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Sample records for exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy

  1. Eccentric and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise training: microRNAs and molecular determinants.

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    Fernandes, T; Soci, U P R; Oliveira, E M

    2011-09-01

    Among the molecular, biochemical and cellular processes that orchestrate the development of the different phenotypes of cardiac hypertrophy in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the specific contribution of exercise training has recently become appreciated. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy involves complex cardiac remodeling that occurs as an adaptive response to static or dynamic chronic exercise, but the stimuli and molecular mechanisms underlying transduction of the hemodynamic overload into myocardial growth are poorly understood. This review summarizes the physiological stimuli that induce concentric and eccentric physiological hypertrophy, and discusses the molecular mechanisms, sarcomeric organization, and signaling pathway involved, also showing that the cardiac markers of pathological hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain and α-skeletal actin) are not increased. There is no fibrosis and no cardiac dysfunction in eccentric or concentric hypertrophy induced by exercise training. Therefore, the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated as one of the regulatory mechanisms for the control of cardiac function and structure. Here, we show that the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor is locally activated in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy, although with exercise training it can be stimulated independently of the involvement of angiotensin II. Recently, microRNAs (miRs) have been investigated as a possible therapeutic approach since they regulate the translation of the target mRNAs involved in cardiac hypertrophy; however, miRs in relation to physiological hypertrophy have not been extensively investigated. We summarize here profiling studies that have examined miRs in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. An understanding of physiological cardiac remodeling may provide a strategy to improve ventricular function in cardiac dysfunction.

  2. Eccentric and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by exercise training: microRNAs and molecular determinants

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    T. Fernandes

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Among the molecular, biochemical and cellular processes that orchestrate the development of the different phenotypes of cardiac hypertrophy in response to physiological stimuli or pathological insults, the specific contribution of exercise training has recently become appreciated. Physiological cardiac hypertrophy involves complex cardiac remodeling that occurs as an adaptive response to static or dynamic chronic exercise, but the stimuli and molecular mechanisms underlying transduction of the hemodynamic overload into myocardial growth are poorly understood. This review summarizes the physiological stimuli that induce concentric and eccentric physiological hypertrophy, and discusses the molecular mechanisms, sarcomeric organization, and signaling pathway involved, also showing that the cardiac markers of pathological hypertrophy (atrial natriuretic factor, β-myosin heavy chain and α-skeletal actin are not increased. There is no fibrosis and no cardiac dysfunction in eccentric or concentric hypertrophy induced by exercise training. Therefore, the renin-angiotensin system has been implicated as one of the regulatory mechanisms for the control of cardiac function and structure. Here, we show that the angiotensin II type 1 (AT1 receptor is locally activated in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy, although with exercise training it can be stimulated independently of the involvement of angiotensin II. Recently, microRNAs (miRs have been investigated as a possible therapeutic approach since they regulate the translation of the target mRNAs involved in cardiac hypertrophy; however, miRs in relation to physiological hypertrophy have not been extensively investigated. We summarize here profiling studies that have examined miRs in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy. An understanding of physiological cardiac remodeling may provide a strategy to improve ventricular function in cardiac dysfunction.

  3. Cyclin D2 is a critical mediator of exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Luckey, Stephen W; Haines, Chris D; Konhilas, John P; Luczak, Elizabeth D; Messmer-Kratzsch, Antke; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2017-12-01

    A number of signaling pathways underlying pathological cardiac hypertrophy have been identified. However, few studies have probed the functional significance of these signaling pathways in the context of exercise or physiological pathways. Exercise studies were performed on females from six different genetic mouse models that have been shown to exhibit alterations in pathological cardiac adaptation and hypertrophy. These include mice expressing constitutively active glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3βS9A), an inhibitor of CaMK II (AC3-I), both GSK-3βS9A and AC3-I (GSK-3βS9A/AC3-I), constitutively active Akt (myrAkt), mice deficient in MAPK/ERK kinase kinase-1 (MEKK1 -/- ), and mice deficient in cyclin D2 (cyclin D2 -/- ). Voluntary wheel running performance was similar to NTG littermates for five of the mouse lines. Exercise induced significant cardiac growth in all mouse models except the cyclin D2 -/- mice. Cardiac function was not impacted in the cyclin D2 -/- mice and studies using a phospho-antibody array identified six proteins with increased phosphorylation (greater than 150%) and nine proteins with decreased phosphorylation (greater than 33% decrease) in the hearts of exercised cyclin D2 -/- mice compared to exercised NTG littermate controls. Our results demonstrate that unlike the other hypertrophic signaling molecules tested here, cyclin D2 is an important regulator of both pathologic and physiological hypertrophy. Impact statement This research is relevant as the hypertrophic signaling pathways tested here have only been characterized for their role in pathological hypertrophy, and not in the context of exercise or physiological hypertrophy. By using the same transgenic mouse lines utilized in previous studies, our findings provide a novel and important understanding for the role of these signaling pathways in physiological hypertrophy. We found that alterations in the signaling pathways tested here had no impact on exercise performance. Exercise

  4. Transcriptional profile of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy and comparison to exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy and human cardiac failure

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    McIver Lauren J

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice has been used in a number of studies to model human cardiac disease. In this study, we compared the transcriptional response of the heart in this model to other animal models of heart failure, as well as to the transcriptional response of human hearts suffering heart failure. Results We performed microarray analyses on RNA from mice with isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and mice with exercise-induced physiological hypertrophy and identified 865 and 2,534 genes that were significantly altered in pathological and physiological cardiac hypertrophy models, respectively. We compared our results to 18 different microarray data sets (318 individual arrays representing various other animal models and four human cardiac diseases and identified a canonical set of 64 genes that are generally altered in failing hearts. We also produced a pairwise similarity matrix to illustrate relatedness of animal models with human heart disease and identified ischemia as the human condition that most resembles isoproterenol treatment. Conclusion The overall patterns of gene expression are consistent with observed structural and molecular differences between normal and maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy and support a role for the immune system (or immune cell infiltration in the pathology of stress-induced hypertrophy. Cross-study comparisons such as the results presented here provide targets for further research of cardiac disease that might generally apply to maladaptive cardiac stresses and are also a means of identifying which animal models best recapitulate human disease at the transcriptional level.

  5. Aerobic exercise protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy via β3-AR-nNOS-NO activation

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    Li, Wenju; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Qiangsun; Niu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Animals were treated with either moderate aerobic exercise by swimming for 9 weeks and/or the β3-AR-specific inhibitor SR59230A at 0.1 mg/kg/hour one day after TAC operation. Myocardial fibrosis, myocyte size, plasma catecholamine (CA) level, cardiac function and geometry were assessed using Masson’s trichrome staining, FITC-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and echocardiography, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the expression of target proteins. The concentration of myocardial NO production was evaluated using the nitrate reductase method. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by detecting the concentration of myocardial super oxidative dismutase (SOD), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aerobic exercise training improved dilated left ventricular function and partially attenuated the degree of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in TAC mice. Moreover, the increased expression of β3-AR, activation of neuronal NOS (nNOS), and production of NO were detected after aerobic exercise training in TAC mice. However, selective inhibition of β3-AR by SR59230A abolished the upregulation and activation of nNOS induced NO production. Furthermore, aerobic exercise training decreased the myocardial ROS and MDA contents and increased myocardial levels of SOD; both effects were partially attenuated by SR

  6. Aerobic exercise protects against pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophy via β3-AR-nNOS-NO activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Xu, Ming; Li, Wenju; Li, Xiaoli; Zheng, Qiangsun; Niu, Xiaolin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic exercise confers sustainable protection against cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure (HF). Nitric oxide synthase (NOS) and nitric oxide (NO) are known to play an important role in exercise-mediated cardioprotection, but the mechanism of NOS/NO stimulation during exercise remains unclear. The aim of this study is to determine the role of β3-adrenergic receptors (β3-ARs), NOS activation, and NO metabolites (nitrite and nitrosothiols) in the sustained cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise. An HF model was constructed by transverse aortic constriction (TAC). Animals were treated with either moderate aerobic exercise by swimming for 9 weeks and/or the β3-AR-specific inhibitor SR59230A at 0.1 mg/kg/hour one day after TAC operation. Myocardial fibrosis, myocyte size, plasma catecholamine (CA) level, cardiac function and geometry were assessed using Masson's trichrome staining, FITC-labeled wheat germ agglutinin staining, enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISA) and echocardiography, respectively. Western blot analysis was performed to elucidate the expression of target proteins. The concentration of myocardial NO production was evaluated using the nitrate reductase method. Myocardial oxidative stress was assessed by detecting the concentration of myocardial super oxidative dismutase (SOD), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Aerobic exercise training improved dilated left ventricular function and partially attenuated the degree of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in TAC mice. Moreover, the increased expression of β3-AR, activation of neuronal NOS (nNOS), and production of NO were detected after aerobic exercise training in TAC mice. However, selective inhibition of β3-AR by SR59230A abolished the upregulation and activation of nNOS induced NO production. Furthermore, aerobic exercise training decreased the myocardial ROS and MDA contents and increased myocardial levels of SOD; both effects were partially attenuated by SR59230

  7. Exercise-induced arterial hypertension - an independent factor for hypertrophy and a ticking clock for cardiac fatigue or atrial fibrillation in athletes?

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    Leischik, Roman; Spelsberg, Norman; Niggemann, Hiltrud; Dworrak, Birgit; Tiroch, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Background : Exercise-induced arterial hypertension (EIAH) leads to myocardial hypertrophy and is associated with a poor prognosis. EIAH might be related to the "cardiac fatigue" caused by endurance training. The goal of this study was to examine whether there is any relationship between EIAH and left ventricular hypertrophy in Ironman-triathletes. We used echocardiography and spiroergometry to determine the left ventricular mass (LVM), the aerobic/anaerobic thresholds and the steady-state blood pressure of 51 healthy male triathletes. The main inclusion criterion was the participation in at least one middle or long distance triathlon. When comparing triathletes with LVM 220g there was a significant difference between blood pressure values (BP) at the anaerobic threshold (185.2± 21.5 mmHg vs. 198.8 ±22.3 mmHg, p=0.037). The spiroergometric results were: maximum oxygen uptake (relative VO 2max) 57.3 ±7.5ml/min/kg vs. 59.8±9.5ml/min/kg (p=ns). Cut-point analysis for the relationship of BP >170 mmHg at the aerobic threshold and the probability of LVM >220g showed a sensitivity of 95.8%, a specificity of 33.3%, with a positive predictive value of 56.8 %, a good negative predictive value of 90%. The probability of LVM >220g increased with higher BP during exercise (OR: 1.027, 95% CI 1.002-1.052, p= 0.034) or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04 -1.47, p = 0.019). Echocardiography showed predominantly concentric remodelling, followed by concentric hypertrophy. Significant left ventricular hypertrophy with LVM >220g is associated with higher arterial blood pressure at the aerobic or anaerobic threshold. The endurance athletes with EIAH may require a therapeutic intervention to at least prevent extensive stiffening of the heart muscle and exercise-induced cardiac fatigue.

  8. Herbal Supplement Ameliorates Cardiac Hypertrophy in Rats with CCl4-Induced Liver Cirrhosis

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    Ping-Chun Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We used the carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 induced liver cirrhosis model to test the molecular mechanism of action involved in cirrhosis-associated cardiac hypertrophy and the effectiveness of Ocimum gratissimum extract (OGE and silymarin against cardiac hypertrophy. We treated male wistar rats with CCl4 and either OGE (0.02 g/kg B.W. or 0.04 g/kg B.W. or silymarin (0.2 g/kg B.W.. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced by CCl4 along with cirrhosis and increased expression of cardiac hypertrophy related genes NFAT, TAGA4, and NBP, and the interleukin-6 (IL-6 signaling pathway related genes MEK5, ERK5, JAK, and STAT3. OGE or silymarin co-treatment attenuated CCl4-induced cardiac abnormalities, and lowered expression of genes which were elevated by this hepatotoxin. Our results suggest that the IL-6 signaling pathway may be related to CCl4-induced cardiac hypertrophy. OGE and silymarin were able to lower liver fibrosis, which reduces the chance of cardiac hypertrophy perhaps by lowering the expressions of IL-6 signaling pathway related genes. We conclude that treatment of cirrhosis using herbal supplements is a viable option for protecting cardiac tissues against cirrhosis-related cardiac hypertrophy.

  9. 19-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid and isoniazid protect against angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy

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    Elkhatali, Samya; El-Sherbeni, Ahmed A.; Elshenawy, Osama H. [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Abdelhamid, Ghada [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada); Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Helwan University, Helwan (Egypt); El-Kadi, Ayman O.S., E-mail: aelkadi@ualberta.ca [Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta T6G 2E1 (Canada)

    2015-12-15

    We have recently demonstrated that 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid (19-HETE) is the major subterminal-HETE formed in the heart tissue, and its formation was decreased during cardiac hypertrophy. In the current study, we examined whether 19-HETE confers cardioprotection against angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The effect of Ang II, with and without 19-HETE (20 μM), on the development of cellular hypertrophy in cardiomyocyte RL-14 cells was assessed by real-time PCR. Also, cardiac hypertrophy was induced in Sprague–Dawley rats by Ang II, and the effect of increasing 19-HETE by isoniazid (INH; 200 mg/kg/day) was assessed by heart weight and echocardiography. Also, alterations in cardiac cytochrome P450 (CYP) and their associated arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites were determined by real-time PCR, Western blotting and liquid-chromatography–mass-spectrometry. Our results demonstrated that 19-HETE conferred a cardioprotective effect against Ang II-induced cellular hypertrophy in vitro, as indicated by the significant reduction in β/α-myosin heavy chain ratio. In vivo, INH improved heart dimensions, and reversed the increase in heart weight to tibia length ratio caused by Ang II. We found a significant increase in cardiac 19-HETE, as well as a significant reduction in AA and its metabolite, 20-HETE. In conclusion, 19-HETE, incubated with cardiomyocytes in vitro or induced in the heart by INH in vivo, provides cardioprotection against Ang II-induced hypertrophy. This further confirms the role of CYP, and their associated AA metabolites in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • We found 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid to protect cardiomyocytes from hypertrophy. • We validated the use of isoniazid as a cardiac 19-hydroxy arachidonic acid inducer. • We found isoniazid to increase protective and inhibit toxic eicosanoides. • We found isoniazid to protect against angiotensin-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • This will help to

  10. Local renin-angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Kobori, H; Ichihara, A; Miyashita, Y; Hayashi, M; Saruta, T

    1999-01-01

    We have reported previously that thyroid hormone activates the circulating and tissue renin-angiotensin systems without involving the sympathetic nervous system, which contributes to cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism. This study examined whether the circulating or tissue renin-angiotensin system plays the principal role in hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The circulating renin-angiotensin system in Sprague-Dawley rats was fixed by chronic angiotensin II infusion (40 ng/min, 28 days) via mini-osmotic pumps. Daily i.p. injection of thyroxine (0.1 mg/kg per day, 28 days) was used to mimic hyperthyroidism. Serum free tri-iodothyronine, plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II were measured with RIAs. The cardiac expression of renin mRNA was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II were kept constant in the angiotensin II and angiotensin II+thyroxine groups (0.12+/-0.03 and 0.15+/-0.03 microgram/h per liter, 126+/-5 and 130+/-5 ng/l respectively) (means+/-s.e.m.). Despite stabilization of the circulating renin-angiotensin system, thyroid hormone induced cardiac hypertrophy (5.0+/-0.5 vs 3.5+/-0.1 mg/g) in conjunction with the increases in cardiac expression of renin mRNA, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II (74+/-2 vs 48+/-2%, 6.5+/-0.8 vs 3.8+/-0.4 ng/h per g, 231+/-30 vs 149+/-2 pg/g respectively). These results indicate that the local renin-angiotensin system plays the primary role in the development of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  11. UCP3 Ablation Exacerbates High-Salt Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Cardiac Dysfunction

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    Hongmei Lang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Excessive salt intake and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH are both critical for the development of hypertension and heart failure. The uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3 plays a cardio-protective role in early heart failure development. However, the potential role for UCP3 in salt intake and LVH is unclear. Methods: UCP3-/- and C57BL/6 mice were placed on either a normal-salt (NS, 0.5% or a high-salt (HS, 8% diet for 24 weeks. The cardiac function, endurance capacity, energy expenditure, and mitochondrial functional capacity were measured in each group. Results: Elevated blood pressure was only observed in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. High salt induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction were observed in both C57BL/6 and UCP3-/- mice. However, the cardiac lesions were more profound in HS-fed UCP3-/- mice. Furthermore, HS-fed UCP3-/-mice experienced more severe mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction compared with HS-fed C57BL/6 mice, represented by the decreased volume of oxygen consumption and heat production at the whole-body level. Conclusion: UCP3 protein was involved in the incidence of high-salt induced hypertension and the progression of cardiac dysfunction in the early stages of heart failure. UCP3 ablation exacerbated high-salt-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction.

  12. Distinct cardiac transcriptional profiles defining pregnancy and exercise.

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    Eunhee Chung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although the hypertrophic responses of the heart to pregnancy and exercise are both considered to be physiological processes, they occur in quite different hormonal and temporal settings. In this study, we have compared the global transcriptional profiles of left ventricular tissues at various time points during the progression of hypertrophy in exercise and pregnancy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The following groups of female mice were analyzed: non-pregnant diestrus cycle sedentary control, mid-pregnant, late-pregnant, and immediate-postpartum, and animals subjected to 7 and 21 days of voluntary wheel running. Hierarchical clustering analysis shows that while mid-pregnancy and both exercise groups share the closest relationship and similar gene ontology categories, late pregnancy and immediate post-partum are quite different with high representation of secreted/extracellular matrix-related genes. Moreover, pathway-oriented ontological analysis shows that metabolism regulated by cytochrome P450 and chemokine pathways are the most significant signaling pathways regulated in late pregnancy and immediate-postpartum, respectively. Finally, increases in expression of components of the proteasome observed in both mid-pregnancy and immediate-postpartum also result in enhanced proteasome activity. Interestingly, the gene expression profiles did not correlate with the degree of cardiac hypertrophy observed in the animal groups, suggesting that distinct pathways are employed to achieve similar amounts of cardiac hypertrophy. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate that cardiac adaptation to the later stages of pregnancy is quite distinct from both mid-pregnancy and exercise. Furthermore, it is very dynamic since, by 12 hours post-partum, the heart has already initiated regression of cardiac growth, and 50 genes have changed expression significantly in the immediate-postpartum compared to late-pregnancy. Thus, pregnancy-induced

  13. Local renin–angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, H; Ichihara, A; Miyashita, Y; Hayashi, M; Saruta, T

    2008-01-01

    We have reported previously that thyroid hormone activates the circulating and tissue renin–angiotensin systems without involving the sympathetic nervous system, which contributes to cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism. This study examined whether the circulating or tissue renin–angiotensin system plays the principal role in hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The circulating renin–angiotensin system in Sprague–Dawley rats was fixed by chronic angiotensin II infusion (40 ng/ min, 28 days) via mini-osmotic pumps. Daily i.p. injection of thyroxine (0·1 mg/kg per day, 28 days) was used to mimic hyperthyroidism. Serum free tri-iodothyronine, plasma renin activity, plasma angiotensin II, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II were measured with RIAs. The cardiac expression of renin mRNA was evaluated by semiquantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Plasma renin activity and plasma angiotensin II were kept constant in the angiotensin II and angiotensin II+thyroxine groups (0·12 ± 0·03 and 0·15 ± 0·03 μg/h per liter, 126 ± 5 and 130 ± 5 ng/l respectively) (means ± s.e.m.). Despite stabilization of the circulating renin–angiotensin system, thyroid hormone induced cardiac hypertrophy (5·0 ± 0·5 vs 3·5 ± 0·1 mg/g) in conjunction with the increases in cardiac expression of renin mRNA, cardiac renin and cardiac angiotensin II (74 ± 2 vs 48 ± 2%, 6·5 ± 0·8 vs 3·8 ± 0·4 ng/h per g, 231 ± 30 vs 149 ± 2 pg/g respectively). These results indicate that the local renin–angiotensin system plays the primary role in the development of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:9854175

  14. Local renin–angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy

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    Kobori, H; Ichihara, A; Miyashita, Y; Hayashi, M; Saruta, T

    1999-01-01

    We have reported previously that thyroid hormone activates the circulating and tissue renin–angiotensin systems without involving the sympathetic nervous system, which contributes to cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism. This study examined whether the circulating or tissue renin–angiotensin system plays the principal role in hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy. The circulating renin–angiotensin system in Sprague–Dawley rats was fixed by chronic angiotensin II infusion (40 ng/ min, ...

  15. GSK-3β/NFAT Signaling Is Involved in Testosterone-Induced Cardiac Myocyte Hypertrophy.

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    Javier Duran

    Full Text Available Testosterone induces cardiac hypertrophy through a mechanism that involves a concerted crosstalk between cytosolic and nuclear signaling pathways. Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT is associated with the promotion of cardiac hypertrophy, glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β is considered to function as a negative regulator, mainly by modulating NFAT activity. However, the role played by calcineurin-NFAT and GSK-3β signaling in testosterone-induced cardiac hypertrophy has remained unknown. Here, we determined that testosterone stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy through NFAT activation and GSK-3β inhibition. Testosterone increased the activity of NFAT-luciferase (NFAT-Luc in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with the activity peaking after 24 h of stimulation with 100 nM testosterone. NFAT-Luc activity induced by testosterone was blocked by the calcineurin inhibitors FK506 and cyclosporine A and by 11R-VIVIT, a specific peptide inhibitor of NFAT. Conversely, testosterone inhibited GSK-3β activity as determined by increased GSK-3β phosphorylation at Ser9 and β-catenin protein accumulation, and also by reduction in β-catenin phosphorylation at residues Ser33, Ser37, and Thr41. GSK-3β inhibition with 1-azakenpaullone or a GSK-3β-targeting siRNA increased NFAT-Luc activity, whereas overexpression of a constitutively active GSK-3β mutant (GSK-3βS9A inhibited NFAT-Luc activation mediated by testosterone. Testosterone-induced cardiac myocyte hypertrophy was established by increased cardiac myocyte size and [3H]-leucine incorporation (as a measurement of cellular protein synthesis. Calcineurin-NFAT inhibition abolished and GSK-3β inhibition promoted the hypertrophy stimulated by testosterone. GSK-3β activation by GSK-3βS9A blocked the increase of hypertrophic markers induced by testosterone. Moreover, inhibition of intracellular androgen receptor prevented testosterone-induced NFAT-Luc activation. Collectively, these results

  16. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy.

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    Galán, María; Varona, Saray; Guadall, Anna; Orriols, Mar; Navas, Miquel; Aguiló, Silvia; de Diego, Alicia; Navarro, María A; García-Dorado, David; Rodríguez-Sinovas, Antonio; Martínez-González, José; Rodriguez, Cristina

    2017-09-01

    Lysyl oxidase (LOX) controls matrix remodeling, a key process that underlies cardiovascular diseases and heart failure; however, a lack of suitable animal models has limited our knowledge with regard to the contribution of LOX to cardiac dysfunction. Here, we assessed the impact of LOX overexpression on ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in a transgenic LOX (TgLOX) mouse model with a strong cardiac expression of human LOX. TgLOX mice exhibited high expression of the transgene in cardiomyocytes and cardiofibroblasts, which are associated with enhanced LOX activity and H 2 O 2 production and with cardiofibroblast reprogramming. LOX overexpression promoted an age-associated concentric remodeling of the left ventricle and impaired diastolic function. Furthermore, LOX transgenesis aggravated angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction, which triggered a greater fibrotic response that was characterized by stronger collagen deposition and cross-linking and high expression of fibrotic markers. In addition, LOX transgenesis increased the Ang II-induced myocardial inflammatory infiltrate, exacerbated expression of proinflammatory markers, and decreased that of cardioprotective factors. Mechanistically, LOX overexpression enhanced oxidative stress and potentiated the Ang II-mediated cardiac activation of p38 MAPK while reducing AMPK activation. Our findings suggest that LOX induces an age-dependent disturbance of diastolic function and aggravates Ang II-induced hypertrophy, which provides novel insights into the role of LOX in cardiac performance.-Galán, M., Varona, S., Guadall, A., Orriols, M., Navas, M., Aguiló, S., de Diego, A., Navarro, M. A., García-Dorado, D., Rodríguez-Sinovas, A., Martínez-González, J., Rodriguez, C. Lysyl oxidase overexpression accelerates cardiac remodeling and aggravates angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy. © FASEB.

  17. HSF1 and NF-κB p65 participate in the process of exercise preconditioning attenuating pressure overload-induced pathological cardiac hypertrophy

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    Xu, Tongyi [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, No. 401 Hospital of PLA, Qingdao (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zhang, Ben [Centre of Cardiovascular Surgery, Guangzhou General Hospital of Guangzhou Military Region, Guangzhou (China); Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Yang, Fan; Cai, Chengliang; Wang, Guokun [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Han, Qingqi, E-mail: handoctor@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China); Zou, Liangjian, E-mail: zouliangjiansh@gmail.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Second Military Medical University, Shanghai (China)

    2015-05-08

    Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, often accompanied by hypertension, aortic stenosis and valvular defects, is typically associated with myocyte remodeling and cardiac dysfunction. Exercise preconditioning (EP) has been proven to enhance the tolerance of the myocardium to cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, the effects of EP in pathological cardiac hypertrophy are rarely reported. 10-wk-old male Sprague–Dawley rats (n = 80) were randomly divided into four groups: sham, TAC, EP + sham and EP + TAC. Two EP groups were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill training, and the EP + TAC and TAC groups were followed by TAC operations. The sham and EP + sham groups underwent the same operation without aortic constriction. Eight weeks after the surgery, we evaluated the effects of EP by echocardiography, morphology, and histology and observed the expressions of the associated proteins. Compared with the respective control groups, hypertrophy-related indicators were significantly increased in the TAC and EP + TAC groups (p < 0.05). However, between the TAC and EP + TAC groups, all of these changes were effectively inhibited by EP treatment (p < 0.05). Furthermore, EP treatment upregulated the expression of HSF1 and HSP70, increased the HSF1 levels in the nuclear fraction, inhibited the expression of the NF-κB p65 subunit, decreased the NF-κB p65 subunit levels in the nuclear fraction, and reduced the IL2 levels in the myocardia of rats. EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC and may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70, activating HSF1 and then inhibiting the expression of NF-κB p65 and nuclear translocation. - Highlights: • EP could effectively reduce the cardiac hypertrophic responses induced by TAC. • EP may play a protective role by upregulating the expressions of HSF1 and HSP70 and then activating HSF1. • EP may play a protective role by inhibiting the expression

  18. Ameliorative role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats.

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    Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Randhir; Krishan, Pawan

    2015-04-01

    Fibrates are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α agonists and are clinically used for treatment of dyslipidemia and hypertriglyceridemia. Fenofibrate is reported as a cardioprotective agent in various models of cardiac dysfunction; however, limited literature is available regarding the role of gemfibrozil as a possible cardioprotective agent, especially in a non-obese model of cardiac remodelling. The present study investigated the role of gemfibrozil against partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac hypertrophy in rats. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by partial abdominal aortic constriction in rats and they survived for 4 weeks. The cardiac hypertrophy was assessed by measuring left ventricular weight to body weight ratio, left ventricular wall thickness, and protein and collagen content. The oxidative stress in the cardiac tissues was assessed by measuring thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, superoxide anion generation, and reduced glutathione level. The haematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red staining was used to observe cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen deposition, respectively. Moreover, serum levels of cholesterol, high-density lipoproteins, triglycerides, and glucose were also measured. Gemfibrozil (30 mg/kg, p.o.) was administered since the first day of partial abdominal aortic constriction and continued for 4 weeks. The partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy are indicated by significant change in various parameters used in the present study that were ameliorated with gemfibrozil treatment in rats. No significant change in serum parameters was observed between various groups used in the present study. It is concluded that gemfibrozil ameliorates partial abdominal aortic constriction-induced cardiac oxidative stress and hypertrophy and in rats.

