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Sample records for exercise-induced oxidative stress

  1. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

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    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  2. Measurement of exercise-induced oxidative stress in lymphocytes.

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    Turner, James E; Bosch, Jos A; Aldred, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    Vigorous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, a state that involves modifications to bodily molecules due to release of pro-oxidant species. Assessment of such modifications provides non-specific measures of oxidative stress in human tissues and blood, including circulating lymphocytes. Lymphocytes are a very heterogeneous group of white blood cells, consisting of subtypes that have different functions in immunity. Importantly, exercise drastically changes the lymphocyte composition in blood by increasing the numbers of some subsets, while leaving other cells unaffected. This fact may imply that observed changes in oxidative stress markers are confounded by changes in lymphocyte composition. For example, lymphocyte subsets may differ in exposure to oxidative stress because of subset differences in cell division and the acquisition of cytotoxic effector functions. The aim of the present review is to raise awareness of interpretational issues related to the assessment of oxidative stress in lymphocytes with exercise and to address the relevance of lymphocyte subset phenotyping in these contexts.

  3. Effects of Uric Acid on Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress

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    平井, 富弘

    2001-01-01

    We studied effects of uric acid on exercise― induced oxidative stress in humans based on a hypothesis that uric acid acts as an antioxidant to prevent from exercise―induced oxidative stress. Relation between uric acid level in plasma and increase of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS)after the cycle ergometer exercise was examined. Thiobarbituricacid reactive substance in plasma increased after the ergometer exercise. High uric acid in plasma did not result in low increase of TBARS...

  4. Use of Saliva Biomarkers to Monitor Efficacy of Vitamin C in Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress

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    Levi W. Evans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Saliva is easily obtainable for medical research and requires little effort or training for collection. Because saliva contains a variety of biological compounds, including vitamin C, malondialdehyde, amylase, and proteomes, it has been successfully used as a biospecimen for the reflection of health status. A popular topic of discussion in medical research is the potential association between oxidative stress and negative outcomes. Systemic biomarkers that represent oxidative stress can be found in saliva. It is unclear, however, if saliva is an accurate biospecimen as is blood and/or plasma. Exercise can induce oxidative stress, resulting in a trend of antioxidant supplementation to combat its assumed detriments. Vitamin C is a popular antioxidant supplement in the realm of sports and exercise. One potential avenue for evaluating exercise induced oxidative stress is through assessment of biomarkers like vitamin C and malondialdehyde in saliva. At present, limited research has been done in this area. The current state of research involving exercise-induced oxidative stress, salivary biomarkers, and vitamin C supplementation is reviewed in this article.

  5. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis mycelium ameliorate exhaustive swimming exercise-induced oxidative stress.

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    Yan, Feng; Wang, Beibei; Zhang, Yan

    2014-02-01

    Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. (Clavicipitaceae) is a famous medicinal fungus (mushroom) in Chinese herbal medicine. Polysaccharides from Cordyceps sinensis (CSP) have been identified as active ingredients responsible for its biological activities. Although many pharmacological actions of CSP have received a great deal of attention, research in this area continues. The current study was designed to investigate the effects of CSP on exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress. The mice were divided into four groups: control (C), low-dose CSP treated (LC), intermediate-dose CSP treated (IC) and high-dose CSP treated (HC). The treated groups received CSP (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, ig), while the control group received drinking water for 28 days, followed by being forced to undergo exhaustive swimming exercise, and some biochemical parameters including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were measured using detection kits according to the manufacturers' instructions. Compared with the C group, exhaustive swimming time was significantly prolonged in the LC, IC and HC groups (p activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the IC and HC groups (p activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the LC, IC and HC groups (p activities in serum, liver and muscle were significantly higher in the HC groups (p < 0.05); MDA and 8-OHdG levels in serum, liver and muscle were significantly lower in the LC, IC and HC groups (p < 0.05). The results obtained herein indicate that CSP could ameliorate exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  6. Alleviating exercise-induced muscular stress using neat and processed bee pollen: oxidative markers, mitochondrial enzymes, and myostatin expression in rats

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    Sameer Ketkar

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: The study establishes the antioxidant, mitochondrial upregulatory, and myostatin inhibitory effects of both MIMBP and PMIMBP in exercise-induced oxidative stress conditions, suggesting their usefulness in effective management of exercise-induced muscular stress. Further, processing of MIMBP with an edible lipid-surfactant mixture was found to improve the therapeutic efficiency of pollen.

  7. High-Intensity Exercise Induced Oxidative Stress and Skeletal Muscle Damage in Postpubertal Boys and Girls: A Comparative Study.

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    Pal, Sangita; Chaki, Biswajit; Chattopadhyay, Sreya; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2018-04-01

    Pal, S, Chaki, B, Chattopadhyay, S, and Bandyopadhyay, A. High-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and skeletal muscle damage in post-pubertal boys and girls: a comparative study. J Strength Cond Res 32(4): 1045-1052, 2018-The purpose of this study was to examine the sex variation in high-intensity exercise induced oxidative stress and muscle damage among 44 sedentary postpubertal boys and girls through estimation of postexercise release pattern of muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and oxidative stress markers like extent of lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances) and catalase activity. Muscle damage markers like creatine kinase, LDH, ALT, and AST were measured before, immediately after, and 24 and 48 hours after high-intensity incremental treadmill running. Oxidative stress markers like thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and catalase activity were estimated before and immediately after the exercise. Lipid peroxidation and serum catalase activity increased significantly in both groups after exercise (p exercise level at 24 and 48 hours after exercise in both the sexes, (p exercise, the pattern of postexercise release of these markers were found to be similar in both the groups. Accordingly, it has been concluded from the present investigation that high-intensity exercise induces significant oxidative stress and increases indices of skeletal muscle damage in both postpubertal girls and boys. However, postpubertal girls are relatively better protected from oxidative stress and muscle damage as compared to the boys of similar age and physical activity level. It is further evident that sex difference may not be apparent for all the biomarkers of muscle damage in this age group.

  8. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

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    Simona Carfagna

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

  9. Dietary supplementation with the microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) reduces prolonged exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues.

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    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues and mitochondria and decreased tissue content of reduced glutathione. Moreover, it increased State 4 and decreased State 3 respiration in tissues and mitochondria. G. sulphuraria supplementation reduced the above exercise-induced variations. Conversely, alga supplementation was not able to modify the exercise-induced increase in mitochondrial release rate of hydrogen peroxide and in liver and heart antioxidant enzyme activities. The alga capacity to reduce lipid oxidative damage without reducing mitochondrial H2O2 release can be due to its high content of C-phycocyanin and glutathione, which are able to scavenge peroxyl radicals and contribute to phospholipid hydroperoxide metabolism, respectively. In conclusion, G. sulphuraria ability to reduce exercise-linked oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction makes it potentially useful even in other conditions leading to oxidative stress, including hyperthyroidism, chronic inflammation, and ischemia/reperfusion.

  10. Erdosteine reduces the exercise-induced oxidative stress in patients with severe COPD: Results of a placebo-controlled trial.

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    Dal Negro, Roberto W; Visconti, Maria

    2016-12-01

    Erdosteine (ER), a multimechanism, mucoactive agent with anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, has been shown to improve lung function, decrease plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS), and 8-isoprostane levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). To assess vs. placebo the effect of ER on the exercise-induced oxidative stress by measuring and comparing the release of pro-inflammatory mediators in severe COPD patients. The double blind, placebo controlled study was carried out in 24 severe (GOLD Class III) COPD patients, aged >40 yr, randomized to receive either oral ER (600 mg/day, 8 males, mean age 70.5 yr) or placebo (9 males, mean age 70.8 yr) for 10 days. All patients performed a 6-min walking test (6MWT) before and after both treatments. Mean ROS plasma levels increased significantly, but equally, in each group following the baseline 6MWT (p = ns). At the end of both treatments, a significant difference in mean plasma ROS increase from baseline became clear between the ER (+14.6% ± 2.7) and the placebo group (+24.4% ± 3.8) after the second 6MWT (p release of inflammatory mediators due to the exercise-induced oxidative stress in severe COPD patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coenzyme Q10 supplementation and exercise-induced oxidative stress in humans

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    Östman, Bengt; Sjödin, Anders Mikael; Michaëlsson, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The theoretically beneficial effects of coenzyme Q10 (Q10) on exercise-related oxidative stress and physical capacity have not been confirmed to our knowledge by interventional supplementation studies. Our aim was to investigate further whether Q10 supplementation at a dose recommended...... the groups were detected for hypoxanthine or uric acid (serum markers of oxidative stress) or creatine kinase (a marker of skeletal muscle damage). Conclusion: Although in theory Q10 could be beneficial for exercise capacity and in decreasing oxidative stress, the present study could not demonstrate...

  12. Role of Creatine Supplementation on Exercise-Induced Cardiovascular Function and Oxidative Stress

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    Michael I. C. Kingsley

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Many degenerative diseases are associated with increased oxidative stress. Creatine has the potential to act as an indirect and direct antioxidant; however, limited data exist to evaluate the antioxidant capabilities of creatine supplementation within in vivo human systems. This study aimed to investigate the effects of oral creatine supplementation on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses following exhaustive cycling exercise. Following preliminary testing and two additional familiarization sessions, 18 active males repeated two exhaustive incremental cycling trials (T1 and T2 separated by exactly 7 days. The subjects were assigned, in a double-blind manner, to receive either 20 g of creatine (Cr or a placebo (P for the 5 days preceding T2. Breath-by-breath respiratory data and heart rate were continually recorded throughout the exercise protocol and blood samples were obtained at rest (preexercise, at the end of exercise (postexercise, and the day following exercise (post24 h. Serum hypdroperoxide concentrations were elevated at postexercise by 17 ± 5% above preexercise values (p = 0.030. However, supplementation did not influence lipid peroxidation (serum hypdroperoxide concentrations, resistance of low density lipoprotein to oxidative stress (t1/2max LDL oxidation and plasma concentrations of non-enzymatic antioxidants (retinol, α-carotene, β-carotene, α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol, lycopene and vitamin C. Heart rate and oxygen uptake responses to exercise were not affected by supplementation. These findings suggest that short-term creatine supplementation does not enhance non-enzymatic antioxidant defence or protect against lipid peroxidation induced by exhaustive cycling in healthy males.

  13. Colostrum supplementation protects against exercise - induced oxidative stress in skeletal muscle in mice

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    Appukutty Mahenderan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study examined the effects of bovine colostrum on exercise –induced modulation of antioxidant parameters in skeletal muscle in mice. Adult male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into four groups (control, colostrum alone, exercise and exercise with colostrum and each group had three subgroups (day 0, 21 and 42. Colostrum groups of mice were given a daily oral supplement of 50 mg/kg body weight of bovine colostrum and the exercise group of mice were made to exercise on the treadmill for 30 minutes per day. Total antioxidants, lipid hydroperoxides, xanthine oxidase and super oxide dismutase level was assayed from the homogenate of hind limb skeletal muscle. Results Exercise—induced a significant oxidative stress in skeletal muscles as evidenced by the elevated lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase levels. There was a significant decrease in skeletal muscle total antioxidants and superoxide dismutase levels. Daily colostrum supplement significantly reduced the lipid hydroperoxides and xanthine oxidase enzyme level and increased the total antioxidant levels in the leg muscle. Conclusion Thus, the findings of this study showed that daily bovine colostrum supplementation was beneficial to skeletal muscle to reduce the oxidant-induced damage during muscular exercise.

  14. Hepatoprotective Effects of Ixora parviflora Extract against Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Mice

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    Chi-Chang Huang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Ixora parviflora, a species of the Rubiaceae, is rich in polyphenols and flavonoids, and has been traditionally used as a folk medicine. An I. parviflora extract (IPE has great antioxidant activity in vitro, including a scavenging effect on superoxide radicals, reducing power, and ferrous ion-chelating ability. However, whether IPE is efficacious against oxidative damage in vivo is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the protective effects of IPE treatment on hepatic oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses after exhaustive exercise in mice. Fifty male C57BL/6 mice (6 week old were randomly divided into five groups and designated a sedentary control with vehicle (C, and exhaustive exercise with vehicle (IPE0, low dosage (IPE10, medium dosage (IPE50 and high dosage (IPE100 of IPE at 0, 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg, respectively. After a single bout of exhaustive swimming exercise challenge, levels of blood ammonia and creatine kinase (CK, and hepatic superoxide dismutase (SOD protein expression, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS, and gp91phox, p22phox, and p47phox subunits of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase expressions in the IPE0 group were significantly affected compared to those of the C group, but they were all significantly inhibited by the IPE treatments. Results of the present in vivo study in mice indicate that I. parviflora extract possesses antioxidative and hepatoprotective potential following exhaustive exercise.

  15. Effect of anthocyanins from aronia melanocarpa on the exercise-induced oxidative stress in rat tissues

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    A Frankiewicz-Jóźko

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of the extract from fruits of Aronia melanocarpa (AM, containing the anthocyanin antioxidants on the lipid peroxidation index (TBARS and the content of reduced glutathione (GSH in rat tissues at rest and after exercising until exhaustion on a treadmill. For four consecutive days the animals were given AM through a gastric probe at 0.7 mg• kg-1 body mass (related to the content of the active substance. Control rats received 0.9% NaCl solution. Samples of the liver (L, heart (H, and white (WG and red (RG portions of the gastrocnemius muscle were collected from the animals at rest and immediately after the exercise. No effect of AM on TBARS was detected in the resting animals. The exercise, however, led to the significant elevation of the value of this index (P<0.05 in each of the tested tissues obtained from the control animals, and in the liver and heart of the AM-fed rats. The TBARS content in RG was significantly lower (P<0.05 in the latter compared to the former group of the animals. After administration of AM in rest, the GSH content tended to decrease in the examined tissues. Following the exercise, the significant reduction (P<0.05 in the GSH content was detected in all the tested tissues obtained from the control group. In contrast, no effect of the exercise on the GSH content was found in the AM-fed rats. After exercising, the higher GSH content (P<0.05 in the RG and H as well as the tendency to higher GSH content in WG and L were detected in rats given AM as compared to the control animals. The obtained results suggest that administration of AM markedly mitigates the exercise-induced reduction in the GSH content and elevation of TBARS in the tissues of the investigated animals.

  16. Exhaustive Exercise-induced Oxidative Stress Alteration of Erythrocyte Oxygen Release Capacity.

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    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Wang, Yueming; Zhao, Yajin; Li, Yaojin; Ren, Yang; Wang, Ruofeng; Zhao, Mingzi; Hao, Yitong; Liu, Haibei; Wang, Xiang

    2018-05-24

    The aim of the present study is to explore the effect of exhaustive running exercise (ERE) in the oxygen release capacity of rat erythrocytes. Rats were divided into sedentary control (C), moderate running exercise (MRE) and exhaustive running exercise groups. The thermodynamics and kinetics properties of the erythrocyte oxygen release process of different groups were tested. We also determined the degree of band-3 oxidative and phosphorylation, anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Biochemical studies suggested that exhaustive running significantly increased oxidative injury parameters in TBARS and methaemoglobin levels. Furthermore, exhaustive running significantly decreased anion transport activity and carbonic anhydrase isoform II(CAII) activity. Thermodynamic analysis indicated that erythrocytes oxygen release ability also significantly increased due to elevated 2,3-DPG level after exhaustive running. Kinetic analysis indicated that exhaustive running resulted in significantly decreased T50 value. We presented evidence that exhaustive running remarkably impacted thermodynamics and kinetics properties of RBCs oxygen release. In addition, changes in 2,3-DPG levels and band-3 oxidation and phosphorylation could be the driving force for exhaustive running induced alterations in erythrocytes oxygen release thermodynamics and kinetics properties.

  17. Effect of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid on resting and exercise-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers: a randomized, placebo controlled, cross-over study

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    Galpin Andrew J

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the present investigation was to determine the effects of EPA/DHA supplementation on resting and exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in exercise-trained men. Fourteen men supplemented with 2224 mg EPA+2208 mg DHA and a placebo for 6 weeks in a random order, double blind cross-over design (with an 8 week washout prior to performing a 60 minute treadmill climb using a weighted pack. Blood was collected pre and post exercise and analyzed for a variety of oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. Blood lactate, muscle soreness, and creatine kinase activity were also measured. Results Treatment with EPA/DHA resulted in a significant increase in blood levels of both EPA (18 ± 2 μmol·L-1 vs. 143 ± 23 μmol·L-1; p -1 vs. 157 ± 13 μmol·L-1; p 0.05. There was a mild increase in oxidative stress in response to exercise (XO and H2O2 (p Conclusion EPA/DHA supplementation increases blood levels of these fatty acids and results in decreased resting levels of inflammatory biomarkers in exercise-trained men, but does not appear necessary for exercise-induced attenuation in either inflammation or oxidative stress. This may be due to the finding that trained men exhibit a minimal increase in both inflammation and oxidative stress in response to moderate duration (60 minute aerobic exercise.

  18. Passive smoking reduces and vitamin C increases exercise-induced oxidative stress: does this make passive smoking an anti-oxidant and vitamin C a pro-oxidant stimulus?

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    Theodorou, Anastasios A; Paschalis, Vassilis; Kyparos, Antonios; Panayiotou, George; Nikolaidis, Michalis G

    2014-11-07

    The current interpretative framework states that, for a certain experimental treatment (usually a chemical substance) to be classified as "anti-oxidant", it must possess the property of reducing (or even nullifying) exercise-induced oxidative stress. The aim of the study was to compare side by side, in the same experimental setup, redox biomarkers responses to an identical acute eccentric exercise session, before and after chronic passive smoking (considered a pro-oxidant stimulus) or vitamin C supplementation (considered an anti-oxidant stimulus). Twenty men were randomly assigned into either passive smoking or vitamin C group. All participants performed two acute eccentric exercise sessions, one before and one after either exposure to passive smoking or vitamin C supplementation for 12 days. Vitamin C, oxidant biomarkers (F2-isoprostanes and protein carbonyls) and the non-enzymatic antioxidant (glutathione) were measured, before and after passive smoking, vitamin C supplementation or exercise. It was found that chronic exposure to passive smoking increased the level of F2-isoprostanes and decreased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in minimal increase or absence of oxidative stress after exercise. Conversely, chronic supplementation with vitamin C decreased the level of F2-isoprostanes and increased the level of glutathione at rest, resulting in marked exercise-induced oxidative stress. Contrary to the current scientific consensus, our results show that, when a pro-oxidant stimulus is chronically delivered, it is more likely that oxidative stress induced by subsequent exercise is decreased and not increased. Reversely, it is more likely to find greater exercise-induced oxidative stress after previous exposure to an anti-oxidant stimulus. We believe that the proposed framework will be a useful tool to reach more pragmatic explanations of redox biology phenomena. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Supplemental oxygen prevents exercise-induced oxidative stress in muscle-wasted patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Helvoort, H.A.C. van; Heijdra, Y.F.; Heunks, L.M.A.; Meijer, P.L.; Ruitenbeek, W.; Thijs, H.M.; Dekhuijzen, P.N.R.

    2006-01-01

    RATIONALE: Although oxygen therapy is of clear benefit in patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), recent studies have shown that short-term supplementary oxygen may increase oxidative stress and inflammation within the airways. OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether systemic

  20. EFFECTS OF PALM VITAMIN E SUPPLEMENTATION ON EXERCISE-INDUCED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND ENDURANCE PERFORMANCE IN THE HEAT

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    Chen Chee Keong

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation on exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and endurance performance in the heat. In a double blind, cross-over study, eighteen healthy, male recreational athletes completed two endurance running trials, until exhaustion, on a motorized treadmill at 70% VO2max on two separate occasions following a 6-week supplementation regimen of either tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E (E or placebo (P. Both trials were conducted in the heat (31oC, 70% relative humidity. During the trials, rectal temperature (Trec, ratings of perceived exertion (RPE and oxygen uptake (VO2 were recorded. Blood samples were collected for the determination of plasma volume changes (PVC, malondialdehyde (MDA, creatine kinase (CK, total antioxidant status (TAS and vitamin E. After the supplementation regimen, serum alpha-tocopherol increased ~33% but serum concentrations of tocotrienols were negligible. No significant differences were evident in mean Trec, RPE, VO2 or in the time to exhaustion between the E-supplemented and the placebo- supplemented groups. Similarly, mean PVC, CK and TAS were also not different between the two groups. Resting plasma mean MDA concentration in the E-supplemented group was significantly lower than that in the placebo-supplemented group. At exhaustion, plasma mean MDA was higher than the resting values in both groups. Although tocotrienol-rich palm vitamin E supplementation decreased lipid peroxidation at rest and, to some extent, during exercise in the heat, as evident from the lower MDA levels, it however did not enhance endurance running performance or prevent exercise-induced muscle damage or influenced body core temperature or plasma volume changes during exercise in the heat

  1. Effect of body composition, aerobic performance and physical activity on exercise-induced oxidative stress in healthy subjects.

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    Więcek, Magdalena; Maciejczyk, Marcin; Szymura, Jadwiga; Wiecha, Szczepan; Kantorowicz, Malgorzata; Szygula, Zbigniew

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress could be the result of an increase in ATP resynthesis during exercise. The aim of the study was to compare prooxidant-antioxidant balance (PAB) disturbances induced by exercise at maximal intensity in young men with differing body compositions. Thirty-nine subjects were selected from 1549 volunteers aged 18-30, based on lean body mass (LBM) and body fat percentage (%BF), and then assigned into one of the following groups: control group (CON), including subjects with average LBM (59.0-64.3 kg) and average %BF (14.0-18.5%); high body fat (HBF) group, including subjects with high %BF (>21.5%) and average LBM; and high lean body mass (HLBM) group, including subjects with high LBM (>66.3 kg) and average %BF. Participants' physical activity was determined. A running test with a gradually increased load was used. Before and 3 minutes after exercise, total oxidative status (TOS) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined in the plasma, and the Oxidative Stress Index (OSI = TOS/TAC) was calculated. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) was comparable in the HBF and HLBM groups (53.12±1.51 mL/kg and 50.25±1.27 mL/kg, respectively) and significantly lower compared to the CON group (58.23±1.62 mL/kg). The CON, HBF and HLBM groups showed similar significant (P0.05). There was significant negative correlation between OSI, measured before and after exercise, and participants' physical activity. There was no correlation between OSI and VO2max, BM, LBM, %BF and BMI. Exercise at maximal intensity causes a similar increase in TOS and in TAC in subjects with increased %BF and elevated content of LBM and regardless of body composition, the ratios of TOS/TAC concentrations before and after maximal-intensity exercise, have lower values in people with higher physical activity levels and are not dependent on aerobic performance (VO2max).

  2. Effect of a single dose of green tea polyphenols on the blood markers of exercise-induced oxidative stress in soccer players.

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    Jówko, Ewa; Sacharuk, Jaroslaw; Balasinska, Bozena; Wilczak, Jacek; Charmas, Malgorzata; Ostaszewski, Piotr; Charmas, Robert

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of acute ingestion of green tea polyphenols (GTP) on blood markers of oxidative stress and muscle damage in soccer players exposed to intense exercise. This randomized, double-blinded study was conducted on 16 players during a general preparation period, when all athletes participated in a strength-training program focused on the development of strength endurance. After ingestion of a single dose of GTP (640 mg) or placebo, all athletes performed an intense muscle-endurance test consisting of 3 sets of 2 strength exercises (bench press, back squat) performed to exhaustion, with a load at 60% 1-repetition maximum and 1-min rests between sets. Blood samples were collected preexercise, 5 min after the muscle-endurance test, and after 24 hr of recovery. Blood plasma was analyzed for the concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS), uric acid (UA), total catechins, total antioxidant status (TAS), and activity of creatine kinase (CK); at the same time, erythrocytes were assayed for the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD). In both groups, plasma TBARS, UA, and TAS increased significantly postexercise and remained elevated after a 24-hr recovery period. SOD activity in erythrocytes did not change significantly in response to the muscle-endurance test, whereas in both groups plasma CK activity increased significantly after 24 hr of recovery. Acute intake of GTP cased a slight but significant increase in total plasma catechins. However, GTP was found not to exert a significant effect on measured parameters. Acute ingestion of GTP (640 mg) does not attenuate exercise-induced oxidative stress and muscle damage.

  3. Effects of Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) on exercise-induced oxidative stress, muscle damage, and pain following a half-marathon: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

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    Withee, Eric D; Tippens, Kimberly M; Dehen, Regina; Tibbitts, Deanne; Hanes, Douglas; Zwickey, Heather

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress and muscle damage occur during exhaustive bouts of exercise, and many runners report pain and soreness as major influences on changes or breaks in training regimens, creating a barrier to training persistence. Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is a sulfur-based nutritional supplement that is purported to have pain and inflammation-reducing effects. To investigate the effects of MSM in attenuating damage associated with physical exertion, this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the effects of MSM supplementation on exercise-induced pain, oxidative stress and muscle damage. Twenty-two healthy females ( n  = 17) and males ( n  = 5) (age 33.7 ± 6.9 yrs.) were recruited from the 2014 Portland Half-Marathon registrant pool. Participants were randomized to take either MSM (OptiMSM®) ( n  = 11), or a placebo ( n  = 11) at 3 g/day for 21 days prior to the race and for two days after (23 total). Participants provided blood samples for measurement of markers of oxidative stress, and completed VAS surveys for pain approximately one month prior to the race (T 0 ), and at 15 min (T 1 ), 90 min (T 2 ), 1 Day (T 3 ), and 2 days (T 4 ) after race finish. The primary outcome measure 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanine (8-OHdG) measured oxidative stress. Secondary outcomes included malondialdehyde (MDA) for oxidative stress, creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as measures of muscle damage, and muscle (MP) and joint pain (JP) recorded using a 100 mm Visual Analogue Scale (VAS). Data were analyzed using repeated and multivariate ANOVAs, and simple contrasts compared post-race time points to baseline, presented as mean (SD) or mean change (95% CI) where appropriate. Running a half-marathon induced significant increases in all outcome measures ( p   0.05) and T 4 by -0.57 ng/mL (-1.27-0.13 CI, p  > 0.05). MDA increased significantly at T 1 by 7.3 μM (3.9-10.7 CI, p   10 mm) reductions in both muscle and joint pain

  4. Dietary Supplementation with the Microalga Galdieria sulphuraria (Rhodophyta) Reduces Prolonged Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Tissues

    OpenAIRE

    Carfagna, Simona; Napolitano, Gaetana; Barone, Daniela; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Venditti, Paola

    2015-01-01

    We studied the effects of ten-day 1% Galdieria sulphuraria dietary supplementation on oxidative damage and metabolic changes elicited by acute exercise (6-hour swimming) determining oxygen consumption, lipid hydroperoxides, protein bound carbonyls in rat tissue (liver, heart, and muscle) homogenates and mitochondria, tissue glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities, glutathione content, and rates of H2O2 mitochondrial release. Exercise increased oxidative damage in tissues a...

  5. Cyclooxygenase inhibitors and the exercise-induced stress response

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) naproxen, and of the coxib, rofecoxib, on the exercise-induced stress response. Design. Eight subjects (age 20.9 ± 1.1 years, weight 70.4 ± 3.9 kg, height 170.9 ± 6.7 cm, body surface area 1.82 ± 0.09 m2, ...

  6. β-Adrenergic receptors desensitization is not involved in exercise-induced cardiac fatigue: NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress as a new trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Damien; Boissière, Julien; Doucende, Grégory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Polge, Anne; Faure, Patrice; Goux, Aurélie; Tanguy, Stéphane; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Nottin, Stéphane

    2011-11-01

    Prolonged strenuous exercise (PSE) induces transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that β-adrenergic pathway desensitization could be involved in this phenomenon, but it remains to be confirmed. Moreover, other underlying mechanisms involving oxidative stress have been recently proposed. The present study aimed to evaluate the involvement of both the β-adrenergic pathway and NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme-induced oxidative stress in myocardial dysfunction in rats following PSE. Rats were divided into 4 groups: controls (Ctrl), 4-h exercised on treadmill (PSE), and 2 groups in which Nox enzyme was inhibited with apocynin treatment (Ctrl APO and PSE APO, respectively). We evaluated cardiac function in vivo and ex vivo during basal conditions and isoproterenol stress. GSH/GSSG ratio, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) release, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were evaluated. PSE induced a decrease in LV developed pressure, intrinsic myocardial contractility, and relaxation associated with an increase in plasma cTnI release. Our in vivo and ex vivo results demonstrated no differences in myocardial response to isoproterenol and of effective dose 50 between control and PSE rats. Interestingly, the LV dysfunction was reversed by apocynin treatment. Moreover, apocynin prevented cellular oxidation [GSH/GSSG ratio: PSE APO rats vs. PSE rats in arbitrary units (au): 1.98 ± 0.07 vs. 1.35 ± 0.10; P stress from the Nox enzyme.

  7. Influence of a polyphenol-enriched protein powder on exercise-induced inflammation and oxidative stress in athletes: a randomized trial using a metabolomics approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C Nieman

    Full Text Available Polyphenol supplementation was tested as a countermeasure to inflammation and oxidative stress induced by 3-d intensified training.Water soluble polyphenols from blueberry and green tea extracts were captured onto a polyphenol soy protein complex (PSPC. Subjects were recruited, and included 38 long-distance runners ages 19-45 years who regularly competed in road races. Runners successfully completing orientation and baseline testing (N = 35 were randomized to 40 g/d PSPC (N = 17 (2,136 mg/d gallic acid equivalents or placebo (N = 18 for 17 d using double-blinded methods and a parallel group design, with a 3-d running period inserted at day 14 (2.5 h/d, 70% VO2max. Blood samples were collected pre- and post-14 d supplementation, and immediately and 14 h after the third day of running in subjects completing all aspects of the study (N = 16 PSPC, N = 15 placebo, and analyzed using a metabolomics platform with GC-MS and LC-MS.Metabolites characteristic of gut bacteria metabolism of polyphenols were increased with PSPC and 3 d running (e.g., hippurate, 4-hydroxyhippurate, 4-methylcatechol sulfate, 1.8-, 1.9-, 2.5-fold, respectively, P<0.05, an effect which persisted for 14-h post-exercise. Fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis were induced by exercise in both groups, with more ketones at 14-h post-exercise in PSPC (3-hydroxybutyrate, 1.8-fold, P<0.05. Established biomarkers for inflammation (CRP, cytokines and oxidative stress (protein carbonyls did not differ between groups.PSPC supplementation over a 17-d period did not alter established biomarkers for inflammation and oxidative stress but was linked to an enhanced gut-derived phenolic signature and ketogenesis in runners during recovery from 3-d heavy exertion.ClinicalTrials.gov, U.S. National Institutes of Health, identifier: NCT01775384.

  8. Exercise-induced oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in type 2 diabetic patients with and without diastolic dysfunction and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Nada

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antioxidant systems are important factors affecting the oxidation of lipoproteins and thereby the progression of atherosclerotic disease. It has been suggested that physical activity might maintain and promote the antioxidant defence capacity against the oxidative stress. Left ventricular dysfunction (LVDD and hypertension are more common in subjects with diabetes mellitus (DM type 2. Objective. To evaluate the oxidative stress in patients with DM type 2, particularly with LVDD and hypertension and to determine the influence of acute exercise training on the investigated parameters. Methods. To assess the oxidative stress of patients, we determined the following antioxidative parameters: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol, low density cholesterol, OxLDL cholesterol, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px, plasminogen activator-type 1 (PAI-1 which were measured at rest and immediately after the acute bout of the cardiopulmonary exercise cycle ergometer test. Results. In basal conditions, diabetic patients had a significant increase of TG (3.12±1.09 vs 1.74±0.9 mmol/l; p<0.01, OxLDL cholesterol (84.73±16.9 vs 79.00±29.26 mmol/l; p<0.05 and SOD enzyme activity (913.38±120.36 vs 877.14 ±153.18; p<0.05 compared to controls. During the acute exercise test, there were significantly greater levels of OxLDL (84.73±16.90 vs 92.33±23.29 mmol/l; p<0.05 in study patients. SOD significantly increased in both groups during exercise, in diabetic patients (913.38±120.36 vs 921.50±130.03 U/g Hb; p<0.05 and in controls (877.14±153.18 vs 895.00±193.49 U/g Hb; p<0.05. GSH-Px significantly increased only in diabetic patients after acute exercise (45.04±11.19 vs 51.81±15.07 U/g Hb; p<0.01, but not in controls. PAI significantly decreased during the exercise test only in healthy subjects (2.60±0.35 vs 2.22±0.65; p<0.05. Type 2 diabetic patients with cardiovascular complications (LVDD and hypertension had a significant

  9. Effects of graded exercise-induced dehydration and rehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative stress across the resting and exercising human leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laitano, Orlando; Kalsi, Kameljit Kaur; Pearson, James; Lotlikar, Makra; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; González-Alonso, José

    2012-05-01

    Exercise in the heat enhances oxidative stress markers in the human circulation, but the contribution of active skeletal muscle and the influence of hydration status remain unknown. To address this question, we measured leg exchange of glutathione (GSH), glutathione disulfide (GSSG), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) and isoprostanes in seven males at rest and during submaximal one-legged knee extensor exercise in the following four conditions: (1) control euhydration (0% reduction in body mass), (2) mild-dehydration (2%), (3) moderate-dehydration (3.5%), (4) rehydration (0%). In all resting and control exercise conditions, a net GSH uptake was observed across the leg. In contrast, a significant leg release of GSH into the circulation (-354 ± 221 μmol/min, P exercise with moderate-dehydration, which was still present following full rehydration (-206 ± 122 μmol/min, P exercise, mild and moderate-dehydration decreased both femoral venous erythrocyte SOD activity (195 ± 6 vs. 180 ± 5 U/L, P release GSH into the circulation under moderate dehydration and subsequent rehydration, possibly to enhance the antioxidant defense.

  10. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Matthew B; Nix, Carrie M; Greenwood, Lori D; Greenwood, Mike C

    2018-03-01

    Cooke, MB, Nix, C, Greenwood, L, and Greenwood, M. No Differences Between Alter G-Trainer and Active and Passive Recovery Strategies on Isokinetic Strength, Systemic Oxidative Stress and Perceived Muscle Soreness After Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 736-747, 2018-The incidence of muscle injuries is prevalent in elite sport athletes and weekend warriors and strategies that safely and effectively hasten recovery are highly desirable. The purpose of this study was to examine the differences between 3 recovery methods after eliciting muscle damage in recreationally active men relative to maximal isokinetic contractions, perceived muscle soreness, and psychological mood states. Twenty-five recreationally active men (22.15 ± 3.53 years, 75.75 ± 11.91 kg, 180.52 ± 7.3 cm) were randomly matched by V[Combining Dot Above]O2 peak (53.86 ± 6.65 ml·kg·min) and assigned to one of 3 recovery methods: anti-gravity treadmill (G-Trainer) (N = 8), conventional treadmill (N = 8) or static stretching (N = 9). Recovery methods were performed 30 minutes, 24, 48, and 72 hours after a 45-minute downhill run. Following eccentrically biased running, no significant differences were noted in isokinetic knee flexion and extension peak torque, systemic markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation such as serum creatine kinase (CK), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA), respectively, and subjective ratings of perceived muscle soreness between recovery methods. The G-Trainer group did however display a higher mood state as indicated by the Profile of Mood State global scores at 24 hours postexercise when compared to the conventional treadmill recovery group (p = 0.035). The improved mood state after the use of the anti-gravity treadmill may provide clinical relevance to other populations.

  11. The basic chemistry of exercise-induced DNA oxidation: oxidative damage, redox signalling and their interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nathan Cobley

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Acute exercise increases reactive oxygen and nitrogen species generation. This phenomenon is associated with two major outcomes: (1 redox signalling and (2 macromolecule damage. Mechanistic knowledge of how exercise-induced redox signalling and macromolecule damage are interlinked is limited. This review focuses on the interplay between exercise-induced redox signalling and DNA damage, using hydroxyl radical (·OH and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as exemplars. It is postulated that the biological fate of H2O2 links the two processes and thus represents a bifurcation point between redox signalling and damage. Indeed, H2O2 can participate in two electron signalling reactions but its diffusion and chemical properties permit DNA oxidation following reaction with transition metals and ·OH generation. It is also considered that the sensing of DNA oxidation by repair proteins constitutes a non-canonical redox signalling mechanism. Further layers of interaction are provided by the redox regulation of DNA repair proteins and their capacity to modulate intracellular H2O2 levels. Overall, exercise-induced redox signalling and DNA damage may be interlinked to a greater extent than was previously thought but this requires further investigation.

  12. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  13. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  14. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: influence of reduced bone mineral density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Anders; Kanstrup, Inge-Lis; Christiansen, Erik

    2005-01-01

    study investigated BMD in seven Danish national team rowers with previous rib stress fracture (RSF) and 7 controls (C) matched for gender, age, height, weight and training experience. Total body scan and specific scans of the lumbar spine (L2-L4), femoral neck and distal radius were performed using......Exercise-induced rib stress fractures have been reported frequently in elite rowers during the past decade. The etiology of rib stress fractures is unclear, but low bone mineral density (BMD) has been suggested to be a potential risk factor for stress fractures in weight-bearing bones. The present...... density may be a potential risk factor for the development of exercise-induced rib stress fractures in elite rowers....

  15. Exercise-induced stress responses of amenorrheic and eumenorrheic runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, A B; Horvath, S M

    1984-12-01

    The role of stress in exercise-associated amenorrhea was investigated. Sex hormones [FSH, LH, androstenedione (A), testosterone, estrone, and 17 beta-estradiol (E2)], stress hormones [dehydroepiandrosterone, cortisol (F), PRL, norepinephrine, and epinephrine] and psychological status (Profile of Mood States and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory) were measured at rest and in response to a 40-min 80% of maximal aerobic power (VO2max) run in highly trained eumenorrheic (n = 8) and amenorrheic (n = 7) women runners matched for fatness [eumenorrheic, 16.5 +/- 2.3% (+/- SD); amenorrheic, 14.9 +/- 4.8] and maximal aerobic power (eumenorrheic, 58.9 +/- 5.7 ml/kg X min; amenorrheic, 59.8 +/- 4.6). Eumenorrheic runners were tested between days 3 and 8 of the follicular phase. At rest, decreased plasma FSH, LH, and E2 concentrations were found in amenorrheic women [eumenorrheic FSH, 10.5 +/- 4.1 mIU/ml; amenorrheic FSH, 4.9 +/- 1.6 (P less than 0.01); eumenorrheic LH, 14.1 +/- 6.1 mIU/ml; amenorrheic LH, 5.1 +/- 1.7 (P less than 0.01); eumenorrheic E2, 20 +/- 9 pg/ml; amenorrheic E2, 7 +/- 6 (P less than 0.05)]. Other sex and stress hormones and psychological measurements were similar in the two groups and were within the normal range. Ventilatory, cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and psychological responses to the submaximal run were identical. Among eumenorrheic women, all stress hormones and A increased after exercise, but PRL, F, and A were unchanged among amenorrheic women. Estrone, E2, and testosterone did not change in either group. These observations are inconsistent with a general stress hypothesis of exercise-associated amenorrhea as well as with more specific hyperprolactinemic and hyperandrogenic hypotheses. In amenorrheic women, failure of PRL to increase in response to exercise may be due to their lack of E2, while failure of F and A to increase may indicate reduced adrenal 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/isomerase activity.

  16. Exercise-induced heat stress disrupts the shear-dilatory relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, Stephen J; Lefferts, Wesley K; Wharton, Margret; Fehling, Patricia C; Smith, Denise L

    2016-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Although heat stress is known to increase cardiovascular strain, no study, to date, had explored the potential impact of exercise-induced heat stress on vascular function. What is the main finding and its importance? We found that acute exercise tended to reduce flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), owing in part to reduced reactive hyperaemia/shear stimulus; thus, when FMD is normalized to shear no postexercise deficit exists. Exercise-induced heat stress increased reactive hyperaemia, shear rate, coupled with a sustained FMD postexercise, suggests that exercise-induced heat stress increases the amount of shear stimulus to elicit a similar response, indicating reduced vascular responsiveness, or reserve, which might increase cardiovascular susceptibility. Heat stress increases cardiovascular strain and is of particular concern in occupations, such as firefighting, in which individuals are required to perform strenuous work while wearing personal protective equipment. Sudden cardiac events are associated with strenuous activity and are the leading cause of duty-related death among firefighters, accounting for ∼50% of duty-related fatalities per year. Understanding the acute effects of exercise-induced heat stress (EIHS) on vascular endothelial function may provide insight into the mechanisms precipitating acute coronary events in firefighters. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to determine the effects of EIHS on vascular endothelial function. Using a balanced crossover design, 12 healthy men performed 100 min of moderate-intensity, intermittent exercise with and without EIHS (personal protective equipment or cooling vest, respectively). Measurements of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), reactive hyperaemia and shear rate area under the curve (SR AUC ) were performed pre- and postexercise. During EIHS, core temperature was significantly higher (38 ± 0.1 versus 37 ± 0.1°C). Postexercise FMD tended to be suppressed

  17. Exhaled nitric oxide predicts exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Hermansen, Mette N; Nielsen, Kim G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is of particular importance in children with asthma. It is an important measure of asthma control and should be monitored by exercise testing. However, exercise testing puts a large demand on health-care resources and is therefore not widely...... used in routine monitoring of pediatric asthma control. The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) also reflects uncontrolled asthma. We hypothesized that FeNO may be used for prescreening of asthmatic children to exclude those with good asthma control unlikely to have EIB, thereby...... reducing the need for exercise testing. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the value of FeNO as a predictor of EIB in asthmatic children. METHODS: Stable outpatient asthmatic school children performed standard exercise challenge tests and measurement of FeNO. RESULTS: FeNO and response...

  18. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: potential risk factors related to thoracic muscle co-contraction and movement pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Knudsen, Archibald; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of exercise-induced rib stress fractures (RSFs) in elite rowers is unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate thoracic muscle activity, movement patterns and muscle strength in elite rowers. Electromyographic (EMG) and 2-D video analysis were performed during ergometer rowing...

  19. A multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system for studying the effect of exercise-induced wall shear stress on endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Xia; Xiang, Cheng; Liu, Bo; Zhu, Yong; Luan, Yong; Liu, Shu-Tian; Qin, Kai-Rong

    2016-12-28

    In vivo studies have demonstrated that reasonable exercise training can improve endothelial function. To confirm the key role of wall shear stress induced by exercise on endothelial cells, and to understand how wall shear stress affects the structure and the function of endothelial cells, it is crucial to design and fabricate an in vitro multi-component parallel-plate flow chamber system which can closely replicate exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms in artery. The in vivo wall shear stress waveforms from the common carotid artery of a healthy volunteer in resting and immediately after 30 min acute aerobic cycling exercise were first calculated by measuring the inner diameter and the center-line blood flow velocity with a color Doppler ultrasound. According to the above in vivo wall shear stress waveforms, we designed and fabricated a parallel-plate flow chamber system with appropriate components based on a lumped parameter hemodynamics model. To validate the feasibility of this system, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) line were cultured within the parallel-plate flow chamber under abovementioned two types of wall shear stress waveforms and the intracellular actin microfilaments and nitric oxide (NO) production level were evaluated using fluorescence microscope. Our results show that the trends of resting and exercise-induced wall shear stress waveforms, especially the maximal, minimal and mean wall shear stress as well as oscillatory shear index, generated by the parallel-plate flow chamber system are similar to those acquired from the common carotid artery. In addition, the cellular experiments demonstrate that the actin microfilaments and the production of NO within cells exposed to the two different wall shear stress waveforms exhibit different dynamic behaviors; there are larger numbers of actin microfilaments and higher level NO in cells exposed in exercise-induced wall shear stress condition than resting wall shear stress condition

  20. Exercise-induced changes in stress hormones and cell adhesion molecules in obese men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Park J

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Jinkyung Park,1 Darryn S Willoughby,2 Joon Jin Song,3 Brian C Leutholtz,2 Yunsuk Koh2 1Department of Kinesiology, George Mason University, Manassas, VA, USA; 2Department of Health, Human Performance, Recreation, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA; 3Department of Statistical Science, Baylor University, Waco, TX, USA Purpose: The current study examined the relationship between exercise-induced changes in stress hormones (epinephrine, norepinephrine, and cortisol and vascular inflammatory markers (soluble intracellular adhesion molecule-1 [sICAM-1], soluble endothelial selectin [sE-selectin], and soluble vascular adhesion molecule-1 [sVCAM-1] in obese men over a 24-hour period following exercise at lower and higher intensity.Patients and methods: Fifteen physically inactive, obese, college-aged men performed a single bout of cycling exercise at lower and higher intensities (lower intensity: 50% of maximal heart rate, and higher intensity: 80% of maximal heart rate in random order. Overnight fasting blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately postexercise (IPE, 1-hour PE (1-h PE, and 24-hour PE. Changes in stress hormones and inflammatory markers were analyzed with a repeated-measures analysis of variance using Bonferroni multiple comparisons and a linear regression analysis (p<0.05.Results: sICAM-1, sVCAM-1, epinephrine, and norepinephrine did not change over time, while sE-selectin was significantly lower at 1-h PE (10.25±1.07 ng/mL, p=0.04 than at baseline (12.22±1.39 ng/mL. Cortisol and sICAM-1 were negatively related at 1-h PE following lower-intensity exercise (r2=0.34, p=0.02, whereas cortisol and sVCAM-1 were positively related at IPE following higher-intensity exercise (r2=0.36, p=0.02.Conclusion: Regardless of intensity, an acute bout of aerobic exercise may lower sE-selectin in sedentary obese men. Responses of cortisol are dependent on exercise intensity, and cortisol may be a key stress hormone playing a major role in

  1. Molecular Mechanisms in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is increasingly recognized as modifiable behavioral risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A partial list of proposed mechanisms for exercise-induced cardioprotection include induction of heat shock proteins, increase in cardiac antioxidant capacity, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, anatomical and physiological changes in the coronary arteries, changes in nitric oxide production, adaptational changes in cardiac mitochondria, increased autophagy, and improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. It is currently unclear which of these protective mechanisms are essential for exercise-induced cardioprotection. However, most investigations focus on sarcolemmal KATP channels, NO production, and mitochondrial changes although it is very likely that other mechanisms may also exist. This paper discusses current information about these aforementioned topics and does not consider potentially important adaptations within blood or the autonomic nervous system. A better understanding of the molecular basis of exercise-induced cardioprotection will help to develop better therapeutic strategies.

  2. Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Beneficial Roles of Exercise-Induced Production of Reactive Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Couto Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an overview of the influence of reactive species produced during exercise and their effect on exercise adaptation. Reactive species and free radicals are unstable molecules that oxidize other molecules in order to become stable. Although they play important roles in our body, they can also lead to oxidative stress impairing diverse cellular functions. During exercise, reactive species can be produced mainly, but not exclusively, by the following mechanisms: electron leak at the mitochondrial electron transport chain, ischemia/reperfusion and activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase, inflammatory response, and autooxidation of catecholamines. Chronic exercise also leads to the upregulation of the body's antioxidant defence mechanism, which helps minimize the oxidative stress that may occur after an acute bout of exercise. Recent studies show a beneficial role of the reactive species, produced during a bout of exercise, that lead to important training adaptations: angiogenesis, mitochondria biogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy. The adaptations occur depending on the mechanic, and consequently biochemical, stimulus within the muscle. This is a new area of study that promises important findings in the sphere of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the relationship between oxidative stress and exercise.

  3. Oxidants, Antioxidants, and the Beneficial Roles of Exercise-Induced Production of Reactive Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Elisa Couto; Silva, Albená Nunes; de Oliveira, Marta Rubino

    2012-01-01

    This review offers an overview of the influence of reactive species produced during exercise and their effect on exercise adaptation. Reactive species and free radicals are unstable molecules that oxidize other molecules in order to become stable. Although they play important roles in our body, they can also lead to oxidative stress impairing diverse cellular functions. During exercise, reactive species can be produced mainly, but not exclusively, by the following mechanisms: electron leak at the mitochondrial electron transport chain, ischemia/reperfusion and activation of endothelial xanthine oxidase, inflammatory response, and autooxidation of catecholamines. Chronic exercise also leads to the upregulation of the body's antioxidant defence mechanism, which helps minimize the oxidative stress that may occur after an acute bout of exercise. Recent studies show a beneficial role of the reactive species, produced during a bout of exercise, that lead to important training adaptations: angiogenesis, mitochondria biogenesis, and muscle hypertrophy. The adaptations occur depending on the mechanic, and consequently biochemical, stimulus within the muscle. This is a new area of study that promises important findings in the sphere of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the relationship between oxidative stress and exercise. PMID:22701757

  4. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osredkar Joško

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The human organism is exposed to the influence of various forms of stress, either physical, psychological or chemical, which all have in common that they may adversely affect our body. A certain amount of stress is always present and somehow directs, promotes or inhibits the functioning of the human body. Unfortunately, we are now too many and too often exposed to excessive stress, which certainly has adverse consequences. This is especially true for a particular type of stress, called oxidative stress. All aerobic organisms are exposed to this type of stress because they produce energy by using oxygen. For this type of stress you could say that it is rather imperceptibly involved in our lives, as it becomes apparent only at the outbreak of certain diseases. Today we are well aware of the adverse impact of radicals, whose surplus is the main cause of oxidative stress. However, the key problem remains the detection of oxidative stress, which would allow us to undertake timely action and prevent outbreak of many diseases of our time. There are many factors that promote oxidative stress, among them are certainly a fast lifestyle and environmental pollution. The increase in oxidative stress can also trigger intense physical activity that is directly associated with an increased oxygen consumption and the resulting formation of free radicals. Considering generally positive attitude to physical activity, this fact may seem at first glance contradictory, but the finding has been confimed by several studies in active athletes. Training of a top athlete daily demands great physical effort, which is also reflected in the oxidative state of the organism. However, it should be noted that the top athletes in comparison with normal individuals have a different defense system, which can counteract the negative effects of oxidative stress. Quite the opposite is true for irregular or excessive physical activity to which the body is not adapted.

  5. Impact of adrenaline and metabolic stress on exercise-induced intracellular signaling and PGC-1α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hostrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma adrenaline or metabolic stress enhances exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA and intracellular signaling in human muscle. Trained (VO2-max: 53.8 ± 1.8 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) male subjects completed four different exercise protocols (work load of the legs...... exercise than at rest in all protocols, and higher (P adrenaline nor muscle metabolic stress determines the magnitude of PGC-1α mRNA response in human muscle. Furthermore, higher exercise-induced changes in AMPK, p38, and CREB...

  6. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  7. Mechanisms of stress-induced cellular HSP72 release: implications for exercise-induced increases in extracellular HSP72.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Graeme I; Febbraio, Mark A

    2005-01-01

    The heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved proteins with critical roles in maintaining cellular homeostasis and in protecting the cell from stressful conditions. While the critical intracellular roles of heat shock proteins are undisputed, evidence suggests that the cell possess the necessary machinery to actively secrete specific heat shock proteins in response to cellular stress. In this review, we firstly discuss the evidence that physical exercise induces the release of heat shock protein 72 from specific tissues in humans. Importantly, it appears as though this release is the result of an active secretory process, as opposed to non-specific processes such as cell lysis. Next we discuss recent in vitro evidence that has identified a mechanistic basis for the observation that cellular stress induces the release of a specific subset of heat shock proteins. Importantly, while the classical protein secretory pathway does not seem to be involved in the stress-induced release of HSP72, we discuss the evidence that lipid-rafts and exosomes are important mediators of the stress-induced release of HSP72.

  8. Eccentric-exercise induced inflammation attenuates the vascular responses to mental stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paine, N.J.; Ring, C.; Aldred, S.; Bosch, J.A.; Wadley, A.J.; Veldhuijzen van Zanten, J.J.C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Mental stress has been identified as a trigger of myocardial infarction (MI), with inflammation and vascular responses to mental stress independently implicated as contributing factors. This study examined whether inflammation moderates the vascular responses to mental stress. Eighteen healthy male

  9. Effect of exercise-induced dehydration on circulatory markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgescu, Vincent P; de Souza Junior, Tacito P; Behrens, Christian; Barros, Marcelo P; Bueno, Carlos Alves; Utter, Alan C; McAnulty, Lisa S; McAnulty, Steven R

    2017-07-01

    Dehydration is a common event associated with exercise. However, few studies have examined the effects of dehydration on plasma redox status in humans. Eighty-two athletes were recruited and baseline anthropometrics and blood samples were obtained. Athletes then engaged in a dehydration protocol, training until 3% of preweight body mass was lost. Athletes returned to the lab and had postdehydration blood collected. Athletes then consumed an isotonic drink until pre-exercise body weight was reestablished. Blood was then recollected (1 h post full rehydration (PFR)). Samples were centrifuged and the plasma snap frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C. Lipid and protein oxidative stress was determined by measuring F 2 -isoprostanes and protein carbonyls (PC), respectively. Antioxidant capacity was determined by the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays. Plasma osmolality was determined using an osmometer. Statistical analysis utilized a 1-way ANOVA with posthoc testing. Values are reported as mean ± SD. Plasma osmolality was significantly elevated immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) but decreased to baseline at PFR. Plasma TEAC increased immediately postdehydration and at PFR (p ≤ 0.001). FRAP increased immediately postdehydration (p ≤ 0.001) and decreased to below baseline at PFR (p ≤ 0.05). Conversely, F 2 -isoprostanes declined significantly from baseline to immediately postdehydration and then significantly rose at PFR (p ≤ 0.001), whereas PC declined at PFR (p ≤ 0.01). This study indicates that dehydration and exercise cause a significant increase in plasma osmolality and antioxidant potential immediately postexercise. We propose dehydration significantly elevates antioxidant concentration which suppresses F 2 -isoprostanes and PC.

  10. Oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Jelka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The unceasing need for oxygen is in contradiction to the fact that it is in fact toxic to mammals. Namely, its monovalent reduction can have as a consequence the production of short-living, chemically very active free radicals and certain non-radical agents (nitrogen-oxide, superoxide-anion-radicals, hydroxyl radicals, peroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, hydrogen peroxide, hypochlorous acid, and others. There is no doubt that they have numerous positive roles, but when their production is stepped up to such an extent that the organism cannot eliminate them with its antioxidants (superoxide-dismutase, glutathione-peroxidase, catalase, transferrin, ceruloplasmin, reduced glutathion, and others, a series of disorders is developed that are jointly called „oxidative stress.“ The reactive oxygen species which characterize oxidative stress are capable of attacking all main classes of biological macromolecules, actually proteins, DNA and RNA molecules, and in particular lipids. The free radicals influence lipid peroxidation in cellular membranes, oxidative damage to DNA and RNA molecules, the development of genetic mutations, fragmentation, and the altered function of various protein molecules. All of this results in the following consequences: disrupted permeability of cellular membranes, disrupted cellular signalization and ion homeostasis, reduced or loss of function of damaged proteins, and similar. That is why the free radicals that are released during oxidative stress are considered pathogenic agents of numerous diseases and ageing. The type of damage that will occur, and when it will take place, depends on the nature of the free radicals, their site of action and their source. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173034, br. 175061 i br. 31085

  11. Exercise-Induced Hypertrophic and Oxidative Signaling Pathways and Myokine Expression in Fast Muscle of Adult Zebrafish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Rovira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1α and also of pparda, a β-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1α signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest

  12. SIRT3 deacetylates ATP synthase F1 complex proteins in response to nutrient- and exercise-induced stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassilopoulos, Athanassios; Pennington, J Daniel; Andresson, Thorkell; Rees, David M; Bosley, Allen D; Fearnley, Ian M; Ham, Amy; Flynn, Charles Robb; Hill, Salisha; Rose, Kristie Lindsey; Kim, Hyun-Seok; Deng, Chu-Xia; Walker, John E; Gius, David

    2014-08-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthase uses chemiosmotic energy across the inner mitochondrial membrane to convert adenosine diphosphate and orthophosphate into ATP, whereas genetic deletion of Sirt3 decreases mitochondrial ATP levels. Here, we investigate the mechanistic connection between SIRT3 and energy homeostasis. By using both in vitro and in vivo experiments, we demonstrate that ATP synthase F1 proteins alpha, beta, gamma, and Oligomycin sensitivity-conferring protein (OSCP) contain SIRT3-specific reversible acetyl-lysines that are evolutionarily conserved and bind to SIRT3. OSCP was further investigated and lysine 139 is a nutrient-sensitive SIRT3-dependent deacetylation target. Site directed mutants demonstrate that OSCP(K139) directs, at least in part, mitochondrial ATP production and mice lacking Sirt3 exhibit decreased ATP muscle levels, increased ATP synthase protein acetylation, and an exercise-induced stress-deficient phenotype. This work connects the aging and nutrient response, via SIRT3 direction of the mitochondrial acetylome, to the regulation of mitochondrial energy homeostasis under nutrient-stress conditions by deacetylating ATP synthase proteins. Our data suggest that acetylome signaling contributes to mitochondrial energy homeostasis by SIRT3-mediated deacetylation of ATP synthase proteins.

  13. Acute hypoxia and hypoxic exercise induce DNA strand breaks and oxidative DNA damage in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Loft, S; Lundby, C

    2001-01-01

    ; lymphocytes were isolated for analysis of DNA strand breaks and oxidatively altered nucleotides, detected by endonuclease III and formamidipyridine glycosylase (FPG) enzymes. Urine was collected for 24 h periods for analysis of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage...... oxygen species, generated by leakage of the mitochondrial respiration or during a hypoxia-induced inflammation. Furthermore, the presence of DNA strand breaks may play an important role in maintaining hypoxia-induced inflammation processes. Hypoxia seems to deplete the antioxidant system of its capacity...

