbabwe, College of Health Sciences, Harare, Zimbabwe. Of the 80 subjects recruited, 34 had low birth weight (LBW), 26 of these were female and 8 were male. The proportion of LBW individuals, 62% (n = 21), who developed exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) was significantly higher (p exercise protocol compared with the NBW group. LBW was associated with EIH in these young Black adults.

  13. Adrenaline but not noradrenaline is a determinant of exercise-induced lipid mobilization in human subcutaneous adipose tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Glisezinski, I; Larrouy, D; Bajzova, M

    2009-01-01

    for age and physical fitness performed 60 min exercise bouts at 50% of their maximal oxygen consumption on two occasions: (1) during i.v. infusion of octreotide, and (2) during placebo infusion. Lipolysis and local blood flow changes in SCAT were evaluated using in situ microdialysis. Infusion......The relative contribution of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) and adrenaline (epinephrine) in the control of lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) during exercise was evaluated in men treated with a somatostatin analogue, octreotide. Eight lean and eight obese young men matched...... of octreotide suppressed plasma insulin and growth hormone levels at rest and during exercise. It blocked the exercise-induced increase in plasma adrenaline while that of noradrenaline was unchanged. Plasma natriuretic peptides (NPs) level was higher at rest and during exercise under octreotide infusion in lean...

  14. Exercise-induced left bundle branch block and subsequent mechanical left ventricular dyssynchrony -resolved with pharmacological therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsumi Kazuhiro

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A 53-year-old man with depressed ejection fraction (EF of 35% and QRS width of 88 ms at rest was admitted to our institution with a complaint of exertional chest discomfort and dyspnea. During treadmill exercise, left bundle-branch block (LBBB with a QRS width of 152 ms occurred at a heart rate of 100 bpm. During LBBB, the patient showed significant mechanical dyssynchrony as evidenced by a two-dimensional speckle tracking radial strain of 260 ms (≥130 ms, defined as the time difference between anterior-septum and posterior wall. Five-month after carvedilol and candesartan administration, EF had improved to 49% and LBBB did not occur until a heart rate of 126 bpm was attained during treadmill exercise. It appears that pharmacological therapy may be useful for patients with heart failure and exercise-induced LBBB.

  15. Idiopathic ventricular arrhythmias detected by an implantable loop recorder in a child with exercise-induced syncope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdeniz, Celal; Ozyilmaz, Isa; Saygi, Murat; Ergul, Yakup; Tuzcu, Volkan

    2013-01-01

    Syncope is common in the general population. Despite extensive evaluation, including tilt-table testing and electrophysiologic studies, approximately 30% of cases of recurrent syncope remain unexplained. An implantable loop recorder can be used for diagnosis when recurrent syncope has an idiopathic cause. We present the case of a 9-year-old boy who had a history of recurrent, exercise-induced syncope. Results of physical examination and noninvasive diagnostic testing were inconclusive, and an electrophysiologic study revealed no inducible supraventricular or ventricular arrhythmias. Sixteen months after an implantable loop recorder was placed, the patient had a syncopal episode while swimming in a pool. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation was performed, and data from the loop recorder revealed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. A cardioverter-defibrillator was subsequently implanted. Implantable loop recorders can play an important role in the diagnosis of life-threatening arrhythmias in children whose syncope is otherwise unexplained.

  16. Dengue virus identification by transmission electron microscopy and molecular methods in fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, D; Falcón, V; Torres, G; Capó, V; Menéndez, I; Rosario, D; Castellanos, Y; Alvarez, M; Rodríguez-Roche, R; de la Rosa, M C; Pavón, A; López, L; González, K; Guillén, G; Diaz, J; Guzmán, M G

    2012-12-01

    Dengue virus is the most significant virus transmitted by arthropods worldwide and may cause a potentially fatal systemic disease named dengue hemorrhagic fever. In this work, dengue virus serotype 4 was detected in the tissues of one fatal dengue hemorrhagic fever case using electron immunomicroscopy and molecular methods. This is the first report of dengue virus polypeptides findings by electron immunomicroscopy in human samples. In addition, not-previously-documented virus-like particles visualized in spleen, hepatic, brain, and pulmonary tissues from a dengue case are discussed.