  19. Apigenin ameliorates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and down-regulates cardiac hypoxia inducible factor-lα in rats.

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    Zhu, Zeng-Yan; Gao, Tian; Huang, Yan; Xue, Jie; Xie, Mei-Lin

    2016-04-01

    Apigenin is a natural flavonoid compound that can inhibit hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression in cultured tumor cells under hypoxic conditions. Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy is always accompanied by abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism due to an increase of HIF-1α. However, whether or not apigenin may ameliorate the cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism remains unknown. This study aimed to examine the effects of apigenin. Rats with cardiac hypertrophy induced by renovascular hypertension were treated with apigenin 50-100 mg kg(-1) (the doses can be achieved by pharmacological or dietary supplementation for an adult person) by gavage for 4 weeks. The results showed that after treatment with apigenin, the blood pressure, heart weight, heart weight index, cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area, serum angiotensin II, and serum and myocardial free fatty acids were reduced. It is important to note that apigenin decreased the expression level of myocardial HIF-1α protein. Moreover, apigenin simultaneously increased the expression levels of myocardial peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK)-4 proteins and decreased the expression levels of myocardial PPARγ, glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase genes (GPAT), and glucose transporter (GLUT)-4 proteins. These findings demonstrated that apigenin could improve hypertensive cardiac hypertrophy and abnormal myocardial glucolipid metabolism in rats, and its mechanisms might be associated with the down-regulation of myocardial HIF-1α expression and, subsequently increasing the expressions of myocardial PPARα and its target genes CPT-1 and PDK-4, and decreasing the expressions of myocardial PPARγ and its target genes GPAT and GLUT-4.

  20. Investigating β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy through computational approach: classical and non-classical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilimeybodi, Ali; Daneshmehr, Alireza; Sharif-Kashani, Babak

    2018-07-01

    The chronic stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors plays a crucial role in cardiac hypertrophy and its progression to heart failure. In β-adrenergic signaling, in addition to the well-established classical pathway, Gs/AC/cAMP/PKA, activation of non-classical pathways such as Gi/PI3K/Akt/GSK3β and Gi/Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK contribute in cardiac hypertrophy. The signaling network of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is very complex and not fully understood. So, we use a computational approach to investigate the dynamic response and contribution of β-adrenergic mediators in cardiac hypertrophy. The proposed computational model provides insights into the effects of β-adrenergic classical and non-classical pathways on the activity of hypertrophic transcription factors CREB and GATA4. The results illustrate that the model captures the dynamics of the main signaling mediators and reproduces the experimental observations well. The results also show that despite the low portion of β2 receptors out of total cardiac β-adrenergic receptors, their contribution in the activation of hypertrophic mediators and regulation of β-adrenergic-induced hypertrophy is noticeable and variations in β1/β2 receptors ratio greatly affect the ISO-induced hypertrophic response. The model results illustrate that GSK3β deactivation after β-adrenergic receptor stimulation has a major influence on CREB and GATA4 activation and consequent cardiac hypertrophy. Also, it is found through sensitivity analysis that PKB (Akt) activation has both pro-hypertrophic and anti-hypertrophic effects in β-adrenergic signaling.

  1. Extracellular high-mobility group box 1 mediates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lei; Liu, Ming; Jiang, Hong; Yu, Ying; Yu, Peng; Tong, Rui; Wu, Jian; Zhang, Shuning; Yao, Kang; Zou, Yunzeng; Ge, Junbo

    2016-03-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), which is increased in myocardium under pressure overload, may be involved in pressure overload-induced cardiac injury. The objectives of this study are to determine the role of HMGB1 in cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction under pressure overload. Pressure overload was imposed on the heart of male wild-type mice by transverse aortic constriction (TAC), while recombinant HMGB1, HMGB1 box A (a competitive antagonist of HMGB1) or PBS was injected into the LV wall. Moreover, cardiac myocytes were cultured and given sustained mechanical stress. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed after the operation and sections for histological analyses were generated from paraffin-embedded hearts. Relevant proteins and genes were detected. Cardiac HMGB1 expression was increased after TAC, which was accompanied by its translocation from nucleus to both cytoplasm and intercellular space. Exogenous HMGB1 aggravated TAC-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, as demonstrated by echocardiographic analyses, histological analyses and foetal cardiac genes detection. Nevertheless, the aforementioned pathological change induced by TAC could partially be reversed by HMGB1 inhibition. Consistent with the in vivo observations, mechanical stress evoked the release and synthesis of HMGB1 in cultured cardiac myocytes. This study indicates that the activated and up-regulated HMGB1 in myocardium, which might partially be derived from cardiac myocytes under pressure overload, may be of crucial importance in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  2. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiac hypertrophy induced in rats by hyperthyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, H; Ichihara, A; Suzuki, H; Takenaka, T; Miyashita, Y; Hayashi, M; Saruta, T

    1997-08-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the renin-angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy without involving the sympathetic nervous system. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control-innervated, control-denervated, hyperthyroid-innervated, and hyperthyroid-denervated groups using intraperitoneal injections of thyroxine and 6-hydroxydopamine. After 8 wk, the heart-to-body weight ratio increased in hyperthyroid groups (63%), and this increase was only partially inhibited by sympathetic denervation. Radioimmunoassays and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed increased cardiac levels of renin (33%) and angiotensin II (53%) and enhanced cardiac expression of renin mRNA (225%) in the hyperthyroid groups. These increases were unaffected by sympathetic denervation or 24-h bilateral nephrectomy. In addition, losartan and nicardipine decreased systolic blood pressure to the same extent, but only losartan caused regression of thyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy. These results suggest that thyroid hormone activates the cardiac renin-angiotensin system without involving the sympathetic nervous system or the circulating renin-angiotensin system; the activated renin-angiotensin system contributes to cardiac hypertrophy in hyperthyroidism.

  3. Solving the cardiac hypertrophy riddle: The angiotensin II-mechanical stress connection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zablocki, Daniela; Sadoshima, Junichi

    2013-11-08

    A series of studies conducted 20 years ago, documenting the cardiac hypertrophy phenotype and its underlying signaling mechanism induced by angiotensin II (Ang II) and mechanical stress, showed a remarkable similarity between the effect of the Gαq agonist and that of mechanical forces on cardiac hypertrophy. Subsequent studies confirmed the involvement of autocrine/paracrine mechanisms, including stretch-induced release of Ang II in load-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Recent studies showed that the Ang II type 1 (AT1) receptor is also directly activated by mechanical forces, suggesting that AT1 receptors play an important role in mediating load-induced cardiac hypertrophy through both ligand- and mechanical stress-dependent mechanisms.

  4. Cardiac hypertrophy and IGF-1 response to testosterone propionate treatment in trained male rats

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    Żebrowska Aleksandra

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested that testosterone exerts a growth-promoting effect in the heart. Limited data are available regarding interactions between possible endocrine/paracrine effects in response to exercise training. Therefore, we examined supraphysiological testosterone-induced heart hypertrophy and cardiac insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 content in sedentary and exercise-trained rats.

  5. Inhibition of Uncoupling Protein 2 Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Induced by Transverse Aortic Constriction in Mice

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    Xiao-Bing Ji

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2 is critical in regulating energy metabolism. Due to the significant change in energy metabolism of myocardium upon pressure overload, we hypothesize that UCP2 could contribute to the etiology of cardiac hypertrophy. Methods: Adult male C57BL/6J mice were subjected to pressure overload by using transverse aortic constriction (TAC, and then received genipin (a UCP2 selective inhibitor; 25 mg/kg/d, ip or vehicle for three weeks prior to histologic assessment of myocardial hypertrophy. ATP concentration, ROS level, and myocardial apoptosis were also examined. A parallel set of experiments was also conducted in UCP2-/- mice. Results: TAC induced left ventricular hypertrophy, as reflected by increased ventricular weight/thickness and increased size of myocardial cell (vs. sham controls. ATP concentration was decreased; ROS level was increased. Apoptosis and fibrosis markers were increased. TAC increased mitochondrial UCP2 expression in the myocardium at both mRNA and protein levels. Genipin treatment attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and the histologic/biochemical changes described above. Hypertrophy and associated changes induced by TAC in UCP2-/- mice were much less pronounced than in WT mice. Conclusions: Blocking UCP2 expression attenuates cardiac hypertrophy induced by pressure overload.

  6. Pregestational type 2 diabetes mellitus induces cardiac hypertrophy in the murine embryo through cardiac remodeling and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xue; Yang, Penghua; Reece, E Albert; Yang, Peixin

    2017-08-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is highly prevalent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Experimental evidence has implied that pregnant women with type 2 diabetes mellitus and their children are at an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. Our previous mouse model study revealed that maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces structural heart defects in their offspring. This study aims to determine whether maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus induces embryonic heart hypertrophy in a murine model of diabetic embryopathy. The type 2 diabetes mellitus embryopathy model was established by feeding 4-week-old female C57BL/6J mice with a high-fat diet for 15 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy in embryos at embryonic day 17.5 was characterized by measuring heart size and thickness of the right and left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum, as well as the expression of β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, desmin, and adrenomedullin. Cardiac remodeling was determined by collagen synthesis and fibronectin synthesis. Fibrosis was evaluated by Masson staining and determining the expression of connective tissue growth factor, osteopontin, and galectin-3 genes. Cell apoptosis also was measured in the developing heart. The thicknesses of the left ventricle walls and the interventricular septum of embryonic hearts exposed to maternal diabetes were significantly thicker than those in the nondiabetic group. Maternal diabetes significantly increased β-myosin heavy chain, atrial natriuretic peptide, insulin-like growth factor-1, and desmin expression, but decreased expression of adrenomedullin. Moreover, collagen synthesis was significantly elevated, whereas fibronectin synthesis was suppressed, in embryonic hearts from diabetic dams, suggesting that cardiac remodeling is a contributing factor to cardiac hypertrophy. The cardiac fibrosis marker, galectin-3, was induced by maternal diabetes. Furthermore, maternal type 2 diabetes mellitus

  7. Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy in adult Drosophila

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    Lin Yu

    2013-07-01

    In response to stress and extracellular signals, the heart undergoes a process called cardiac hypertrophy during which cardiomyocytes increase in size. If untreated, cardiac hypertrophy can progress to overt heart failure that causes significant morbidity and mortality. The identification of molecular signals that cause or modify cardiomyopathies is necessary to understand how the normal heart progresses to cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signaling is essential for normal human cardiac function, and the inhibition of RTKs can cause dilated cardiomyopathies. However, neither investigations of activated RTK signaling pathways nor the characterization of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the adult fly heart has been previously described. Therefore, we developed strategies using Drosophila as a model to circumvent some of the complexities associated with mammalian models of cardiovascular disease. Transgenes encoding activated EGFRA887T, Ras85DV12 and Ras85DV12S35, which preferentially signal to Raf, or constitutively active human or fly Raf caused hypertrophic cardiomyopathy as determined by decreased end diastolic lumen dimensions, abnormal cardiomyocyte fiber morphology and increased heart wall thicknesses. There were no changes in cardiomyocyte cell numbers. Additionally, activated Raf also induced an increase in cardiomyocyte ploidy compared with control hearts. However, preventing increases in cardiomyocyte ploidy using fizzy-related (Fzr RNAi did not rescue Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that Raf-mediated polyploidization is not required for cardiac hypertrophy. Similar to mammals, the cardiac-specific expression of RNAi directed against MEK or ERK rescued Raf-mediated cardiac hypertrophy. However, the cardiac-specific expression of activated ERKD334N, which promotes hyperplasia in non-cardiac tissues, did not cause myocyte hypertrophy. These results suggest that ERK is necessary, but not sufficient, for Raf

  8. High-Intensity Exercise Reduces Cardiac Fibrosis and Hypertrophy but Does Not Restore the Nitroso-Redox Imbalance in Diabetic Cardiomyopathy

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    Ulises Novoa

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic cardiomyopathy refers to the manifestations in the heart as a result of altered glucose homeostasis, reflected as fibrosis, cellular hypertrophy, increased oxidative stress, and apoptosis, leading to ventricular dysfunction. Since physical exercise has been indicated as cardioprotective, we tested the hypothesis that high-intensity exercise training could reverse the cardiac maladaptations produced by diabetes. For this, diabetes was induced in rats by a single dose of alloxan. Diabetic rats were randomly assigned to a sedentary group or submitted to a program of exercise on a treadmill for 4 weeks at 80% of maximal performance. Another group of normoglycemic rats was used as control. Diabetic rat hearts presented cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and interstitial fibrosis. Chronic exercise reduced both parameters but increased apoptosis. Diabetes increased the myocardial levels of the mRNA and proteins of NADPH oxidases NOX2 and NOX4. These altered levels were not reduced by exercise. Diabetes also increased the level of uncoupled endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS that was not reversed by exercise. Finally, diabetic rats showed a lower degree of phosphorylated phospholamban and reduced levels of SERCA2 that were not restored by high-intensity exercise. These results suggest that high-intensity chronic exercise was able to reverse remodeling in the diabetic heart but was unable to restore the nitroso-redox imbalance imposed by diabetes.

  9. Role of Oxidative Stress in Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy and Associated Cardiac Dysfunction: An Undisclosed Story

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    Mohammad T. Elnakish

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is the most documented cardiomyopathy following hyperthyroidism in experimental animals. Thyroid hormone-induced cardiac hypertrophy is described as a relative ventricular hypertrophy that encompasses the whole heart and is linked with contractile abnormalities in both right and left ventricles. The increase in oxidative stress that takes place in experimental hyperthyroidism proposes that reactive oxygen species are key players in the cardiomyopathy frequently reported in this endocrine disorder. The goal of this review is to shed light on the effects of thyroid hormones on the development of oxidative stress in the heart along with the subsequent cellular and molecular changes. In particular, we will review the role of thyroid hormone-induced oxidative stress in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and associated cardiac dysfunction, as well as the potential effectiveness of antioxidant treatments in attenuating these hyperthyroidism-induced abnormalities in experimental animal models.

  10. Gastrodin Inhibits Store-Operated Ca2+ Entry and Alleviates Cardiac Hypertrophy

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    Xiaoqiang Yao

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy is a major risk factor for heart failure, which are among the leading causes of human death. Gastrodin is a small molecule that has been used clinically to treat neurological and vascular diseases for many years without safety issues. In the present study, we examined protective effect of gastrodin against cardiac hypertrophy and explored the underlying mechanism. Phenylephrine and angiotensin II were used to induce cardiac hypertrophy in a mouse model and a cultured cardiomyocyte model. Gastrodin was found to alleviate the cardiac hypertrophy in both models. Mechanistically, gastrodin attenuated the store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE by reducing the expression of STIM1 and Orai1, two key proteins in SOCE, in animal models as well as in cultured cardiomyocyte model. Furthermore, suppressing SOCE by RO2959, Orai1-siRNAs or STIM1-siRNAs markedly attenuated the phenylephrine-induced hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocyte model. Together, these results showed that gastrodin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and it also reduced the SOCE via its action on the expression of STIM1 and Orai1. Furthermore, suppression of SOCE could reduce the phenylephrine-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, suggesting that SOCE-STIM1-Orai1 is located upstream of hypertrophy.

  11. Alterations in NO/ROS ratio and expression of Trx1 and Prdx2 in isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hao Su; Marco Pistolozzi; Xingjuan Shi; Xiaoou Sun; Wen Tan

    2017-01-01

    The development of cardiac hypertrophy is a complicated process,which undergoes a transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure,and the identification of new biomarkers and targets for this disease is greatly needed.Here we investigated the development of isoproterenol (ISO)-induced cardiac hypertrophy in an in vitro experimental model.After the induction of hypertrophy with ISO treatment in H9c2 cells,cell surface area,cell viability,cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS),and nitric oxide (NO) levels were tested.Our data showed that the cell viability,mitochondrial membrane potential,and NO/ROS balance varied during the development of cardiac hypertrophy in H9c2 cells.It was also found that the expression of thioredoxin1 (Trx1) and peroxiredoxin2 (Prdx2) was decreased during the cardiac hypertrophy of H9c2 cells.These results suggest a critical role for Trx1 and Prdx2 in the cardiac hypertrophy of H9c2 cells and in the transition from compensated hypertrophy to de-compensated hypertrophy in H9c2 cells,and our findings may have important implications for the management of this disease.

  12. Postnatal ablation of Foxm1 from cardiomyocytes causes late onset cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis without exacerbating pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling.

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    Craig Bolte

    Full Text Available Heart disease remains a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the industrialized world. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the most common genetic cardiovascular disorder and the most common cause of sudden cardiac death. Foxm1 transcription factor (also known as HFH-11B, Trident, Win or MPP2 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cancers and is a critical mediator of post-injury repair in multiple organs. Foxm1 has been previously shown to be essential for heart development and proliferation of embryonic cardiomyocytes. However, the role of Foxm1 in postnatal heart development and in cardiac injury has not been evaluated. To delete Foxm1 in postnatal cardiomyocytes, αMHC-Cre/Foxm1(fl/fl mice were generated. Surprisingly, αMHC-Cre/Foxm1(fl/fl mice exhibited normal cardiomyocyte proliferation at postnatal day seven and had no defects in cardiac structure or function but developed cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis late in life. The development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis in aged Foxm1-deficient mice was associated with reduced expression of Hey2, an important regulator of cardiac homeostasis, and increased expression of genes critical for cardiac remodeling, including MMP9, αSMA, fibronectin and vimentin. We also found that following aortic constriction Foxm1 mRNA and protein were induced in cardiomyocytes. However, Foxm1 deletion did not exacerbate cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis following chronic pressure overload. Our results demonstrate that Foxm1 regulates genes critical for age-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and cardiac fibrosis.

  13. Egr-1 mediated cardiac miR-99 family expression diverges physiological hypertrophy from pathological hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramasamy, Subbiah; Velmurugan, Ganesan; Rekha, Balakrishnan; Anusha, Sivakumar; Shanmugha Rajan, K; Shanmugarajan, Suresh; Ramprasath, Tharmarajan; Gopal, Pandi; Tomar, Dhanendra; Karthik, Karuppusamy V; Verma, Suresh Kumar; Garikipati, Venkata Naga Srikanth; Sudarsan, Rajan

    2018-04-01

    The physiological cardiac hypertrophy is an adaptive condition without myocyte cell death, while pathological hypertrophy is a maladaptive condition associated with myocyte cell death. This study explores the miRNome of α-2M-induced physiologically hypertrophied cardiomyocytes and the role of miRNA-99 family during cardiac hypertrophy. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy was induced in H9c2 cardiomyoblast cell lines using α-2M and isoproterenol respectively. Total RNA isolation and small RNA sequencing were executed for physiological hypertrophy model. The differentially expressed miRNAs and its target mRNAs were validated in animal models. Transcription factor binding sites were predicted in the promoter of specific miRNAs and validated by ChIP-PCR. Subsequently, the selected miRNA was functionally characterized by overexpression and silencing. The effects of silencing of upstream regulator and downstream target gene were studied. Analysis of small RNA reads revealed the differential expression of a large set of miRNAs during hypertrophy, of which miR-99 family was highly downregulated upon α-2M treatment. However, this miR-99 family expression was upregulated during pathological hypertrophy and confirmed in animal models. ChIP-PCR confirms the binding of Egr-1 transcription factor to the miR-99 promoter. Further, silencing of Egr-1 decreased the expression of miR-99. The overexpression or silencing of miR-99 diverges the physiological hypertrophy to pathological hypertrophy and vice versa by regulating Akt-1 pathway. Silencing of Akt-1 replicates the effect of overexpression of miR-99. The results proved Egr-1 mediated regulation of miR-99 family that plays a key role in determining the fate of cardiac hypertrophy by regulating Akt-1 signaling. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. GATA4-mediated cardiac hypertrophy induced by D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Zhiming; Zhu Shanjun; Liu Daoyan; Yu Zengping; Yang Yongjian; Giet, Markus van der; Tepel, Martin

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate on cardiac hypertrophy. D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate augmented cardiac hypertrophy as evidenced by its effects on DNA synthesis, protein synthesis, and expression of immediate-early genes c-myc and c-fos, β-myosin heavy chain, and α-actin. The administration of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate increased the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells and cardiac-restricted zinc finger transcription factor (GATA4). Real-time quantitative RT-PCR showed that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced GATA4 mRNA was significantly enhanced even in the presence of the calcineurin inhibitor, cyclosporine A. The effect of D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate was blocked after inhibition of inositol-trisphosphate receptors but not after inhibition of c-Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK)/mitogen-activated protein kinase (ERK) or p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways. The study shows that D-myo-inositol 1,4,5-tris-phosphate-induced cardiac hypertrophy is mediated by GATA4 but independent from the calcineurin pathway

  15. Loss of Akap1 Exacerbates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure

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    Gabriele G. Schiattarella

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH is a major contributor to the development of heart failure (HF. Alterations in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP-dependent signaling pathways participate in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in LVH and HF. cAMP signals are received and integrated by a family of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA anchor proteins (AKAPs, tethering PKA to discrete cellular locations. AKAPs encoded by the Akap1 gene (mitoAKAPs promote PKA mitochondrial targeting, regulating mitochondrial structure and function, reactive oxygen species production, and cell survival. To determine the role of mitoAKAPs in LVH development, in the present investigation, mice with global genetic deletion of Akap1 (Akap1-/-, Akap1 heterozygous (Akap1+/-, and their wild-type (wt littermates underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC or SHAM procedure for 1 week. In wt mice, pressure overload induced the downregulation of AKAP121, the major cardiac mitoAKAP. Compared to wt, Akap1-/- mice did not display basal alterations in cardiac structure or function and cardiomyocyte size or fibrosis. However, loss of Akap1 exacerbated LVH and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and accelerated the progression toward HF in TAC mice, and these changes were not observed upon prevention of AKAP121 degradation in seven in absentia homolog 2 (Siah2 knockout mice (Siah2-/-. Loss of Akap1 was also associated to a significant increase in cardiac apoptosis as well as lack of activation of Akt signaling after pressure overload. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in vivo genetic deletion of Akap1 enhances LVH development and accelerates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, pointing at Akap1 as a novel repressor of pathological LVH. These results confirm and extend the important role of mitoAKAPs in cardiac response to stress.

  16. Loss of Akap1 Exacerbates Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiattarella, Gabriele G; Boccella, Nicola; Paolillo, Roberta; Cattaneo, Fabio; Trimarco, Valentina; Franzone, Anna; D'Apice, Stefania; Giugliano, Giuseppe; Rinaldi, Laura; Borzacchiello, Domenica; Gentile, Alessandra; Lombardi, Assunta; Feliciello, Antonio; Esposito, Giovanni; Perrino, Cinzia

    2018-01-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is a major contributor to the development of heart failure (HF). Alterations in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent signaling pathways participate in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and mitochondrial dysfunction occurring in LVH and HF. cAMP signals are received and integrated by a family of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) anchor proteins (AKAPs), tethering PKA to discrete cellular locations. AKAPs encoded by the Akap1 gene (mitoAKAPs) promote PKA mitochondrial targeting, regulating mitochondrial structure and function, reactive oxygen species production, and cell survival. To determine the role of mitoAKAPs in LVH development, in the present investigation, mice with global genetic deletion of Akap1 ( Akap1 -/- ), Akap1 heterozygous ( Akap1 +/- ), and their wild-type ( wt ) littermates underwent transverse aortic constriction (TAC) or SHAM procedure for 1 week. In wt mice, pressure overload induced the downregulation of AKAP121, the major cardiac mitoAKAP. Compared to wt, Akap1 -/- mice did not display basal alterations in cardiac structure or function and cardiomyocyte size or fibrosis. However, loss of Akap1 exacerbated LVH and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by pressure overload and accelerated the progression toward HF in TAC mice, and these changes were not observed upon prevention of AKAP121 degradation in seven in absentia homolog 2 ( Siah2 ) knockout mice ( Siah2 -/- ). Loss of Akap1 was also associated to a significant increase in cardiac apoptosis as well as lack of activation of Akt signaling after pressure overload. Taken together, these results demonstrate that in vivo genetic deletion of Akap1 enhances LVH development and accelerates pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction, pointing at Akap1 as a novel repressor of pathological LVH. These results confirm and extend the important role of mitoAKAPs in cardiac response to stress.