  14. Endurance exercise induces mRNA expression of oxidative enzymes in human skeletal muscle late in recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leick, Lotte; Plomgaard, Peter S.; Grønløkke, L.

    2010-01-01

    exercise. To test the hypothesis that mRNA expression of many oxidative enzymes is up-regulated late in recovery (10-24 h) after exercise, male subjects (n=8) performed a 90-min cycling exercise (70% VO(2-max)), with muscle biopsies obtained before exercise (pre), and after 10, 18 and 24 h of recovery....... The mRNA expression of carnitine-palmitoyltransferase (CPT)I, CD36, 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA-dehydrogenase (HAD), cytochrome (Cyt)c, aminolevulinate-delta-synthase (ALAS)1 and GLUT4 was 100-200% higher at 10-24 h of recovery from exercise than in a control trial. Exercise induced a 100-300% increase...... in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator (PGC)-1alpha, citrate synthase (CS), CPTI, CD36, HAD and ALAS1 mRNA contents at 10-24 h of recovery relative to before exercise. No protein changes were detected in Cytc, ALAS1 or GLUT4. This shows that mRNA expression of several training...

  15. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  16. Heat Stress Nephropathy From Exercise-Induced Uric Acid Crystalluria: A Perspective on Mesoamerican Nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos; García-Trabanino, Ramón; Barregard, Lars; Lanaspa, Miguel A; Wesseling, Catharina; Harra, Tamara; Aragón, Aurora; Grases, Felix; Jarquin, Emmanuel R; González, Marvin A; Weiss, Ilana; Glaser, Jason; Sánchez-Lozada, Laura G; Johnson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN), an epidemic in Central America, is a chronic kidney disease of unknown cause. In this article, we argue that MeN may be a uric acid disorder. Individuals at risk for developing the disease are primarily male workers exposed to heat stress and physical exertion that predisposes to recurrent water and volume depletion, often accompanied by urinary concentration and acidification. Uric acid is generated during heat stress, in part consequent to nucleotide release from muscles. We hypothesize that working in the sugarcane fields may result in cyclic uricosuria in which uric acid concentrations exceed solubility, leading to the formation of dihydrate urate crystals and local injury. Consistent with this hypothesis, we present pilot data documenting the common presence of urate crystals in the urine of sugarcane workers from El Salvador. High end-of-workday urinary uric acid concentrations were common in a pilot study, particularly if urine pH was corrected to 7. Hyperuricemia may induce glomerular hypertension, whereas the increased urinary uric acid may directly injure renal tubules. Thus, MeN may result from exercise and heat stress associated with dehydration-induced hyperuricemia and uricosuria. Increased hydration with water and salt, urinary alkalinization, reduction in sugary beverage intake, and inhibitors of uric acid synthesis should be tested for disease prevention. Copyright © 2016 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome in four related male English springer spaniels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrift E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Thrift,1 Justin A Wimpole,2 Georgina Child,2 Narelle Brown,1 Barbara Gandolfi,3 Richard Malik4 1Animal Referral Hospital, 2Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 4Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: This retrospective study describes the signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and mode of inheritance in four young male English springer spaniel dogs with presumptive canine stress syndrome.Materials and methods: Appropriate cases were located through medical searches of medical records of two large private referral centers. Inclusion criteria comprised of English springer spaniel dogs with tachypnea and hyperthermia that subsequently developed weakness or collapse, with or without signs of hemorrhage, soon after a period of mild-to-moderate exercise. The pedigrees of the four affected dogs, as well as eleven related English springer spaniels, were then analyzed to determine a presumptive mode of genetic inheritance.Results: Four dogs met the inclusion criteria. All four were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked heritable disorder. Pedigree analysis suggests that more dogs may be potentially affected, although these dogs may have never had the concurrent triggering drug/activity/event to precipitate the clinical syndrome. There was complete resolution of clinical signs in three of the four dogs with aggressive symptomatic and supportive therapy, with one dog dying during treatment.Conclusion: Dogs with canine stress syndrome have the potential for rapid recovery if treated aggressively and the complications of the disease (eg, coagulopathy are anticipated. All four dogs were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked mode of inheritance. Further genetic analyses should be strongly considered by those

  18. Oxidative Stress in BPH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Savas

    2009-01-01

    The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis. Keywords: benign prostatic hyperplasia, oxidative stress, prostate

  19. Oxidative Stress in Neurodegeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varsha Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been demonstrated that oxidative stress has a ubiquitous role in neurodegenerative diseases. Major source of oxidative stress due to reactive oxygen species (ROS is related to mitochondria as an endogenous source. Although there is ample evidence from tissues of patients with neurodegenerative disorders of morphological, biochemical, and molecular abnormalities in mitochondria, it is still not very clear whether the oxidative stress itself contributes to the onset of neurodegeneration or it is part of the neurodegenerative process as secondary manifestation. This paper begins with an overview of how oxidative stress occurs, discussing various oxidants and antioxidants, and role of oxidative stress in diseases in general. It highlights the role of oxidative stress in neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The last part of the paper describes the role of oxidative stress causing deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5 hyperactivity associated with neurodegeneration.

  20. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  1. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.

  2. Exercise-induced shear stress is associated with changes in plasma von Willebrand factor in older humans

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Joaquin U.; Thistlethwaite, John R.; Thompson, Benjamin C.; Scheuermann, Barry W.

    2009-01-01

    Shear stress is the frictional force of blood against the endothelium, a stimulus for endothelial activation and the release of von Willebrand factor (vWF). This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in shear stress associated with exercise correlates with plasma vWF. Young (n = 14, 25.7 ± 5.4 y) and older (n = 13, 65.6 ± 10.7 y) individuals participated in 30 min of dynamic handgrip exercise at a moderate intensity. Brachial artery diameter and blood flow were measured using ultrasou...

  3. Exercise-induced stress behavior, gut-microbiota-brain axis and diet: a systematic review for athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Allison; Mach, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Fatigue, mood disturbances, under performance and gastrointestinal distress are common among athletes during training and competition. The psychosocial and physical demands during intense exercise can initiate a stress response activating the sympathetic-adrenomedullary and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes, resulting in the release of stress and catabolic hormones, inflammatory cytokines and microbial molecules. The gut is home to trillions of microorganisms that have fundamental roles in many aspects of human biology, including metabolism, endocrine, neuronal and immune function. The gut microbiome and its influence on host behavior, intestinal barrier and immune function are believed to be a critical aspect of the brain-gut axis. Recent evidence in murine models shows that there is a high correlation between physical and emotional stress during exercise and changes in gastrointestinal microbiota composition. For instance, induced exercise-stress decreased cecal levels of Turicibacter spp and increased Ruminococcus gnavus, which have well defined roles in intestinal mucus degradation and immune function. Diet is known to dramatically modulate the composition of the gut microbiota. Due to the considerable complexity of stress responses in elite athletes (from leaky gut to increased catabolism and depression), defining standard diet regimes is difficult. However, some preliminary experimental data obtained from studies using probiotics and prebiotics studies show some interesting results, indicating that the microbiota acts like an endocrine organ (e.g. secreting serotonin, dopamine or other neurotransmitters) and may control the HPA axis in athletes. What is troubling is that dietary recommendations for elite athletes are primarily based on a low consumption of plant polysaccharides, which is associated with reduced microbiota diversity and functionality (e.g. less synthesis of byproducts such as short chain fatty acids and neurotransmitters). As more

  4. Detection of exercise induced ischemia in the asymptomatic recent post myocardial infarction patient: comparison of stress electrocardiography and radionuclide angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jengo, J.A.; Brizendine, M.; Dykstra, L.; Sweet, J.; Bruno, M.; Garcia, A.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the techniques of low level stress electrocardiography and radionuclide angiographic wall motion analysis for the detection of new areas of myocardial ischemia in the asymptomatic recent post-myocardial infarction patient. The protocol consisted of obtaining a resting, RAO upright first pass radionuclide angiocardiogram using 15 mCi of 99m technetium-DTPA. The study suggests that assessment of segmental wall motion during low level stress can detect areas of myocardium at high risk either intermixed with or in addition to recently infarcted areas in the asymptomatic post-infarction patient, which are not detected by ECG. This high risk subset of patients can then be observed or treated in a more vigorous manner. This technique allows for not only the identification of additional areas of myocardium at jeopardy but also provides information regarding the severity of ischemic dysfunction, an important prognostic and therapeutic factor

  5. Exercise-induced shear stress is associated with changes in plasma von Willebrand factor in older humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Joaquin U; Thistlethwaite, John R; Thompson, Benjamin C; Scheuermann, Barry W

    2009-07-01

    Shear stress is the frictional force of blood against the endothelium, a stimulus for endothelial activation and the release of von Willebrand factor (vWF). This study tested the hypothesis that the increase in shear stress associated with exercise correlates with plasma vWF. Young (n = 14, 25.7 +/- 5.4 years) and older (n = 13, 65.6 +/- 10.7 years) individuals participated in 30 min of dynamic handgrip exercise at a moderate intensity. Brachial artery diameter and blood flow were measured using ultrasound Doppler and blood samples were collected before, immediately after, and following 30 min of recovery from exercise with plasma levels of vWF. Plasma levels of vWF increased (P exercise. The change in plasma vWF was linearly correlated with the increase in shear stress during exercise in older individuals (post-exercise: r = 0.78, 30 min recovery: r = 0.77, P < 0.01), but no association was found in the young individuals. These changes in plasma levels of vWF in humans suggest that aging influences endothelial activation and hemostasis.

  6. Exercise-induced metallothionein expression in human skeletal muscle fibres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, Milena; Keller, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte

    2005-01-01

    in both type I and II muscle fibres. This is the first report demonstrating that MT-I + II are significantly induced in human skeletal muscle fibres following exercise. As MT-I + II are antioxidant factors that protect various tissues during pathological conditions, the MT-I + II increases post exercise......Exercise induces free oxygen radicals that cause oxidative stress, and metallothioneins (MTs) are increased in states of oxidative stress and possess anti-apoptotic effects. We therefore studied expression of the antioxidant factors metallothionein I and II (MT-I + II) in muscle biopsies obtained...... in response to 3 h of bicycle exercise performed by healthy men and in resting controls. Both MT-I + II proteins and MT-II mRNA expression increased significantly in both type I and II muscle fibres after exercise. Moreover, 24 h after exercise the levels of MT-II mRNA and MT-I + II proteins were still highly...

  7. Exercise-induced hypertension, cardiovascular events, and mortality in patients undergoing exercise stress testing: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Otahal, Petr; Cleland, Verity J; Blizzard, Leigh; Marwick, Thomas H; Sharman, James E

    2013-03-01

    The prognostic relevance of a hypertensive response to exercise (HRE) is ill-defined in individuals undergoing exercise stress testing. The study described here was intended to provide a systematic review and meta-analysis of published literature to determine the value of exercise-related blood pressure (BP) (independent of office BP) for predicting cardiovascular (CV) events and mortality. Online databases were searched for published longitudinal studies reporting exercise-related BP and CV events and mortality rates. We identified for review 12 longitudinal studies with a total of 46,314 individuals without significant coronary artery disease, with total CV event and mortality rates recorded over a mean follow-up of 15.2±4.0 years. After adjustment for age, office BP, and CV risk factors, an HRE at moderate exercise intensity carried a 36% greater rate of CV events and mortality (95% CI, 1.02-1.83, P = 0.039) than that of subjects without an HRE. Additionally, each 10mm Hg increase in systolic BP during exercise at moderate intensity was accompanied by a 4% increase in CV events and mortality, independent of office BP, age, or CV risk factors (95% CI, 1.01-1.07, P = 0.02). Systolic BP at maximal workload was not significantly associated with the outcome of an increased rate of CV, whether analyzed as a categorical (HR=1.49, 95% CI, 0.90-2.46, P = 0.12) or a continuous (HR=1.01, 95% CI, 0.98-1.04, P = 0.53) variable. An HRE at moderate exercise intensity during exercise stress testing is an independent risk factor for CV events and mortality. This highlights the need to determine underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of exercise-induced hypertension.

  8. Studies on clinical significance of exercise-induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads in the patients with prior myocardial infarction using the stress scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkubo, Toshitaka

    1988-01-01

    Stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging and stress radionuclide ventriculography were performed in a total of 67 patients with prior myocardial infarction (MI) to assess the clinical significance of exercise induced ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads on ECG during the chronic stage. The patients consisted of 12 with inferior MI with single vessel disease (SVD) that showed no precordial ST-segment depression; 7 with inferior MI with SVD accompanied by precordial ST-segment depression; 13 with inferior MI with multivessel disease (MVD); 20 with anterior MI with SVD that showed no inferior ST-segment depression; 4 with anterior MI with SVD accompanied by inferior ST-segment depression; and 11 with anterior MI with MVD. In cases of SVD, the incidence of ST-segment depression at non-infarct-related leads was higher for inferior MI (36.8%) than anterior MI (16.7%). Myocardial imaging revealed large infarct and infarct extending into the inferoseptal wall of the left ventricle (LV) in cases of exercise induced precordial ST-segment depression; and infarct extending into the lateral wall of LV in cases of exercise induced inferior ST-segment depression. In detecting MVD, stress Tl-201 myocardial imaging was superior to exercise electrocardiography and stress radionuclide ventriculography, but this was not statistically significant. Prognostic value of error rate for detecting MVD was significantly improved with a discriminant analysis. Exercise induced ST-segment depression on ECG should be of clinical significance in reflecting myocardial ischemia around an infarcted area. (Namekawa, K)

  9. Effect of vitamins E and C on exercise-induced oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of ingesting antioxidant vitamins E and C for 4 weeks on serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels at rest and after exercise was studied in humans. Twenty-four young healthy males aged 15 30 years participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either an antioxidant vitamin supplemented group (daily ...

  10. Does oxidative stress shorten telomeres?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boonekamp, Jelle J.; Bauch, Christina; Mulder, Ellis; Verhulst, Simon

    Oxidative stress shortens telomeres in cell culture, but whether oxidative stress explains variation in telomere shortening in vivo at physiological oxidative stress levels is not well known. We therefore tested for correlations between six oxidative stress markers and telomere attrition in nestling

  11. Staphylococcal response to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosmarie eGaupp

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Staphylococci are a versatile genus of bacteria that are capable of causing acute and chronic infections in diverse host species. The success of staphylococci as pathogens is due in part to their ability to mitigate endogenous and exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress. Endogenous oxidative stress is a consequence of life in an aerobic environment; whereas, exogenous oxidative and nitrosative stress are often due to the bacteria’s interaction with host immune systems. To overcome the deleterious effects of oxidative and nitrosative stress, staphylococci have evolved protection, detoxification, and repair mechanisms that are controlled by a network of regulators. In this review, we summarize the cellular targets of oxidative stress, the mechanisms by which staphylococci sense oxidative stress and damage, oxidative stress protection and repair mechanisms, and regulation of the oxidative stress response. When possible, special attention is given to how the oxidative stress defense mechanisms help staphylococci control oxidative stress in the host.

  12. Oxidative Stress in BPH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savas, M; Verit, A; Ciftci, H; Yeni, E; Aktan, E; Topal, U; Erel, O

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH and this may assist to contribute to the realistic explanation of the ethiopathogenesis of BPH. Seventy four newly diagnosed men with BPH (mean age: 54+/-11.2), who had not undergone any previous treatment for BPH, and 62 healthy volunteers (mean age: 55+/-14) were enrolled in the present study. To determine the antioxidative status of plasma, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) was calculated, and to determine the oxidative status of plasma (TOS) total peroxide levels were measured. The ratio of TAC to total peroxide was accepted as an indicator of oxidative stress (OSI). Data are presented as mean SD +/- unless specified. Student t-test and correlation analyses were used to evaluate the statistical significance differences in the median values recorded for all parameters between BPH and control group. Plasma TAC TOS were found in patients and controls (1.70 +/- 0.32, 1.68 +/- 0.19 micromol Trolox Equiv./L), (12.48 +/- 1.98, 12.40 +/- 1.14 micromol / L) respectively. OSI was calculated as 7.57 +/- 1.91, 7.48 +/- 1.33, respectively. Plasma TAC, TOS and OSI levels were not found to be significantly difference between patients and control subjects (p>0.05, p>0.05, p>0.05). The present study has shown that there were not relationship between potency of oxidative stress and BPH. Further well designed studies should be planned to find out whether the oxidative stress-related parameters play role in BPH as an interesting pathology in regard of the etiopathogenesis.

  13. Oxidative Stress in Myopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch-Morell Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myopia affected approximately 1.6 billion people worldwide in 2000, and it is expected to increase to 2.5 billion by 2020. Although optical problems can be corrected by optics or surgical procedures, normal myopia and high myopia are still an unsolved medical problem. They frequently predispose people who have them to suffer from other eye pathologies: retinal detachment, glaucoma, macular hemorrhage, cataracts, and so on being one of the main causes of visual deterioration and blindness. Genetic and environmental factors have been associated with myopia. Nevertheless, lack of knowledge in the underlying physiopathological molecular mechanisms has not permitted an adequate diagnosis, prevention, or treatment to be found. Nowadays several pieces of evidence indicate that oxidative stress may help explain the altered regulatory pathways in myopia and the appearance of associated eye diseases. On the one hand, oxidative damage associated with hypoxia myopic can alter the neuromodulation that nitric oxide and dopamine have in eye growth. On the other hand, radical superoxide or peroxynitrite production damage retina, vitreous, lens, and so on contributing to the appearance of retinopathies, retinal detachment, cataracts and so on. The objective of this review is to suggest that oxidative stress is one of the key pieces that can help solve this complex eye problem.

  14. Exercise-induced amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, B R

    1989-02-01

    Strenuous exercise may cause menstrual abnormalities, including amenorrhea. The hypoestrogenemia that accompanies amenorrhea has been associated with a low bone mineral content and an increased incidence of stress fractures. With the resumption of menses, which usually occurs soon after female athletes decrease the intensity of their training or increase their body weight, bone mineral content increases and the incidence of stress fractures decreases.

  15. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms Linked to Exercise During Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Fisher-Wellman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases, in addition to the aging process. Although various stimuli exist, acute exercise is known to induce a transient increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, evident by several reports of increased oxidative damage following acute bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Although the results are somewhat mixed and appear disease dependent, individuals with chronic disease experience an exacerbation in oxidative stress following acute exercise when compared to healthy individuals. However, this increased oxidant stress may serve as a necessary “signal” for the upregulation in antioxidant defenses, thereby providing protection against subsequent exposure to prooxidant environments within susceptible individuals. Here we present studies related to both acute exercise-induced oxidative stress in those with disease, in addition to studies focused on adaptations resulting from increased RONS exposure associated with chronic exercise training in persons with disease.

  16. Impact of oxidative stress on exercising skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinbacher, Peter; Eckl, Peter

    2015-04-10

    It is well established that muscle contractions during exercise lead to elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in skeletal muscle. These highly reactive molecules have many deleterious effects, such as a reduction of force generation and increased muscle atrophy. Since the discovery of exercise-induced oxidative stress several decades ago, evidence has accumulated that ROS produced during exercise also have positive effects by influencing cellular processes that lead to increased expression of antioxidants. These molecules are particularly elevated in regularly exercising muscle to prevent the negative effects of ROS by neutralizing the free radicals. In addition, ROS also seem to be involved in the exercise-induced adaptation of the muscle phenotype. This review provides an overview of the evidences to date on the effects of ROS in exercising muscle. These aspects include the sources of ROS, their positive and negative cellular effects, the role of antioxidants, and the present evidence on ROS-dependent adaptations of muscle cells in response to physical exercise.

  17. BRCA1 and Oxidative Stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi, Yong Weon; Kang, Hyo Jin [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Bae, Insoo, E-mail: ib42@georgetown.edu [Department of Oncology, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States); Department of Radiation Medicine, Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University Medical Center, Washington, DC 20057 (United States)

    2014-04-03

    The breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) has been well established as a tumor suppressor and functions primarily by maintaining genome integrity. Genome stability is compromised when cells are exposed to oxidative stress. Increasing evidence suggests that BRCA1 regulates oxidative stress and this may be another mechanism in preventing carcinogenesis in normal cells. Oxidative stress caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is implicated in carcinogenesis and is used strategically to treat human cancer. Thus, it is essential to understand the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. In this review, we briefly summarize BRCA1’s many binding partners and mechanisms, and discuss data supporting the function of BRCA1 in oxidative stress regulation. Finally, we consider its significance in prevention and/or treatment of BRCA1-related cancers.

  18. Ampk phosphorylation of Ulk1 is required for targeting of mitochondria to lysosomes in exercise-induced mitophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laker, Rhianna C; Drake, Joshua C; Wilson, Rebecca J; Lira, Vitor A; Lewellen, Bevan M; Ryall, Karen A; Fisher, Carleigh C; Zhang, Mei; Saucerman, Jeffrey J; Goodyear, Laurie J; Kundu, Mondira; Yan, Zhen

    2017-09-15

    Mitochondrial health is critical for skeletal muscle function and is improved by exercise training through both mitochondrial biogenesis and removal of damaged/dysfunctional mitochondria via mitophagy. The mechanisms underlying exercise-induced mitophagy have not been fully elucidated. Here, we show that acute treadmill running in mice causes mitochondrial oxidative stress at 3-12 h and mitophagy at 6 h post-exercise in skeletal muscle. These changes were monitored using a novel fluorescent reporter gene, pMitoTimer, that allows assessment of mitochondrial oxidative stress and mitophagy in vivo, and were preceded by increased phosphorylation of AMP activated protein kinase (Ampk) at tyrosine 172 and of unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (Ulk1) at serine 555. Using mice expressing dominant negative and constitutively active Ampk in skeletal muscle, we demonstrate that Ulk1 activation is dependent on Ampk. Furthermore, exercise-induced metabolic adaptation requires Ulk1. These findings provide direct evidence of exercise-induced mitophagy and demonstrate the importance of Ampk-Ulk1 signaling in skeletal muscle.Exercise is associated with biogenesis and removal of dysfunctional mitochondria. Here the authors use a mitochondrial reporter gene to demonstrate the occurrence of mitophagy following exercise in mice, and show this is dependent on AMPK and ULK1 signaling.

  19. Benefits of dietary phytochemical supplementation on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage: Is including antioxidants enough?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira Panza, Vilma Simões; Diefenthaeler, Fernando; da Silva, Edson Luiz

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review was to critically discuss studies that investigated the effects of supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals on recovery from eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. The performance of physical activities that involve unaccustomed eccentric muscle actions-such as lowering a weight or downhill walking-can result in muscle damage, oxidative stress, and inflammation. These events may be accompanied by muscle weakness and delayed-onset muscle soreness. According to the current evidences, supplementation with dietary antioxidant phytochemicals appears to have the potential to attenuate symptoms associated with eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage. However, there are inconsistencies regarding the relationship between muscle damage and blood markers of oxidative stress and inflammation. Furthermore, the effectiveness of strategies appear to depend on a number of aspects inherent to phytochemical compounds as well as its food matrix. Methodological issues also may interfere with the proper interpretation of supplementation effects. Thus, the study may contribute to updating professionals involved in sport nutrition as well as highlighting the interest of scientists in new perspectives that can widen dietary strategies applied to training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Obesity, reproduction and oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara V. Zhuk

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of obesity and overweight is one of the most pressing problems nowadays. Obesity as a comorbid condition affects all body systems. Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor not only for cardiovascular diseases and oncopathology, but also for fertility problems, many obstetric and perinatal complications worsening the maternal and infant health. The balance between the oxidative and antioxidant system is one of the indicators of the state of human homeostasis. Today it is proved that obesity is associated with an increase in oxidative stress and a decrease in antioxidant protection. This review reveals a close relationship between obesity, oxidative stress and reproductive problems.

  1. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  2. [Vitamins and oxidative stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodentsova, V M; Vrzhesinskaia, O A; Mazo, V K

    2013-01-01

    The central and local stress limiting systems, including the antioxidant defense system involved in defending the organism at the cellular and systemic levels from excess activation response to stress influence, leading to damaging effects. The development of stress, regardless of its nature [cold, increased physical activity, aging, the development of many pathologies (cardiovascular, neurodegenerative diseases, diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, ischemia, the effects of burns), immobilization, hypobaric hypoxia, hyperoxia, radiation effects etc.] leads to a deterioration of the vitamin status (vitamins E, A, C). Damaging effect on the antioxidant defense system is more pronounced compared to the stress response in animals with an isolated deficiency of vitamins C, A, E, B1 or B6 and the combined vitamins deficiency in the diet. Addition missing vitamin or vitamins restores the performance of antioxidant system. Thus, the role of vitamins in adaptation to stressors is evident. However, vitamins C, E and beta-carotene in high doses, significantly higher than the physiological needs of the organism, may be not only antioxidants, but may have also prooxidant properties. Perhaps this explains the lack of positive effects of antioxidant vitamins used in extreme doses for a long time described in some publications. There is no doubt that to justify the current optimal doses of antioxidant vitamins and other dietary antioxidants specially-designed studies, including biochemical testing of initial vitamin and antioxidant status of the organism, as well as monitoring their change over time are required.

  3. Aerobic Training Modulates the Effects of Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress on PON1 Activity: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Otocka-Kmiecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME on paraoxonase (PON and arylesterase (ARE activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S and physically active (PA. All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise.

  4. Aerobic training modulates the effects of exercise-induced oxidative stress on PON1 activity: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otocka-Kmiecik, Aneta; Lewandowski, Marek; Szkudlarek, Urszula; Nowak, Dariusz; Orlowska-Majdak, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME) on paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and physically active (PA). All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise.

  5. Exercise-Induced Rhabdomyolysis and Stress-Induced Malignant Hyperthermia Events, Association with Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptibility, and RYR1 Gene Sequence Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Carsana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER and stress-induced malignant hyperthermia (MH events are syndromes that primarily afflict military recruits in basic training and athletes. Events similar to those occurring in ER and in stress-induced MH events are triggered after exposure to anesthetic agents in MH-susceptible (MHS patients. MH is an autosomal dominant hypermetabolic condition that occurs in genetically predisposed subjects during general anesthesia, induced by commonly used volatile anesthetics and/or the neuromuscular blocking agent succinylcholine. Triggering agents cause an altered intracellular calcium regulation. Mutations in RYR1 gene have been found in about 70% of MH families. The RYR1 gene encodes the skeletal muscle calcium release channel of the sarcoplasmic reticulum, commonly known as ryanodine receptor type 1 (RYR1. The present work reviews the documented cases of ER or of stress-induced MH events in which RYR1 sequence variations, associated or possibly associated to MHS status, have been identified.

  6. Research progress of exercise-induced fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-yi DAI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced fatigue is a comprehensive response to a variety of physiological and biochemical changes in the body, and can affect people's quality of life to different extents. If no timely recovery after occurrence of fatigue, accumulated gradually, it can lead to "burnout", a "overtraining syndrome", "chronic fatigue syndrome", etc., which will cause endocrine disturbance, immune suppression, even physical illness. Exercise-induced fatigue becomes an important factor endangering human health. In recent years, many experts and scholars at home and abroad are committed to the research of exercise-induced fatigue, and have put forward a variety of hypothesis to explain the cause of exercise-induced fatigue. They expect to find out the methods for preventing and eliminating exercise-induced fatigue. This article discusses mainly the pathogenesis, model building, elimination/ relief, etc. of exercise-induced fatigue to point out the research achievements of exercise-induced fatigue and its existing problems. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.14

  7. Associations between positive emotional well-being and stress-induced myocardial ischemia: Well-being scores predict exercise-induced ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feigal, Jacob P; Boyle, Stephen H; Samad, Zainab; Velazquez, Eric J; Wilson, Jennifer L; Becker, Richard C; Williams, Redford B; Kuhn, Cynthia M; Ortel, Thomas L; Rogers, Joseph G; O'Connor, Christopher M; Jiang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    Depressive symptoms have been associated with myocardial ischemia induced by mental (MSIMI) and exercise (ESIMI) stress in clinically stable ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients, but the association between positive emotions and inducible ischemia is less well characterized. The objective of this study was to examine the associations between ratings of well-being and stress-induced ischemia. Subjects were adult patients with documented IHD underwent mental and exercise stress testing for the Responses of Myocardial Ischemia to Escitalopram Treatment (REMIT) trial. The General Well-Being Schedule (GWBS), with higher scores reflecting greater subjective well-being, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) were obtained from the REMIT participants. Echocardiography was used to measure ischemic responses to mental stress and Bruce protocol treadmill exercise testing. Data were analyzed using logistic regression adjusting for age, sex, resting left-ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and resting wall motion score index, as well as health-related behaviors. GWBS scores were obtained for 210 individuals, with MSIMI present in 92 (43.8%) and ESIMI present in 64 (30.5%). There was a significant inverse correlation between GWBS-PE (Positive Emotion subscale) scores and probability of ESIMI (OR=0.55 (95%CI 0.36-0.83), p=0.005). This association persisted after additional control for CESD subscales measuring negative and positive emotions and for variables reflecting health-related behaviors. A similar inverse correlation between GWBS-PE and MSIMI was observed, but did not reach statistical significance (OR=0.81 (95%CI 0.54-1.20), p=0.28). This is, to our knowledge, the first study demonstrating that greater levels of self-reported positive emotions are associated with a lower likelihood of ESIMI among patients with known IHD. Our results highlight the important interface functions of the central nervous and cardiovascular systems and underscore

  8. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Res, Peter T; Haenen, Guido R; Bast, Aalt; van Loon, Luc J C; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Meex, Steven J R

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant) on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists. Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1); mean ± SD) were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day), or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min). The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2) to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7), immediately post-exercise (pexercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24), as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde). Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase) were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation. Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations, astaxanthin supplementation did not improve antioxidant capacity in well-trained cyclists. Accordingly, exercise-induced cardiac troponin T concentrations were not affected by astaxanthin supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01241877.

  9. Oxidative stress and food supplementation with antioxidants in therapy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechi, Sara; Fiore, Filippo; Chiavolelli, Francesca; Dimauro, Corrado; Nudda, Anna; Cocco, Raffaella

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of a long-term antioxidant-supplemented diet to regulate the oxidative stress and general health status of dogs involved in animal-assisted intervention (AAI) programs. Oxidative stress is a consequence of the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Exercise-induced oxidative stress can increase muscle fatigue and fiber damage and eventually leads to impairment of the immune system. A randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover clinical evaluation was conducted with 11 healthy therapy dogs: 6 females and 5 males of different breeds and with a mean age of 2.7 ± 0.8 y (mean ± SEM). The dogs were divided into 2 groups, 1 fed a high quality commercial diet without antioxidants (CD) and the other a high quality commercial diet supplemented with antioxidants (SD) for 18 wk. After the first 18 wk, metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen metabolite-derivatives (d-ROMs), and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) levels were monitored and showed a significant reduction of d-ROMs, triglycerides, and creatinine values in the SD group ( P < 0.05) and a significant increase in amylase values in the CD group ( P < 0.01). At the end of this period, groups were crossed over and fed for another 18 wk. A significant decrease in amylase and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) values was observed in the CD and SD group, respectively ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, a controlled, balanced antioxidant diet may be a valid approach to restoring good cell metabolism and neutralizing excess free radicals in therapy dogs.

  10. Hypoxia, Oxidative Stress and Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaus Netzer

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic disturbances in white adipose tissue in obese individuals contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance and the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Impaired insulin action in adipocytes is associated with elevated lipolysis and increased free fatty acids leading to ectopic fat deposition in liver and skeletal muscle. Chronic adipose tissue hypoxia has been suggested to be part of pathomechanisms causing dysfunction of adipocytes. Hypoxia can provoke oxidative stress in human and animal adipocytes and reduce the production of beneficial adipokines, such as adiponectin. However, time-dose responses to hypoxia relativize the effects of hypoxic stress. Long-term exposure of fat cells to hypoxia can lead to the production of beneficial substances such as leptin. Knowledge of time-dose responses of hypoxia on white adipose tissue and the time course of generation of oxidative stress in adipocytes is still scarce. This paper reviews the potential links between adipose tissue hypoxia, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and low-grade inflammation caused by adipocyte hypertrophy, macrophage infiltration and production of inflammatory mediators.

  11. Beneficial effects of neuropeptide galanin on reinstatement of exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Biao; Fang, Penghua; Guo, Lili; Shi, Mingyi; Zhu, Yan; Xu, Bo; Bo, Ping; Zhang, Zhenwen

    2017-04-01

    Galanin is a versatile neuropeptide that is distinctly upregulated by exercise in exercise-related tissues. Although benefits from exercise-induced upregulation of this peptide have been identified, many issues require additional exploration. This Review summarizes the information currently available on the relationship between galanin and exercise-induced physical and psychological damage. On the one hand, body movement, exercise damage, and exercise-induced stress and pain significantly increase local and circulatory galanin levels. On the other hand, galanin plays an exercise-protective role to inhibit the flexor reflex and prevent excessive movement of skeletal muscles through enhancing response threshold and reducing acetylcholine release. Additionally, elevated galanin levels can boost repair of the exercise-induced damage in exercise-related tissues, including peripheral nerve, skeletal muscle, blood vessel, skin, bone, articulation, and ligament. Moreover, elevated galanin levels may serve as effective signals to buffer sport-induced stress and pain via inhibiting nociceptive signal transmission and enhancing pain threshold. This Review deepens our understanding of the profitable roles of galanin in exercise protection, exercise injury repair, and exercise-induced stress and pain. Galanin and its agonists may be used to develop a novel preventive and therapeutic strategy to prevent and treat exercise-induced somatic and psychological trauma. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Submaximal exercise training, more than dietary selenium supplementation, improves antioxidant status and ameliorates exercise-induced oxidative damage to skeletal muscle in young equine athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, S H; Warren, L K

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as metabolism is upregulated to fuel muscle activity. If antioxidant systems become overwhelmed, ROS can negatively affect health and performance. Adaptation to exercise through regular training has been shown to improve defense against oxidative insult. Given selenium's role as an antioxidant, we hypothesized that increased Se intake would further enhance skeletal muscle adaptations to training. Quarter Horse yearlings (18 ± 0.2 mo; 402 ± 10 kg) were randomly assigned to receive either 0.1 or 0.3 mg Se/kg DM and placed in either an untrained or a trained (30 min walk-trot-canter, 4 d/wk) group for 14 wk. Phase 1 (wk 1 to 8) consisted of 4 treatments: trained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-TR; n = 10), trained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-TR; n = 10), untrained and fed 0.1 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (CON-UN; n = 5), or untrained and fed 0.3 mg Se/kg DM through wk 14 (HIGH-UN; n = 5). During Phase 2 (wk 9 to 14), dietary Se level in half of the trained horses was reversed, resulting in 6 treatments: CON-TR (n = 5), trained and fed 0.1 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.3 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (ADD-TR; n = 5), trained and fed 0.3 mg/kg Se in Phase 1 and then switched to 0.1 mg/kg Se for Phase 2 (DROP-TR; n = 5), HIGH-TR (n = 5), CON-UN (n = 5), or HIGH-UN (n = 5). All horses underwent a 120-min submaximal exercise test (SET) at the end of Phase 1 (SET 1) and 2 (SET 2). Blood samples and biopsies from the middle gluteal muscle were collected before and after each phase of the study and in response to each SET and analyzed for markers of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activity. In both phases, serum Se was higher (P creatine kinase (CK) activity was lower in trained horses than in untrained horses (P < 0.0001), indicating less muscle damage, but plasma lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) and muscle GPx and SOD activities were unaffected by training or Se

  13. Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguori I

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilaria Liguori,1 Gennaro Russo,1 Francesco Curcio,1 Giulia Bulli,1 Luisa Aran,1 David Della-Morte,2,3 Gaetano Gargiulo,4 Gianluca Testa,1,5 Francesco Cacciatore,1,6 Domenico Bonaduce,1 Pasquale Abete1 1Department of Translational Medical Sciences, University of Naples “Federico II”, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Systems Medicine, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Rome, Italy; 3San Raffaele Roma Open University, Rome, Italy; 4Division of Internal Medicine, AOU San Giovanni di Dio e Ruggi di Aragona, Salerno, Italy; 5Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of Molise, Campobasso, Italy; 6Azienda Ospedaliera dei Colli, Monaldi Hospital, Heart Transplantation Unit, Naples, Italy Abstract: Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS are produced by several endogenous and exogenous processes, and their negative effects are neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress occurs from the imbalance between RONS production and these antioxidant defenses. Aging is a process characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative stress theory of aging is based on the hypothesis that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of RONS-induced damages. At the same time, oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions (ie, cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer, including sarcopenia and frailty. Different types of oxidative stress biomarkers have been identified and may provide important information about the efficacy of the treatment, guiding the selection of the most effective drugs/dose regimens for patients and, if particularly relevant from a pathophysiological point of view, acting on a specific therapeutic target. Given the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions and aging, antioxidant therapy could positively affect the natural history of

  14. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke J J Klinkenberg

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists.Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1·min(-1, Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1; mean ± SD were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day, or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min.The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2 to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7, immediately post-exercise (p<0.001. Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg(-1. However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24, as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation.Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations

  15. Clinical Relevance of Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frijhoff, Jeroen; Winyard, Paul G; Zarkovic, Neven

    2015-01-01

    SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino ac....... The vast diversity in oxidative stress between diseases and conditions has to be taken into account when selecting the most appropriate biomarker.......SIGNIFICANCE: Oxidative stress is considered to be an important component of various diseases. A vast number of methods have been developed and used in virtually all diseases to measure the extent and nature of oxidative stress, ranging from oxidation of DNA to proteins, lipids, and free amino...... acids. RECENT ADVANCES: An increased understanding of the biology behind diseases and redox biology has led to more specific and sensitive tools to measure oxidative stress markers, which are very diverse and sometimes very low in abundance. CRITICAL ISSUES: The literature is very heterogeneous...

  16. Trauma-induced systemic inflammatory response versus exercise-induced immunomodulatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrenbach, Elvira; Schneider, Marion E

    2006-01-01

    Accidental trauma and heavy endurance exercise, both induce a kind of systemic inflammatory response, also called systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Exercise-related SIRS is conditioned by hyperthermia and concomitant heat shock responses, whereas trauma-induced SIRS manifests concomitantly with tissue necrosis and immune activation, secondarily followed by fever. Inflammatory cytokines are common denominators in both trauma and exercise, although there are marked quantitative differences. Different anti-inflammatory cytokines may be involved in the control of inflammation in trauma- and exercise-induced stress. Exercise leads to a balanced equilibrium between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses. Intermittent states of rest, as well as anti-oxidant capacity, are lacking or minor in trauma but are high in exercising individuals. Regular training may enhance immune competence, whereas trauma-induced SIRS often paves the way for infectious complications, such as sepsis.

  17. ALDH2 restores exhaustive exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiuping; Zheng, Jianheng; Qiu, Jun; Wu, Xiahong; Xu, Yangshuo; Shen, Weili; Sun, Mengwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscles, and is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde and toxic aldehydes. The cardioprotective effects of ALDH2 during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury have been recognized. However, less is known about the function of ALDH2 in skeletal muscle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on exhaustive exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. Methods: We created transgenic mice expressing ALDH2 in skeletal muscles. Male wild-type C57/BL6 (WT) and ALDH2 transgenic mice (ALDH2-Tg), 8-weeks old, were challenged with exhaustive exercise for 1 week to induce skeletal muscle injury. Animals were sacrificed 24 h post-exercise and muscle tissue was excised. Results: ALDH2-Tg mice displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity compared to WT mice. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in mRNA levels of the muscle atrophy markers, Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion in WT skeletal muscles; these effects were attenuated in ALDH2-Tg mice. Exhaustive exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of Beclin1 and Bnip3; the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2 overexpression. In addition, ALDH2-Tg reversed the increase of an oxidative stress biomarker (4-hydroxynonenal) and decreased levels of mitochondrial antioxidant proteins, including manganese superoxide dismutase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, in skeletal muscle induced by exhaustive exercise. Conclusion: ALDH2 may reverse skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction due to exhaustive exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quality of mitochondria. - Highlights: • Skeletal muscle ALDH2 expression and activity declines during exhaustive exercise. • ALDH2 overexpression enhances physical performance and restores muscle

  18. Association of Oxidative Stress with Psychiatric Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Castro-Gomes, Vitor; Mohammadzai, Imdadullah; da Rocha, Joao Batista Teixeira; Landeira-Fernandez, J

    2016-01-01

    When concentrations of both reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species exceed the antioxidative capability of an organism, the cells undergo oxidative impairment. Impairments in membrane integrity and lipid and protein oxidation, protein mutilation, DNA damage, and neuronal dysfunction are some of the fundamental consequences of oxidative stress. The purpose of this work was to review the associations between oxidative stress and psychological disorders. The search terms were the following: "oxidative stress and affective disorders," "free radicals and neurodegenerative disorders," "oxidative stress and psychological disorders," "oxidative stress, free radicals, and psychiatric disorders," and "association of oxidative stress." These search terms were used in conjunction with each of the diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders and World Health Organization's International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. Genetic, pharmacological, biochemical, and preclinical therapeutic studies, case reports, and clinical trials were selected to explore the molecular aspects of psychological disorders that are associated with oxidative stress. We identified a broad spectrum of 83 degenerative syndromes and psychiatric disorders that were associated with oxidative stress. The multi-dimensional information identified herein supports the role of oxidative stress in various psychiatric disorders. We discuss the results from the perspective of developing novel therapeutic interventions.

  19. Effect of lemon verbena supplementation on muscular damage markers, proinflammatory cytokines release and neutrophils' oxidative stress in chronic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funes, Lorena; Carrera-Quintanar, Lucrecia; Cerdán-Calero, Manuela; Ferrer, Miguel D; Drobnic, Franchek; Pons, Antoni; Roche, Enrique; Micol, Vicente

    2011-04-01

    Intense exercise is directly related to muscular damage and oxidative stress due to excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) in both, plasma and white blood cells. Nevertheless, exercise-derived ROS are essential to regulate cellular adaptation to exercise. Studies on antioxidant supplements have provided controversial results. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate antioxidant supplementation (lemon verbena extract) in healthy male volunteers that followed a 90-min running eccentric exercise protocol for 21 days. Antioxidant enzymes activities and oxidative stress markers were measured in neutrophils. Besides, inflammatory cytokines and muscular damage were determined in whole blood and serum samples, respectively. Intense running exercise for 21 days induced antioxidant response in neutrophils of trained male through the increase of the antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. Supplementation with moderate levels of an antioxidant lemon verbena extract did not block this cellular adaptive response and also reduced exercise-induced oxidative damage of proteins and lipids in neutrophils and decreased myeloperoxidase activity. Moreover, lemon verbena supplementation maintained or decreased the level of serum transaminases activity indicating a protection of muscular tissue. Exercise induced a decrease of interleukin-6 and interleukin-1β levels after 21 days measured in basal conditions, which was not inhibited by antioxidant supplementation. Therefore, moderate antioxidant supplementation with lemon verbena extract protects neutrophils against oxidative damage, decreases the signs of muscular damage in chronic running exercise without blocking the cellular adaptation to exercise.

  20. Oxidative stress in cardiovascular diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K Goswami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress caused by various oxygen containing free radicals and reactive species (collectively called "Reactive Oxygen Species" or ROS has long been attributed to cardiovascular diseases. In human body, major oxidizing species are super oxide, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxyl radical, peroxy nitrite etc. ROS are produced from distinct cellular sources, enzymatic and non-enzymatic; have specific physicochemical properties and often have specific cellular targets. Although early studies in nineteen sixties and seventies highlighted the deleterious effects of these species, later it was established that they also act as physiological modulators of cellular functions and diseases occur only when ROS production is deregulated. One of the major sources of cellular ROS is Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidases (Noxes that are expressed in almost all cell types. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generated from them under various conditions act as signal transducers. Due to their immense importance in cellular physiology, various Nox inhibitors are now being developed as therapeutics. Another free radical of importance in cardiovascular system is nitric oxide (a reactive nitrogen species generated from nitric oxide synthase(s. It plays a critical role in cardiac function and its dysregulated generation along with superoxide leads to the formation of peroxynitrite a highly deleterious agent. Despite overwhelming evidences of association between increased level of ROS and cardiovascular diseases, antioxidant therapies using vitamins and omega 3 fatty acids have largely been unsuccessful till date. Also, there are major discrepancies between studies with laboratory animals and human trials. It thus appears that the biology of ROS is far complex than anticipated before. A comprehensive understanding of the redox biology of diseases is thus needed for developing targeted therapeutics.

  1. Etiologies of sperm oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sabeti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sperm is particularly susceptible to reactive oxygen species (ROS during critical phases of spermiogenesis. However, the level of seminal ROS is restricted by seminal antioxidants which have beneficial effects on sperm parameters and developmental potentials. Mitochondria and sperm plasma membrane are two major sites of ROS generation in sperm cells. Besides, leukocytes including polymer phonuclear (PMN leukocytes and macrophages produce broad category of molecules including oxygen free radicals, non-radical species and reactive nitrogen species. Physiological role of ROS increase the intracellular cAMP which then activate protein kinase in male reproductive system. This indicates that spermatozoa need small amounts of ROS to acquire the ability of nuclear maturation regulation and condensation to fertilize the oocyte. There is a long list of intrinsic and extrinsic factors which can induce oxidative stress to interact with lipids, proteins and DNA molecules. As a result, we have lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, axonemal damage, denaturation of the enzymes, over generation of superoxide in the mitochondria, lower antioxidant activity and finally abnormal spermatogenesis. If oxidative stress is considered as one of the main cause of DNA damage in the germ cells, then there should be good reason for antioxidant therapy in these conditions

  2. Oxidative Stress in Cystinosis Patients

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    Maria Helena Vaisbich

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Nephropathic cystinosis (NC is a severe systemic disease and cysteamine improves its prognosis. Lysosomal cystine accumulation is the hallmark of cystinosis and is regarded as the primary defect due to mutations in the CTNS gene. However, there is great evidence that cystine accumulation itself is not responsible for all abnormalities observed in NC. Studies have demonstrated altered ATP metabolism, increased apoptosis, and cell oxidation. An increased number of autophagosomes and autophagic vacuoles have been observed in cystinotic fibroblasts and renal epithelial cells, suggesting that altered autophagy plays a role in NC, leading to increased production of reactive oxygen species. Therefore, cystinosis patients can be more susceptible to oxidative stress (OS and it can contribute to the progression of the renal disease. Our goal was to evaluate a marker of OS (serum TBARS in NC children, and to compare the results with those observed in healthy controls and correlated with renal function parameters. Methods: The study included patients aged under 18 years, with good adherence to the treatment and out of renal replacement therapy. The following parameters were evaluated: serum creatinine, BUN, creatinine clearance estimated by stature and serum TBARS levels. Results: We selected 20 patients aged 8.0 ±3.6 years and observed serum TBARS levels of 4.03 ±1.02 nmol/ml. Serum TBARS levels in the 43 healthy controls, aged 7.4 ±1.1 years, were 1.60 ±0.04 nmol/ml. There was a significant difference between the plasma TBARS levels among the 2 groups (p Conclusion: An increased level of serum TBARS in patients with NC was observed and this abnormality was not correlated with the renal function status degree. This is the first report that shows increased oxidative stress in serum of NC patients.

  3. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Loren P.; Al-Hasan, Yazan

    2012-01-01

    Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that pr...

  4. Impact of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loren P. Thompson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intrauterine stress induces increased risk of adult disease through fetal programming mechanisms. Oxidative stress can be generated by several conditions, such as, prenatal hypoxia, maternal under- and overnutrition, and excessive glucocorticoid exposure. The role of oxidant molecules as signaling factors in fetal programming via epigenetic mechanisms is discussed. By linking oxidative stress with dysregulation of specific target genes, we may be able to develop therapeutic strategies that protect against organ dysfunction in the programmed offspring.

  5. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis - a patient series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tazmini, Kiarash; Schreiner, Christoffer; Bruserud, Sidsel; Raastad, Truls; Solberg, Erik Ekker

    2017-11-14

    No guidelines are available for the treatment and follow up of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis. The purpose of this study was to describe the treatment, complications and follow-up of patients with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis at Diakonhjemmet Hospital. A retrospective observational study from 2011 up to and including 2015 of patients with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis ≥ 18 years and with creatine kinase > 5 000 IU/l. We registered a total of 42 patients and obtained informed consent from 31. Twenty were treated as inpatients with a median hospitalisation time of 2.5 (1–6) days. Median creatine kinase was 36 797 (17 172–53 548) IU/l upon admission and 16 051 (11 845–26 505) IU/l at discharge. Median intravenous fluid volume was 6 000 (1 000–27 700) ml. Eleven patients underwent urinary alkalinisation. None developed severe kidney injury or other serious complications such as electrolyte imbalance, compartment syndrome or disseminated intravascular coagulation, either during hospitalisation or in the course of the study period. Healthy persons with exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis have a very low risk of complications. Our patients are treated as outpatients or considered for discharge with creatine kinase < 40 000 IU/l measured at least three days after their workout, and if they have no risk factors or other complications.

  6. [Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis - a new trend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardal, Hilde; Gøransson, Lasse G

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not there has been an increase in the number of admissions for exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis at Stavanger University Hospital (SUS) in recent years. The study is a retrospective review of patients discharged over the period January 2010 to March 2015 with a diagnosis of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis and with maximum creatine kinase (CK) levels more than ten times the upper reference limit. A total of 33 patients, 21 women and 12 men, with a median age of 28 years (18 - 68), were included in the study. Of the 33 patients, three quarters (25) were admitted in 2014 - 15, compared with eight over the period 2010 - 13. One patient developed kidney failure that required dialysis. The treatment depended more on the attending physician and department than on the patient's clinical condition and CK-level, but this did not seem to affect the rate of complications. The incidence of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis at SUS increased from autumn 2014, and this coincided with increased media attention and a new exercise trend. We recommend standardising the treatment of exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, as current treatment recommendations are based on rhabdomyolysis triggered by causes other than exercise.

  7. Exercise induced asthma and endogenous opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, R C; Bachman, M; Rochat, T; Egger, D; de Haller, R; Junod, A F

    1986-01-01

    Concentrations of endogenous opioid peptides in the plasma are increased during exercise and these substances have been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma induced by chloropropramide and alcohol in diabetic patients. This work was undertaken to determine whether exercise induced asthma might be mediated by endogenous opioids. Plasma beta endorphin, met-enkephalin, and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) concentrations were measured in five asthmatic patients and five normal volunteers breathing cold air during exercise. In four of the patients the effect of an infusion of naloxone on FEV1 was also measured during exercise induced asthma. Exercise produced acute bronchoconstriction in all asthmatics, characterised by a fall in FEV1; whereas no change occurred in normal subjects. There was no difference in plasma met-enkephalin, beta endorphin, and ACTH concentration between the two groups. Infusion of naloxone neither prevented nor worsened exercise induced asthma. These data suggest that endogenous opioids probably do not play a part in the development of exercise induced asthma. PMID:2944240

  8. Changes in Oxidative Stress Markers and Biological Markers of Muscle Injury with Aging at Rest and in Response to an Exhaustive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Hammouda, Omar; Matran, Regis; Robin, Sophie; Fabre, Claudine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate whether oxidative stress markers and biomarkers of muscle injury would be affected by aging at rest and in response to an incremental exhaustive exercise. Methods Fifteen young (20.3±2.8 years) and fifteen older adults (65.1±3.5 years) performed an incremental cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Before and after exercise, oxidative stress [superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione reductase (GR), ascorbic acid, α-Tocopherol, malondialdehyde (MDA)] and muscle injury [creatine kinase (CK), lactate deshydrogenase (LDH)] biomarkers were assessed. Results At rest, there was no difference in oxidative stress markers and LDH level between the groups, however CK was significantly higher in the young group than the elderly group (pantioxidant efficiency and an increase in oxidative stress damage. Furthermore, older adults would not more susceptible to exercise-induced muscle injury than young people. PMID:24618679

  9. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Xiaochun; Wen, Zunjia; Shen, Haitao; Shen, Meifen

    2016-01-01

    Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI) following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches. PMID:27190572

  10. Intracerebral Hemorrhage, Oxidative Stress, and Antioxidant Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaochun Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Hemorrhagic stroke is a common and severe neurological disorder and is associated with high rates of mortality and morbidity, especially for intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH. Increasing evidence demonstrates that oxidative stress responses participate in the pathophysiological processes of secondary brain injury (SBI following ICH. The mechanisms involved in interoperable systems include endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress, neuronal apoptosis and necrosis, inflammation, and autophagy. In this review, we summarized some promising advances in the field of oxidative stress and ICH, including contained animal and human investigations. We also discussed the role of oxidative stress, systemic oxidative stress responses, and some research of potential therapeutic options aimed at reducing oxidative stress to protect the neuronal function after ICH, focusing on the challenges of translation between preclinical and clinical studies, and potential post-ICH antioxidative therapeutic approaches.

  11. Taurine supplementation attenuates delayed increase in exercise-induced arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Choi, Youngju; Akazawa, Nobuhiko; Ohmori, Hajime; Maeda, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    There is a delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise that is possibly mediated by the concurrent delayed increase in circulating oxidative stress. Taurine has anti-oxidant action, and taurine supplementation may be able to attenuate the increase in oxidative stress after exercise. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether taurine supplementation attenuates the delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise. In the present double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled trial, we divided 29 young, healthy men into 2 groups. Subjects received either 2.0 g of placebo (n = 14) or taurine (n = 15) 3 times per day for 14 days prior to the exercise, on the day of exercise, and the following 3 days. The exercise consisted of 2 sets of 20 maximal-effort eccentric repetitions with the nondominant arm only. On the morning of exercise and for 4 days thereafter, we measured serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) as indices of oxidative stress and arterial stiffness, respectively. On the third and fourth days after exercise, both MDA and cfPWV significantly increased in the placebo group. However, these elevations were significantly attenuated in the taurine group. The increase in MDA was associated with an increase in cfPWV from before exercise to 4 days after exercise (r = 0.597, p taurine group. Our results suggest that delayed increase in arterial stiffness after eccentric exercise was probably affected by the exercise-induced oxidative stress and was attenuated by the taurine supplementation.

  12. Less Stress : Oxidative stress and glutathione kinetics in preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Rook (Denise)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractDue to immature antioxidant defenses, preterm infants are at susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity and periventricular leukomalacia. The general aim of this thesis was to study oxidative stress in preterm infants

  13. Nutrients and Oxidative Stress: Friend or Foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Bee Ling; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Liew, Winnie-Pui-Pui

    2018-01-01

    There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF- κ B-) mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  14. Oxidative stress in primary glomerular diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markan, Suchita; Kohli, Harbir Singh; Sud, Kamal

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure.......To evaluate the status of oxidative stress in patients with different primary glomerular diseases (PGD) which have differential predisposition to renal failure....

  15. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, Maarten; Abee, Tjakko

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  16. Primary and secondary oxidative stress in Bacillus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mols, J.M.; Abee, T.

    2011-01-01

    Coping with oxidative stress originating from oxidizing compounds or reactive oxygen species (ROS), associated with the exposure to agents that cause environmental stresses, is one of the prerequisites for an aerobic lifestyle of Bacillus spp. such as B. subtilis, B. cereus and B. anthracis. This

  17. Nutrients and Oxidative Stress: Friend or Foe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bee Ling Tan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available There are different types of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress sources that trigger inflammation. Much information indicates that high intakes of macronutrients can promote oxidative stress and subsequently contribute to inflammation via nuclear factor-kappa B- (NF-κB- mediated cell signaling pathways. Dietary carbohydrates, animal-based proteins, and fats are important to highlight here because they may contribute to the long-term consequences of nutritionally mediated inflammation. Oxidative stress is a central player of metabolic ailments associated with high-carbohydrate and animal-based protein diets and excessive fat consumption. Obesity has become an epidemic and represents the major risk factor for several chronic diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD, and cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress are complex and poorly understood. Therefore, this review aimed to explore how dietary choices exacerbate or dampen the oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discussed the implications of oxidative stress in the adipocyte and glucose metabolism and obesity-associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs. Taken together, a better understanding of the role of oxidative stress in obesity and the development of obesity-related NCDs would provide a useful approach. This is because oxidative stress can be mediated by both extrinsic and intrinsic factors, hence providing a plausible means for the prevention of metabolic disorders.