  17. Effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis in obese subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdmann, J; Tholl, S; Schusdziarra, V

    2010-04-01

    Exercise is an important part of obesity treatment concepts to support fat mobilisation from adipose tissue and also fat oxidation nolich is impaired in obese subjects. In normal weight subjects it is well known that stimulation of plasma insulin levels by a carbohydrate meal can inhibit lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation. Since obese subjects frequently have elevated basal and postprandial insulin levels the effect of carbohydrate- and protein-rich test meals on exercise-induced activation of lipolysis is of special interest. Twenty obese subjects performed bicycle exercise for 30 min in the fasted state, 30 min after a carbohydrate-or a protein-rich meal, and 120 min after the carbohydrate meal (n=12), respectively, at low intensity. Activation of lipolysis was assessed by plasma glycerol levels. In addition, plasma insulin, glucose, and lactate concentrations were determined. In comparison to the fasted state, the carbohydrate meal suppressed activation of lipolysis. Following the protein meal, exercise led to an attenuated but significant increase of glycerol levels. A similar rise was observed when the carbohydrate meal was ingested 2 h prior to the exercise bout. To improve exercise-induced lipolysis and subsequent fat oxidation during low-intensity exercise obese subjects should not ingest carbohydrates immediately before exercise. Hunger sensations should be satisfied with protein-rich food. When carbohydrates are consumed 2 h prior to exercise its lipolytic effect is comparable to the protein meal. These data are useful in every day dietary counselling and might help to improve weight loss during obesity treatment. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart New York.

  18. BDNF-stimulated intracellular signalling mechanisms underlie exercise-induced improvement in spatial memory in the male Wistar rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechara, Ranya G; Lyne, Ronan; Kelly, Áine M

    2014-12-15

    Exercise-induced improvements in learning are associated with neurotrophic and neurogenic changes in the dentate gyrus, but the intracellular signalling mechanisms that may mediate these improvements remain unknown. In the current study we investigate the effects of one week of forced exercise on spatial memory and analyse in parallel BDNF-stimulated signalling pathways in cells of the dentate gyrus. Additionally, we test whether a single intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of BDNF can mimic the observed cognitive and signalling changes. Male Wistar rats were assigned to exercised and sedentary groups and tested in a spatial task post-exercise. Tissue from the dentate gyrus was assessed for expression and release of BDNF, and for changes in expression and activation of TrkB, ERK and synapsin-1. In a separate set of experiments, male Wistar rats received a single i.c.v. injection of BDNF and were then tested in the same spatial learning task. Exercised and BDNF-treated (but not control) rats could successfully complete an object displacement task that tests spatial learning. Exercised rats and BDNF-treated rats displayed increases BDNF expression and ERK1 activation, while exercised rats showed increases in cell division, stimulated BDNF release, TrkB activation, and synapsin-1 expression in the dentate gyrus. We conclude that exercise-induced increases in BDNF in the dentate gyrus are sufficient to cause improvements in spatial memory by activating signalling cascades that enhance synaptic transmission in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Exercise-Induced Lipid Metabolism in Patients With Obesity and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, Stefan; Stinkens, Rudi; Heise, Tim; May, Marcus; Goossens, Gijs H; Blaak, Ellen E; Havekes, Bas; Jax, Thomas; Albrecht, Diego; Pal, Parasar; Tegtbur, Uwe; Haufe, Sven; Langenickel, Thomas H; Jordan, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a novel angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin degrades several peptides that modulate lipid metabolism, including natriuretic peptides. In this study, we investigated the effects of 8 weeks' treatment with sacubitril/valsartan on whole-body and adipose tissue lipolysis and lipid oxidation during defined physical exercise compared with the metabolically neutral comparator amlodipine. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group study enrolling subjects with abdominal obesity and moderate hypertension (mean sitting systolic blood pressure ≥130-180 mm Hg). Lipolysis during rest and exercise was assessed by microdialysis and [1,1,2,3,3- 2 H]-glycerol tracer kinetics. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured simultaneously using indirect calorimetry. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, insulin, glucose, adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations, blood pressure, and heart rate were also determined. Exercise elevated plasma glycerol, free fatty acids, and interstitial glycerol concentrations and increased the rate of glycerol appearance. However, exercise-induced stimulation of lipolysis was not augmented on sacubitril/valsartan treatment compared with amlodipine treatment. Furthermore, sacubitril/valsartan did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during exercise compared with amlodipine treatment. In conclusion, sacubitril/valsartan treatment for 8 weeks did not elicit clinically relevant changes in exercise-induced lipolysis or substrate oxidation in obese patients with hypertension, implying that its beneficial cardiovascular effects cannot be explained by changes in lipid metabolism during exercise. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01631864. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  1. The effect of mouth breathing on exercise induced fall in lung function in children with allergic asthma and rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Živković, Jelena; Lipej, Marcel; Bulat Lokas, Sandra; Erceg, Damir; Anzić, Srđan Ante; Magdić, Robert; Plavec, Davor