  17. Cardiac molecular-acclimation mechanisms in response to swimming-induced exercise in Atlantic salmon.

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    Vicente Castro

    Full Text Available Cardiac muscle is a principal target organ for exercise-induced acclimation mechanisms in fish and mammals, given that sustained aerobic exercise training improves cardiac output. Yet, the molecular mechanisms underlying such cardiac acclimation have been scarcely investigated in teleosts. Consequently, we studied mechanisms related to cardiac growth, contractility, vascularization, energy metabolism and myokine production in Atlantic salmon pre-smolts resulting from 10 weeks exercise-training at three different swimming intensities: 0.32 (control, 0.65 (medium intensity and 1.31 (high intensity body lengths s(-1. Cardiac responses were characterized using growth, immunofluorescence and qPCR analysis of a large number of target genes encoding proteins with significant and well-characterized function. The overall stimulatory effect of exercise on cardiac muscle was dependent on training intensity, with changes elicited by high intensity training being of greater magnitude than either medium intensity or control. Higher protein levels of PCNA were indicative of cardiac growth being driven by cardiomyocyte hyperplasia, while elevated cardiac mRNA levels of MEF2C, GATA4 and ACTA1 suggested cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. In addition, up-regulation of EC coupling-related genes suggested that exercised hearts may have improved contractile function, while higher mRNA levels of EPO and VEGF were suggestive of a more efficient oxygen supply network. Furthermore, higher mRNA levels of PPARα, PGC1α and CPT1 all suggested a higher capacity for lipid oxidation, which along with a significant enlargement of mitochondrial size in cardiac myocytes of the compact layer of fish exercised at high intensity, suggested an enhanced energetic support system. Training also elevated transcription of a set of myokines and other gene products related to the inflammatory process, such as TNFα, NFκB, COX2, IL1RA and TNF decoy receptor. This study provides the first

  18. Taxifolin protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis during biomechanical stress of pressure overload

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin; Cui, Yuqian; Zhou, Heng; Xu, Dachun; Shan, Tichao; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Yuguo; Wu, Dawei

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological component to biomechanical stress, which has been considered to be an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Taxifolin (TAX) is a typical plant flavonoid, which has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether TAX can influence the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro studies, we found that TAX concentration-dependently inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertrophy and protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes. Then we established a mouse model by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to further confirm our findings. It was demonstrated that TAX prevented pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice, as assessed by ventricular mass/body weight, echocardiographic parameters, myocyte cross-sectional area, and the expression of ANP, BNP and β-MHC. The excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. TAX arrested oxidative stress and decreased the expression of 4-HNE induced by pressure overload. Moreover, TAX negatively modulated TAC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Further studies showed that TAX significantly attenuated left ventricular fibrosis and collagen synthesis through abrogating the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. These results demonstrated that TAX could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and attenuate ventricular fibrosis after pressure overload. These beneficial effects were at least through the inhibition of the excess production of ROS, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways. Therefore, TAX might be a potential candidate for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. - Highlights: • We focus on the protective effect of taxifolin on cardiac remodeling. • Taxifolin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated ventricular fibrosis. • Taxifolin

  19. Taxifolin protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis during biomechanical stress of pressure overload

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Haipeng; Zhang, Xin [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Cui, Yuqian [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Zhou, Heng [Department of Cardiology, Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University, Wuhan (China); Xu, Dachun [Department of Cardiology, Shanghai Tenth People' s Hospital of Tongji University, Shanghai (China); Shan, Tichao; Zhang, Fan [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Guo, Yuan [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Chen, Yuguo, E-mail: chen919085@163.com [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Department of Emergency, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Wu, Dawei, E-mail: wdwu55@163.com [Department of Critical Care Medicine, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China); Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Remodeling and Function Research, Chinese Ministry of Education and Chinese Ministry of Health, Qilu Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan (China)

    2015-09-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathophysiological component to biomechanical stress, which has been considered to be an independent and predictive risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events. Taxifolin (TAX) is a typical plant flavonoid, which has long been used clinically for treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, very little is known about whether TAX can influence the development of cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro studies, we found that TAX concentration-dependently inhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) induced hypertrophy and protein synthesis in cardiac myocytes. Then we established a mouse model by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to further confirm our findings. It was demonstrated that TAX prevented pressure overload induced cardiac hypertrophy in mice, as assessed by ventricular mass/body weight, echocardiographic parameters, myocyte cross-sectional area, and the expression of ANP, BNP and β-MHC. The excess production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) played critical role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. TAX arrested oxidative stress and decreased the expression of 4-HNE induced by pressure overload. Moreover, TAX negatively modulated TAC-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK1/2. Further studies showed that TAX significantly attenuated left ventricular fibrosis and collagen synthesis through abrogating the phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad2/3 nuclear translocation. These results demonstrated that TAX could inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and attenuate ventricular fibrosis after pressure overload. These beneficial effects were at least through the inhibition of the excess production of ROS, ERK1/2, JNK1/2 and Smad signaling pathways. Therefore, TAX might be a potential candidate for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. - Highlights: • We focus on the protective effect of taxifolin on cardiac remodeling. • Taxifolin inhibited cardiac hypertrophy and attenuated ventricular fibrosis. • Taxifolin

  20. Exercise-induced arterial hypertension - an independent factor for hypertrophy and a ticking clock for cardiac fatigue or atrial fibrillation in athletes? [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3b4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Leischik

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise-induced arterial hypertension (EIAH leads to myocardial hypertrophy and is associated with a poor prognosis. EIAH might be related to the “cardiac fatigue” caused by endurance training. The goal of this study was to examine whether there is any relationship between EIAH and left ventricular hypertrophy in Ironman-triathletes. Methods: We used echocardiography and spiroergometry to determine the left ventricular mass (LVM, the aerobic/anaerobic thresholds and the steady-state blood pressure of 51 healthy male triathletes. The main inclusion criterion was the participation in at least one middle or long distance triathlon. Results: When comparing triathletes with LVM 220g there was a significant difference between blood pressure values (BP at the anaerobic threshold (185.2± 21.5 mmHg vs. 198.8 ±22.3 mmHg, p=0.037. The spiroergometric results were: maximum oxygen uptake (relative VO2max 57.3 ±7.5ml/min/kg vs. 59.8±9.5ml/min/kg (p=ns. Cut-point analysis for the relationship of BP >170 mmHg at the aerobic threshold and the probability of LVM >220g showed a sensitivity of 95.8%, a specificity of 33.3%, with a positive predictive value of 56.8 %, a good negative predictive value of 90%. The probability of LVM >220g increased with higher BP during exercise (OR: 1.027, 95% CI 1.002-1.052, p= 0.034 or with higher training volume (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.04 -1.47, p = 0.019. Echocardiography showed predominantly concentric remodelling, followed by concentric hypertrophy. Conclusion: Significant left ventricular hypertrophy with LVM >220g is associated with higher arterial blood pressure at the aerobic or anaerobic threshold. The endurance athletes with EIAH may require a therapeutic intervention to at least prevent extensive stiffening of the heart muscle and exercise-induced cardiac fatigue.

  1. A Systems Biology Approach to Investigating Sex Differences in Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, Josephine; Fillmore, Natasha; Gao, Shouguo; Yang, Yanqin; Zhang, Xue; Liu, Poching; Stoehr, Andrea; Chen, Ye; Springer, Danielle; Zhu, Jun; Wang, Xujing; Murphy, Elizabeth

    2017-08-19

    Heart failure preceded by hypertrophy is a leading cause of death, and sex differences in hypertrophy are well known, although the basis for these sex differences is poorly understood. This study used a systems biology approach to investigate mechanisms underlying sex differences in cardiac hypertrophy. Male and female mice were treated for 2 and 3 weeks with angiotensin II to induce hypertrophy. Sex differences in cardiac hypertrophy were apparent after 3 weeks of treatment. RNA sequencing was performed on hearts, and sex differences in mRNA expression at baseline and following hypertrophy were observed, as well as within-sex differences between baseline and hypertrophy. Sex differences in mRNA were substantial at baseline and reduced somewhat with hypertrophy, as the mRNA differences induced by hypertrophy tended to overwhelm the sex differences. We performed an integrative analysis to identify mRNA networks that were differentially regulated in the 2 sexes by hypertrophy and obtained a network centered on PPARα (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α). Mouse experiments further showed that acute inhibition of PPARα blocked sex differences in the development of hypertrophy. The data in this study suggest that PPARα is involved in the sex-dimorphic regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  2. Pregnancy as a cardiac stress model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Eunhee; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs during pregnancy as a consequence of both volume overload and hormonal changes. Both pregnancy- and exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy are generally thought to be similar and physiological. Despite the fact that there are shared transcriptional responses in both forms of cardiac adaptation, pregnancy results in a distinct signature of gene expression in the heart. In some cases, however, pregnancy can induce adverse cardiac events in previously healthy women without any known cardiovascular disease. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of non-obstetric mortality during pregnancy. To understand how pregnancy can cause heart disease, it is first important to understand cardiac adaptation during normal pregnancy. This review provides an overview of the cardiac consequences of pregnancy, including haemodynamic, functional, structural, and morphological adaptations, as well as molecular phenotypes. In addition, this review describes the signalling pathways responsible for pregnancy-induced cardiac hypertrophy and angiogenesis. We also compare and contrast cardiac adaptation in response to disease, exercise, and pregnancy. The comparisons of these settings of cardiac hypertrophy provide insight into pregnancy-associated cardiac adaptation. PMID:24448313

  3. How does pressure overload cause cardiac hypertrophy and dysfunction? High-ouabain affinity cardiac Na+ pumps are crucial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaustein, Mordecai P

    2017-11-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy is frequently observed in hypertensive patients and is believed to be due to the pressure overload and cardiomyocyte stretch. Three recent reports on mice with genetically engineered Na + pumps, however, have demonstrated that cardiac ouabain-sensitive α 2 -Na + pumps play a key role in the pathogenesis of transaortic constriction-induced hypertrophy. Hypertrophy was delayed/attenuated in mice with mutant, ouabain-resistant α 2 -Na + pumps and in mice with cardiac-selective knockout or transgenic overexpression of α 2 -Na + pumps. The latter, seemingly paradoxical, findings can be explained by comparing the numbers of available (ouabain-free) high-affinity (α 2 ) ouabain-binding sites in wild-type, knockout, and transgenic hearts. Conversely, hypertrophy was accelerated in α 2 -ouabain-resistant (R) mice in which the normally ouabain-resistant α 1 -Na + pumps were mutated to an ouabain-sensitive (S) form (α 1 S/S α 2 R/R or "SWAP" vs. wild-type or α 1 R/R α 2 S/S mice). Furthermore, transaortic constriction-induced hypertrophy in SWAP mice was prevented/reversed by immunoneutralizing circulating endogenous ouabain (EO). These findings show that EO and its receptor, ouabain-sensitive α 2 , are critical factors in pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy. This complements reports linking elevated plasma EO to hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and failure in humans and elucidates the underappreciated role of the EO-Na + pump pathway in cardiovascular disease. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  4. The Impact of a Non-Functional Thyroid Receptor Beta upon Triiodotironine-Induced Cardiac Hypertrophy in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güínever Eustáquio do Império

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Thyroid hormone (TH signalling is critical for heart function. The heart expresses thyroid hormone receptors (THRs; THRα1 and THRβ1. We aimed to investigate the regulation mechanisms of the THRβ isoform, its association with gene expression changes and implications for cardiac function. Methods: The experiments were performed using adult male mice expressing TRβΔ337T, which contains the Δ337T mutation of the human THRB gene and impairs ligand binding. Cardiac function and RNA expression were studied after hypo-or hyperthyroidism inductions. T3-induced cardiac hypertrophy was not observed in TRβΔ337T mice, showing the fundamental role of THRβ in cardiac hypertrophy. Results: We identified a group of independently regulated THRβ genes, which includes Adrb2, Myh7 and Hcn2 that were normally regulated by T3 in the TRβΔ337T group. However, Adrb1, Myh6 and Atp2a2 were regulated via THRβ. The TRβΔ337T mice exhibited a contractile deficit, decreased ejection fraction and stroke volume, as assessed by echocardiography. In our model, miR-208a and miR-199a may contribute to THRβ-mediated cardiac hypertrophy, as indicated by the absence of T3-regulated ventricular expression in TRβΔ337T mice. Conclusion: THRβ has important role in the regulation of specific mRNA and miRNA in T3-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth and in the alteration of heart functions.

  5. Gallic acid prevents isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through regulation of JNK2 signaling and Smad3 binding activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Yuhee; Jin, Li; Kee, Hae Jin; Piao, Zhe Hao; Cho, Jae Yeong; Kim, Gwi Ran; Choi, Sin Young; Lin, Ming Quan; Jeong, Myung Ho

    2016-01-01

    Gallic acid, a type of phenolic acid, has been shown to have beneficial effects in inflammation, vascular calcification, and metabolic diseases. The present study was aimed at determining the effect and regulatory mechanism of gallic acid in cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by isoproterenol (ISP) in mice and primary neonatal cardiomyocytes. Gallic acid pretreatment attenuated concentric cardiac hypertrophy. It downregulated the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, and beta-myosin heavy chain in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, it prevented interstitial collagen deposition and expression of fibrosis-associated genes. Upregulation of collagen type I by Smad3 overexpression was observed in cardiac myoblast H9c2 cells but not in cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid reduced the DNA binding activity of phosphorylated Smad3 in Smad binding sites of collagen type I promoter in rat cardiac fibroblasts. Furthermore, it decreased the ISP-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) protein in mice. JNK2 overexpression reduced collagen type I and Smad3 expression as well as GATA4 expression in H9c2 cells and cardiac fibroblasts. Gallic acid might be a novel therapeutic agent for the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis by regulating the JNK2 and Smad3 signaling pathway. PMID:27703224

  6. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo, E-mail: pompeo.volpe@unipd.it

    2013-07-15

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α{sub 1}-adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy.

  7. Negative feedback regulation of Homer 1a on norepinephrine-dependent cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiarello, Carmelina; Bortoloso, Elena; Carpi, Andrea; Furlan, Sandra; Volpe, Pompeo

    2013-01-01

    Homers are scaffolding proteins that modulate diverse cell functions being able to assemble signalling complexes. In this study, the presence, sub-cellular distribution and function of Homer 1 was investigated. Homer 1a and Homer 1b/c are constitutively expressed in cardiac muscle of both mouse and rat and in HL-1 cells, a cardiac cell line. As judged by confocal immunofluorescence microscopy, Homer 1a displays sarcomeric and peri-nuclear localization. In cardiomyocytes and cultured HL-1 cells, the hypertrophic agonist norepinephrine (NE) induces α 1 -adrenergic specific Homer 1a over-expression, with a two-to-three-fold increase within 1 h, and no up-regulation of Homer 1b/c, as judged by Western blot and qPCR. In HL-1 cells, plasmid-driven over-expression of Homer 1a partially antagonizes activation of ERK phosphorylation and ANF up-regulation, two well-established, early markers of hypertrophy. At the morphometric level, NE-induced increase of cell size is likewise and partially counteracted by exogenous Homer 1a. Under the same experimental conditions, Homer 1b/c does not have any effect on ANF up-regulation nor on cell hypertrophy. Thus, Homer 1a up-regulation is associated to early stages of cardiac hypertrophy and appears to play a negative feedback regulation on molecular transducers of hypertrophy. -- Highlights: • Homer 1a is constitutively expressed in cardiac tissue. • In HL-1 cells, norepinephrine activates signaling pathways leading to hypertrophy. • Homer 1a up-regulation is an early event of norepinephrine-induced hypertrophy. • Homer 1a plays a negative feedback regulation modulating pathological hypertrophy. • Over-expression of Homer 1a per se does not induce hypertrophy

  8. Association of myocardial cell necrosis with experimental cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N W; Cameron, A J.V.

    1979-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rabbits by injecting thyroxime or isoprenaline, or by surgically constricting the abdominal aorta. An increase in heart weight was associated with a change in the ratios of bound to free forms of five lysosomal enzymes, a change in serum creatine phosphokinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and a change in the morphology of the myocardial cells. Isoprenaline treatment for 5 days induced a maximal change in heart weight, in the ratio of lysosomal enzymes, and in the serum enzymes. Thyroxine treatment was required for 15 days before maximal changes in heart weight, ratio, and serum enzymes were observed. In contrast, coarctation of the aorta caused a progressive change in heart weight, in the ratio of lysosomal enzymes, and in serum enzymes. These results suggest that necrosis of the myocardial cells does indeed accompany cardiac hypertrophy. It was further observed that autophagosomes, degenerating mitochondria in the myocardial cells during the induction of cardiac hypertrophy, and myofibril lysis were found, all of which confirms the suggestion of myocardial cell necrosis in the experimentally enlarged heart.

  9. Exercise Physiology of Zebrafish: Swimming Effects on Skeletal and Cardiac Muscle Growth, on the Immune Systeme, and the Involvement of the Stress Axis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Palstra, A.P.; Schaaf, M.; Planas, J.V.

    2013-01-01

    Recently, we have established zebrafish as a novel exercise model and demonstrated the stimulation of growth by exercise. Exercise may also induce cardiac hypertrophy and cardiomyocyte proliferation in zebrafish making it an important model to study vertebrate heart regeneration and improved

  10. Cardiac ankyrin repeat protein attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by inhibition of ERK1/2 and TGF-β signaling pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Song

    Full Text Available AIMS: It has been reported that cardiac ankyrin repeat protein is associated with heart development and diseases. This study is aimed to investigate the role of CARP in heart hypertrophy in vivo. METHODS AND RESULTS: We generated a cardiac-specific CARP-overexpressing transgenic mouse. Although such animals did not display any overt physiological abnormality, they developed less cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload than did wildtype mice, as indicated by heart weight/body weight ratios, echocardiographic and histological analyses, and expression of hypertrophic markers. These mice also exhibited less cardiac hypertrophy after infusion of isoproterenol. To gain a molecular insight into how CARP attenuated heart hypertrophy, we examined expression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade and found that the concentrations of phosphorylated ERK1/2 and MEK were markedly reduced in the hearts of transgenic mice subjected to pressure overload. In addition, the expressions of TGF-β and phosphorylated Smad3 were significantly downregulated in the hearts of CARP Tg mice in response to pressure overload. Furthermore, addition of human TGF-β1 could reverse the inhibitory effect of CARP on the hypertrophic response induced by phenylephrine in cardiomyocytes. It was also evidenced that the inhibitory effect of CARP on cardiac hypertrophy was not attributed to apoptosis. CONCLUSION: CARP attenuates cardiac hypertrophy, in which the ERK and TGF-β pathways may be involved. Our findings highlight the significance of CARP as an anti-hypertrophic factor in therapy of cardiac hypertrophy.

  11. Exogenous cathepsin V protein protects human cardiomyocytes HCM from angiotensin Ⅱ-Induced hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Kun; Gao, Lu; Yang, Ming; Wang, Jiliang; Wang, Zheng; Wang, Lin; Wang, Guobin; Li, Huili

    2017-08-01

    Angiotensin (Ang) Ⅱ-induced cardiac hypertrophy can deteriorate to heart failure, a leading cause of mortality. Endogenous Cathepsin V (CTSV) has been reported to be cardioprotective against hypertrophy. However, little is known about the effect of exogenous CTSV on cardiac hypertrophy. We used the human cardiomyocytes HCM as a cell model to investigate the effects of exogenous CTSV on Ang Ⅱ-induced cardiac cell hypertrophy. Cell surface area and expression of classical markers of hypertrophy were analyzed. We further explored the mechanism of CTSV cardioprotective by assessing the levels and activities of PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK signaling pathway proteins. We found that pre-treating cardiomyocytes with CTSV could significantly inhibit Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy. The mRNA expression of hypertrophy markers ANP, BNP and β-MHC was obviously elevated in Ang Ⅱ-treated cardiac cells. Whereas, exogenous CTSV effectively halted this elevation. Further study revealed that the protective effects of exogenous CTSV might be mediated by repressing the phosphorylation of proteins in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and MAPK pathways. Based on our results, we concluded that exogenous CTSV inhibited Ang Ⅱ-induced hypertrophy in HCM cells by inhibiting PI3K/Akt/mTOR. This study provides experimental evidence for the application of CTSV protein for the treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effect of inter-set rest intervals on resistance exercise-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henselmans, Menno; Schoenfeld, Brad J

    2014-12-01

    Due to a scarcity of longitudinal trials directly measuring changes in muscle girth, previous recommendations for inter-set rest intervals in resistance training programs designed to stimulate muscular hypertrophy were primarily based on the post-exercise endocrinological response and other mechanisms theoretically related to muscle growth. New research regarding the effects of inter-set rest interval manipulation on resistance training-induced muscular hypertrophy is reviewed here to evaluate current practices and provide directions for future research. Of the studies measuring long-term muscle hypertrophy in groups employing different rest intervals, none have found superior muscle growth in the shorter compared with the longer rest interval group and one study has found the opposite. Rest intervals less than 1 minute can result in acute increases in serum growth hormone levels and these rest intervals also decrease the serum testosterone to cortisol ratio. Long-term adaptations may abate the post-exercise endocrinological response and the relationship between the transient change in hormonal production and chronic muscular hypertrophy is highly contentious and appears to be weak. The relationship between the rest interval-mediated effect on immune system response, muscle damage, metabolic stress, or energy production capacity and muscle hypertrophy is still ambiguous and largely theoretical. In conclusion, the literature does not support the hypothesis that training for muscle hypertrophy requires shorter rest intervals than training for strength development or that predetermined rest intervals are preferable to auto-regulated rest periods in this regard.

  13. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konhilas, John P; Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A; Stauffer, Brian L; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A

    2015-01-15

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex.

  14. Diet and sex modify exercise and cardiac adaptation in the mouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Luczak, Elizabeth; McKee, Laurel A.; Regan, Jessica; Watson, Peter A.; Stauffer, Brian L.; Khalpey, Zain I; Mckinsey, Timothy A.; Horn, Todd; LaFleur, Bonnie; Leinwand, Leslie A.

    2014-01-01

    The heart adapts to exercise stimuli in a sex-dimorphic manner when mice are fed the traditional soy-based chow. Females undergo more voluntary exercise (4 wk) than males and exhibit more cardiac hypertrophy per kilometer run (18, 32). We have found that diet plays a critical role in cage wheel exercise and cardiac adaptation to the exercise stimulus in this sex dimorphism. Specifically, feeding male mice a casein-based, soy-free diet increases daily running distance over soy-fed counterparts to equal that of females. Moreover, casein-fed males have a greater capacity to increase their cardiac mass in response to exercise compared with soy-fed males. To further explore the biochemical mechanisms for these differences, we performed a candidate-based RT-PCR screen on genes previously implicated in diet- or exercise-based cardiac hypertrophy. Of the genes screened, many exhibit significant exercise, diet, or sex effects but only transforming growth factor-β1 shows a significant three-way interaction with no genes showing a two-way interaction. Finally, we show that the expression and activity of adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase-α2 and acetyl-CoA carboxylase is dependent on exercise, diet, and sex. PMID:25398983

  15. Zinc-finger protein 418 overexpression protects against cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liming Pan

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigated the effect and mechanism of zinc-finger protein 418 (ZNF418 on cardiac hypertrophy caused by aortic banding (AB, phenylephrine (PE or angiotensin II (Ang II in vivo and in vitro.The expression of ZNF418 in hearts of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM or hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM and AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice, as well as in Ang II- or PE-induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes was detected by western blotting. Then, the expression of ZNF418 was up-regulated or down-regulated in AB-induced cardiac hypertrophy mice and Ang II -induced hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. The hypertrophic responses and fibrosis were evaluated by echocardiography and histological analysis. The mRNA levels of hypertrophy markers and fibrotic markers were detected by RT-qPCR. Furthermore, the phosphorylation and total levels of c-Jun were measured by western blotting.ZNF418 was markedly down-regulated in hearts of cardiac hypertrophy and hypertrophic primary cardiomyocytes. Down-regulated ZNF418 exacerbated the myocyte size and fibrosis, moreover increased the mRNA levels of ANP, BNP, β-MHC, MCIP1.4, collagen 1a, collagen III, MMP-2 and fibronection in hearts of AB-treated ZNF418 knockout mice or Ang II-treated cardiomyocytes with AdshZNF418. Conversely, these hypertrophic responses were reduced in the ZNF418 transgenic (TG mice treated by AB and the AdZNF418-transfected primary cardiomyocytes treated by Ang II. Additionally, the deficiency of ZNF418 enhanced the phosphorylation level of c-jun, and overexpression of ZNF418 suppressed the phosphorylation level of c-jun in vivo and in vitro.ZNF418 maybe attenuate hypertrophic responses by inhibiting the activity of c-jun/AP-1.

  16. Androgen interacts with exercise through the mTOR pathway to induce skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fanxing; Zhao, Hua; Liao, Jingwen

    2017-12-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effects of exogenous androgen and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the role of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling during the process. A total of 24 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to sham operation and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) implantation groups with subgroups subjected to sedentary conditions or resistance exercise (SHAM+SED, SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX). The experimental procedure lasted for 10 days. The mRNA expression of androgen receptor (AR) and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), the expression of myosin heavy chain (MHC), as well as the phosphorylation statuses of AR, mTOR, p70 ribosomal S6 kinase (p70 S6K ), and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1) were determined in the white gastrocnemius muscle. The cross sectional area and wet mass of the muscle were also measured. The cross sectional area and MHC expression were significantly higher in SHAM+EX, DHT+SED, and DHT+EX than in SHAM+SED. There was no significant difference among groups in muscle mass. The mRNA expression of AR and IGF-I and the phosphorylation of mTOR, p70 S6K , and 4EBP1 were significantly increased in DHT+SED and SHAM+EX and were significantly enhanced in DHT+EX compared with either DHT or exercise alone. These data show that DHT causes hypertrophy in skeletal muscle and that exercise has a synergistic effect on DHT-induced hypertrophy. Exercise enhances androgen-induced rapid anabolic action, which involves activation of the mTOR pathway.

  17. Deficiency of cardiac Acyl-CoA synthetase-1 induces diastolic dysfunction, but pathologic hypertrophy is reversed by rapamycin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paul, David S; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Pascual, Florencia

    2014-01-01

    In mice with temporally-induced cardiac-specific deficiency of acyl-CoA synthetase-1 (Acsl1(H-/-)), the heart is unable to oxidize long-chain fatty acids and relies primarily on glucose for energy. These metabolic changes result in the development of both a spontaneous cardiac hypertrophy...... and B-type natriuretic peptide. mTOR activation of the related Acsl3 gene, usually associated with pathologic hypertrophy, was also attenuated in the Acsl1(H-/-) hearts, indicating that alternative pathways of fatty acid activation did not compensate for the loss of Acsl1. Compared to controls, Acsl1(H......-/-) hearts exhibited an 8-fold higher uptake of 2-deoxy[1-(14)C]glucose and a 35% lower uptake of the fatty acid analog 2-bromo[1-(14)C]palmitate. These data indicate that Acsl1-deficiency causes diastolic dysfunction and that mTOR activation is linked to the development of cardiac hypertrophy in Acsl1(H...

  18. Deletion of Interleukin-6 Attenuates Pressure Overload-Induced Left Ventricular Hypertrophy and Dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad R.; Samanta, Anweshan; Xuan, Yu-Ting; Girgis, Magdy; Elias, Harold K; Zhu, Yanqing; Davani, Arash; Yang, Yanjuan; Chen, Xing; Ye, Sheng; Wang, Ou-Li; Chen, Lei; Hauptman, Jeryl; Vincent, Robert J.; Dawn, Buddhadeb

    2016-01-01

    Rationale The role of interleukin (IL)-6 in the pathogenesis of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy remains controversial. Objective To conclusively determine whether IL-6 signaling is essential for the development of pressure overload-induced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, and to elucidate the underlying molecular pathways. Methods and Results Wild-type (WT) and IL-6 knockout (IL-6−/−) mice underwent sham surgery or transverse aortic constriction (TAC) to induce pressure overload. Serial echocardiograms and terminal hemodynamic studies revealed attenuated LV hypertrophy and superior preservation of LV function in IL-6−/− mice after TAC. The extents of LV remodeling, fibrosis, and apoptosis were reduced in IL-6−/− hearts after TAC. Transcriptional and protein assays of myocardial tissue identified CaMKII and STAT3 activation as important underlying mechanisms during cardiac hypertrophy induced by TAC. The involvement of these pathways in myocyte hypertrophy was verified in isolated cardiac myocytes from WT and IL-6−/− mice exposed to pro-hypertrophy agents. Furthermore, overexpression of CaMKII in H9c2 cells increased STAT3 phosphorylation, and exposure of H9c2 cells to IL-6 resulted in STAT3 activation that was attenuated by CaMKII inhibition. Together these results identify the importance of CaMKII-dependent activation of STAT3 during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy via IL-6 signaling. Conclusions Genetic deletion of IL-6 attenuates TAC-induced LV hypertrophy and dysfunction, indicating a critical role played by IL-6 in the pathogenesis of LV hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. CaMKII plays an important role in IL-6-induced STAT3 activation and consequent cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. These findings may have significant therapeutic implications for LV hypertrophy and failure in patients with hypertension. PMID:27126808

  19. Perinatal DDT Exposure Induces Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Adult Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Merrill, Michele A; Sethi, Sunjay; Benard, Ludovic; Moshier, Erin; Haraldsson, Borje; Buettner, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) was used extensively to control malaria, typhus, body lice, and bubonic plague worldwide, until countries began restricting its use in the 1970s. However, the use of DDT to control vector-borne diseases continues in developing countries. Prenatal DDT exposure is associated with elevated blood pressure in humans. We hypothesized that perinatal DDT exposure causes hypertension in adult mice. DDT was administered to C57BL/6J dams from gestational day 11.5 to postnatal day 5. Blood pressure (BP) and myocardial wall thickness were measured in male and female adult offspring. Adult mice were treated with an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, captopril, to evaluate sensitivity to amelioration of DDT-associated hypertension by ACE inhibition. We further assessed the influence of DDT exposure on the expression of mRNAs that regulate BP through renal ion transport. Adult mice perinatally exposed to DDT exhibited chronically increased systolic BP, increased myocardial wall thickness, and elevated expression of mRNAs of several renal ion transporters. Captopril completely reversed hypertension in mice perinatally exposed to DDT. These data demonstrate that perinatal exposure to DDT causes hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult offspring. A key mechanism underpinning this hypertension is an overactivated renin angiotensin system because ACE inhibition reverses the hypertension induced by perinatal DDT exposure. Citation: La Merrill M, Sethi S, Benard L, Moshier E, Haraldsson B, Buettner C. 2016. Perinatal DDT exposure induces hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in adult mice. Environ Health Perspect 124:1722-1727; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP164.