  18. Oxidative stress adaptation with acute, chronic, and repeated stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Andrew M; Vojtovich, Lesya; Tower, John; A Davies, Kelvin J

    2013-02-01

    Oxidative stress adaptation, or hormesis, is an important mechanism by which cells and organisms respond to, and cope with, environmental and physiological shifts in the level of oxidative stress. Most studies of oxidative stress adaption have been limited to adaptation induced by acute stress. In contrast, many if not most environmental and physiological stresses are either repeated or chronic. In this study we find that both cultured mammalian cells and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster are capable of adapting to chronic or repeated stress by upregulating protective systems, such as their proteasomal proteolytic capacity to remove oxidized proteins. Repeated stress adaptation resulted in significant extension of adaptive responses. Repeated stresses must occur at sufficiently long intervals, however (12-h or more for MEF cells and 7 days or more for flies), for adaptation to be successful, and the levels of both repeated and chronic stress must be lower than is optimal for adaptation to acute stress. Regrettably, regimens of adaptation to both repeated and chronic stress that were successful for short-term survival in Drosophila nevertheless also caused significant reductions in life span for the flies. Thus, although both repeated and chronic stress can be tolerated, they may result in a shorter life. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Role of myocardial ischemia on exercise-induced ST elevation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kouhei; Haze, Kazuo; Fukami, Ken-ichi; Hiramori, Katsuhiko

    1986-01-01

    Exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous myocardial infarction (MI) has been recognized to be related to left ventricular (LV) asynergy, however it is also recognized that myocardial ischemia can induce ST elevation. In this study, factors which determine the extent of ST elevation, with special reference to myocardial ischemia, was re-evaluated using quantitative analysis of stress myocardial scintigraphy (S-SG). Among 65 patients with previous anterior myocardial infarction and documented single vessel disease of left anterior descending artery (LAD), 19 patients who had exercise-induced ST elevation (ΔST ≥ 2.0 mm) had more abnormal Q waves (p < 0.01), lower LV ejection fraction (EF) (p < 0.01), more severe LV asynergy (p < 0.05) and less incidence of post-MI angina pectoris (AP) (p < 0.01), compared to those with ΔST < 2.0 mm, indicating that ST elevation is primarily related to LV asynergy. Correlation studies among clinical, angiographic and scintigraphic parameters show that ΔST was significantly related to a size of MI represented by Tl score or relative defect Tl activity and number of abnormal Q waves (No.Q), the magnitude of work load expressed by changes in double product (ΔDP) and intervals between the onset and exercise test, as well as myocardial ischemia expressed by the extent of redistribution (%RD) in S-SG. Among 23 patients with post-MI AP, ΔST significantly correlated with %RD (r = 0.47), indicating that myocardial ischemia can be a mechanism of exercise-induced ST elevation in patients with previous MI. Furtheremore, among those with ST elevation, concave-type ST elevation was more related to myocardial ischemia compared to convex-type ST elevation as expressed by the incidence of post-MI AP and/or significant redistribution. (J.P.N.)

  20. Exercise-induced endocrine pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M P; Goodman, L R

    2003-09-01

    There has been a substantial increase in women practicing sports over the past 30 yr. While exercise provides many health benefits, there appears to be a unique set of risks associated with intense exercise for the female athlete. The female athlete triad encompasses these risks, including amenorrhea, osteoporosis and eating disorders. The incidence of menstrual irregularities including primary and secondary amenorrhea and shortened luteal phases is much higher among women partaking in athletics, specifically in sports requiring low body weight for performance and aesthetics. The hormone pattern seen in these amenorrheic athletes includes a decrease in GnRH pulses from the hypothalamus, which results in decreased pulsatile secretion of LH and FSH and shuts down stimulation of the ovary. The recently discovered hormone leptin may also play a large role as a significant mediator of reproductive function. The prevalence of eating disorders is high among female athletes who practice sports which emphasize leanness. Consequently, the cause of menstrual irregularities is not due to the exercise alone, but to chronic inadequate or restrictive caloric intake that does not compensate for the energy expenditure. The most dangerous risk associated with amenorrhea for the female athlete is the impact on the skeleton. Complications associated with amenorrhea include compromised bone density, failure to attain peak bone mass in adolescence and increased risk of stress fractures. The diagnosis of exercise-associated menstrual dysfunctions is one of exclusion. The most effective treatment is to decrease the intensity of the exercise and increase the nutritional intake. Hormone replacement has also been under investigation as a possible treatment.

  1. A STUDY OF OXIDATIVE STRESS IN DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babu Rao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Non - enzymatic free radical mediated oxidation of biological molecules, membranes and tissues is associated with a variety of pathological events such as cancer, aging and diabetes mellitus . [1] Increased oxidative stress is seen in both types of diabetes me llitus namely type 1 and type 2, irrespective of duration, complications and treatment. In diabetes mellitus, oxidative stress seems primarily due to both an increased plasma free radical concentration and a sharp decline in antioxidant defences . [1] Among the causes of enhanced free radical production, hyperglycemia and hyper insulinemia seem to play a major role , [2,3] Hyperglycemia is the more easily modifiable factor among the two and good glycemic control can reduce the oxidative stress. Controversy pers ists regarding the other possible mechanisms of increased oxidative stress in diabetes and whether oxidative stress normalizes with adequate metabolic control alone. The role of oxidative stress and diabetic complications has been extensively investigated. Oxidative stress has been suggested to be involved in the genesis of both macro and micro angiopathy [4,5] Prospective trials are now underway addressing the controversial issues of possible role of pharmacological antioxidants in preventing or at least de laying the onset of diabetic complications.

  2. Is the Oxidative Stress Really a Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogarasi Erzsébet

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is an imbalance between free radicals or other reactive species and the antioxidant activity of the organism. Oxidative stress can induce several illnesses such as cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer and Parkinson. The biomarkers of oxidative stress are used to test oxidative injury of biomolecules. The indicators of lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxy- 2-nonenal, 2-propenal, isoprostanes, of protein oxidation (carbonylated proteins, tyrosine derivatives, of oxidative damage of DNA, and other biomarkers (glutathione level, metallothioneins, myeloperoxidase activity are the most used oxidative stress markers. Diseases caused by oxidative stress can be prevented with antioxidants. In human body are several enzymes with antioxidant capacity (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and spin traps. Antioxidants are synthetized in the organism (glutathione or arrive in the body by nutrition (ascorbic acid, vitamin E, carotenoids, flavonoids, resveratrol, xanthones. Different therapeutic strategies to reduce oxidative stress with the use of synthetic molecules such as nitrone-based antioxidants (phenyl-α-tert-butyl-nitrone (PBN, 2,4-disulphophenyl- N-tert-butylnitrone (NXY-059, stilbazulenyl nitrone (STAZN, which scavenge a wide variety of free radical species, increase endogenous antioxidant levels and inhibits free radical generation are also tested in animal models.

  3. Fasting- and Exercise-Induced PDH Regulation in Skeletal Muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Anders

    in selected mitochondrial proteins. Lastly, increased oxidative capacity leads to exercise-induced skeletal muscle PDH activation that is closely matched to the relative exercise intensity at submaximal exercise, while reaching a higher level at maximal exercise in trained individuals. These responses......Pyruvate dehydrogenase PDH constitutes the only mammalian pathway for irreversible conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA thus providing the vital link between glycolytic energy production, the TCA cycle, and oxidative phosphorylation. Because the PDC controls the conversion of pyruvate it occupies...... a central position in relation to the control of mitochondrial energy production and cellular substrate metabolism. Suppression and activation of PDH becomes essential in situations where glucose availability and/or use changes with swift and appropriate regulation of the complex to maintain energy...

  4. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Takaaki Tomofuji; Koichiro Irie; Toshihiro Sanbe; Tetsuji Azuma; Daisuke Ekuni; Naofumi Tamaki; Tatsuo Yamamoto; Manabu Morita

    2009-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress). Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. Fo...

  5. Nutrigenetics and modulation of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Costa, Laura A; Badawi, Alaa; El-Sohemy, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress develops as a result of an imbalance between the production and accumulation of reactive species and the body's ability to manage them using exogenous and endogenous antioxidants. Exogenous antioxidants obtained from the diet, including vitamin C, vitamin E, and carotenoids, have important roles in preventing and reducing oxidative stress. Individual genetic variation affecting proteins involved in the uptake, utilization and metabolism of these antioxidants may alter their serum levels, exposure to target cells and subsequent contribution to the extent of oxidative stress. Endogenous antioxidants include the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, paraoxanase, and glutathione S-transferase. These enzymes metabolize reactive species and their by-products, reducing oxidative stress. Variation in the genes coding these enzymes may impact their enzymatic antioxidant activity and, thus, the levels of reactive species, oxidative stress, and risk of disease development. Oxidative stress may contribute to the development of chronic disease, including osteoporosis, type 2 diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Indeed, polymorphisms in most of the genes that code for antioxidant enzymes have been associated with several types of cancer, although inconsistent findings between studies have been reported. These inconsistencies may, in part, be explained by interactions with the environment, such as modification by diet. In this review, we highlight some of the recent studies in the field of nutrigenetics, which have examined interactions between diet, genetic variation in antioxidant enzymes, and oxidative stress. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Periodontitis and increase in circulating oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Tomofuji

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Reactive oxygen species (ROS are products of normal cellular metabolism. However, excessive production of ROS oxidizes DNA, lipids and proteins, inducing tissue damage. Studies have shown that periodontitis induces excessive ROS production in periodontal tissue. When periodontitis develops, ROS produced in the periodontal lesion diffuse into the blood stream, resulting in the oxidation of blood molecules (circulating oxidative stress. Such oxidation may be detrimental to systemic health. For instance, previous animal studies suggested that experimental periodontitis induces oxidative damage of the liver and descending aorta by increasing circulating oxidative stress. In addition, it has been revealed that clinical parameters in chronic periodontitis patients showed a significant improvement 2 months after periodontal treatment, which was accompanied by a significant reduction of reactive oxygen metabolites in plasma. Improvement of periodontitis by periodontal treatment could reduce the occurrence of circulating oxidative stress. Furthermore, recent studies indicate that the increase in circulating oxidative stress following diabetes mellitus and inappropriate nutrition damages periodontal tissues. In such cases, therapeutic approaches to systemic oxidative stress might be necessary to improve periodontal health.

  7. Oxidative stress: role of physical exercise and antioxidant nutraceuticals in adulthood and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simioni, Carolina; Zauli, Giorgio; Martelli, Alberto M; Vitale, Marco; Sacchetti, Gianni; Gonelli, Arianna; Neri, Luca M

    2018-03-30

    Physical exercise is considered to be one of the beneficial factors of a proper lifestyle and is nowadays seen as an indispensable element for good health, able to lower the risk of disorders of the cardiovascular, endocrine and osteomuscular apparatus, immune system diseases and the onset of potential neoplasms. A moderate and programmed physical exercise has often been reported to be therapeutic both in the adulthood and in aging, since capable to promote fitness. Regular exercise alleviates the negative effects caused by free radicals and offers many health benefits, including reduced risk of all-cause mortality, sarcopenia in the skeletal muscle, chronic disease, and premature death in elderly people. However, physical performance is also known to induce oxidative stress, inflammation, and muscle fatigue. Many efforts have been carried out to identify micronutrients and natural compounds, also known as nutraceuticals, able to prevent or attenuate the exercise-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. The aim of this review is to discuss the benefits deriving from a constant physical activity and by the intake of antioxidant compounds to protect the body from oxidative stress. The attention will be focused mainly on three natural antioxidants, which are quercetin, resveratrol and curcumin. Their properties and activity will be described, as well as their benefits on physical activity and on aging, which is expected to increase through the years and can get favorable benefits from a constant exercise activity.

  8. Effects of Laminaria japonica polysaccharides on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in forced swimming mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Feiwei; Hao, Haitao

    2016-12-01

    Polysaccharides are the major active ingredients responsible for the bioactivities of Laminaria japonica. However, the effects of L. japonica polysaccharides (LJP) on exercise endurance and oxidative stress have never been investigated. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of LJP on exercise endurance and oxidative stress in a forced swimming mouse model. The animals were divided into four groups, namely the control (C), LJP-75, LJP-150, and LJP-300 groups, which received physiological saline and 75, 150, and 300 mg kg(-1) LJP, respectively, by gavage once a day for 28 days. This was followed by a forced swimming test and measurements of various biochemical parameters. LJP increased swimming time to exhaustion, the liver and muscle glycogen content, and levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in the serum, liver, and muscle, which were accompanied by corresponding decreases in the malondialdehyde (MDA) content of the same tissues. Furthermore, decreases in blood lactic acid and serum myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were observed. LJP enhanced exercise endurance and protected mice against exhaustive exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  9. Effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after intense exercise in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlando, Patrick; Silvestri, Sonia; Galeazzi, Roberta; Antonicelli, Roberto; Marcheggiani, Fabio; Cirilli, Ilenia; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Tiano, Luca

    2018-12-01

    Physical exercise significantly impacts the biochemistry of the organism. Ubiquinone is a key component of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and ubiquinol, its reduced and active form, is an emerging molecule in sport nutrition. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ubiquinol supplementation on biochemical and oxidative stress indexes after an intense bout of exercise. 21 male young athletes (26 + 5 years of age) were randomized in two groups according to a double blind cross-over study, either supplemented with ubiquinol (200 mg/day) or placebo for 1 month. Blood was withdrawn before and after a single bout of intense exercise (40 min run at 85% maxHR). Physical performance, hematochemical parameters, ubiquinone/ubiquinol plasma content, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, paraoxonase activity and oxidative DNA damage were analyzed. A single bout of intense exercise produced a significant increase in most hematochemical indexes, in particular CK and Mb while, on the contrary, normalized coenzyme Q 10 plasma content decreased significantly in all subjects. Ubiquinol supplementation prevented exercise-induced CoQ deprivation and decrease in paraoxonase activity. Moreover at a cellular level, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, ubiquinol supplementation was associated with a significant decrease in cytosolic ROS while mitochondrial membrane potential and oxidative DNA damage remained unchanged. Data highlights a very rapid dynamic of CoQ depletion following intense exercise underlying an increased demand by the organism. Ubiquinol supplementation minimized exercise-induced depletion and enhanced plasma and cellular antioxidant levels but it was not able to improve physical performance indexes or markers of muscular damage.

  10. Interferon-¿ regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, C.; Penkowa, Milena; Saez-Torres, I.

    2002-01-01

    Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress......Neurobiology, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis IFN-d, multiple sclerosis, neurodegeneration, oxidative stress...

  11. Polyphenol supplementation: benefits for exercise performance or oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Kathryn H

    2014-05-01

    Supplement use among athletes is widespread, including non-traditional and biological compounds. Despite increasing research, a comprehensive and critical review on polyphenol supplementation and exercise is still lacking. This review is relevant for researchers directly involved in the topic, as well as those with a broad interest in athletic performance enhancement and sports nutrition. The purpose of this review is to present background information on groups of polyphenols and their derivatives because their differing chemical structures influence mechanisms of action; to discuss the potential of plant, fruit and vegetable-based biological supplements, high in polyphenol content, to affect exercise performance and biomarkers of oxidative stress and exercise-induced muscle damage; and to critically discuss the exercise studies and biomarkers used. Subjects in the studies reviewed were either sedentary, healthy individuals, or active, recreationally trained or well-trained athletes. Polyphenol supplementation in exercise studies included mainly extracts (multicomponent or purified), juices, infusions or an increased intake of polyphenol-rich foods. This review includes details of supplement doses and exercise test protocols. Many studies considered only the performance or one or two selected biomarkers of antioxidant capacity instead of a comprehensive choice of biomarkers to assess damage to lipids or proteins. Evidence is insufficient to make recommendations for or against the use of polyphenol supplementation (neither specific polyphenols nor specific doses) for either recreational, competitive or elite athletes. Polyphenols have multiple biological effects, and future exercise studies must be designed appropriately and specifically to determine physiological interactions between exercise and the selected supplement, rather than considering performance alone.

  12. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  13. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant System in Periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Andrukhov, Oleh; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2017-01-01

    Periodontitis is a common inflammatory disease, which is initiated by bacterial infection and subsequently progressed by aberrant host response. It can result in the destruction of teeth supporting tissues and have an influence on systemic health. When periodontitis occurs, reactive oxygen species, which are overproduced mostly by hyperactive neutrophils, could not be balanced by antioxidant defense system and cause tissues damage. This is characterized by increased metabolites of lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and protein damage. Local and systemic activities of antioxidants can also be influenced by periodontitis. Total antioxidant capacity, total oxidant status and oxidative stress index have been used to evaluate the oxidative stress associated with periodontitis. Studies have confirmed that inflammatory response in periodontitis is associated with an increased local and systemic oxidative stress and compromised antioxidant capacity. Our review focuses on increased oxidative stress in periodontal disease, specifically, on the relationship between the local and systemic biomarkers of oxidative stress and periodontitis and their association with the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Also, the relationship between periodontitis and systemic inflammation, and the effects of periodontal therapy on oxidative stress parameters will be discussed. PMID:29180965

  14. Oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These authors contributed equally to this work. Abstract: ... Oxidative stress has been proposed as a pos- sible mechanism involved .... to the Natural Health Institute of Health Guidelines for. Animal Care and ..... Journal of American College of.

  15. [Exercise-induced inspiratory stridor. An important differential diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Pernille; Thomsen, Simon Francis; Rasmussen, Niels; Backer, Vibeke

    2007-11-19

    Recent studies suggest that exercise-induced inspiratory stridor (EIIS) is an important and often overlooked differential diagnosis of exercise-induced asthma. EIIS is characterised by astma-like symptoms, but differs by inspiratory limitation, fast recovery, and a lack of effect of inhaled bronchodilators. The prevalence of EIIS is reported to be 5-27%, and affects both children and adults. The pathophysiology, the pathogenesis, and the treatment of the condition are not yet clarified. At present, a population-based study is being conducted in order to address these points.

  16. Supplementation with vitamin A enhances oxidative stress in the lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparotto, Juciano; Petiz, Lyvia Lintzmaier; Girardi, Carolina Saibro; Bortolin, Rafael Calixto; de Vargas, Amanda Rodrigues; Henkin, Bernardo Saldanha; Chaves, Paloma Rodrigues; Roncato, Sabrina; Matté, Cristiane; Zanotto-Filho, Alfeu; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca; Gelain, Daniel Pens

    2015-12-01

    Exercise training induces reactive oxygen species production and low levels of oxidative damage, which are required for induction of antioxidant defenses and tissue adaptation. This process is physiological and essential to improve physical conditioning and performance. During exercise, endogenous antioxidants are recruited to prevent excessive oxidative stress, demanding appropriate intake of antioxidants from diet or supplements; in this context, the search for vitamin supplements that enhance the antioxidant defenses and improve exercise performance has been continuously increasing. On the other hand, excess of antioxidants may hinder the pro-oxidant signals necessary for this process of adaptation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of vitamin A supplementation (2000 IU/kg, oral) upon oxidative stress and parameters of pro-inflammatory signaling in lungs of rats submitted to aerobic exercise (swimming protocol). When combined with exercise, vitamin A inhibited biochemical parameters of adaptation/conditioning by attenuating exercise-induced antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase) and decreasing the content of the receptor for advanced glycation end-products. Increased oxidative damage to proteins (carbonylation) and lipids (lipoperoxidation) was also observed in these animals. In sedentary animals, vitamin A decreased superoxide dismutase and increased lipoperoxidation. Vitamin A also enhanced the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha and decreased interleukin-10, effects partially reversed by aerobic training. Taken together, the results presented herein point to negative effects associated with vitamin A supplementation at the specific dose here used upon oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in lung tissues of rats submitted to aerobic exercise.

  17. Oxidative Stress and Anesthesia in Diabetic Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peivandi Yazdi A

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Free radical and peroxide production lead to intracellular damage. On the other hand, free radicals are used by the human immune system to defend against pathogens. The aging process could be limited by oxidative stress in the short term. Chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus (DM are full-stress conditions in which remarkable metabolic functional destructions might happen. There is strong evidence regarding antioxidant impairment in diabetes. Performing a particular method for anesthesia in diabetic patients might prevent or modify excessive free radical formation and oxidative stress. It seems that prescribing antioxidant drugs could promote wound healing in diabetics.  

  18. Oxidative Stress, Prooxidants, and Antioxidants: The Interplay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anu Rahal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is a normal phenomenon in the body. Under normal conditions, the physiologically important intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS are maintained at low levels by various enzyme systems participating in the in vivo redox homeostasis. Therefore, oxidative stress can also be viewed as an imbalance between the prooxidants and antioxidants in the body. For the last two decades, oxidative stress has been one of the most burning topics among the biological researchers all over the world. Several reasons can be assigned to justify its importance: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species production and metabolism; identification of biomarkers for oxidative damage; evidence relating manifestation of chronic and some acute health problems to oxidative stress; identification of various dietary antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and so on. This review discusses the importance of oxidative stress in the body growth and development as well as proteomic and genomic evidences of its relationship with disease development, incidence of malignancies and autoimmune disorders, increased susceptibility to bacterial, viral, and parasitic diseases, and an interplay with prooxidants and antioxidants for maintaining a sound health, which would be helpful in enhancing the knowledge of any biochemist, pathophysiologist, or medical personnel regarding this important issue.

  19. Simvastatin and oxidative stress in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Sanne Tofte; Andersen, Jon Thor Trærup; Nielsen, Torben Kjær

    2016-01-01

    in mitochondrial respiratory complexes I and II and might thereby reduce the formation of reactive oxygen species, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis. Therefore, we hypothesized that simvastatin may reduce oxidative stress in humans in vivo. We conducted a randomized, double......-blinded, placebo-controlled study in which subjects were treated with either 40 mg of simvastatin or placebo for 14 days. The endpoints were six biomarkers for oxidative stress, which represent intracellular oxidative stress to nucleic acids, lipid peroxidation and plasma antioxidants, that were measured in urine.......1% in the placebo group for DNA oxidation and 7.3% in the simvastatin group compared to 3.4% in the placebo group. The differences in biomarkers related to plasma were not statistically significant between the treatments groups, with the exception of total vitamin E levels, which, as expected, were reduced...

  20. Pathogenesis of Chronic Hyperglycemia: From Reductive Stress to Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang-Jun Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic overnutrition creates chronic hyperglycemia that can gradually induce insulin resistance and insulin secretion impairment. These disorders, if not intervened, will eventually be followed by appearance of frank diabetes. The mechanisms of this chronic pathogenic process are complex but have been suggested to involve production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and oxidative stress. In this review, I highlight evidence that reductive stress imposed by overflux of NADH through the mitochondrial electron transport chain is the source of oxidative stress, which is based on establishments that more NADH recycling by mitochondrial complex I leads to more electron leakage and thus more ROS production. The elevated levels of both NADH and ROS can inhibit and inactivate glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH, respectively, resulting in blockage of the glycolytic pathway and accumulation of glycerol 3-phospate and its prior metabolites along the pathway. This accumulation then initiates all those alternative glucose metabolic pathways such as the polyol pathway and the advanced glycation pathways that otherwise are minor and insignificant under euglycemic conditions. Importantly, all these alternative pathways lead to ROS production, thus aggravating cellular oxidative stress. Therefore, reductive stress followed by oxidative stress comprises a major mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced metabolic syndrome.

  1. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata eChaudhari

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS. Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturb fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways has been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and others. In this review we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress and mitochondrial signaling events which further induce or exacerbate ER stress.

  2. Oxidative Stress in Patients With Nongenital Warts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sezai Sasmaz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of oxidative stress status between subjects with or without warts is absent in the literature. In this study, we evaluated 31 consecutive patients with warts (15 female, 16 male and 36 control cases with no evidence of disease to determine the effects of oxidative stress in patients with warts. The patients were classified according to the wart type, duration, number, and location of lesions. We measured the indicators of oxidative stress such as catalase (CAT, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and malondialdehyde (MDA in the venous blood by spectrophotometry. There was a statistically significant increase in levels of CAT, G6PD, SOD activities and MDA in the patients with warts compared to the control group (P<.05. However, we could not define a statistically significant correlation between these increased enzyme activities and MDA levels and the type, the duration, the number, and the location of lesions. We determined possible suppression of T cells during oxidative stress that might have a negative effect on the prognosis of the disease. Therefore, we propose an argument for the appropriateness to give priority to immunomodulatory treatment alternatives instead of destructive methods in patients with demonstrated oxidative stress.

  3. Diabetic Cardiovascular Disease Induced by Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosuke Kayama

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM. DM can lead to multiple cardiovascular complications, including coronary artery disease (CAD, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF. HF represents one of the most common causes of death in patients with DM and results from DM-induced CAD and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Oxidative stress is closely associated with the pathogenesis of DM and results from overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS. ROS overproduction is associated with hyperglycemia and metabolic disorders, such as impaired antioxidant function in conjunction with impaired antioxidant activity. Long-term exposure to oxidative stress in DM induces chronic inflammation and fibrosis in a range of tissues, leading to formation and progression of disease states in these tissues. Indeed, markers for oxidative stress are overexpressed in patients with DM, suggesting that increased ROS may be primarily responsible for the development of diabetic complications. Therefore, an understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms mediated by oxidative stress is crucial to the prevention and treatment of diabetes-induced CVD. The current review focuses on the relationship between diabetes-induced CVD and oxidative stress, while highlighting the latest insights into this relationship from findings on diabetic heart and vascular disease.

  4. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asieh Hosseini

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic neuropathy (DN is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin, aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat, advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine, the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine, inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril. The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials.

  5. Diabetic Neuropathy and Oxidative Stress: Therapeutic Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Asieh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy (DN) is a widespread disabling disorder comprising peripheral nerves' damage. DN develops on a background of hyperglycemia and an entangled metabolic imbalance, mainly oxidative stress. The majority of related pathways like polyol, advanced glycation end products, poly-ADP-ribose polymerase, hexosamine, and protein kinase c all originated from initial oxidative stress. To date, no absolute cure for DN has been defined; although some drugs are conventionally used, much more can be found if all pathophysiological links with oxidative stress would be taken into account. In this paper, although current therapies for DN have been reviewed, we have mainly focused on the links between DN and oxidative stress and therapies on the horizon, such as inhibitors of protein kinase C, aldose reductase, and advanced glycation. With reference to oxidative stress and the related pathways, the following new drugs are under study such as taurine, acetyl-L-carnitine, alpha lipoic acid, protein kinase C inhibitor (ruboxistaurin), aldose reductase inhibitors (fidarestat, epalrestat, ranirestat), advanced glycation end product inhibitors (benfotiamine, aspirin, aminoguanidine), the hexosamine pathway inhibitor (benfotiamine), inhibitor of poly ADP-ribose polymerase (nicotinamide), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (trandolapril). The development of modern drugs to treat DN is a real challenge and needs intensive long-term comparative trials. PMID:23738033

  6. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eick, Stephanie M; Barrett, Emily S; van 't Erve, Thomas J; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Bush, Nicole R; Milne, Ginger; Swan, Shanna H; Ferguson, Kelly K

    2018-03-30

    Prenatal psychological stress during pregnancy has been associated with adverse reproductive outcomes. A growing animal literature supports an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress. We assessed this relationship in pregnant women, hypothesising that psychological stress is associated with higher concentrations of oxidative stress biomarkers during pregnancy. Psychosocial status and stressful life events (SLE) were self-reported. 8-iso-prostaglandin F 2α (8-iso-PGF 2α ) was measured as a biomarker of oxidative stress in urine samples at median 32 weeks' gestation. We examined SLEs individually (ever vs never) and in summary (any vs none) and psychosocial status as measured by individual subscales and in summary (poor vs good). Linear models estimated associations between these parameters and urinary 8-iso-PGF 2α concentrations after adjusting for covariates. The geometric mean of 8-iso-PGF 2α was significantly higher among pregnant women who were non-White, smokers, had less than a college education, higher pre-pregnancy BMI and were unmarried. Having ever had a death in the family (n = 39) during pregnancy was associated with a 22.9% increase in 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted models (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.50, 48.8). Poor psychosocial status was associated with a 13.1% (95% CI 2.43, 25.0) greater mean 8-iso-PGF 2α in unadjusted analyses. Associations were attenuated, but remained suggestive, after covariate adjustment. These data suggest that 8-iso-PGF 2α is elevated in pregnant women with who are at a sociodemographic disadvantage and who have higher psychological stress in pregnancy. Previous studies have observed that 8-iso-PGF 2α levels are associated with adverse birth outcomes, oxidative stress could be a mediator in these relationships. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. N-Acetylcysteine treatment of dystrophic mdx mice results in protein thiol modifications and inhibition of exercise induced myofibre necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Grounds, Miranda D; Arthur, Peter G

    2012-05-01

    Oxidative stress is implicated as a factor that increases necrosis of skeletal muscles in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and the dystrophic mdx mouse. Consequently, drugs that minimize oxidative stress are potential treatments for muscular dystrophy. This study examined the in vivo benefits to mdx mice of an antioxidant treatment with the cysteine precursor N-acetylcysteine (NAC), administered in drinking water. NAC was completely effective in preventing treadmill exercise-induced myofibre necrosis (assessed histologically) and the increased blood creatine kinase levels (a measure of sarcolemma leakiness) following exercise were significantly lower in the NAC treated mice. While NAC had no effect on malondialdehyde level or protein carbonylation (two indicators of irreversible oxidative damage), treatment with NAC for one week significantly decreased the oxidation of glutathione and protein thiols, and enhanced muscle protein thiol content. These data provide in vivo evidence for protective benefits of NAC treatment on dystropathology, potentially via protein thiol modifications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative stress in response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing: influence of exercise training and carnitine supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Smith, Webb A

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the oxidative stress response to aerobic and anaerobic power testing, and to determine the impact of exercise training with or without glycine propionyl-L-carnitine (GPLC) in attenuating the oxidative stress response. Thirty-two subjects were assigned (double blind) to placebo, GPLC-1 (1g PLC/d), GPLC-3 (3g PLC/d) for 8 weeks, plus aerobic exercise. Aerobic (graded exercise test: GXT) and anaerobic (Wingate cycle) power tests were performed before and following the intervention. Blood was taken before and immediately following exercise tests and analyzed for malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and xanthine oxidase activity (XO). No interaction effects were noted. MDA was minimally effected by exercise but lower at rest for both GPLC groups following the intervention (p = 0.044). A time main effect was noted for H2O2 (p = 0.05) and XO (p = 0.003), with values increasing from pre- to postexercise. Both aerobic and anaerobic power testing increase oxidative stress to a similar extent. Exercise training plus GPLC can decrease resting MDA, but it has little impact on exercise-induced oxidative stress biomarkers.

  9. Chaperones, but not oxidized proteins, are ubiquitinated after oxidative stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kästle, Marc; Reeg, Sandra; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2012-01-01

    of these proteins by MALDI tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI MS/MS). As a result we obtained 24 different proteins which can be categorized into the following groups: chaperones, energy metabolism, cytoskeleton/intermediate filaments, and protein translation/ribosome biogenesis. The special set of identified......, ubiquitinated proteins confirm the thesis that ubiquitination upon oxidative stress is no random process to degrade the mass of oxidized proteins, but concerns a special group of functional proteins....

  10. An association of cocoa consumption with improved physical fitness and decreased muscle damage and oxidative stress in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Garrido, José A; García-Sánchez, José R; Garrido-Llanos, Silvia; Olivares-Corichi, Ivonne M

    2017-04-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the protective effects of cocoa consumption, due to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. Acute exercise induces oxidative stress and causes muscular damage during training. This study was designed to examine the effect of cocoa consumption on the markers of muscle damage, oxidative stress and physical fitness in professional soccer players. Fifteen players (15-18 years old) were included in the study. Biochemical parameters, markers of muscle damage and oxidative stress, and physical performance were evaluated before and after cocoa consumption. Biochemical parameters determined the healthy metabolic status of the study group; biomarkers of muscle and oxidative damage were measured in blood to establish muscle and redox status. However, high levels of biomarkers of muscle damage were detected. Interestingly, cocoa consumption decreased the muscle damage biomarkers of CK and LDH by 39.4% and 23.03%, respectively. The redox status was modified by a decrease in oxidative damage (carbonyl groups, 26.31%; thiol groups, 27.52%; MDA, 32.42%) and an increase in total antioxidant capacity (15.98%) and GSH-Px activity (26.37%). In addition, we observed an increase in physical performance by 4% in the Cooper Test. Our findings suggest that a short period of cocoa consumption could be useful in maintaining a good physical fitness, due to the favourable effects on muscle and redox status in athletes during exhaustive exercise.

  11. Oxidative stress resistance in Porphyromonas gingivalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Leroy G; McKenzie, Rachelle ME; Robles, Antonette; Fletcher, Hansel M

    2012-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis, a black-pigmented, Gram-negative anaerobe, is an important etiologic agent of periodontal disease. The harsh inflammatory condition of the periodontal pocket implies that this organism has properties that will facilitate its ability to respond and adapt to oxidative stress. Because the stress response in the pathogen is a major determinant of its virulence, a comprehensive understanding of its oxidative stress resistance strategy is vital. We discuss multiple mechanisms and systems that clearly work in synergy to defend and protect P. gingivalis against oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species. The involvement of multiple hypothetical proteins and/or proteins of unknown function in this process may imply other unique mechanisms and potential therapeutic targets. PMID:22439726

  12. Oxidative stress parameters in localized scleroderma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, F; Sener, S; Akbaş, A; Metin, A; Kirbaş, S; Neselioglu, S; Erel, O

    2016-11-01

    Localized scleroderma (LS) (morphea) is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease with unknown cause that progresses with sclerosis in the skin and/or subcutaneous tissues. Its pathogenesis is not completely understood. Oxidative stress is suggested to have a role in the pathogenesis of localized scleroderma. We have aimed to determine the relationship of morphea lesions with oxidative stress. The total oxidant capacity (TOC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), paroxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARES) activity parameters of PON 1 enzyme levels in the serum were investigated in 13 LS patients (generalized and plaque type) and 13 healthy controls. TOC values of the patient group were found higher than the TOC values of the control group (p < 0.01). ARES values of the patient group was found to be higher than the control group (p < 0.0001). OSI was significantly higher in the patient group when compared to the control (p < 0.005). Oxidative stress seems to be effective in the pathogenesis. ARES levels have increased in morphea patients regarding to the oxidative stress and its reduction. Further controlled studies are required in wider series.

  13. Exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms in school children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buchvald, Frederik; Phillipsen, Lue Drasbaek; Hjuler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exercise-induced inspiratory symptoms (EIIS) have multiple causes, one of which is exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). There is limited knowledge regarding EIIS in children, both in primary care practices and in pediatric asthma clinics. The aim of this study was t...

  14. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  15. Genetics of Oxidative Stress in Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azahara I. Rupérez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.

  16. Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress in sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Møller, Kirsten; Bailey, Damian M

    2011-01-01

    Neuro-oxidative-nitrosative stress may prove the molecular basis underlying brain dysfunction in sepsis. In the current review, we describe how sepsis-induced reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) trigger lipid peroxidation chain reactions throughout the cerebrovasculature and surrounding...

  17. Oxidative Stress Control by Apicomplexan Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya S. Bosch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Apicomplexan parasites cause infectious diseases that are either a severe public health problem or an economic burden. In this paper we will shed light on how oxidative stress can influence the host-pathogen relationship by focusing on three major diseases: babesiosis, coccidiosis, and toxoplasmosis.

  18. Oxidative stress and histopathological changes induced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Methyl-thiophanate (MT), a fungicide largely used in agriculture throughout the world including Tunisia, protects many vegetables, fruits and field crops against a wide spectrum of fungal diseases. Oxidative stress has been proposed as a possible mechanism involved in MT toxicity on non-target organism.

  19. Tobacco smoking and oxidative stress to DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Pernille Kempel; Poulsen, Henrik Enghusen

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress to DNA from smoking was investigated in one randomized smoking cessation study and in 36 cohort studies from excretion of urinary 8-oxo-7-hydrodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG). Meta-analysis of the 36 cohort studies showed smoking associated with a 15.7% (95% CL 11.0:20.3, p < 0.0001) in...

  20. Genetics of oxidative stress in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupérez, Azahara I; Gil, Angel; Aguilera, Concepción M

    2014-02-20

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease characterized by the excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissue and peripheral organs. Its derived metabolic complications are mediated by the associated oxidative stress, inflammation and hypoxia. Oxidative stress is due to the excessive production of reactive oxygen species or diminished antioxidant defenses. Genetic variants, such as single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant defense system genes, could alter the efficacy of these enzymes and, ultimately, the risk of obesity; thus, studies investigating the role of genetic variations in genes related to oxidative stress could be useful for better understanding the etiology of obesity and its metabolic complications. The lack of existing literature reviews in this field encouraged us to gather the findings from studies focusing on the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress-producing systems and transcription factor genes concerning their association with obesity risk and its phenotypes. In the future, the characterization of these single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in obese patients could contribute to the development of controlled antioxidant therapies potentially beneficial for the treatment of obesity-derived metabolic complications.

  1. Mitochondrial oxidative stress causes hyperphosphorylation of tau.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Melov

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Age-related neurodegenerative disease has been mechanistically linked with mitochondrial dysfunction via damage from reactive oxygen species produced within the cell. We determined whether increased mitochondrial oxidative stress could modulate or regulate two of the key neurochemical hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD: tau phosphorylation, and beta-amyloid deposition. Mice lacking superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2 die within the first week of life, and develop a complex heterogeneous phenotype arising from mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Treatment of these mice with catalytic antioxidants increases their lifespan and rescues the peripheral phenotypes, while uncovering central nervous system pathology. We examined sod2 null mice differentially treated with high and low doses of a catalytic antioxidant and observed striking elevations in the levels of tau phosphorylation (at Ser-396 and other phospho-epitopes of tau in the low-dose antioxidant treated mice at AD-associated residues. This hyperphosphorylation of tau was prevented with an increased dose of the antioxidant, previously reported to be sufficient to prevent neuropathology. We then genetically combined a well-characterized mouse model of AD (Tg2576 with heterozygous sod2 knockout mice to study the interactions between mitochondrial oxidative stress and cerebral Ass load. We found that mitochondrial SOD2 deficiency exacerbates amyloid burden and significantly reduces metal levels in the brain, while increasing levels of Ser-396 phosphorylated tau. These findings mechanistically link mitochondrial oxidative stress with the pathological features of AD.

  2. Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatic Antioxidant, Oxidative Stress And Histopathological Changes Induced By Nicotine In A Gender Based Study In Adult Rats. ... Antioxidant status was assessed in liver by measuring the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and ...

  3. IGF-1, oxidative stress, and atheroprotection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yusuke; Sukhanov, Sergiy; Anwar, Asif; Shai, Shaw-Yung; Delafontaine, Patrice

    2009-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease in which early endothelial dysfunction and subintimal modified lipoprotein deposition progress to complex, advanced lesions that are predisposed to erosion, rupture and thrombosis. Oxidative stress plays a critical role not only in initial lesion formation but also in lesion progression and destabilization. While growth factors are thought to promote vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation and migration, thereby increasing neointima, recent animal studies indicate that IGF-1 exerts pleiotropic anti-oxidant effects along with anti-inflammatory effects that together reduce atherosclerotic burden. This review discusses the effects of IGF-1 in vascular injury and atherosclerosis models, emphasizing the relationship between oxidative stress and potential atheroprotective actions of IGF-1. PMID:20071192

  4. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging. Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress was investigated using PC12 cells and dissociated brain cells of animals treated with piracetam. Piracetam treatment at concentrations between 100 and 1000 μM improved mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP production of PC12 cells following oxidative stress induced by sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and serum deprivation. Under conditions of mild serum deprivation, piracetam (500 μM) induced a nearly complete recovery of mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP levels. Piracetam also reduced caspase 9 activity after SNP treatment. Piracetam treatment (100–500 mg kg−1 daily) of mice was also associated with improved mitochondrial function in dissociated brain cells. Significant improvement was mainly seen in aged animals and only less in young animals. Moreover, the same treatment reduced antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) in aged mouse brain only, which are elevated as an adaptive response to the increased oxidative stress with aging. In conclusion, therapeutically relevant in vitro and in vivo concentrations of piracetam are able to improve mitochondrial dysfunction associated with oxidative stress and/or aging. Mitochondrial stabilization and protection might be an important mechanism to explain many of piracetam's beneficial effects in elderly patients. PMID:16284628

  5. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Kreuz, Sarah; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences

  6. Study on the serum oxidative stress status in silicosis patients

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-07

    Sep 7, 2011 ... oxidative stress parameters were investigated in silicosis patients and controls group. 128 silicosis ... to help clinicians to further delineate the role of oxidative- stress .... in age, working duration smoking, total cholesterol, ALT,.

  7. Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protective effects of flavonoids from corn silk on oxidative stress induced by ... The present study aims at exploring the effects of flavonoids from corn silk (FCS) on oxidative stress induced by exhaustive exercise in mice. ... from 32 Countries:.

  8. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    581. Keywords. Apoptosis; D. discoideum; oxidative stress; antioxidant enzymes; lipid peroxidation ..... multiple toxic effects of oxidative stress that is related to several pathological conditions ... culture. This work was supported by a grant to RB.

  9. Good stress, bad stress and oxidative stress: insights from anticipatory cortisol reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschbacher, Kirstin; O'Donovan, Aoife; Wolkowitz, Owen M; Dhabhar, Firdaus S; Su, Yali; Epel, Elissa

    2013-09-01

    Chronic psychological stress appears to accelerate biological aging, and oxidative damage is an important potential mediator of this process. However, the mechanisms by which psychological stress promotes oxidative damage are poorly understood. This study investigates the theory that cortisol increases in response to an acutely stressful event have the potential to either enhance or undermine psychobiological resilience to oxidative damage, depending on the body's prior exposure to chronic psychological stress. In order to achieve a range of chronic stress exposure, forty-eight post-menopausal women were recruited in a case-control design that matched women caring for spouses with dementia (a chronic stress model) with similarly aged control women whose spouses were healthy. Participants completed a questionnaire assessing perceived stress over the previous month and provided fasting blood. Three markers of oxidative damage were assessed: 8-iso-prostaglandin F(2α) (IsoP), lipid peroxidation, 8-hydroxyguanosine (8-oxoG) and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), reflecting oxidative damage to RNA/DNA respectively. Within approximately one week, participants completed a standardized acute laboratory stress task while salivary cortisol responses were measured. The increase from 0 to 30 min was defined as "peak" cortisol reactivity, while the increase from 0 to 15 min was defined as "anticipatory" cortisol reactivity, representing a cortisol response that began while preparing for the stress task. Women under chronic stress had higher 8-oxoG, oxidative damage to RNA (pstress and elevated oxidative stress damage, but only among women under chronic stress. Consistent with this model, bootstrapped path analysis found significant indirect paths from perceived stress to 8-oxoG and IsoP (but not 8-OHdG) via anticipatory cortisol reactivity, showing the expected relations among chronically stressed participants (p≤.01) Intriguingly, among those with low chronic stress

  10. Plant Polyphenol Antioxidants and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    INES URQUIAGA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a remarkable increment in scientific articles dealing with oxidative stress. Several reasons justify this trend: knowledge about reactive oxygen and nitrogen species metabolism; definition of markers for oxidative damage; evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress; identification of flavonoids and other dietary polyphenol antioxidants present in plant foods as bioactive molecules; and data supporting the idea that health benefits associated with fruits, vegetables and red wine in the diet are probably linked to the polyphenol antioxidants they contain.In this review we examine some of the evidence linking chronic diseases and oxidative stress, the distribution and basic structure of plant polyphenol antioxidants, some biological effects of polyphenols, and data related to their bioavailability and the metabolic changes they undergo in the intestinal lumen and after absorption into the organism.Finally, we consider some of the challenges that research in this area currently faces, with particular emphasis on the contributions made at the International Symposium "Biology and Pathology of Free Radicals: Plant and Wine Polyphenol Antioxidants" held July 29-30, 1999, at the Catholic University, Santiago, Chile and collected in this special issue of Biological Research

  11. Exercise-Induced Bronchospasm and Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Caggiano

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sport is an essential part of childhood, with precious and acknowledged positive health effects but the impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB significantly reduces participation in physical activity. It is important to recognize EIB, differentiating EIB with or without asthma if the transient narrowing of the airways after exercise is associated with asthmatic symptoms or not, in the way to select the most appropriate treatment among the many treatment options available today. Therapy is prescribed based on symptoms severity but diagnosis of EIB is established by changes in lung function provoked by exercise evaluating by direct and indirect tests. Sometimes, in younger children it is difficult to obtain the registration of difference between the preexercise forced expiratory volume in the first second (FEV1 value and the lowest FEV1 value recorded within 30 min after exercise, defined as the gold standard, but interrupter resistance, in association with spirometry, has been showed to be a valid alternative in preschool age. Atopy is the main risk factor, as demonstrated by epidemiologic data showing that among the estimated pediatric population with EIB up to 40% of them have allergic rhinitis and 30% of these patients may develop adult asthma, according with atopic march. Adopting the right treatment and prevention, selecting sports with no marked hyperventilation and excessive cooling of the airways, children with EIB can be able to take part in physical activity like all others.

  12. Oxidative stress and the high altitude environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Krzeszowiak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the recent years there has been considerable interest in mountain sports, including mountaineering, owing to the general availability of climbing clothing and equipment as well trainings and professional literature. This raised a new question for the environmental and mountain medicine: Is mountaineering harmful to health? Potential hazards include the conditions existing in the alpine environment, i.e. lower atmospheric pressure leading to the development of hypobaric hypoxia, extreme physical effort, increased UV radiation, lack of access to fresh food, and mental stress. A reasonable measure of harmfulness of these factors is to determine the increase in the level of oxidative stress. Alpine environment can stimulate the antioxidant enzyme system but under specific circumstances it may exceed its capabilities with simultaneous consumption of low-molecular antioxidants resulting in increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. This situation is referred to as oxidative stress. Rapid and uncontrolled proliferation of reactive oxygen species leads to a number of adverse changes, resulting in the above-average damage to the lipid structures of cell membranes (peroxidation, proteins (denaturation, and nucleic acids. Such situation within the human body cannot take place without resultant systemic consequences. This explains the malaise of people returning from high altitude and a marked decrease in their physical fitness. In addition, a theory is put forward that the increase in the level of oxidative stress is one of the factors responsible for the onset of acute mountain sickness (AMS. However, such statement requires further investigation because the currently available literature is inconclusive. This article presents the causes and effects of development of oxidative stress in the high mountains.

  13. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, A C; Prieto, J G; Vila, L; Perez, A C; Duarte, I D G; Alvarez, A I

    2004-12-01

    Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white) and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg) was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 +/- 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group). The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05) after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05) by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  14. Ginseng administration protects skeletal muscle from oxidative stress induced by acute exercise in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Voces

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Enzymatic activity was analyzed in the soleus, gastrocnemius (red and white and plantaris muscles of acutely exercised rats after long-term administration of Panax ginseng extract in order to evaluate the protective role of ginseng against skeletal muscle oxidation. Ginseng extract (3, 10, 100, or 500 mg/kg was administered orally for three months to male Wistar rats weighing 200 ± 50 g before exercise and to non-exercised rats (N = 8/group. The results showed a membrane stabilizing capacity of the extract since mitochondrial function measured on the basis of citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities was reduced, on average, by 20% (P < 0.05 after exercise but the activities remained unchanged in animals treated with a ginseng dose of 100 mg/kg. Glutathione status did not show significant changes after exercise or treatment. Lipid peroxidation, measured on the basis of malondialdehyde levels, was significantly higher in all muscles after exercise, and again was reduced by about 74% (P < 0.05 by the use of ginseng extract. The administration of ginseng extract was able to protect muscle from exercise-induced oxidative stress irrespective of fiber type.

  15. Oxidative Stress and Periodontal Disease in Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dursun, Erhan; Akalin, Ferda Alev; Genc, Tolga; Cinar, Nese; Erel, Ozcan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2016-03-01

    Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the jaws and is more prevalent in obesity. Local and systemic oxidative stress may be an early link between periodontal disease and obesity. The primary aim of this study was to detect whether increased periodontal disease susceptibility in obese individuals is associated with local and systemic oxidative stress. Accordingly; we analyzed periodontal status and systemic (serum) and local (gingival crevicular fluid [GCF]) oxidative status markers in young obese women in comparison with age-matched lean women.Twenty obese and 20 lean women participated. Periodontal condition was determined by clinical periodontal indices including probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival index, gingival bleeding index, and plaque index. Anthropometric, hormonal, and metabolic measurements were also performed. Blood and GCF sampling was performed at the same time after an overnight fasting. Serum and GCF total antioxidant capacity (TAOC), and total oxidant status (TOS) levels were determined, and oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated.Clinical periodontal analyses showed higher gingival index and gingival bleeding index in the obese group (P = 0.001 for both) with no significant difference in probing depth, clinical attachment level, and plaque index between the obese and the lean women. Oxidant status analyses revealed lower GCF and serum TAOC, and higher GCF and serum OSI values in the obese women (P < 0.05 for all). GCF TOS was higher in the obese women (P < 0.05), whereas there was a nonsignificant trend for higher serum TOS in obese women (P = 0.074). GCF TAOC values showed a negative correlation with body mass index, whereas GCF OSI was positively correlated with fasting insulin and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels (P < 0.05 for all). Clinical periodontal indices showed significant correlations with body mass index, insulin, and lipid levels, and also oxidant status markers

  16. Nitric oxide in the stress axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Figueroa, M O; Day, H E; Akil, H; Watson, S J

    1998-10-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbic-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (LHPA) or stress axis, activation of which is one of the defining features of a stress response. Evidence suggests that NO may modulate the release of the stress hormones ACTH and corticosterone, and NOS activity and transcription is increased in the LHPA axis following various stressful stimuli. Furthermore, following activation of the stress axis, glucocorticoids are thought to down-regulate the transcription and activity of NOS via a feedback mechanism. Taken together, current data indicate a role for NO in the regulation of the LHPA axis, although at present this role is not well defined. It has been suggested that NO may act as a cellular communicator in plasticity and development, to facilitate the activation or the release of other neurotransmitters, to mediate immune responses, and/or as a vasodilator in the regulation of blood flow. In the following review we summarize some of the latest insights into the function of NO, with special attention to its relationship with the LHPA axis.

  17. Biochemical basis of the high resistance to oxidative stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Aerobic organisms experience oxidative stress due to generation of reactive oxygen species during normal aerobic metabolism. In addition, several chemicals also generate reactive oxygen species which induce oxidative stress. Thus oxidative stress constitutes a major threat to organisms living in aerobic environments.

  18. Intravenous infusion of H2-saline suppresses oxidative stress and elevates antioxidant potential in Thoroughbred horses after racing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Masahiko; Kusano, Kanichi; Ishibashi, Toru; Kiuchi, Masataka; Koyama, Katsuhiro

    2015-10-23

    Upon intensive, exhaustive exercise, exercise-induced reactive oxygen species may exceed the antioxidant defence threshold, consequently resulting in muscular damage or late-onset chronic inflammation. Recently, the therapeutic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of molecular hydrogen (H2) for human rheumatoid arthritis have been demonstrated. However, it is also important to clarify the effects of administrating H2 in large animals other than humans, as H2 is thought to reach the target organ by passive diffusion upon delivery from the blood flow, indicating that the distance from the administration point to the target is critical. However, data on the effects of H2 on oxidative stress in real-life exhaustive exercise in large animals are currently lacking. We here investigated 13 Thoroughbred horses administered intravenous 2-L saline with or without 0.6-ppm H2 (placebo, N = 6; H2, N = 7) before participating in a high-intensity simulation race. Intravenous H2-saline significantly suppressed oxidative stress immediately, 3 h, and 24 h after the race, although the antioxidant capability was not affected throughout the study. The serum creatine kinase, lactate, and uric acid levels were increased in both groups. Taken together, these results indicate that intravenous H2-saline can significantly and specifically suppress oxidative stress induced after exhaustive racing in Thoroughbred horses.

  19. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase mediates insulin- and oxidative stress-induced glucose uptake in skeletal muscle myotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Dean L; McCammon, Karen M; Hinchee-Rodriguez, Kathryn S; Adamo, Martin L; Roman, Linda J

    2017-09-01

    Previously published studies strongly suggested that insulin- and exercise-induced skeletal muscle glucose uptake require nitric oxide (NO) production. However, the signal transduction mechanisms by which insulin and contraction regulated NO production and subsequent glucose transport are not known. In the present study, we utilized the myotube cell lines treated with insulin or hydrogen peroxide, the latter to mimic contraction-induced oxidative stress, to characterize these mechanisms. We found that insulin stimulation of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) phosphorylation, NO production, and GLUT4 translocation were all significantly reduced by inhibition of either nNOS or Akt2. Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) induced phosphorylation of nNOS at the same residue as did insulin, and also stimulated NO production and GLUT4 translocation. nNOS inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 -induced GLUT4 translocation. AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibition prevented H 2 O 2 activation and phosphorylation of nNOS, leading to reduced NO production and significantly attenuated GLUT4 translocation. We conclude that nNOS phosphorylation and subsequently increased NO production are required for both insulin- and H 2 O 2 -stimulated glucose transport. Although the two stimuli result in phosphorylation of the same residue on nNOS, they do so through distinct protein kinases. Thus, insulin and H 2 O 2 -activated signaling pathways converge on nNOS, which is a common mediator of glucose uptake in both pathways. However, the fact that different kinases are utilized provides a basis for the use of exercise to activate glucose transport in the face of insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Wet-cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tagil, Suleyman Murat; Celik, Huseyin Tugrul; Ciftci, Sefa; Kazanci, Fatmanur Hacievliyagil; Arslan, Muzeyyen; Erdamar, Nazan; Kesik, Yunus; Erdamar, Husamettin; Dane, Senol

    2014-12-01

    Wet-cupping therapy is one of the oldest known medical techniques. Although it is widely used in various conditions such as acute\\chronic inflammation, infectious diseases, and immune system disorders, its mechanism of action is not fully known. In this study, we investigated the oxidative status as the first step to elucidate possible mechanisms of action of wet cupping. Wet cupping therapy is implemented to 31 healthy volunteers. Venous blood samples and Wet cupping blood samples were taken concurrently. Serum nitricoxide, malondialdehyde levels and activity of superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase were measured spectrophotometrically. Wet cupping blood had higher activity of myeloperoxidase, lower activity of superoxide dismutase, higher levels of malondialdehyde and nitricoxide compared to the venous blood. Wet cupping removes oxidants and decreases oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  2. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier eBlesa

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Parkinson disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental factors, such as neurotoxins, insecticides like rotenone, pesticides like Paraquat, dopamine itself and genetic mutations in Parkinson’s Disease related proteins contribute to mitochondrial dysfunction which precedes reactive oxygen species formation. In this mini review, we give an update of the classical pathways involving these mechanisms of neurodegeneration, the biochemical and molecular events that mediate or regulate DA neuronal vulnerability, and the role of PD-related gene products in modulating cellular responses to oxidative stress in the course of the neurodegenerative process.

  3. A Nonsense Variant in the ACADVL Gene in German Hunting Terriers with Exercise Induced Metabolic Myopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Lepori

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Several enzymes are involved in fatty acid oxidation, which is a key process in mitochondrial energy production. Inherited defects affecting any step of fatty acid oxidation can result in clinical disease. We present here an extended family of German Hunting Terriers with 10 dogs affected by clinical signs of exercise induced weakness, muscle pain, and suspected rhabdomyolysis. The combination of clinical signs, muscle histopathology and acylcarnitine analysis with an elevated tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1 peak suggested a possible diagnosis of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain deficiency (ACADVLD. Whole genome sequence analysis of one affected dog and 191 controls revealed a nonsense variant in the ACADVL gene encoding acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain, c.1728C>A or p.(Tyr576*. The variant showed perfect association with the phenotype in the 10 affected and more than 500 control dogs of various breeds. Pathogenic variants in the ACADVL gene have been reported in humans with similar myopathic phenotypes. We therefore considered the detected variant to be the most likely candidate causative variant for the observed exercise induced myopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this disease in dogs, which we propose to name exercise induced metabolic myopathy (EIMM, and the identification of the first canine pathogenic ACADVL variant. Our findings provide a large animal model for a known human disease and will enable genetic testing to avoid the unintentional breeding of affected offspring.

  4. A Nonsense Variant in the ACADVL Gene in German Hunting Terriers with Exercise Induced Metabolic Myopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepori, Vincent; Mühlhause, Franziska; Sewell, Adrian C; Jagannathan, Vidhya; Janzen, Nils; Rosati, Marco; Alves de Sousa, Filipe Miguel Maximiano; Tschopp, Aurélie; Schüpbach, Gertraud; Matiasek, Kaspar; Tipold, Andrea; Leeb, Tosso; Kornberg, Marion

    2018-05-04

    Several enzymes are involved in fatty acid oxidation, which is a key process in mitochondrial energy production. Inherited defects affecting any step of fatty acid oxidation can result in clinical disease. We present here an extended family of German Hunting Terriers with 10 dogs affected by clinical signs of exercise induced weakness, muscle pain, and suspected rhabdomyolysis. The combination of clinical signs, muscle histopathology and acylcarnitine analysis with an elevated tetradecenoylcarnitine (C14:1) peak suggested a possible diagnosis of acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain deficiency (ACADVLD). Whole genome sequence analysis of one affected dog and 191 controls revealed a nonsense variant in the ACADVL gene encoding acyl-CoA dehydrogenase very long chain, c.1728C>A or p.(Tyr576*). The variant showed perfect association with the phenotype in the 10 affected and more than 500 control dogs of various breeds. Pathogenic variants in the ACADVL gene have been reported in humans with similar myopathic phenotypes. We therefore considered the detected variant to be the most likely candidate causative variant for the observed exercise induced myopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first description of this disease in dogs, which we propose to name exercise induced metabolic myopathy (EIMM), and the identification of the first canine pathogenic ACADVL variant. Our findings provide a large animal model for a known human disease and will enable genetic testing to avoid the unintentional breeding of affected offspring. Copyright © 2018 Lepori et al.

  5. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    OpenAIRE

    K. Manasa; R. Vani

    2016-01-01

    Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platele...

  6. Oxidative stress and Parkinson’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Javier eBlesa; Javier eBlesa; Javier eBlesa; Ines eTrigo-Damas; Ines eTrigo-Damas; Anna eQuiroga-Varela; Vernice Ruffin Jackson-Lewis

    2015-01-01

    Parkinson disease is a chronic, progressive neurological disease that is associated with a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra of the brain. The molecular mechanisms underlying the loss of these neurons still remain elusive. Oxidative stress is thought to play an important role in dopaminergic neurotoxicity. Complex I deficiencies of the respiratory chain account for the majority of unfavorable neuronal degeneration in Parkinson’s Disease. Environmental factors, such as neuro...