    2016-07-01

    Exercise induced bronchospasm (EIB) represents a common feature of childhood asthma which is most commonly revealed during free running. On the other hand aerobic exercise shows significant beneficial effects in asthmatics especially on the reduction of the level of systemic inflammation and is recommended as part of its treatment. The aim of this study was to test how mandatory mouth breathing influences the exercise induced level of decrease in lung function according to the level of severity of allergic rhinitis (AR). Free 6-minute running test preceded and followed by spirometry done with and without a nose clip a day apart was conducted in 55 children with moderate persistent asthma and AR. Children were divided into two groups according to the severity of nasal symptoms. There was a greater fall in forced expiratory volume in one second after exercise with a nose clip in children with less nasal symptoms than in children with more nasal symptoms (mean ± SD; -5.28 (7.91) vs. -0.08 (4.58), p = 0.0228) compared to testing without the nose clip (mean ± SD; LNS, -1.31 ± 3.89%, p = 0.2408; MNS, -1.47 ± 3.68%, p = 0.2883). Our results show that regular mouth breathing due to nasal congestion may lessen the degree of EIB in patients with persistent AR and allergic asthma. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of green tea extract supplementation on exercise-induced oxidative stress parameters in male sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jówko, Ewa; Długołęcka, Barbara; Makaruk, Beata; Cieśliński, Igor

    2015-08-01

    Although research suggests that antioxidant supplementation can protect against exercise-induced muscle damage and oxidative stress, also delayed post-exercise muscle recovery and hindered adaptation to training were reported in the supplemented athletes. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation on selected blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in sprinters during preparatory phase of their training cycle. Sixteen sprinters participated in a double-blind, randomized, placebo (PL)-controlled crossover study, including two 4-week treatment periods with PL and GTE (980 mg polyphenols daily). The sprinters performed two repeated cycle sprint tests (RST; 4 × 15 s, with 1-min rest intervals), after PL and GTE supplementation. Blood was sampled before (at rest), 5 min after RST, and after the 24-h recovery. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase were measured in erythrocytes, and total polyphenols, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), uric acid (UA), albumin (AL), malondialdehyde (MDA), and creatine kinase (CK) were determined in blood plasma. Repeated cycle sprint test performed after PL induced an increase in MDA, TAC, and SOD. Moreover, an increase in UA, AL, and CK was observed after RST irrespective of experimental conditions (PL, GTE). Supplementation with GTE caused an increase in total polyphenols and TAC at rest, and a decrease in MDA and SOD after RST. No significant changes in sprint performance were noted after GTE, as compared to PL. Supplementation with GTE prevents oxidative stress induced by RST in sprinters. Furthermore, GTE supplementation does not seem to hinder training adaptation in antioxidant enzyme system. On the other hand, neither prevention of exercise-induced muscle damage, nor an improvement in sprint performance is noted after GTE administration.