  20. Role of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiac hypertrophy induced in rats by hyperthyroidism

    OpenAIRE

    KOBORI, HIROYUKI; ICHIHARA, ATSUHIRO; SUZUKI, HIROMICHI; TAKENAKA, TSUNEO; MIYASHITA, YUTAKA; HAYASHI, MATSUHIKO; SARUTA, TAKAO

    1997-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine whether the renin-angiotensin system contributes to hyperthyroidism-induced cardiac hypertrophy without involving the sympathetic nervous system. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control-innervated, control-denervated, hyperthyroid-innervated, and hyperthyroid-denervated groups using intraperitoneal injections of thyroxine and 6-hydroxydopamine. After 8 wk, the heart-to-body weight ratio increased in hyperthyroid groups (63%), and this increase was onl...

  1. Temporal changes in cardiac oxidative stress, inflammation and remodeling induced by exercise in hypertension: Role for local angiotensin II reduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião D Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training reduces renin-angiotensin system (RAS activation, decreases plasma and tissue oxidative stress and inflammation in hypertension. However, the temporal nature of these phenomena in response to exercise is unknown. We sought to determine in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR and age-matched WKY controls the weekly effects of training on blood pressure (BP, plasma and left ventricle (LV Ang II and Ang-(1-7 content (HPLC, LV oxidative stress (DHE staining, gene and protein expression (qPCR and WB of pro-inflammatory cytokines, antioxidant enzymes and their consequence on hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling. SHR and WKY were submitted to aerobic training (T or maintained sedentary (S for 8 weeks; measurements were made at weeks 0, 1, 2, 4 and 8. Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy was accompanied by acute plasma Ang II increase with amplified responses during the late phase of LV hypertrophy. Similar pattern was observed for oxidative stress markers, TNF alpha and interleukin-1β, associated with cardiomyocytes' diameter enlargement and collagen deposition. SHR-T exhibited prompt and marked decrease in LV Ang II content (T1 vs T4 in WKY-T, normalized oxidative stress (T2, augmented antioxidant defense (T4 and reduced both collagen deposition and inflammatory profile (T8, without changing cardiomyocytes' diameter and LV hypertrophy. These changes were accompanied by decreased plasma Ang II content (T2-T4 and reduced BP (T8. SHR-T and WKY-T showed parallel increases in LV and plasma Ang-(1-7 content. Our data indicate that early training-induced downregulation of LV ACE-AngII-AT1 receptor axis is a crucial mechanism to reduce oxidative/pro-inflammatory profile and improve antioxidant defense in SHR-T, showing in addition this effect precedes plasma RAS deactivation.

  2. AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domain deficient mice develop normally but have an abnormal response to β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Matthew J Spindler

    Full Text Available A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs are scaffolding molecules that coordinate and integrate G-protein signaling events to regulate development, physiology, and disease. One family member, AKAP13, encodes for multiple protein isoforms that contain binding sites for protein kinase A (PKA and D (PKD and an active Rho-guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Rho-GEF domain. In mice, AKAP13 is required for development as null embryos die by embryonic day 10.5 with cardiovascular phenotypes. Additionally, the AKAP13 Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains mediate cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in cell culture. However, the requirements for the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains during development and cardiac hypertrophy are unknown.To determine if these AKAP13 protein domains are required for development, we used gene-trap events to create mutant mice that lacked the Rho-GEF and/or the protein kinase D-binding domains. Surprisingly, heterozygous matings produced mutant mice at Mendelian ratios that had normal viability and fertility. The adult mutant mice also had normal cardiac structure and electrocardiograms. To determine the role of these domains during β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy, we stressed the mice with isoproterenol. We found that heart size was increased similarly in mice lacking the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains and wild-type controls. However, the mutant hearts had abnormal cardiac contractility as measured by fractional shortening and ejection fraction.These results indicate that the Rho-GEF and PKD-binding domains of AKAP13 are not required for mouse development, normal cardiac architecture, or β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophic remodeling. However, these domains regulate aspects of β-adrenergic-induced cardiac hypertrophy.

  3. Exercise-Induced Muscle Damage and Hypertrophy: A Closer Look Reveals the Jury is Still Out

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenfeld, Brad; Contreras, Bret

    2018-01-01

    This letter is a response to the paper by Damas et al (2017) titled, “The development of skeletal muscle hypertrophy through resistance training: the role of muscle damage and muscle protein synthesis,” which, in part, endeavored to review the role of exercise-induced muscle damage on muscle hypertrophy. We feel there are a number of issues in interpretation of research and extrapolation that preclude drawing the inference expressed in the paper that muscle damage neither explains nor potenti...

  4. Pharmacological targeting of CDK9 in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystof, Vladimír; Chamrád, Ivo; Jorda, Radek; Kohoutek, Jirí

    2010-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy allows the heart to adapt to workload, but persistent or unphysiological stimulus can result in pump failure. Cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by an increase in the size of differentiated cardiac myocytes. At the molecular level, growth of cells is linked to intensive transcription and translation. Several cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) have been identified as principal regulators of transcription, and among these CDK9 is directly associated with cardiac hypertrophy. CDK9 phosphorylates the C-terminal domain of RNA polymerase II and thus stimulates the elongation phase of transcription. Chronic activation of CDK9 causes not only cardiac myocyte enlargement but also confers predisposition to heart failure. Due to the long interest of molecular oncologists and medicinal chemists in CDKs as potential targets of anticancer drugs, a portfolio of small-molecule inhibitors of CDK9 is available. Recent determination of CDK9's crystal structure now allows the development of selective inhibitors and their further optimization in terms of biochemical potency and selectivity. CDK9 may therefore constitute a novel target for drugs against cardiac hypertrophy.

  5. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yu-Ming; Zhang, Dong-Mei; Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing; Suo, Yu-Ping; Yue, Li-Ying; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Qin, Da-Nian

    2014-01-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  6. Chronic infusion of enalaprilat into hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates angiotensin II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Yu, Xiao-Jing; Yang, Qing; Qi, Jie; Su, Qing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Suo, Yu-Ping [Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Shanxi Provincial People' s Hospital, Taiyuan 030012 (China); Yue, Li-Ying [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China)

    2014-02-01

    The renin–angiotensin system (RAS) in the brain is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We hypothesized that inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) attenuates angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced hypertension via restoring neurotransmitters and cytokines. Rats underwent subcutaneous infusions of ANG II or saline and bilateral PVN infusions of ACE inhibitor enalaprilat (ENL, 2.5 μg/h) or vehicle for 4 weeks. ANG II infusion resulted in higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide and beta-myosin heavy chain. These ANG II-infused rats had higher PVN levels of glutamate, norepinephrine, tyrosine hydroxylase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs) and the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and lower PVN levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid, interleukin (IL)-10 and the 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma levels of PICs, norepinephrine and aldosterone, and lower plasma IL-10, and higher renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, PVN treatment with ENL attenuated these changes. PVN microinjection of ANG II induced increases in IL-1β and IL-6, and a decrease in IL-10 in the PVN, and pretreatment with angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1-R) antagonist losartan attenuated these changes. These findings suggest that ANG II infusion induces an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters and an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN, and PVN inhibition of the RAS restores neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, thereby attenuating ANG II-induced hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Chronic ANG II infusion results in sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of ACE

  7. Loss of microRNA-22 prevents high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia and increases energy expenditure without affecting cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Jinghai; Ding, Jian; Fonseca, Renata Inzinna; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Donato, Jose; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2017-12-15

    Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously, we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high-fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected. Mechanistically, loss of miR-22 attenuated the increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation mediated by HF diet. Similarly, we found that miR-22 mediates metabolic alterations and inflammation induced by obesity in the liver. However, loss of miR-22 did not appear to alter HF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in the heart. Our study therefore establishes miR-22 as an important regulator of dyslipidemia and suggests it may serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  8. Novel Sulfur Metabolites of Garlic Attenuate Cardiac Hypertrophy and Remodeling through Induction of Na+/K+-ATPase Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatua, Tarak N; Borkar, Roshan M; Mohammed, Soheb A; Dinda, Amit K; Srinivas, R; Banerjee, Sanjay K

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies show an inverse correlation between garlic consumption and progression of cardiovascular disease. However, the molecular basis for the beneficial effect of garlic on the heart is not known. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to (1) investigate the effect of raw garlic on isoproterenol (Iso) induced cardiac hypertrophy (2) find the active metabolites of garlic responsible for the beneficial effect. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rats by subcutaneous single injection of Iso 5 mg kg -1 day -1 for 15 days and the effect of garlic (250 mg/kg/day orally) was evaluated. Garlic metabolites in in vivo were identified by LC/MS study. The effect of garlic and its metabolites were evaluated against hypertrophy in H9C2 cells. Garlic normalized cardiac oxidative stress after Iso administration. Cardiac pathology and mitochondrial enzyme activities were improved in hypertrophy heart after garlic administration. Decreased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level that observed in hypertrophy heart was increased after garlic administration. We identified three garlic metabolites in rat serum. To confirm the role of garlic metabolites on cardiac hypertrophy, Na + /K + -ATPase expression and intracellular calcium levels were measured after treating H9C2 cells with raw garlic and two of its active metabolites, allyl methyl sulfide and allyl methyl sulfoxide. Raw garlic and both metabolites increased Na + /K + -ATPase protein level and decreased intracellular calcium levels and cell size in Iso treated H9C2 cells. This antihypertrophic effect of garlic and its sulfur metabolites were lost in H9C2 cells in presence of Na + /K + -ATPase inhibitor. In conclusion, garlic and its active metabolites increased Na + /K + -ATPase in rat heart, and attenuated cardiac hypertrophy and associated remodeling. Our data suggest that identified new garlic metabolites may be useful for therapeutic intervention against cardiac hypertrophy.

  9. MURC/Cavin-4 facilitates recruitment of ERK to caveolae and concentric cardiac hypertrophy induced by α1-adrenergic receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogata, Takehiro; Naito, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Taniguchi, Takuya; Miyagawa, Kotaro; Hamaoka, Tetsuro; Maruyama, Naoki; Matoba, Satoaki; Ikeda, Koji; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Oh, Hidemasa; Ueyama, Tomomi

    2014-03-11

    The actions of catecholamines on adrenergic receptors (ARs) induce sympathetic responses, and sustained activation of the sympathetic nervous system results in disrupted circulatory homeostasis. In cardiomyocytes, α1-ARs localize to flask-shaped membrane microdomains known as "caveolae." Caveolae require both caveolin and cavin proteins for their biogenesis and function. However, the functional roles and molecular interactions of caveolar components in cardiomyocytes are poorly understood. Here, we showed that muscle-restricted coiled-coil protein (MURC)/Cavin-4 regulated α1-AR-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through enhancement of ERK1/2 activation in caveolae. MURC/Cavin-4 was expressed in the caveolae and T tubules of cardiomyocytes. MURC/Cavin-4 overexpression distended the caveolae, whereas MURC/Cavin-4 was not essential for their formation. MURC/Cavin-4 deficiency attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by α1-AR stimulation in the presence of caveolae. Interestingly, MURC/Cavin-4 bound to α1A- and α1B-ARs as well as ERK1/2 in caveolae, and spatiotemporally modulated MEK/ERK signaling in response to α1-AR stimulation. Thus, MURC/Cavin-4 facilitates ERK1/2 recruitment to caveolae and efficient α1-AR signaling mediated by caveolae in cardiomyocytes, which provides a unique insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying caveola-mediated signaling in cardiac hypertrophy.

  10. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eunjo; Song, Min-Ji; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Mina; Yang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Kim, Inkyeom

    2016-09-01

    CG200745 is a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), initially developed for treatment of various hematological and solid cancers. Because it is water-soluble, it can be administered orally. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats. For establishment of hypertension, 40 mg/kg of DOCA was subcutaneously injected four times weekly into Sprague-Dawley rats. All the rats used in this study including those in the sham group had been unilaterally nephrectomized and allowed free access to drinking water containing 1% NaCl. Systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. Blood chemistry including sodium, potassium, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels was analyzed. Sections of the heart were visualized after trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stain. The expression of hypertrophic genes such as atrial natriuretic peptide A (Nppa) and atrial natriuretic peptide B (Nppb) in addition to fibrotic genes such as Collagen-1, Collagen-3, connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), and Fibronectin were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Injection of DOCA increased systolic blood pressure, heart weight, and cardiac fibrosis, which was attenuated by CG200745. Neither DOCA nor CG200745 affected body weight, vascular contraction and relaxation responses, and blood chemistry. Injection of DOCA increased expression of both hypertrophic and fibrotic genes, which was abrogated by CG200745. These results indicate that CG200745 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats.

  11. Exercise Ameliorates High Fat Diet Induced Cardiac Dysfunction by Increasing Interleukin 10

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Varun eKesherwani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Increasing evidence suggests that a sedentary lifestyle and a high fat diet (HFD leads to cardiomyopathy. Moderate exercise ameliorates cardiac dysfunction, however underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Increased inflammation due to induction of pro-inflammatory cytokine such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and attenuation of anti-inflammatory cytokine such as interleukin10 (IL-10 contributes to cardiac dysfunction in obese and diabetics. We hypothesized that exercise training ameliorates HFD- induced cardiac dysfunction by mitigating obesity and inflammation through upregulation of IL-10 and downregulation of TNF-α. To test this hypothesis, eight week old, female C57BL/6J mice were fed with HFD and exercised (swimming 1hr/day for 5 days/week for eight weeks. The four treatment groups: normal diet (ND, HFD, HFD + exercise (HFD + Ex and ND + Ex were analyzed for mean body weight, blood glucose level, TNF-α, IL-10, cardiac fibrosis by Masson Trichrome, and cardiac dysfunction by echocardiography. Mean body weights were increased in HFD but comparatively less in HFD + Ex. The level of TNF-α was elevated and IL-10 was downregulated in HFD but ameliorated in HFD + Ex. Cardiac fibrosis increased in HFD and was attenuated by exercise in the HFD + Ex group. The percentage ejection fraction and fractional shortening were decreased in HFD but comparatively increased in HFD + Ex. There was no difference between ND and ND + Ex for the above parameters except an increase in IL-10 level following exercise. Based on these results, we conclude that exercise mitigates HFD- induced cardiomyopathy by decreasing obesity, inducing IL-10, and reducing TNF-α in mice.

  12. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K; Phillips, Stuart M

    2013-01-01

    To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001). Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19); however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023). Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007). There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019). Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  13. G protein-coupled receptor 56 regulates mechanical overload-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James P; Wrann, Christiane D; Rao, Rajesh R; Nair, Sreekumaran K; Jedrychowski, Mark P; You, Jae-Sung; Martínez-Redondo, Vicente; Gygi, Steven P; Ruas, Jorge L; Hornberger, Troy A; Wu, Zhidan; Glass, David J; Piao, Xianhua; Spiegelman, Bruce M

    2014-11-04

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha 4 (PGC-1α4) is a protein isoform derived by alternative splicing of the PGC1α mRNA and has been shown to promote muscle hypertrophy. We show here that G protein-coupled receptor 56 (GPR56) is a transcriptional target of PGC-1α4 and is induced in humans by resistance exercise. Furthermore, the anabolic effects of PGC-1α4 in cultured murine muscle cells are dependent on GPR56 signaling, because knockdown of GPR56 attenuates PGC-1α4-induced muscle hypertrophy in vitro. Forced expression of GPR56 results in myotube hypertrophy through the expression of insulin-like growth factor 1, which is dependent on Gα12/13 signaling. A murine model of overload-induced muscle hypertrophy is associated with increased expression of both GPR56 and its ligand collagen type III, whereas genetic ablation of GPR56 expression attenuates overload-induced muscle hypertrophy and associated anabolic signaling. These data illustrate a signaling pathway through GPR56 which regulates muscle hypertrophy associated with resistance/loading-type exercise.

  14. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eunjo; Song, Min-ji; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Mina; Yang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung; Kim, Inkyeom

    2016-01-01

    CG200745 is a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), initially developed for treatment of various hematological and solid cancers. Because it is water-soluble, it can be administered orally. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats. For establishment of hypertension, 40 mg/kg of DOCA was subcutaneously injected four times weekly into Sprague-Dawley rats. All the rats...

  15. Endurance training in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: conversion of pathological into physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garciarena, Carolina D; Pinilla, Oscar A; Nolly, Mariela B; Laguens, Ruben P; Escudero, Eduardo M; Cingolani, Horacio E; Ennis, Irene L

    2009-04-01

    The effect of endurance training (swimming 90 min/d for 5 days a week for 60 days) on cardiac hypertrophy was investigated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Sedentary SHRs (SHR-Cs) and normotensive Wistar rats were used as controls. Exercise training enhanced myocardial hypertrophy assessed by left ventricular weight/tibial length (228+/-7 versus 251+/-5 mg/cm in SHR-Cs and exercised SHRs [SHR-Es], respectively). Myocyte cross-sectional area increased approximately 40%, collagen volume fraction decreased approximately 50%, and capillary density increased approximately 45% in SHR-Es compared with SHR-Cs. The mRNA abundance of atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 was decreased by the swimming routine (100+/-19% versus 41+/-10% and 100+/-8% versus 61+/-9% for atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively). The expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump was significantly augmented, whereas that of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was unchanged (93+/-7% versus 167+/-8% and 158+/-13% versus 157+/-7%, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; PEndurance training inhibited apoptosis, as reflected by a decrease in caspase 3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage, and normalized calcineurin activity without inducing significant changes in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. The swimming routine improved midventricular shortening determined by echocardiography (32.4+/-0.9% versus 36.9+/-1.1% in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; Pendurance training to convert pathological into physiological hypertrophy improving cardiac performance. The reduction of myocardial fibrosis and calcineurin activity plus the increase in capillary density represent factors to be considered in determining this beneficial effect.

  16. Aberrant Glycosylation in the Left Ventricle and Plasma of Rats with Cardiac Hypertrophy and Heart Failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiaki Nagai-Okatani

    Full Text Available Targeted proteomics focusing on post-translational modifications, including glycosylation, is a useful strategy for discovering novel biomarkers. To apply this strategy effectively to cardiac hypertrophy and resultant heart failure, we aimed to characterize glycosylation profiles in the left ventricle and plasma of rats with cardiac hypertrophy. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats, a model of hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy, were fed a high-salt (8% NaCl diet starting at 6 weeks. As a result, they exhibited cardiac hypertrophy at 12 weeks and partially impaired cardiac function at 16 weeks compared with control rats fed a low-salt (0.3% NaCl diet. Gene expression analysis revealed significant changes in the expression of genes encoding glycosyltransferases and glycosidases. Glycoproteome profiling using lectin microarrays indicated upregulation of mucin-type O-glycosylation, especially disialyl-T, and downregulation of core fucosylation on N-glycans, detected by specific interactions with Amaranthus caudatus and Aspergillus oryzae lectins, respectively. Upregulation of plasma α-l-fucosidase activity was identified as a biomarker candidate for cardiac hypertrophy, which is expected to support the existing marker, atrial natriuretic peptide and its related peptides. Proteomic analysis identified cysteine and glycine-rich protein 3, a master regulator of cardiac muscle function, as an O-glycosylated protein with altered glycosylation in the rats with cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that alternations in O-glycosylation affect its oligomerization and function. In conclusion, our data provide evidence of significant changes in glycosylation pattern, specifically mucin-type O-glycosylation and core defucosylation, in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, suggesting that they are potential biomarkers for these diseases.

  17. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and oxidative stress in monocrotaline-induced right heart dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puukila, Stephanie; Fernandes, Rafael Oliveira; Türck, Patrick; Carraro, Cristina Campos; Bonetto, Jéssica Hellen Poletto; de Lima-Seolin, Bruna Gazzi; da Rosa Araujo, Alex Sander; Belló-Klein, Adriane; Boreham, Douglas; Khaper, Neelam

    2017-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occurs when remodeling of pulmonary vessels leads to increased pulmonary vascular resistance resulting in increased pulmonary arterial pressure. Increased pulmonary arterial pressure results in right ventricle hypertrophy and eventually heart failure. Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis of PAH and may play a role in the regulation of cellular signaling involved in cardiac response to pressure overload. Secoisolariciresinol diglucoside (SDG), a component from flaxseed, has been shown to reduce cardiac oxidative stress in various pathophysiological conditions. We investigated the potential protective effects of SDG in a monocrotaline-induced model of PAH. Five- to six-week-old male Wistar rats were given a single intraperitoneal injection of monocrotaline (60 mg/kg) and sacrificed 21 days later where heart, lung, and plasma were collected. SDG (25 mg/kg) was given via gavage as either a 21-day co-treatment or pre-treatment of 14 days before monocrotaline administration and continued for 21 days. Monocrotaline led to right ventricle hypertrophy, increased lipid peroxidation, and elevated plasma levels of alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST). Co-treatment with SDG did not attenuate hypertrophy or ALT and AST levels but decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and catalase and superoxide dismutase activity compared to the monocrotaline-treated group. Pre-treatment with SDG decreased right ventricle hypertrophy, ROS levels, lipid peroxidation, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase activity and plasma levels of ALT and AST when compared to the monocrotaline group. These findings indicate that pre-treatment with SDG provided better protection than co-treatment in this model of right heart dysfunction, suggesting an important role for SDG in PAH and right ventricular remodeling.

  18. Living high training low induces physiological cardiac hypertrophy accompanied by down-regulation and redistribution of the renin-angiotensin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wei; Meszaros, J Gary; Zeng, Shao-ju; Sun, Ying-yu; Zuo, Ming-xue

    2013-01-01

    Aim: Living high training low” (LHTL) is an exercise-training protocol that refers living in hypoxia stress and training at normal level of O2. In this study, we investigated whether LHTL caused physiological heart hypertrophy accompanied by changes of biomarkers in renin-angiotensin system in rats. Methods: Adult male SD rats were randomly assigned into 4 groups, and trained on living low-sedentary (LLS, control), living low-training low (LLTL), living high-sedentary (LHS) and living high-training low (LHTL) protocols, respectively, for 4 weeks. Hematological parameters, hemodynamic measurement, heart hypertrophy and plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) level of the rats were measured. The gene and protein expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin II receptor I (AT1) in heart tissue was assessed using RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Results: LLTL, LHS and LHTL significantly improved cardiac function, increased hemoglobin concentration and RBC. At the molecular level, LLTL, LHS and LHTL significantly decreased the expression of ACE, AGT and AT1 genes, but increased the expression of ACE and AT1 proteins in heart tissue. Moreover, ACE and AT1 protein expression was significantly increased in the endocardium, but unchanged in the epicardium. Conclusion: LHTL training protocol suppresses ACE, AGT and AT1 gene expression in heart tissue, but increases ACE and AT1 protein expression specifically in the endocardium, suggesting that the physiological heart hypertrophy induced by LHTL is regulated by region-specific expression of renin-angiotensin system components. PMID:23377552

  19. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE in untrained men (n = 23 and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m² underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (P<0.001 above rest 60-180 min post-exercise and 184±28% (P = 0.037 180-360 min post exercise. Quadriceps volume increased 7.9±1.6% (-1.9-24.7% (P<0.001 after training. There was no correlation between changes in quadriceps muscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02, 3-6 h (r = 0.16 or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10. Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05 with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46 at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  20. Irisin is a pro-myogenic factor that induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and rescues denervation-induced atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reza, Musarrat Maisha; Subramaniyam, Nathiya; Sim, Chu Ming; Ge, Xiaojia; Sathiakumar, Durgalakshmi; McFarlane, Craig; Sharma, Mridula; Kambadur, Ravi

    2017-10-24

    Exercise induces expression of the myokine irisin, which is known to promote browning of white adipose tissue and has been shown to mediate beneficial effects following exercise. Here we show that irisin induces expression of a number of pro-myogenic and exercise response genes in myotubes. Irisin increases myogenic differentiation and myoblast fusion via activation of IL6 signaling. Injection of irisin in mice induces significant hypertrophy and enhances grip strength of uninjured muscle. Following skeletal muscle injury, irisin injection improves regeneration and induces hypertrophy. The effects of irisin on hypertrophy are due to activation of satellite cells and enhanced protein synthesis. In addition, irisin injection rescues loss of skeletal muscle mass following denervation by enhancing satellite cell activation and reducing protein degradation. These data suggest that irisin functions as a pro-myogenic factor in mice.

  1. Overexpression of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the rat heart augments load induced cardiac hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S.; Krause, T.; van Geel, P. P.; Willenbrock, R.; Pagel, I.; Pinto, Y. M.; Buikema, H.; van Gilst, W. H.; Lindschau, C.; Paul, M.; Inagami, T.; Ganten, D.; Urata, H.

    2001-01-01

    Angiotensin II is known to stimulate cardiac hypertrophy and contractility. Most angiotensin II effects are mediated via membrane bound AT1 receptors. However, the role of myocardial AT1 receptors in cardiac hypertrophy and contractility is still rarely defined. To address the hypothesis that

  2. Overexpression of the human angiotensin II type 1 receptor in the rat heart augments load induced cardiac hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffmann, S; van Geel, PP; Willenbrock, R; Pagel, [No Value; Pinto, YM; Buikema, H; van Gilst, WH; Lindschau, C; Paul, M; Inagami, T; Ganten, D; Urata, H

    2001-01-01

    Angiotensin II is known to stimulate cardiac hypertrophy and contractility. Most angiotensin II effects are mediated via membrane bound AT(1) receptors. However, the role of myocardial AT(1) receptors in cardiac hypertrophy and contractility is still rarely defined. To address the hypothesis that

  3. Transgenic over-expression of YY1 induces pathologic cardiac hypertrophy in a sex-specific manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauffer, Brian L.; Dockstader, Karen; Russell, Gloria; Hijmans, Jamie; Walker, Lisa; Cecil, Mackenzie; Demos-Davies, Kimberly; Medway, Allen; McKinsey, Timothy A.; Sucharov, Carmen C.