  7. Piracetam improves mitochondrial dysfunction following oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Keil, Uta; Scherping, Isabel; Hauptmann, Susanne; Schuessel, Katin; Eckert, Anne; Müller, Walter E

    2005-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced ATP production represents a common final pathway of many conditions associated with oxidative stress, for example, hypoxia, hypoglycemia, and aging.Since the cognition-improving effects of the standard nootropic piracetam are usually more pronounced under such pathological conditions and young healthy animals usually benefit little by piracetam, the effect of piracetam on mitochondrial dysfunction fol...

  8. Nonpharmacologic strategies to manage exercise-induced bronchoconstriction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dickinson, John; Amirav, Israel; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Pharmacologic management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is the mainstay of preventative therapy. There are some nonpharmacologic interventions, however, that may assist the management of EIB. This review discusses these nonpharmacologic interventions and how they may be applied to ...

  9. Oxidative stress and male reproductive health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J Aitken

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the major causes of defective sperm function is oxidative stress, which not only disrupts the integrity of sperm DNA but also limits the fertilizing potential of these cells as a result of collateral damage to proteins and lipids in the sperm plasma membrane. The origins of such oxidative stress appear to involve the sperm mitochondria, which have a tendency to generate high levels of superoxide anion as a prelude to entering the intrinsic apoptotic cascade. Unfortunately, these cells have very little capacity to respond to such an attack because they only possess the first enzyme in the base excision repair (BER pathway, 8-oxoguanine glycosylase 1 (OGG1. The latter successfully creates an abasic site, but the spermatozoa cannot process the oxidative lesion further because they lack the downstream proteins (APE1, XRCC1 needed to complete the repair process. It is the responsibility of the oocyte to continue the BER pathway prior to initiation of S-phase of the first mitotic division. If a mistake is made by the oocyte at this stage of development, a mutation will be created that will be represented in every cell in the body. Such mechanisms may explain the increase in childhood cancers and other diseases observed in the offspring of males who have suffered oxidative stress in their germ line as a consequence of age, environmental or lifestyle factors. The high prevalence of oxidative DNA damage in the spermatozoa of male infertility patients may have implications for the health of children conceivedin vitro and serves as a driver for current research into the origins of free radical generation in the germ line.

  10. Chrononutrition against Oxidative Stress in Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Garrido

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals and oxidative stress have been recognized as important factors in the biology of aging and in many age-associated degenerative diseases. Antioxidant systems deteriorate during aging. It is, thus, considered that one way to reduce the rate of aging and the risk of chronic disease is to avoid the formation of free radicals and reduce oxidative stress by strengthening antioxidant defences. Phytochemicals present in fruits, vegetables, grains, and other foodstuffs have been linked to reducing the risk of major oxidative stress-induced diseases. Some dietary components of foods possess biological activities which influence circadian rhythms in humans. Chrononutrition studies have shown that not only the content of food, but also the time of ingestion contributes to the natural functioning of the circadian system. Dietary interventions with antioxidant-enriched foods taking into account the principles of chrononutrition are of particular interest for the elderly since they may help amplify the already powerful benefits of phytochemicals as natural instruments with which to prevent or delay the onset of common age-related diseases.

  11. Oxidative stress in ageing of hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trüeb, Ralph M

    2009-01-01

    Experimental evidence supports the hypothesis that oxidative stress plays a major role in the ageing process. Reactive oxygen species are generated by a multitude of endogenous and environmental challenges. Reactive oxygen species or free radicals are highly reactive molecules that can directly damage cellular structural membranes, lipids, proteins, and DNA. The body possesses endogenous defence mechanisms, such as antioxidative enzymes and non-enzymatic antioxidative molecules, protecting it from free radicals by reducing and neutralizing them. With age, the production of free radicals increases, while the endogenous defence mechanisms decrease. This imbalance leads to the progressive damage of cellular structures, presumably resulting in the ageing phenotype. Ageing of hair manifests as decrease of melanocyte function or graying, and decrease in hair production or alopecia. There is circumstantial evidence that oxidative stress may be a pivotal mechanism contributing to hair graying and hair loss. New insights into the role and prevention of oxidative stress could open new strategies for intervention and reversal of the hair graying process and age-dependent alopecia.

  12. Symbiosis-induced adaptation to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richier, Sophie; Furla, Paola; Plantivaux, Amandine; Merle, Pierre-Laurent; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    Cnidarians in symbiosis with photosynthetic protists must withstand daily hyperoxic/anoxic transitions within their host cells. Comparative studies between symbiotic (Anemonia viridis) and non-symbiotic (Actinia schmidti) sea anemones show striking differences in their response to oxidative stress. First, the basal expression of SOD is very different. Symbiotic animal cells have a higher isoform diversity (number and classes) and a higher activity than the non-symbiotic cells. Second, the symbiotic animal cells of A. viridis also maintain unaltered basal values for cellular damage when exposed to experimental hyperoxia (100% O(2)) or to experimental thermal stress (elevated temperature +7 degrees C above ambient). Under such conditions, A. schmidti modifies its SOD activity significantly. Electrophoretic patterns diversify, global activities diminish and cell damage biomarkers increase. These data suggest symbiotic cells adapt to stress while non-symbiotic cells remain acutely sensitive. In addition to being toxic, high O(2) partial pressure (P(O(2))) may also constitute a preconditioning step for symbiotic animal cells, leading to an adaptation to the hyperoxic condition and, thus, to oxidative stress. Furthermore, in aposymbiotic animal cells of A. viridis, repression of some animal SOD isoforms is observed. Meanwhile, in cultured symbionts, new activity bands are induced, suggesting that the host might protect its zooxanthellae in hospite. Similar results have been observed in other symbiotic organisms, such as the sea anemone Aiptasia pulchella and the scleractinian coral Stylophora pistillata. Molecular or physical interactions between the two symbiotic partners may explain such variations in SOD activity and might confer oxidative stress tolerance to the animal host.

  13. Iron, Oxidative Stress and Gestational Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taifeng Zhuang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Both iron deficiency and hyperglycemia are highly prevalent globally for pregnant women. Iron supplementation is recommended during pregnancy to control iron deficiency. The purposes of the review are to assess the oxidative effects of iron supplementation and the potential relationship between iron nutrition and gestational diabetes. High doses of iron (~relative to 60 mg or more daily for adult humans can induce lipid peroxidation in vitro and in animal studies. Pharmaceutical doses of iron supplements (e.g., 10× RDA or more for oral supplements or direct iron supplementation via injection or addition to the cell culture medium for a short or long duration will induce DNA damage. Higher heme-iron intake or iron status measured by various biomarkers, especially serum ferritin, might contribute to greater risk of gestational diabetes, which may be mediated by iron oxidative stress though lipid oxidation and/or DNA damage. However, information is lacking about the effect of low dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily on lipid peroxidation, DNA damage and gestational diabetes. Randomized trials of low-dose iron supplementation (≤60 mg daily for pregnant women are warranted to test the relationship between iron oxidative stress and insulin resistance/gestational diabetes, especially for iron-replete women.

  14. [Oxidative stress in station service workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso, A; Elia, G; Petrozzi, M T; Zefferino, R

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify an oxidative stress in service station workers. Previous studies verified an increased incidence of leukemia and myeloma, however other authors haven't verified it. There are reports of nasal, pharyngeal, laryngeal, and lung cancer in service station workers. Our study wants to evaluate the oxidative balance in the fuel workers. We studied 44 subjects with gasoline exposure and 29 control subjects. We determined the blood concentrations of Glutathione reduced and oxidized, Protein sulfhydrylic (PSH) Vitamine E, Vitamine C, Malondialdehyde, Protein oxidized (OX-PROT) and beta carotene. The t test was performed to analyze the differences between the means, the Chi square was used to evaluate the statistical significance of associations between variable categorical (redox index). The Anova test excluded the confusing effect of age, smoke and alcohol habit. The mean age of the workers was 36.6 years, instead the control group was 38. In the workers Glutathione reduced, Vit. E and Beta carotene were lower than in the control subjects, this difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The Malondialdehyde concentration was higher in the workers higher than in the control group, but this difference wasn't statistically significant. Our data demonstrated Glutathione, Vit. E, and Beta carotene are useful to verify a reduction of the antioxidant activity. The only marker of the presence of oxidative injury that correlated to work exposure was the malondialdehyde. The redox index was surest marker. The limit of our study is the number of control group, it was little and lower than workers. Conclusively we believe it's useful to continue our studies and, if our results are going to be confirmed, we retain that stress oxidative determination would be verified in occupational medicine using these markers, especially to study exposure of the fuel workers who were investigated less and, in our opinion, would receive more attention.

  15. Role of oxidative stress in female reproduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Rakesh K

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In a healthy body, ROS (reactive oxygen species and antioxidants remain in balance. When the balance is disrupted towards an overabundance of ROS, oxidative stress (OS occurs. OS influences the entire reproductive lifespan of a woman and even thereafter (i.e. menopause. OS results from an imbalance between prooxidants (free radical species and the body's scavenging ability (antioxidants. ROS are a double-edged sword – they serve as key signal molecules in physiological processes but also have a role in pathological processes involving the female reproductive tract. ROS affect multiple physiological processes from oocyte maturation to fertilization, embryo development and pregnancy. It has been suggested that OS modulates the age-related decline in fertility. It plays a role during pregnancy and normal parturition and in initiation of preterm labor. Most ovarian cancers appear in the surface epithelium, and repetitive ovulation has been thought to be a causative factor. Ovulation-induced oxidative base damage and damage to DNA of the ovarian epithelium can be prevented by antioxidants. There is growing literature on the effects of OS in female reproduction with involvement in the pathophsiology of preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, free radical-induced birth defects and other situations such as abortions. Numerous studies have shown that OS plays a role in the pathoysiology of infertility and assisted fertility. There is some evidence of its role in endometriosis, tubal and peritoneal factor infertility and unexplained infertility. This article reviews the role OS plays in normal cycling ovaries, follicular development and cyclical endometrial changes. It also discusses OS-related female infertility and how it influences the outcomes of assisted reproductive techniques. The review comprehensively explores the literature for evidence of the role of oxidative stress in conditions such as abortions, preeclampsia, hydatidiform mole, fetal

  16. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in a general adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Norlander, Katarina; Berglund, Lars; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif; Emtner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms are common among adolescents. Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of EIB and EILO in a general population of adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnoea was sent to all adolescents born in 1997 and 1998 in Uppsala, Sweden (n=3838). A random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea and 47 without this condition) underwent standardised treadmill exercise tests for EIB and EILO. The exercise test for EIB was performed while breathing dry air; a positive test was defined as a decrease of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline. EILO was investigated using continuous laryngoscopy during exercise. The estimated prevalence of EIB and EILO in the total population was 19.2% and 5.7%, respectively. No gender differences were found. In adolescents with exercise-induced dyspnoea, 39.8% had EIB, 6% had EILO and 4.8% had both conditions. In this group, significantly more boys than girls had neither EIB nor EILO (64.7% vs 38.8%; p=0.026). There were no significant differences in body mass index, lung function, diagnosed asthma or medication between the participants with exercise-induced dyspnoea who had or did not have a positive EIB or EILO test result. Both EIB and EILO are common causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea in adolescents. EILO is equally common among girls and boys and can coexist with EIB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  17. Acute Exercise Induced Mitochondrial H2O2 Production in Mouse Skeletal Muscle: Association with p66Shc and FOXO3a Signaling and Antioxidant Enzymes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ping Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise induced skeletal muscle phenotype change involves a complex interplay between signaling pathways and downstream regulators. This study aims to investigate the effect of acute exercise on mitochondrial H2O2 production and its association with p66Shc, FOXO3a, and antioxidant enzymes. Male ICR/CD-1 mice were subjected to an acute exercise. Muscle tissues (gastrocnemius and quadriceps femoris were taken after exercise to measure mitochondrial H2O2 content, expression of p66Shc and FOXO3a, and the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The results showed that acute exercise significantly increased mitochondrial H2O2 content and expressions of p66Shc and FOXO3a in a time-dependent manner, with a linear correlation between the increase in H2O2 content and p66Shc or FOXO3a expression. The activity of mitochondrial catalase was slightly reduced in the 90 min exercise group, but it was significantly higher in groups with 120 and 150 min exercise compared to that of 90 min exercise group. The activity of SOD was not significantly affected. The results indicate that acute exercise increases mitochondrial H2O2 production in the skeletal muscle, which is associated with the upregulation of p66Shc and FOXO3a. The association of p66Shc and FOXO3a signaling with exercise induced H2O2 generation may play a role in regulating cellular oxidative stress during acute exercise.

  18. Short term exercise induces PGC-1α, ameliorates inflammation and increases mitochondrial membrane proteins but fails to increase respiratory enzymes in aging diabetic hearts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botta, Amy; Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Decoffe, Daniella; Brown, Kirsty; Halder, Swagata; Devlin, Angela; Gibson, Deanna L; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    PGC-1α, a transcriptional coactivator, controls inflammation and mitochondrial gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues following exercise intervention. However, attributing such effects to PGC-1α is counfounded by exercise-induced fluctuations in blood glucose, insulin or bodyweight in diabetic patients. The goal of this study was to investigate the role of PGC-1α on inflammation and mitochondrial protein expressions in aging db/db mice hearts, independent of changes in glycemic parameters. In 8-month-old db/db mice hearts with diabetes lasting over 22 weeks, short-term, moderate-intensity exercise upregulated PGC-1α without altering body weight or glycemic parameters. Nonetheless, such a regimen lowered both cardiac (macrophage infiltration, iNOS and TNFα) and systemic (circulating chemokines and cytokines) inflammation. Curiously, such an anti-inflammatory effect was also linked to attenuated expression of downstream transcription factors of PGC-1α such as NRF-1 and several respiratory genes. Such mismatch between PGC-1α and its downstream targets was associated with elevated mitochondrial membrane proteins like Tom70 but a concurrent reduction in oxidative phosphorylation protein expressions in exercised db/db hearts. As mitochondrial oxidative stress was predominant in these hearts, in support of our in vivo data, increasing concentrations of H2O2 dose-dependently increased PGC-1α expression while inhibiting expression of inflammatory genes and downstream transcription factors in H9c2 cardiomyocytes in vitro. We conclude that short-term exercise-induced oxidative stress may be key in attenuating cardiac inflammatory genes and impairing PGC-1α mediated gene transcription of downstream transcription factors in type 2 diabetic hearts at an advanced age.

  19. Smog induces oxidative stress and microbiota disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Tit-Yee

    2017-04-01

    Smog is created through the interactions between pollutants in the air, fog, and sunlight. Air pollutants, such as carbon monoxide, heavy metals, nitrogen oxides, ozone, sulfur dioxide, volatile organic vapors, and particulate matters, can induce oxidative stress in human directly or indirectly through the formation of reactive oxygen species. The outermost boundary of human skin and mucous layers are covered by a complex network of human-associated microbes. The relation between these microbial communities and their human host are mostly mutualistic. These microbes not only provide nutrients, vitamins, and protection against other pathogens, they also influence human's physical, immunological, nutritional, and mental developments. Elements in smog can induce oxidative stress to these microbes, leading to community collapse. Disruption of these mutualistic microbiota may introduce unexpected health risks, especially among the newborns and young children. Besides reducing the burning of fossil fuels as the ultimate solution of smog formation, advanced methods by using various physical, chemical, and biological means to reduce sulfur and nitrogen contains in fossil fuels could lower smog formation. Additionally, information on microbiota disruption, based on functional genomics, culturomics, and general ecological principles, should be included in the risk assessment of prolonged smog exposure to the health of human populations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Endothelial cell oxidative stress and signal transduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROCIO FONCEA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial dysfunction (ED is an early event in atherosclerotic disease, preceding clinical manifestations and complications. Increased reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated as important mechanisms that contribute to ED, and ROS’s may function as intracellular messengers that modulate signaling pathways. Several intracellular signal events stimulated by ROS have been defined, including the identification of two members of the mitogen activated protein kinase family (ERK1/2 and big MAP kinase, BMK1, tyrosine kinases (Src and Syk and different isoenzymes of PKC as redox-sensitive kinases. ROS regulation of signal transduction components include the modification in the activity of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and others that result in changes in gene expression and modifications in cellular responses. In order to understand the intracellular mechanisms induced by ROS in endothelial cells (EC, we are studying the response of human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells to increased ROS generation by different pro-atherogenic stimuli. Our results show that Homocysteine (Hcy and oxidized LDL (oxLDL enhance the activity and expression of oxidative stress markers, such as NFkB and heme oxygenase 1. These results suggest that these pro-atherogenic stimuli increase oxidative stress in EC, and thus explain the loss of endothelial function associated with the atherogenic process

  1. Oxidative stress, thyroid dysfunction & Down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Campos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Down syndrome (DS is one of the most common chromosomal disorders, occurring in one out of 700-1000 live births, and the most common cause of mental retardation. Thyroid dysfunction is the most typical endocrine abnormality in patients with DS. It is well known that thyroid dysfunction is highly prevalent in children and adults with DS and that both hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are more common in patients with DS than in the general population. Increasing evidence has shown that DS individuals are under unusual increased oxidative stress, which may be involved in the higher prevalence and severity of a number of pathologies associated with the syndrome, as well as the accelerated ageing observed in these individuals. The gene for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1 is coded on chromosome 21 and it is overexpressed (~50% resulting in an increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS due to overproduction of hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 . ROS leads to oxidative damage of DNA, proteins and lipids, therefore, oxidative stress may play an important role in the pathogenesis of DS.

  2. Evidence of a Redox-Dependent Regulation of Immune Responses to Exercise-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Sakelliou

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We used thiol-based antioxidant supplementation (n-acetylcysteine, NAC to determine whether immune mobilisation following skeletal muscle microtrauma induced by exercise is redox-sensitive in healthy humans. According to a two-trial, double-blind, crossover, repeated measures design, 10 young men received either placebo or NAC (20 mg/kg/day immediately after a muscle-damaging exercise protocol (300 eccentric contractions and for eight consecutive days. Blood sampling and performance assessments were performed before exercise, after exercise, and daily throughout recovery. NAC reduced the decline of reduced glutathione in erythrocytes and the increase of plasma protein carbonyls, serum TAC and erythrocyte oxidized glutathione, and TBARS and catalase activity during recovery thereby altering postexercise redox status. The rise of muscle damage and inflammatory markers (muscle strength, creatine kinase activity, CRP, proinflammatory cytokines, and adhesion molecules was less pronounced in NAC during the first phase of recovery. The rise of leukocyte and neutrophil count was decreased by NAC after exercise. Results on immune cell subpopulations obtained by flow cytometry indicated that NAC ingestion reduced the exercise-induced rise of total macrophages, HLA+ macrophages, and 11B+ macrophages and abolished the exercise-induced upregulation of B lymphocytes. Natural killer cells declined only in PLA immediately after exercise. These results indicate that thiol-based antioxidant supplementation blunts immune cell mobilisation in response to exercise-induced inflammation suggesting that leukocyte mobilization may be under redox-dependent regulation.

  3. Acute exercise induces biphasic increase in respiratory mRNA in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Shin-ichi; Kizaki, Takako; Haga, Shukoh; Ohno, Hideki; Takemasa, Tohru

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) promotes the expression of oxidative enzymes in skeletal muscle. We hypothesized that activation of the p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) in response to exercise was associated with exercise-induced PGC-1α and respiratory enzymes expression and aimed to demonstrate this under the physiological level. We subjected mice to a single bout of treadmill running and found that the exercise induced a biphasic increase in the expression of respiratory enzymes mRNA. The second phase of the increase was accompanied by an increase in PGC-1α protein, but the other was not. Administration of SB203580 (SB), an inhibitor of p38 MAPK, suppressed the increase in PGC-1α expression and respiratory enzymes mRNA in both phases. These data suggest that p38 MAPK is associated with the exercise-induced expression of PGC-1α and biphasic increase in respiratory enzyme mRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle under physiological conditions

  4. Exercise-induced circulating extracellular vesicles protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yihua; Xu, Tianzhao; Lv, Dongchao; Yu, Pujiao; Xu, Jiahong; Che, Lin; Das, Avash; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vassilios; Ghiran, Ionita; Shah, Ravi; Li, Yongqin; Zhang, Yuhui; Das, Saumya; Xiao, Junjie

    2017-07-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve an important function as mediators of intercellular communication. Exercise is protective for the heart, although the signaling mechanisms that mediate this cardioprotection have not been fully elucidated. Here using nano-flow cytometry, we found a rapid increase in plasma EVs in human subjects undergoing exercise stress testing. We subsequently identified that serum EVs were increased by ~1.85-fold in mice after 3-week swimming. Intramyocardial injection of equivalent quantities of EVs from exercised mice and non-exercised controls provided similar protective effects against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. However, injection of exercise-induced EVs in a quantity equivalent to the increase seen with exercise (1.85 swim group) significantly enhanced the protective effect. Similarly, treatment with exercise-induced increased EVs provided additional anti-apoptotic effect in H 2 O 2 -treated H9C2 cardiomyocytes mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 and HSP27 signaling. Finally, by treating H9C2 cells with insulin-like growth factor-1 to mimic exercise stimulus in vitro, we found an increased release of EVs from cardiomyocytes associated with ALIX and RAB35 activation. Collectively, our results show that exercise-induced increase in circulating EVs enhances the protective effects of endogenous EVs against cardiac I/R injury. Exercise-derived EVs might serve as a potent therapy for myocardial injury in the future.

  5. Oxidative stress associated with exercise, psychological stress and life-style factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, P; Wallin, H; Knudsen, Lisbeth E.

    1996-01-01

    generation. Here, we review the effect of alcohol, air pollution, cigarette smoke, diet, exercise, non-ionizing radiation (UV and microwaves) and psychological stress on the development of oxidative stress. Regular exercise and carbohydrate-rich diets seem to increase the resistance against oxidative stress....... Air pollution, alcohol, cigarette smoke, non-ionizing radiation and psychological stress seem to increase oxidative stress. Alcohol in lower doses may act as an antioxidant on low density lipoproteins and thereby have an anti-atherosclerotic property....

  6. Oxidative stress tolerance of early stage diabetic endothelial progenitor cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Sukmawati

    2015-06-01

    Conclusions: Primitive BM-EPCs showed vasculogenic dysfunction in early diabetes. However the oxidative stress is not denoted as the major initiating factor of its cause. Our results suggest that primitive BM-KSL cell has the ability to compensate oxidative stress levels in early diabetes by increasing the expression of anti-oxidative enzymes.

  7. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and its classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lushchak, Volodymyr I

    2014-12-05

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) initially considered as only damaging agents in living organisms further were found to play positive roles also. This paper describes ROS homeostasis, principles of their investigation and technical approaches to investigate ROS-related processes. Especial attention is paid to complications related to experimental documentation of these processes, their diversity, spatiotemporal distribution, relationships with physiological state of the organisms. Imbalance between ROS generation and elimination in favor of the first with certain consequences for cell physiology has been called "oxidative stress". Although almost 30years passed since the first definition of oxidative stress was introduced by Helmut Sies, to date we have no accepted classification of oxidative stress. In order to fill up this gape here classification of oxidative stress based on its intensity is proposed. Due to that oxidative stress may be classified as basal oxidative stress (BOS), low intensity oxidative stress (LOS), intermediate intensity oxidative stress (IOS), and high intensity oxidative stress (HOS). Another classification of potential interest may differentiate three categories such as mild oxidative stress (MOS), temperate oxidative stress (TOS), and finally severe (strong) oxidative stress (SOS). Perspective directions of investigations in the field include development of sophisticated classification of oxidative stresses, accurate identification of cellular ROS targets and their arranged responses to ROS influence, real in situ functions and operation of so-called "antioxidants", intracellular spatiotemporal distribution and effects of ROS, deciphering of molecular mechanisms responsible for cellular response to ROS attacks, and ROS involvement in realization of normal cellular functions in cellular homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative stress in normal and diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, M D; Canal, J R; Pérez, C

    1999-01-01

    Parameters related to oxidative stress were studied in a group of 10 Wistar diabetic rats and 10 control rats. The levels of total erythrocyte catalase activity in the diabetic animals were significantly (pC18:2) ratios. Greater vitaminE/triglyceride (TG) ratio, however, appeared in the control group. The corresponding vitamin A ratios (vitaminA/TG, vitaminA/PUFA, vitaminA/C 18:2) were higher in the control group. Our work corroborates the findings that fatty acid metabolism presents alterations in the diabetes syndrome and that the antioxidant status is affected.

  9. Oxidative stress in ischemia and reperfusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinning, Christoph; Westermann, Dirk; Clemmensen, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress remains a major contributor to myocardial injury after ischemia followed by reperfusion (I/R) as the reperfusion of the myocardial infarction (MI) area inevitably leads to a cascade of I/R injury. This review focused on concepts of the antioxidative defense system and elucidates......, the different mechanisms through which myocardial protection can be addressed, like ischemic postconditioning in myocardial infarction or adjunctive measures like targeted temperature management as well as new theories, including the role of iron in I/R injury, will be discussed....

  10. Menopause as risk factor for oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Correa-Muñoz, Elsa; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the influence of menopause (hypoestrogenism) as a risk factor for oxidative stress. We carried out a cross-sectional study with 187 perimenopausal women from Mexico City, including 94 premenopausal (mean ± SD age, 44.9 ± 4.0 y; estrogen, 95.8 ± 65.7 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 13.6 ± 16.9 mIU/mL) and 93 postmenopausal (mean ± SD age, 52.5 ± 3.3 y; estrogen, 12.8 ± 6.8 pg/mL; follicle-stimulating hormone, 51.4 ± 26.9 mIU/mL) women. We measured lipoperoxides using a thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance assay, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and the total antioxidant status with the Randox kit. An alternative cutoff value for lipoperoxide level of 0.320 μmol/L or higher was defined on the basis of the 90th percentile of young healthy participants. All women answered the Menopause Rating Scale, the Athens Insomnia Scale, and a structured questionnaire about pro-oxidant factors, that is, smoking, consumption of caffeinated and alcoholic beverages, and physical activity. Finally, we measured weight and height and calculated body mass index. The lipoperoxide levels were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group than in the premenopausal group (0.357 ± 0.05 vs 0.331 ± 0.05 μmol/L, P = 0.001). Using logistic regression to control pro-oxidant variables, we found that menopause was the main risk factor for oxidative stress (odds ratio, 2.62; 95% CI, 1.35-5.11; P menopause rating score, insomnia score, and lipoperoxides, and this relationship was most evident in the postmenopausal group (menopause scale, r = 0.327 [P = 0.001]; insomnia scale, r = 0.209 [P < 0.05]). Our findings suggest that the depletion of estrogen in postmenopause could cause oxidative stress in addition to the known symptoms.

  11. Cadmium induced oxidative stress in Dunaliella salina | Moradshahi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The unicellular green algae Dunaliella salina contains various antioxidants which protect the cell from oxidative damage due to environmental stresses such as heavy metal stress. In the present study, the response of D. salina at the stationary growth phase to oxidative stress generated by cadmium chloride was ...

  12. Whole-body cryostimulation and oxidative stress in rowers: the preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wozniak, Alina; Mila-Kierzenkowska, Celestyna; Szpinda, Michał; Chwalbinska-Moneta, Jolanta; Augustynska, Beata; Jurecka, Alicja

    2013-04-20

    The effect of whole-body cryostimulation (WBC) on the biomarkers of oxidative stress, lysosomal enzymes, creatine kinase and cortisol was studied. The rowers underwent two 6-day training cycles: with pre-training daily WBC (temperature: from -125°C to -150°C) and without cryostimulation (control). Blood samples were taken before and after the third and sixth day of training. The activity of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was lower (by 44% and 42%, respectively) after the third day of training with WBC than without WBC. The concentration of lipid peroxidation products was also lower after the training preceded by WBC. Moreover, the acid phosphatase activity was 50% lower after the third day of training with WBC than training without WBC. Considering the antioxidant enzymes activity during training without WBC, the increase of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity was observed after the third day of training (by about 74% and 100%, respectively). The level of lipid peroxidation products also increased after the training without WBC. No statistically significant changes were observed in creatine kinase activity after the training preceded with WBC, while after the training without WBC activity of this enzyme was two-fold higher than before the training. The use of WBC prior to training may reduce the risk of oxidative stress and the extent of muscle fibre injuries provoked by intense exercise. The WBC seems to be an effective and safe method for limiting exercise-induced damage; thus it may be used in biological regeneration of sportsmen.

  13. Nutritionally Mediated Oxidative Stress and Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Muñoz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many sources of nutritionally mediated oxidative stress that trigger inflammatory cascades along short and long time frames. These events are primarily mediated via NFκB. On the short-term scale postprandial inflammation is characterized by an increase in circulating levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and is mirrored on the long-term by proinflammatory gene expression changes in the adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs of obese individuals. Specifically the upregulation of CCL2/MCP-1, CCL3/MIP-1α, CCL4/MIP-1β, CXCL2/MIP-2α, and CXCL3/MIP-2β is noted because these changes have been observed in both adipocytes and PBMC of obese humans. In comparing numerous human intervention studies it is clear that pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory consumption choices mediate gene expression in humans adipocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Arachidonic acid and saturated fatty acids (SFAs both demonstrate an ability to increase pro-inflammatory IL-8 along with numerous other inflammatory factors including IL-6, TNFα, IL-1β, and CXCL1 for arachidonic acid and IGB2 and CTSS for SFA. Antioxidant rich foods including olive oil, fruits, and vegetables all demonstrate an ability to lower levels of IL-6 in PBMCs. Thus, dietary choices play a complex role in the mediation of unavoidable oxidative stress and can serve to exacerbate or dampen the level of inflammation.

  14. Melamine Induces Oxidative Stress in Mouse Ovary.

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    Xiao-Xin Dai

    Full Text Available Melamine is a nitrogen heterocyclic triazine compound which is widely used as an industrial chemical. Although melamine is not considered to be acutely toxic with a high LD50 in animals, food contaminated with melamine expose risks to the human health. Melamine has been reported to be responsible for the renal impairment in mammals, its toxicity on the reproductive system, however, has not been adequately assessed. In the present study, we examined the effect of melamine on the follicle development and ovary formation. The data showed that melamine increased reactive oxygen species (ROS levels, and induced granulosa cell apoptosis as well as follicle atresia. To further analyze the mechanism by which melamine induces oxidative stress, the expression and activities of two key antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD and glutathione peroxidase (GPX were analyzed, and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA were compared between control and melamine-treated ovaries. The result revealed that melamine changed the expression and activities of SOD and GPX in the melamine-treated mice. Therefore, we demonstrate that melamine causes damage to the ovaries via oxidative stress pathway.

  15. A Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling Protein in Oxidative Stress Tolerance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ow, David W.; Song, Wen

    2003-03-26

    Plants for effective extraction of toxic metals and radionuclides must tolerate oxidative stress. To identify genes that enhance oxidative stress tolerance, an S. pombe cDNA expression plasmid library was screened for the ability to yield hypertolerant colonies. Here, we report on the properties of one gene that confers hypertolerance to cadmium and oxidizing chemicals. This gene appears to be conserved in other organisms as homologous genes are found in human, mouse, fruitfly and Arabidopsis. The fruitfly and Arabidopsis genes likewise enhance oxidative stress tolerance in fission yeast. During oxidative stress, the amount of mRNA does not change, but protein fusions to GFP relocate from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The same pattern is observed with the Arabidopsis homologue-GFP fusion protein. This behavior suggests a signaling role in oxidative stress tolerance and these conserved proteins may be targets for engineering stress tolerant plants for phytoremediation.

  16. Laboratory assessment of oxidative stress in semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Agarwal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To evaluate different laboratory assessments of oxidative stress (OS in semen and identify a cost-efficient and highly sensitive instrument capable of providing a comprehensive measure of OS in a clinical setting, as early intervention and an accurate diagnostic test are important because they help maintain a balance of free radicals and antioxidants; otherwise, excessive OS could lead to sperm damage and result in male infertility. Materials and methods: A systematic literature search was performed through a MedLine database search using the keywords ‘semen’ AND ‘oxygen reduction potential’. We also reviewed the references of retrieved articles to search for other potentially relevant research articles and additional book chapters discussing laboratory assessments for OS, ranging from 1994 to 2017. A total of 29 articles and book chapters involving OS-related laboratory assays were included. We excluded animal studies and articles written in languages other than English. Results: Direct laboratory techniques include: chemiluminescence, nitro blue tetrazolium, cytochrome C reduction test, fluorescein probe, electron spin resonance and oxidation–reduction potential (ORP. Indirect laboratory techniques include: measurement of Endtz test, lipid peroxidation, chemokines, antioxidants/micronutrients/vitamins, ascorbate, total antioxidant capacity, or DNA damage. Each of these laboratory techniques has its advantages and disadvantages. Conclusion: Traditional OS laboratory assessments have their limitations. Amongst the prevalent laboratory techniques, ORP is novel and better option as it can be easily used in a clinical setting to provide a comprehensive review of OS. However, more studies are needed to evaluate its reproducibility across various laboratory centres. Keywords: Semen, male infertility, Oxidative stress, Chemiluminescence, Total antioxidant capacity, Oxidation-reduction potential

  17. Effects of l-carnitine on oxidative stress parameters in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emel Peri Canbolat

    2016-08-10

    Aug 10, 2016 ... Nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), total oxidative stress .... Erel's method was used for measuring TOS.19 TOS was ..... antioxidant capacity using a new generation, more stable ABTS.

  18. Effect of moxifloxacin on oxidative stress, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oxidative stress in patients with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: A total ofof ... seriously affects the quality of life and prognosis. [6]. ... balance between pro-oxidants and antioxidant ..... original work is properly credited.

  19. Fatty acids and oxidative stress in psychiatric disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Tonello Lucio; Cocchi Massimo; Tsaluchidu Sofia; Puri Basant K

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background The aim of this study was to determine whether there is published evidence for increased oxidative stress in neuropsychiatric disorders. Methods A PubMed search was carried out using the MeSH search term 'oxidative stress' in conjunction with each of the DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categories of the American Psychiatric Association in order to identify potential studies. Results There was published evidence of increased oxidative stress in the following DSM-IV-TR diagnostic categ...

  20. Nox4 Is Dispensable for Exercise Induced Muscle Fibre Switch.

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    Juri Vogel

    Full Text Available By producing H2O2, the NADPH oxidase Nox4 is involved in differentiation of mesenchymal cells. Exercise alters the composition of slow and fast twitch fibres in skeletal. Here we hypothesized that Nox4 contributes to exercise-induced adaptation such as changes in muscle metabolism or muscle fibre specification and studied this in wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Exercise, as induced by voluntary running in a running wheel or forced running on a treadmill induced a switch from fast twitch to intermediate fibres. However the induced muscle fibre switch was similar between Nox4-/- and wildtype mice. The same held true for exercise-induced expression of PGC1α or AMPK activation. Both are increased in response to exercise, but with no difference was observed between wildtype and Nox4-/- mice.Thus, exercise-induced muscle fibre switch is Nox4-independent.

  1. Oxidative stress in organophosphate poisoning: role of standard antidotal therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanova, Nela; Pejchal, Jaroslav; Herman, David; Dlabkova, Alzbeta; Jun, Daniel

    2018-08-01

    Despite the main mechanism of organophosphate (OP) toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) being well known over the years, some chronic adverse health effects indicate the involvement of additional pathways. Oxidative stress is among the most intensively studied. Overstimulation of cholinergic and glutamatergic nervous system is followed by intensified generation of reactive species and oxidative damage in many tissues. In this review, the role of oxidative stress in pathophysiology of OP poisoning and the influence of commonly used medical interventions on its levels are discussed. Current standardized therapy of OP intoxications comprises live-saving administration of the anticholinergic drug atropine accompanied by oxime AChE reactivator and diazepam. The capability of these antidotes to ameliorate OP-induced oxidative stress varies between both therapeutic groups and individual medications within the drug class. Regarding oxidative stress, atropine does not seem to have a significant effect on oxidative stress parameters in OP poisoning. In a case of AChE reactivators, pro-oxidative and antioxidative properties could be found. It is assumed that the ability of oximes to trigger oxidative stress is rather associated with their chemical structure than reactivation efficacy. The data indicating the potency of diazepam in preventing OP-induced oxidative stress are not available. Based on current knowledge on the mechanism of OP-mediated oxidative stress, alternative approaches (including antioxidants or multifunctional drugs) in therapy of OP poisoning are under consideration. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. High Prevalence of Exercise-Induced Laryngeal Obstruction in Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted Nielsen, Emil; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Unexplained respiratory symptoms reported by athletes are often incorrectly considered secondary to exercise-induced asthma. We hypothesised that this may be related to exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). This study evaluates the prevalence of EILO in an unselected cohort......-one percent of athletes with EILO and negative bronchoprovocation and bronchodilator reversibility tests used regular asthma medication at referral. CONCLUSION: In athletes with unexplained respiratory symptoms, EILO is an important differential diagnosis not discerned from other aetiologies by clinical...... features. These findings have important implications for the assessment and management of athletes presenting with persistent respiratory symptoms despite asthma therapy....

  3. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vengerfeldt V

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Veiko Vengerfeldt,1 Reet Mändar,2,3 Mare Saag,1 Anneli Piir,2 Tiiu Kullisaar2 1Institute of Dental Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 2Institute of Biomedicine and Translational Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 3Competence Centre on Health Technologies, Tartu, Estonia Background: Apical periodontitis (AP is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful.Purpose: To compare oxidative stress (OxS levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects.Patients and methods: The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP, 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP, eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to −80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI] were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. Results: The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p=0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p<0

  4. Effects of dietary extra-virgin olive oil on oxidative stress resulting from exhaustive exercise in rat skeletal muscle: a morphological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Giuseppe; Maria Trovato, Francesca; Imbesi, Rosa; Castrogiovanni, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Physical exercise induces oxidative stress through production of reactive oxygen species and can cause damage to muscle tissue. Oxidative stress, resulting from exhaustive exercise is high and improvement of antioxidant defenses of the body may ameliorate damage caused by free radicals. Extra-virgin olive oil is widely considered to possess anti-oxidative properties. The aim of this study was to determine if extra-virgin olive oil improved the adaptive responses in conditions of oxidative stress. Twenty-four 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided in three groups: (1) rats fed with standard chow and not subjected to physical exercise; (2) rats fed with standard chow and subjected to exhaustive exercise; (3) rats fed with a diet rich in oleic acid, the major component of extra-virgin olive oil, and subjected to exhaustive exercise. Exhaustive exercise consisted of forced running in a five-lane 10° inclined treadmill at a speed of 30 m/min for 70-75 min. We studied some biomarkers of oxidative stress and of antioxidant defenses, histology and ultrastructure of the Quadriceps femoris muscle (Rectus femoris). We observed that, in rats of group 3, parameters indicating oxidative stress such as hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances decreased, parameters indicating antioxidant defenses of the body such as non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity and Hsp70 expression increased, and R. femoris muscle did not show histological and ultrastructural alterations. Results of this study support the view that extra-virgin olive oil can improve the adaptive response of the body in conditions of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of exercise-induced myokines in muscle homeostasis and the defense against chronic diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Pedersen, Bente K

    2010-01-01

    to our theory, such effects may in part be mediated via muscle-derived peptides, so-called "myokines". Contracting skeletal muscles release myokines with endocrine effects, mediating direct anti-inflammatory effects, and/or specific effects on visceral fat. Other myokines work locally within the muscle...... and exert their effects on signalling pathways involved in fat oxidation and glucose uptake. By mediating anti-inflammatory effects in the muscle itself, myokines may also counteract TNF-driven insulin resistance. In conclusion, exercise-induced myokines appear to be involved in mediating both systemic...

  6. Deletion of TLX and social isolation impairs exercise-induced neurogenesis in the adolescent hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozareva, Danka A; O'Leary, Olivia F; Cryan, John F; Nolan, Yvonne M

    2018-01-01

    Adolescence is a sensitive period of neurodevelopment during which life experiences can have profound effects on the brain. Hippocampal neurogenesis, the neurodevelopmental process of generating functional new neurons from neural stem cells, occurs throughout the lifespan and has been shown to play a role in learning, memory and in mood regulation. In adulthood it is influenced by extrinsic environmental factors such as exercise and stress. Intrinsic factors that regulate hippocampal neurogenesis include the orphan nuclear receptor TLX (Nr2e1) which is primarily expressed in the neurogenic niches of the brain. While mechanisms regulating adult hippocampal neurogenesis have been widely studied, less is known on how hippocampal neurogenesis is affected during adolescence. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of both TLX and isolation stress on exercise-induced increases in neurogenesis in running and sedentary conditions during adolescence. Single- (isolation stress) wild type and Nr2e1 -/- mice or pair-housed wild type mice were housed in sedentary conditions or allowed free access to running wheels for 3 weeks during adolescence. A reduction of neuronal survival was evident in mice lacking TLX, and exercise did not increase hippocampal neurogenesis in these Nr2e1 -/- mice. This suggests that TLX is necessary for the pro-neurogenic effects of exercise during adolescence. Interestingly, although social isolation during adolescence did not affect hippocampal neurogenesis, it prevented an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis in the ventral hippocampus. Together these data demonstrate the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in promoting an exercise-induced increase in neurogenesis at this key point in life. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage in psychological stress states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Anders

    2013-01-01

    age-related somatic disorders. The overall aim of the PhD project was to investigate the relation between psychopathology, psychological stress, stress hormone secretion and oxidatively generated DNA and RNA damage, as measured by the urinary excretion of markers of whole-body DNA/RNA oxidation (8...... between the 24 h urinary cortisol excretion and the excretion of 8-oxodG/8-oxoGuo, determined in the same samples. Collectively, the studies could not confirm an association between psychological stress and oxidative stress on nucleic acids. Systemic oxidatively generated DNA/RNA damage was increased......Both non-pathological psychological stress states and mental disorders are associated with molecular, cellular and epidemiological signs of accelerated aging. Oxidative stress on nucleic acids is a critical component of cellular and organismal aging, and a suggested pathogenic mechanism in several...

  8. Oxidative stress and inflammation in liver carcinogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Olaya

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Inflammation is a common response in the human liver. It is involved in chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, steatosis, ischemiareperfusion damage, hepatocarcinomas and in the development of metastasis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS production is part of the inflammatory processes. It is implicated in many physiological and pathological situations and can induce mutations in key cancer genes. Normally, this process is prevented by DNA repair enzymatic systems that maintain sequence fidelity during DNA replication. However, overproduction of free radicals in chronic inflammatory diseases is thought to saturate the ability of the cell to repair DNA damage prior to replications. Inflammation-induced genetic damage is not unique to the liver, and it might contribute to the development of mutations in several organs. An example is the chronic inflammatory response in ulcerative colitis that ultimately could lead to neoplasia.

    There is compelling evidence to suggest that most known environmental risk factors for HCC development lead to generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Indeed, hepatitis C virus (HCV, alcohol and hepatitis B virus (HBV have all been associated with oxidative stress. Direct production of oxidative stress by HCV core protein has been shown. A link between oxidative stress and liver pathogenesis is also supported by the successful use of antioxidant therapy to treat liver injury caused by chronic HCV infection, although it is not currently used for effective therapy. Ethanol metabolism via the alcohol dehydrogenase pathway and microsomal ethanol oxidizing system contribute substantially to the production of acetaldehyde and generation of ROS. HBx via its association with mitochondria has been shown to induce oxidative stress which in turn leads to activation of a

  9. The Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants in Liver Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Li

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A complex antioxidant system has been developed in mammals to relieve oxidative stress. However, excessive reactive species derived from oxygen and nitrogen may still lead to oxidative damage to tissue and organs. Oxidative stress has been considered as a conjoint pathological mechanism, and it contributes to initiation and progression of liver injury. A lot of risk factors, including alcohol, drugs, environmental pollutants and irradiation, may induce oxidative stress in liver, which in turn results in severe liver diseases, such as alcoholic liver disease and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Application of antioxidants signifies a rational curative strategy to prevent and cure liver diseases involving oxidative stress. Although conclusions drawn from clinical studies remain uncertain, animal studies have revealed the promising in vivo therapeutic effect of antioxidants on liver diseases. Natural antioxidants contained in edible or medicinal plants often possess strong antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities as well as anti-inflammatory action, which are also supposed to be the basis of other bioactivities and health benefits. In this review, PubMed was extensively searched for literature research. The keywords for searching oxidative stress were free radicals, reactive oxygen, nitrogen species, anti-oxidative therapy, Chinese medicines, natural products, antioxidants and liver diseases. The literature, including ours, with studies on oxidative stress and anti-oxidative therapy in liver diseases were the focus. Various factors that cause oxidative stress in liver and effects of antioxidants in the prevention and treatment of liver diseases were summarized, questioned, and discussed.

  10. Mitochondrial oxidative stress and cardiac ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Gredilla, Ricardo

    According with different international organizations, cardiovascular diseases are becoming the first cause of death in western countries. Although exposure to different risk factors, particularly those related to lifestyle, contribute to the etiopathogenesis of cardiac disorders, the increase in average lifespan and aging are considered major determinants of cardiac diseases events. Mitochondria and oxidative stress have been pointed out as relevant factors both in heart aging and in the development of cardiac diseases such as heart failure, cardiac hypertrophy and diabetic cardiomyopathy. During aging, cellular processes related with mitochondrial function, such as bioenergetics, apoptosis and inflammation are altered leading to cardiac dysfunction. Increasing our knowledge about the mitochondrial mechanisms related with the aging process, will provide new strategies in order to improve this process, particularly the cardiovascular ones. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  11. Sport and oxidative stress in oncological patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knop, K; Schwan, R; Bongartz, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Baumann, F

    2011-12-01

    Oxidative stress is thought to be an important factor in the onset, progression and recurrence of cancer. In order to investigate how it is influenced by physical activity, we measured oxidative stress and antioxidative capacity (aoC) in 12 women with breast cancer and 6 men with prostate cancer, before and after long hiking trips. Before the hike, the men had a ROS-concentration of 1.8±0.6 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 0.7±0.6 mM Trolox-equivalent (Tro), while the women had a ROS-concentration of 3.1±0.7 mM H2O2 and an aoC of 1.2±0.2 mM Tro. After the hike, women showed no significant change in ROS and a significant increase in aoC (1.3±0.2 mM Tro), while the ROS concentration in men increased significantly (2.1±0.3 mM H2O2) and their aoC decreased (0.25±0.1 mM Tro). After a regenerative phase, the ROS concentration of the men decreased to 1.7±0.4 mM H2O2 and their aoC recovered significantly (1.2±0.4 mM Tro), while the women presented no significant change in the concentration of H2O2 but showed an ulterior increase in antioxidant capacity (2.05±0.43 mM Tro). From this data we conclude that physical training programs as for example long distance hiking trips can improve the aoC in the blood of oncological patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Swimming training induces liver mitochondrial adaptations to oxidative stress in rats submitted to repeated exhaustive swimming bouts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederico D Lima

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although acute exhaustive exercise is known to increase liver reactive oxygen species (ROS production and aerobic training has shown to improve the antioxidant status in the liver, little is known about mitochondria adaptations to aerobic training. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the aerobic training on oxidative stress markers and antioxidant defense in liver mitochondria both after training and in response to three repeated exhaustive swimming bouts. METHODS: Wistar rats were divided into training (n = 14 and control (n = 14 groups. Training group performed a 6-week swimming training protocol. Subsets of training (n = 7 and control (n = 7 rats performed 3 repeated exhaustive swimming bouts with 72 h rest in between. Oxidative stress biomarkers, antioxidant activity, and mitochondria functionality were assessed. RESULTS: Trained group showed increased reduced glutathione (GSH content and reduced/oxidized (GSH/GSSG ratio, higher superoxide dismutase (MnSOD activity, and decreased lipid peroxidation in liver mitochondria. Aerobic training protected against exhaustive swimming ROS production herein characterized by decreased oxidative stress markers, higher antioxidant defenses, and increases in methyl-tetrazolium reduction and membrane potential. Trained group also presented higher time to exhaustion compared to control group. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training induced positive adaptations in liver mitochondria of rats. Increased antioxidant defense after training coped well with exercise-produced ROS and liver mitochondria were less affected by exhaustive exercise. Therefore, liver mitochondria also adapt to exercise-induced ROS and may play an important role in exercise performance.

  13. Influence of oxidative stress on disease development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Božić Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is ever increasing data indicating the vmast contribution of oxidative stress to the pathogenesis of numerous diseases (atherosclerosis, hypertension, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, and others. Thus, in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis the primary role is held by reactive oxygen species that are synthetized by endothelial cells of arterial blood vessels, leukocytes and macrophages. Furthermore, native particles of lipoproteins of small density become atherogenic through oxidation caused by reactive oxygen species. The oxidation of small-density lipoproteins stimulates the inflammatory process, and it in turn steps up adhesion and the inflow of monocytes and affects the synthesis and release of numerous proinflammatory cytokines involved in the further course of the process. One of the reasons for the development of arterial hypertension is the simultaneous activation of NAD(PH oxidase and 12/15-lipoxygenase, since it results in the stepped up production of reactive oxygen species. These stimulate the production of matrix metalloproteinase 2, which lead to vascular remodelling and to increased apoptosis of heart muscle cells. Stepped up apoptosis is linked with myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathies and the development of heart failure. The sensitivity of β-cells of the endocrine part of the pancreas to reactive oxygen species favor the naturally low concentrations of the collectors of free radicals in them, as well as an increase in the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines, glucosis and lipids that induce a reduction in the mass and function of β-cells. Hyperglycemia in diabetes mellitus causes tissue damage through non-enzyme glycosylation of intracellular and extracellular proteins, which results in: reduced enzyme activity, damaged nucleic acid, disrupted natural decomposition of proteins, and activation of cytotoxic pathways. These processes are the basis of the pathogenesis of numerous

  14. Influence of Oxidative Stress on Stored Platelets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manasa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet storage and its availability for transfusion are limited to 5-6 days. Oxidative stress (OS is one of the causes for reduced efficacy and shelf-life of platelets. The studies on platelet storage have focused on improving the storage conditions by altering platelet storage solutions, temperature, and materials. Nevertheless, the role of OS on platelet survival during storage is still unclear. Hence, this study was conducted to investigate the influence of storage on platelets. Platelets were stored for 12 days at 22°C. OS markers such as aggregation, superoxides, reactive oxygen species, glucose, pH, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and antioxidant enzymes were assessed. OS increased during storage as indicated by increments in aggregation, superoxides, pH, conjugate dienes, and superoxide dismutase and decrements in glucose and catalase. Thus, platelets could endure OS till 6 days during storage, due to the antioxidant defense system. An evident increase in OS was observed from day 8 of storage, which can diminish the platelet efficacy. The present study provides an insight into the gradual changes occurring during platelet storage. This lays the foundation towards new possibilities of employing various antioxidants as additives in storage solutions.

  15. EXERCISE-INDUCED PULMONARY HEMORRHAGE AFTER RUNNING A MARATHON

    Science.gov (United States)

    We report on a healthy 26-year-old male who had an exercise-induced pulmonary hemorrhage (EIPH) within 24 hours of running a marathon. There were no symptoms, abnormalities on exam, or radiographic infiltrates. He routinely participated in bronchoscopy research and the EIPH was e...

  16. The impact of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction on athletic performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Oliver J; Hull, James H; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) describes the phenomenon of transient airway narrowing in association with physical activity. Although it may seem likely that EIB would have a detrimental impact on athletic performance, this has yet to be established. OBJECTIVES: The aim of...

  17. Nonpharmacologic Strategies to Manage Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, John; Amirav, Israel; Hostrup, Morten

    2018-05-01

    Pharmacologic management of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) is the mainstay of preventative therapy. There are some nonpharmacologic interventions, however, that may assist the management of EIB. This review discusses these nonpharmacologic interventions and how they may be applied to patients and athletes with EIB. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Implantation of Neural Probes in the Brain Elicits Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evon S. Ereifej

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical implantation of intracortical microelectrodes has been hindered, at least in part, by the perpetual inflammatory response occurring after device implantation. The neuroinflammatory response observed after device implantation has been correlated to oxidative stress that occurs due to neurological injury and disease. However, there has yet to be a definitive link of oxidative stress to intracortical microelectrode implantation. Thus, the objective of this study is to give direct evidence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation. This study also aims to identify potential molecular targets to attenuate oxidative stress observed postimplantation. Here, we implanted adult rats with silicon non-functional microelectrode probes for 4 weeks and compared the oxidative stress response to no surgery controls through postmortem gene expression analysis and qualitative histological observation of oxidative stress markers. Gene expression analysis results at 4 weeks postimplantation indicated that EH domain-containing 2, prion protein gene (Prnp, and Stearoyl-Coenzyme A desaturase 1 (Scd1 were all significantly higher for animals implanted with intracortical microelectrode probes compared to no surgery control animals. To the contrary, NADPH oxidase activator 1 (Noxa1 relative gene expression was significantly lower for implanted animals compared to no surgery control animals. Histological observation of oxidative stress showed an increased expression of oxidized proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids concentrated around the implant site. Collectively, our results reveal there is a presence of oxidative stress following intracortical microelectrode implantation compared to no surgery controls. Further investigation targeting these specific oxidative stress linked genes could be beneficial to understanding potential mechanisms and downstream therapeutics that can be utilized to reduce oxidative stress-mediated damage

  19. Altered Gravity Induces Oxidative Stress in Drosophila Melanogaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sharmila; Hosamani, Ravikumar

    2015-01-01

    Altered gravity environments can induce increased oxidative stress in biological systems. Microarray data from our previous spaceflight experiment (FIT experiment on STS-121) indicated significant changes in the expression of oxidative stress genes in adult fruit flies after spaceflight. Currently, our lab is focused on elucidating the role of hypergravity-induced oxidative stress and its impact on the nervous system in Drosophila melanogaster. Biochemical, molecular, and genetic approaches were combined to study this effect on the ground. Adult flies (2-3 days old) exposed to acute hypergravity (3g, for 1 hour and 2 hours) showed significantly elevated levels of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) in fly brains compared to control samples. This data was supported by significant changes in mRNA expression of specific oxidative stress and antioxidant defense related genes. As anticipated, a stress-resistant mutant line, Indy302, was less vulnerable to hypergravity-induced oxidative stress compared to wild-type flies. Survival curves were generated to study the combined effect of hypergravity and pro-oxidant treatment. Interestingly, many of the oxidative stress changes that were measured in flies showed sex specific differences. Collectively, our data demonstrate that altered gravity significantly induces oxidative stress in Drosophila, and that one of the organs where this effect is evident is the brain.

  20. Protein Sulfenylation: A Novel Readout of Environmental Oxidant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress is a commonly cited mechanism of toxicity of environmental agents. Ubiquitous environmental chemicals such as the diesel exhaust component 1,2-naphthoquinone (1,2-NQ)induce oxidative stress by redox cycling, which generates hydrogen peroxide (H202). Cysteinylthio...

  1. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The present study was envisaged to investigate the possible role of oxidative stress in permethrin neurotoxicity and to evaluate the protective effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as thiobarbituric acid reacting substances (TBARS) was found to ...

  2. Oxidative stress in diabetic patients with retinopathy | Kundu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is known to induce oxidative stress along with deranging various metabolisms; one of the late complications of diabetes mellitus is diabetic retinopathy, which is a leading cause of acquired blindness. Poor glycemic control and oxidative stress have been attributed to the development of ...

  3. Adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in preeclampsia in Egyptian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adiponectin and Leptin are closely related adipokines that are associated with the oxidative stresses and endothelial dysfunction and proposed to participate in preeclampsia (PE) pathogenesis. This study is to determine changes in serum levels of adiponectin, leptin and oxidative stress in PE women in order to speculate a ...

  4. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus leads to increased lipid peroxidation in the body, followed by the development of chronic complications due to oxidative stress. Objective: The aim of this study was to compare total antioxidant (TAO) levels and oxidative stress in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) ...

  5. Relation between exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients with intermediate pretest probability of coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhendy, A.; Sozzi, F.B.; Van Domburg, R.T.; Bax, J.J.; Roelandt, J.R.T.C.

    2000-01-01

    We studied 302 patients (mean age 54±9 years, 152 men and 150 women) with intermediate pretest probability of CAD (range=0.25- 0.80, mean=0.43±0.20) by upright bicycle exercise stress test in conjunction with technetium-99m single-photon emission tomography (SPET) imaging. Exercise-induced VAs (frequent or complex premature ventricular contractions or ventricular tachycardia) occurred in 65 patients (22%). No significant difference was found between patients with and patient without VAs regarding the pretest probability of CAD (0.45±0.21 vs 0.43±0.20). Patients with exercise-induced VAs had a higher prevalence of perfusion abnormalities (52% vs 26%, P=0.002) and ischaemic electrocardiographic changes (31% vs 16%, P<0.05) compared to patients without VAs. A higher prevalence of perfusion abnormalities in patients with VAs was observed in both men (67% vs 35%, P<0.01) and women (38% vs 16%, P<0.05). However, the positive predictive value of exercise-induced VAs for the presence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities was higher in men than in women (67% vs 38%, P<0.05). The presence of abnormal myocardial perfusion was the only independent predictor of exercise-induced VAs (OR 2.2; 95% CI, 1.2-4.2) by multivariate analysis of clinical and stress test variables. It is concluded that in patients with intermediate pretest probability of CAD, exercise-induced VAs are predictive of a higher prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in both men and women. However, the positive predictive value of exercise-induced VAs for perfusion abnormalities is higher in men. Because of the underestimation of ischaemia by electrocardiographic changes, exercise-induced VAs should be interpreted as a marker of a higher probability of CAD. (orig./MG) (orig.)