  3. The impact of a cold pressor test on brachial artery handgrip exercise-induced flow-mediated dilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuckless, Troy J R; Pyke, Kyra E

    2015-10-01

    It is unknown how endothelial-dependent flow-mediated dilation (FMD) stimulated by a sustained, exercise-induced increase in shear stress (EX-FMD) is affected by a simultaneous sympathoexcitatory painful stimulus. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a cold pressor test (CPT) on brachial artery EX-FMD elicited by a handgrip exercise-induced increase in shear stress. Participants were healthy males (age 21±2 years) (n=28; 16 Experimental group, 12 Control). Brachial artery diameter and blood velocity were measured using echo and Doppler ultrasound, respectively. Shear stress was estimated by shear rate (shear rate = blood velocity / diameter) and targeted to reach 75 s(-1) in each of two EX-FMD trials in all subjects. In the Experimental group, the second EX-FMD trial was accompanied by simultaneous foot immersion in ice water (simultaneous CPT). The shear rate stimulus did not differ between groups (p=0.823) or trials (p=0.726) (group × trial interaction: p=0.646) (average exercise shear rate (mean ± SD): 67.6±6.2 s(-1)). The CPT (experienced during EX-FMD trial 2 in the Experimental group) increased mean arterial pressure (pgroup. %EX-FMD was not different between groups (p=0.508) or trials (p=0.592) (group × trial interaction: p=0.879) (EX-FMD: Experimental group trial 1: 5.4±3.4%, trial 2: 5.6±2.6%; Control group trial 1: 6.0±3.7%, trial 2: 6.4±2.2%). In conclusion, the CPT did not impact concurrent EX-FMD, and this indicates that an acute painful stimulus does not interfere with conduit artery FMD responses during exercise in young healthy men. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. MR imaging of ovarian hemorrhage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, Mizuki E-mail: mizuki@mbox.kyoto-inet.or.jp; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Iwasaku, Kazuhiro; Togashi, Kaori; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Sago, Tadashi; Noguchi, Masato

    2004-07-01

    Background: To review MR appearances of ovarian hemorrhage, and to describe its characteristic imaging findings. Methods: 12 women (age range, 20-44, mean, 26 years) with suspected ovarian hemorrhage underwent pelvic MR examinations. We retrospectively reviewed MR findings regarding signal intensities, localization, and wall enhancement of adnexal masses, and signal intensities of ascites. Results: Adnexal masses were detected in all cases. In eight cases, adnexal mass exhibited intermediate signal intensity on T1WI, and intermediate to low signal intensity on T2WI. In other case, adnexal mass exhibited marked hyperintensity on T1WI. In the remaining three cases, cystic mass with low signal intensity on T1WI and high signal intensity on T2WI was noted. Ascites was present in all cases, and showed intermediate signal on T1WI and intermediate to low signal on T2WI. Conclusions: In ovarian hemorrhage, hemorrhagic ascites and adnexal mass was visualized with specific MR signal intensity. Due to its sensitivity for identifying blood, MR imaging is useful in the diagnosis of ovarian hemorrhage, especially when ultrasonography findings are not definitive.

  5. Hemorrhagic stroke and cerebral paragonimiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yong; Ju, Yan; Chen, Jing; You, Chao