    2015-01-01

    YY1 can activate or repress transcription of various genes. In cardiac myocytes in culture YY1 has been shown to regulate expression of several genes involved in myocyte pathology. YY1 can also acutely protect the heart against detrimental changes in gene expression. In this study we show that cardiac over-expression of YY1 induces pathologic cardiac hypertrophy in male mice, measured by changes in gene expression and lower ejection fraction/fractional shortening. In contrast, female animals are protected against pathologic gene expression changes and cardiac dysfunction. Furthermore, we show that YY1 regulates, in a sex-specific manner, the expression of mammalian enable (Mena), a factor that regulates cytoskeletal actin dynamics and whose expression is increased in several models of cardiac pathology, and that Mena expression in humans with heart failure is sex-dependent. Finally, we show that sex differences in YY1 expression are also observed in human heart failure. In summary, this is the first work to show that YY1 has a sex-specific effect in the regulation of cardiac pathology. PMID:25935483

  4. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinkenberg, Lieke J J; Res, Peter T; Haenen, Guido R; Bast, Aalt; van Loon, Luc J C; van Dieijen-Visser, Marja P; Meex, Steven J R

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant) on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists. Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1); mean ± SD) were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day), or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min). The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2) to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7), immediately post-exercise (pexercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24), as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde). Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase) were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation. Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations, astaxanthin supplementation did not improve antioxidant capacity in well-trained cyclists. Accordingly, exercise-induced cardiac troponin T concentrations were not affected by astaxanthin supplementation. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01241877.

  5. Cold stress accentuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile dysfunction: role of TRPV1/AMPK-mediated autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Songhe; Xu, Dezhong

    2013-12-06

    Severe cold exposure and pressure overload are both known to prompt oxidative stress and pathological alterations in the heart although the interplay between the two remains elusive. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a nonselective cation channel activated in response to a variety of exogenous and endogenous physical and chemical stimuli including heat and capsaicin. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of cold exposure on pressure overload-induced cardiac pathological changes and the mechanism involved. Adult male C57 mice were subjected to abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) prior to exposure to cold temperature (4 °C) for 4 weeks. Cardiac geometry and function, levels of TRPV1, mitochondrial, and autophagy-associated proteins including AMPK, mTOR, LC3B, and P62 were evaluated. Sustained cold stress triggered cardiac hypertrophy, compromised depressed myocardial contractile capacity including lessened fractional shortening, peak shortening, and maximal velocity of shortening/relengthening, enhanced ROS production, and mitochondrial injury, the effects of which were negated by the TRPV1 antagonist SB366791. Western blot analysis revealed upregulated TRPV1 level and AMPK phosphorylation, enhanced ratio of LC3II/LC3I, and downregulated P62 following cold exposure. Cold exposure significantly augmented AAC-induced changes in TRPV1, phosphorylation of AMPK, LC3 isoform switch, and p62, the effects of which were negated by SB366791. In summary, these data suggest that cold exposure accentuates pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy and contractile defect possibly through a TRPV1 and autophagy-dependent mechanism. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Muscular and systemic correlates of resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron J Mitchell

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH, insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1 and interleukin 6 (IL-6], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk. Muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training period and acutely 1 and 5 h after the first training session. Serum hormones and cytokines were measured immediately, 15, 30 and 60 minutes following the first and last training sessions of the study. RESULTS: Mean fiber area increased by 20% (range: -7 to 80%; P<0.001. Protein content of the AR was unchanged with training (fold change = 1.17 ± 0.61; P=0.19; however, there was a significant correlation between the changes in AR content and fiber area (r=0.60, P=0.023. Phosphorylation of p70S6K was elevated 5 hours following exercise, which was correlated with gains in mean fiber area (r=0.54, P=0.007. There was no relationship between the magnitude of the pre- or post-training exercise-induced changes in free testosterone, GH, or IGF-1 concentration and muscle fiber hypertrophy; however, the magnitude of the post exercise IL-6 response was correlated with muscle hypertrophy (r=0.48, P=0.019. CONCLUSION: Post-exercise increases in circulating hormones are not related to hypertrophy following training. Exercise-induced changes in IL-6 correlated with hypertrophy, but the mechanism for the role of IL-6 in hypertrophy is not known. Acute increases, in p70S6K phosphorylation and changes in muscle AR protein content correlated with muscle hypertrophy implicating intramuscular rather than systemic processes in mediating hypertrophy.

  7. Toll‐Like Receptor‐2 Mediates Adaptive Cardiac Hypertrophy in Response to Pressure Overload Through Interleukin‐1β Upregulation via Nuclear Factor κB Activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashikuni, Yasutomi; Tanaka, Kimie; Kato, Megumi; Nureki, Osamu; Hirata, Yasunobu; Nagai, Ryozo; Komuro, Issei; Sata, Masataka

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammation is induced in the heart during the development of cardiac hypertrophy. The initiating mechanisms and the role of inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy, however, remain unclear. Toll‐like receptor‐2 (TLR2) recognizes endogenous molecules that induce noninfectious inflammation. Here, we examined the role of TLR2‐mediated inflammation in cardiac hypertrophy. Methods and Results At 2 weeks after transverse aortic constriction, Tlr2−/− mice showed reduced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis with greater left ventricular dilatation and impaired systolic function compared with wild‐type mice, which indicated impaired cardiac adaptation in Tlr2−/− mice. Bone marrow transplantation experiment revealed that TLR2 expressed in the heart, but not in bone marrow–derived cells, is important for cardiac adaptive response to pressure overload. In vitro experiments demonstrated that TLR2 signaling can induce cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and fibroblast and vascular endothelial cell proliferation through nuclear factor–κB activation and interleukin‐1β upregulation. Systemic administration of a nuclear factor–κB inhibitor or anti–interleukin‐1β antibodies to wild‐type mice resulted in impaired adaptive cardiac hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction. We also found that heat shock protein 70, which was increased in murine plasma after transverse aortic constriction, can activate TLR2 signaling in vitro and in vivo. Systemic administration of anti–heat shock protein 70 antibodies to wild‐type mice impaired adaptive cardiac hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that TLR2‐mediated inflammation induced by extracellularly released heat shock protein 70 is essential for adaptive cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload. Thus, modulation of TLR2 signaling in the heart may provide a novel strategy for treating heart failure due to inadequate adaptation to hemodynamic

  8. Acute post-exercise myofibrillar protein synthesis is not correlated with resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy in young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Cameron J; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A; Parise, Gianni; Bellamy, Leeann; Baker, Steven K; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J; Phillips, Stuart M

    2014-01-01

    Muscle hypertrophy following resistance training (RT) involves activation of myofibrillar protein synthesis (MPS) to expand the myofibrillar protein pool. The degree of hypertrophy following RT is, however, highly variable and thus we sought to determine the relationship between the acute activation of MPS and RT-induced hypertrophy. We measured MPS and signalling protein activation after the first session of resistance exercise (RE) in untrained men (n = 23) and then examined the relation between MPS with magnetic resonance image determined hypertrophy. To measure MPS, young men (24±1 yr; body mass index  = 26.4±0.9 kg•m²) underwent a primed constant infusion of L-[ring-¹³C₆] phenylalanine to measure MPS at rest, and acutely following their first bout of RE prior to 16 wk of RT. Rates of MPS were increased 235±38% (Pmuscle volume and acute rates of MPS measured over 1-3 h (r = 0.02), 3-6 h (r = 0.16) or the aggregate 1-6 h post-exercise period (r = 0.10). Hypertrophy after chronic RT was correlated (r = 0.42, P = 0.05) with phosphorylation of 4E-BP1(Thr37/46) at 1 hour post RE. We conclude that acute measures of MPS following an initial exposure to RE in novices are not correlated with muscle hypertrophy following chronic RT.

  9. Global Transcriptomic Profiling of Cardiac Hypertrophy and Fatty Heart Induced by Long-Term High-Energy Diet in Bama Miniature Pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jihan Xia

    Full Text Available A long-term high-energy diet affects human health and leads to obesity and metabolic syndrome in addition to cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy. Ectopic fat accumulation in the heart has been demonstrated to be a risk factor for heart disorders, but the molecular mechanism of heart disease remains largely unknown. Bama miniature pigs were fed a high-fat, high-sucrose diet (HFHSD for 23 months. These pigs developed symptoms of metabolic syndrome and showed cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy with a greatly increased body weight (2.73-fold, P<0.01, insulin level (4.60-fold, P<0.01, heart weight (1.82-fold, P<0.05 and heart volume (1.60-fold, P<0.05 compared with the control pigs. To understand the molecular mechanisms of cardiac steatosis and hypertrophy, nine pig heart cRNA samples were hybridized to porcine GeneChips. Microarray analyses revealed that 1,022 genes were significantly differentially expressed (P<0.05, ≥1.5-fold change, including 591 up-regulated and 431 down-regulated genes in the HFHSD group relative to the control group. KEGG analysis indicated that the observed heart disorder involved the signal transduction-related MAPK, cytokine, and PPAR signaling pathways, energy metabolism-related fatty acid and oxidative phosphorylation signaling pathways, heart function signaling-related focal adhesion, axon guidance, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and actin cytoskeleton signaling pathways, inflammation and apoptosis pathways, and others. Quantitative RT-PCR assays identified several important differentially expressed heart-related genes, including STAT3, ACSL4, ATF4, FADD, PPP3CA, CD74, SLA-8, VCL, ACTN2 and FGFR1, which may be targets of further research. This study shows that a long-term, high-energy diet induces obesity, cardiac steatosis, and hypertrophy and provides insights into the molecular mechanisms of hypertrophy and fatty heart to facilitate further research.

  10. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists: a randomized trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lieke J J Klinkenberg

    Full Text Available Cardiac troponin is the biochemical gold standard to diagnose acute myocardial infarction. Interestingly however, elevated cardiac troponin concentrations are also frequently observed during and after endurance-type exercise. Oxidative stress associated with prolonged exercise has been proposed to contribute to cardiac troponin release. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of 4 week astaxanthin supplementation (a potent cartenoid antioxidant on antioxidant capacity and exercise-induced cardiac troponin release in cyclists.Thirty-two well-trained male cyclists (age 25±5, weight 73±7 kg, maximum O2 uptake 60±5 mL·kg(-1·min(-1, Wmax 5.4±0.5 W·kg(-1; mean ± SD were repeatedly subjected to a laboratory based standardized exercise protocol before and after 4 weeks of astaxanthin (20 mg/day, or placebo supplementation in a double-blind randomized manner. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at 60 min of cycling and immediately post-exercise (≈ 120 min.The pre-supplementation cycling trial induced a significant rise of median cardiac troponin T concentrations from 3.2 (IQR 3.0-4.2 to 4.7 ng/L (IQR 3.7-6.7, immediately post-exercise (p<0.001. Four weeks of astaxanthin supplementation significantly increased mean basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations from non-detectable values to 175±86 µg·kg(-1. However, daily astaxanthin supplementation had no effect on exercise-induced cardiac troponin T release (p = 0.24, as measured by the incremental area under the curve. Furthermore, the elevation in basal plasma astaxanthin concentrations was not reflected in changes in antioxidant capacity markers (trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, uric acid, and malondialdehyde. Markers of inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and exercise-induced skeletal muscle damage (creatine kinase were equally unaffected by astaxanthin supplementation.Despite substantial increases in plasma astaxanthin concentrations

  11. Do metabolites that are produced during resistance exercise enhance muscle hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dankel, Scott J; Mattocks, Kevin T; Jessee, Matthew B; Buckner, Samuel L; Mouser, J Grant; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2017-11-01

    Many reviews conclude that metabolites play an important role with respect to muscle hypertrophy during resistance exercise, but their actual physiologic contribution remains unknown. Some have suggested that metabolites may work independently of muscle contraction, while others have suggested that metabolites may play a secondary role in their ability to augment muscle activation via inducing fatigue. Interestingly, the studies used as support for an anabolic role of metabolites use protocols that are not actually designed to test the importance of metabolites independent of muscle contraction. While there is some evidence in vitro that metabolites may induce muscle hypertrophy, the only study attempting to answer this question in humans found no added benefit of pooling metabolites within the muscle post-exercise. As load-induced muscle hypertrophy is thought to work via mechanotransduction (as opposed to being metabolically driven), it seems likely that metabolites simply augment muscle activation and cause the mechanotransduction cascade in a larger proportion of muscle fibers, thereby producing greater muscle growth. A sufficient time under tension also appears necessary, as measurable muscle growth is not observed after repeated maximal testing. Based on current evidence, it is our opinion that metabolites produced during resistance exercise do not have anabolic properties per se, but may be anabolic in their ability to augment muscle activation. Future studies are needed to compare protocols which produce similar levels of muscle activation, but differ in the magnitude of metabolites produced, or duration in which the exercised muscles are exposed to metabolites.

  12. Restoration of Circulating MFGE8 (Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor 8) Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy Through Inhibition of Akt Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Ke-Qiong; Li, Jing; She, Zhi-Gang; Gong, Jun; Cheng, Wen-Lin; Gong, Fu-Han; Zhu, Xue-Yong; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhihua; Li, Hongliang

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to numerous stimuli like neurohumoral stress, pressure overload, infection, and injury, and leads to heart failure. Mfge8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8) is a secreted protein involved in various human diseases, but its regulation and function during cardiac hypertrophy remain unexplored. Here, we found that circulating MFGE8 levels declined significantly in failing hearts from patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Correlation analyses revealed that circulating MFGE8 levels were negatively correlated with the severity of cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in affected patients. Deleting Mfge8 in mice maintained normal heart function at basal level but substantially exacerbated the hypertrophic enlargement of cardiomyocytes, reprogramming of pathological genes, contractile dysfunction, and myocardial fibrosis after aortic banding surgery. In contrast, cardiac-specific Mfge8 overexpression in transgenic mice significantly blunted aortic banding-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Whereas MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) pathways were unaffected in either Mfge8 -knockout or Mfge8 -overexpressing mice, the activated Akt/PKB (protein kinase B)-Gsk-3β (glycogen synthase kinase-3β)/mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) pathway after aortic banding was significantly potentiated by Mfge8 deficiency but suppressed by Mfge8 overexpression. Inhibition of Akt with MK-2206 blocked the prohypertrophic effects of Mfge8 deficiency in angiotensin II-treated neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. Finally, administering a recombinant human MFGE8 in mice in vivo alleviated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aortic banding. Our findings indicate that Mfge8 is an endogenous negative regulator of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and may, thus, have potential both as a novel biomarker and as a therapeutic target for treatment of cardiac hypertrophy. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  13. Improved bioavailability of targeted Curcumin delivery efficiently regressed cardiac hypertrophy by modulating apoptotic load within cardiac microenvironment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ray, Aramita; Rana, Santanu; Banerjee, Durba; Mitra, Arkadeep; Datta, Ritwik; Naskar, Shaon; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2016-01-01

    Cardiomyocyte apoptosis acts as a prime modulator of cardiac hypertrophy leading to heart failure, a major cause of human mortality worldwide. Recent therapeutic interventions have focussed on translational applications of diverse pharmaceutical regimes among which, Curcumin (from Curcuma longa) is known to have an anti-hypertrophic potential but with limited pharmacological efficacies due to low aqueous solubility and poor bioavailability. In this study, Curcumin encapsulated by carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) nanoparticle conjugated to a myocyte specific homing peptide was successfully delivered in bioactive form to pathological myocardium for effective regression of cardiac hypertrophy in a rat (Rattus norvegicus) model. Targeted nanotization showed higher cardiac bioavailability of Curcumin at a low dose of 5 mg/kg body weight compared to free Curcumin at 35 mg/kg body weight. Moreover, Curcumin/CMC-peptide treatment during hypertrophy significantly improved cardiac function by downregulating expression of hypertrophy marker genes (ANF, β-MHC), apoptotic mediators (Bax, Cytochrome-c) and activity of apoptotic markers (Caspase 3 and PARP); whereas free Curcumin in much higher dose showed minimal improvement during compromised cardiac function. Targeted Curcumin treatment significantly lowered p53 expression and activation in diseased myocardium via inhibited interaction of p53 with p300-HAT. Thus attenuated acetylation of p53 facilitated p53 ubiquitination and reduced the apoptotic load in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes; thereby limiting cardiomyocytes' need to enter the regeneration cycle during hypertrophy. This study elucidates for the first time an efficient targeted delivery regimen for Curcumin and also attributes towards probable mechanistic insight into its therapeutic potential as a cardio-protective agent for regression of cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Cardiomyocyte targeted Curcumin/CMC-peptide increases bioavailability of the drug.

  14. Effect of Resistance Exercise Training Associated with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy on Serum Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in STZ-induced Diabetes

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    Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type 1 diabetes. Effects of resistance exercise training associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy on serum inflammatory cytokines was exactly not clarified. Protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β in serum of healthy and streptozotocin (STZ- induced diabetic rats subjected to resistance exercise training were assessed in this study. Rats were divided into the control, training, control diabetic and diabetic training groups. Training groups performed the resistance training consisted of climbing a 1 m ladder with increasing weight added to the tail. Proteins levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in serum were measured by the ELIZA method. The results of this study indicated that resistance training induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in diabetic samples (P<0.05. Also, Resistance training decrease IL-6 protein levels in serum. Inflammatory cytokines could act as stress factors in diabetes. It seems that this kind of exercise training individually could not change cytokines levels in serum.

  15. Short-Term Caloric Restriction Suppresses Cardiac Oxidative Stress and Hypertrophy Caused by Chronic Pressure Overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobara, Miyuki; Furumori-Yukiya, Akiko; Kitamura, Miho; Matsumura, Mihoko; Ohigashi, Makoto; Toba, Hiroe; Nakata, Tetsuo

    2015-08-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) prevents senescent changes, in which reactive oxygen species (ROS) have a critical role. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. We examined whether CR alters cardiac redox state and hypertrophy from chronic pressure overload. Male c57BL6 mice were subjected to ascending aortic constriction (AAC) with ad libitum caloric intake (AL + AAC group) or 40% restricted caloric intake (CR + AAC group). CR was initiated 2 weeks before AAC and was continued for 4 weeks. Two weeks after constriction, AAC increased LV wall thickness, impaired transmitral flow velocity, and augmented myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis, in association with enhancement of BNP and collagen III expressions in the AL + AAC group. In the AL + AAC group, oxidative stress in cardiac tissue and mitochondria were enhanced, and NADPH oxidase activity and mitochondrial ROS production were elevated. These changes were significantly attenuated in the CR + AAC group. Additionally, in antioxidant systems, myocardial glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities were enhanced in the CR + AAC group. Chronic pressure overload increased cardiac oxidative damage, in association with cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Short-term CR suppressed oxidative stress and improved cardiac function, suggesting that short-term CR could be a useful strategy to prevent pressure overload-induced cardiac injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Transcription Factors in Heart: Promising Therapeutic Targets in Cardiac Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Kohli, Shrey; Ahuja, Suchit; Rani, Vibha

    2011-01-01

    Regulation of gene expression is central to cell growth, differentiation and diseases. Context specific and signal dependent regulation of gene expression is achieved to a large part by transcription factors. Cardiac transcription factors regulate heart development and are also involved in stress regulation of the adult heart, which may lead to cardiac hypertrophy. Hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes is an outcome of the imbalance between prohypertrophic factors and anti-hypertrophic factors. Thi...

  17. Understanding Key Mechanisms of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Protection to Mitigate Disease: Current Knowledge and Emerging Concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; Patterson, Natalie L; McMullen, Julie R

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise on the heart are well recognized, and clinical studies have demonstrated that exercise is an intervention that can improve cardiac function in heart failure patients. This has led to significant research into understanding the key mechanisms responsible for exercise-induced cardiac protection. Here, we summarize molecular mechanisms that regulate exercise-induced cardiac myocyte growth and proliferation. We discuss in detail the effects of exercise on other cardiac cells, organelles, and systems that have received less or little attention and require further investigation. This includes cardiac excitation and contraction, mitochondrial adaptations, cellular stress responses to promote survival (heat shock response, ubiquitin-proteasome system, autophagy-lysosomal system, endoplasmic reticulum unfolded protein response, DNA damage response), extracellular matrix, inflammatory response, and organ-to-organ crosstalk. We summarize therapeutic strategies targeting known regulators of exercise-induced protection and the challenges translating findings from bench to bedside. We conclude that technological advancements that allow for in-depth profiling of the genome, transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, combined with animal and human studies, provide new opportunities for comprehensively defining the signaling and regulatory aspects of cell/organelle functions that underpin the protective properties of exercise. This is likely to lead to the identification of novel biomarkers and therapeutic targets for heart disease.

  18. Exercise attenuates intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiac fibrosis associated with sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 in rats

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    Tsung-I Chen

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To investigate the role of sodium–hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE-1 and exercise training on intermittent hypoxia-induced cardiac fibrosis in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, using an animal model mimicking the intermittent hypoxia of OSA. Methods: Eight-week-old male Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly assigned to control (CON, intermittent hypoxia (IH, exercise (EXE or IH combined with exercise (IHEXE groups. These groups were randomly assigned to subgroups receiving either a vehicle or the NHE-1 inhibitor cariporide. The EXE and IHEXE rats underwent exercise training on an animal treadmill for 10 weeks (5 days/week, 60 minutes/day, 24–30 m/minute, 2–10% grade. The IH and IHEXE rats were exposed to 14 days of IH (30 seconds of hypoxia - nadir of 2-6% O2 - followed by 45 seconds of normoxia for 8 hours/day. At the end of 10 weeks, rats were sacrificed and then hearts were removed to determine the myocardial levels of fibrosis index, oxidative stress, antioxidant capacity and NHE-1 activation. Results: Compared to the CON rats, IH induced higher cardiac fibrosis, lower myocardial catalase and superoxidative dismutase activities, higher myocardial lipid and protein peroxidation and higher NHE-1 activation (p < 0.05 for each, which were all abolished by cariporide. Compared to the IH rats, lower cardiac fibrosis, higher myocardial antioxidant capacity, lower myocardial lipid and protein peroxidation and lower NHE-1 activation were found in the IHEXE rats (p < 0.05 for each. Conclusion: IH-induced cardiac fibrosis was associated with NHE-1 hyperactivity. However, exercise training and cariporide exerted an inhibitory effect to prevent myocardial NHE-1 hyperactivity, which contributed to reduced IH-induced cardiac fibrosis. Therefore, NHE-1 plays a critical role in the effect of exercise on IH-induced increased cardiac fibrosis.

  19. Importance of leptin signaling and signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 activation in mediating the cardiac hypertrophy associated with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifheit-Nestler, Maren; Wagner, Nana-Maria; Gogiraju, Rajinikanth; Didié, Michael; Konstantinides, Stavros; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Schäfer, Katrin

    2013-07-11

    The adipokine leptin and its receptor are expressed in the heart, and leptin has been shown to promote cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Obesity is associated with hyperleptinemia and hypothalamic leptin resistance as well as an increased risk to develop cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. However, the role of cardiac leptin signaling in mediating the cardiomyopathy associated with increased body weight is unclear, in particular, whether it develops subsequently to cardiac leptin resistance or overactivation of hypertrophic signaling pathways via elevated leptin levels. The cardiac phenotype of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese wildtype (WT) mice was examined and compared to age-matched genetically obese leptin receptor (LepR)-deficient (LepRdb/db) or lean WT mice. To study the role of leptin-mediated STAT3 activation during obesity-induced cardiac remodeling, mice in which tyrosine residue 1138 within LepR had been replaced with a serine (LepRS1138) were also analyzed. Obesity was associated with hyperleptinemia and elevated cardiac leptin expression in both diet-induced and genetically obese mice. Enhanced LepR and STAT3 phosphorylation levels were detected in hearts of obese WT mice, but not in those with LepR mutations. Moreover, exogenous leptin continued to induce cardiac STAT3 activation in diet-induced obese mice. Although echocardiography revealed signs of cardiac hypertrophy in all obese mice, the increase in left ventricular (LV) mass and diameter was significantly more pronounced in LepRS1138 animals. LepRS1138 mice also exhibited an increased activation of signaling proteins downstream of LepR, including Jak2 (1.8-fold), Src kinase (1.7-fold), protein kinase B (1.3-fold) or C (1.6-fold). Histological analysis of hearts revealed that the inability of leptin to activate STAT3 in LepRdb/db and LepRS1138 mice was associated with reduced cardiac angiogenesis as well as increased apoptosis and fibrosis. Our findings suggest that hearts from obese mice

  20. VO(2peak), myocardial hypertrophy, and myocardial blood flow in endurance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laaksonen, Marko S; Heinonen, Ilkka; Luotolahti, Matti; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-08-01

    Endurance training induces cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, leading to enhanced endurance capacity and exercise performance. Previous human studies have shown contradictory results in functional myocardial vascular adaptations to exercise training, and we hypothesized that this may be related to different degrees of hypertrophy in the trained heart. We studied the interrelationships between peak aerobic power (V˙O2peak), myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during adenosine-induced vasodilation, and parameters of myocardial hypertrophy in endurance-trained (ET, n = 31) and untrained (n = 17) subjects. MBF and myocardial hypertrophy were studied using positron emission tomography and echocardiography, respectively. Both V˙O2peak (P negatively with adenosine-stimulated MBF, but when LV mass was taken into account as a partial correlate, this correlation disappeared. The present results show that increased LV mass in ET subjects explains the reduced hyperemic myocardial perfusion in this subject population and suggests that excessive LV hypertrophy has negative effect on cardiac blood flow capacity.

  1. Preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Abhro Jyoti; Stanely Mainzen Prince, P

    2013-10-01

    The present study evaluated the preventive effects of p-coumaric acid on cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in electrocardiogram, lipids, and lipoproteins in experimentally induced myocardial infarcted rats. Rats were pretreated with p-coumaric acid (8 mg/kg body weight) daily for a period of 7 days and then injected with isoproterenol (100mg/kg body weight) on 8th and 9th day to induce myocardial infarction. Myocardial infarction induced by isoproterenol was indicated by increased level of cardiac sensitive marker and elevated ST-segments in the electrocardiogram. Also, the levels/concentrations of serum and heart cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids were increased in myocardial infarcted rats. Isoproterenol also increased the levels of serum low density and very low density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased the levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol. It also enhanced the activity of liver 3-hydroxy-3 methyl glutaryl-Coenzyme-A reductase. p-Coumaric acid pretreatment revealed preventive effects on all the biochemical parameters and electrocardiogram studied in myocardial infarcted rats. The in vitro study confirmed the free radical scavenging property of p-coumaric acid. Thus, p-coumaric acid prevented cardiac hypertrophy and alterations in lipids, lipoproteins, and electrocardiogram, by virtue of its antihypertrophic, antilipidemic, and free radical scavenging effects in isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor in diabetic myocardial hypertrophy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: This study was carried out to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) in diabetic cardiomyopathy in vitro. Methods: Hypoxia was induced chemically in H9C2 cells (cardiac hypertrophy model), and the cells were treated with phenylephrine (PE), deferoxamine (DFO), PE + DFO, and HIF-1α siRNA under ...