  6. Oxidative stress treatment for clinical trials in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ienco, Elena Caldarazzo; LoGerfo, Annalisa; Carlesi, Cecilia; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo; Siciliano, Gabriele

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a metabolic condition arising from imbalance between the production of potentially reactive oxygen species and the scavenging activities. Mitochondria are the main providers but also the main scavengers of cell oxidative stress. The role of mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is well documented. Therefore, therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative damage hold great promise in neurodegenerative diseases. Despite this evidence, human experience with antioxidant neuroprotectants has generally been negative with regards to the clinical progress of disease, with unclear results in biochemical assays. Here we review the antioxidant approaches performed so far in neurodegenerative diseases and the future challenges in modern medicine.

  7. Oxidative stress signaling to chromatin in health and disease

    KAUST Repository

    Kreuz, Sarah

    2016-06-20

    Oxidative stress has a significant impact on the development and progression of common human pathologies, including cancer, diabetes, hypertension and neurodegenerative diseases. Increasing evidence suggests that oxidative stress globally influences chromatin structure, DNA methylation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic post-translational modifications of histones and DNA-binding proteins. The effects of oxidative stress on these chromatin alterations mediate a number of cellular changes, including modulation of gene expression, cell death, cell survival and mutagenesis, which are disease-driving mechanisms in human pathologies. Targeting oxidative stress-dependent pathways is thus a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of these diseases. We summarize recent research developments connecting oxidative stress and chromatin regulation.

  8. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malaviya, Rama; Laskin, Jeffrey D.; Laskin, Debra L.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic

  9. Oxidative stress-induced autophagy: Role in pulmonary toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malaviya, Rama [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Jeffrey D. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Laskin, Debra L., E-mail: laskin@eohsi.rutgers.edu [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process important in regulating the turnover of essential proteins and in elimination of damaged organelles and protein aggregates. Autophagy is observed in the lung in response to oxidative stress generated as a consequence of exposure to environmental toxicants. Whether autophagy plays role in promoting cell survival or cytotoxicity is unclear. In this article recent findings on oxidative stress-induced autophagy in the lung are reviewed; potential mechanisms initiating autophagy are also discussed. A better understanding of autophagy and its role in pulmonary toxicity may lead to the development of new strategies to treat lung injury associated with oxidative stress. - Highlights: • Exposure to pulmonary toxicants is associated with oxidative stress. • Oxidative stress is known to induce autophagy. • Autophagy is upregulated in the lung following exposure to pulmonary toxicants. • Autophagy may be protective or pathogenic.

  10. Oxidative stress response after laparoscopic versus conventional sigmoid resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael Tvilling; Kücükakin, Bülent; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Surgery is accompanied by a surgical stress response, which results in increased morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress is a part of the surgical stress response. Minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery may result in reduced oxidative stress compared with open surgery. Nineteen patients...... scheduled for sigmoid resection were randomly allocated to open or laparoscopic sigmoid resection in a double-blind, prospective clinical trial. Three biochemical markers of oxidative stress (malondialdehyde, ascorbic acid, and dehydroascorbic acid) were measured at 6 different time points (preoperatively......, 1 h, 6 h, 24 h, 48 h, and 72 h postoperatively). There were no statistical significant differences between laparoscopic and open surgery for any of the 3 oxidative stress parameters. Malondialdehyde was reduced 1 hour postoperatively (P...

  11. Clinical Perspective of Oxidative Stress in Sporadic ALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    D’Amico, Emanuele; Factor-Litvak, Pam; Santella, Regina M.; Mitsumoto, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (sALS) is one of the most devastating neurological diseases; most patients die within 3 to 4 years after symptom onset. Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the pro-oxidative/anti-oxidative balance favoring the pro-oxidative state. Autopsy and laboratory studies in ALS indicate that oxidative stress plays a major role in motor neuron degeneration and astrocyte dysfunction. Oxidative stress biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid, plasma, and urine, are elevated, suggesting that abnormal oxidative stress is generated outside of the central nervous system. Our review indicates that agricultural chemicals, heavy metals, military service, professional sports, excessive physical exertion, chronic head trauma, and certain foods might be modestly associated with ALS risk, with a stronger association between risk and smoking. At the cellular level, these factors are all involved in generating oxidative stress. Experimental studies indicate that a combination of insults that induce modest oxidative stress can exert additive deleterious effects on motor neurons, suggesting multiple exposures in real-world environments are important. As the disease progresses, nutritional deficiency, cachexia, psychological stress, and impending respiratory failure may further increase oxidative stress. Moreover, accumulating evidence suggests that ALS is possibly a systemic disease. Laboratory, pathologic, and epidemiologic evidence clearly support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is central in the pathogenic process, particularly in genetically susceptive individuals. If we are to improve ALS treatment, well-designed biochemical and genetic epidemiological studies, combined with a multidisciplinary research approach, are needed and will provide knowledge crucial to our understanding of ALS etiology, pathophysiology, and prognosis. PMID:23797033

  12. Hypertension and physical exercise: The role of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korsager Larsen, Monica; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hypertension. Decreased bioavailability of nitric oxide (NO) is one of the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis. It has been suggested that physical exercise could be a potential non-pharmacological strategy in treatment of hypertension because of its beneficial effects on oxidative stress and endothelial function. The aim of this review is to investigate the effect of oxidative stress in relation to hypertension and physical exercise, including the role of NO in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Endothelial dysfunction and decreased NO levels have been found to have the adverse effects in the correlation between oxidative stress and hypertension. Most of the previous studies found that aerobic exercise significantly decreased blood pressure and oxidative stress in hypertensive subjects, but the intense aerobic exercise can also injure endothelial cells. Isometric exercise decreases normally only systolic blood pressure. An alternative exercise, Tai chi significantly decreases blood pressure and oxidative stress in normotensive elderly, but the effect in hypertensive subjects has not yet been studied. Physical exercise and especially aerobic training can be suggested as an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension and cardiovascular disease via reduction in oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  13. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    Full Text Available In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE. During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE, whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

  14. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  15. Oxidative stress in patients with endodontic pathologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vengerfeldt, Veiko; Mändar, Reet; Saag, Mare; Piir, Anneli; Kullisaar, Tiiu

    2017-01-01

    Apical periodontitis (AP) is an inflammatory disease affecting periradicular tissues. It is a widespread condition but its etiopathogenetic mechanisms have not been completely elucidated and the current treatment options are not always successful. To compare oxidative stress (OxS) levels in the saliva and the endodontium (root canal [RC] contents) in patients with different endodontic pathologies and in endodontically healthy subjects. The study group of this comparison study included 22 subjects with primary chronic apical periodontitis (pCAP), 26 with posttreatment or secondary chronic apical periodontitis (sCAP), eight with acute periapical abscess, 13 with irreversible pulpitis, and 17 healthy controls. Resting saliva samples were collected before clinical treatment. Pulp samples (remnants of the pulp, tooth tissue, and/or previous root filling material) were collected under strict aseptic conditions using the Hedström file. The samples were frozen to -80°C until analysis. OxS markers (myeloperoxidase [MPO], oxidative stress index [OSI], 8-isoprostanes [8-EPI]) were detected in the saliva and the endodontium. The highest MPO and 8-EPI levels were seen in pCAP and pulpitis, while the highest levels of OSI were seen in pCAP and abscess patients, as well as the saliva of sCAP patients. Controls showed the lowest OxS levels in both RC contents and saliva. Significant positive correlations between OxS markers, periapical index, and pain were revealed. Patients with pain had significantly higher OxS levels in both the endodontium (MPO median 27.9 vs 72.6 ng/mg protein, p =0.004; OSI 6.0 vs 10.4, p <0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 75.0 pg/mL, p <0.001) and saliva (MPO 34.2 vs 117.5 ng/mg protein, p <0.001; 8-EPI 50.0 vs 112.8 pg/mL, p <0.001) compared to pain-free subjects. OxS is an important pathomechanism in endodontic pathologies that is evident at both the local (RC contents) and systemic (saliva) level. OxS is significantly associated with dental pain and bone

  16. Aldose reductase, oxidative stress and diabetic mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waiho eTang

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is a complex metabolic disorder arising from lack of insulin production or insulin resistance 1. DM is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed world, particularly from vascular complications such as atherothrombosis in the coronary vessels. Aldose reductase (AR [ALR2; EC 1.1.1.21], a key enzyme in the polyol pathway, catalyzes NADPH-dependent reduction of glucose to sorbitol, leading to excessive accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS in various tissues of DM including the heart, vasculature, neurons, eyes and kidneys. As an example, hyperglycemia through such polyol pathway induced oxidative stress, may have dual heart actions, on coronary blood vessel (atherothrombosis and myocardium (heart failure leading to severe morbidity and mortality (reviewed in 2. In cells cultured under high glucose conditions, many studies have demonstrated similar AR-dependent increases in ROS production, confirming AR as an important factor for the pathogenesis of many diabetic complications. Moreover, recent studies have shown that AR inhibitors may be able to prevent or delay the onset of cardiovascular complications such as ischemia/reperfusion injury, atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis. In this review, we will focus on describing pivotal roles of AR in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases as well as other diabetic complications, and the potential use of AR inhibitors as an emerging therapeutic strategy in preventing DM complications.

  17. Evaluation of oxidative stress in hunting dogs during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquini, A; Luchetti, E; Cardini, G

    2010-08-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses, to cause oxidative stress. The aim of our trials was to evaluate oxidative stress and recovery times in trained dogs during two different hunting exercises, with reactive oxygen metabolites-derivatives (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests. A group of nine privately owned Italian hounds were included. A 20-min aerobic exercise and a 4-h aerobic exercise, after 30 days of rest, were performed by the dogs. Our results show an oxidative stress after exercise due to both the high concentration of oxidants (d-ROMs) and the low level of antioxidant power (BAP). Besides, the recovery time is faster after the 4-h aerobic exercise than the 20-min aerobic exercise. Oxidative stress monitoring during dogs exercise could become an interesting aid to establish ideal adaptation to training. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Relationship between hyposalivation and oxidative stress in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamauchi, Yoshitaka; Matsuno, Tomonori; Omata, Kazuhiko; Satoh, Tazuko

    2017-07-01

    The increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has been implicated in the abnormal advance of aging and in the onset of various systemic diseases. However, the details of what effects the increase in oxidative stress that accompanies aging has on saliva secretion are not known. In this study, naturally aging mice were used to examine the stimulated whole saliva flow rate, saliva and serum oxidative stress, antioxidant level, submandibular gland H-E staining, and immunofluorescence staining to investigate the effect of aging on the volume of saliva secretion and the relationship with oxidative stress, as well as the effect of aging on the structure of salivary gland tissue. The stimulated whole saliva flow rate decreased significantly with age. Also, oxidative stress increased significantly with age. Antioxidant levels, however, decreased significantly with age. Structural changes of the submandibular gland accompanying aging included atrophy of parenchyma cells and fatty degeneration and fibrosis of stroma, and the submandibular gland weight ratio decreased. These results suggest that oxidative stress increases with age, not just systemically but also locally in the submandibular gland, and that oxidative stress causes changes in the structure of the salivary gland and is involved in hyposalivation.

  19. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Nathan Cobley

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O2 budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood as the deleterious result of adventitious O2 derived free radical and non-radical species generation. To understand how many reasons underpin oxidative stress, one must first re-cast free radical and non-radical species in a positive light because their deliberate generation enables the brain to achieve critical functions (e.g. synaptic plasticity through redox signalling (i.e. positive functionality. Using free radicals and non-radical derivatives to signal sensitises the brain to oxidative stress when redox signalling goes awry (i.e. negative functionality. To advance mechanistic understanding, we rationalise 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress. Key reasons include inter alia unsaturated lipid enrichment, mitochondria, calcium, glutamate, modest antioxidant defence, redox active transition metals and neurotransmitter auto-oxidation. We review RNA oxidation as an underappreciated cause of oxidative stress. The complex interplay between each reason dictates neuronal susceptibility to oxidative stress in a dynamic context and neural identity dependent manner. Our discourse sets the stage for investigators to interrogate the biochemical basis of oxidative stress in the brain in health and disease.

  20. It has been suggested that oxidative stress, especially oxidative ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nabipour

    2012-02-14

    Feb 14, 2012 ... 1Department of Clinical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran. 2Department of Cardiology ... oxidative modification of low-density lipoproteins (LDL), may play a causative role in ... the oxidation of lipids in the cell membrane especially the oxidation of LDL.

  1. Oxidative stress and psychological functioning among medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rani Srivastava

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative stress has gained attention recently in behavioral medicine and has been reported to be associated with various psychological disturbances and their prognoses. Objectives: Study aims to evaluate the oxidative stress (malonylaldehyde (MDA levels and its relation with psychological factors (dimensions of personality, levels of anxiety, stress, and depression among medical/paramedical students of 1 st and 3 rd year. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 students; 75 from 1 st year (2010-2011 and75 from 3 rd year (2009-2010; of medical and paramedical background were assessed on level of MDA (oxidative stress and personality variables, that is, level of anxiety, stress, and depression. These psychological variables were correlated with the level of their oxidative stress. Results: Findings revealed that both groups are influenced by oxidative stress and their psychological variables are also compatible in order to confirm their vulnerabilities to stress. Conclusions: Stress in 3 rd year students was significantly higher and it was noted that it adversely affects the psychological parameters. Hence, special attention on mental health aspect in these students may be given.

  2. The glutathione mimic ebselen inhibits oxidative stress but not endoplasmic reticulum stress in endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahwach, Salma Makhoul; Thomas, Melanie; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Mooradian, Arshag D; Haas, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    Reactive oxygen species are associated with cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and atherosclerosis, yet the use of antioxidants in clinical trials has been ineffective at improving outcomes. In endothelial cells, high-dextrose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress promote endothelial dysfunction leading to the recruitment and activation of peripheral blood lymphocytes and the breakdown of barrier function. Ebselen, a glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPX1) mimic, has been shown to improve β-cell function in diabetes and prevent atherosclerosis. To determine if ebselen inhibits both oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells, we examined its effects in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC) with and without high-dextrose. Oxidative stress and ER stress were measured by 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence and ER stress alkaline phosphatase assays, respectively. GPX1 over-expression and knockdown were performed by transfecting cells with a GPX1 expression construct or a GPX1-specific siRNA, respectively. Ebselen inhibited dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress in both HUVEC and HCAEC. Ebselen also had no effect on tunicamycin-induced ER stress in HCAEC. Furthermore, augmentation of GPX1 activity directly by sodium selenite supplementation or transfection of a GPX1 expression plasmid decreased dextrose-induced oxidative stress but not ER stress, while GPX1 knockout enhanced oxidative stress but had no effect on ER stress. These results suggest that ebselen targets only oxidative stress but not ER stress. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Exercise-induced phospho-proteins in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, A S; Hawley, J A; Zierath, J R

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to identify exercise-induced signaling events in skeletal muscle have been influenced by ground-breaking discoveries in the insulin action field. Initial discoveries demonstrating that exercise enhances insulin sensitivity raised the possibility that contraction directly modulates insulin...... receptor signaling events. Although the acute effects of exercise on glucose metabolism are clearly insulin-independent, the canonical insulin signaling cascade has been used as a framework by investigators in an attempt to resolve the mechanisms by which muscle contraction governs glucose metabolism....... This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding of exercise-induced signaling pathways governing glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle. Particular emphasis will be placed on the characterization of AS160, a novel Akt substrate that plays a role in the regulation of glucose transport....

  4. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis from stationary biking: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inklebarger, J; Galanis, N; Kirkos, J; Kapetanos, G

    2010-10-01

    There are several reports concerning exercise and rabdomyolysis. There has been no report in the English literature of exercise induced rabdomyolisis from a stationary bike.A 63-year-old female recreational athlete presented to our hospital seeking treatment for lower back, leg pain and stiffness after exercising on a stationary bicycle one day prior. Blood work showed a raised CK of 38,120 U/L, a myoglobin of 5330 and an AST 495 U/L with normal urea and electrolytes. Urinalysis remained negative. She was admitted for oral and intravenous hydration and fluid balance monitoringThis is a very rare case of rhabdomyolysis due to exercise. This study highlights the difficulties faced by accident and emergency teams in distinguishing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) from exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, and reinforces the concept that rhabdomyolysis can occur at any level of exercise intensity.

  5. Exercise-induced myokines in health and metabolic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun So

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle has been emerging as a research field since the past 2 decades. Contraction of a muscle, which acts as a secretory organ, stimulates production, secretion, and expression of cytokines or other muscle fiber-derived peptides, i.e., myokines. Exercise-induced myokines influence crosstalk between different organs in an autocrine, endocrine, or paracrine fashion. Myokines are recently recognized as potential candidates for treating metabolic diseases through their ability to stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, increase glucose uptake, and improve lipolysis. Myokines may have positive effects on metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, or obesity. Numerous studies on myokines suggested that myokines offer a potential treatment option for preventing metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding of the positive effects of exercise-induced myokines, such as interleukin-15, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, leukemia inhibitory factor, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, on metabolic diseases.

  6. Oxidative stress induces senescence in human mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandl, Anita [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Meyer, Matthias; Bechmann, Volker [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Nerlich, Michael [Department of Anesthesiology, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany); Angele, Peter, E-mail: Peter.Angele@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Trauma Surgery, University Medical Center Regensburg, Franz-Josef-Strauss-Allee 11, 93042 Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute to tissue repair in vivo and form an attractive cell source for tissue engineering. Their regenerative potential is impaired by cellular senescence. The effects of oxidative stress on MSCs are still unknown. Our studies were to investigate into the proliferation potential, cytological features and the telomere linked stress response system of MSCs, subject to acute or prolonged oxidant challenge with hydrogen peroxide. Telomere length was measured using the telomere restriction fragment assay, gene expression was determined by rtPCR. Sub-lethal doses of oxidative stress reduced proliferation rates and induced senescent-morphological features and senescence-associated {beta}-galactosidase positivity. Prolonged low dose treatment with hydrogen peroxide had no effects on cell proliferation or morphology. Sub-lethal and prolonged low doses of oxidative stress considerably accelerated telomere attrition. Following acute oxidant insult p21 was up-regulated prior to returning to initial levels. TRF1 was significantly reduced, TRF2 showed a slight up-regulation. SIRT1 and XRCC5 were up-regulated after oxidant insult and expression levels increased in aging cells. Compared to fibroblasts and chondrocytes, MSCs showed an increased tolerance to oxidative stress regarding proliferation, telomere biology and gene expression with an impaired stress tolerance in aged cells.

  7. Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis to flaxseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Gall

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper reports on a 26-year-old atopic patient suffering from seasonal rhinoconjunctivitis and flexural eczemas. On two occasions, he experienced nausea, generalized urticaria and dyspnea within 2 h after consumption of a wholemeal roll and subsequent exercise (football training or walking. In each case, the episode necessitated intravenous emergency therapy with an antihistamine and a corticosteroid. In order to elucidate the two exercise-induced anaphylactic events we performed prick tests and the radioallergosorbent test (RAST with the ingredients of the wholemeal roll. Only flaxseed gave positive results. In addition, we performed an exercise test on a bicycle ergometer (15 min at 150 W and an oral challenge test with foods, using a double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Only oral challenge with a teaspoon of flaxseed with additional exercise on the bicycle ergometer elicited itching, urticaria, nausea, coughing and dyspnea. The oral challenge with flaxseed followed by exercise induced immediate-type reactions and, thus, led to the diagnosis of food-dependent exercise- induced anaphylaxis to flaxseed.

  8. PREFERRED MODALITY INFLUENCES ON EXERCISE-INDUCED MOOD CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Lane

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study tested, both retrospectively and prospectively, exercise-induced mood changes among regular exercisers. Specifically, it examined the extent to which preferred exercise modality promoted greater mood benefits. A group of 25 exercise participants (M = 35.5 yr., SD = 10.5 yr. took part in the study. All participants had exercised at least three times a week (M = 3.5, SD = 2.3 during the previous year. Participants completed a 14-item Exercise Preference Questionnaire to provide retrospective evaluations of their most- and least-preferred type of exercise. For the prospective investigation, participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale (BRUMS 15 minutes before and immediately after their most- and least-preferred exercise sessions. One week separated completion of each exercise session. Retrospective assessment of exercise-induced mood changes showed strong support for enhanced mood following the preferred mode of exercise. Also, as hypothesized, prospective results showed that mood enhancement was greater following the preferred exercise modality, but significant mood enhancement also occurred following the least-preferred modality among experienced exercisers. In conclusions, findings support the principle that exercise can provide psychological benefits to its participants, in the form of positive affective outcomes, something that appears to be enhanced by preferred exercise modality. Given the important public health implications of exercise adherence, future research should seek to further investigate the mechanisms of exercise-induced mood enhancement

  9. The relationship between oxidative stress and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkler, Maya; Lichtenberg, Dov; Pinchuk, Ilya

    2014-02-01

    Physical exercise has many benefits, but it might also have a negative impact on the body, depending on the training level, length of workout, gender, age and fitness. The negative effects of physical exercise are commonly attributed to an imbalance between the levels of antioxidants (both low molecular weight antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes) and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species due to excessive production of free radicals during physical exercise. In this critical review, we look for answers for three specific questions regarding the interrelationship between physical exercise and oxidative stress (OS), namely, (i) the dependence of the steady-state level of OS on fitness, (ii) the effect of intensive exercise on the OS and (iii) the dependence of the effect of the intense exercise on the individual fitness. All these questions have been raised, investigated and answered, but the answers given on the basis of different studies are different. In the present review, we try to explain the reason(s) for the inconsistencies between the conclusions of different investigations, commonly based on the concentrations of specific biomarkers in body fluids. We think that most of the inconsistencies can be attributed to the difference between the criteria of the ill-defined term denoted OS, the methods used to test them and in some cases, between the qualities of the applied assays. On the basis of our interpretation of the differences between different criteria of OS, we consider possible answers to three well-defined questions. Possible partial answers are given, all of which lend strong support to the conclusion that the network responsible for homeostasis of the redox status is very effective. However, much more data are required to address the association between exercise and OS and its dependence on various relevant factors.

  10. Systemic oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress during acute exercise in hypoxia; implications for microvascular oxygenation and aerobic capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodside, John D S; Gutowski, Mariusz; Fall, Lewis; James, Philip E; McEneny, Jane; Young, Ian S; Ogoh, Shigehiko; Bailey, Damian M

    2014-12-01

    Exercise performance in hypoxia may be limited by a critical reduction in cerebral and skeletal tissue oxygenation, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether increased systemic free radical accumulation during hypoxia would be associated with elevated microvascular deoxygenation and reduced maximal aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ). Eleven healthy men were randomly assigned single-blind to an incremental semi-recumbent cycling test to determine V̇O2 max in both normoxia (21% O2) and hypoxia (12% O2) separated by a week. Continuous-wave near-infrared spectroscopy was employed to monitor concentration changes in oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin in the left vastus lateralis muscle and frontal cerebral cortex. Antecubital venous blood samples were obtained at rest and at V̇O2 max to determine oxidative (ascorbate radical by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy), nitrosative (nitric oxide metabolites by ozone-based chemiluminescence and 3-nitrotyrosine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) and inflammatory stress biomarkers (soluble intercellular/vascular cell adhesion 1 molecules by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Hypoxia was associated with increased cerebral and muscle tissue deoxygenation and lower V̇O2 max (P exercise-induced increase in oxidative-nitrosative-inflammatory stress, hypoxia per se did not have an additive effect (P > 0.05 versus normoxia). Consequently, we failed to observe correlations between any metabolic, haemodynamic and cardiorespiratory parameters (P > 0.05). Collectively, these findings suggest that altered free radical metabolism cannot explain the elevated microvascular deoxygenation and corresponding lower V̇O2 max in hypoxia. Further research is required to determine whether free radicals when present in excess do indeed contribute to the premature termination of exercise in hypoxia. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  11. Increased oxidative stress in patients with familial Mediterranean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    0.05) comparing to HC group. However, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of antioxidant vitamin levels. Conclusions: Our study demonstrated increased oxidative stress in patients with FMF during AP.

  12. ( Artemisia absinthium ) Extract On Oxidative Stress In Ameliorating ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    exposure related disease. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of aqueous extract of wormwood (Artemisia absinthium) on oxidative stress in rats protractedly exposed to lead. Aqueous extract of wormwood plant was administered ...

  13. Oxidative stress and the effect of riboflavin supplementation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... erythrocytes. The results show that there is oxidative stress in malaria infection and that chloroquine ... virulent causing malaria to be life threatening (Kirk, 2001;. Mahajan et al. ..... lifecycle (Muller et al., 2004). However, the ...

  14. Role of sulfiredoxin in systemic diseases influenced by oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha Ramesh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfiredoxin is a recently discovered member of the oxidoreductases family which plays a crucial role in thiol homoeostasis when under oxidative stress. A myriad of systemic disorders have oxidative stress and reactive oxygen species as the key components in their etiopathogenesis. Recent studies have evaluated the role of this enzyme in oxidative stress mediated diseases such as atherosclerosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and a wide array of carcinomas. Its action is responsible for the normal functioning of cells under oxidative stress and the promotion of cell survival in cancerous cells. This review will highlight the cumulative effects of sulfiredoxin in various systemic disorders with a strong emphasis on its target activity and the factors influencing its expression in such conditions.

  15. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    diet regimen, where as the control group received medical treatment only for 12 weeks. Results: The mean values of ... Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, weight reduction, oxidative stress, cytokines, obesity. ..... muscle in severely obese subjects.

  16. extract attenuates MPTP-induced oxidative stress and behavioral

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    on oxidative stress levels were assessed by estimating enzyme status, including superoxide dismutase. (SOD), catalase ... in both non-human primates and mice models. [12,13]. ..... Polyphenol composition and antioxidant activity of cumin.

  17. Oxidative stress and superoxide dismutase activity in brain of rats ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    effect of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in brain homogenates of Wistar rats. Oxidative stress measured as ..... on the brain and nervous system of humans as handlers and ... environment may be at higher health risk in that their internal ...

  18. Alzheimer's disease: Cerebrovascular dysfunction, oxidative stress, and advanced clinical therapies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marlatt, M.W.; Lucassen, P.J.; Perry, G.; Smith, M.A.; Zhu, X.

    2008-01-01

    Many lines of independent research have provided convergent evidence regarding oxidative stress, cerebrovascular disease, dementia, and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Clinical studies spurred by these findings engage basic and clinical communities with tangible results regarding molecular targets and

  19. HCV-Induced Oxidative Stress: Battlefield-Winning Strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khadija Rebbani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available About 150 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV. The persistence of the infection is controlled by several mechanisms including the induction of oxidative stress. HCV relies on this strategy to redirect lipid metabolism machinery and escape immune response. The 3β-hydroxysterol Δ24-reductase (DHCR24 is one of the newly discovered host markers of oxidative stress. This protein, as HCV-induced oxidative stress responsive protein, may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HCV chronic infection and associated liver diseases, when aberrantly expressed. The sustained expression of DHCR24 in response to HCV-induced oxidative stress results in suppression of nuclear p53 activity by blocking its acetylation and increasing its interaction with MDM2 in the cytoplasm leading to its degradation, which may induce hepatocarcinogenesis.

  20. Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- deficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bone turnover and oxidative stress markers in estrogen- ... reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. ..... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research: Guide for the ... American Veterinary Medical Association.

  1. Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Protection of swimming-induced oxidative stress in some vital organs by the treatment of composite extract of Withania somnifera, Ocimum sanctum and Zingiber officinalis in male rat. D Misra, B Maiti, D Ghosh ...

  2. Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    21–25 ... Decreased total antioxidant levels and increased oxidative stress in South ... antioxidant-rich diet and lifestyle changes in T2DM patients would help to avert the .... glycation of proteins and the formation of advanced glycosylation.

  3. Salvianolic acid B Relieves Oxidative Stress in Glucose Absorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Absorption and Utilization of Mice Fed High-Sugar Diet ... Salvianolic acid B, Blood glucose, Reactive oxygen species, Oxidative stress, Sugar diet. ... protein expression in human aortic smooth ... induced by glucose uptake and metabolism [8].

  4. Mini-review: Biofilm responses to oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Michela; Cappitelli, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Biofilms constitute the predominant microbial style of life in natural and engineered ecosystems. Facing harsh environmental conditions, microorganisms accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS), potentially encountering a dangerous condition called oxidative stress. While high levels of oxidative stress are toxic, low levels act as a cue, triggering bacteria to activate effective scavenging mechanisms or to shift metabolic pathways. Although a complex and fragmentary picture results from current knowledge of the pathways activated in response to oxidative stress, three main responses are shown to be central: the existence of common regulators, the production of extracellular polymeric substances, and biofilm heterogeneity. An investigation into the mechanisms activated by biofilms in response to different oxidative stress levels could have important consequences from ecological and economic points of view, and could be exploited to propose alternative strategies to control microbial virulence and deterioration.

  5. Oxidative stress negatively affects human sperm mitochondrial respiration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferramosca, Alessandra; Pinto Provenzano, Sara; Montagna, Daniela Domenica; Coppola, Lamberto; Zara, Vincenzo

    2013-07-01

    To correlate the level of oxidative stress in serum and seminal fluid and the level of sperm deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) fragmentation with sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency. Sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was evaluated with a polarographic assay of oxygen consumption carried out in hypotonically treated sperm cells. A possible relationship between sperm mitochondrial respiratory efficiency, the level of oxidative stress, and the level of sperm DNA fragmentation was investigated. Sperm motility was positively correlated with mitochondrial respiration but negatively correlated with oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Interestingly, sperm mitochondrial respiratory activity was negatively affected by oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. Our data indicate that sperm mitochondrial respiration is decreased in patients with high levels of reactive oxygen species by an uncoupling between electron transport and adenosine triphosphate synthesis. This reduction in mitochondrial functionality might be 1 of the reasons responsible for the decrease in spermatozoa motility. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    OpenAIRE

    Fadime Kilinç; Ayse Akbas; Ahu Yorulmaz; Sertaç Sener; Salim Neselioglu; Özcan Erel; Ahmet Metin

    2017-01-01

    Objective:Alopecia areata (AA) is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calcu...

  7. 13 reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    James Nathan Cobley; Maria Luisa Fiorello; Damian Miles Bailey

    2018-01-01

    The human brain consumes 20% of the total basal oxygen (O2) budget to support ATP intensive neuronal activity. Without sufficient O2 to support ATP demands, neuronal activity fails, such that, even transient ischemia is neurodegenerative. While the essentiality of O2 to brain function is clear, how oxidative stress causes neurodegeneration is ambiguous. Ambiguity exists because many of the reasons why the brain is susceptible to oxidative stress remain obscure. Many are erroneously understood...

  8. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots

    OpenAIRE

    Larcombe, S. D.; Tregaskes, C. A.; Coffey, J.; Stevenson, A. E.; Alexander, L. G.; Arnold, K. E.

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melo...

  9. Effect of Free Radicals & Antioxidants on Oxidative Stress: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Shinde

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently free radicals have attracted tremendous importance in the field of medicine including dentistry and molecular biology. Free radicals can be either harmful or helpful to the body. When there is an imbalance between formation and removal of free radicals then a condition called as oxidative stress is developed in body. To counteract these free radicals body has protective antioxidant mechanisms which have abilities to lower incidence of various human morbidities and mortalities. Many research groups in the past have tried to study and confirm oxidative stress. Many authors also have studied role of antioxidants in reducing oxidative stress. They have come across with controversial results and furthermore it is not yet fully confirmed whether oxidative stress increases the need for dietary antioxidants. Recently, an association between periodontitis and cardiovascular disease has received considerable attention. Various forms of antioxidants have been introduced as an approach to fight dental diseases and improve general gingival health. The implication of oxidative stress in the etiology of many chronic and degenerative diseases suggests that antioxidant therapy represents a promising avenue for treatment. This study was conducted with the objective of reviewing articles relating to this subject. A Pub Med search of all articles containing key words free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants was done. A review of these articles was undertaken.

  10. Sodium nitroprusside (SNP) alleviates the oxidative stress induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative damage is often induced by abiotic stress, nitric oxide (NO) is considered as a functional molecule in modulating antioxidant metabolism of plants. In the present study, effects of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor, on the phenotype, antioxidant capacity and chloroplast ultrastructure of cucumber leaves were ...

  11. Evaluation of oxidative stress using exhaled breath 8-isoprostane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: There have been limited numbers of studies on patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) to determine oxidative stress in exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Those two studies have been carried out on hemodialysis patients, and hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide have been studied in order to show ...

  12. Evaluation Of Oxidative Stress And Apoptosis In Breast Cancer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    were positively correlated with positive progesterone receptor. In Conclusion; oxidative stress, NO and apoptosis are highly detected in breast cancer tissues especially with advanced grade and stage. Key words: Breast cancer, Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), Nitric Oxide (NO), Total Antioxidants

  13. Oxidative stress can alter the antigenicity of immunodominant peptides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weiskopf, Daniela; Schwanninger, Angelika; Weinberger, Birgit

    2010-01-01

    APCs operate frequently under oxidative stress induced by aging, tissue damage, pathogens, or inflammatory responses. Phagocytic cells produce peroxides and free-radical species that facilitate pathogen clearance and can in the case of APCs, also lead to oxidative modifications of antigenic prote...

  14. Compensatory responses induced by oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULA I MOREIRA

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress occurs early in the progression of Alzheimer disease, significantly before the development of the pathologic hallmarks, neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques. In the first stage of development of the disease, amyloid-β deposition and hyperphosphorylated tau function as compensatory responses and downstream adaptations to ensure that neuronal cells do not succumb to oxidative damage. These findings suggest that Alzheimer disease is associated with a novel balance in oxidant homeostasis.

  15. A review: oxidative stress in fish induced by pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaninova, Andrea; Smutna, Miriam; Modra, Helena; Svobodova, Zdenka

    2009-01-01

    The knowledge in oxidative stress in fish has a great importance for environmental and aquatic toxicology. Because oxidative stress is evoked by many chemicals including some pesticides, pro-oxidant factors' action in fish organism can be used to assess specific area pollution or world sea pollution. Hepatotoxic effect of DDT may be related with lipid peroxidation. Releasing of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after HCB exposure can be realized via two ways: via the uncoupling of the electron transport chain from monooxygenase activity and via metabolism of HCB major metabolite pentachlorophenol. Chlorothalonil disrupts mitochondrial metabolism due to the impairment of NADPH oxidase function. Activation of spleen macrophages and a decrease of catalase (CAT) activity have been observed after endosulfan exposure. Excessive release of superoxide radicals after etoxazole exposure can cause a decrease of CAT activity and increase phagocytic activity of splenocytes. Anticholinergic activity of organophosphates leads to the accumulation of ROS and resulting lipid peroxidation. Carbaryl induces changes in the content of glutathione and antioxidant enzymes activities. The antioxidant enzymes changes have been observed after actuation of pesticides deltamethrin and cypermethrin. Bipyridyl herbicides are able to form redox cycles and thereby cause oxidative stress. Low concentrations of simazine do not cause oxidative stress in carps during sub-chronic tests while sublethal concentrations of atrazin can induce oxidative stress in bluegill sunfish. Butachlor causes increased activity of superoxide dismutase -catalase system in the kidney. Rotenon can inhibit the electron transport in mitochondria and thereby increase ROS production. Dichloroaniline, the metabolite of diuron, has oxidative effects. Oxidative damage from fenpyroximate actuation is related to the disruption of mitochondrial redox respiratory chain. Low concentration of glyphosate can cause mild oxidative stress.

  16. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  17. Oxidative stress and partial migration in brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birnie-Gauvin, Kim; Peiman, K. S.; Larsen, Martin Hage

    2017-01-01

    of oxidative status in migration biology, particularly in fish. Semi-anadromous brown trout (Salmo trutta, Linnaeus 1758) exhibit partial migration, where some individuals smoltify and migrate to sea, and others become stream residents, providing us with an excellent model to investigate the link between...... oxidative stress and migration. Using the brown trout, we obtained blood samples from juveniles from a coastal stream in Denmark in the fall prior to peak seaward migration which occurs in the spring, and assayed for antioxidant capacity (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) and oxidative stress levels...

  18. Oxidative stress in Alzheimer disease: a possibility for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonda, David J; Wang, Xinglong; Perry, George; Nunomura, Akihiko; Tabaton, Massimo; Zhu, Xiongwei; Smith, Mark A

    2010-01-01

    Oxidative stress is at the forefront of Alzheimer disease (AD) research. While its implications in the characteristic neurodegeneration of AD are vast, the most important aspect is that it seems increasingly apparent that oxidative stress is in fact a primary progenitor of the disease, and not merely an epiphenomenon. Moreover, evidence indicates that a long "dormant period" of gradual oxidative damage accumulation precedes and actually leads to the seemingly sudden appearance of clinical and pathological AD symptoms, including amyloid-beta deposition, neurofibrillary tangle formation, metabolic dysfunction, and cognitive decline. These findings provide important insights into the development of potential treatment regimens and even allude to the possibility of a preventative cure. In this review, we elaborate on the dynamic role of oxidative stress in AD and present corresponding treatment strategies that are currently under investigation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxidative Stress in Human Atherothrombosis: Sources, Markers and Therapeutic Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Luis Martin-Ventura

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherothrombosis remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The underlying pathology is a chronic pathological vascular remodeling of the arterial wall involving several pathways, including oxidative stress. Cellular and animal studies have provided compelling evidence of the direct role of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis, but such a relationship is not clearly established in humans and, to date, clinical trials on the possible beneficial effects of antioxidant therapy have provided equivocal results. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH oxidase is one of the main sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS in human atherothrombosis. Moreover, leukocyte-derived myeloperoxidase (MPO and red blood cell-derived iron could be involved in the oxidative modification of lipids/lipoproteins (LDL/HDL in the arterial wall. Interestingly, oxidized lipoproteins, and antioxidants, have been analyzed as potential markers of oxidative stress in the plasma of patients with atherothrombosis. In this review, we will revise sources of ROS, focusing on NADPH oxidase, but also on MPO and iron. We will also discuss the impact of these oxidative systems on LDL and HDL, as well as the value of these modified lipoproteins as circulating markers of oxidative stress in atherothrombosis. We will finish by reviewing some antioxidant systems and compounds as therapeutic strategies to prevent pathological vascular remodeling.

  20. Oxygen and oxidative stress in the perinatal period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Torres-Cuevas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes.In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage. Hence, clinical trials have shown that the use of 100% oxygen given with positive pressure in the airways of the newborn infant during resuscitation causes more oxidative stress than using air, and increases mortality.Preterm infants are endowed with an immature lung and antioxidant system. Clinical stabilization of preterm infants after birth frequently requires positive pressure ventilation with a gas admixture that contains oxygen to achieve a normal heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation. In randomized controlled trials the use high oxygen concentrations (90% to 100% has caused more oxidative stress and clinical complications that the use of lower oxygen concentrations (30–60%. A correlation between the amount of oxygen received during resuscitation and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress and clinical outcomes was established. Thus, based on clinical outcomes and analytical results of oxidative stress biomarkers relevant changes were introduced in the resuscitation policies. However, it should be underscored that analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers in biofluids has only been used in experimental and clinical research but not in clinical routine. The complexity of the technical procedures, lack of automation, and cost of these determinations have hindered the routine use of biomarkers in the clinical setting. Overcoming these technical and economical difficulties

  1. Biologic Stress, Oxidative Stress, and Resistance to Drugs: What Is Hidden Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pantelidou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Stress can be defined as the homeostatic, nonspecific defensive response of the organism to challenges. It is expressed by morphological, biochemical, and functional changes. In this review, we present biological and oxidative stress, as well as their interrelation. In addition to the mediation in biologic stress (central nervous, immune, and hormonal systems and oxidative stress, the effect of these phenomena on xenobiotic metabolism and drug response is also examined. It is concluded that stress decreases drug response, a result which seems to be mainly attributed to the induction of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. A number of mechanisms are presented. Structure-activity studies are also discussed. Vitamin E, as well as two synthetic novel compounds, seem to reduce both oxidative and biological stress and, consequently, influence drug response and metabolism.

  2. Are metallothioneins equally good biomarkers of metal and oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueira, Etelvina; Branco, Diana; Antunes, Sara C; Gonçalves, Fernando; Freitas, Rosa

    2012-10-01

    Several researchers investigated the induction of metallothioneins (MTs) in the presence of metals, namely Cadmium (Cd). Fewer studies observed the induction of MTs due to oxidizing agents, and literature comparing the sensitivity of MTs to different stressors is even more scarce or even nonexistent. The role of MTs in metal and oxidative stress and thus their use as a stress biomarker, remains to be clearly elucidated. To better understand the role of MTs as a biomarker in Cerastoderma edule, a bivalve widely used as bioindicator, a laboratory assay was conducted aiming to assess the sensitivity of MTs to metal and oxidative stressors. For this purpose, Cd was used to induce metal stress, whereas hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), being an oxidizing compound, was used to impose oxidative stress. Results showed that induction of MTs occurred at very different levels in metal and oxidative stress. In the presence of the oxidizing agent (H2O2), MTs only increased significantly when the degree of oxidative stress was very high, and mortality rates were higher than 50 percent. On the contrary, C. edule survived to all Cd concentrations used and significant MTs increases, compared to the control, were observed in all Cd exposures. The present work also revealed that the number of ions and the metal bound to MTs varied with the exposure conditions. In the absence of disturbance, MTs bound most (60-70 percent) of the essential metals (Zn and Cu) in solution. In stressful situations, such as the exposure to Cd and H2O2, MTs did not bind to Cu and bound less to Zn. When organisms were exposed to Cd, the total number of ions bound per MT molecule did not change, compared to control. However the sort of ions bound per MT molecule differed; part of the Zn and all Cu ions where displaced by Cd ions. For organisms exposed to H2O2, each MT molecule bound less than half of the ions compared to control and Cd conditions, which indicates a partial oxidation of thiol groups in the cysteine

  3. The Curious Question of Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa L. Bates

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The question of whether pulmonary edema develops during exercise on land is controversial. Yet, the development of pulmonary edema during swimming and diving is well established. This paper addresses the current controversies that exist in the field of exercise-induced pulmonary edema on land and with water immersion. It also discusses the mechanisms by which pulmonary edema can develop during land exercise, swimming, and diving and the current gaps in knowledge that exist. Finally, this paper discusses how these fields can continue to advance and the areas where clinical knowledge is lacking.

  4. A general rehabilitation inpatient with exercise-induced vasculitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, Dan; Rydberg, Leslie

    2013-10-01

    While on our general inpatient rehabilitation floor, a 58-year-old man with no hematologic or dermatologic history developed an erythematous patch on his medial ankle that turned more purpuric, with a slight orange tint, and was associated with mild pruritus. The diagnosis of exercise-induced vasculitis was made after initially being mistaken for cellulitis. This common exanthem is often misdiagnosed. Due to its association with exercise, the physiatrist should be aware of its presence in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Nitric oxide in the stress axis

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-Figueroa, M.O.; Day, H.E.W.; Akil, H.; Watson, S.J.

    1998-01-01

    In recent years nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a unique biological messenger. NO is a highly diffusible gas, synthesized from L-arginine by the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (NOS). Three unique subtypes of NOS have been described, each with a specific distribution profile in the brain and periphery. NOS subtype I is present, among other areas, in the hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary and adrenal gland. Together these structures form the limbichypothalamic- ...

  6. Understanding Key Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Protection to Mitigate Disease: Current Knowledge and Emerging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; Patterson, Natalie L; McMullen, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte growth and proliferation. We discuss in detail the effects of exercise on other cardiac cells, organelles, and systems that have received less or little attention and require further investigation. This includes cardiac excitation and contraction, mitochondrial adaptations, cellular stress responses to promote survival (heat shock response, ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-lysosomal system, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, DNA damage response), extracellular matrix, inflammatory response, and organ-to-organ crosstalk. We summarize therapeutic strategies targeting known regulators of exercise-induced protection and the challenges translating findings from bench to bedside. We conclude that technological advancements that allow for in-depth profiling of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, combined with animal and human studies, provide new opportunities for comprehensively defining the signaling and regulatory aspects of cell/organelle functions that underpin the protective properties of exercise. This is likely to lead to the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for heart disease.

  7. Diagnostic value of myocardial tomographic imaging with 123I labelled BMIPP for exercise-induced angina pectoris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Lijuan; Kaname Akioka; Hiroyuki Yamagishi

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of resting myocardial tomographic imaging with 123 I labelled BMIPP ( 123 I-BMIPP SPECT) for exercise-induced angina pectoris by comparison with stress myocardial tomographic imaging with 201 Tl( 201 Tl SPECT). Methods: 123 I-BMIPP SPECT and 201 Tl SPECT were performed in 32 patients with exercise-induced angina pectoris and 12 normal controls. Left ventricle was divided into nine segments and uptake of 201 TL and 123 I-BMIPP was evaluated by four classes score method (defect score, DS). Results: In the patients with angina pectoris, segments of 201 Tl distribution abnormality were more than that of 123 I-BMIPP. Concordant rate between DS of the 20 '1Tl SPECT for detecting coronary artery stenosis were 62%, 92% and 70%, respectively, and 201 Tl SPECT were 84%, 83% and 84%, respectively. Sensitivity of 123 I-BMIPP SPECT was significantly lower than that of 201 Tl SPECT (P 123 I-BMIPP SPECT will be. Conclusions: The results indicated that to a certain extent, resting 123 I-BMIPP SPECT may has practical clinical value for detection of coronary artery stenosis, and determination of stenotic degree in the patients with exercise-induced angina pectoris

  8. Oxidative stress induces mitochondrial fragmentation in frataxin-deficient cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sophie [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); ED515 UPMC, 4 place Jussieu 75005 Paris (France); Sliwa, Dominika [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Rustin, Pierre [Inserm, U676, Physiopathology and Therapy of Mitochondrial Disease Laboratory, 75019 Paris (France); Universite Paris-Diderot, Faculte de Medecine Denis Diderot, IFR02 Paris (France); Camadro, Jean-Michel [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France); Santos, Renata, E-mail: santos.renata@ijm.univ-paris-diderot.fr [Mitochondria, Metals and Oxidative Stress Laboratory, Institut Jacques Monod, CNRS-Universite Paris-Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, 15 rue Helene Brion, 75205 Paris cedex 13 (France)

    2012-02-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Yeast frataxin-deficiency leads to increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress induces complete mitochondrial fragmentation in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidative stress increases mitochondrial fragmentation in patient fibroblasts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inhibition of mitochondrial fission in {Delta}yfh1 induces oxidative stress resistance. -- Abstract: Friedreich ataxia (FA) is the most common recessive neurodegenerative disease. It is caused by deficiency in mitochondrial frataxin, which participates in iron-sulfur cluster assembly. Yeast cells lacking frataxin ({Delta}yfh1 mutant) showed an increased proportion of fragmented mitochondria compared to wild-type. In addition, oxidative stress induced complete fragmentation of mitochondria in {Delta}yfh1 cells. Genetically controlled inhibition of mitochondrial fission in these cells led to increased resistance to oxidative stress. Here we present evidence that in yeast frataxin-deficiency interferes with mitochondrial dynamics, which might therefore be relevant for the pathophysiology of FA.

  9. Protective Effect against Oxidative Stress in Medicinal Plant Extracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hee; Lee, Eun Ju; Shin, Dong O; Hong, Sung Eun; Kim, Jin Kyu

    2000-01-01

    Protective effect of medicinal plant extracts against oxidative stress were screened in this study. Methanol extracts from 48 medicinal plants, which were reported to have antioxidative or anti-inflammatory effect were prepared and screened for their protective activity against chemically-induced and radiation-induced oxidative stress by using MTT assay. Thirty three samples showed protective activity against chemically-induced oxidative stress in various extent. Among those samples, extract of Glycyrrhiza uralensis revealed the strongest activity (25.9% at 100 μg/ml) with relatively lower cytotoxicity. Seven other samples showed higher than 20% protection at 100 μg/ml. These samples were tested for protection activity against radiation-induced oxidative stress. Methanol extract of Alpina officinarum showed the highest activity (17.8% at 20 μg/ml). Five fractions were prepared from the each 10 methanol extracts which showed high protective activity against oxidative stress. Among those fraction samples butanol fractions of Areca catechu var. dulcissima and Spirodela polyrrhiza showed the highest protective activities (78.8% and 77.2%, respectively, at 20 μg/ml)

  10. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ikner, Aminah [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Shiozaki, Kazuhiro [Section of Microbiology, Division of Biological Sciences, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)]. E-mail: kshiozaki@ucdavis.edu

    2005-01-06

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed.

  11. Yeast signaling pathways in the oxidative stress response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikner, Aminah; Shiozaki, Kazuhiro

    2005-01-01

    Oxidative stress that generates the reactive oxygen species (ROS) is one of the major causes of DNA damage and mutations. The 'DNA damage checkpoint' that arrests cell cycle and repairs damaged DNA has been a focus of recent studies, and the genetically amenable model systems provided by yeasts have been playing a leading role in the eukaryotic checkpoint research. However, means to eliminate ROS are likely to be as important as the DNA repair mechanisms in order to suppress mutations in the chromosomal DNA, and yeasts also serve as excellent models to understand how eukaryotes combat oxidative stress. In this article, we present an overview of the signaling pathways that sense oxidative stress and induce expression of various anti-oxidant genes in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans. Three conserved signaling modules have been identified in the oxidative stress response of these diverse yeast species: the stress-responsive MAP kinase cascade, the multistep phosphorelay and the AP-1-like transcription factor. The structure and function of these signaling modules are discussed

  12. Role of Magnesium in Oxidative Stress in Individuals with Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais, Jennifer Beatriz Silva; Severo, Juliana Soares; Santos, Loanne Rocha Dos; de Sousa Melo, Stéfany Rodrigues; de Oliveira Santos, Raisa; de Oliveira, Ana Raquel Soares; Cruz, Kyria Jayanne Clímaco; do Nascimento Marreiro, Dilina

    2017-03-01

    Adipose tissue is considered an endocrine organ that promotes excessive production of reactive oxygen species when in excess, thus contributing to lipid peroxidation. Magnesium deficiency contributes to the development of oxidative stress in obese individuals, as this mineral plays a role as an antioxidant, participates as a cofactor of several enzymes, maintains cell membrane stability and mitigates the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this review is to bring together updated information on the participation of magnesium in the oxidative stress present in obesity. We conducted a search of articles published in the PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases, using the keywords 'magnesium', 'oxidative stress', 'malondialdehyde', 'superoxide dismutase', 'glutathione peroxidase', 'reactive oxygen species', 'inflammation' and 'obesity'. The studies show that obese subjects have low serum concentrations of magnesium, as well as high concentrations of oxidative stress marker in these individuals. Furthermore, it is evident that the adequate intake of magnesium contributes to its appropriate homeostasis in the body. Thus, this review of current research can help define the need for intervention with supplementation of this mineral for the prevention and treatment of disorders associated with this chronic disease.

  13. Role of Oxidative Stress in Epigenetic Modification in Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Fuminori; Yamada, Yuki; Shigemitsu, Aiko; Akinishi, Mika; Kaniwa, Hiroko; Miyake, Ryuta; Yamanaka, Shoichiro; Kobayashi, Hiroshi

    2017-11-01

    Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modification are associated with an increased risk of reproductive disorders such as endometriosis. However, a cause-effect relationship between epigenetic mechanisms and endometriosis development has not been fully determined. This review provides current information based on oxidative stress in epigenetic modification in endometriosis. This article reviews the English-language literature on epigenetics, DNA methylation, histone modification, and oxidative stress associated with endometriosis in an effort to identify epigenetic modification that causes a predisposition to endometriosis. Oxidative stress, secondary to the influx of hemoglobin, heme, and iron during retrograde menstruation, is involved in the expression of CpG demethylases, ten-eleven translocation, and jumonji (JMJ). Ten-eleven translocation and JMJ recognize a wide range of endogenous DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs). The increased expression levels of DNMTs may be involved in the subsequent downregulation of the decidualization-related genes. This review supports the hypothesis that there are at least 2 distinct phases of epigenetic modification in endometriosis: the initial wave of iron-induced oxidative stress would be followed by the second big wave of epigenetic modulation of endometriosis susceptibility genes. We summarize the recent advances in our understanding of the underlying epigenetic mechanisms focusing on oxidative stress in endometriosis.

  14. A study of oxidative stress in paucibacillary and multibacillary leprosy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyothi P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The study and assessment of oxidative stress plays a significant role in the arena of leprosy treatment. Once the presence of oxidative stress is proved, antioxidant supplements can be provided to reduce tissue injury and deformity. Aim: To study oxidative stress in paucibacillary (PB and multibacillary (MB leprosy and to compare it with that in a control group. Methods: Fifty-eight untreated leprosy patients (23 PB and 35 MB cases were studied and compared with 58 healthy controls. Superoxide dismutase (SOD level as a measure of antioxidant status; malondialdehyde (MDA level, an indicator of lipid peroxidation; and MDA/SOD ratio, an index of oxidative stress were estimated in the serum. Results: The SOD level was decreased in leprosy patients, especially in MB leprosy. The MDA level was increased in PB and MB leprosy. The MDA/SOD ratio was significantly elevated in MB patients. There was a steady increase in this ratio along the spectrum from tuberculoid to lepromatous leprosy (LL. Conclusion: There is increased oxidative stress in MB leprosy, especially in LL. This warrants antioxidant supplements to prevent tissue injury.

  15. Oxidative stress markers imbalance in late-life depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Breno S; Mendes-Silva, Ana Paula; Silva, Lucelia Barroso; Bertola, Laiss; Vieira, Monica Costa; Ferreira, Jessica Diniz; Nicolau, Mariana; Bristot, Giovana; da Rosa, Eduarda Dias; Teixeira, Antonio L; Kapczinski, Flavio

    2018-03-20

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of mood disorders in young adults. However, there is few data to support its role in the elderly. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate whether subjects with late-life depression (LLD) presented with changes in oxidative stress response in comparison with the non-depressed control group. We then explored how oxidative stress markers associated with specific features of LLD, in particular cognitive performance and age of onset of major depressive disorder in these individuals. We included a convenience sample of 124 individuals, 77 with LLD and 47 non-depressed subjects (Controls). We measure the plasma levels of 6 oxidative stress markers: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonil content (PCC), free 8-isoprostane, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, glutathione reductase (GR) activity, and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. We found that participants with LLD had significantly higher free 8-isoprostane levels (p = 0.003) and lower glutathione peroxidase activity (p = 0.006) compared to controls. Free 8-isoprostane levels were also significantly correlated with worse scores in the initiation/perseverance (r = -0.24, p = 0.01), conceptualization (r = -0.22, p = 0.02) sub-scores, and the total scores (r = -0.21, p = 0.04) on the DRS. Our study provides robust evidence of the imbalance between oxidative stress damage, in particular lipid peroxidation, and anti-oxidative defenses as a mechanism related to LLD, and cognitive impairment in this population. Interventions aiming to reduce oxidative stress damage can have a potential neuroprotective effect for LLD subjects. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Oxidative stress and maternal obesity: feto-placental unit interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, N; Merzouk, H; Merzouk, S A; Loukidi, B; Karaouzene, N; Malti, A; Narce, M

    2014-06-01

    To determine oxidative stress markers in maternal obesity during pregnancy and to evaluate feto-placental unit interaction, especially predictors of fetal metabolic alterations. 40 obese pregnant women (prepregnancy BMI > 30 kg/m²) were compared to 50 control pregnant women. Maternal, cord blood and placenta samples were collected at delivery. Biochemical parameters (total cholesterol and triglycerides) and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, superoxide anion expressed as reduced Nitroblue Tetrazolium, nitric oxide expressed as nitrite, reduced glutathione, catalase, superoxide dismutase) were assayed by biochemical methods. Maternal, fetal and placental triglyceride levels were increased in obese group compared to control. Maternal malondialdehyde, carbonyl proteins, nitric oxide and superoxide anion levels were high while reduced glutathione concentrations and superoxide dismutase activity were low in obesity. In the placenta and in newborns of these obese mothers, variations of redox balance were also observed indicating high oxidative stress. Maternal and placental interaction constituted a strong predictor of fetal redox variations in obese pregnancies. Maternal obesity compromised placental metabolism and antioxidant status which strongly impacted fetal redox balance. Oxidative stress may be one of the key downstream mediators that initiate programming of the offspring. Maternal obesity is associated with metabolic alterations and dysregulation of redox balance in the mother-placenta - fetus unit. These perturbations could lead to maternal and fetal complications and should be carefully considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The role of oxidative, inflammatory and neuroendocrinological systems during exercise stress in athletes: implications of antioxidant supplementation on physiological adaptation during intensified physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Katie; Bentley, David; Coutts, Aaron J

    2015-04-01

    During periods of intensified physical training, reactive oxygen species (ROS) release may exceed the protective capacity of the antioxidant system and lead to dysregulation within the inflammatory and neuroendocrinological systems. Consequently, the efficacy of exogenous antioxidant supplementation to maintain the oxidative balance in states of exercise stress has been widely investigated. The aim of this review was to (1) collate the findings of prior research on the effect of intensive physical training on oxidant-antioxidant balance; (2) summarise the influence of antioxidant supplementation on the reduction-oxidation signalling pathways involved in physiological adaptation; and (3) provide a synopsis on the interactions between the oxidative, inflammatory and neuroendocrinological response to exercise stimuli. Based on prior research, it is evident that ROS are an underlying aetiology in the adaptive process; however, the impact of antioxidant supplementation on physiological adaptation remains unclear. Equivocal results have been reported on the impact of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced gene expression. Further research is required to establish whether the interference of antioxidant supplementation consistently observed in animal-based and in vivo research extends to a practical sports setting. Moreover, the varied results reported within the literature may be due to the hormetic response of oxidative, inflammatory and neuroendocrinological systems to an exercise stimulus. The collective findings suggest that intensified physical training places substantial stress on the body, which can manifest as an adaptive or maladaptive physiological response. Additional research is required to determine the efficacy of antioxidant supplementation to minimise exercise-stress during intensive training and promote an adaptive state.