    2014-11-01

    We retrospectively analyzed the clinical and imaging characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment outcomes of 10 patients with hemorrhagic cerebral paragonimiasis (CP), and we evaluated the influence of Paragonimus infection on cerebrovascular damage. Ten patients (7 male and 3 female; median age 15.7 years, range 4-46 years) with hemorrhagic CP were diagnosed between April 2009 and January 2013. All patients underwent the head computed tomography scans and 9 patients underwent MRI examinations. Four patients underwent computed tomographic angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, and digital subtraction angiography. Liquid-based cytological examination of cerebrospinal fluid was performed in 7 patients. Follow-up examinations were performed for 9 cases for a period of 12 to 62 months. Hemorrhagic CP accounted for 37% of CP cases (10/27). No patients were initially diagnosed with CP. The major symptoms of hemorrhagic CP included acute headache, vomiting, hemiparalysis, epilepsy, blurred vision, sensory impairment, and tinnitus. Four cases were surgically treated. Most symptoms markedly improved, but fine motor dysfunction and mental dysfunction remained in 3 surgical patients. Hemorrhagic stroke typically occurred during the acute stage and in the early stages of further Paragonimus migration. Delay of treatment increased the risk of initial and recurrent stroke. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome in four related male English springer spaniels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrift E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Thrift,1 Justin A Wimpole,2 Georgina Child,2 Narelle Brown,1 Barbara Gandolfi,3 Richard Malik4 1Animal Referral Hospital, 2Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 4Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: This retrospective study describes the signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and mode of inheritance in four young male English springer spaniel dogs with presumptive canine stress syndrome.Materials and methods: Appropriate cases were located through medical searches of medical records of two large private referral centers. Inclusion criteria comprised of English springer spaniel dogs with tachypnea and hyperthermia that subsequently developed weakness or collapse, with or without signs of hemorrhage, soon after a period of mild-to-moderate exercise. The pedigrees of the four affected dogs, as well as eleven related English springer spaniels, were then analyzed to determine a presumptive mode of genetic inheritance.Results: Four dogs met the inclusion criteria. All four were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked heritable disorder. Pedigree analysis suggests that more dogs may be potentially affected, although these dogs may have never had the concurrent triggering drug/activity/event to precipitate the clinical syndrome. There was complete resolution of clinical signs in three of the four dogs with aggressive symptomatic and supportive therapy, with one dog dying during treatment.Conclusion: Dogs with canine stress syndrome have the potential for rapid recovery if treated aggressively and the complications of the disease (eg, coagulopathy are anticipated. All four dogs were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked mode of inheritance. Further genetic analyses should be strongly considered by those

  7. Usefulness of exercise-induced hypertension as predictor of chronic hypertension in adults after operative therapy for aortic isthmic coarctation in childhood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luijendijk, Paul; Bouma, Berto J.; Vriend, Joris W. J.; Vliegen, Hubert W.; Groenink, Maarten; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2011-01-01

    Chronic hypertension is a major concern in adults who have undergone resection of coarctation of the aorta (CoA) in childhood. In otherwise healthy subjects, exercise-induced hypertension is prognostic for chronic hypertension; however, the prognostic value in patients with CoA remains unknown. The

  8. miR-17-3p contributes to exercise-induced cardiac growth and protects against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shi, Jing; Bei, Yihua; Kong, Xiangqing; Liu, Xiaojun; Lei, Zhiyong; Xu, Tianzhao; Wang, Hui; Xuan, Qinkao; Chen, Ping; Xu, Jiahong; Che, Lin; Liu, Hui; Zhong, Jiuchang; Sluijter, Joost P.G.; Li, Xinli; Rosenzweig, Anthony; Xiao, Junjie

    2017-01-01

    Limited microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) have been reported to be necessary for exercise-induced cardiac growth and essential for protection against pathological cardiac remodeling. Here we determined members of the miR-17-92 cluster and their passenger miRNAs expressions in two distinct murine exercise

  9. Single dose of intra-muscular platelet rich plasma reverses the increase in plasma iron levels in exercise-induced muscle damage: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zekine Punduk

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: Acute exhaustive exercise increased muscle damage markers, including plasma iron, IBC, and ferritin levels, indicating muscle damage induced by exercise. PRP administration improves inflammation by reversing the increase in the iron levels post-exercise without displaying any myotoxicity and may have a role to play in the recovery of exercise-induced muscle damage.