  3. Thyroxine-induced cardiac hypertrophy: influence of adrenergic nervous system versus renin-angiotensin system on myocyte remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, L W; Benvenuti, L A; Liberti, E A; Carneiro-Ramos, M S; Barreto-Chaves, M L M

    2003-12-01

    The present study assessed the possible involvement of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) in thyroxine (T4)-induced cardiac hypertrophy. Hemodynamic parameters, heart weight (HW), ratio of HW to body weight (HW/BW), and myocyte width were evaluated in absence of thyroid hormone (hypothyroidism) and after T4 administration. Male Wistar rats were used. Some were subjected to thyroidectomies, whereas hyperthyroidism was induced in others via daily intraperitoneal injection of T4 (25 or 100 microg x 100 g BW(-1) x day(-1)) for 7 days. In some cases, T4 administration was combined with the angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor enalapril (Ena), with the angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor blocker losartan (Los) or with the beta-adrenergic blocker propanolol (Prop). Hemodynamics and morphology were then evaluated. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was not altered by administration of either T4 alone or T4 in combination with the specific inhibitors. However, SBP decreased significantly in hypothyroid rats. An increased heart rate was seen after administration of either T4 alone or T4 in combination with either Los or Ena. Although the higher dose of T4 significantly increased HW, HW/BW increased in both T4-treated groups. Ena and Prop inhibited the increase in HW or HW/BW in hyperthyroid rats. Morphologically, both T4 dose levels significantly increased myocyte width, an occurrence prevented by RAS or SNS blockers. There was a good correlation between changes in HW/BW and myocyte width. These results indicate that T4-induced cardiac hypertrophy is associated with both the SNS and the RAS.

  4. Kaempferol Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy via Regulation of ASK1/MAPK Signaling Pathway and Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Hong; Cao, Jianlei; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Yanggan

    2017-07-01

    Kaempferol has been demonstrated to provide benefits for the treatment of atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes through its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, its role in cardiac hypertrophy remains to be elucidated. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of kaempferol on cardiac hypertrophy and the underlying mechanism. Mice subjected to aorta banding were treated with or without kaempferol (100 mg/kg/d, p. o.) for 6 weeks. Echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Mice hearts were collected for pathological observation and molecular mechanism investigation. H9c2 cardiomyocytes were stimulated with or without phenylephrine for in vitro study. Kaempferol significantly attenuated cardiac hypertrophy induced by aorta banding as evidenced by decreased cardiomyocyte areas and interstitial fibrosis, accompanied with improved cardiac functions and decreased apoptosis. The ASK1/MAPK signaling pathways (JNK1/2 and p38) were markedly activated in the aorta banding mouse heart but inhibited by kaempferol treatment. In in vitro experiments, kaempferol also inhibited the activity of ASK1/JNK1/2/p38 signaling pathway and the enlargement of H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Furthermore, our study revealed that kaempferol could protect the mouse heart and H9c2 cells from pathological oxidative stress. Our investigation indicated that treatment with kaempferol protects against cardiac hypertrophy, and its cardioprotection may be partially explained by the inhibition of the ASK1/MAPK signaling pathway and the regulation of oxidative stress. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Valsartan attenuates cardiac and renal hypertrophy in rats with experimental cardiorenal syndrome possibly through down-regulating galectin-3 signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, M-J; Gu, Y; Wang, H; Zhu, P-F; Liu, X-Y; Wu, J

    2016-01-01

    Aortocaval fistula (AV) induced chronic volume overload in rats with preexisting mild renal dysfunction (right kidney remove: UNX) could mimic the type 4 cardiorenal syndrome (CRS): chronic renocardiac syndrome. Galectin-3, a β-galactoside binding lectin, is an emerging biomarker in cardiovascular as well as renal diseases. We observed the impact of valsartan on cardiac and renal hypertrophy and galectin-3 changes in this model. Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats (200-250 g) were divided into S (Sham, n = 7), M (UNX+AV, n = 7) and M+V (UNX+AV+valsartan, n = 7) groups. Eight weeks later, cardiac function was measured by echocardiography. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, renal blood flow and 24 hours albuminuria. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to evaluate the expressions of galectin-3 in heart and renal. Cardiac hypertrophy and renal hypertrophy as well as cardiac enlargement were evidenced in this AV shunt induced chronic volume overload rat model with preexisting mild renal dysfunction. Cardiac and renal hypertrophy were significantly attenuated but cardiac enlargement was unaffected by valsartan independent of its blood pressure lowering effect. 24 hours urine albumin was significantly increased, which was significantly reduced by valsartan in this model. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR evidenced significantly up-regulated galectin-3 expression in heart and kidney and borderline increased myocardial collagen I expression, which tended to be lower post valsartan treatment. Up-regulated galectin-3 signaling might also be involved in the pathogenesis in this CRS model. The beneficial effects of valsartan in terms of attenuating cardiac and renal hypertrophy and reducing 24 hours albumin in this model might partly be mediated through down-regulating galectin-3 signal pathway.

  6. Role of Exercise-Induced Cardiac Remodeling in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renáta Szabó

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial extracellular matrix (ECM is essential for proper cardiac function and structural integrity; thus, the disruption of ECM homeostasis is associated with several pathological processes. Female Wistar rats underwent surgical ovariectomy (OVX or sham operation (SO and were then divided into eight subgroups based on the type of diet (standard chow or high-triglyceride diet/HT and exercise (with or without running. After 12 weeks, cardiac MMP-2 activity, tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-2, content of collagen type I, the level of nitrotyrosine (3-NT and glutathione (GSH, and the ratio of infarct size were determined. Our results show that OVX and HT diet caused an excessive accumulation of collagen; however, this increase was not observed in the trained animals. Twelve weeks of exercise promoted elevation in the levels of 3-NT and GSH and similarly an increase in MMP-2 activity of both SO and OVX animals. The high infarct-size ratio caused by OVX and HT diet was mitigated by physical exercise. Our findings demonstrate that ovarian estrogen loss and HT diet caused collagen accumulation and increased ratio of the infarct size. However, exercise-induced cardiac remodeling serves as a compensatory mechanism by enhancing MMP-2 activity and reducing fibrosis, thus minimizing the ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  7. Experimental and clinical study of cardiac hypertrophy by thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yukio

    1983-01-01

    I studied experimentally the myocardial uptake of 201 Tl in cardiac hypertrophy in rat, and clinically evaluated cardiac shape and dimension in the patients with various types of cardiac hypertrophy. Experimentally, both myocardial blood flow (MBF) and Tl uptake were increased with cardiac weight. There were negative correlations between the extraction fraction and MBF. Tl uptake in Hypertrophy is not always dependent on MBF and affected by the altered metabolism of hypertrophied myocardium. Clinical study was performed in 29 normal subjects and in 90 patients with heart disease. The measurements of left ventricular (LV) size by Tl scintigraphy were well correlated with them by echocardiography. Aortic stenosis and hypertensive heart disease showed thick wall and spherical shape. Both mitral (MR) and aortic (AR) regurgitation showed ventricular dilatation, spherical shape (in chronic MR) and ellipsoid shape (in acute MR and in AR). Decreased ventricular size but normal shape was observed in mitral stenosis and cor pulmonale. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy showed thick wall with asymmetric septal hypertrophy, while congestive cardiomyopathy showed thin wall with marked ventricular dilatation and spherical shape. I conclude that heart disease has characteristic figures in dimension and shape which may be reflecting cardiac performance or compensating for the load to the heart, and that 201 Tl scintigraphy is useful evaluating cardiac morphology as well as in diagnosing myocardial ischemia. (J.P.N.)

  8. Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 as regulators of cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael eMutlak

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac hypertrophy results from increased mechanical load on the heart and through the actions of local and systemic neuro-humoral factors, cytokines and growth factors. These mechanical and neuroendocrine effectors act through stretch, G protein-coupled receptors and tyrosine kinases to induce the activation of a myriad of intracellular signaling pathways including the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2. Since most stimuli that provoke myocardial hypertrophy also elicit an acute phosphorylation of the threonine-glutamate-tyrosine (TEY motif within the activation loops of ERK1 and ERK2 kinases, resulting in their activation, ERKs have long been considered promotors of cardiac hypertrophy. Several mouse models were generated in order to directly understand the causal role of ERK1/2 activation in the heart. These models include direct manipulation of ERK1/2 such as overexpression, mutagenesis or knockout models, manipulations of upstream kinases such as MEK1 and manipulations of the phosphatases that depohosphorylate ERK1/2 such as DUSP6. The emerging understanding from these studies, as will be discussed here, is more complex than originally considered. While there is little doubt that ERK1/2 activation or the lack of it modulates the hypertrophic process or the type of hypertrophy that develops, it appears that not all ERK1/2 activation events are the same. While much has been learned, some questions remain regarding the exact role of ERK1/2 in the heart, the upstream events that result in ERK1/2 activation and the downstream effector in hypertrophy.

  9. HSF1 phosphorylation by ERK/GSK3 suppresses RNF126 to sustain IGF-IIR expression for hypertension-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Fa-Lun; Peng, Shu-Fen; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Chen, Ray-Jade; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Tsai, Fu-Jen; Padma, Vijaya V; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis are major characteristics of early-stage heart failure (HF). Inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK) efficaciously suppressed angiotensin II (ANG II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis by blocking insulin-like growth factor II receptor (IGF-IIR) signaling. However, the detailed mechanism by which ANG II induces ERK-mediated IGF-IIR signaling remains elusive. Here, we found that ANG II activated ERK to upregulate IGF-IIR expression via the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT 1 R). ERK activation subsequently phosphorylates HSF1 at serine 307, leading to a secondary phosphorylation by glycogen synthase kinase III (GSK3) at serine 303. Moreover, we found that ANG II mediated ERK/GSK3-induced IGF-IIR protein stability by downregulating the E3 ubiquitin ligase of IGF-IIR RING finger protein CXXVI (RNF126). The expression of RNF126 decreased following ANG II-induced HSF1 S303 phosphorylation, resulting in IGF-IIR protein stability and increased cardiomyocyte injury. Inhibition of GSK3 significantly alleviated ANG II-induced cardiac hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro. Taken together, these results suggest that HSF1 phosphorylation stabilizes IGF-IIR protein stability by downregulating RNF126 during cardiac hypertrophy. ANG II activates ERK/GSK3 to phosphorylate HSF1, resulting in RNF126 degradation, which stabilizes IGF-IIR protein expression and eventually results in cardiac hypertrophy. HSF1 could be a valuable therapeutic target for cardiac diseases among hypertensive patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Trichostatin A accentuates doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karagiannis, Tom C; Lin, Ann J E; Ververis, Katherine; Chang, Lisa; Tang, Michelle M; Okabe, Jun; El-Osta, Assam

    2010-10-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors represent a new class of anticancer therapeutics and the expectation is that they will be most effective when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies, such as the anthracycline, doxorubicin. The dose-limiting side effect of doxorubicin is severe cardiotoxicity and evaluation of the effects of combinations of the anthracycline with histone deacetylase inhibitors in relevant models is important. We used a well-established in vitro model of doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy to examine the effects of the prototypical histone deacetylase inhibitor, Trichostatin A. Our findings indicate that doxorubicin modulates the expression of the hypertrophy-associated genes, ventricular myosin light chain-2, the alpha isoform of myosin heavy chain and atrial natriuretic peptide, an effect which is augmented by Trichostatin A. Furthermore, we show that Trichostatin A amplifies doxorubicin-induced DNA double strand breaks, as assessed by γH2AX formation. More generally, our findings highlight the importance of investigating potential side effects that may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer.

  11. Impact of statin use on exercise-induced cardiac troponin elevations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Januzzi, J.L., Jr.; Taylor, B.A.; Isaacs, S.K.; D'Hemecourt, P.; Zaleski, A.; Dyer, S.; Troyanos, C.; Weiner, R.B.; Thompson, P.D.; Baggish, A.L.

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running commonly causes a transient elevation of creatine kinase and cardiac troponin I (cTnI). The use of statins before marathon running exacerbates the release of creatine kinase from skeletal muscle, but the effect of statin use on exercise-induced cTnI release is unknown. We therefore

  12. Isometric exercise: cardiovascular responses in normal and cardiac populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, P; Nagle, F

    1987-05-01

    Isometric exercise produces a characteristic pressor increase in blood pressure which may be important in maintaining perfusion of muscle during sustained contraction. This response is mediated by combined central and peripheral afferent input to medullary cardiovascular centers. In normal individuals the increase in blood pressure is mediated by a rise in cardiac output with little or no change in systemic vascular resistance. However, the pressor response is also maintained during pharmacologic blockade or surgical denervation by increasing systemic vascular resistance. Left ventricular function is normally maintained or improves in normal subjects and cardiac patients with mild impairment of left ventricular contractility. Patients with poor left ventricular function may show deterioration during isometric exercise, although this pattern of response is difficult to predict from resting studies. Recent studies have shown that patients with uncomplicated myocardial infarction can perform submaximum isometric exercise such as carrying weights in the range of 30 to 50 lb without difficulty or adverse responses. In addition, many patients who show ischemic ST depression or angina during dynamic exercise may have a reduced ischemic response during isometric or combined isometric and dynamic exercise. Isometric exercises are frequently encountered in activities of daily living and many occupational tasks. Cardiac patients should be gradually exposed to submaximum isometric training in supervised cardiac rehabilitation programs. Specific job tasks that require isometric or combined isometric and dynamic activities may be evaluated by work simulation studies. This approach to cardiac rehabilitation may facilitate patients who wish to return to a job requiring frequent isometric muscle contraction. Finally, there is a need for additional research on the long-term effects of isometric exercise training on left ventricular hypertrophy and performance. The vigorous training

  13. Myocardial uptake of thallium-201 in rat with cardiac hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torii, Yukio; Adachi, Haruhiko; Kizu, Akira; Nakagawa, Masao; Ijichi, Hamao

    1985-01-01

    The thallium-201 (TL) has been used in order to diagnose myocardial infarction and ischemia. Although it is well known that TL distributes in the myocardium in proportion to the distribution of coronary blood flow, the biological property of TL in the loaded myocardium remains unclear. We studied the myocardial uptake of TL in rat with cardiac hypertrophy. Experiments were performed in 30 anesthetized rats devided into 3 groups; control group (C,N=14), hypertrophy group (H,N=6) and diltiazem group (D, 0.3 mg/kg/min. IV. N=10). Cardiac hypertrophy was produced with the banding of the ascending aorta. Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured by microspheres labeled with Strontium-85. Cardiac weight was increased in H, and both MBF and TL uptake were proportionally increased. MBF was negatively correlated with the extraction fraction in C (r=-0.71), in H (r=-0.66) and in D (r=-0.85), and this relationship in H was significantly different from it in C (p<0.05), but not in D. From these results, we concluded that TL uptake in H is not always dependant on MBF and affected by the altered metabolism of hypertrophied myocardium. (author)

  14. Neurotransmission to parasympathetic cardiac vagal neurons in the brain stem is altered with left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauley, Edmund; Wang, Xin; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Sun, Ke; Garrott, Kara; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Kay, Matthew W; Mendelowitz, David

    2015-10-01

    Hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and heart failure (HF) are widespread and debilitating cardiovascular diseases that affect nearly 23 million people worldwide. A distinctive hallmark of these cardiovascular diseases is autonomic imbalance, with increased sympathetic activity and decreased parasympathetic vagal tone. Recent device-based approaches, such as implantable vagal stimulators that stimulate a multitude of visceral sensory and motor fibers in the vagus nerve, are being evaluated as new therapeutic approaches for these and other diseases. However, little is known about how parasympathetic activity to the heart is altered with these diseases, and this lack of knowledge is an obstacle in the goal of devising selective interventions that can target and selectively restore parasympathetic activity to the heart. To identify the changes that occur within the brain stem to diminish the parasympathetic cardiac activity, left ventricular hypertrophy was elicited in rats by aortic pressure overload using a transaortic constriction approach. Cardiac vagal neurons (CVNs) in the brain stem that generate parasympathetic activity to the heart were identified with a retrograde tracer and studied using patch-clamp electrophysiological recordings in vitro. Animals with left cardiac hypertrophy had diminished excitation of CVNs, which was mediated both by an augmented frequency of spontaneous inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission (with no alteration of inhibitory glycinergic activity) as well as a diminished amplitude and frequency of excitatory neurotransmission to CVNs. Opportunities to alter these network pathways and neurotransmitter receptors provide future targets of intervention in the goal to restore parasympathetic activity and autonomic balance to the heart in cardiac hypertrophy and other cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Exercise training starting at weaning age preserves cardiac pacemaker function in adulthood of diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Lima, Daniel; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Silveira, Simonton Andrade; Haibara, Andrea Siqueira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral sympathetic overdrive in young obese subjects contributes to further aggravation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension, thus inducing worsening clinical conditions in adulthood. Exercise training has been considered a strategy to repair obesity autonomic dysfunction, thereby reducing the cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of early exercise training, starting immediately after weaning, on cardiac autonomic control in diet-induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (weaning) were divided into four groups: (i) a control group (n = 6); (ii) an exercise-trained control group (n = 6); (iii) a diet-induced obesity group (n = 6); and (iv) an exercise-trained diet-induced obesity group (n = 6). The development of obesity was induced by 9 weeks of palatable diet intake, and the training program was implemented in a motor-driven treadmill (5 times per week) during the same period. After this period, animals were submitted to vein and artery catheter implantation to assess cardiac autonomic balance by methylatropine (3 mg/kg) and propranolol (4 mg/kg) administration. Exercise training increased running performance in both groups (p Exercise training also prevented the increased resting heart rate in obese rats, which seemed to be related to cardiac pacemaker activity preservation (p exercise program beginning at weaning age prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in obese rats, indicating that exercise training may be used as a nonpharmacological therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.

  16. Vitamin D treatment attenuates cardiac FGF23/FGFR4 signaling and hypertrophy in uremic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leifheit-Nestler, Maren; Grabner, Alexander; Hermann, Laura; Richter, Beatrice; Schmitz, Karin; Fischer, Dagmar-Christiane; Yanucil, Christopher; Faul, Christian; Haffner, Dieter

    2017-09-01

    Vitamin D deficiency and excess of circulating fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) contribute to cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). FGF23 activates FGF receptor 4 and (FGFR4) calcineurin/nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) signaling in cardiac myocytes, thereby causing left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). Here, we determined if 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (calcitriol) inhibits FGF23-induced cardiac signaling and LVH. 5/6 nephrectomized (5/6 Nx) rats were treated with different doses of calcitriol for 4 or 10 weeks and cardiac expression of FGF23/FGFR4 and activation of calcineurin/NFAT as well as LVH were analyzed. FGFR4 activation and hypertrophic cell growth were studied in cultured cardiac myocytes that were co-treated with FGF23 and calcitriol. In 5/6Nx rats with LVH, we detected elevated FGF23 expression in bone and myocardium, increased cardiac expression of FGFR4 and elevated cardiac activation of calcineurin/NFAT signaling. Cardiac expression levels of FGF23 and FGFR4 significantly correlated with the presence of LVH in uremic rats. Treatment with calcitriol reduced LVH as well as cardiac FGFR4 expression and calcineurin/NFAT activation. Bone and cardiac FGF23 expression were further stimulated by calcitriol in a dose-dependent manner, but levels of intact cardiac FGF23 protein were suppressed by high-dose calcitriol. In cultured cardiac myocytes, co-treatment with calcitriol blocked FGF23-induced activation of FGFR4 and hypertrophic cell growth. Our data suggest that in CKD, cardioprotective effects of calcitriol stem from its inhibitory actions on the cardiac FGF23/FGFR4 system, and based on their counterbalancing effects on cardiac myocytes, high FGF23 and low calcitriol synergistically contribute to cardiac hypertrophy. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved.

  17. Pharmacological targeting of CDK9 in cardiac hypertrophy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kryštof, Vladimír; Chamrád, Ivo; Jorda, Radek; Kohoutek, J.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 4 (2010), s. 646-666 ISSN 0198-6325 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/08/0511; GA ČR GA301/09/1832; GA ČR GA301/08/1649 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : P-TEFb * cardiac myocyte * cardiac hypertrophy Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 10.228, year: 2010

  18. Obesity-associated cardiac pathogenesis in broiler breeder hens: Pathological adaption of cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C Y; Lin, H Y; Chen, Y W; Ko, Y J; Liu, Y J; Chen, Y H; Walzem, R L; Chen, S E

    2017-07-01

    Broiler hens consuming feed to appetite (ad libitum; AL) show increased mortality. Feed restriction (R) typically improves reproductive performance and livability of hens. Rapidly growing broilers can exhibit increased mortality due to cardiac insufficiency but it is unknown whether the increased mortality of non-R broiler hens is also due to cardiac compromise. To assess cardiac growth and physiology in fully mature birds, 45-week-old hens were either continued on R rations or assigned to AL feeding for 7 or 21 days. AL hens exhibited increased bodyweight, adiposity, absolute and relative heart weight, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiac protein/DNA ratio by d 21 (P hens (P Hens allowed AL feeding for 70 d exhibited a higher incidence of mortality (40% vs. 10%) in association with ascites, pericardial effusion, and ventricle dilation. A higher incidence of irregular ECG patterns and rhythmicity consistent with persistently elevated systolic blood pressure and ventricle fibrosis were observed in AL hens (P feeding in broiler hens results in maladaptive cardiac hypertrophy that progresses to overt pathogenesis in contractility and thereby increases mortality. Feed restriction provides clear physiological benefit to heart function of adult broiler hens. © 2017 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  19. Exercise-induced circulating extracellular vesicles protect against cardiac ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bei, Yihua; Xu, Tianzhao; Lv, Dongchao; Yu, Pujiao; Xu, Jiahong; Che, Lin; Das, Avash; Tigges, John; Toxavidis, Vassilios; Ghiran, Ionita; Shah, Ravi; Li, Yongqin; Zhang, Yuhui; Das, Saumya; Xiao, Junjie

    2017-07-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) serve an important function as mediators of intercellular communication. Exercise is protective for the heart, although the signaling mechanisms that mediate this cardioprotection have not been fully elucidated. Here using nano-flow cytometry, we found a rapid increase in plasma EVs in human subjects undergoing exercise stress testing. We subsequently identified that serum EVs were increased by ~1.85-fold in mice after 3-week swimming. Intramyocardial injection of equivalent quantities of EVs from exercised mice and non-exercised controls provided similar protective effects against acute ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. However, injection of exercise-induced EVs in a quantity equivalent to the increase seen with exercise (1.85 swim group) significantly enhanced the protective effect. Similarly, treatment with exercise-induced increased EVs provided additional anti-apoptotic effect in H 2 O 2 -treated H9C2 cardiomyocytes mediated by the activation of ERK1/2 and HSP27 signaling. Finally, by treating H9C2 cells with insulin-like growth factor-1 to mimic exercise stimulus in vitro, we found an increased release of EVs from cardiomyocytes associated with ALIX and RAB35 activation. Collectively, our results show that exercise-induced increase in circulating EVs enhances the protective effects of endogenous EVs against cardiac I/R injury. Exercise-derived EVs might serve as a potent therapy for myocardial injury in the future.

  20. Chronic activation of hypothalamic oxytocin neurons improves cardiac function during left ventricular hypertrophy-induced heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrott, Kara; Dyavanapalli, Jhansi; Cauley, Edmund; Dwyer, Mary Kate; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Wang, Xin; Mendelowitz, David; Kay, Matthew W

    2017-09-01

    A distinctive hallmark of heart failure (HF) is autonomic imbalance, consisting of increased sympathetic activity, and decreased parasympathetic tone. Recent work suggests that activation of hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) neurons could improve autonomic balance during HF. We hypothesized that a novel method of chronic selective activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons will improve cardiac function and reduce inflammation and fibrosis in a rat model of HF. Two groups of male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent trans-ascending aortic constriction (TAC) to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy that progresses to HF. In one TAC group, OXT neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus were chronically activated by selective expression and activation of excitatory DREADDs receptors with daily injections of clozapine N-oxide (CNO) (TAC + OXT). Two additional age-matched groups received either saline injections (Control) or CNO injections for excitatory DREADDs activation (OXT NORM). Heart rate (HR), LV developed pressure (LVDP), and coronary flow rate were measured in isolated heart experiments. Isoproterenol (0.01 nM-1.0 µM) was administered to evaluate β-adrenergic sensitivity. We found that increases in cellular hypertrophy and myocardial collagen density in TAC were blunted in TAC + OXT animals. Inflammatory cytokine IL-1β expression was more than twice higher in TAC than all other hearts. LVDP, rate pressure product (RPP), contractility, and relaxation were depressed in TAC compared with all other groups. The response of TAC and TAC + OXT hearts to isoproterenol was blunted, with no significant increase in RPP, contractility, or relaxation. However, HR in TAC + OXT animals increased to match Control at higher doses of isoproterenol. Activation of hypothalamic OXT neurons to elevate parasympathetic tone reduced cellular hypertrophy, levels of IL-1β, and fibrosis during TAC-induced HF in rats. Cardiac contractility parameters were

  1. Periodontitis and myocardial hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Hiroki; Kaneko, Makoto; Yoshida, Asuka; Aoyama, Norio; Akimoto, Shouta; Wakayama, Kouji; Kumagai, Hidetoshi; Ikeda, Yuichi; Akazawa, Hiroshi; Izumi, Yuichi; Isobe, Mitsuaki; Komuro, Issei

    2017-04-01

    There is a deep relationship between cardiovascular disease and periodontitis. It has been reported that myocardial hypertrophy may be affected by periodontitis in clinical settings. Although these clinical observations had some study limitations, they strongly suggest a direct association between severity of periodontitis and left ventricular hypertrophy. However, the detailed mechanisms between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis have not yet been elucidated. Recently, we demonstrated that periodontal bacteria infection is closely related to myocardial hypertrophy. In murine transverse aortic constriction models, a periodontal pathogen, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans markedly enhanced cardiac hypertrophy with matrix metalloproteinase-2 activation, while another pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (P.g.) did not accelerate these pathological changes. In the isoproterenol-induced myocardial hypertrophy model, P.g. induced myocardial hypertrophy through Toll-like receptor-2 signaling. From our results and other reports, regulation of chronic inflammation induced by periodontitis may have a key role in the treatment of myocardial hypertrophy. In this article, we review the pathophysiological mechanism between myocardial hypertrophy and periodontitis.

  2. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Hypertension is a conditional factor for the development of cardiac hypertrophy in type 2 diabetic mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Bilsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes is frequently associated with co-morbidities, including hypertension. Here we investigated if hypertension is a critical factor in myocardial remodeling and the development of cardiac dysfunction in type 2 diabetic db/db mice. METHODS: Thereto, 14-wks-old male db/db mice and non-diabetic db/+ mice received vehicle or angiotensin II (AngII for 4 wks to induce mild hypertension (n = 9-10 per group. Left ventricular (LV function was assessed by serial echocardiography and during a dobutamine stress test. LV tissue was subjected to molecular and (immunohistochemical analysis to assess effects on hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation. RESULTS: Vehicle-treated diabetic mice neither displayed marked myocardial structural remodeling nor cardiac dysfunction. AngII-treatment did not affect body weight and fasting glucose levels, and induced a comparable increase in blood pressure in diabetic and control mice. Nonetheless, AngII-induced LV hypertrophy was significantly more pronounced in diabetic than in control mice as assessed by LV mass (increase +51% and +34%, respectively, p<0.01 and cardiomyocyte size (+53% and +31%, p<0.001. This was associated with enhanced LV mRNA expression of markers of hypertrophy and fibrosis and reduced activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK, while accumulation of Advanced Glycation End products (AGEs and the expression levels of markers of inflammation were not altered. Moreover, AngII-treatment reduced LV fractional shortening and contractility in diabetic mice, but not in control mice. CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, the present findings indicate that type 2 diabetes in its early stage is not yet associated with adverse cardiac structural changes, but already renders the heart more susceptible to hypertension-induced hypertrophic remodeling.