  18. Markers of oxidative stress in exhaled breath of workers exposed to iron oxide nanoparticles are elevated

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelclová, D.; Fenclová, Z.; Navrátil, Tomáš; Vlčková, Š.; Syslová, K.; Kuzma, Marek; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Pušman, Jan; Zíková, Naděžda; Zakharov, S.; Machajová, M.; Kačer, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 7, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 69-70 ISSN 1337-6853 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388955 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : oxidative stress * exhaled breath * nanoparticles Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  19. Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and DNA Damage Responses Elicited by Silver, Titanium Dioxide, and Cerium Oxide Nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previous literature on the biological effects of engineered nanomaterials has focused largely on oxidative stress and inflammation endpoints without further investigating potential pathways. Here we examine time-sensitive biological response pathways affected by engineered nanoma...

  20. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  1. Increased FXYD1 and PGC-1α mRNA after blood flow-restricted running is related to fibre type-specific AMPK signalling and oxidative stress in human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Danny; Murphy, Robyn M; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    AIM: This study explored the effects of blood flow restriction (BFR) on mRNA responses of PGC-1α (total, 1α1, and 1α4) and Na+ ,K+ -ATPase isoforms (NKA; α1-3 , β1-3 , and FXYD1) to an interval running session, and determined if these effects were related to increased oxidative stress, hypoxia......). A muscle sample was collected before (Pre) and after exercise (+0h, +3h) to quantify mRNA, indicators of oxidative stress (HSP27 protein in type I and II fibres, and catalase and HSP70 mRNA), metabolites, and α-AMPK Thr172 /α-AMPK, ACC Ser221 /ACC, CaMKII Thr287 /CaMKII, and PLBSer16 /PLB ratios in type I...... of oxidative stress and type-I fibre ACC Ser221 /ACC ratio, but dissociated from muscle hypoxia, lactate, and CaMKII signalling. CONCLUSION: Blood flow restriction augmented exercise-induced increases in muscle FXYD1 and PGC-1α mRNA in men. This effect was related to increased oxidative stress and fibre type...

  2. Oxidative stress and life histories: unresolved issues and current needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speakman, John R; Blount, Jonathan D; Bronikowski, Anne M; Buffenstein, Rochelle; Isaksson, Caroline; Kirkwood, Tom B L; Monaghan, Pat; Ozanne, Susan E; Beaulieu, Michaël; Briga, Michael; Carr, Sarah K; Christensen, Louise L; Cochemé, Helena M; Cram, Dominic L; Dantzer, Ben; Harper, Jim M; Jurk, Diana; King, Annette; Noguera, Jose C; Salin, Karine; Sild, Elin; Simons, Mirre J P; Smith, Shona; Stier, Antoine; Tobler, Michael; Vitikainen, Emma; Peaker, Malcolm; Selman, Colin

    2015-12-01

    Life-history theory concerns the trade-offs that mold the patterns of investment by animals between reproduction, growth, and survival. It is widely recognized that physiology plays a role in the mediation of life-history trade-offs, but the details remain obscure. As life-history theory concerns aspects of investment in the soma that influence survival, understanding the physiological basis of life histories is related, but not identical, to understanding the process of aging. One idea from the field of aging that has gained considerable traction in the area of life histories is that life-history trade-offs may be mediated by free radical production and oxidative stress. We outline here developments in this field and summarize a number of important unresolved issues that may guide future research efforts. The issues are as follows. First, different tissues and macromolecular targets of oxidative stress respond differently during reproduction. The functional significance of these changes, however, remains uncertain. Consequently there is a need for studies that link oxidative stress measurements to functional outcomes, such as survival. Second, measurements of oxidative stress are often highly invasive or terminal. Terminal studies of oxidative stress in wild animals, where detailed life-history information is available, cannot generally be performed without compromising the aims of the studies that generated the life-history data. There is a need therefore for novel non-invasive measurements of multi-tissue oxidative stress. Third, laboratory studies provide unrivaled opportunities for experimental manipulation but may fail to expose the physiology underpinning life-history effects, because of the benign laboratory environment. Fourth, the idea that oxidative stress might underlie life-history trade-offs does not make specific enough predictions that are amenable to testing. Moreover, there is a paucity of good alternative theoretical models on which contrasting

  3. Honey bee (Apis mellifera) drones survive oxidative stress due to increased tolerance instead of avoidance or repair of oxidative damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxidative stress can lead to premature aging symptoms and cause acute mortality at higher doses in a range of organisms. Oxidative stress resistance and longevity are mechanistically and phenotypically linked: considerable variation in oxidative stress resistance exists among and within species and ...

  4. Colorectal Carcinogenesis: Role of Oxidative Stress and Antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carini, Francesco; Mazzola, Margherita; Rappa, Francesca; Jurjus, Abdo; Geagea, Alice Gerges; Al Kattar, Sahar; Bou-Assi, Tarek; Jurjus, Rosalyn; Damiani, Provvidenza; Leone, Angelo; Tomasello, Giovanni

    2017-09-01

    One of the contributory causes of colon cancer is the negative effect of reactive oxygen species on DNA repair mechanisms. Currently, there is a growing support for the concept that oxidative stress may be an important etiological factor for carcinogenesis. The purpose of this review is to elucidate the role of oxidative stress in promoting colorectal carcinogenesis and to highlight the potential protective role of antioxidants. Several studies have documented the importance of antioxidants in countering oxidative stress and preventing colorectal carcinogenesis. However, there are conflicting data in the literature concerning its proper use in humans, since these studies did not yield definitive results and were performed mostly in vitro on cell populations, or in vivo in experimental animal models. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  5. Chronic unpredictable stress deteriorates the chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Shirin; Suhail, Nida; Bilal, Nayeem; Ashraf, Ghulam Md; Zaidi, Syed Kashif; AlNohair, Sultan; Banu, Naheed

    2016-05-01

    Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) can influence the risk and progression of cancer through increased oxidative stress. Pomegranate is known to protect carcinogenesis through its anti-oxidative properties. This study is carried out to examine whether CUS affects the chemopreventive potential of pomegranate through oxidative stress pathway. Role of CUS on early stages of 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a) anthracene (DMBA) induced carcinogenesis, and its pre-exposure effect on chemopreventive efficacy of pomegranate juice (PJ) was examined in terms of in vivo antioxidant and biochemical parameters in Swiss albino rats. Rats were divided in various groups and were subjected to CUS paradigm, DMBA administration (65 mg/kg body weight, single dose), and PJ treatment. Exposure to stress (alone) and DMBA (alone) led to increased oxidative stress by significantly decreasing the antioxidant enzymes activities and altering the glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) levels. A significant increase in DNA damage demonstrated by comet assay was seen in the liver cells. Stress exposure to DMBA-treated rats further increased the oxidative stress and disturbed the biochemical parameters as compared to DMBA (alone)-treated rats. Chemoprevention with PJ in DMBA (alone)-treated rats restored the altered parameters. However, in the pre-stress DMBA-treated rats, the overall antioxidant potential of PJ was significantly diminished. Our results indicate that chronic stress not only increases the severity of carcinogenesis but also diminishes the anti-oxidative efficacy of PJ. In a broader perspective, special emphasis should be given to stress management and healthy diet during cancer chemoprevention.

  6. Proteome oxidative carbonylation during oxidative stress-induced premature senescence of WI-38 human fibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le Boulch, Marine; Ahmed, Emad K; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina

    2018-01-01

    Accumulation of oxidatively damaged proteins is a hallmark of cellular and organismal ageing, and is also a phenotypic feature shared by both replicative senescence and stress-induced premature senescence of human fibroblasts. Moreover, proteins that are building up as oxidized (i.e. the "Oxi-pro...

  7. Oxidative stress response in neural stem cells exposed to different superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pongrac, I. M.; Pavičić, I.; Milić, M.; Brkić Ahmed, L.; Babič, Michal; Horák, Daniel; Vinković Vrček, I.; Gajović, S.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, 26 April (2016), s. 1701-1715 ISSN 1176-9114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GC16-01128J EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 316120 - GLOWBRAIN Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles * biocompatibility * oxidative stress Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  8. Oxygen and oxidative stress in the perinatal period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cuevas, Isabel; Parra-Llorca, Anna; Sánchez-Illana, Angel; Nuñez-Ramiro, Antonio; Kuligowski, Julia; Cháfer-Pericás, Consuelo; Cernada, María; Escobar, Justo; Vento, Máximo

    2017-08-01

    Fetal life evolves in a hypoxic environment. Changes in the oxygen content in utero caused by conditions such as pre-eclampsia or type I diabetes or by oxygen supplementation to the mother lead to increased free radical production and correlate with perinatal outcomes. In the fetal-to-neonatal transition asphyxia is characterized by intermittent periods of hypoxia ischemia that may evolve to hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy associated with neurocognitive, motor, and neurosensorial impairment. Free radicals generated upon reoxygenation may notably increase brain damage. Hence, clinical trials have shown that the use of 100% oxygen given with positive pressure in the airways of the newborn infant during resuscitation causes more oxidative stress than using air, and increases mortality. Preterm infants are endowed with an immature lung and antioxidant system. Clinical stabilization of preterm infants after birth frequently requires positive pressure ventilation with a gas admixture that contains oxygen to achieve a normal heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation. In randomized controlled trials the use high oxygen concentrations (90% to 100%) has caused more oxidative stress and clinical complications that the use of lower oxygen concentrations (30-60%). A correlation between the amount of oxygen received during resuscitation and the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress and clinical outcomes was established. Thus, based on clinical outcomes and analytical results of oxidative stress biomarkers relevant changes were introduced in the resuscitation policies. However, it should be underscored that analysis of oxidative stress biomarkers in biofluids has only been used in experimental and clinical research but not in clinical routine. The complexity of the technical procedures, lack of automation, and cost of these determinations have hindered the routine use of biomarkers in the clinical setting. Overcoming these technical and economical difficulties constitutes a

  9. Effect of oxidative stress on homer scaffolding proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Nepliouev

    Full Text Available Homer proteins are a family of multifaceted scaffolding proteins that participate in the organization of signaling complexes at the post-synaptic density and in a variety of tissues including striated muscle. Homer isoforms form multimers via their C-terminal coiled coil domains, which allows for the formation of a polymeric network in combination with other scaffolding proteins. We hypothesized that the ability of Homer isoforms to serve as scaffolds would be influenced by oxidative stress. We have found by standard SDS-PAGE of lysates from adult mouse skeletal muscle exposed to air oxidation that Homer migrates as both a dimer and monomer in the absence of reducing agents and solely as a monomer in the presence of a reducing agent, suggesting that Homer dimers exposed to oxidation could be modified by the presence of an inter-molecular disulfide bond. Analysis of the peptide sequence of Homer 1b revealed the presence of only two cysteine residues located adjacent to the C-terminal coiled-coil domain. HEK 293 cells were transfected with wild-type and cysteine mutant forms of Homer 1b and exposed to oxidative stress by addition of menadione, which resulted in the formation of disulfide bonds except in the double mutant (C246G, C365G. Exposure of myofibers from adult mice to oxidative stress resulted in decreased solubility of endogenous Homer isoforms. This change in solubility was dependent on disulfide bond formation. In vitro binding assays revealed that cross-linking of Homer dimers enhanced the ability of Homer 1b to bind Drebrin, a known interacting partner. Our results show that oxidative stress results in disulfide cross-linking of Homer isoforms and loss of solubility of Homer scaffolds. This suggests that disulfide cross-linking of a Homer polymeric network may contribute to the pathophysiology seen in neurodegenerative diseases and myopathies characterized by oxidative stress.

  10. Oxidative stress in MeHg-induced neurotoxicity

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    Farina, Marcelo, E-mail: farina@ccb.ufsc.br [Departamento de Bioquimica, Centro de Ciencias Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Aschner, Michael [Department of Pediatrics, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN (United States); Rocha, Joao B.T., E-mail: jbtrocha@yahoo.com.br [Departamento de Quimica, Centro de Ciencias Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2011-11-15

    Methylmercury (MeHg) is an environmental toxicant that leads to long-lasting neurological and developmental deficits in animals and humans. Although the molecular mechanisms mediating MeHg-induced neurotoxicity are not completely understood, several lines of evidence indicate that oxidative stress represents a critical event related to the neurotoxic effects elicited by this toxicant. The objective of this review is to summarize and discuss data from experimental and epidemiological studies that have been important in clarifying the molecular events which mediate MeHg-induced oxidative damage and, consequently, toxicity. Although unanswered questions remain, the electrophilic properties of MeHg and its ability to oxidize thiols have been reported to play decisive roles to the oxidative consequences observed after MeHg exposure. However, a close examination of the relationship between low levels of MeHg necessary to induce oxidative stress and the high amounts of sulfhydryl-containing antioxidants in mammalian cells (e.g., glutathione) have led to the hypothesis that nucleophilic groups with extremely high affinities for MeHg (e.g., selenols) might represent primary targets in MeHg-induced oxidative stress. Indeed, the inhibition of antioxidant selenoproteins during MeHg poisoning in experimental animals has corroborated this hypothesis. The levels of different reactive species (superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide) have been reported to be increased in MeHg-exposed systems, and the mechanisms concerning these increments seem to involve a complex sequence of cascading molecular events, such as mitochondrial dysfunction, excitotoxicity, intracellular calcium dyshomeostasis and decreased antioxidant capacity. This review also discusses potential therapeutic strategies to counteract MeHg-induced toxicity and oxidative stress, emphasizing the use of organic selenocompounds, which generally present higher affinity for MeHg when compared to the classically

  11. [Role of green tea in oxidative stress prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metro, D; Muraca, U; Manasseri, L

    2006-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a condition caused by an increase of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) or by a shortage of the mechanisms of cellular protection and antioxidant defence. ROS have a potential oxidative effect towards various cellular macromolecules: proteins, nucleic acids, proteoglycans, lipids, with consequent damages in several cellular districts and promotion of the ageing process of the organism. However, some substances are able to prevent and/or reduce the damages caused by ROS; therefore, they are defined antioxidant. The present research studied, in a group of subjects, the antioxidant effects of the green tea, that was administered with fruit and vegetables in a strictly controlled diet. 50 subjects were selected and requested to daily consume 2-3 fruit portions (especially pineapple), 3-5 portions of vegetables (especially tomato) and 2-3 glasses of green tea for about 2 months to integrate the controlled basic diet. Some indicators of the oxidative stress were measured in the plasma before and after the integration period. The integration of a basic diet with supplements of fruit, vegetables and green tea turned out to be able in increasing both plasmatic total antioxidant capacity and endogenous antioxidant levels and to reduce the lipid peroxidation of the membranes, suggesting a reduction of the oxidative stress. These data suggest that an adequate supplement of antioxidants can prevent oxidative stress and correlated pathologies.

  12. Muscle Aging and Oxidative Stress in Wild-Caught Shrews

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    Hindle, Allyson G.; Lawler, John M.; Campbell, Kevin L.; Horning, Markus

    2010-01-01

    Red-toothed shrews (Soricidae, subfamily Soricinae) are an intriguing model system to examine the free radical theory of aging in wild mammals, given their short (<18 month) lifespan and high mass-specific metabolic rates. As muscle performance underlies both foraging ability and predator avoidance, any age-related decline should be detrimental to fitness and survival. Muscle samples of water shrews (Sorex palustris) and sympatrically distributed short-tailed shrews (Blarina brevicauda) were therefore assessed for oxidative stress markers, protective antioxidant enzymes and apoptosis. Activity levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase increased with age in both species. Similarly, Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase isoform content was elevated significantly in older animals of both species (increases of 60% in the water shrew, 25% in the short-tailed shrew). Only one oxidative stress marker (lipid peroxidation) was age-elevated; the others were stable or declined (4-hydroxynonenal adducts and dihydroethidium oxidation). Glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly higher in the short-tailed shrew, while catalase activity was 2× higher in water shrews. Oxidative stress indicators were on average higher in short-tailed shrews. Apoptosis occurred in <1% of myocytes examined, and did not increase with age. Within the constraints of the sample size we found evidence of protection against elevated oxidative stress in wild-caught shrews. PMID:20109576

  13. Periodontal Disease-Induced Atherosclerosis and Oxidative Stress

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    Tomoko Kurita-Ochiai

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Periodontal disease is a highly prevalent disorder affecting up to 80% of the global population. Recent epidemiological studies have shown an association between periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease, as oxidative stress plays an important role in chronic inflammatory diseases such as periodontal disease and cardiovascular disease. In this review, we focus on the mechanisms by which periodontopathic bacteria cause chronic inflammation through the enhancement of oxidative stress and accelerate cardiovascular disease. Furthermore, we comment on the antioxidative activity of catechin in atherosclerosis accelerated by periodontitis.

  14. Food-derived bioactive peptides on inflammation and oxidative stress.

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    Chakrabarti, Subhadeep; Jahandideh, Forough; Wu, Jianping

    2014-01-01

    Chronic diseases such as atherosclerosis and cancer are now the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Inflammatory processes and oxidative stress underlie the pathogenesis of these pathological conditions. Bioactive peptides derived from food proteins have been evaluated for various beneficial effects, including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In this review, we summarize the roles of various food-derived bioactive peptides in inflammation and oxidative stress and discuss the potential benefits and limitations of using these compounds against the burden of chronic diseases.

  15. Haptoglobin is required to prevent oxidative stress and muscle atrophy.

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    Enrico Bertaggia

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress (OS plays a major role on tissue function. Several catabolic or stress conditions exacerbate OS, inducing organ deterioration. Haptoglobin (Hp is a circulating acute phase protein, produced by liver and adipose tissue, and has an important anti-oxidant function. Hp is induced in pro-oxidative conditions such as systemic inflammation or obesity. The role of systemic factors that modulate oxidative stress inside muscle cells is still poorly investigated. RESULTS: We used Hp knockout mice (Hp-/- to determine the role of this protein and therefore, of systemic OS in maintenance of muscle mass and function. Absence of Hp caused muscle atrophy and weakness due to activation of an atrophy program. When animals were stressed by acute exercise or by high fat diet (HFD, OS, muscle atrophy and force drop were exacerbated in Hp-/-. Depending from the stress condition, autophagy-lysosome and ubiquitin-proteasome systems were differently induced. CONCLUSIONS: Hp is required to prevent OS and the activation of pathways leading to muscle atrophy and weakness in normal condition and upon metabolic challenges.

  16. [Biological consequences of oxidative stress induced by pesticides].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosicka-Maciąg, Emilia

    2011-06-17

    Pesticides are used to protect plants and numerous plant products. They are also utilized in several industrial branches. These compounds are highly toxic to living organisms. In spite of close supervision in the use of pesticides there is a serious risk that these agents are able to spread into the environment and contaminate water, soil, food, and feedstuffs. Recently, more and more studies have been focused on understanding the toxic mechanisms of pesticide actions. The data indicate that the toxic action of pesticides may include the induction of oxidative stress and accumulation of free radicals in the cell. Long-lasting or acute oxidative stress disturbs cell metabolism and is able to produce permanent changes in the structure of proteins, lipids, and DNA. The proteins that are oxidized may lose or enhance their activity. Moreover, the proteins oxidized are able to form aggregates that inhibit the systems responsible for protein degradation and lead to alterations of proteins in the cell. Once oxidized, lipids have the capacity to damage and depolarize cytoplasmic membranes. Free oxygen radicals are harmful to DNA including damage to single nitric bases, DNA strand breaks and adduct production. Many studies indicate that oxidative stress may accelerate development of numerous diseases including cancer and neurodegenerative ones such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s disease and may also be responsible for infertility.

  17. Statins Decrease Oxidative Stress and ICD Therapies

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    Heather L. Bloom

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrate that statins decrease ventricular arrhythmias in internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD patients. The mechanism is unknown, but evidence links increased inflammatory and oxidative states with increased arrhythmias. We hypothesized that statin use decreases oxidation. Methods. 304 subjects with ICDs were surveyed for ventricular arrhythmia. Blood was analyzed for derivatives of reactive oxygen species (DROMs and interleukin-6 (IL-6. Results. Subjects included 252 (83% men, 58% on statins, 20% had ventricular arrhythmias. Average age was 63 years and ejection fraction (EF 20%. ICD implant duration was 29 ± 27 months. Use of statins correlated with lower ICD events (r=0.12, P=.02. Subjects on statins had lower hsCRP (5.2 versus 6.3; P=.05 and DROM levels (373 versus 397; P=.03. Other factors, including IL-6 and EF did not differ between statin and nonstatin use, nor did beta-blocker or antiarrhythmic use. Multivariate cross-correlation analysis demonstrated that DROMs, statins, IL-6 and EF were strongly associated with ICD events. Multivariate regression shows DROMs to be the dominant predictor. Conclusion. ICD event rate correlates with DROMs, a measure of lipid peroxides. Use of statins is associated with reduced DROMs and fewer ICD events, suggesting that statins exert their effect through reducing oxidation.

  18. A Different Approach to Assess Oxidative Stress in Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Patients Through The Calculation of Oxidative Stress Index

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    Edi Hartoyo

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the involvement of Oxidative Stress (OS in the pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF through the analysis of oxidative stress Index (OSI. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT activity, and OSI were measured in 61 child dengue patients and (aged 6 months–18 years with three different stages of DHF, i.e stage I, II, and III. The results show that the levels of MDA, SOD and CAT activity, and OSI significantly different between the group. The all parameters that investigated in this present study seems higher MDA level and OSI in the higher grade of DHF, except for SOD and CAT activity. From this result, it can be concluded that oxidative stress pathways might be involved in the pathomechanism of DHF and OSI might be used as a biomarker for OS and the severity in DHF patients.

  19. Dehydrins Impart Protection against Oxidative Stress in Transgenic Tobacco Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Tanmoy; Upadhyaya, Gouranga; Basak, Chandra; Das, Arup; Chakraborty, Chandrima; Ray, Sudipta

    2018-01-01

    Environmental stresses generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) which might be detrimental to the plants when produced in an uncontrolled way. However, the plants ameliorate such stresses by synthesizing antioxidants and enzymes responsible for the dismutation of ROS. Additionally, the dehydrins were also able to protect the inactivation of the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase against hydroxyl radicals (OH ⋅ ) generated during Fenton's reaction. SbDhn1 and SbDhn2 overexpressing transgenic tobacco plants were able to protect against oxidative damage. Transgenic tobacco lines showed better photosynthetic efficiency along with high chlorophyll content, soluble sugar and proline. However, the malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) content was significantly lower in transgenic lines. Experimental evidence demonstrates the protective effect of dehydrins on electron transport chain in isolated chloroplast upon methyl viologen (MV) treatment. The transgenic tobacco plants showed significantly lower superoxide radical generation () upon MV treatment. The accumulation of the H 2 O 2 was also lower in the transgenic plants. Furthermore, in the transgenic plants the expression of ROS scavenging enzymes was higher compared to non-transformed (NT) or vector transformed (VT) plants. Taken together these data, during oxidative stress dehydrins function by scavenging the () directly and also by rendering protection to the enzymes responsible for the dismutation of () thereby significantly reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxides formed. Increase in proline content along with other antioxidants might also play a significant role in stress amelioration. Dehydrins thus function co-operatively with other protective mechanisms under oxidative stress conditions rendering protection in stress environment.

  20. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal stress axis induces cellular oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jereme G. Spiers

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucocorticoids released from the adrenal gland in response to stress-induced activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis induce activity in the cellular reduction-oxidation (redox system. The redox system is a ubiquitous chemical mechanism allowing the transfer of electrons between donor/acceptors and target molecules during oxidative phosphorylation while simultaneously maintaining the overall cellular environment in a reduced state. The objective of this review is to present an overview of the current literature discussing the link between HPA axis-derived glucocorticoids and increased oxidative stress, particularly focussing on the redox changes observed in the hippocampus following glucocorticoid exposure.

  1. Oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leal, Claudio A M; Schetinger, Maria R C; Leal, Daniela B R; Morsch, Vera M; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Rezer, João F P; de Bairros, André Valle; Jaques, Jeandre Augusto Dos Santos

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress (OS) is defined as an imbalance in the production of reactive oxygen species and the capacity of antioxidant defenses. The objective of this work was to investigate OS and antioxidant capacity in pregnant women. Parameters of the oxidative status and antioxidant capacity in serum and whole blood were evaluated in thirty-nine women with normal pregnancy. The assessment of antioxidants indicated an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities (P0.05) in protein carbonylation. This study demonstrates that there is a change in the pro-oxidant and antioxidant defenses associated with body and circulation changes that are inherent to the pregnancy process.

  2. Oxidative stress impairs the heat stress response and delays unfolded protein recovery.

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    Masaaki Adachi

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental changes, air pollution and ozone depletion are increasing oxidative stress, and global warming threatens health by heat stress. We now face a high risk of simultaneous exposure to heat and oxidative stress. However, there have been few studies investigating their combined adverse effects on cell viability.Pretreatment of hydrogen peroxide (H(2O(2 specifically and highly sensitized cells to heat stress, and enhanced loss of mitochondrial membrane potential. H(2O(2 exposure impaired the HSP40/HSP70 induction as heat shock response (HSR and the unfolded protein recovery, and enhanced eIF2alpha phosphorylation and/or XBP1 splicing, land marks of ER stress. These H(2O(2-mediated effects mimicked enhanced heat sensitivity in HSF1 knockdown or knockout cells. Importantly, thermal preconditioning blocked H(2O(2-mediated inhibitory effects on refolding activity and rescued HSF1 +/+ MEFs, but neither blocked the effects nor rescued HSF1 -/- MEFs. These data strongly suggest that inhibition of HSR and refolding activity is crucial for H(2O(2-mediated enhanced heat sensitivity.H(2O(2 blocks HSR and refolding activity under heat stress, thereby leading to insufficient quality control and enhancing ER stress. These uncontrolled stress responses may enhance cell death. Our data thus highlight oxidative stress as a crucial factor affecting heat tolerance.

  3. Inhibition of xanthine oxidase reduces oxidative stress and improves skeletal muscle function in response to electrically stimulated isometric contractions in aged mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Michael J.; Jackson, Janna R.; Hao, Yanlei; Leonard, Stephen S.; Alway, Stephen E.

    2012-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a putative factor responsible for reducing function and increasing apoptotic signaling in skeletal muscle with aging. This study examined the contribution and functional significance of the xanthine oxidase enzyme as a potential source of oxidant production in aged skeletal muscle during repetitive in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Xanthine oxidase activity was inhibited in young adult and aged mice via a subcutaneously placed time release (2.5 mg/day) allopurinol pellet, 7 days prior to the start of in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions. Gastrocnemius muscles were electrically activated with 20 maximal contractions for three consecutive days. Xanthine oxidase activity was 65% greater in the gastrocnemius muscle of aged mice compared to young mice. Xanthine oxidase activity also increased after in situ electrically stimulated isometric contractions in muscles from both young (33%) and aged (28%) mice, relative to contralateral non-contracted muscles. Allopurinol attenuated the exercise-induced increase in oxidative stress, but it did not affect the elevated basal levels of oxidative stress that was associated with aging. In addition, inhibition of xanthine oxidase activity decreased caspase 3 activity, but it had no effect on other markers of mitochondrial associated apoptosis. Our results show that compared to control conditions, suppression of xanthine oxidase activity by allopurinol reduced xanthine oxidase activity, H2O2 levels, lipid peroxidation and caspase-3 activity, prevented the in situ electrically stimulated isometric contraction-induced loss of glutathione, prevented the increase of catalase and copper-zinc superoxide dismutase activities, and increased maximal isometric force in the plantar flexor muscles of aged mice after repetitive electrically evoked contractions. PMID:21530649

  4. OXIDATIVE STRESS AND VASCULAR DAMAGE IN HYPOXIA PROCESSES. MALONDIALDEHYDE (MDA AS BIOMARKER FOR OXIDATIVE DAMAGE

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    Muñiz P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in the levels oxidative stress biomarkers are related with different diseases such as ischemia/reperfusion, cardiovascular, renal, aging, etc. One of these biomarkers is the malondialdehyde (MDA generated as resulted of the process of lipid peroxidation. This biomarker is increased under conditions of the oxidative stress. Their levels, have been frequently used to measure plasma oxidative damage to lipids by their atherogenic potential. Its half-life high and their reactivity allows it to act both inside and outside of cells and interaction with proteins and DNA involve their role in different pathophysiological processes. This paper presents an analysis of the use of MDA as a biomarker of oxidative stress and its implications associated pathologies such as cardiovascular diseases ago.

  5. Oxidative Stress, Redox Signaling, and Autophagy: Cell Death Versus Survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Yepes, Juliana; Burns, Michaela; Anandhan, Annadurai; Khalimonchuk, Oleh; del Razo, Luz Maria; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Pappa, Aglaia; Panayiotidis, Mihalis I.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: The molecular machinery regulating autophagy has started becoming elucidated, and a number of studies have undertaken the task to determine the role of autophagy in cell fate determination within the context of human disease progression. Oxidative stress and redox signaling are also largely involved in the etiology of human diseases, where both survival and cell death signaling cascades have been reported to be modulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS). Recent Advances: To date, there is a good understanding of the signaling events regulating autophagy, as well as the signaling processes by which alterations in redox homeostasis are transduced to the activation/regulation of signaling cascades. However, very little is known about the molecular events linking them to the regulation of autophagy. This lack of information has hampered the understanding of the role of oxidative stress and autophagy in human disease progression. Critical Issues: In this review, we will focus on (i) the molecular mechanism by which ROS/RNS generation, redox signaling, and/or oxidative stress/damage alter autophagic flux rates; (ii) the role of autophagy as a cell death process or survival mechanism in response to oxidative stress; and (iii) alternative mechanisms by which autophagy-related signaling regulate mitochondrial function and antioxidant response. Future Directions: Our research efforts should now focus on understanding the molecular basis of events by which autophagy is fine tuned by oxidation/reduction events. This knowledge will enable us to understand the mechanisms by which oxidative stress and autophagy regulate human diseases such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 21, 66–85. PMID:24483238

  6. Acute High-intensity Interval Exercise-induced Redox Signaling is Associated with Enhanced Insulin Sensitivity in Obese Middle-aged Men.

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    Lewan Parker

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background. Obesity and ageing are associated with increased oxidative stress, activation of stress and mitogen activated protein kinases (SAPK, and the development of insulin resistance and metabolic disease. In contrast, acute exercise also increases oxidative stress and SAPK signaling, yet is reported to enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce the risk of metabolic disease. This study explored this paradox by investigating the effect of a single session of high-intensity interval-exercise (HIIE on redox status, muscle SAPK and insulin protein signaling in eleven middle-aged obese men. Methods. Participants completed a 2 hour hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp at rest, and 60 minutes after HIIE (4x4 mins at 95% HRpeak; 2 min recovery periods, separated by 1-3 weeks. Results. Irrespective of exercise-induced changes to redox status, insulin stimulation both at rest and after HIIE similarly increased plasma superoxide dismutase activity, plasma catalase activity, and skeletal muscle 4-HNE; and significantly decreased plasma TBARS and hydrogen peroxide. The SAPK signaling pathways of p38 MAPK, NF-κB p65, and JNK, and the distal insulin signaling protein AS160Ser588, were activated with insulin stimulation at rest and to a greater extent with insulin stimulation after a prior bout of HIIE. Higher insulin sensitivity after HIIE was associated with higher insulin-stimulated SAPK phosphorylation (JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-κB and SOD activity (p<0.05. Conclusion. These findings support a role for redox homeostasis and SAPK signaling in insulin-stimulated glucose uptake which may contribute to the enhancement of insulin sensitivity in obese men 3 hours after HIIE.

  7. Protective effects of carnosol against oxidative stress induced brain damage by chronic stress in rats.

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    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Borji, Abasalt; Samini, Mohammad; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-05-04

    Oxidative stress through chronic stress destroys the brain function. There are many documents have shown that carnosol may have a therapeutic effect versus free radical induced diseases. The current research focused the protective effect of carnosol against the brain injury induced by the restraint stress. The restraint stress induced by keeping animals in restrainers for 21 consecutive days. Thereafter, the rats were injected carnosol or vehicle for 21 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, all the rats were subjected to his open field test and forced swimming test. Afterwards, the rats were sacrificed for measuring their oxidative stress parameters. To measure the modifications in the biochemical aspects after the experiment, the activities of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the whole brain. Our data showed that the animals received chronic stress had a raised immobility time versus the non-stressed animals (p < 0.01). Furthermore, chronic stress diminished the number of crossing in the animals that were subjected to the chronic stress versus the non-stressed rats (p < 0.01). Carnosol ameliorated this alteration versus the non-treated rats (p < 0.05). In the vehicle treated rats that submitted to the stress, the level of MDA levels was significantly increased (P < 0.001), and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly decreased versus the non-stressed animals (P < 0.001). Carnosol treatment reduced the modifications in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups (P < 0.001). All of these carnosol effects were nearly similar to those observed with fluoxetine. The current research shows that the protective effects of carnosol may be accompanied with enhanced antioxidant defenses and decreased oxidative injury.

  8. Acute restraint stress induces endothelial dysfunction: role of vasoconstrictor prostanoids and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carda, Ana P P; Marchi, Katia C; Rizzi, Elen; Mecawi, André S; Antunes-Rodrigues, José; Padovan, Claudia M; Tirapelli, Carlos R

    2015-01-01

    We hypothesized that acute stress would induce endothelial dysfunction. Male Wistar rats were restrained for 2 h within wire mesh. Functional and biochemical analyses were conducted 24 h after the 2-h period of restraint. Stressed rats showed decreased exploration on the open arms of an elevated-plus maze (EPM) and increased plasma corticosterone concentration. Acute restraint stress did not alter systolic blood pressure, whereas it increased the in vitro contractile response to phenylephrine and serotonin in endothelium-intact rat aortas. NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; nitric oxide synthase, NOS, inhibitor) did not alter the contraction induced by phenylephrine in aortic rings from stressed rats. Tiron, indomethacin and SQ29548 reversed the increase in the contractile response to phenylephrine induced by restraint stress. Increased systemic and vascular oxidative stress was evident in stressed rats. Restraint stress decreased plasma and vascular nitrate/nitrite (NOx) concentration and increased aortic expression of inducible (i) NOS, but not endothelial (e) NOS. Reduced expression of cyclooxygenase (COX)-1, but not COX-2, was observed in aortas from stressed rats. Restraint stress increased thromboxane (TX)B(2) (stable TXA(2) metabolite) concentration but did not affect prostaglandin (PG)F2α concentration in the aorta. Restraint reduced superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, whereas concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were not affected. The major new finding of our study is that restraint stress increases vascular contraction by an endothelium-dependent mechanism that involves increased oxidative stress and the generation of COX-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids. Such stress-induced endothelial dysfunction could predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  9. Oxidative Metabolism Genes Are Not Responsive to Oxidative Stress in Rodent Beta Cell Lines

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    Faer Morrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Altered expression of oxidative metabolism genes has been described in the skeletal muscle of individuals with type 2 diabetes. Pancreatic beta cells contain low levels of antioxidant enzymes and are particularly susceptible to oxidative stress. In this study, we explored the effect of hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress on a panel of oxidative metabolism genes in a rodent beta cell line. We exposed INS-1 rodent beta cells to low (5.6 mmol/L, ambient (11 mmol/L, and high (28 mmol/L glucose conditions for 48 hours. Increases in oxidative stress were measured using the fluorescent probe dihydrorhodamine 123. We then measured the expression levels of a panel of 90 oxidative metabolism genes by real-time PCR. Elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS production was evident in INS-1 cells after 48 hours (P<0.05. TLDA analysis revealed a significant (P<0.05 upregulation of 16 of the 90 genes under hyperglycemic conditions, although these expression differences did not reflect differences in ROS. We conclude that although altered glycemia may influence the expression of some oxidative metabolism genes, this effect is probably not mediated by increased ROS production. The alterations to the expression of oxidative metabolism genes previously observed in human diabetic skeletal muscle do not appear to be mirrored in rodent pancreatic beta cells.

  10. Oxidative stress and pathology in muscular dystrophies: focus on protein thiol oxidation and dysferlinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Jessica R; Radley-Crabb, Hannah G; Iwasaki, Tomohito; Lemckert, Frances A; Arthur, Peter G; Grounds, Miranda D

    2013-09-01

    The muscular dystrophies comprise more than 30 clinical disorders that are characterized by progressive skeletal muscle wasting and degeneration. Although the genetic basis for many of these disorders has been identified, the exact mechanism for pathogenesis generally remains unknown. It is considered that disturbed levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) contribute to the pathology of many muscular dystrophies. Reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress may cause cellular damage by directly and irreversibly damaging macromolecules such as proteins, membrane lipids and DNA; another major cellular consequence of reactive oxygen species is the reversible modification of protein thiol side chains that may affect many aspects of molecular function. Irreversible oxidative damage of protein and lipids has been widely studied in Duchenne muscular dystrophy, and we have recently identified increased protein thiol oxidation in dystrophic muscles of the mdx mouse model for Duchenne muscular dystrophy. This review evaluates the role of elevated oxidative stress in Duchenne muscular dystrophy and other forms of muscular dystrophies, and presents new data that show significantly increased protein thiol oxidation and high levels of lipofuscin (a measure of cumulative oxidative damage) in dysferlin-deficient muscles of A/J mice at various ages. The significance of this elevated oxidative stress and high levels of reversible thiol oxidation, but minimal myofibre necrosis, is discussed in the context of the disease mechanism for dysferlinopathies, and compared with the situation for dystrophin-deficient mdx mice. © 2013 The Authors Journal compilation © 2013 FEBS.

  11. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis mechanisms and prevention: A literature review

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    Jooyoung Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis (exRML, a pathophysiological condition of skeletal muscle cell damage that may cause acute renal failure and in some cases death. Increased Ca2+ level in cells along with functional degradation of cell signaling system and cell matrix have been suggested as the major pathological mechanisms associated with exRML. The onset of exRML may be exhibited in athletes as well as in general population. Previous studies have reported that possible causes of exRML were associated with excessive eccentric contractions in high temperature, abnormal electrolytes balance, and nutritional deficiencies possible genetic defects. However, the underlying mechanisms of exRML have not been clearly established among health professionals or sports medicine personnel. Therefore, we reviewed the possible mechanisms and correlated prevention of exRML, while providing useful and practical information for the athlete and general exercising population.

  12. Exercise-induced bronchospasm: coding and billing for physician services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlig, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Physician reporting of the service to insurance companies for reimbursement is multifaceted and perplexing to those who do not understand the factors to consider. Test selection should be individualized based on the patient's history and/or needs. Federal regulations concerning physician supervision of diagnostic tests mandate different levels of physician supervision based on the type and complexity of the test. Many factors play a key role in physician claim submission. These include testing location, component services, coding edits, and additional visits. Medical necessity of the service(s) must also be demonstrated for payer consideration and reimbursement. The following article reviews various tests for exercise-induced bronchospasm and focuses on issues to assist the physician in reporting the services accurately and appropriately.

  13. Oxidative Stress to the Cornea, Changes in Corneal Optical Properties, and Advances in Treatment of Corneal Oxidative Injuries

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    Cestmir Cejka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress is involved in many ocular diseases and injuries. The imbalance between oxidants and antioxidants in favour of oxidants (oxidative stress leads to the damage and may be highly involved in ocular aging processes. The anterior eye segment and mainly the cornea are directly exposed to noxae of external environment, such as air pollution, radiation, cigarette smoke, vapors or gases from household cleaning products, chemical burns from splashes of industrial chemicals, and danger from potential oxidative damage evoked by them. Oxidative stress may initiate or develop ocular injury resulting in decreased visual acuity or even vision loss. The role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases with particular attention to oxidative stress in the cornea and changes in corneal optical properties are discussed. Advances in the treatment of corneal oxidative injuries or diseases are shown.

  14. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M; Dauch, Jacqueline R; Keller, Peter J; Brooks, Susan V; Feldman, Eva L

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/-)) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/-) mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+) mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/-) mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  15. Oxidative stress in malaria and artemisinin combination therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavishe, Reginald A.; Koenderink, Jan B.; Alifrangis, Michael

    2017-01-01

    in their mechanisms of action. This review gives a brief account of the oxidative stress and redox systems in malaria and discusses the context of antimalarial effectiveness of different ACTs compared with monotherapies of the partner drugs. A final account on the Pros and Cons of ACT as a strategy is discussed....

  16. Mastitis and oxidative stress in vitamin E supplemented dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwstra, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The research described in this thesis evaluated the effect of vitamin E supplementation under field conditions on the udder health of Dutch dairy cows. Additionally, it investigated the mechanism by which vitamin E influenced oxidative stress, especially during the dry period. Moreover, it

  17. The role of oxidative stress in corneal diseases and injuries

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čejková, Jitka; Čejka, Čestmír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 8 (2015), s. 893-900 ISSN 0213-3911 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-12580S Keywords : Diseased corneas * Immunohistochemistry * Oxidative stress Subject RIV: FF - HEENT, Dentistry Impact factor: 1.875, year: 2015

  18. Cigarette smoke-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toorn, Marco van der

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we studied the effects of cigarette smoke (CS) on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in epithelial cells and discussed the potential of these phenomena in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). In the first three chapters we demonstrated that CS

  19. Thoracic radiography and oxidative stress indices in heartworm affected dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Rath

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography and status of oxidative stress parameters in heartworm affected dogs in Odisha. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 dogs with clinically established diagnosis of dirofilariasis by wet blood smear and modified Knott’s test and equal numbers of dogs as control were included in this study. The present study was conducted in heartworm affected dogs to see the pathomorphological changes through thoracic radiography. Similarly, the evaluation was undertaken for observing any alterations in oxidative stress status in affected as well as non-affected, but healthy control dogs by adopting standard procedure. Results: Thoracic radiography revealed cardiac enlargement, round heart appearance suggestive of right ventricular hypertrophy, tortuous pulmonary artery and darkening of lungs. Alterations in oxidative stress indices showed a significant rise of lipid peroxidase activity, non-significant rise of superoxide dismutase and a significant although reverse trend for catalase levels in affected dogs in comparison to Dirofilaria negative control but apparently healthy dogs. Conclusions: Radiographic changes, as well as alterations in oxidative stress parameters, may not be diagnostic for heartworm infection, but useful for detecting heartworm disease, assessing severity and evaluating cardiopulmonary parenchyma changes and gives a fair idea about the degree of severity of the disease. It aids as contributing factors in disease pathogenesis.

  20. Maternal Parity and Blood Oxidative Stress in Mother and Neonate

    OpenAIRE

    Golalizadeh; Shobeiri; Ranjbar; Nazari

    2016-01-01

    Background Parturition has been associated with free radicals, itself linked with poor pregnancy outcome. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the relationship between oxidative stress biomarkers levels of maternal and cord blood samples at the second stage of labor with the maternal parity number. Materials and Methods In this analytical cross-sectional study, subjects were ...

  1. Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mixed chemical-induced oxidative stress in occupational exposure in Nigerians. JI Anetor, SA Yaqub, GO Anetor, AC Nsonwu, FAA Adeniyi, S Fukushima. Abstract. Exposure to single chemicals and associated disorders in occupational environments has received significant attention. Understanding these events holds ...

  2. Effect of moxifloxacin on oxidative stress, paraoxonase-1 (PON1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of moxifloxacin on paraoxonase-1 (PON1) activity, and serum oxidative stress in patients with multiple drug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB). Methods: A total ofof 130 MDR-TB patients who were treated with moxifloxacin from October 2014 to October 2010 in Eastern Medical District of Linyi ...

  3. Oxidative stress induced pulmonary endothelial cell proliferation is ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cellular hyper-proliferation, endothelial dysfunction and oxidative stress are hallmarks of the pathobiology of pulmonary hypertension. Indeed, pulmonary endothelial cells proliferation is susceptible to redox state modulation. Some studies suggest that superoxide stimulates endothelial cell proliferation while others have ...

  4. Effects of micronutrients on oxidative stress in HIV positive patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Micronutrient supplementation was therefore shown to reduce oxidative stress in HIV positive patients on HAART and could possibly be very helpful as an adjunct in the treatment of this disease. Key Words: Antiretroviral, micronutrients, malondialdehyde, ART naïve, reactive oxygen species, supplementation.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Endometriosis: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gennaro Scutiero

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis is one of the most common gynaecologic diseases in women of reproductive age. It is characterized by the presence of endometrial tissue outside the uterine cavity. The women affected suffer from pelvic pain and infertility. The complex etiology is still unclear and it is based on three main theories: retrograde menstruation, coelomic metaplasia, and induction theory. Genetics and epigenetics also play a role in the development of endometriosis. Recent studies have put the attention on the role of oxidative stress, defined as an imbalance between reactive oxygen species (ROS and antioxidants, which may be implicated in the pathophysiology of endometriosis causing a general inflammatory response in the peritoneal cavity. Reactive oxygen species are intermediaries produced by normal oxygen metabolism and are inflammatory mediators known to modulate cell proliferation and to have deleterious effects. A systematic review was performed in order to clarify the different roles of oxidative stress and its role in the development of endometriosis. Several issues have been investigated: iron metabolism, oxidative stress markers (in the serum, peritoneal fluid, follicular fluid, peritoneal environment, ovarian cortex, and eutopic and ectopic endometrial tissue, genes involved in oxidative stress, endometriosis-associated infertility, and cancer development.

  6. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Nervous System Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Hur, Junguk; Hayes, John M.; Dauch, Jacqueline R.; Keller, Peter J.; Brooks, Susan V.; Feldman, Eva L.

    2013-01-01

    While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1−/−) mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1−/− mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1−/− mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging. PMID:23844146

  7. The role of oxidative stress in nervous system aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrina Sims-Robinson

    Full Text Available While oxidative stress is implicated in aging, the impact of oxidative stress on aging in the peripheral nervous system is not well understood. To determine a potential mechanism for age-related deficits in the peripheral nervous system, we examined both functional and morphological changes and utilized microarray technology to compare normal aging in wild-type mice to effects in copper/zinc superoxide dismutase-deficient (Sod1(-/- mice, a mouse model of increased oxidative stress. Sod1(-/- mice exhibit a peripheral neuropathy phenotype with normal sensory nerve function and deficits in motor nerve function. Our data indicate that a decrease in the synthesis of cholesterol, which is vital to myelin formation, correlates with the structural deficits in axons, myelin, and the cell body of motor neurons in the Sod1(+/+ mice at 30 months and the Sod1(-/- mice at 20 months compared with mice at 2 months. Collectively, we have demonstrated that the functional and morphological changes within the peripheral nervous system in our model of increased oxidative stress are manifested earlier and resemble the deficits observed during normal aging.

  8. Resveratrol Ameliorates Experimental Alcoholic Liver Disease by Modulating Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Peiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatoprotective effects of resveratrol in alcoholic liver disease (ALD. Alcohol was administered to healthy female rats starting from 6% (v/v and gradually increased to 20% (v/v by the fifth week. After 16 weeks of intervention, liver enzymes (aspartate aminotransferase [AST] and alanine aminotransferase [ALT] were analyzed using a chemistry analyzer, while hepatic antioxidant enzymes, oxidative stress markers, and caspase 3 activity were assessed using ELISA kits. Furthermore, hepatic CYP2E1 protein levels and mRNA levels of antioxidant and inflammation-related genes were determined using western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. The results showed that resveratrol significantly attenuated alcohol-induced elevation of liver enzymes and improved hepatic antioxidant enzymes. Resveratrol also attenuated alcohol-induced CYP2E1 increase, oxidative stress, and apoptosis (caspase 3 activity. Moreover, genes associated with oxidative stress and inflammation were regulated by resveratrol supplementation. Taken together, the results suggested that resveratrol alleviated ALD through regulation of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and inflammation, which was mediated at the transcriptional level. The data suggests that resveratrol is a promising natural therapeutic agent against chronic ALD.

  9. Screening of drought oxidative stress tolerance in Serbian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to examine and compare antioxidant and free-radical scavenging activities of leaves of six different melliferous plant species (Populus alba, Robinia pseudoacacia, Sophora japonica, Euodia hupehensis, Tilia sp., Fraxinus sp.) from Serbia in order to evaluate their drought oxidative stress tolerance.

  10. Oxidative Stress in Dilated Cardiomyopathy Caused by MYBPC3 Mutation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas L. Lynch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiomyopathies can result from mutations in genes encoding sarcomere proteins including MYBPC3, which encodes cardiac myosin binding protein-C (cMyBP-C. However, whether oxidative stress is augmented due to contractile dysfunction and cardiomyocyte damage in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies has not been elucidated. To determine whether oxidative stress markers were elevated in MYBPC3-mutated cardiomyopathies, a previously characterized 3-month-old mouse model of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM expressing a homozygous MYBPC3 mutation (cMyBP-C(t/t was used, compared to wild-type (WT mice. Echocardiography confirmed decreased percentage of fractional shortening in DCM versus WT hearts. Histopathological analysis indicated a significant increase in myocardial disarray and fibrosis while the second harmonic generation imaging revealed disorganized sarcomeric structure and myocyte damage in DCM hearts when compared to WT hearts. Intriguingly, DCM mouse heart homogenates had decreased glutathione (GSH/GSSG ratio and increased protein carbonyl and lipid malondialdehyde content compared to WT heart homogenates, consistent with elevated oxidative stress. Importantly, a similar result was observed in human cardiomyopathy heart homogenate samples. These results were further supported by reduced signals for mitochondrial semiquinone radicals and Fe-S clusters in DCM mouse hearts measured using electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In conclusion, we demonstrate elevated oxidative stress in MYPBC3-mutated DCM mice, which may exacerbate the development of heart failure.

  11. No effect of melatonin on oxidative stress after laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükakin, B.; Klein, M.; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2010-01-01

    melatonin and 21 patients received placebo during surgery. No significant differences were observed between the groups in the oxidative stress variables MDA, TAA, AA and DHA or in the inflammatory variable CRP (repeated-measures ANOVA, P > 0.05 for all variables). Conclusions Administration of 10 mg...

  12. Oxidative stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome in Sokoto ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-08-20

    Aug 20, 2015 ... Background: Oxidative stress is known to play a role in the ... others to remix, tweak, and build upon the work non-commercially, as long as the ..... Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute/American Heart.

  13. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sajal; Sharma, Rakesh; Agarwal, Ashok

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM), cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions. PMID:24900998

  14. Oxidative stress biomarkers in Oreochromis niloticus as early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2018-04-10

    Apr 10, 2018 ... stress biomarkers and sub-cellular components are the most commonly used ..... metal ions usually occur in low concentrations in the aquatic environment and ..... injured cells from a reduced to an oxidized state (Gul et al.,. 2004). ... ions through their gills, impaired respiration may result from chronic and ...

  15. Oxidative Stress -a Phenotypic Hallmark of Fanconi Anemia and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... major role in the pathogenesis of leukemia.prone diseases such as Fanconi anemia (FA) and ... Aim: To explore the oxidative stress state in children with DS and FA by ... and to evaluate of the effect of antioxidant treatment on these patients.

  16. Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress biomarkers in West African Dwarf goats reared under intensive and semi-intensive production systems. ... Animals raised intensively were fed Megathyrsus maximus hay ad libitum, while those reared semi-intensively were allowed to graze freely in a fenced ... Keywords: bucks, immune response, season ...

  17. Oxidative stress status in congenital hypogonadism: an appraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haymana, C; Aydoğdu, A; Soykut, B; Erdem, O; Ibrahimov, T; Dinc, M; Meric, C; Basaran, Y; Sonmez, A; Azal, O

    2017-07-01

    Patients with hypogonadism are at increased risk of cardiac and metabolic diseases. However, the pathogenesis of increased cardiometabolic risk in patients with hypogonadism is not clear. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiometabolic diseases. This study aimed to investigate possible differences in oxidative stress conditions between patients with hypogonadism and healthy controls. In this study, 38 male patients with congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) (mean age: 21.7 ± 1.6 years) and 44 healthy male controls (mean age: 22.3 ± 1.4 years) with almost equal body mass index were enrolled. The demographic parameters, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), total and free testosterone, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and oxidative stress parameters, such as superoxide dismutase, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and malondialdehyde (MDA), were compared between both groups. Compared to the healthy controls, triglycerides (p = .02), insulin levels, HOMA-IR values, CAT activities and MDA levels (p treatment-naïve patients with congenital hypogonadism had an increased status of oxidative stress.

  18. Impact of weight loss on oxidative stress and inflammatory cytokines ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with abnormal markers of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress markers. Although, these abnormalities could be modulated with weight reduction; there is limitation in clinical studies that have addressed the beneficial effects of weight reduction in modulating ...

  19. Power of Proteomics in Linking Oxidative Stress and Female Infertility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajal Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Endometriosis, PCOS, and unexplained infertility are currently the most common diseases rendering large numbers of women infertile worldwide. Oxidative stress, due to its deleterious effects on proteins and nucleic acids, is postulated to be the one of the important mechanistic pathways in differential expression of proteins and in these diseases. The emerging field of proteomics has allowed identification of proteins involved in cell cycle, as antioxidants, extracellular matrix (ECM, cytoskeleton, and their linkage to oxidative stress in female infertility related diseases. The aim of this paper is to assess the association of oxidative stress and protein expression in the reproductive microenvironments such as endometrial fluid, peritoneal fluid, and follicular fluid, as well as reproductive tissues and serum. The review also highlights the literature that proposes the use of the fertility related proteins as potential biomarkers for noninvasive and early diagnosis of the aforementioned diseases rather than utilizing the more invasive methods used currently. The review will highlight the power of proteomic profiles identified in infertility related disease conditions and their linkage with underlying oxidative stress. The power of proteomics will be reviewed with regard to eliciting molecular mechanisms for early detection and management of these infertility related conditions.

  20. Oxidative stress and chromosomal aberrations in an environmentally exposed population

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Rössnerová, Andrea; Šrám, Radim

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 707, 1-2 (2011), s. 34-41 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP(CZ) SP/1B3/8/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : air pollution * oxidative stress * chromosomal aberrations Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.850, year: 2011

  1. Morin mitigates oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Morin is a flavanoid which exhibits potent antioxidant activity in various oxidative stress related diseases. The current study was attempted to scrutinize the preclinical bio-efficacy of morin on focal ischemia. Methods: The animal model of focal cerebral ischemic injury was done by midbrain carotid artery ...

  2. Quercetin reduces markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in sarcoidosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boots, Agnes W.; Drent, Marjolein; de Boer, Vincent C. J.; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R. M. M.

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and low antioxidant levels are implicated in the aetiology of sarcoidosis, an inflammatory disease. Quercetin is a potent dietary antioxidant that also displays anti-inflammatory activities. Consequently, the aim is to examine the effect of quercetin supplementation on markers of

  3. Altered DNA repair, oxidative stress and antioxidant status

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interplay of environmental risk factors with multiple predisposing genes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the role of DNA repair efficiency and oxidative stress and antioxidant status in CAD patients. Malonaldehyde (MDA), which is an ...

  4. Palladium induced oxidative stress and cell death in normal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Our findings clearly indicate that Pd induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and oxidative stress, mitochondrial and lysosomal injury and finally cell death. These effects are reversed by antioxidants and ROS scavengers, mitochondrial permeability transmission [1] pore sealing agent, ATP progenitor, and ...

  5. Protection by 6-aminonicotinamide against oxidative stress in cardiac cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofgaard, Johannes P; Sigurdardottir, Kristin Sigridur; Treiman, Marek

    2006-01-01

    necrosis following global ischemia in an isolated rat heart, apparently by limiting the oxidative injury component. We therefore explored the antioxidative potential of 6AN in a model using H9C2(2-1) rat cardiac myoblasts exposed to H2O2 stress. Dependent on the specific protocol, 6AN pretreatment for 6...

  6. Oxidative Stress Markers and Genetic Polymorphisms of Glutathione ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hence, we evaluated the serum levels of oxidative stress markers and investigated genetic polymorphisms of glutathione S-transferase associated with autism. Materials and Methods: Forty-two children clinically diagnosed with ASD using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual for Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria and a ...

  7. Mercury chloride-induced oxidative stress in human erythrocytes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-01-25

    Jan 25, 2010 ... Mercury can exist in the environment as metal, as monovalent and divalent salts and as organomercurials, one of the most important of which is mercuric chloride (HgCl2). It has been shown to induce oxidative stress in erythrocytes through the generation of free radicals and alteration of the.

  8. Oxidative stress and antioxidant status in sportsmen two hours after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the serum lipid profile and non-enzymatic antioxidants markers (serum uric acid and albumin) as well as lipid hydroperoxide (a marker of oxidative stress) in 39 sportsmen after 2 h of strenuous training exercise and also in 24 sedentary age-matched males who served as controls ...