  10. Pursue or shoot? Effects of exercise-induced fatigue on the transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursuit task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Cañal-Bruland, R.; Wurff, P. van der; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop

  11. Pursue or Shoot? Effects of Exercise-induced Fatigue on the Transition from Running to Rifle Shooting in a Pursuit Task

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nibbeling, N.; Oudejans, R.R.D.; Canal Bruland, R.; van der Wurff, P.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2013-01-01

    To investigate to what degree exercise-induced fatigue influences behavioural choices, participants' transition from running to rifle shooting in a pursue-and-shoot task was assessed. Participants ran on a treadmill and chased a target in a virtual environment and were free to choose when to stop

  12. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Lotringen, J.H. van; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact

  13. [Pulmonary embolism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecker, M; Sommer, N; Hecker, A; Bandorski, D; Weigand, M A; Krombach, G A; Mayer, E; Walmrath, D

    2017-03-01

    Pulmonary embolism is a potentially fatal disorder and frequently seen in critical care and emergency medicine. Due to a high mortality rate within the first few hours, the accurate initiation of rational diagnostic pathways in patients with suspected pulmonary embolism and timely consecutive treatment is essential. In this review, the current European guidelines on the diagnosis and therapy of acute pulmonary embolism are presented. Special focus is put on a structured patient management based on the individual risk of early mortality. In particular risk assessment and new risk-adjusted treatment recommendations are presented and discussed in this article.

  14. Symptomatic tarlov cyst following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-08-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  15. Symptomatic Tarlov Cyst Following Spontaneous Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    OpenAIRE

    Kong, Woo Keun; Cho, Keun-Tae; Hong, Seung-Koan

    2011-01-01

    Most of Tarlov or perineurial cysts remain asymptomatic throughout the patient's life. The pathogenesis is still unclear. Hemorrhage has been suggested as one of the possible causes and trauma with resultant hemorrhage into subarachnoid space has been suggested as an origin of these cysts. However, Tarlov cysts related to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage has not been reported. The authors report a case of Tarlov cyst which was symptomatic following spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  16. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Prevalence and Predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Peñate, Gregorio Miguel; Rúa-Figueroa, Iñigo; Juliá-Serdá, Gabriel; León-Marrero, Fernándo; García-Quintana, Antonio; Ortega-Trujillo, José Ramón; Erausquin-Arruabarrena, Celia; Rodríguez-Lozano, Carlos; Cabrera-Navarro, Pedro; Ojeda-Betancor, Nazario; Gómez-Sánchez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) prevalence has been reported to be between 0.5% and 17% in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). This study assessed PAH prevalence and predictors in an SLE cohort. The Borg dyspnea scale, DLCO, N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), and Doppler echocardiographic (DE) were performed. An echocardiographic Doppler exercise test was conducted in selected patients. When DE systolic pulmonary arterial pressure was ≥ 45 mmHg or increased during exercise > 20 mmHg, a right heart catheterization was performed. Hemodynamic during exercise was measured if rest mean pulmonary arterial pressure was exercise-induced pulmonary artery pressure increase (4 with occult left diastolic dysfunction). These patients had significantly more dyspnea, higher NT-proBNP, and lower DLCO. These data confirm the low prevalence of PAH in SLE. In our cohort, occult left ventricular diastolic dysfunction was a frequent diagnosis of unexplained dyspnea. Dyspnea, DLCO, and NT-proBNP could be predictors of pulmonary hypertension in patients with SLE.

  17. Pulmonary nocardiosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a weak immune system may need to take antibiotics for long periods of time to prevent the infection from returning. Alternative Names Nocardiosis - pulmonary; Mycetoma; Nocardia Images Respiratory system ...

  18. Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... that carry blood from your heart to your lungs become hard and narrow. Your heart has to ...

  19. Pulmonary aspergilloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fungus. It grows on dead leaves, stored grain, bird droppings, compost piles, and other decaying vegetation. ... Complications of pulmonary aspergilloma may include: Difficulty breathing that gets worse Massive bleeding from the lung Spread of the infection

  20. Retinal hemorrhage in the battered child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenbrey, A B

    1979-01-01

    The presence of retinal hemorrhage in head-injured children under 3 years of age is believed to be pathognomonic of battering. When a group of battered children was compared to head-injured children due to other causes, the high incidence of retinal hemorrhage in the battered children was contrasted with the absence of retinal hemorrhage produced by other causes of head injury.