  4. [Effect of down-regulation of IKs repolarization-reserve on ventricular arrhythmogenesis in a guinea pig model of cardiac hypertrophy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hegui; Huang, Ting; Wang, Zheng; Ge, Nannan; Ke, Yongsheng

    2018-04-28

    To observe the changes of rapidly activated delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKr) and slowly activated delayed rectifier potassium channel (IKs) in cardiac hypertrophy and to evaluate the effects of IKr and IKs blocker on the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in guinea pigs with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH).
 Methods: Guinea pigs were divided into a sham operation group and a left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) group. LVH model was prepared. Whole cell patch-clamp technique was used to record IKr and IKs tail currents in a guinea pig model with LVH. The changes of QTc and the incidence rate of ventricular arrhythmias in LVH guinea pigs were observed by using the IKr and IKs blockers.
 Results: Compared with cardiac cells in the control group, the interventricular septal thickness at end systole (IVSs), left ventricular posterior wall thickness at end systole (LVPWs), QTc interval and cell capacitance in guinea pigs with LVH were significantly increased (Pguinea pigs with LVH compared with the control guinea pigs. In contrast, IKs blocker produced modest increase in QTc interval in guinea pigs of control group with no increase in LVH animals. IKs blocker did not induce ventricular arrhythmias incidence in either control or LVH animals.
 Conclusion: The cardiac hypertrophy-induced arrhythmogenesis is due to the down-regulation 
of IKs.

  5. [Impacts of physical exercise on remodeling and hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Yoshihiro; Uchida, Takayuki; Nikawa, Takeshi

    The skeletal muscle has high sensitivity for the mechanical stress. Because it is enlarged by training, whereas it is easily withered by lack of exercise. When we exercise, skeletal muscle cells per se sense mechanical loading, and muscular remodeling and the muscular hypertrophy occur. It has been revealed that the intracellular signaling through PGC-1α participates in the remodeling of the skeletal muscle, while PGC-1α4, an isoform of PGC-1α, and the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex play important roles in muscular hypertrophy. This review describes the impact of physical exercise gives on the remodeling and hypertrophy of muscle through the signaling.

  6. Exposure to low dose benzo[a]pyrene during early life stages causes symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lixing; Gao, Dongxu; Zhang, Youyu; Wang, Chonggang; Zuo, Zhenghong

    2014-07-15

    Growing evidence indicates that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can lead to cardiac hypertrophy and recent research indicates that exposure to low dose crude oil during early embryonic development may lead to impacts on heart health at later life stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether exposure during early life stages to low dose benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), as a high-ring PAH, would lead to cardiac hypertrophy at later life stages. Zebrafish were exposed to low dose BaP until 96 hpf, then transferred to clean water and maintained for a year before histological and molecular biological analysis. Our results showed that exposure to low level BaP during early life stages increased heart weight to body weight ratios and deposited collagen in the heart of adult zebrafish. ANP, BNP and c-Myc were also induced in the heart of adult zebrafish by BaP. These results proved that low level BaP exposure during early life stages caused symptoms similar to cardiac hypertrophy in adult zebrafish. Our results displayed an elevated expression of CdC42, RhoA, p-ERK1, 2 and Rac1. Therefore, the mechanism of the cardiac hypertrophy caused by BaP exposure during early life stages may be through inducing the expression of CdC42, RhoA and Rac1, together with activating ERK1, 2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Pathophysiology of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure: signaling pathways and novel therapeutic targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Yow Keat; Bernardo, Bianca C; Ooi, Jenny Y Y; Weeks, Kate L; McMullen, Julie R

    2015-09-01

    The onset of heart failure is typically preceded by cardiac hypertrophy, a response of the heart to increased workload, a cardiac insult such as a heart attack or genetic mutation. Cardiac hypertrophy is usually characterized by an increase in cardiomyocyte size and thickening of ventricular walls. Initially, such growth is an adaptive response to maintain cardiac function; however, in settings of sustained stress and as time progresses, these changes become maladaptive and the heart ultimately fails. In this review, we discuss the key features of pathological cardiac hypertrophy and the numerous mediators that have been found to be involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac hypertrophy affecting gene transcription, calcium handling, protein synthesis, metabolism, autophagy, oxidative stress and inflammation. We also discuss new mediators including signaling proteins, microRNAs, long noncoding RNAs and new findings related to the role of calcineurin and calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases. We also highlight mediators and processes which contribute to the transition from adaptive cardiac remodeling to maladaptive remodeling and heart failure. Treatment strategies for heart failure commonly include diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers and β-blockers; however, mortality rates remain high. Here, we discuss new therapeutic approaches (e.g., RNA-based therapies, dietary supplementation, small molecules) either entering clinical trials or in preclinical development. Finally, we address the challenges that remain in translating these discoveries to new and approved therapies for heart failure.

  8. Global microRNA profiles and signaling pathways in the development of cardiac hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, H.J.; Ouyang, W.; Liu, J.H.; Sun, Y.G.; Hu, R.; Huang, L.H.; Xian, J.L. [Southern Medical University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Guangzhou, China, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Zhujiang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou (China); Jing, C.F.; Zhou, M.J. [Sun Yat-Sen University, South China Sea Marine Biotechnology, National Engineering Research Center, Guangzhou, China, National Engineering Research Center, South China Sea Marine Biotechnology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-04-11

    Hypertrophy is a major predictor of progressive heart disease and has an adverse prognosis. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) that accumulate during the course of cardiac hypertrophy may participate in the process. However, the nature of any interaction between a hypertrophy-specific signaling pathway and aberrant expression of miRNAs remains unclear. In this study, Spague Dawley male rats were treated with transverse aortic constriction (TAC) surgery to mimic pathological hypertrophy. Hearts were isolated from TAC and sham operated rats (n=5 for each group at 5, 10, 15, and 20 days after surgery) for miRNA microarray assay. The miRNAs dysexpressed during hypertrophy were further analyzed using a combination of bioinformatics algorithms in order to predict possible targets. Increased expression of the target genes identified in diverse signaling pathways was also analyzed. Two sets of miRNAs were identified, showing different expression patterns during hypertrophy. Bioinformatics analysis suggested the miRNAs may regulate multiple hypertrophy-specific signaling pathways by targeting the member genes and the interaction of miRNA and mRNA might form a network that leads to cardiac hypertrophy. In addition, the multifold changes in several miRNAs suggested that upregulation of rno-miR-331*, rno-miR-3596b, rno-miR-3557-5p and downregulation of rno-miR-10a, miR-221, miR-190, miR-451 could be seen as biomarkers of prognosis in clinical therapy of heart failure. This study described, for the first time, a potential mechanism of cardiac hypertrophy involving multiple signaling pathways that control up- and downregulation of miRNAs. It represents a first step in the systematic discovery of miRNA function in cardiovascular hypertrophy.

  9. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise on plasma levels of fibroblast growth factor 23, Angiotensin converting enzyme and left ventricular hypertrophy in hypertensive elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Keshavarzi

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrated that aerobic exercise has a positive effect on heart function and serum levels of ACE, and can potentially reverse cardiac dysfunction associated with left ventricular hypertrophy.

  10. The transcription factor MEF2C mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1 signaling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Juan Pablo; Collao, Andres; Chiong, Mario; Maldonado, Carola; Adasme, Tatiana; Carrasco, Loreto; Ocaranza, Paula; Bravo, Roberto; Gonzalez, Leticia; Diaz-Araya, Guillermo [Centro FONDAP Estudios Moleculares de la Celula, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Hidalgo, Cecilia [Centro FONDAP Estudios Moleculares de la Celula, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Lavandero, Sergio, E-mail: slavander@uchile.cl [Centro FONDAP Estudios Moleculares de la Celula, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas y Farmaceuticas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile); Instituto de Ciencias Biomedicas, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Chile, Santiago 8380492 (Chile)

    2009-10-09

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) plays an important role in cardiovascular development and is a key transcription factor for cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe MEF2C regulation by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its role in IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We found that IGF-1 addition to cultured rat cardiomyocytes activated MEF2C, as evidenced by its increased nuclear localization and DNA binding activity. IGF-1 stimulated MEF2 dependent-gene transcription in a time-dependent manner, as indicated by increased MEF2 promoter-driven reporter gene activity; IGF-1 also induced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, while an inhibitor of p38-MAPK decreased both effects. Additionally, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and calcineurin prevented IGF-1-induced MEF2 transcriptional activity. Via MEF2C-dependent signaling, IGF-1 also stimulated transcription of atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal {alpha}-actin but not of fos-lux reporter genes. These novel data suggest that MEF2C activation by IGF-1 mediates the pro-hypertrophic effects of IGF-1 on cardiac gene expression.

  11. The transcription factor MEF2C mediates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1 signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munoz, Juan Pablo; Collao, Andres; Chiong, Mario; Maldonado, Carola; Adasme, Tatiana; Carrasco, Loreto; Ocaranza, Paula; Bravo, Roberto; Gonzalez, Leticia; Diaz-Araya, Guillermo; Hidalgo, Cecilia; Lavandero, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C) plays an important role in cardiovascular development and is a key transcription factor for cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we describe MEF2C regulation by insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and its role in IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We found that IGF-1 addition to cultured rat cardiomyocytes activated MEF2C, as evidenced by its increased nuclear localization and DNA binding activity. IGF-1 stimulated MEF2 dependent-gene transcription in a time-dependent manner, as indicated by increased MEF2 promoter-driven reporter gene activity; IGF-1 also induced p38-MAPK phosphorylation, while an inhibitor of p38-MAPK decreased both effects. Additionally, inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and calcineurin prevented IGF-1-induced MEF2 transcriptional activity. Via MEF2C-dependent signaling, IGF-1 also stimulated transcription of atrial natriuretic factor and skeletal α-actin but not of fos-lux reporter genes. These novel data suggest that MEF2C activation by IGF-1 mediates the pro-hypertrophic effects of IGF-1 on cardiac gene expression.

  12. Macrophage microRNA-155 promotes cardiac hypertrophy and failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heymans, Stephane; Corsten, Maarten F.; Verhesen, Wouter; Carai, Paolo; van Leeuwen, Rick E. W.; Custers, Kevin; Peters, Tim; Hazebroek, Mark; Stöger, Lauran; Wijnands, Erwin; Janssen, Ben J.; Creemers, Esther E.; Pinto, Yigal M.; Grimm, Dirk; Schürmann, Nina; Vigorito, Elena; Thum, Thomas; Stassen, Frank; Yin, Xiaoke; Mayr, Manuel; de Windt, Leon J.; Lutgens, Esther; Wouters, Kristiaan; de Winther, Menno P. J.; Zacchigna, Serena; Giacca, Mauro; van Bilsen, Marc; Papageorgiou, Anna-Pia; Schroen, Blanche

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure triggered by chronic hypertension represent major challenges for cardiovascular research. Beyond neurohormonal and myocyte signaling pathways, growing evidence suggests inflammatory signaling pathways as therapeutically targetable contributors to this

  13. Peripheral vasodilatation determines cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bada, A A; Svendsen, J H; Secher, N H

    2012-01-01

    In dogs, manipulation of heart rate has no effect on the exercise-induced increase in cardiac output. Whether these findings apply to humans remain uncertain, because of the large differences in cardiovascular anatomy and regulation. To investigate the role of heart rate and peripheral...... arterial ATP infusion at rest. Exercise and ATP infusion increased cardiac output, leg blood flow and vascular conductance (P heart rate by up to 54 beats min(−1), cardiac output did not change in any of the three...... demonstrate that the elevated cardiac output during steady-state exercise is regulated by the increase in skeletal muscle blood flow and venous return to the heart, whereas the increase in heart rate appears to be secondary to the regulation of cardiac output....

  14. Exercise quantity-dependent muscle hypertrophy in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasumura, Takahiro; Meguro, Shinichi

    2016-07-01

    Exercise is very important for maintaining and increasing skeletal muscle mass, and is particularly important to prevent and care for sarcopenia and muscle disuse atrophy. However, the dose-response relationship between exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration and muscle mass is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the effect of exercise duration on skeletal muscle to reveal the relationship between exercise quantity and muscle hypertrophy in zebrafish forced to exercise. Adult male zebrafish were exercised 6 h/day for 4 weeks, 6 h/day for 2 weeks, or 3 h/day for 2 weeks. Flow velocity was adjusted to maximum velocity during continual swimming (initial 43 cm/s). High-speed consecutive photographs revealed that zebrafish mainly drove the caudal part. Additionally, X-ray micro computed tomography measurements indicated muscle hypertrophy of the mid-caudal half compared with the mid-cranial half part. The cross-sectional analysis of the mid-caudal half muscle revealed that skeletal muscle (red, white, or total) mass increased with increasing exercise quantity, whereas that of white muscle and total muscle increased only under the maximum exercise load condition of 6 h/day for 4 weeks. Additionally, the muscle fiver size distributions of exercised fish were larger than those from non-exercised fish. We revealed that exercise quantity, duration/day, and overall duration were correlated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The forced exercise model enabled us to investigate the relationship between exercise quantity and skeletal muscle mass. These results open up the possibility for further investigations on the effects of exercise on skeletal muscle in adult zebrafish.

  15. The Molecular Basis for Load-Induced Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, George R.; West, Daniel W.D.; Baar, Keith

    2016-01-01

    In a mature (weight neutral) animal, an increase in muscle mass only occurs when the muscle is loaded sufficiently to cause an increase in myofibrillar protein balance. A tight relationship between muscle hypertrophy, acute increases in protein balance, and the activity of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) was demonstrated 15 years ago. Since then, our understanding of the signals that regulate load-induced hypertrophy has evolved considerably. For example, we now know that mechanical load activates mTORC1 in the same way as growth factors, by moving TSC2 (a primary inhibitor of mTORC1) away from its target (the mTORC activator) Rheb. However, the kinase that phosphorylates and moves TSC2 is different in the two processes. Similarly, we have learned that a distinct pathway exists whereby amino acids activate mTORC1 by moving it to Rheb. While mTORC1 remains at the forefront of load-induced hypertrophy, the importance of other pathways that regulate muscle mass are becoming clearer. Myostatin, is best known for its control of developmental muscle size. However, new mechanisms to explain how loading regulates this process are suggesting that it could play an important role in hypertrophic muscle growth as well. Lastly, new mechanisms are highlighted for how β2 receptor agonists could be involved in load-induced muscle growth and why these agents are being developed as non-exercise-based therapies for muscle atrophy. Overall, the results highlight how studying the mechanism of load-induced skeletal muscle mass is leading the development of pharmaceutical interventions to promote muscle growth in those unwilling or unable to perform resistance exercise. PMID:25359125

  16. Association of Exercise Training with Tobacco Smoking Prevents Fibrosis but has Adverse Impact on Myocardial Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Junior, Dermeval; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; de Oliveira, Helenita Antonia; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2016-12-01

    There was no data for cardiac repercussion of exercise training associated with tobacco smoking. This issue is interesting because some smoking people can be enrolled in an exercise-training program. Thus, we evaluated swimming training effects on the function and structural myocardial in rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: C, untrained rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; E, exercised rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; CS, untrained rats exposed to tobacco smoking; ECS, exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Rats swam five times a week twice daily (60min per session) for 8 weeks. Before each bout exercise, rats breathed smoke from 20 cigarettes for 60min. Twenty-four hours after the last day of the protocol, papillary muscles were isolated for in vitro analysis of myocardial mechanics. The myocardial mass and nuclear cardiomyocyte volume were used as hypertrophy markers, and collagen content was determined by picrosirius red staining. There was a well-pronounced myocardial hypertrophic effect for two interventions. The exercise blunted myocardial collagen increases induced by tobacco smoking. However, exercise and tobacco-smoking association was deleterious to myocardial performance. Thereby, in vitro experiments with papillary muscles contracting in isometric showed impairment myocardial inotropism in exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. This work presents novel findings on the role of exercise training on cardiac remodeling induced by tobacco smoking. Although exercise has mitigated tissue fibrosis, their association with tobacco smoking exacerbated hypertrophy and in vitro myocardial dysfunction. This is first study to show that the association of an aerobic exercise training with tobacco smoking intensifies the phenotype of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, the combination of interventions resulted in exacerbated myocardial hypertrophy and contractility dysfunction. These

  17. The effect of exercise hypertrophy and disuse atrophy on muscle contractile properties: a mechanomyographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Than, Christian; Tosovic, Danijel; Seidl, Laura; Mark Brown, J

    2016-12-01

    To determine whether mechanomyographic (MMG) determined contractile properties of the biceps brachii change during exercise-induced hypertrophy and subsequent disuse atrophy. Healthy subjects (mean ± SD, 23.7 ± 2.6 years, BMI 21.8 ± 2.4, n = 19) performed unilateral biceps curls (9 sets × 12 repetitions, 5 sessions per week) for 8 weeks (hypertrophic phase) before ceasing exercise (atrophic phase) for the following 8 weeks (non-dominant limb; treatment, dominant limb; control). MMG measures of muscle contractile properties (contraction time; T c , maximum displacement; D max , contraction velocity; V c ), electromyographic (EMG) measures of muscle fatigue (median power frequency; MPF), strength measures (maximum voluntary contraction; MVC) and measures of muscle thickness (ultrasound) were obtained. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA showed significant differences (P muscle thickness was greater than control, reflecting gross hypertrophy. MMG variables Dmax (weeks 2, 7) and Vc (weeks 7, 8) declined. During the atrophic phase, MVC (weeks 9-12) and muscle thickness (weeks 9, 10) initially remained high before declining to control levels, reflecting gross atrophy. MMG variables D max (weeks 9, 14) and V c (weeks 9, 14, 15) also declined during the atrophic phase. No change in T c was found throughout the hypertrophic or atrophic phases. MMG detects changes in contractile properties during stages of exercise-induced hypertrophy and disuse atrophy suggesting its applicability as a clinical tool in musculoskeletal rehabilitation.

  18. Early dystrophin loss is coincident with the transition of compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P Prado

    Full Text Available Hypertension causes cardiac hypertrophy, one of the most important risk factors for heart failure (HF. Despite the importance of cardiac hypertrophy as a risk factor for the development of HF, not all hypertrophied hearts will ultimately fail. Alterations of cytoskeletal and sarcolemma-associated proteins are considered markers cardiac remodeling during HF. Dystrophin provides mechanical stability to the plasma membrane through its interactions with the actin cytoskeleton and, indirectly, to extracellular matrix proteins. This study was undertaken to evaluate dystrophin and calpain-1 in the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to HF. Wistar rats were subjected to abdominal aorta constriction and killed at 30, 60 and 90 days post surgery (dps. Cardiac function and blood pressure were evaluated. The hearts were collected and Western blotting and immunofluorescence performed for dystrophin, calpain-1, alpha-fodrin and calpastatin. Statistical analyses were performed and considered significant when p<0.05. After 90 dps, 70% of the animals showed hypertrophic hearts (HH and 30% hypertrophic+dilated hearts (HD. Systolic and diastolic functions were preserved at 30 and 60 dps, however, decreased in the HD group. Blood pressure, cardiomyocyte diameter and collagen content were increased at all time points. Dystrophin expression was lightly increased at 30 and 60 dps and HH group. HD group showed decreased expression of dystrophin and calpastatin and increased expression of calpain-1 and alpha-fodrin fragments. The first signals of dystrophin reduction were observed as early as 60 dps. In conclusion, some hearts present a distinct molecular pattern at an early stage of the disease; this pattern could provide an opportunity to identify these failure-prone hearts during the development of the cardiac disease. We showed that decreased expression of dystrophin and increased expression of calpains are coincident and could work as possible

  19. Chronic Endurance Exercise Impairs Cardiac Structure and Function in Middle-Aged Mice with Impaired Nrf2 Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gobinath Shanmugam

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2 signaling maintains the redox homeostasis and its activation is shown to suppress cardiac maladaptation. Earlier we reported that acute endurance exercise (2 days evoked antioxidant cytoprotection in young WT animals but not in aged WT animals. However, the effect of repeated endurance exercise during biologic aging (WT characterized by an inherent deterioration in Nrf2 signaling and pathological aging (pronounced oxidative susceptibility—Nrf2 absence in the myocardium remains elusive. Thus, the purpose of our study was to determine the effect of chronic endurance exercise-induced cardiac adaptation in aged mice with and without Nrf2. Age-matched WT and Nrf2-null mice (Nrf2−/− (>22 months were subjected to 6 weeks chronic endurance exercise (25 meter/min, 12% grade. The myocardial redox status was assessed by expression of antioxidant defense genes and proteins along with immunochemical detection of DMPO-radical adduct, GSH-NEM, and total ubiquitination. Cardiac functions were assessed by echocardiography and electrocardiogram. At sedentary state, loss of Nrf2 resulted in significant downregulation of antioxidant gene expression (Nqo1, Ho1, Gclm, Cat, and Gst-α with decreased GSH-NEM immuno-fluorescence signals. While Nrf2−/− mice subjected to CEE showed an either similar or more pronounced reduction in the transcript levels of Gclc, Nqo1, Gsr, and Gst-α in relation to WT littermates. In addition, the hearts of Nrf2−/− on CEE showed a substantial reduction in specific antioxidant proteins, G6PD and CAT along with decreased GSH, a pronounced increase in DMPO-adduct and the total ubiquitination levels. Further, CEE resulted in a significant upregulation of hypertrophy genes (Anf, Bnf, and β-Mhc (p < 0.05 in the Nrf2−/− hearts in relation to WT mice. Moreover, the aged Nrf2−/− mice exhibited a higher degree of cardiac remodeling in association with a significant decrease in

  20. Inhibition of TNF-α in hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting neurohormonal excitation in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Xin-Ai; Jia, Lin-Lin [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Meng [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Yuan, Zu-Yi [Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Guo, Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Li, Hui-Hua [Key Laboratory of Remodeling-related Cardiovascular Diseases, Department of Pathology, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Capital Medical University, Beijing 100069 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Liu, Hao, E-mail: haoliu75@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Medicine, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2014-11-15

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), decreasing nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase activities, as well as restoring the neurotransmitters balance in the PVN of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Adult normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusion of a TNF-α blocker (pentoxifylline or etanercept) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats showed higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy compared with WKY rats, as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, and cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC) mRNA expressions. Compared with WKY rats, SHR rats had higher PVN levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, PICs, the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NF-κB p65 activity, mRNA expressions of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN levels of IL-10 and 67-kDa isoform of glutamate decarboxylase (GAD67), and higher plasma norepinephrine. PVN infusion of pentoxifylline or etanercept attenuated all these changes in SHR rats. These findings suggest that SHR rats have an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters, as well as an imbalance between pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in the PVN; and chronic inhibition of TNF-α in the PVN delays the progression of hypertension by restoring the balances of neurotransmitters and cytokines in the PVN, and attenuating PVN NF-κB p65 activity and oxidative stress, thereby attenuating hypertension-induced sympathetic hyperactivity and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of

  1. Inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy by modulating cytokines and attenuating oxidative stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xiao-Jing [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Zhang, Dong-Mei [Department of Physiology, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044 (China); Jia, Lin-Lin; Qi, Jie; Song, Xin-Ai; Tan, Hong [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Cui, Wei [Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, First Affiliated Hospital of Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China); Chen, Wensheng [Department of Cardiovascular Surgery, Xijing Hospital, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi' an 710032 (China); Zhu, Guo-Qing [Key Laboratory of Cardiovascular Disease and Molecular Intervention, Department of Physiology, Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing 210029 (China); Qin, Da-Nian, E-mail: dnqin@stu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology, Shantou University Medical College, Shantou 515041 (China); Kang, Yu-Ming, E-mail: ykang@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Department of Physiology and Pathophysiology, Xi' an Jiaotong University School of Basic Medical Sciences, Xi' an Jiaotong University Cardiovascular Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University Health Science Center, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2015-05-01

    We hypothesized that chronic inhibition of NF-κB activity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) delays the progression of hypertension and attenuates cardiac hypertrophy by up-regulating anti-inflammatory cytokines, reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines (PICs), attenuating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 and NAD(P)H oxidase in the PVN of young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Young normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) and SHR rats received bilateral PVN infusions with NF–κB inhibitor pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC) or vehicle for 4 weeks. SHR rats had higher mean arterial pressure and cardiac hypertrophy as indicated by increased whole heart weight/body weight ratio, whole heart weight/tibia length ratio, left ventricular weight/tibia length ratio, cardiomyocyte diameters of the left cardiac ventricle, and mRNA expressions of cardiac atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and beta-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC). These SHR rats had higher PVN levels of proinflammatory cytokines (PICs), reactive oxygen species (ROS), the chemokine monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), NAD(P)H oxidase activity, mRNA expression of NOX-2 and NOX-4, and lower PVN IL-10, and higher plasma levels of PICs and NE, and lower plasma IL-10. PVN infusion of NF-κB inhibitor PDTC attenuated all these changes. These findings suggest that NF-κB activation in the PVN increases sympathoexcitation and hypertensive response, which are associated with the increases of PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN; PVN inhibition of NF-κB activity attenuates PICs and oxidative stress in the PVN, thereby attenuates hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. - Highlights: • Spontaneously hypertensive rats exhibit neurohormonal excitation in the PVN. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced cardiac hypertrophy. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced neurohormonal excitation. • PVN inhibition of NF-κB attenuates hypertension-induced imbalance of cytokines

  2. Over-expression of angiotensin converting enzyme-1 augments cardiac hypertrophy in transgenic rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tian, Xiao-Li; Pinto, Yigal Martin; Costerousse, Olivier; Franz, Wolfgang M.; Lippoldt, Andrea; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Unger, Thomas; Paul, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Increased cardiac angiotensin converting enzyme-1 (ACE1) is found in individuals who carry a deletion in intron 16 of ACE1 gene or in individuals who suffer from cardiac disorders, such as hypertrophy. However, whether a single increase in ACE1 expression leads to spontaneous cardiac defects remains

  3. Cardiac microvascular rarefaction in hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Felipe; Estato, Vanessa; Carvalho, Vinícius Frias; Torres, Rafael Carvalho; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2013-10-01

    The pathophysiology underlying hyperthyroidism-induced left ventricle (LV) dysfunction and hypertrophy directly involves the heart and indirectly involves the neuroendocrine systems. The effects of hyperthyroidism on the microcirculation are still controversial in experimental models. We investigated the effects of hyperthyroidism on the cardiac function and microcirculation of an experimental rat model. Male Wistar rats (170-250 g) were divided into two groups: the euthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with 0.9% saline solution, and the hyperthyroid group (n = 10), which was treated with l-thyroxine (600 μg/kg/day, i.p.) during 14 days. An echocardiographic study was performed to evaluate the alterations in cardiac function, structure and geometry. The structural capillary density and the expression of angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the LV were analyzed using histochemistry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Hyperthyroidism was found to induce profound cardiovascular alterations, such as systolic hypertension, tachycardia, LV dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, and myocardial fibrosis. This study demonstrates the existence of structural capillary rarefaction and the down-regulation of the cardiac angiotensin II AT1 receptor in the myocardium of hyperthyroid rats in comparison with euthyroid rats. Microvascular rarefaction may be involved in the pathophysiology of hyperthyroidism-induced cardiovascular alterations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Estrogen deprivation aggravates cardiac hypertrophy in nonobese Type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Charoenphandhu, Narattaphol; Ittichaichareon, Jitjiroj; Suntornsaratoon, Panan; Krishnamra, Nateetip; Aeimlapa, Ratchaneevan; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C; Chattipakorn, Nipon

    2017-10-31

    Both Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and estrogen deprivation have been shown to be associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and adverse cardiac remodeling. However, the role of estrogen deprivation on adverse cardiac remodeling in nonobese T2DM rats has not been clearly elucidated. We hypothesized that estrogen-deprivation aggravates adverse cardiac remodeling in Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats. Wild-type (WT) and GK rats at the age of 9 months old were divided into two subgroups to have either a sham operation (WTS, GKS) or a bilateral ovariectomy (WTO, GKO) ( n = 6/subgroup). Four months after the operation, the rats were killed, and the heart was excised rapidly. Metabolic parameters, cardiomyocytes hypertrophy, cardiac fibrosis, and biochemical parameters were determined. GK rats had hyperglycemia with hypoinsulinemia, and estrogen deprivation did not increase the severity of T2DM. Cardiac hypertrophy, cardiac oxidative stress, and phosphor-antinuclear factor κB were higher in WTO and GKS rats than WTS rats, and they markedly increased in GKO rats compared with GKS rats. Furthermore, cardiac fibrosis, transforming growth factor-β, Bax, phosphor-p38, and peroxisome proliferator- activated receptor γ coactivator-1α expression were increased in GKS and GKO rats compared with the lean rats. However, mitochondrial dynamics proteins including dynamin-related protein 1 and mitofusin-2 were not altered by T2DM and estrogen deprivation. Although estrogen deprivation did not aggravate T2DM in GK rats, it increased the severity of cardiac hypertrophy by provoking cardiac inflammation and oxidative stress in nonobese GK rats. © 2017 The Author(s).