  9. Oxidative-stress-mediated teratogenesis and the role of folate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Y.H.; Bergman, J.; Bakker, M.; Groen, H.; Wilffert, B.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) is one of the underlying teratogenic mechanisms of medical drugs. Folate is indirectly involved in OS because of its role in the methylation steps in the detoxification of xenobiotics and in the repair of OS-induced DNA damage. Our study was to explore the

  10. Oxidative stress-mediated antibacterial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Han, Jae Woong; Dayem, Ahmed Abdal; Eppakayala, Vasuki; Kim, Jin-Hoi

    2012-01-01

    Graphene holds great promise for potential use in next-generation electronic and photonic devices due to its unique high carrier mobility, good optical transparency, large surface area, and biocompatibility. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this work, we used a novel reducing agent, betamercaptoethanol (BME), for synthesis of graphene to avoid the use of toxic materials. To uncover the impacts of GO and rGO on human health, the antibacterial activity of two types of graphene-based material toward a bacterial model P. aeruginosa was studied and compared. The synthesized GO and rGO was characterized by ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, particle-size analyzer, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. Further, to explain the antimicrobial activity of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, we employed various assays, such as cell growth, cell viability, reactive oxygen species generation, and DNA fragmentation. Ultraviolet-visible spectra of the samples confirmed the transition of GO into graphene. Dynamic light-scattering analyses showed the average size among the two types of graphene materials. X-ray diffraction data validated the structure of graphene sheets, and high-resolution scanning electron microscopy was employed to investigate the morphologies of prepared graphene. Raman spectroscopy data indicated the removal of oxygen-containing functional groups from the surface of GO and the formation of graphene. The exposure of cells to GO and rGO induced the production of superoxide radical anion and loss of cell viability. Results suggest that the antibacterial activities are contributed to by loss of cell viability, induced oxidative stress, and DNA fragmentation. The antibacterial activities of GO and rGO against P. aeruginosa were compared. The loss of P. aeruginosa viability increased in a dose- and

  11. Cytoprotective Effects of Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) Fruit Extract against Oxidative Stress and Carbonyl Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayesteh, Reyhaneh; Kamalinejad, Mohammad; Adiban, Hasan; Kardan, Azin; Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Eskandari, Mohammad Reza

    2017-10-01

    Background Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disorder that is associated with significant mortality and morbidity due to microvascular and macrovascular complications. Diabetes complications accompanied with oxidative stress and carbonyl stress in different organs of human body because of the increased generation of free radicals and impaired antioxidant defense systems. In the meantime, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive carbonyl species (RCS) have key mediatory roles in the development and progression of diabetes complications. Therapeutic strategies have recently focused on preventing such diabetes-related abnormalities using different natural and chemical compounds. Pumpkin ( Cucurbita moschata ) is one of the most important vegetables in the world with a broad-range of pharmacological activities such as antihyperglycemic effect. Methods In the present study, the cytoprotective effects of aqueous extract of C. moschata fruit on hepatocyte cytotoxicity induced by cumene hydroperoxide (oxidative stress model) or glyoxal (carbonylation model) were investigated using freshly isolated rat hepatocytes. Results The extract of C. moschata (50 μg/ml) excellently prevented oxidative and carbonyl stress markers, including hepatocyte lysis, ROS production, lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, mitochondrial membrane potential collapse, lysosomal damage, and cellular proteolysis. In addition, protein carbonylation was prevented by C. moschata in glyoxal-induced carbonyl stress. Conclusion It can be concluded that C. moschata has cytoprotective effects in oxidative stress and carbonyl stress models and this valuable vegetable can be considered as a suitable herbal product for the prevention of toxic subsequent of oxidative stress and carbonyl stress seen in chronic hyperglycemia. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Cocoa Phenolic Extract Protects Pancreatic Beta Cells against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bravo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is associated with reductions in glutathione, supporting the critical role of oxidative stress in its pathogenesis. Antioxidant food components such as flavonoids have a protective role against oxidative stress-induced degenerative and age-related diseases. Flavonoids constitute an important part of the human diet; they can be found in most plant foods, including green tea, grapes or cocoa and possess multiple biological activities. This study investigates the chemo-protective effect of a cocoa phenolic extract (CPE containing mainly flavonoids against oxidative stress induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide (t-BOOH on Ins-1E pancreatic beta cells. Cell viability and oxidative status were evaluated. Ins-1E cells treatment with 5–20 μg/mL CPE for 20 h evoked no cell damage and did not alter ROS production. Addition of 50 μM t-BOOH for 2 h increased ROS and carbonyl groups content and decreased reduced glutathione level. Pre-treatment of cells with CPE significantly prevented the t-BOOH-induced ROS and carbonyl groups and returned antioxidant defences to adequate levels. Thus, Ins-1E cells treated with CPE showed a remarkable recovery of cell viability damaged by t-BOOH, indicating that integrity of surviving machineries in the CPE-treated cells was notably protected against the oxidative insult.

  13. Oxidative stress induced inflammation initiates functional decline of tear production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichi Uchino

    Full Text Available Oxidative damage and inflammation are proposed to be involved in an age-related functional decline of exocrine glands. However, the molecular mechanism of how oxidative stress affects the secretory function of exocrine glands is unclear. We developed a novel mev-1 conditional transgenic mouse model (Tet-mev-1 using a modified tetracycline system (Tet-On/Off system. This mouse model demonstrated decreased tear production with morphological changes including leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis. We found that the mev-1 gene encodes Cyt-1, which is the cytochrome b(560 large subunit of succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase in complex II of mitochondria (homologous to succinate dehydrogenase C subunit (SDHC in humans. The mev-1 gene induced excessive oxidative stress associated with ocular surface epithelial damage and a decrease in protein and aqueous secretory function. This new model provides evidence that mitochondrial oxidative damage in the lacrimal gland induces lacrimal dysfunction resulting in dry eye disease. Tear volume in Tet-mev-1 mice was lower than in wild type mice and histopathological analyses showed the hallmarks of lacrimal gland inflammation by intense mononuclear leukocytic infiltration and fibrosis in the lacrimal gland of Tet-mev-1 mice. These findings strongly suggest that oxidative stress can be a causative factor for the development of dry eye disease.

  14. Neuromuscular Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Timothy P.; Kern, Marialice

    1994-01-01

    Discusses exercise-induced stress that results from motor unit recruitment, the impact of recruitment on selected systemic support systems, and some of the environmental overlays that affect the degree of physiological stress. Adaptations to sustained changes in physical activity and muscle and myotendinous injury induced by stress are examined.…

  15. Non-thermal Plasma and Oxidative Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyokuni, Shinya

    2015-09-01

    Thermal plasmas and lasers have been used in medicine to cut and ablate tissues and for coagulation. Non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP; non-thermal plasma) is a recently developed, non-thermal technique with possible biomedical applications. Although NEAPP reportedly generates reactive oxygen/nitrogen species, electrons, positive ions, and ultraviolet radiation, few research projects have been conducted to merge this technique with conventional free radical biology. Recently, Prof. Masaru Hori's group (Plasma Nanotechnology Research Center, Nagoya University) developed a NEAPP device with high electron density. Here electron spin resonance revealed hydroxyl radicals as a major product. To merge non-thermal plasma biology with the preexisting free radical biology, we evaluated lipid peroxidation and DNA modifications in various in vitro and ex vivo experiments. Conjugated dienes increased after exposure to linoleic and alfa-linolenic acids. An increase in 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances was also increased after exposure to phosphatidylcholine, liposomes or liver homogenate. Direct exposure to rat liver in medium produced immunohistochemical evidence of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal- and acrolein-modified proteins. Exposure to plasmid DNA induced dose-dependent single/double strand breaks and increased the amounts of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine and cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers. These results indicate that oxidative biomolecular damage by NEAPP is dose-dependent and thus can be controlled in a site-specific manner. Simultaneous oxidative and UV-specific DNA damage may be useful in cancer treatment. Other recent advancements in the related studies of non-thermal plasma in Nagoya University Graduate School of Medicine will also be discussed.

  16. Interferon-gamma regulates oxidative stress during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espejo, Carmen; Penkowa, Milena; Sáez-Torres, Irene

    2002-01-01

    disease eliciting secretion of proinflammatory cytokines like IFN-gamma or TNF-alpha, and it has been suggested that cytokine-induced oxidative stress could have a role in EAE neuropathology. However, the individual roles of these and other cytokines in the pathogenesis of the disease are still uncertain....... Here we analyze the role of IFN-gamma during EAE by using both IFN-gamma receptor-knockout (IFN-gamma R(-/-)) and wild-type mice, both strains immunized with peptide 40-55 from rat myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein. The levels of oxidative stress were determined through the analysis...... of immunoreactivity for inducible NO synthase, nitrotyrosine, and malondialdehyde, as well as through the expression of the tissue-protective antioxidant factors metallothionein I+II (MT-I+II). We also examined the number of cells undergoing apoptosis as judged by using the TUNEL technique. The levels of oxidative...

  17. Etyopathogenesis and Oxidative Stress Relationship in Mild Severe Alopecia Areata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadime Kilinç

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Alopecia areata (AA is a recurrent, autoimmune, inflammatory disease characterized by loss of scarless hair. The etiopathogenesis is not exactly known, however genetic, emotional, environmental factors and autoimmunity are accused. The aim of the study is to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the etiopathogenesis of AA. Methods:Thirty seven AA patients and thirty five healthy volunteers as control group were included in the study. Oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated by measuring total antioxidant capacity (TAC and total oxidant capacity (TOC in patient and control group serum samples. Results:The TAC values of the patient group were found to be higher than the control group (p=0.036. A nonsignificant difference was found between the two groups statistically bordered by TOC (p=0.058. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of OSI (p=0.270.

  18. Oxidative/nitrosative stress and antidepressants: targets for novel antidepressants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Yup; Lee, Soo-Jung; Han, Changsu; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2013-10-01

    The brain is an organ predisposed to oxidative/nitrosative stress. This is especially true in the case of aging as well as several neurodegenerative diseases. Under such circumstances, a decline in the normal antioxidant defense mechanisms leads to an increase in the vulnerability of the brain to the deleterious effects of oxidative damage. Highly reactive oxygen/nitrogen species damage lipids, proteins, and mitochondrial and neuronal genes. Unless antioxidant defenses react appropriately to damage inflicted by radicals, neurons may experience microalteration, microdysfunction, and degeneration. We reviewed how oxidative and nitrosative stresses contribute to the pathogenesis of depressive disorders and reviewed the clinical implications of various antioxidants as future targets for antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental Hepatic Carcinogenesis: Oxidative Stress and Natural Antioxidants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velid Unsal

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the most common cancers in the world, and it is influenced by agents such as DEN, 2-AAF, phenobarbital, alcohol, aflatoxin B1 metabolite or hepatitis viruses (B and C. Oxidative stress is becoming recognized as a key factor in the progression of hepatocarcinogenesis. Reactive oxygen species can play a leading role in initiation and promotion of hepatic carcinogenesis. The metabolites of DEN Diethylnitrosamine (DEN mediate the binding of tumour promoters by covalently binding to the DNA with one or two oxidation-providing electrons. 2-AAF is the inducer of DEN, and it is involved in tumour formation in the bladder and liver. Reactive Oxygen species (ROS; carbohydrates, lipids, DNA and enzymes, such as affect all important structures. Additionally, an excessive amount of ROS is highly toxic to cells. Antioxidants are protects against ROS, toxic substances, carcinogens. This review focuses on the literature on studies of Hepatic Carcinogenesis, oxidative stress and antioxidant therapy.

  20. Marine Carotenoids against Oxidative Stress: Effects on Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Riccioni, Graziano; D'Orazio, Nicolantonio

    2015-09-30

    Carotenoids are lipid-soluble pigments that are produced in some plants, algae, fungi, and bacterial species, which accounts for their orange and yellow hues. Carotenoids are powerful antioxidants thanks to their ability to quench singlet oxygen, to be oxidized, to be isomerized, and to scavenge free radicals, which plays a crucial role in the etiology of several diseases. Unusual marine environments are associated with a great chemical diversity, resulting in novel bioactive molecules. Thus, marine organisms may represent an important source of novel biologically active substances for the development of therapeutics. In this respect, various novel marine carotenoids have recently been isolated from marine organisms and displayed several utilizations as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals. Marine carotenoids (astaxanthin, fucoxanthin, β-carotene, lutein but also the rare siphonaxanthin, sioxanthin, and myxol) have recently shown antioxidant properties in reducing oxidative stress markers. This review aims to describe the role of marine carotenoids against oxidative stress and their potential applications in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.

  1. The Role of Oxidative Stress in Aging and Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Teixeira

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Biologic aging is a process, and oxidative stress theory, which is one of the most accepted biological theories for aging, states that oxidative stress causes cumulative damage to mitochondrial DNA resulting in cellular senescence. Dementia is a neurodegenerative disorder whose major risk factor is aging. Although the exact neuronal lesion mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disorders, including dementia, are not yet known, most recent studies suggest oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics’ role in the process.Objective: Literature review on the role of oxidative stress’ role in aging and dementia.Methods: Literature review of selected arti-cles and books deemed relevant by the authors, supplemented by Medline/Pubmed database search using combinations of the following key-words: “oxidative stress”, “de-mentia”, “aging” and “pathogenesis”, published between 1950 and 2013. References of the selected articles and books were also considered.Results: In the last five years new research has been undertaken that enlightens the relation between oxidative stress and aging. One of the considered hypotheses states that during aging, the homeostatic regulation of biogenesis, dynamics and autophagic turnover of mitochondria disturbs their functioning, resulting in cellular senescence. Consequently, the oxidative burden may reach a critical threshold above which apoptosis is triggered, leading to irreversible mitochondrial derangement and cellular death. Although the exact neuronal lesion mechanisms underlying dementias are not known, multiple studies have consistently found increased oxidative damage in brain of patients with Alzheimer disease and recent data suggests involvement of mitochondrial dynamics in dementia processes, such as in aging.Conclusions: Most recent studies suggest the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dynamics’ in aging and dementia, either directly or

  2. Asymmetrical cross-talk between the endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress caused by dextrose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Arshag D; Onstead-Haas, Luisa; Haas, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stresses are implicated in premature cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the nature of the interplay between the oxidative and ER stresses to facilitate the development of therapeutic agents that can ameliorate these stresses. Human coronary artery endothelial cells were treated with varying concentrations of dextrose in the presence or absence of three antioxidants (alpha tocopherol, ascorbate and ebselen) and two ER stress modifiers (ERSMs) (4-phenylbutyrate and taurodeoxycholic acid). ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and superoxide (SO) generation was measured using the superoxide-reactive probe 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride chemiluminescence. The SO generation was increased with increasing concentrations of dextrose. The ER stress was increased with both low (0 and 2.75 mM) and high (13.75 and 27.5 mM) concentrations of dextrose. The antioxidants inhibited the dextrose induced SO production while in high concentrations they aggravated ER stress. The ERSM reduced ER stress and potentiated the efficacy of the three antioxidants. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress was not associated with increased SO generation. Time course experiments with a high concentration of dextrose or by overexpressing glucose transporter one in endothelial cells revealed that dextrose induced SO generation undergoes adaptive down regulation within 2 h while the ER stress is sustained throughout 72 h of observation. The nature of the cross talk between oxidative stress and ER stress induced by dextrose may explain the failure of antioxidant therapy in reducing diabetes complications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The effects of anesthetic agents on oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakan, Selvinaz; Düzgüner, Vesile

    2016-04-01

    Oxidative stress can be defined as the instability between antioxidant defense of the body and the production of free radical that causes peroxydation on the lipid layer. Free radicals are reactive oxygen species that are produced in the course of normal metabolisms of aerobe organisms and they may cause disorders in cell structure and organelles by interacting macromolecules, like lipid, protein, nucleic acids. Therefore, they may cause cardiovascular, immune system, liver, kidney illnesses and many other illnesses like cancer, aging, cataract, diabetes. It is known that many drugs used for the purpose of anesthetizing may cause lipid peroxidation in organism. For these reasons, determining the Oxidative stress index of anaesthetic stress chosen in the ones that are exposed to long term anaesthetic agents and anaesthesia appliccations, is so substantial.

  4. Oxidative stress in normal hematopoietic stem cells and leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samimi, Azin; Kalantari, Heybatullah; Lorestani, Marzieh Zeinvand; Shirzad, Reza; Saki, Najmaldin

    2018-04-01

    Leukemia is developed following the abnormal proliferation of immature hematopoietic cells in the blood when hematopoietic stem cells lose the ability to turn into mature cells at different stages of maturation and differentiation. Leukemia initiating cells are specifically dependent upon the suppression of oxidative stress in the hypoglycemic bone marrow (BM) environment to be able to start their activities. Relevant literature was identified by a PubMed search (2000-2017) of English-language literature using the terms 'oxidative stress,' 'reactive oxygen species,' 'hematopoietic stem cell,' and 'leukemia.' The generation and degradation of free radicals is a main component of the metabolism in aerobic organisms. A certain level of ROS is required for proper cellular function, but values outside this range will result in oxidative stress (OS). Long-term overactivity of reactive oxygen species (ROS) has harmful effects on the function of cells and their vital macromolecules, including the transformation of proteins into autoantigens and increased degradation of protein/DNA, which eventually leads to the change in pathways involved in the development of cancer and several other disorders. According to the metabolic disorders of cancer, the relationship between OS changes, the viability of cancer cells, and their response to chemotherapeutic agents affecting this pathway are undeniable. Recently, studies have been conducted to determine the effect of herbal agents and cancer chemotherapy drugs on oxidative stress pathways. By emphasizing the role of oxidative stress on stem cells in the incidence of leukemia, this paper attempts to state and summarize this subject. © 2018 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in human hepatoma cells exposed to stavudine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velsor, Leonard W.; Kovacevic, Miro; Goldstein, Mark; Leitner, Heather M.; Lewis, William; Day, Brian J.

    2004-01-01

    The toxicity of nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is linked to altered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and subsequent disruption of cellular energetics. This manifests clinically as elevated concentrations of lactate in plasma. The mechanism(s) underlying how the changes in mtDNA replication lead to lactic acidosis remains unclear. It is hypothesized that mitochondrial oxidative stress links the changes in mtDNA replication to mitochondrial dysfunction and ensuing NRTIs toxicity. To test this hypothesis, changes in mitochondrial function, mtDNA amplification efficiency, and oxidative stress were assessed in HepG2-cultured human hepatoblasts treated with the NRTI stavudine (2',3'-didehydro-2',3'-deoxythymidine or d4T) for 48 h. d4T produced significant mitochondrial dysfunction with a 1.5-fold increase in cellular lactate to pyruvate ratios. In addition, d4T caused a dose-dependent decrease in mtDNA amplification and a correlative increase in abundance of markers of mitochondrial oxidative stress. Manganese (III) meso-tetrakis (4-benzoic acid) porphyrin, MnTBAP, a catalytic antioxidant, ameliorated or reversed d4T-induced changes in cell injury, energetics, mtDNA amplification, and mitochondrial oxidative stress. In conclusion, d4T treatment elevates mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS), enhances mitochondrial oxidative stress, and contributes mechanistically to NRTI-induced toxicity. These deleterious events may be potentiated in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection itself, coinfection (e.g., viral hepatitis), aging, substance, and alcohol use

  6. RAGE polymorphisms and oxidative stress levels in Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakou, Maria; Saltiki, Katerina; Mantzou, Emily; Loukari, Eleni; Philippou, Georgios; Terzidis, Konstantinos; Lili, Kiriaki; Stavrianos, Charalampos; Kyprianou, Miltiades; Alevizaki, Maria

    2017-05-01

    Polymorphisms of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) gene have been studied in various autoimmune disorders, but not in Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Also, increased oxidative stress has been described in patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of two common RAGE polymorphisms (-429T>C, -374T>A) in Hashimoto's thyroiditis; in parallel, we studied oxidative stress levels. A total of 300 consecutive euthyroid women were examined and classified into three groups: Hashimoto's thyroiditis with treatment (n = 96), Hashimoto's thyroiditis without treatment (n = 109) and controls (n = 95). For a rough evaluation of oxidative stress, total lipid peroxide levels in serum were measured. The -429T>C AluI and -374T>A MfeI polymorphisms of RAGE were studied in genomic DNA. Significant association of the RAGE system with Hashimoto's thyroiditis was found only with regard to the prevalence of the -429T>C, but not with -374T>A polymorphism. The levels of oxidative stress were significantly elevated in Hashimoto's thyroiditis patients under treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that an oxidative stress cut-off value of 590 μmol/L is associated with an increased risk of progression of Hashimoto's thyroiditis from euthyroidism to hypothyroidism; this risk is further increased in carriers of the RAGE -429T>C polymorphism. Our findings indicate that both examined risk factors may be implicated in the occurrence of Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but this covers only a fraction of the pathophysiology of the disease. © 2017 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Thiamine Deficiency and Neurodegeneration: the Interplay Among Oxidative Stress, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dexiang; Ke, Zunji; Luo, Jia

    2017-09-01

    Thiamine (vitamin B1) is an essential nutrient and indispensable for normal growth and development of the organism due to its multilateral participation in key biochemical and physiological processes. Humans must obtain thiamine from their diet since it is synthesized only in bacteria, fungi, and plants. Thiamine deficiency (TD) can result from inadequate intake, increased requirement, excessive deletion, and chronic alcohol consumption. TD affects multiple organ systems, including the cardiovascular, muscular, gastrointestinal, and central and peripheral nervous systems. In the brain, TD causes a cascade of events including mild impairment of oxidative metabolism, neuroinflammation, and neurodegeneration, which are commonly observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Thiamine metabolites may serve as promising biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases, and thiamine supplementations exhibit therapeutic potential for patients of some neurodegenerative diseases. Experimental TD has been used to model aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. However, to date, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TD-induced neurodegeneration are not clear. Recent research evidence indicates that TD causes oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and autophagy in the brain, which are known to contribute to the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the role of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy in TD-mediated neurodegeneration. We propose that it is the interplay of oxidative stress, ER stress, and autophagy that contributes to TD-mediated neurodegeneration.

  8. Exercise-induced ST-T changes and severity of myocardial ischemia in single-vessel coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimonagata, Tsuyoshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Takamiya, Makoto; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya; Saito, Muneyasu.

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate how exercise-induced ST-T changes reflect the severity of myocardial ischemia in 66 patients with singlevessel disease (SVD) who underwent stress thallium scans. Quantitative assessment of myocardial ischemia was performed with thallium ischemic score (TIS) derived from circumferential profile analysis. Circumferential profiles of the initial and 4 hr redistribution myocardial image were generated for each of three views (ANT, LAO 45, LAO 70) and TIS was obtained as the average of the area between the initial and 4 hr redistribution profile for each view. In 66 patients with SVD, TIS were compared with coronary angiographic findings. TIS was correlated well with the severity of coronary artery stenosis. In addition, TIS was also correlated well with lung thallium uptake in 46 LAD disease. Therefore, these data proved that TIS was useful for the evaluation of the severity of myocardial ischemia. In 46 LAD disease, TIS, being as the indicator of the severity of myocardial ischemia, was compared precisely with results of stress electrocardiograms to evaluate how exercise-induced ST-T changes reflect the severity of myocardial ischemia. Patients with negative U wave had the highest mean TIS and those with horizontal or down sloping ST depression of 1.0 mm or more had higher mean TIS than those with slow upsloping ST depression of 1.5 mm or more, but there were no significant differences between these groups and those without ST-T change and the mean TIS was not different significantly between V 2-6 ST depression group and V 2-6 , II, III, a V F ST depression group. In conclusion, these results indicated that exercise-induced ST-T changes reflect the severity of myocardial ischemia in some degree but also has a limitation in evaluation of the severity of myocardial ischemia. (author)

  9. Oxidative stress homeostasis in grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luisa C Carvalho

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Plants can maintain growth and reproductive success by sensing changes in the environment and reacting through mechanisms at molecular, cellular, physiological and developmental levels. Each stress condition prompts a unique response although some overlap between the reactions to abiotic stress (drought, heat, cold, salt or high light and to biotic stress (pathogens does occur. A common feature in the response to all stresses is the onset of oxidative stress, through the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. As hydrogen peroxide and superoxide are involved in stress signaling, a tight control in ROS homeostasis requires a delicate balance of systems involved in their generation and degradation. If the plant lacks the capacity to generate scavenging potential, this can ultimately lead to death. In grapevine, antioxidant homeostasis can be considered at whole plant levels and during the development cycle. The most striking example lies in berries and their derivatives, such as wine, with nutraceutical properties associated with their antioxidant capacity. Antioxidant homeostasis is tightly regulated in leaves, assuring a positive balance between photosynthesis and respiration, explaining the tolerance of many grapevine varieties to extreme environments.In this review we will focus on antioxidant metabolites, antioxidant enzymes, transcriptional regulation and cross-talk with hormones prompted by abiotic stress conditions. We will also discuss three situations that require specific homeostasis balance: biotic stress, the oxidative burst in berries at veraison and in vitro systems. The genetic plasticity of the antioxidant homeostasis response put in evidence by the different levels of tolerance to stress presented by grapevine varieties will be addressed. The gathered information is relevant to foster varietal adaptation to impending climate changes, to assist breeders in choosing the more adapted varieties and to suitable viticulture

  10. Psychological stress during exercise: immunoendocrine and oxidative responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Jung; Webb, Heather E; Evans, Ronald K; McCleod, Kelly A; Tangsilsat, Supatchara E; Kamimori, Gary H; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the changes in catecholamines (epinephrine [EPI] and norepinephrine [NE]), interleukin-2 (IL-2) and a biomarker of oxidative stress (8-isoprostane) in healthy individuals who were exposed to a dual challenge (physical and psychological stress). Furthermore, this study also examined the possible relationships between catecholamines (NE and EPI) and 8-isoprostane and between IL-2 and 8-isoprostane following a combined physical and psychological challenge. Seven healthy male subjects completed two experimental conditions. The exercise-alone condition (EAC) consisted of cycling at 60% VO(2max) for 37 min, while the dual-stress condition (DSC) included 20 min of a mental challenge while cycling. DSC showed greater EPI and 8-isoprostane levels (significant condition by time interaction). NE and IL-2 revealed significant change across time in both conditions. In addition, following dual stress, EPI area-under-the-curve (AUC) demonstrated a positive correlation with NE AUC and IL-2 AUC. NE AUC was positively correlated with IL-2 AUC and peak 8-isoprostane, and peak IL-2 was positively correlated with peak 8-isoprostane in response to a dual stress. The potential explanation for elevated oxidative stress during dual stress may be through the effects of the release of catecholamines and IL-2. These findings may further provide the potential explanation that dual stress alters physiological homeostasis in many occupations including firefighting, military operations and law enforcement. A greater understanding of these responses to stress can assist in finding strategies (e.g. exercise training) to overcome the inherent psychobiological challenges associated with physically and mentally demanding professions.

  11. Probiotics enhance pancreatic glutathione biosynthesis and reduce oxidative stress in experimental acute pancreatitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutgendorff, Femke; Trulsson, Lena M.; van Minnen, L. Paul; Rijkers, Ger T.; Timmerman, Harro M.; Franzen, Lennart E.; Gooszen, Hein G.; Akkermans, Louis M. A.; Soderholm, Johan D.; Sandstrom, Per A.

    2008-01-01

    Factors determining severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) are poorly understood. Oxidative stress causes acinar cell injury and contributes to the severity, whereas prophylactic probiotics ameliorate experimental pancreatitis. Our objective was to study how probiotics affect oxidative stress,

  12. Live-cell Imaging Approaches for the Investigation of Xenobiotic-Induced Oxidant Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Oxidant stress is arguably a universal feature in toxicology. Research studies on the role of oxidant stress induced by xenobiotic exposures have typically relied on the identification of damaged biomolecules using a variety of conventional biochemical and molecular t...

  13. Mitochondrial oxidative stress in aortic stiffening with age: the role of smooth muscle cell function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: Age-related aortic stiffness is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Although oxidative stress is implicated in aortic stiffness, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain unelucidated. Here, we examined the source of oxidative stress in aging and i...

  14. Effects of stress on the oxide layer thickness and post-oxidation creep strain of zircaloy-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Sang Ho; Yoon, Young Ku

    1986-01-01

    Effects of compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and its subsequent relief on oxidation rate and post-oxidation creep characteristics of zircaloy-4 were investigated by oxidation studies in steam with and without applied tensile stress and by creep testing at 700 deg C in high purity argon. The thickness of oxide layer increased with the magnitude of tensile stress applied during oxidation at 650 deg C in steam whereas similar phenomenon was not observed during oxidation at 800 deg C. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C in steam without applied stress exhibited higher creep strain than that shown by unoxidized specimens when creep-tested in argon. Zircaloy-4 specimens oxidized at 600 deg C steam under the applied stress of 8.53MPa and oxidized at 800 deg C under the applied stress of 0 and 8.53MPa exhibited lower strain than that shown by unoxidized specimen. The above experimental results were accounted for on the basis of interactions among applied stress during oxidation, compressive stress generated in the oxide layer and elasticity of zircaloy-4 matrix. (Author)

  15. Toxicological and pharmacological concerns on oxidative stress and related diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh [Medicinal Plants Research Center, Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon (Canada); Abdollahi, Mohammad, E-mail: Mohammad@TUMS.Ac.Ir [Department of Toxicology and Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Sciences Research Center, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 1417614411 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are generated as the natural byproduct of normal oxygen metabolism, they can create oxidative damage via interaction with bio-molecules. The role of oxidative stress as a remarkable upstream part is frequently reported in the signaling cascade of inflammation as well as chemo attractant production. Even though hydrogen peroxide can control cell signaling and stimulate cell proliferation at low levels, in higher concentrations it can initiate apoptosis and in very high levels may create necrosis. So far, the role of ROS in cellular damage and death is well documented with implicating in a broad range of degenerative alterations e.g. carcinogenesis, aging and other oxidative stress related diseases (OSRDs). Reversely, it is cleared that antioxidants are potentially able to suppress (at least in part) the immune system and to enhance the normal cellular protective responses to tissue damage. In this review, we aimed to provide insights on diverse OSRDs, which are correlated with the concept of oxidative stress as well as its cellular effects that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Resveratrol, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statins, nebivolol and carvedilol, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and plant-derived drugs (alone or combined) are the potential medicines that can be used to control OSRD.

  16. In vitro potential cytogenetic and oxidative stress effects of roxithromycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Mehmet; Timocin, Taygun; Ila, Hasan B

    2017-10-01

    Macrolide antibiotic roxithromycin was evaluated in terms of its genotoxic, cytotoxic and oxidative stress effects. For this purpose; 25, 50, 100 and 200 μg/mL concentrations of roxithromycin were dissolved in dimethyl sulfoxide and treated to human peripheral blood lymphocytes for two different treatment periods (24 and 48 h). In chromosome aberration (CA) and micronucleus (MN) tests, roxithromycin did not show genotoxic effect. But it induced sister chromatid exchange (SCE) at the highest concentration (200 μg/mL) for the 24-h treatment period and at all concentrations (except 25 μg/mL) for the 48-h treatment period. Looking at cytotoxic effect of roxithromycin, statistically insignificant decreases on mitotic index and proliferation index were observed. Roxithromycin decreased nuclear division index (NDI) at highest two concentrations (100 and 200 μg/mL) for the 24-h treatment period and at all concentrations (expect 25 μg/mL) for the 48-h treatment period. Total oxidant values, total antioxidant values and oxidative stress index did not change with roxithromycin treatment. Eventually, roxithromycin did not have genotoxic and oxidative stress effects in human-cultured lymphocytes.

  17. Oxidative stress in resuscitation and in ventilation of newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gitto, E; Pellegrino, S; D'Arrigo, S; Barberi, I; Reiter, R J

    2009-12-01

    The lungs of newborns are especially prone to oxidative damage induced by both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species. Yet, these infants are often 1) exposed to high oxygen concentrations, 2) have infections or inflammation, 3) have reduced antioxidant defense, and 4) have high free iron levels which enhance toxic radical generation. Oxidative stress has been postulated to be implicated in several newborn conditions with the phrase "oxygen radical diseases of neonatology" having been coined. There is, however, reason to believe that oxidative stress is increased more when resuscitation is performed with pure oxygen compared with ambient air and that the most effective ventilatory strategy is the avoidance of mechanical ventilation with the use of nasopharyngeal continuous positive airway pressure whenever possible. Multiple ventilation strategies have been attempted to reduce injury and improve outcomes in newborn infants. In this review, the authors summarise the scientific evidence concerning oxidative stress as it relates to resuscitation in the delivery room and to the various modalities of ventilation.

  18. Toxicological and pharmacological concerns on oxidative stress and related diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeidnia, Soodabeh; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radical are generated as the natural byproduct of normal oxygen metabolism, they can create oxidative damage via interaction with bio-molecules. The role of oxidative stress as a remarkable upstream part is frequently reported in the signaling cascade of inflammation as well as chemo attractant production. Even though hydrogen peroxide can control cell signaling and stimulate cell proliferation at low levels, in higher concentrations it can initiate apoptosis and in very high levels may create necrosis. So far, the role of ROS in cellular damage and death is well documented with implicating in a broad range of degenerative alterations e.g. carcinogenesis, aging and other oxidative stress related diseases (OSRDs). Reversely, it is cleared that antioxidants are potentially able to suppress (at least in part) the immune system and to enhance the normal cellular protective responses to tissue damage. In this review, we aimed to provide insights on diverse OSRDs, which are correlated with the concept of oxidative stress as well as its cellular effects that can be inhibited by antioxidants. Resveratrol, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, statins, nebivolol and carvedilol, pentaerythritol tetranitrate, mitochondria-targeted antioxidants, and plant-derived drugs (alone or combined) are the potential medicines that can be used to control OSRD

  19. Implication of Oxidative Stress in Fetal Programming of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Pilar; Ramiro-Cortijo, David; Reyes-Hernández, Cynthia G.; López de Pablo, Angel L.; González, M. Carmen; Arribas, Silvia M.

    2018-01-01

    Lifestyle and genetic background are well known risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). A third contributing factor is suboptimal fetal development, due to nutrient or oxygen deprivation, placental insufficiency, or exposure to toxic substances. The fetus adapts to adverse intrauterine conditions to ensure survival; the immediate consequence is low birth weight (LBW) and the long-term effect is an increased susceptibility to develop CVD in adult life. This process is known as Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) or fetal programming of CVD. The influence of fetal life for the future cardiovascular health of the individual has been evidenced by numerous epidemiologic studies in populations suffering from starvation during intrauterine life. Furthermore, experimental animal models have provided support and enabled exploring the underlying mechanisms. Oxidative stress seems to play a central role in fetal programming of CVD, both in the response of the feto-placental unit to the suboptimal intrauterine environment and in the alterations of physiologic systems of cardiovascular control, ultimately leading to disease. This review aims to summarize current knowledge on the alterations in oxidative balance in response to fetal stress factors covering two aspects. Firstly, the evidence from human studies of the implication of oxidative stress in LBW induced by suboptimal conditions during intrauterine life, emphasizing the role of the placenta. In the second part we summarize data on specific redox alterations in key cardiovascular control organs induced by exposure to known stress factors in experimental animals and discuss the emerging role of the mitochondria. PMID:29875698

  20. An update on oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Kahkashan; Sinha, Krishnendu; Sil, Parames C

    2013-12-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants and drugs can result in pathophysiological situations in the body. Research in this area is essential as the knowledge on cellular survival and death would help in designing effective therapeutic strategies that are needed for the maintenance of the normal physiological functions of the body. In this regard, naturally occurring bio-molecules can be considered as potential therapeutic targets as they are normally available in commonly consumed foodstuffs and are thought to have minimum side effects. This review article describes the detailed mechanisms of oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology and the ultimate fate of the cells either to survive or to undergo necrotic or apoptotic death. The mechanisms underlying the beneficial role of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in oxidative stress-mediated organ pathophysiology have also been included in the review. The review provides useful information about the recent progress in understanding the mechanism(s) of various types of organ pathophysiology, the complex cross-talk between these pathways, as well as their modulation in stressed conditions. Additionally, it suggests possible therapeutic applications of a number of naturally occurring bioactive molecules in conditions involving oxidative stress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oxidative Stress Responses in the Human Fungal Pathogen, Candida albicans

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva Dantas, Alessandra; Day, Alison; Ikeh, Mélanie; Kos, Iaroslava; Achan, Beatrice; Quinn, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a major fungal pathogen of humans, causing approximately 400,000 life-threatening systemic infections world-wide each year in severely immunocompromised patients. An important fungicidal mechanism employed by innate immune cells involves the generation of toxic reactive oxygen species (ROS), such as superoxide and hydrogen peroxide. Consequently, there is much interest in the strategies employed by C. albicans to evade the oxidative killing by macrophages and neutrophils. Our understanding of how C. albicans senses and responds to ROS has significantly increased in recent years. Key findings include the observations that hydrogen peroxide triggers the filamentation of this polymorphic fungus and that a superoxide dismutase enzyme with a novel mode of action is expressed at the cell surface of C. albicans. Furthermore, recent studies have indicated that combinations of the chemical stresses generated by phagocytes can actively prevent C. albicans oxidative stress responses through a mechanism termed the stress pathway interference. In this review, we present an up-date of our current understanding of the role and regulation of oxidative stress responses in this important human fungal pathogen. PMID:25723552

  2. Systemic oxidative stress markers in animal model for depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouzinova, Elena; Kravtsova, Violetta; Aalkjær, Christian

    Involvement of oxidative stress (OxS) in development of major depressive disorder has recently become evident, though mechanisms behind this remain elusive. We analyzed therefore OxS pathways in rat Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) model of depression. Rats are exposed to chronic unpredictable mild...... mg/kg/day). Saline injections were done to control the vehicle effect. Escitalopram treated rats were sub-divided into 2 groups: responders and non-responders, according to their hedonic state and compared to non-stressed rats, treated with either saline or Escitalopram. Measurement of total...... glutathione and malondialdehyde (MDA) in lungs, heart, skeletal muscles, liver, saphenous, mesenteric, and tail arteries were used as estimates for OxS. In heart, glutathione was increased in CMS rats in comparison with non-stressed vehicle group. Accordingly, an estimate for free radical activity, MDA...

  3. Molecular Mechanisms behind Free Radical Scavengers Function against Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fereshteh Ahmadinejad

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence shows that oxidative stress is involved in a wide variety of human diseases: rheumatoid arthritis, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, cancers, etc. Here, we discuss the significance of oxidative conditions in different disease, with the focus on neurodegenerative disease including Parkinson’s disease, which is mainly caused by oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS, respectively, collectively known as RONS, are produced by cellular enzymes such as myeloperoxidase, NADPH-oxidase (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS. Natural antioxidant systems are categorized into enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant groups. The former includes a number of enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase, while the latter contains a number of antioxidants acquired from dietary sources including vitamin C, carotenoids, flavonoids and polyphenols. There are also scavengers used for therapeutic purposes, such as 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA used routinely in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease (not as a free radical scavenger, and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one (Edaravone that acts as a free radical detoxifier frequently used in acute ischemic stroke. The cell surviving properties of L-DOPA and Edaravone against oxidative stress conditions rely on the alteration of a number of stress proteins such as Annexin A1, Peroxiredoxin-6 and PARK7/DJ-1 (Parkinson disease protein 7, also known as Protein deglycase DJ-1. Although they share the targets in reversing the cytotoxic effects of H2O2, they seem to have distinct mechanism of function. Exposure to L-DOPA may result in hypoxia condition and further induction of ORP150 (150-kDa oxygen-regulated protein with its concomitant cytoprotective effects but Edaravone seems to protect cells via direct induction of Peroxiredoxin-2 and inhibition of apoptosis.

  4. Oxidative stress markers at birth: Analyses of a neonatal population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuffrè, Mario; Rizzo, Manfredi; Scaturro, Giusy; Pitruzzella, Alessandro; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Cappello, Francesco; Corsello, Giovanni; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    In order to further understand neonatal stress and, thus, control it efficaciously, there is a need for more information on the manifestations of stress at the molecular level in the newborn, with particular regard to oxidants, and anti-oxidant and anti-stress mechanisms, including mitochondrial heat shock protein-chaperones such as Hsp60. We investigated patterns of anti-oxidants, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and Hsp60 levels in sera from newborns and found significant associations between glutathione (GSH) levels and gestational age, delivery modality, and lipid hydroperoxydes (LOOH) level. LOOH levels and spontaneous (vaginal) delivery were independently associated with increased GSH levels when these were above the median. Hsp60 and LOOH levels were positively correlated whereas Hsp60 and GSH levels were inversely correlated in spontaneously delivered newborns; in contrast, Hsp60 and GSH levels were positively correlated in newborns delivered by cesarea. Our results point to new directions in the search for definite patterns of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 in the newborn's serum that might have functional and diagnostic significance and that could help in the monitoring of newborn health during and after delivery. In addition, the data provide a starting basis for investigating the precise roles and interplay of GSH and Hsp60 in the maintenance of an optimal redox balance at birth to cope with the stress inherent to delivery, and also for investigating the predictive value of any given pattern of GSH, LOOH, and Hsp60 at birth with regard to health status and risk of disease in adult life. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  5. Circadian Rhythm Connections to Oxidative Stress: Implications for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilking, Melissa; Ndiaye, Mary; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Oxygen and circadian rhythmicity are essential in a myriad of physiological processes to maintain homeostasis, from blood pressure and sleep/wake cycles, down to cellular signaling pathways that play critical roles in health and disease. If the human body or cells experience significant stress, their ability to regulate internal systems, including redox levels and circadian rhythms, may become impaired. At cellular as well as organismal levels, impairment in redox regulation and circadian rhythms may lead to a number of adverse effects, including the manifestation of a variety of diseases such as heart diseases, neurodegenerative conditions, and cancer. Recent Advances: Researchers have come to an understanding as to the basics of the circadian rhythm mechanism, as well as the importance of the numerous species of oxidative stress components. The effects of oxidative stress and dysregulated circadian rhythms have been a subject of intense investigations since they were first discovered, and recent investigations into the molecular mechanisms linking the two have started to elucidate the bases of their connection. Critical Issues: While much is known about the mechanics and importance of oxidative stress systems and circadian rhythms, the front where they interact has had very little research focused on it. This review discusses the idea that these two systems are together intricately involved in the healthy body, as well as in disease. Future Directions: We believe that for a more efficacious management of diseases that have both circadian rhythm and oxidative stress components in their pathogenesis, targeting both systems in tandem would be far more successful. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 192–208 PMID:23198849

  6. Oxidative costs of reproduction: Oxidative stress in mice fed standard and low antioxidant diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaanholt, L M; Milne, A; Zheng, Y; Hambly, C; Mitchell, S E; Valencak, T G; Allison, D B; Speakman, J R

    2016-02-01

    Lactation is one of the most energetically expensive behaviours, and trade-offs may exist between the energy devoted to it and somatic maintenance, including protection against oxidative damage. However, conflicting data exist for the effects of reproduction on oxidative stress. In the wild, a positive relationship is often observed, but in laboratory studies oxidative damage is often lower in lactating than in non-breeding animals. We hypothesised that this discrepancy may exist because during lactation food intake increases many-fold resulting in a large increase in the intake of dietary antioxidants which are typically high in laboratory rodent chow where they are added as a preservative. We supplied lactating and non-breeding control mice with either a standard or low antioxidant diet and studied how this affected the activity of endogenous antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase; SOD, and glutathione peroxidise; GPx) and oxidative damage to proteins (protein carbonyls, PC) in liver and brain tissue. The low antioxidant diet did not significantly affect activities of antioxidant enzymes in brain or liver, and generally did not result in increased protein damage, except in livers of control mice on low antioxidant diet. Catalase activity, but not GPx or SOD, was decreased in both control and lactating mice on the low antioxidant diet. Lactating mice had significantly reduced oxidative damage to both liver and brain compared to control mice, independent of the diet they were given. In conclusion, antioxidant content of the diet did not affect oxidative stress in control or reproductive mice, and cannot explain the previously observed reduction in oxidative stress in lactating mammals studied in the laboratory. The reduced oxidative stress in the livers of lactating mice even under low antioxidant diet treatment was consistent with the 'shielding' hypothesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidative Stress in Patients with Drug Resistant Partial Complex Seizure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Lorigados Pedre

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress (OS has been implicated as a pathophysiological mechanism of drug-resistant epilepsy, but little is known about the relationship between OS markers and clinical parameters, such as the number of drugs, age onset of seizure and frequency of seizures per month. The current study’s aim was to evaluate several oxidative stress markers and antioxidants in 18 drug-resistant partial complex seizure (DRPCS patients compared to a control group (age and sex matched, and the results were related to clinical variables. We examined malondialdehyde (MDA, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP, advanced glycation end products (AGEs, nitric oxide (NO, uric acid, superoxide dismutase (SOD, glutathione, vitamin C, 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE and nitrotyrosine (3-NT. All markers except 4-HNE and 3-NT were studied by spectrophotometry. The expressions of 4-HNE and 3-NT were evaluated by Western blot analysis. MDA levels in patients were significantly increased (p ≤ 0.0001 while AOPP levels were similar to the control group. AGEs, NO and uric acid concentrations were significantly decreased (p ≤ 0.004, p ≤ 0.005, p ≤ 0.0001, respectively. Expressions of 3-NT and 4-HNE were increased (p ≤ 0.005 similarly to SOD activity (p = 0.0001, whereas vitamin C was considerably diminished (p = 0.0001. Glutathione levels were similar to the control group. There was a positive correlation between NO and MDA with the number of drugs. The expression of 3-NT was positively related with the frequency of seizures per month. There was a negative relationship between MDA and age at onset of seizures, as well as vitamin C with seizure frequency/month. We detected an imbalance in the redox state in patients with DRCPS, supporting oxidative stress as a relevant mechanism in this pathology. Thus, it is apparent that some oxidant and antioxidant parameters are closely linked with clinical variables.

  8. Increased oxidative stress in infants exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aycicek, Ali; Erel, Ozcan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of passive cigarette smoking on the oxidative and anti-oxidative status of plasma in infants. Eighty-four infants aged 6-28 weeks were divided into two groups: the study group included infants who had been exposed to passive smoking via at least five cigarettes per day for at least the past 6 weeks at home, while the control group included infants who had never been exposed to passive smoking. The antioxidative status of plasma was assessed by the measurement of individual antioxidant components: vitamin C, albumin, bilirubin, uric acid, thiol contents and total antioxidant capacity (TAC 1 and TAC 2). Oxidative status was assessed by the determination of total peroxide levels and the oxidative stress index (OSI 1 and OSI 2). Plasma vitamin C, thiol concentration and TAC 1 and TAC 2 levels were significantly lower, whereas plasma total peroxide levels and OSI 1 and OSI 2 were significantly higher, in passive smoking infants than in the controls (Pantioxidant defence system in infants, and exposes them to potent oxidative stress.

  9. Acetaminophen inhibits neuronal inflammation and protects neurons from oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grammas Paula

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies have demonstrated a link between the inflammatory response, increased cytokine formation, and neurodegeneration in the brain. The beneficial effects of anti-inflammatory drugs in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD, have been documented. Increasing evidence suggests that acetaminophen has unappreciated anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The objectives of this study are to determine the effects of acetaminophen on cultured brain neuronal survival and inflammatory factor expression when exposed to oxidative stress. Methods Cerebral cortical cultured neurons are pretreated with acetaminophen and then exposed to the superoxide-generating compound menadione (5 μM. Cell survival is assessed by MTT assay and inflammatory protein (tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1, macrophage inflammatory protein alpha, and RANTES release quantitated by ELISA. Expression of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins is assessed by western blots. Results Acetaminophen has pro-survival effects on neurons in culture. Menadione, a superoxide releasing oxidant stressor, causes a significant (p Conclusion These data show that acetaminophen has anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects on neurons and suggest a heretofore unappreciated therapeutic potential for this drug in neurodegenerative diseases such as AD that are characterized by oxidant and inflammatory stress.

  10. How does the macula protect itself from oxidative stress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, James T

    2012-08-01

    Oxidative stress has been hypothesized to contribute to the development of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), the most common cause of blindness in the United States. At present, there is no treatment for early disease. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a physiological role in the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), a key cell type in this disease, but with excessive ROS, oxidative damage or excessive innate immune system activation can result. The RPE has developed a robust antioxidant system driven by the transcription factor Nrf2. Impaired Nrf2 signaling can lead to oxidative damage or activate the innate immune response, both of which can lead to RPE apoptosis, a defining change in AMD. Several mouse models simulating environmental stressors or targeting specific antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase or Nrf2, have simulated some of the features of AMD. While ROS are short-lived, oxidatively damaged molecules termed oxidation specific epitopes (OSEs), can be long-lived and a source of chronic stress that activates the innate immune system through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The macula accumulates a number of OSEs including carboxyethylpyrrole, malondialdehyde, 4-hydroxynonenal, and advanced glycation endproducts, as well as their respective neutralizing PRRs. Excessive accumulation of OSEs results in pathologic immune activation. For example, mice immunized with the carboxyethylpyrrole develop cardinal features of AMD. Regulating ROS in the RPE by modulating antioxidant systems or neutralizing OSEs through an appropriate innate immune response are potential modalities to treat or prevent early AMD. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Oxidative stress and mechanisms of ochronosis in alkaptonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braconi, Daniela; Millucci, Lia; Bernardini, Giulia; Santucci, Annalisa

    2015-11-01

    Alkaptonuria (AKU) is a rare metabolic disease due to a deficient activity of the enzyme homogentisate 1,2-dioxygenase (HGD), involved in Phe and Tyr catabolism. Due to such a deficiency, AKU patients undergo accumulation of the metabolite homogentisic acid (HGA), which is prone to oxidation/polymerization reactions causing the production of a melanin-like pigment. Once the pigment is deposited onto connective tissues (mainly in joints, spine, and cardiac valves), a classical bluish-brown discoloration is imparted, leading to a phenomenon known as "ochronosis", the hallmark of AKU. A clarification of the molecular mechanisms for the production and deposition of the ochronotic pigment in AKU started only recently with a range of in vitro and ex vivo human models used for the study of HGA-induced effects. Thanks to redox-proteomic analyses, it was found that HGA could induce significant oxidation of a number of serum and chondrocyte proteins. Further investigations allowed highlighting how HGA-induced proteome alteration, lipid peroxidation, thiol depletion, and amyloid production could contribute to oxidative stress generation and protein oxidation in AKU. This review briefly summarizes the most recent findings on HGA-induced oxidative stress in AKU, helping in the clarification of the molecular mechanisms of ochronosis and potentially providing the basis for its pharmacological treatment. Future work should be undertaken in order to validate in vivo the results so far obtained in in vitro AKU models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Global DNA methylation and oxidative stress biomarkers in workers exposed to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liou, Saou-Hsing; Wu, Wei-Te; Liao, Hui-Yi [National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, National Health Research Institutes, Zhunan, Miaoli County, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chao-Yu; Tsai, Cheng-Yen; Jung, Wei-Ting [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China); Lee, Hui-Ling, E-mail: huilinglee3573@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City, Taiwan (China)

    2017-06-05

    Highlights: • Global methylation and oxidative DNA damage levels in nanomaterial handling workers were assessed. • 8-isoprostane in exhaled breath condensate of workers exposed to nanoparticles was higher. • 8-OHdG was negatively correlated with global methylation. • Exposure to metal oxide nanoparticles may lead to global methylation and DNA oxidative damage. - Abstract: This is the first study to assess global methylation, oxidative DNA damage, and lipid peroxidation in workers with occupational exposure to metal oxide nanomaterials (NMs). Urinary and white blood cell (WBC) 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), and exhaled breath condensate (EBC) 8-isoprostane were measured as oxidative stress biomarkers. WBC global methylation was measured as an epigenetic alteration. Exposure to TiO{sub 2}, SiO{sub 2,} and indium tin oxide (ITO) resulted in significantly higher oxidative biomarkers such as urinary 8-OHdG and EBC 8-isoprostane. However, significantly higher WBC 8-OHdG and lower global methylation were only observed in ITO handling workers. Significant positive correlations were noted between WBC and urinary 8-OHdG (Spearman correlation r = 0.256, p = 0.003). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between WBC 8-OHdG and global methylation (r = −0.272, p = 0.002). These results suggest that exposure to metal oxide NMs may lead to global methylation, DNA oxidative damage, and lipid peroxidation.

  13. Exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to excess Zn reveals a Zn-specific oxidative stress signature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remans, T.; Opdenakker, G.; Guisez, Y.; Carleer, R.; Schat, H.; Vangronsveld, J.; Cuypers, A.

    2012-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential micronutrient for plants, but accumulation of excess Zn causes oxidative stress, even though the element is not redox-active. An oxidative stress signature, consisting of multiple oxidative stress related parameters, is indicative of disturbance of redox homeostasis and

  14. Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oxidative stress and lung function profiles of male smokers free from COPD compared to those with COPD: A case-control study. ... However, conclusions about the role of blood or lung oxidative stress markers were disparate. Aims: To ... Keywords: inflammation; lung disease; spirometry; tobacco; sedentarily; stress oxidant ...

  15. Carbon monoxide exposure enhances arrhythmia after cardiac stress: involvement of oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Lucas; Gouzi, Fares; Thireau, Jérôme; Meyer, Gregory; Boissiere, Julien; Delage, Martine; Abdellaoui, Aldja; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Fouret, Gilles; Cristol, Jean-Paul; Lacampagne, Alain; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Fauconnier, Jérémy; Hayot, Maurice; Richard, Sylvain; Cazorla, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Arrhythmias following cardiac stress are a key predictor of death in healthy population. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous pollutant promoting oxidative stress and associated with hospitalization for cardiovascular disease and cardiac mortality. We investigated the effect of chronic CO exposure on the occurrence of arrhythmic events after a cardiac stress test and the possible involvement of related oxidative stress. Wistar rats exposed chronically (4 weeks) to sustained urban CO pollution presented more arrhythmic events than controls during recovery after cardiac challenge with isoprenaline in vivo. Sudden death occurred in 22% of CO-exposed rats versus 0% for controls. Malondialdehyde (MDA), an end-product of lipid peroxidation, was increased in left ventricular tissue of CO-exposed rats. Cardiomyocytes isolated from CO-exposed rats showed higher reactive oxygen species (ROS) production (measured with MitoSox Red dye), higher diastolic Ca(2+) resulting from SR calcium leak and an higher occurrence of irregular Ca(2+) transients (measured with Indo-1) in comparison to control cells after a high pacing sequence. Acute treatment with a ROS scavenger (N-acetylcysteine, 20 mmol/L, 1 h) prevented this sequence of alterations and decreased the number of arrhythmic cells following high pacing. Chronic CO exposure promotes oxidative stress that alters Ca(2+) homeostasis (through RYR2 and SERCA defects) and thereby mediates the triggering of ventricular arrhythmia after cardiac stress that can lead to sudden death.

  16. Increased oxidative stress in preschool children exposed to passive smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, Faruk; Sermetow, Kabil; Aycicek, Ali; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Erel, Ozcan

    2011-01-01

    To study the effect of passive cigarette smoking on plasma oxidative and antioxidative status in passive smoking preschool children and to compare them with controls. Thirty-four passive smoking (five to 50 cigarettes per day) preschool children (study group) and 32 controls who had never been exposed to cigarette smoke were randomly chosen from children aged from 4 to 6 years. Urinary cotinine and plasma indicators of oxidative and antioxidative status, i.e., total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and oxidative stress index (OSI), were determined. Mean environmental cigarette consumption was 22±13 cigarettes per day in passive smoking children. Mean urinary cotinine levels were 77.6±41.4 ng/mL and 11.9±2.3 ng/mL in the study and control groups, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean plasma TAC levels were 0.95±0.13 mmol Trolox equivalent/L and 1.01±0.09 mmol Trolox equivalent/L, respectively (p = 0.039). Mean plasma TOS levels were 28.6±7.9 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L and 18.5±6.3 µmol H2O2 equivalent/L, respectively (p < 0.001). Mean OSI levels were 3.08±0.98 arbitrary units and 1.84±0.64 arbitrary units, respectively (p < 0.001). A small amount of cigarette smoke (five to 10 cigarettes per day) causes considerable oxidative stress. There were significant correlations between number of cigarettes consumed and oxidant status and OSI levels. Passive smoke is a potent oxidant in preschool children. Its deleterious effects are not limited just to heavy passive smoking, but also occur with exposure to small amounts of smoke.

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  18. Oxidative Stress after Surgery on the Immature Heart

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Fudulu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Paediatric heart surgery is associated with increased inflammation and the production of reactive oxygen species. Use of the extracorporeal cardiopulmonary bypass during correction of congenital heart defects generates reactive oxygen species by various mechanisms: haemolysis, neutrophil activation, ischaemia reperfusion injury, reoxygenation injury, or depletion of the endogenous antioxidants. The immature myocardium is more vulnerable to reactive oxygen species because of developmental differences compared to the adult heart but also because of associated congenital heart diseases that can deplete its antioxidant reserve. Oxidative stress can be manipulated by various interventions: exogenous antioxidants, use of steroids, cardioplegia, blood prime strategies, or miniaturisation of the cardiopulmonary bypass circuit. However, it is unclear if modulation of the redox pathways can alter clinical outcomes. Further studies powered to look at clinical outcomes are needed to define the role of oxidative stress in paediatric patients.

  19. Cardiovascular Complications of Sleep Apnea: Role of Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Badran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA occurs in 2% of middle-aged women and 4% of middle-aged men with a higher prevalence among obese subjects. This condition is considered as an independent risk factor for cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases. One of the major pathophysiological characteristics of OSA is intermittent hypoxia. Hypoxia can lead to oxidative stress and overproduction of reactive oxygen species, which can lead to endothelial dysfunction, a hallmark of atherosclerosis. Many animal models, such as the rodent model of intermittent hypoxia, mimic obstructive sleep apnea in human patients and allow more in-depth investigation of biological and cellular mechanisms of this condition. This review discusses the role of oxidative stress in cardiovascular disease resulting from OSA in humans and animal models.

  20. Oxidative Stress and Programmed Cell Death in Yeast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, Gianluca; Balzan, Rena

    2012-01-01

    Yeasts, such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae, have long served as useful models for the study of oxidative stress, an event associated with cell death and severe human pathologies. This review will discuss oxidative stress in yeast, in terms of sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS), their molecular targets, and the metabolic responses elicited by cellular ROS accumulation. Responses of yeast to accumulated ROS include upregulation of antioxidants mediated by complex transcriptional changes, activation of pro-survival pathways such as mitophagy, and programmed cell death (PCD) which, apart from apoptosis, includes pathways such as autophagy and necrosis, a form of cell death long considered accidental and uncoordinated. The role of ROS in yeast aging will also be discussed.

  1. [Oxidative stress and antioxitant therapy of chronic periodontitis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Y X; Guo, S J; Wu, Y F

    2016-07-01

    Chronic periodontitis is a progressive, infectious inflammation disease, caused by the dysbiosis of oral resident flora, leading to the destruction of periodontium. The onset of pathogenic microorganisms is the etiological factor of periodontitis, while the immuno-inflammatory response affects the progression of the disease. Under chronic periodontitis, oxidative stress occurs when excessive reactive oxygen species are produced and exceed the compensative capacity of the organism. Oxidative stress leads to the destruction of periodontium, in a direct way(damaging the biomolecule) or an indirect way(enhancing the produce of inflammatory cytokine and destructive enzymes). Therefore, as the antagonist of the reactive oxygen species, antioxidants may be helpful to treat the chronic periodontitis. This paper reviewed relevant literatures about the destructive role of excessive reactive oxygen species and protective role of antioxidants in chronic periodontitis.

  2. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in infected pregnant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Нана Мерабівна Пасієшвілі

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The infected pregnant women have been various perinatal complications. The aim of the work was to clarify the role of oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development of perinatal complications in infected pregnant.Methods. The study included 68 pregnant women with signs of maternal-fetal infection (MFI and 30 pregnant women who were found infected (control group. Later pregnant with MFI were divided into 2 groups: the first included 30 women who received traditional antibacterial and antiviral therapy, the second group consisted of 28 women who were additionally given an immunomodulator in combination with ozone therapy.Results. During pregnancy with MFI it is characterized the thrombophilic disorders, break immune homeostasis pregnant, endothelial dysfunction, which adversely affects perinatal indicators.Conclusions. The use of immunomodulators and ozone therapy in the complex treatment of MFI is pathogenetically substantiated effective treatment of oxidative stress and mitochondrial toxicity in the prevention of perinatal complications in infected women

  3. Nivalenol induces oxidative stress and increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effect in intestinal epithelial cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Regno, Marisanta; Adesso, Simona; Popolo, Ada [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Quaroni, Andrea [Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Veterinary Research Tower, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853–6401 (United States); Autore, Giuseppina [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy); Severino, Lorella [Department of Pathology and Animal Health, Division of Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Delpino 1, 80137 Naples (Italy); Marzocco, Stefania, E-mail: smarzocco@unisa.it [Department of Pharmacy, School of Pharmacy, University of Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II, 132–84084 Fisciano, Salerno (Italy)

    2015-06-01

    Mycotoxins are secondary fungal metabolites often found as contaminants in almost all agricultural commodities worldwide, and the consumption of food or feed contaminated by mycotoxins represents a major risk for human and animal health. Reactive oxygen species are normal products of cellular metabolism. However, disproportionate generation of reactive oxygen species poses a serious problem to bodily homeostasis and causes oxidative tissue damage. In this study we analyzed the effect of two trichothecenes mycotoxins: nivalenol and deoxynivalenol, alone and in combination, on oxidative stress in the non-tumorigenic intestinal epithelial cell line IEC-6. Our results indicate the pro-oxidant nivalenol effect in IEC-6, the stronger pro-oxidant effect of nivalenol when compared to deoxynivalenol and, interestingly, that nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidative effects. Mechanistic studies indicate that the observed effects were mediated by NADPH oxidase, calcium homeostasis alteration, NF-kB and Nrf2 pathways activation and by iNOS and nitrotyrosine formation. The toxicological interaction by nivalenol and deoxynivalenol reported in this study in IEC-6, points out the importance of the toxic effect of these mycotoxins, mostly in combination, further highlighting the risk assessment process of these toxins that are of growing concern. - Highlights: • Nivalenol induces oxidative stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). • Nivalenol increases deoxynivalenol pro-oxidant effects in IECs. • Nivalenol and deoxynivalenol trigger antioxidant response IECs. • These results indicate the importance of mycotoxins co-contamination.

  4. Oxidative stress induced by cerium oxide nanoparticles in cultured BEAS-2B cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun-Jung; Choi, Jinhee; Park, Young-Kwon; Park, Kwangsik

    2008-01-01

    Cerium oxide nanoparticles of different sizes (15, 25, 30, 45 nm) were prepared by the supercritical synthesis method, and cytotoxicity was evaluated using cultured human lung epithelial cells (BEAS-2B). Exposure of the cultured cells to nanoparticles (5, 10, 20, 40 μg/ml) led to cell death, ROS increase, GSH decrease, and the inductions of oxidative stress-related genes such as heme oxygenase-1, catalase, glutathione S-transferase, and thioredoxin reductase. The increased ROS by cerium oxide nanoparticles triggered the activation of cytosolic caspase-3 and chromatin condensation, which means that cerium oxide nanoparticles exert cytotoxicity by an apoptotic process. Uptake of the nanoparticles to the cultured cells was also tested. It was observed that cerium oxide nanoparticles penetrated into the cytoplasm and located in the peri-region of the nucleus as aggregated particles, which may induce the direct interaction between nanoparticles and cellular molecules to cause adverse cellular responses

  5. Obesity and exercise-induced ectopic ventricular arrhythmias in apparently healthy middle aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbag, Avi; Sidi, Yechezkel; Kivity, Shaye; Beinart, Roy; Glikson, Michael; Segev, Shlomo; Goldenberg, Ilan; Maor, Elad

    2016-03-01

    Obesity and overweight are strongly associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, there are limited data on the association between excess weight and the risk of ectopic ventricular activity. We investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and the risk for ectopic ventricular activity (defined as multiple ventricular premature beats (≥3), ventricular bigeminy, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia or sustained ventricular tachycardia) during exercise stress testing among 22,516 apparently healthy men and women who attended periodic health screening examinations between the years 2000 and 2014. All subjects had completed maximal exercise stress testing annually according to the Bruce protocol. Subjects were divided at baseline into three groups: normal weight (BMI ≥ 18.5 kg/m(2) andexercise-induced ectopic ventricular activity arrhythmias was highest among obese subjects, intermediate among overweight subjects and lowest among subjects with normal weight (3.4%, 2.7% and 2.2% respectively; p exercise compared with subjects with normal weight (p = 0.005), and that each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a significant 4% (p = 0.002) increased adjusted risk for exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias. Obesity is independently associated with increased likelihood of ectopic ventricular arrhythmia during exercise. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  6. Biologically Synthesized Gold Nanoparticles Ameliorate Cold and Heat Stress-Induced Oxidative Stress in Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-Feng Zhang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to their unique physical, chemical, and optical properties, gold nanoparticles (AuNPs have recently attracted much interest in the field of nanomedicine, especially in the areas of cancer diagnosis and photothermal therapy. Because of the enormous potential of these nanoparticles, various physical, chemical, and biological methods have been adopted for their synthesis. Synthetic antioxidants are dangerous to human health. Thus, the search for effective, nontoxic natural compounds with effective antioxidative properties is essential. Although AuNPs have been studied for use in various biological applications, exploration of AuNPs as antioxidants capable of inhibiting oxidative stress induced by heat and cold stress is still warranted. Therefore, one goal of our study was to produce biocompatible AuNPs using biological methods that are simple, nontoxic, biocompatible, and environmentally friendly. Next, we aimed to assess the antioxidative effect of AuNPs against oxidative stress induced by cold and heat in Escherichia coli, which is a suitable model for stress responses involving AuNPs. The response of aerobically grown E. coli cells to cold and heat stress was found to be similar to the oxidative stress response. Upon exposure to cold and heat stress, the viability and metabolic activity of E. coli was significantly reduced compared to the control. In addition, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS and malondialdehyde (MDA and leakage of proteins and sugars were significantly elevated, and the levels of lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH and adenosine triphosphate (ATP significantly lowered compared to in the control. Concomitantly, AuNPs ameliorated cold and heat-induced oxidative stress responses by increasing the expression of antioxidants, including glutathione (GSH, glutathione S-transferase (GST, super oxide dismutase (SOD, and catalase (CAT. These consistent physiology and biochemical data suggest that AuNPs can ameliorate cold and

  7. cis-Bifenthrin enantioselectively induces hepatic oxidative stress in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2013-09-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral synthetic pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests. In China, the commercial cis-BF contained two enantiomers including 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. However, the difference in oxidative stress induced by the two enantiomers in mice still remains unclear. In the present study, 4 week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered cis-BF, 1R-cis-BF or 1S-cis-BF daily for 2, 4 and 6 weeks at doses of 5 mg/kg/day, respectively. We found that the hepatic reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) content both in the serum and liver increased significantly in the 4 or 6 weeks 1S-cis-BF treated groups. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) also changed significantly in the serum and liver of 1S-cis-BF treated mice. More importantly, the significant differences in MDA content and CAT activity both in the serum and liver, and the activities of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) and SOD in serum were also observed between the 1S-cis-BF and 1R-cis-BF treated groups. Moreover, the transcription of oxidative stress response related genes including Sod1, Cat and heme oxygenase-1(Ho-1) in the liver of 1S-cis-BF treated groups were also significant higher than those in 1R-cis-BF treated group. Thus, it was concluded that cis-BF induced hepatic oxidative stress in an enantiomer specific manner in mice when exposed during the puberty, and that 1S-cis-BF showed much more toxic in hepatic oxidative stress than 1R-cis-BF. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Oxidative stress and plasma lipoproteins in cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, Fernanda Maria Machado; Santos, Emanuelly Barbosa; Reis, Germana Elias [Universidade Estadual do Ceará, Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)

    2014-07-01

    To evaluate the relation between oxidative stress and lipid profile in patients with different types of cancer. This was an observational cross-sectional. A total of 58 subjects were evaluated, 33 males, divided into two groups of 29 patients each: Group 1, patients with cancer of the digestive tract and accessory organs; Group 2 patients with other types of cancers, all admitted to a public hospital. The plasma levels (lipoproteins and total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides, for example) were analyzed by enzymatic kits, and oxidative stress based on thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, by assessing the formation of malondialdehyde. In general the levels of malondialdehyde of patients were high (5.00μM) as compared to 3.31μM for healthy individuals. The median values of lipids exhibited normal triacylglycerol (138.78±89.88mg/dL), desirable total cholesterol values (163.04±172.38mg/dL), borderline high LDL (151.30±178.25mg/dL) and low HDL (31.70±22.74mg/dL). Median HDL levels in Group 1 were lower (31.32mg/dL) than the cancer patients in Group 2 (43.67mg/dL) (p=0.038). Group 1 also showed higher levels of oxidative stress (p=0.027). The lipid profile of patients with cancer was not favorable, which seems to have contributed to higher lipid peroxidation rate, generating a significant oxidative stress.

  9. Oxidative stress of crystalline lens in rat menopausal model

    OpenAIRE

    Acer, Semra; Pekel, Gökhan; Küçükatay, Vural; Karabulut, Aysun; Yağcı, Ramazan; Çetin, Ebru Nevin; Akyer, Şahika Pınar; Şahin, Barbaros

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate lenticular oxidative stress in rat menopausal models. Methods: Forty Wistar female albino rats were included in this study. A total of thirty rats underwent oophorectomy to generate a menopausal model. Ten rats that did not undergo oophorectomy formed the control group (Group 1). From the rats that underwent oophorectomy, 10 formed the menopause control group (Group 2), 10 were administered a daily injection of methylprednisolone until the end of the study (Gro...

  10. Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Obesity-Related Glomerulopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Jinhua; Yan, Haidong; Zhuang, Shougang

    2012-01-01

    Obesity-related glomerulopathy is an increasing cause of end-stage renal disease. Obesity has been considered a state of chronic low-grade systemic inflammation and chronic oxidative stress. Augmented inflammation in adipose and kidney tissues promotes the progression of kidney damage in obesity. Adipose tissue, which is accumulated in obesity, is a key endocrine organ that produces multiple biologically active molecules, including leptin, adiponectin, resistin, that affect inflammation, and ...

  11. Plasmodium falciparum uses vitamin E to avoid oxidative stress

    OpenAIRE

    Sussmann, Rodrigo A. C.; Fotoran, Wesley L.; Kimura, Emilia A.; Katzin, Alejandro M.

    2017-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum is sensitive to oxidative stress in vitro and in vivo, and many drugs such as artemisinin, chloroquine and cercosporin interfere in the parasite’s redox system. To minimize the damage caused by reactive radicals, antioxidant enzymes and their substrates found in parasites and in erythrocytes must be functionally active. It was shown that P. falciparum synthesizes vitamin E and that usnic acid acts as an inhibitor of its biosynthesis. Vitamin E is a potent anti...

  12. Relationships between inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in metabolic syndrome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Ju Chen

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MS represents a cluster of physiological and anthropometric abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between the levels of inflammation, adiponectin, and oxidative stress in subjects with MS. The inclusion criteria for MS, according to the Taiwan Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, were applied to the case group (n = 72. The control group (n = 105 comprised healthy individuals with normal blood biochemical values. The levels of inflammatory markers [high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP and interleukin-6 (IL-6, adiponectin, an oxidative stress marker (malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes activities [catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, and glutathione peroxidase (GPx] were measured. Subjects with MS had significantly higher concentrations of inflammatory markers and lower adiponectin level, and lower antioxidant enzymes activities than the control subjects. The levels of inflammatory markers and adiponectin were significantly correlated with the components of MS. The level of hs-CRP was significantly correlated with the oxidative stress marker. The IL-6 level was significantly correlated with the SOD and GPx activities, and the adiponectin level was significantly correlated with the GPx activity. A higher level of hs-CRP (≥1.00 mg/L, or IL-6 (≥1.50 pg/mL or a lower level of adiponectin (<7.90 µg/mL were associated with a significantly greater risk of MS. In conclusion, subjects suffering from MS may have a higher inflammation status and a higher level of oxidative stress. A higher inflammation status was significantly correlated with decreases in the levels of antioxidant enzymes and adiponectin and an increase in the risk of MS.

  13. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rössner ml., Pavel; Švecová, Vlasta; Milcová, Alena; Lněničková, Zdena; Solanský, I.; Santella, R. M.; Šrám, Radim

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 617, - (2007), s. 23-32 ISSN 0027-5107 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SL/5/160/05; GA AV ČR 1QS500390506 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50390512 Keywords : oxidative stress * bus drivers * air pollution Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 4.159, year: 2007

  14. One arm exercise induces significant interarm diastolic blood pressure difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dezhi; Wang, Jiwei; Su, Hai; Xu, Jingsong; Liu, Yanna; Peng, Qiang; Wang, Lijuan

    2011-06-01

    This study is designed to investigate the inducing effect of one arm exercise on interarm difference (IAD) in the blood pressure (BP). Fifty healthy young participants were included in the study. Three-minute exercises of the right arm elbow flexion and extension were performed. The bilateral brachial BP was simultaneously measured with two automatic BP measurement devices before (basic) and immediately 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after exercise. The absolute difference in the systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) between the left and right BP of at least 10 mmHg was recognized as sIAD and dIAD. The baseline data of the SBP and DBP in left and right arms revealed no significant difference (SBP: 110 ± 10 vs. 111 ± 11 mmHg; DBP: 66 ± 8 vs. 66 ± 9 mmHg, both not significant). The prevalence of dIAD was 2% at the baseline. However, this prevalence increased to 80% at 0 min, as right arm exercise induced the right DBP decrease and left DBP increase, and then the prevalence decreased gradually within a 30-min recovery period. The prevalence of sIAD was zero at the baseline and the maximal prevalence was 8% during the 20-min postexercise period. One arm exercise can lead to a significant IAD in DBP. Any arm exercise should be avoided before BP measurement.

  15. EXERCISE-INDUCED ASTHMA: FRESH INSIGHTS AND AN OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAJOTIA R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced asthma (EIA is a common condition affecting 12-15% of the population. Ninety percent of asthmatic individuals and 35-45% of patients with allergic rhinitis are afflicted by EIA, while 3-10% of the general population is also believed to suffer from this condition. EIA is a condition which is more prevalent in strenuous outdoor, cold weather and winter sports. The pathophysiology of EIA continues to intrigue medical physiologists. However, the water-loss hypothesis and the post-exertional airway-rewarming hypothesis are as yet the best accepted theories. EIA is best diagnosed by a good medical history and a free-run challenge test. A post-exertion decrease by 15% in FEV1 and PEFR is diagnostic of EIA. Sensitivity of exercise testing ranges from 55% to 80% while specificity is as high as 93%. EIA is a disorder that can be successfully treated by combining both non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment options. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of this condition is vital if we hope to provide our patients with better overall health, better social life and a better self-image.

  16. Exercise-Induced Pulmonary Edema in a Triathlon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirotomo Yamanashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Family physicians have more opportunities to attend athletic competitions as medical staff at first-aid centers because of the increasing popularity of endurance sports. Case. A 38-year-old man who participated in a triathlon race experienced difficulty in breathing after swimming and was moved to a first-aid center. His initial oxygen saturation was 82% and a thoracic computed tomography scan showed bilateral ground glass opacity in the peripheral lungs. His diagnosis was noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with exercise or swimming: exercise-induced pulmonary edema (EIPE or swimming-induced pulmonary edema (SIPE. Treatment with furosemide and corticosteroid relieved his symptoms of pulmonary edema. Discussion. Noncardiogenic pulmonary edema associated with endurance sports is not common, but knowledge about EIPE/SIPE or neurogenic pulmonary edema associated with hyponatremia, which is called Ayus-Arieff syndrome, is crucial. Knowledge and caution for possible risk factors, such as exposure to cold water or overhydration, are essential for both medical staff and endurance athletes. Conclusion. To determine the presence of pulmonary edema associated with strenuous exercise, oxygen saturation should be used as a screening tool at a first-aid center. To avoid risks for EIPE/SIPE, knowledge about these diseases is essential for medical staff and for athletes who perform extreme exercise.

  17. Oxidative Stress Induces Senescence in Cultured RPE Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryan, Nona; Betts-Obregon, Brandi S; Perry, George; Tsin, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine whether oxidative stress induces cellular senescence in human retinal pigment epithelial cells. Cultured ARPE19 cells were subjected to different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide to induce oxidative stress. Cells were seeded into 24-well plates with hydrogen peroxide added to cell medium and incubated at 37°C + 5% CO2 for a 90-minute period [at 0, 300, 400 and 800 micromolar (MCM) hydrogen peroxide]. The number of viable ARPE19 cells were recorded using the Trypan Blue Dye Exclusion Method and cell senescence was measured by positive staining for senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-beta-Gal) protein. Without hydrogen peroxide treatment, the number of viable ARPE19 cells increased significantly from 50,000 cells/well to 197,000 within 72 hours. Treatment with hydrogen peroxide reduced this level of cell proliferation significantly (to 52,167 cells at 400 MCM; to 49,263 cells at 800 MCM). Meanwhile, cells with a high level of positive senescence-indicator SA-Beta-Gal-positive staining was induced by hydrogen peroxide treatment (from a baseline level of 12% to 80% at 400 MCM and at 800 MCM). Our data suggests that oxidative stress from hydrogen peroxide treatment inhibited ARPE19 cell proliferation and induced cellular senescence.

  18. Secondhand smoke exposure induces acutely airway acidification and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostikas, Konstantinos; Minas, Markos; Nikolaou, Eftychia; Papaioannou, Andriana I; Liakos, Panagiotis; Gougoura, Sofia; Gourgoulianis, Konstantinos I; Dinas, Petros C; Metsios, Giorgos S; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z; Flouris, Andreas D; Koutedakis, Yiannis

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that secondhand smoke induces lung function impairment and increases proinflammatory cytokines. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute effects of secondhand smoke on airway acidification and airway oxidative stress in never-smokers. In a randomized controlled cross-over trial, 18 young healthy never-smokers were assessed at baseline and 0, 30, 60, 120, 180 and 240 min after one-hour secondhand smoke exposure at bar/restaurant levels. Exhaled NO and CO measurements, exhaled breath condensate collection (for pH, H(2)O(2) and NO(2)(-)/NO(3)(-) measurements) and spirometry were performed at all time-points. Secondhand smoke exposure induced increases in serum cotinine and exhaled CO that persisted until 240 min. Exhaled breath condensate pH decreased immediately after exposure (p secondhand smoke induced airway acidification and increased airway oxidative stress, accompanied by significant impairment of lung function. Despite the reversal in EBC pH and lung function, airway oxidative stress remained increased 4 h after the exposure. Clinical trial registration number (EudraCT): 2009-013545-28. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickman, M Ashley; Boggess, Kim A; Moss, Kevin L; Beck, James D; Offenbacher, Steven

    2011-03-01

    We sought to determine if maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress as measured by serum 8-isoprostane. A secondary analysis was conducted using prospective data from the Oral Conditions and Pregnancy Study. Healthy women enrolled at periodontal disease status was categorized as healthy, mild, or moderate to severe by clinical criteria. Maternal serum was analyzed for 8-isoprostane using ultrasensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Elevated 8-isoprostane level was defined as ≥ 75th percentile. Maternal factors associated with elevated 8-isoprostane were determined using chi-square or T test. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess association between elevated 8-isoprostane and maternal factors. Seven hundred ninety-one women had complete data. Median (interquartile) 8-isoprostane serum level was 1806 (16 to 81,870) pg/dL. Using bivariate analysis, maternal age, race, marital status, utilization of public assistance, and mild or moderate to severe periodontal disease were associated with elevated serum 8-isoprostane. Using logistic regression, moderate to severe periodontal disease (adjusted odds ratio 2.9, 95% confidence interval: 1.7 to 5.0) remained significantly associated with an elevated serum 8-isoprostane level. Maternal periodontal disease is associated with oxidative stress during pregnancy. Further study is needed to determine the role of maternal oxidative stress in periodontal disease-associated adverse pregnancy outcomes. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. Relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available As one of the serious complications of diabetes, diabetic retinopathy(DRhas become a main eye disease which causes blindness. The occurrence and development of DR is related to many factors. The pathogenesis is complicated, and the mechanism has not been clear. Early data suggest that the occurrence and development of DR has relations with many factors such as blood sugar level, diabetes duration and the environment. Among the factors, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress is the important mechanisms of DR and has become research focus in recent years. Consequences of mitochondrial dysfunction within cells include elevation of the rate of reactive oxygen species(ROSproduction due to damage of electron transport chain proteins, mitochondrial DNA(mtDNAdamage, and loss of metabolic capacity. Clear understanding on the mechanism of mitochondrial functional change under high sugar level and oxidative stress response in the occurrence and development of DR is of great significance on prevention and cure of DR. In this article, the development of mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative stress of DR is reviewed.

  1. Poststroke Neuropsychiatric Symptoms: Relationships with IL-17 and Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Swardfager

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Stroke variably activates interleukin- (IL- 17 expression, reduces regulatory T cells, and induces oxidative stress, which may support neurodegeneration. Ischemic stroke patients were screened for depressive symptoms (Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D and cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination. Proinflammatory cytokines (IL-17, IL-23, and interferon- [IFN-] γ, anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, and lipid hydroperoxide (LPH, a measure of oxidative stress, were assayed from fasting serum. Of 47 subjects (age 71.8 ± 14.4 years, 36% female, 19 had depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 16, which was associated with poorer cognitive status (F1,46=8.44, P=0.006. IL-17 concentrations did not differ between subjects with and without depressive symptoms (F1,46=8.44, P=0.572; however, IL-17 was associated with poorer cognitive status in subjects with depressive symptoms (F1,46=9.29, P=0.004. In those subjects with depressive symptoms, IL-17 was associated with higher LPH (ρ=0.518, P=0.023 and lower IL-10 (ρ=-0.484, P=0.036, but not in those without. In conclusion, poststroke depressive symptoms may be associated with cognitive vulnerability to IL-17 related pathways, involving an imbalance between proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory activity and increased oxidative stress.

  2. Influence of Acute Coffee Consumption on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Bloomer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Coffee has been reported to be rich in antioxidants, with both acute and chronic consumption leading to enhanced blood antioxidant capacity. High-fat feeding is known to result in excess production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, promoting a condition of postprandial oxidative stress. Methods We tested the hypothesis that coffee intake following a high-fat meal would attenuate the typical increase in blood oxidative stress during the acute postprandial period. On 3 different occasions, 16 men and women consumed a high-fat milk shake followed by either 16 ounces of caffeinated or decaffeinated coffee or bottled water. Blood samples were collected before and at 2 and 4 hours following intake of the milk shake and analyzed for triglycerides (TAG, malondialdehyde (MDA, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 , and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Results Values for TAG and MDA ( P 0.05. Conclusions Acute coffee consumption following a high-fat milk shake has no impact on postprandial oxidative stress.

  3. The Effects of Oxidative Stress in Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ergul Belge Kurutas

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to determine the effects of oxidative stress in urinary tract infection (UTI. One hundred sixty-four urine samples obtained from patients with the prediagnosis of acute UTI admitted to the Faculty of Medicine, Kahramanmaras Sutcu Imam University, were included in this study. Urine cultures were performed according to standard techniques. Urinary isolates were identified by using API ID 32E. The catalase and superoxide dismutase activity and the lipid peroxidation levels known as oxidative stress markers were measured in all urine samples. Thirty-six pathogen microorganisms were identified in positive urine cultures. These microorganisms were as follows: 23 (63.8% E coli, 5 (13.8% P mirabilis, 4 (11.1% K pneumoniae, 2 (5.5% Candida spp, 1 (2.7% S saprophyticus, and 1 (2.7% P aeruginosa. It was observed that lipid peroxidation levels were increased while catalase and superoxide dismutase activities were decreased in positive urine cultures, compared to negative cultures. We conclude that urinary tract infection causes oxidative stress, increases lipid peroxidation level, and leads to insufficiency of antioxidant enzymes.

  4. Blue light-induced oxidative stress in live skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Yuya; Ohta, Shigeo; Wolf, Alexander M

    2017-07-01

    Skin damage from exposure to sunlight induces aging-like changes in appearance and is attributed to the ultraviolet (UV) component of light. Photosensitized production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by UVA light is widely accepted to contribute to skin damage and carcinogenesis, but visible light is thought not to do so. Using mice expressing redox-sensitive GFP to detect ROS, blue light could produce oxidative stress in live skin. Blue light induced oxidative stress preferentially in mitochondria, but green, red, far red or infrared light did not. Blue light-induced oxidative stress was also detected in cultured human keratinocytes, but the per photon efficacy was only 25% of UVA in human keratinocyte mitochondria, compared to 68% of UVA in mouse skin. Skin autofluorescence was reduced by blue light, suggesting flavins are the photosensitizer. Exposing human skin to the blue light contained in sunlight depressed flavin autofluorescence, demonstrating that the visible component of sunlight has a physiologically significant effect on human skin. The ROS produced by blue light is probably superoxide, but not singlet oxygen. These results suggest that blue light contributes to skin aging similar to UVA. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High Glucose Inhibits Neural Stem Cell Differentiation Through Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xi; Shen, Wei-Bin; Yang, Penghua; Dong, Daoyin; Sun, Winny; Yang, Peixin

    2018-06-01

    Maternal diabetes induces neural tube defects by suppressing neurogenesis in the developing neuroepithelium. Our recent study further revealed that high glucose inhibited embryonic stem cell differentiation into neural lineage cells. However, the mechanism whereby high glucose suppresses neural differentiation is unclear. To investigate whether high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress lead to the inhibition of neural differentiation, the effect of high glucose on neural stem cell (the C17.2 cell line) differentiation was examined. Neural stem cells were cultured in normal glucose (5 mM) or high glucose (25 mM) differentiation medium for 3, 5, and 7 days. High glucose suppressed neural stem cell differentiation by significantly decreasing the expression of the neuron marker Tuj1 and the glial cell marker GFAP and the numbers of Tuj1 + and GFAP + cells. The antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol reversed high glucose-decreased Tuj1 and GFAP expression and restored the numbers of neurons and glial cells differentiated from neural stem cells. Hydrogen peroxide treatment imitated the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation. Both high glucose and hydrogen peroxide triggered ER stress, whereas Tempol blocked high glucose-induced ER stress. The ER stress inhibitor, 4-phenylbutyrate, abolished the inhibition of high glucose or hydrogen peroxide on neural stem cell differentiation. Thus, oxidative stress and its resultant ER stress mediate the inhibitory effect of high glucose on neural stem cell differentiation.

  6. Markers of Oxidative stress in Smoker and Nonsmoker Athletes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahba, O.; Shalby, H.; Ashry, Kh.

    2009-01-01

    To Investigate the effect of smoking on oxidative stress in male athletes. Plasma levels of nitric oxide (NO), apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA (iNOS mRNA) expression in neutrophils, erythrocytes antioxidant enzymes catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in the blood of 40 non smoker and 25 smoker athletes compared to age and socioeconomic class matching 20 smoker and 20 non-smoker non-athlete controls. Plasma levels NO, apoptosis % in circulating lymphocytes and inducible iNOS mRNA expression in neutrophils were significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited the highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Concurrently, erythrocytes SOD was significantly higher among athletes compared to non athletes and exhibited highest levels in athlete smokers followed by control smokers. Conclusion: The results of this work demonstrate the impact of smoking on the health of athletes

  7. Oxidative Stress and the Homeodynamics of Iron Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresgen, Nikolaus; Eckl, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Iron and oxygen share a delicate partnership since both are indispensable for survival, but if the partnership becomes inadequate, this may rapidly terminate life. Virtually all cell components are directly or indirectly affected by cellular iron metabolism, which represents a complex, redox-based machinery that is controlled by, and essential to, metabolic requirements. Under conditions of increased oxidative stress—i.e., enhanced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—however, this machinery may turn into a potential threat, the continued requirement for iron promoting adverse reactions such as the iron/H2O2-based formation of hydroxyl radicals, which exacerbate the initial pro-oxidant condition. This review will discuss the multifaceted homeodynamics of cellular iron management under normal conditions as well as in the context of oxidative stress. PMID:25970586

  8. Beneficial effects of oral pure caffeine on oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Metro

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Ingestion of coffee (which is a mixture of over 1000 hydrosoluble substances is known to protect from type-2 diabetes mellitus and its complications, and other chronic disorders associated with increased oxidative damage in blood and tissues. This protection is generally attributed to polyphenols and melanoidins. Very few studies were conducted on the amelioration of classic blood markers of oxidative stress induced after a few days of caffeine administration, but results vary.To assess whether caffeine per se could account for antioxidant properties of coffee in the short-term, we tested the ability of pure caffeine ingestion (5 mg/kg body weight/day in two daily doses for seven consecutive days to improve plasma levels of six biochemical indices in healthy male volunteers (n = 15. These indices were total antioxidant capacity (TAC, glutathione (GSH, oxidized glutathione (GSSG, GSH to GSSG ratio, lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH and malondialdehyde (MDA.We found that all indices changed significantly (P < .05 or < .01 in a favourable manner, ranging from −41% for GSSG to −70% for LHP levels, and +106% for GSH levels to +249% for the GSG/GSSG ratio. Changes of any given index were uniform across subjects, with no outliers.We conclude that caffeine has unequivocal, consistent antioxidant properties. Keyword: Oxidative stress, Coffee, Caffeine, Lipid peroxidation, Gluthathione, Malondialdehyde

  9. A potential biomarker for fatigue: Oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Sanae; Nojima, Junzo; Motoki, Yukari; Yamaguti, Kouzi; Nakatomi, Yasuhito; Okawa, Naoko; Fujiwara, Kazumi; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi; Kuratsune, Hirohiko

    2016-07-01

    We sought to determine whether oxidative stress and anti-oxidative activity could act as biomarkers that discriminate patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) from healthy volunteers at acute and sub-acute fatigue and resting conditions. We calculated the oxidative stress index (OSI) from reactive oxygen metabolites-derived compounds (d-ROMs) and the biological antioxidant potential (BAP). We determined changes in d-ROMs, BAP, and OSI in acute and sub-acute fatigue in two healthy groups, and compared their values at rest between patients with CFS (diagnosed by Fukuda 1994 criteria) and another group of healthy controls. Following acute fatigue in healthy controls, d-ROMs and OSI increased, and BAP decreased. Although d-ROMs and OSI were significantly higher after sub-acute fatigue, BAP did not decrease. Resting condition yielded higher d-ROMs, higher OSI, and lower BAP in patients with CFS than in healthy volunteers, but lower d-ROMs and OSI when compared with sub-acute controls. BAP values did not significantly differ between patients with CFS and controls in the sub-acute condition. However, values were significantly higher than in the resting condition for controls. Thus, measured of oxidative stress (d-ROMS) and anti-oxidative activity (BAP) might be useful for discriminating acute, sub-acute, and resting fatigue in healthy people from patients with CFS, or for evaluating fatigue levels in healthy people. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidative stress decreases functional airway mannose binding lectin in COPD.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai B Tran

    Full Text Available We have previously established that a defect in the ability of alveolar macrophages (AM to phagocytose apoptotic cells (efferocytosis and pathogens is a potential therapeutic target in COPD. We further showed that levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL; required for effective macrophage phagocytic function were reduced in the airways but not circulation of COPD patients. We hypothesized that increased oxidative stress in the airway could be a cause for such disturbances. We therefore studied the effects of oxidation on the structure of the MBL molecule and its functional interactions with macrophages. Oligomeric structure of plasma derived MBL (pdMBL before and after oxidation (oxMBL with 2,2'-azobis(2-methylpropionamidinedihydrochroride (AAPH was investigated by blue native PAGE. Macrophage function in the presence of pd/oxMBL was assessed by measuring efferocytosis, phagocytosis of non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi and expression of macrophage scavenger receptors. Oxidation disrupted higher order MBL oligomers. This was associated with changed macrophage function evident by a significantly reduced capacity to phagocytose apoptotic cells and NTHi in the presence of oxMBL vs pdMBL (eg, NTHi by 55.9 and 27.0% respectively. Interestingly, oxidation of MBL significantly reduced macrophage phagocytic ability to below control levels. Flow cytometry and immunofluorescence revealed a significant increase in expression of macrophage scavenger receptor (SRA1 in the presence of pdMBL that was abrogated in the presence of oxMBL. We show the pulmonary macrophage dysfunction in COPD may at least partially result from an oxidative stress-induced effect on MBL, and identify a further potential therapeutic strategy for this debilitating disease.

  11. Oxidative stress, activity behaviour and body mass in captive parrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larcombe, S D; Tregaskes, C A; Coffey, J; Stevenson, A E; Alexander, L G; Arnold, K E

    2015-01-01

    Many parrot species are kept in captivity for conservation, but often show poor reproduction, health and survival. These traits are known to be influenced by oxidative stress, the imbalance between the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and ability of antioxidant defences to ameliorate ROS damage. In humans, oxidative stress is linked with obesity, lack of exercise and poor nutrition, all of which are common in captive animals. Here, we tested whether small parrots (budgerigars, Melopsittacus undulatus) maintained in typical pet cages and on ad libitum food varied in oxidative profile, behaviour and body mass. Importantly, as with many birds held in captivity, they did not have enough space to engage in extensive free flight. Four types of oxidative damage, single-stranded DNA breaks (low-pH comet assay), alkali-labile sites in DNA (high-pH comet assay), sensitivity of DNA to ROS (H2O2-treated comet assay) and malondialdehyde (a byproduct of lipid peroxidation), were uncorrelated with each other and with plasma concentrations of dietary antioxidants. Without strenuous exercise over 28 days in a relatively small cage, more naturally 'active' individuals had more single-stranded DNA breaks than sedentary birds. High body mass at the start or end of the experiment, coupled with substantial mass gain, were all associated with raised sensitivity of DNA to ROS. Thus, high body mass in these captive birds was associated with oxidative damage. These birds were not lacking dietary antioxidants, because final body mass was positively related to plasma levels of retinol, zeaxanthin and α-tocopherol. Individuals varied widely in activity levels, feeding behaviour, mass gain and oxidative profile despite standardized living conditions. DNA damage is often associated with poor immunocompetence, low fertility and faster ageing. Thus, we have candidate mechanisms for the limited lifespan and fecundity common to many birds kept for conservation purposes.

  12. Differential trafficking of oxidized LDL and oxidized LDL immune complexes in macrophages: impact on oxidative stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M Al Gadban

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Oxidized low-density lipoproteins (oxLDL and oxLDL-containing immune complexes (oxLDL-IC contribute to formation of lipid-laden macrophages (foam cells. It has been shown that oxLDL-IC are considerably more efficient than oxLDL in induction of foam cell formation, inflammatory cytokines secretion, and cell survival promotion. Whereas oxLDL is taken up by several scavenger receptors, oxLDL-IC are predominantly internalized through the FCgamma receptor I (FCgamma RI. This study examined differences in intracellular trafficking of lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL and oxLDL-IC and the impact on oxidative stress.Fluorescently labeled lipid and protein moieties of oxLDL co-localized within endosomal and lysosomal compartments in U937 human monocytic cells. In contrast, the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC was detected in the endosomal compartment, whereas its apolipoprotein moiety advanced to the lysosomal compartment. Cells treated with oxLDL-IC prior to oxLDL demonstrated co-localization of internalized lipid moieties from both oxLDL and oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This sequential treatment likely inhibited oxLDL lipid moieties from trafficking to the lysosomal compartment. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, oxLDL-IC but not oxLDL induced GFP-tagged heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 and HSP70B', which co-localized with the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This suggests that HSP70 family members might prevent the degradation of the internalized lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC by delaying its advancement to the lysosome. The data also showed that mitochondrial membrane potential was decreased and generation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species was increased in U937 cell treated with oxLDL compared to oxLDL-IC.Findings suggest that lipid and apolipoprotein moieties of oxLDL-IC traffic to separate cellular compartments, and that HSP70/70B' might sequester the lipid moiety of oxLDL-IC in the endosomal compartment. This mechanism could

  13. Oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Svecova, Vlasta; Milcova, Alena; Lnenickova, Zdena; Solansky, Ivo; Santella, Regina M; Sram, Radim J

    2007-04-01

    Exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with many diseases. Oxidative and nitrosative stress are believed to be two of the major sources of particulate matter (PM)-mediated adverse health effects. PM in ambient air arises from industry, local heating, and vehicle emissions and poses a serious problem mainly in large cities. In the present study we analyzed the level of oxidative and nitrosative stress among 50 bus drivers from Prague, Czech Republic, and 50 matching controls. We assessed simultaneously the levels of 15-F(2t)-isoprostane (15-F(2t)-IsoP) and 8-oxodeoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in urine and protein carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine (NT) in blood plasma. For the analysis of all four markers we used ELISA techniques. We observed significantly increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress markers in bus drivers. The median levels (min, max) of individual markers in bus drivers versus controls were as follows: 8-oxodG: 7.79 (2.64-12.34)nmol/mmol versus 6.12 (0.70-11.38)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); 15-F(2t)-IsoP: 0.81 (0.38-1.55)nmol/mmol versus 0.68 (0.39-1.79)nmol/mmol creatinine (p<0.01); carbonyl levels: 14.1 (11.8-19.0)nmol/ml versus 12.9 (9.8-16.6)nmol/ml plasma (p<0.001); NT: 694 (471-3228)nmol/l versus 537 (268-13833)nmol/l plasma (p<0.001). 15-F(2t)-IsoP levels correlated with vitamin E (R=0.23, p<0.05), vitamin C (R=-0.33, p<0.01) and cotinine (R=0.47, p<0.001) levels. Vitamin E levels also positively correlated with 8-oxodG (R=0.27, p=0.01) and protein carbonyl levels (R=0.32, p<0.001). Both oxidative and nitrosative stress markers positively correlated with PM2.5 and PM10 exposure. In conclusion, our study indicates that exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 results in increased oxidative and nitrosative stress.

  14. Inflammation and oxidative stress markers in diabetes and hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pouvreau C

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Chloé Pouvreau,1 Antoine Dayre,1 Eugene G Butkowski,2 Beverlie de Jong,2 Herbert F Jelinek2,3 1Faculty of Sciences, University of Poitiers, Poitiers, France; 2School of Community Health, Charles Sturt University, Albury, NSW, Australia; 3Australian School of Advanced Medicine, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Inflammation and oxidative stress are important factors associated with chronic disease such as essential hypertension (HTN and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. However, the association of inflammation and oxidative stress in HTN with T2DM as a comorbidity is inconclusive due to the multifactorial nature of these cardiometabolic diseases. Methodology: The influence of pathophysiological factors include genetics, age of patient, and disease progression change throughout the lifespan and require further investigation. The study population included 256 participants attending a rural health screening program who were tested for markers of inflammation, oxidative stress, and coagulation/fibrinolysis. Demographic and clinical variables included, age, gender, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, hemoglobin A1c, estimated glomerular filtration rate, and cholesterol profile. Data were tested for normality, and nonparametric statistics were applied to analyze the sample with significance set at p<0.05. Results: Of the inflammatory markers, interleukin-1β (IL-1β and IL-10 were significantly different between the control and hypertensive group (p<0.03 and between the HTN+T2DM compared to the HTN group (p<0.05. Significant results for oxidative stress were observed for urinary 8-iso-PGF2α and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 between the control and the HTN+T2DM group (p<0.01. Glutathione (GSH was also significant between the HTN and HTN+T2DM group (p<0.05. Investigation of the progression of HTN also found significant changes in the inflammatory markers IGF-1, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1, and

  15. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  16. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  17. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  18. Oxidative stress in bone remodeling: role of antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domazetovic, Vladana; Marcucci, Gemma; Iantomasi, Teresa; Brandi, Maria Luisa; Vincenzini, Maria Teresa

    2017-01-01

    ROS are highly reactive molecules which consist of a number of diverse chemical species, including radical and non-radical oxygen species. Oxidative stress occurs as a result of an overproduction of ROS not balanced by an adequate level of antioxidants. The natural antioxidants are: thiol compounds among which GSH is the most representative, and non-thiol compounds such as polyphenols, vitamins and also various enzymes. Many diseases have been linked to oxidative stress including bone diseases among which one of the most important is the osteoporosis. The redox state changes are also related to the bone remodeling process which allows the continuous bone regeneration through the coordinated action of bone cells: osteoclasts, osteoblasts and osteocytes. Changes in ROS and/or antioxidant systems seem to be involved in the pathogenesis of bone loss. ROS induce the apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes, and this favours osteoclastogenesis and inhibits the mineralization and osteogenesis. Excessive osteocyte apoptosis correlates with oxidative stress causing an imbalance in favor of osteoclastogenesis which leads to increased turnover of bone remodeling and bone loss. Antioxidants either directly or by counteracting the action of oxidants contribute to activate the differentiation of osteoblasts, mineralization process and the reduction of osteoclast activity. In fact, a marked decrease in plasma antioxidants was found in aged or osteoporotic women. Some evidence shows a link among nutrients, antioxidant intake and bone health. Recent data demonstrate the antioxidant properties of various nutrients and their influence on bone metabolism. Polyphenols and anthocyanins are the most abundant antioxidants in the diet, and nutritional approaches to antioxidant strategies, in animals or selected groups of patients with osteoporosis or inflammatory bone diseases, suggest the antioxidant use in anti-resorptive therapies for the treatment and prevention of bone loss.

  19. Oxidative stress at high altitude: genotype–phenotype correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Pandey,1,2 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India Abstract: It has been well-documented that the hypobaric hypoxic environment at high altitude (HA causes stress to both the permanent residents of HA and the sojourners. This oxidative stress primarily disturbs the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways, thereby upsetting normal human physiology, especially in sojourners. These environmental challenges have caused dynamic evolutionary changes within natives of HA, allowing them to develop adaptive plasticity. This review focuses on the genomic and biochemical features of the molecules involved in the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways with respect to HA pulmonary edema (HAPE and adaptation. We review the role of genetic markers such as HIF-prolyl hydroxylase 2, endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin 1, cytochrome b-245 alpha polypeptide, and glutathione S-transferase pi 1, as well as three circulatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, endothelin 1, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, by highlighting approaches such as candidate gene and genome-wide, adopted in deciphering the pathways. A disagreement between the two approaches has also been highlighted. In addition, we discuss that an overrepresentation of wild-type alleles in HA natives and mutant alleles of same polymorphisms in HAPE patients implies that the allelic variants at the same locus are involved in adaptation and HAPE, respectively. Moreover, healthy sojourners present a number of genomic features similar to HA natives, further strengthening the concept of genetic predisposition. A trend in correlation between protective and risk alleles and altered levels of circulatory markers clearly documents the phenomenon of genotype–phenotype correlations. We conclude that the genetic and biochemical

  20. Role of oxidative stress in cadmium toxicity and carcinogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie; Qu Wei; Kadiiska, Maria B.

    2009-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a toxic metal, targeting the lung, liver, kidney, and testes following acute intoxication, and causing nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, osteotoxicity and tumors after prolonged exposures. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are often implicated in Cd toxicology. This minireview focused on direct evidence for the generation of free radicals in intact animals following acute Cd overload and discussed the association of ROS in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis. Cd-generated superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals in vivo have been detected by the electron spin resonance spectra, which are often accompanied by activation of redox sensitive transcription factors (e.g., NF-κB, AP-1 and Nrf2) and alteration of ROS-related gene expression. It is generally agreed upon that oxidative stress plays important roles in acute Cd poisoning. However, following long-term Cd exposure at environmentally-relevant low levels, direct evidence for oxidative stress is often obscure. Alterations in ROS-related gene expression during chronic exposures are also less significant compared to acute Cd poisoning. This is probably due to induced adaptation mechanisms (e.g., metallothionein and glutathione) following chronic Cd exposures, which in turn diminish Cd-induced oxidative stress. In chronic Cd-transformed cells, less ROS signals are detected with fluorescence probes. Acquired apoptotic tolerance renders damaged cells to proliferate with inherent oxidative DNA lesions, potentially leading to tumorigenesis. Thus, ROS are generated following acute Cd overload and play important roles in tissue damage. Adaptation to chronic Cd exposure reduces ROS production, but acquired Cd tolerance with aberrant gene expression plays important roles in chronic Cd toxicity and carcinogenesis.

  1. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Potential of One Hundred Medicinal Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Waseem; Noreen, Hamsa; Rehman, Shakila; Gul, Shehnaz; Kamal, Mohammad Amjad; Kamdem, Jean Paul; Zaman, Bakht; da Rocha, Joao B T

    2017-01-01

    Reactive species are produced in biological system because of redox reactions. The imbalance in pro-oxidant and antioxidant homeostasis leads to the production of toxic reactive oxygen and nitrogen species like hydrogen peroxide, organic peroxides, hydroxyl radicals, superoxide anion and nitric oxide. Inactivation of metabolic enzymes, oxidation of biomolecules and cellular damage are some of the prominent characteristics of reactive species. Similarly, oxidative stress has been associated with more than one hundred (100) pathologies such as atherosclerosis, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, pancreatic and liver diseases, joint disorders, cardiac fibrosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, neurological diseases (amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disorder, Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease), ageing and cancer etc. The toxicity of reactive species is balanced by the integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. Antioxidant therapies or defenses protect the biological sites by removing or quenching the free radicals (prooxidants). Medicinal plants can not only protect the oxidative damage, but also play a vital role in health maintenance and prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. This review will provide a valuable discussion of one hundred (100) well known medicinal plants, which may add to the optimization of antioxidants rank. Besides, some of the antioxidant evaluation techniques or mechanisms via which medicinal plants act as antioxidants are also described. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  2. Endogenous ROS levels in C. elegans under exogenous stress support revision of oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Samson W; Latta, Leigh C; Denver, Dee R; Estes, Suzanne

    2014-07-24

    The oxidative stress theory of life-history tradeoffs states that oxidative stress caused by damaging free radicals directly underpins tradeoffs between reproduction and longevity by altering the allocation of energetic resources between these tasks. We test this theory by characterizing the effects of exogenous oxidative insult and its interaction with thermal stress and diet quality on a suite of life-history traits and correlations in Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes. We also quantify demographic aging rates and endogenous reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in live animals. Our findings indicate a tradeoff between investment in reproduction and antioxidant defense (somatic maintenance) consistent with theoretical predictions, but correlations between standard life-history traits yield little evidence that oxidative stress generates strict tradeoffs. Increasing oxidative insult, however, shows a strong tendency to uncouple positive phenotypic correlations and, in particular, to reduce the correlation between reproduction and lifespan. We also found that mild oxidative insult results in lower levels of endogenous ROS accompanied by hormetic changes in lifespan, demographic aging, and reproduction that disappear in combined-stress treatments--consistent with the oxidative stress theory of aging. Our findings demonstrate that oxidative stress is a direct contributor to life-history trait variation and that traditional tradeoffs are not necessary to invoke oxidative stress as a mediator of relationships between life-history traits, supporting previous calls for revisions to theory.

  3. Increased respiratory neural drive and work of breathing in exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsted, Emil Schwarz; Faisal, Azmy; Jolley, Caroline J

    2017-01-01

    Rationale: Exercise induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO), a phenomenon in which the larynx closes inappropriately during physical activity, is a prevalent cause of exertional dyspnea in young individuals. The physiological ventilatory impact of EILO and its relationship to dyspnea are poorly...

  4. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  5. EXERCISE-INDUCED VENTRICULAR-TACHYCARDIA - A RARE MANIFESTATION OF DIGITALIS TOXICITY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GOSSELINK, ATM; CRIJNS, HJGM; WIESFELD, ACP; LIE, KI

    Digitalis intoxication is one of the most common adverse drug reactions. Although some arrhythmias are seen more frequently than others, virtually any rhythm disturbance, including ventricular tachycardia, may occur. However, to our knowledge, exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia as a

  6. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  7. A systematic review of observational studies on oxidative/nitrosative stress involvement in dengue pathogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Castro, Raimundo; Pinzón, Hernando Samuel; Alvis-Guzman, Nelson

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to systematically review the published observational research related to the role of oxidative-nitrosative stress in pathogenesis of dengue. Methods: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, The COCHRANE library, ScienceDirect, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS via Virtual Health Library, Google Scholar) using the term: dengue, dengue virus, severe dengue, oxidative stress, nitrosative stress, antioxidants, oxidants, free radicals, oxidized lipid products, lipid per...

  8. Effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Exercise-Induced Lipid Metabolism in Patients With Obesity and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, Stefan; Stinkens, Rudi; Heise, Tim; May, Marcus; Goossens, Gijs H; Blaak, Ellen E; Havekes, Bas; Jax, Thomas; Albrecht, Diego; Pal, Parasar; Tegtbur, Uwe; Haufe, Sven; Langenickel, Thomas H; Jordan, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a novel angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin degrades several peptides that modulate lipid metabolism, including natriuretic peptides. In this study, we investigated the effects of 8 weeks' treatment with sacubitril/valsartan on whole-body and adipose tissue lipolysis and lipid oxidation during defined physical exercise compared with the metabolically neutral comparator amlodipine. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group study enrolling subjects with abdominal obesity and moderate hypertension (mean sitting systolic blood pressure ≥130-180 mm Hg). Lipolysis during rest and exercise was assessed by microdialysis and [1,1,2,3,3- 2 H]-glycerol tracer kinetics. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured simultaneously using indirect calorimetry. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, insulin, glucose, adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations, blood pressure, and heart rate were also determined. Exercise elevated plasma glycerol, free fatty acids, and interstitial glycerol concentrations and increased the rate of glycerol appearance. However, exercise-induced stimulation of lipolysis was not augmented on sacubitril/valsartan treatment compared with amlodipine treatment. Furthermore, sacubitril/valsartan did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during exercise compared with amlodipine treatment. In conclusion, sacubitril/valsartan treatment for 8 weeks did not elicit clinically relevant changes in exercise-induced lipolysis or substrate oxidation in obese patients with hypertension, implying that its beneficial cardiovascular effects cannot be explained by changes in lipid metabolism during exercise. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01631864. © 2017 The Authors.

  9. Perception of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction in College Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, David M; Vardiman, John P; Deckert, Jake A; Ward, Jaimie L; Sharpe, Matthew R

    2016-07-01

    Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can lead to long-term respiratory illness and even death. EIB prevalence rates are both high and variable in college athletes. Also, prevalence rates may be underestimated due to ineffective screening. The purpose of this study is to investigate the prevalence of EIB and the perceived impact of EIB in college athletes via a self-report questionnaire. A self-report EIB questionnaire was administered to college athletes on 8 different sports teams. Information collected was used to identify athletes who self-reported: (1) a history of EIB and/or asthma, (2) respiratory symptoms during exercise, (3) medication use, and (4) concern about EIB. Results showed that 56 of 196 athletes (28.6%) self-reported a history of EIB or asthma. Over half (52%) reported a history of EIB/asthma or current EIB symptoms. Forty-six of the 140 athletes (32.9%) who did not report a history of EIB or asthma indicated symptoms of EIB during sports, training, or exercise. Fourteen of 56 athletes (25%) self-reporting a history of EIB or asthma did not report the use of a respiratory medication. Nineteen of 196 athletes (9.7%) reported being concerned that EIB was adversely affecting their sports performance. College athletes self-report a high prevalence of EIB or asthma. Although college athletes may not report a history of EIB or asthma, they indicate symptoms of EIB. A majority of athletes reported a history or current symptoms related to EIB or asthma. Many athletes with a history of EIB or asthma are not taking any asthma medication. Last, athletes report concern about EIB adversely affecting their sports performance. More work is needed using a combination of a screening questionnaire and standardized EIB testing to develop a validated tool for accurately screening and diagnosing EIB in college athletes. Copyright © 2016 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  10. Exercise-induced arteriovenous intrapulmonary shunting in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickland, Michael K; Lovering, Andrew T; Eldridge, Marlowe W

    2007-08-01

    We have previously shown, using contrast echocardiography, that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are inducible in healthy humans during exercise; however, this technique does not allow for determination of arteriovenous vessel size or shunt magnitude. The purpose of this study was to determine whether large-diameter (more than 25 microm) intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are present in the dog, and whether exercise recruits these conduits. Through the right forelimb, 10.8 million 25-microm stable isotope-labeled microspheres (BioPAL, Inc., Worcester, MA) were injected either at rest (n = 8) or during high-intensity exercise (6- 8 mph, 10-15% grade, n = 6). Systemic arterial blood was continuously sampled during and for 3 minutes after injection. After euthanasia, tissue samples were obtained from the heart, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle. In addition, 25- and 50-microm microspheres were infused into four isolated dog lungs that were ventilated and perfused at constant pressures similar to exercise. Blood and tissue samples were commercially analyzed for the presence of microspheres. No microspheres were detected in the arterial blood or tissue samples from resting dogs. In contrast, five of six exercising dogs showed evidence of exercise-induced intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting, as microspheres were detected in arterial blood and/or tissue. Furthermore, shunt magnitude was calculated to be 1.4 +/- 0.8% of cardiac output (n = 3). Evidence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses was also found in three of four isolated lungs. Consistent with previous human findings, these data demonstrate that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are functional in the dog and are recruited with exercise.

  11. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. EXERCISE-INDUCED ARTERIAL ADAPTATIONS IN ELITE JUDO ATHLETES

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    Panagiotis Karagounis

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine exercise-induced arterial adaptations in elite Judo male and female athletes. 27 male Judo athletes (age 24.06 ± 2 years, 11 female Judoka (age 24.27 ± 1 years, 27 sedentary healthy men (age 24.01 ± 2 years and 11 women (age 24.21 ± 1 years participated in the current study. The examined vessels included brachial, radial, ulnar, popliteal, anterior and posterior tibial arteries. The experimental parameters were recorded with the use of Duplex ultrasound at rest. Diastolic diameter and blood mean flow velocity of the examined arteries in Judo athletes were found to be both significantly increased (p < 0.05 compared to the findings of the control groups. In male Judo athletes the brachial (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and anterior tibial artery (p < 0.001 presented the highest difference on the diastolic diameter, compared with the control male group. In female Judo athletes, ulnar (p < 0.001, radial (p < 0.001, and brachial (p < 0.001 arteries illustrated the highest diastolic diameter. The highest blood mean flow velocity was recorded in ulnar (p < 0.001 and popliteal arteries (p < 0.001 of the Judo athletes groups. Recording differences between the two genders, male participants presented larger arteries than females. Conclusively, Judo has been found to be a highly demanding physical sport, involving upper and lower limbs leading to significant arterial adaptations. Obtaining vascular parameters provide a useful tool to the medical team, not only in the direction of enhancement of the efficacy of physical training, but in unknown so far parameters that may influence athletic performance of both male and female elite Judokas

  13. Screening adolescent athletes for exercise-induced asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, R A; LaRussa, J; Wang-Dohlman, A; Bartolucci, A A

    1996-04-01

    To pilot test an exercise-induced asthma (EIA) screening program using a submaximal step-test and pulmonary function test (PFT) to identify athletes with EIA and to determine if a physical examination or self-reported history could be used to predict the existence of EIA. Screening and diagnostic testing using a convenience sample. Birmingham, Alabama, during athletic preparticipation examination (PPE). Fifty-two African-American, male football players aged 14-18 years being evaluated for participation in scholastic athletics. No athlete refused participation. Four were excluded because of need for further evaluation unrelated to any pulmonary condition. Each athlete completed a medical history, allergy history, physical examination, preexercise pulmonary function test (PFT), submaximal step-test, and a series of postexercise PFTs. Major outcome measurements were changes in forced expiration volume in 1s (FEV1) or peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) after completing an exercise challenge. Seventeen of 48 athletes had a > or = 15% decrease in PEFR after exercise. Nine of 48 athletes had a > or = 15% decrease in FEV1 after exercise. The only self-reported item that differentiated subjects with normal and abnormal PFTs was a personal history of asthma (p < 0.05). Many athletes can be identified as having abnormal PFTs by use of a submaximal step-test as an exercise challenge. Self-reporting questionnaires and PPEs do not appear to be sensitive enough to identify athletes with this condition. If validated by future studies, this protocol could be used for the diagnosis of EIA.