  5. Mouse models for the study of postnatal cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Del Olmo-Turrubiarte

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to create a postnatal model for cardiac hypertrophy (CH, in order to explain the mechanisms that are present in childhood cardiac hypertrophy. Five days after implantation, intraperitoneal (IP isoproterenol (ISO was injected for 7 days to pregnant female mice. The fetuses were obtained at 15, 17 and 19 dpc from both groups, also newborns (NB, neonates (7–15 days and young adults (6 weeks of age. Histopathological exams were done on the hearts. Immunohistochemistry and western blot demonstrated GATA4 and PCNA protein expression, qPCR real time the mRNA of adrenergic receptors (α-AR and β-AR, alpha and beta myosins (α-MHC, β-MHC and GATA4. After the administration of ISO, there was no change in the number of offsprings. We observed significant structural changes in the size of the offspring hearts. Morphometric analysis revealed an increase in the size of the left ventricular wall and interventricular septum (IVS. Histopathological analysis demonstrated loss of cellular compaction and presence of left ventricular small fibrous foci after birth. Adrenergic receptors might be responsible for changing a physiological into a pathological hypertrophy. However GATA4 seemed to be the determining factor in the pathology. A new animal model was established for the study of pathologic CH in early postnatal stages.

  6. MicroRNA-1 overexpression blunts cardiomyocyte hypertrophy elicited by thyroid hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Lino, Caroline Antunes; Moreno, Camila Rodrigues; Senger, Nathalia; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza Morais

    2017-12-01

    It is well-known that increased thyroid hormone (TH) levels induce cardiomyocyte growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as key players in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, which is associated with increased risk of heart failure. In this study, we evaluated the miR-1 expression in TH-induced cardiac hypertrophy, as well as the potential involvement of miR-1 in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy elicited by TH in vitro. The possible role of type 1 angiotensin II receptor (AT1R) in the effect promoted by TH in miR-1 expression was also evaluated. Neonatal rat cardiac myocytes (NRCMs) were treated with T 3 for 24 hr and Wistar rats were subjected to hyperthyroidism for 14 days combined or not with AT1R blocker. Real Time RT-PCR analysis indicated that miR-1 expression was decreased in cardiac hypertrophy in response to TH in vitro and in vivo, and this effect was unchanged by AT1R blocker. In addition, HDAC4, which is target of miR-1, was increased in NRCMs after T 3 treatment. A gain-of-function study revealed that overexpression of miR-1 prevented T 3 -induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and reduced HADC4 mRNA levels in NRCMs. In vivo experiments confirmed the downregulation of miR-1 in cardiac tissue from hyperthyroid animals, which was accompanied by increased HDAC4 mRNA levels. In addition, HDAC inhibitor prevented T 3 -induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our data reveal a new mechanistic insight into cardiomyocyte growth in response to TH, suggesting that miR-1 plays a role in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by TH potentially via targeting HADC4. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Experimental and Human Evidence for Lipocalin-2 (Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin [NGAL]) in the Development of Cardiac Hypertrophy and heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Francine Z; Prestes, Priscilla R; Byars, Sean G; Ritchie, Scott C; Würtz, Peter; Patel, Sheila K; Booth, Scott A; Rana, Indrajeetsinh; Minoda, Yosuke; Berzins, Stuart P; Curl, Claire L; Bell, James R; Wai, Bryan; Srivastava, Piyush M; Kangas, Antti J; Soininen, Pasi; Ruohonen, Saku; Kähönen, Mika; Lehtimäki, Terho; Raitoharju, Emma; Havulinna, Aki; Perola, Markus; Raitakari, Olli; Salomaa, Veikko; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kettunen, Johannes; McGlynn, Maree; Kelly, Jason; Wlodek, Mary E; Lewandowski, Paul A; Delbridge, Lea M; Burrell, Louise M; Inouye, Michael; Harrap, Stephen B; Charchar, Fadi J

    2017-06-14

    Cardiac hypertrophy increases the risk of developing heart failure and cardiovascular death. The neutrophil inflammatory protein, lipocalin-2 (LCN2/NGAL), is elevated in certain forms of cardiac hypertrophy and acute heart failure. However, a specific role for LCN2 in predisposition and etiology of hypertrophy and the relevant genetic determinants are unclear. Here, we defined the role of LCN2 in concentric cardiac hypertrophy in terms of pathophysiology, inflammatory expression networks, and genomic determinants. We used 3 experimental models: a polygenic model of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure, a model of intrauterine growth restriction and Lcn2 -knockout mouse; cultured cardiomyocytes; and 2 human cohorts: 114 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients and 2064 healthy subjects of the YFS (Young Finns Study). In hypertrophic heart rats, cardiac and circulating Lcn2 was significantly overexpressed before, during, and after development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. Lcn2 expression was increased in hypertrophic hearts in a model of intrauterine growth restriction, whereas Lcn2 -knockout mice had smaller hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes, Lcn2 activated molecular hypertrophic pathways and increased cell size, but reduced proliferation and cell numbers. Increased LCN2 was associated with cardiac hypertrophy and diastolic dysfunction in diabetes mellitus. In the YFS, LCN2 expression was associated with body mass index and cardiac mass and with levels of inflammatory markers. The single-nucleotide polymorphism, rs13297295, located near LCN2 defined a significant cis -eQTL for LCN2 expression. Direct effects of LCN2 on cardiomyocyte size and number and the consistent associations in experimental and human analyses reveal a central role for LCN2 in the ontogeny of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  8. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  9. Nanotized PPARα Overexpression Targeted to Hypertrophied Myocardium Improves Cardiac Function by Attenuating the p53-GSK3β-Mediated Mitochondrial Death Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Santanu; Datta, Ritwik; Chaudhuri, Ratul Datta; Chatterjee, Emeli; Chawla-Sarkar, Mamta; Sarkar, Sagartirtha

    2018-05-09

    Metabolic remodeling of cardiac muscles during pathological hypertrophy is characterized by downregulation of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) regulator, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Thereby, we hypothesized that a cardiac-specific induction of PPARα might restore the FAO-related protein expression and resultant energy deficit. In the present study, consequences of PPARα augmentation were evaluated for amelioration of chronic oxidative stress, myocyte apoptosis, and cardiac function during pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Nanotized PPARα overexpression targeted to myocardium was done by a stearic acid-modified carboxymethyl-chitosan (CMC) conjugated to a 20-mer myocyte-targeted peptide (CMCP). Overexpression of PPARα ameliorated pathological hypertrophy and improved cardiac function. Augmented PPARα in hypertrophied myocytes revealed downregulated p53 acetylation (lys 382), leading to reduced apoptosis. Such cells showed increased binding of PPARα with p53 that in turn reduced interaction of p53 with glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK3β), which upregulated inactive phospho-GSK3β (serine [Ser]9) expression within mitochondrial protein fraction. Altogether, the altered molecular milieu in PPARα-overexpressed hypertrophy groups restored mitochondrial structure and function both in vitro and in vivo. Cardiomyocyte-targeted overexpression of a protein of interest (PPARα) by nanotized plasmid has been described for the first time in this study. Our data provide a novel insight towards regression of pathological hypertrophy by ameliorating mitochondrial oxidative stress in targeted PPARα-overexpressed myocardium. PPARα-overexpression during pathological hypertrophy showed substantial betterment of mitochondrial structure and function, along with downregulated apoptosis. Myocardium-targeted overexpression of PPARα during pathological cardiac hypertrophy led to an overall improvement of cardiac energy deficit and subsequent cardiac

  10. Effects of protein-calorie restriction on mechanical function of hypertrophied cardiac muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Carlos Cicogna

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the effect of food restriction (FR on hypertrophied cardiac muscle in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR. METHODS: Isolated papillary muscle preparations of the left ventricle (LV of 60-day-old SHR and of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY rats were studied. The rats were fed either an unrestricted diet or FR diet (50% of the intake of the control diet for 30 days. The mechanical function of the muscles was evaluated through monitoring isometric and isotonic contractions. RESULTS: FR caused: 1 reduction in the body weight and LV weight of SHR and WKY rats; 2 increase in the time to peak shortening and the time to peak developed tension (DT in the hypertrophied myocardium of the SHR; 3 diverging changes in the mechanical function of the normal cardiac muscles of WKY rats with reduction in maximum velocity of isotonic shortening and of the time for DT to decrease 50% of its maximum value, and increase of the resting tension and of the rate of tension decline. CONCLUSION: Short-term FR causes prolongation of the contraction time of hypertrophied muscles and paradoxal changes in mechanical performance of normal cardiac fibers, with worsening of the shortening indices and of the resting tension, and improvement of the isometric relaxation.

  11. Brain renin angiotensin system in cardiac hypertrophy and failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana eCampos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS is significantly involved in the roles of the endocrine RAS in cardiovascular regulation. Our studies indicate that the brain RAS participates in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis through sympathetic activation. Inhibition of sympathetic hyperactivity after myocardial infarction through suppression of the brain RAS appears beneficial. The brain RAS is involved in the modulation of circadian rhythms of arterial pressure, contributing to nondipping hypertension. We conclude that the brain RAS in pathophysiological states interacts synergistically with the chronically overactive RAS through a positive biofeedback in order to maintain a state of alert diseased conditions, such as cardiac hypertrophy and failure. Therefore, targeting brain RAS with drugs such as angiotensin converting inhibitors or receptor blockers having increased brain penetrability could be of advantage. These RAS-targeting drugs are first-line therapy for all heart failure patients. Since the RAS has both endocrine and local tissue components, RAS drugs are being developed to attain increased tissue penetrability and volume of distribution and consequently an efficient inhibition of both RAS components.

  12. Cardiomyocyte Overexpression of FABP4 Aggravates Pressure Overload-Induced Heart Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Zhang

    Full Text Available Fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4 is a member of the intracellular lipid-binding protein family, responsible for the transportation of fatty acids. It is considered to express mainly in adipose tissues, and be strongly associated with inflammation, obesity, diabetes and cardiovasculardiseases. Here we report that FABP4 is also expressed in cardiomyocytes and plays an important role in regulating heart function under pressure overload. We generated heart-specific transgenic FABP4 (FABP4-TG mice using α myosin-heavy chain (α-MHC promoter and human FABP4 sequence, resulting in over-expression of FABP4 in cardiomyocytes. The FABP4-TG mice displayed normal cardiac morphology and contractile function. When they were subjected to the transverse aorta constriction (TAC procedure, the FABP4-TG mice developed more cardiac hypertrophy correlated with significantly increased ERK phosphorylation, compared with wild type controls. FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes activated phosphor-ERK signal and up-regulate the expression of cardiac hypertrophic marker genes. Conversely, FABP4 induced phosphor-ERK signal and hypertrophic gene expressions can be markedly inhibited by an ERK inhibitor PD098059 as well as the FABP4 inhibitor BMS309403. These results suggest that FABP4 over-expression in cardiomyocytes can aggravate the development of cardiac hypertrophy through the activation of ERK signal pathway.

  13. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy during antihypertensive therapy and reduction in sudden cardiac death: the LIFE Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wachtell, Kristian; Okin, Peter M; Olsen, Michael H

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs more often in patients with ECG left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, whether LV hypertrophy regression is associated with a reduced risk of SCD remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction in Hypertens......BACKGROUND: Sudden cardiac death (SCD) occurs more often in patients with ECG left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, whether LV hypertrophy regression is associated with a reduced risk of SCD remains unclear. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Losartan Intervention for End Point Reduction...... risk of SCD independently of treatment modality, blood pressure reduction, prevalent coronary heart disease, and other cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive patients with LV hypertrophy. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug-14...

  14. Triptolide Upregulates Myocardial Forkhead Helix Transcription Factor p3 Expression and Attenuates Cardiac Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Jing-Mei; Guo, Feng-Jie; Liu, Ya; Tong, Yang-Fei; Pan, Xi-Chun; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Ye, Wen; Chen, Xiao-Hong; Zhang, Hai-Gang

    2016-01-01

    The forkhead/winged helix transcription factor (Fox) p3 can regulate the expression of various genes, and it has been reported that the transfer of Foxp3-positive T cells could ameliorate cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. Triptolide (TP) can elevate the expression of Foxp3, but its effects on cardiac hypertrophy remain unclear. In the present study, neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM) were isolated and stimulated with angiotensin II (1 μmol/L) to induce hypertrophic response. The expression of Foxp3 in NRVM was observed by using immunofluorescence assay. Fifty mice were randomly divided into five groups and received vehicle (control), isoproterenol (Iso, 5 mg/kg, s.c.), one of three doses of TP (10, 30, or 90 μg/kg, i.p.) for 14 days, respectively. The pathological morphology changes were observed after Hematoxylin and eosin, lectin and Masson’s trichrome staining. The levels of serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and troponin I were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and chemiluminescence, respectively. The mRNA and protein expressions of α- myosin heavy chain (MHC), β-MHC and Foxp3 were determined using real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry, respectively. It was shown that TP (1, 3, 10 μg/L) treatment significantly decreased cell size, mRNA and protein expression of β-MHC, and upregulated Foxp3 expression in NRVM. TP also decreased heart weight index, left ventricular weight index and, improved myocardial injury and fibrosis; and decreased the cross-scetional area of the myocardium, serum cardiac troponin and BNP. Additionally, TP markedly reduced the mRNA and protein expression of myocardial β-MHC and elevated the mRNA and protein expression of α-MHC and Foxp3 in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, TP can effectively ameliorate myocardial damage and inhibit cardiac hypertrophy, which is at least partly related to the elevation of Foxp3 expression in cardiomyocytes. PMID:27965581

  15. Role of bone marrow-derived CD11c+ dendritic cells in systolic overload-induced left ventricular inflammation, fibrosis and hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huan; Kwak, Dongmin; Fassett, John; Liu, Xiaohong; Yao, Wu; Weng, Xinyu; Xu, Xin; Xu, Yawei; Bache, Robert J; Mueller, Daniel L; Chen, Yingjie

    2017-05-01

    Inflammatory responses play an important role in the development of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and dysfunction. Recent studies demonstrated that increased T-cell infiltration and T-cell activation contribute to LV hypertrophy and dysfunction. Dendritic cells (DCs) are professional antigen-presenting cells that orchestrate immune responses, especially by modulating T-cell function. In this study, we investigated the role of bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs in transverse aortic constriction (TAC)-induced LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice. We observed that TAC increased the number of CD11c + cells and the percentage of CD11c + MHCII + (major histocompatibility complex class II molecule positive) DCs in the LV, spleen and peripheral blood in mice. Using bone marrow chimeras and an inducible CD11c + DC ablation model, we found that depletion of bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs significantly attenuated LV fibrosis and hypertrophy in mice exposed to 24 weeks of moderate TAC. CD11c + DC ablation significantly reduced TAC-induced myocardial inflammation as indicated by reduced myocardial CD45 + cells, CD11b + cells, CD8 + T cells and activated effector CD8 + CD44 + T cells in LV tissues. Moreover, pulsing of autologous DCs with LV homogenates from TAC mice promoted T-cell proliferation. These data indicate that bone marrow-derived CD11c + DCs play a maladaptive role in hemodynamic overload-induced cardiac inflammation, hypertrophy and fibrosis through the presentation of cardiac self-antigens to T cells.

  16. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of exercise training is to initiate desirable physiological adaptations that ultimately enhance physical work capacity. Optimal training prescription requires an individualized approach, with an appropriate balance of training stimulus and recovery and optimal periodization. Recovery from exercise involves integrated physiological responses. The cardiovascular system plays a fundamental role in facilitating many of these responses, including thermoregulation and delivery/removal of nutrients and waste products. As a marker of cardiovascular recovery, cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following a training session is highly individualized. It appears to parallel the acute/intermediate recovery of the thermoregulatory and vascular systems, as described by the supercompensation theory. The physiological mechanisms underlying cardiac parasympathetic reactivation are not completely understood. However, changes in cardiac autonomic activity may provide a proxy measure of the changes in autonomic input into organs and (by default) the blood flow requirements to restore homeostasis. Metaboreflex stimulation (e.g. muscle and blood acidosis) is likely a key determinant of parasympathetic reactivation in the short term (0-90 min post-exercise), whereas baroreflex stimulation (e.g. exercise-induced changes in plasma volume) probably mediates parasympathetic reactivation in the intermediate term (1-48 h post-exercise). Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation does not appear to coincide with the recovery of all physiological systems (e.g. energy stores or the neuromuscular system). However, this may reflect the limited data currently available on parasympathetic reactivation following strength/resistance-based exercise of variable intensity. In this review, we quantitatively analyse post-exercise cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in athletes and healthy individuals following aerobic exercise, with respect to exercise intensity and duration, and fitness

  17. Exercise intensity and muscle hypertrophy in blood flow-restricted limbs and non-restricted muscles: a brief review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Takashi; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Fahs, Christopher A; Rossow, Lindy M; Thiebaud, Robert S; Bemben, Michael G

    2012-07-01

    Although evidence for high-intensity resistance training-induced muscle hypertrophy has accumulated over the last several decades, the basic concept of the training can be traced back to ancient Greece: Milo of Croton lifted a bull-calf daily until it was fully grown, which would be known today as progressive overload. Now, in the 21st century, different types of training are being tested and studied, such as low-intensity exercise combined with arterial as well as venous blood flow restriction (BFR) to/from the working muscles. Because BFR training requires the use of a cuff that is placed at the proximal ends of the arms and/or legs, the BFR is only applicable to limb muscles. Consequently, most previous BFR training studies have focused on the physiological adaptations of BFR limb muscles. Muscle adaptations in non-BFR muscles of the hip and trunk are lesser known. Recent studies that have reported both limb and trunk muscle adaptations following BFR exercise training suggest that low-intensity (20-30% of 1RM) resistance training combined with BFR elicits muscle hypertrophy in both BFR limb and non-BFR muscles. However, the combination of leg muscle BFR with walk training elicits muscle hypertrophy only in the BFR leg muscles. In contrast to resistance exercise with BFR, the exercise intensity may be too low during BFR walk training to cause muscle hypertrophy in the non-BFR gluteus maximus and other trunk muscles. Other mechanisms including hypoxia, local and systemic growth factors and muscle cell swelling may also potentially affect the hypertrophic response of non-BFR muscles to BFR resistance exercise. © 2012 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2012 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  18. Dance band on the Titanic: biomechanical signaling in cardiac hypertrophy.

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    Sussman, Mark A; McCulloch, Andrew; Borg, Thomas K

    2002-11-15

    Biomechanical signaling is a complex interaction of both intracellular and extracellular components. Both passive and active components are involved in the extracellular environment to signal through specific receptors to multiple signaling pathways. This review provides an overview of extracellular matrix, specific receptors, and signaling pathways for biomechanical stimulation in cardiac hypertrophy.

  19. SIRT1 Functions as an Important Regulator of Estrogen-Mediated Cardiomyocyte Protection in Angiotensin II-Induced Heart Hypertrophy

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    Tao Shen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1 is a member of the sirtuin family, which could activate cell survival machinery and has been shown to be protective in regulation of heart function. Here, we determined the mechanism by which SIRT1 regulates Angiotensin II- (AngII- induced cardiac hypertrophy and injury in vivo and in vitro. Methods. We analyzed SIRT1 expression in the hearts of control and AngII-induced mouse hypertrophy. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and pretreated with 17β-estradiol to measure SIRT1 expression. Protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte surface area analysis, qRT-PCR, TUNEL staining, and Western blot were performed on AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy samples and cultured neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs to investigate the function of SIRT1. Results. SIRT1 expression was slightly upregulated in AngII-induced mouse heart hypertrophy in vivo and in vitro, accompanied by elevated cardiomyocyte apoptosis. SIRT1 overexpression relieves AngII-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. 17β-Estradiol was able to protect cardiomyocytes from AngII-induced injury with a profound upregulation of SIRT1 and activation of AMPK. Moreover, estrogen receptor inhibitor ICI 182,780 and SIRT1 inhibitor niacinamide could block SIRT1’s protective effect. Conclusions. These results indicate that SIRT1 functions as an important regulator of estrogen-mediated cardiomyocyte protection during AngII-induced heart hypertrophy and injury.

  20. What do we know about the cardiac benefits of exercise?

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    Wei, Xin; Liu, Xiaojun; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Exercise has long been considered an essential element for sustaining cardiovascular health. A vast literature of clinical studies suggests that exercise serves as an effective intervention for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease, although the optimal nature, intensity, and duration of exercise for maximizing these cardiovascular benefits remain unclear. On a molecular level, exercise induces physiologic growth of the heart primarily by driving cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, notably through the interconnected IGF-1-PI3K-AKT1 and C/EBPβ-CITED4 pathways. Here, we explore the range of clinical evidence supporting the cardiovascular benefits of exercise and outline the molecular pathways that play major roles in regulating these protective effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Novel therapeutic effects of sesamin on diabetes-induced cardiac dysfunction

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    Thuy, Tran Duong; Phan, Nam Nhut; Wang, Chih-Yang; Yu, Han-Gang; Wang, Shu-Yin; Huang, Pung-Ling; Do, Yi-Yin; Lin, Yen-Chang

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes is a risk factor that increases the occurrence and severity of cardiovascular events. Cardiovascular complications are the leading cause of mortality of 75% of patients with diabetes >40 years old. Sesamin, the bioactive compound extracted from Sesamum indicum, is a natural compound that has diverse beneficial effects on hypoglycemia and reducing cholesterol. The aim of this study is to investigate sesamin effects to diabetes-inducing cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study bioinformatics analysis demonstrated cardiac hypertrophy signaling may be the most important pathway for upregulating genes in sesamin-treated groups. To verify the bioinformatics prediction, sesamin was used as the main bioactive compound to attenuate the impact of diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) on cardiac function in a rat model. The results revealed that oral administration of sesamin for 4 weeks (100 and 200 mg/kg body weight) marginally improved blood glucose levels, body weight and significantly ameliorated the effects on heart rate and blood pressure in rats with type 1 diabetes relative to control rats. The QT interval of sesamin was also reduced relative to the control group. The findings indicated that sesamin has potential cardioprotective effects in the STZ-induced diabetes model. This suggested that this can be used as a novel treatment for patients with diabetes with cardiac dysfunction complication. PMID:28358428

  2. Intermittent cardiac overload results in adaptive hypertrophy and provides protection against left ventricular acute pressure overload insult.

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    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago; Fonseca, Hélder; Ferreira, Rita; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Santa, Cátia; Vieira, Sara; Silva, Ana Filipa; Amado, Francisco; Leite-Moreira, Adelino; Duarte, José Alberto

    2015-09-01

    The present study aimed to test whether a chronic intermittent workload could induce an adaptive cardiac phenotype Chronic intermittent workload induced features of adaptive hypertrophy This was paralleled by protection against acute pressure overload insult The heart may adapt favourably to balanced demands, regardless of the nature of the stimuli. The present study aimed to test whether submitting the healthy heart to intermittent and tolerable amounts of workload, independently of its nature, could result in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Male Wistar rats were subjected to treadmill running (Ex) (n = 20), intermittent cardiac overload with dobutamine (ITO) (2 mg kg(-1) , s.c.; n = 20) or placebo administration (Cont) (n = 20) for 5 days week(-1) for 8 weeks. Animals were then killed for histological and biochemical analysis or subjected to left ventricular haemodynamic evaluation under baseline conditions, in response to isovolumetric contractions and to sustained LV acute pressure overload (35% increase in peak systolic pressure maintained for 2 h). Baseline cardiac function was enhanced only in Ex, whereas the response to isovolumetric heartbeats was improved in both ITO and Ex. By contrast to the Cont group, in which rats developed diastolic dysfunction with sustained acute pressure overload, ITO and Ex showed increased tolerance to this stress test. Both ITO and Ex developed cardiomyocyte hypertrophy without fibrosis, no overexpression of osteopontin-1 or β-myosin heavy chain, and increased expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) protein. Regarding hypertrophic pathways, ITO and Ex showed activation of the protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway but not calcineurin. Mitochondrial complex IV and V activities were also increased in ITO and Ex. Chronic submission to controlled intermittent cardiac overload, independently of its nature, results in an adaptive cardiac phenotype. Features of the cardiac overload, such as the duration and

  3. Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidant Prevents Cardiac Dysfunction Induced by Tafazzin Gene Knockdown in Cardiac Myocytes

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    Quan He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tafazzin, a mitochondrial acyltransferase, plays an important role in cardiolipin side chain remodeling. Previous studies have shown that dysfunction of tafazzin reduces cardiolipin content, impairs mitochondrial function, and causes dilated cardiomyopathy in Barth syndrome. Reactive oxygen species (ROS have been implicated in the development of cardiomyopathy and are also the obligated byproducts of mitochondria. We hypothesized that tafazzin knockdown increases ROS production from mitochondria, and a mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents tafazzin knockdown induced mitochondrial and cardiac dysfunction. We employed cardiac myocytes transduced with an adenovirus containing tafazzin shRNA as a model to investigate the effects of the mitochondrial antioxidant, mito-Tempo. Knocking down tafazzin decreased steady state levels of cardiolipin and increased mitochondrial ROS. Treatment of cardiac myocytes with mito-Tempo normalized tafazzin knockdown enhanced mitochondrial ROS production and cellular ATP decline. Mito-Tempo also significantly abrogated tafazzin knockdown induced cardiac hypertrophy, contractile dysfunction, and cell death. We conclude that mitochondria-targeted antioxidant prevents cardiac dysfunction induced by tafazzin gene knockdown in cardiac myocytes and suggest mito-Tempo as a potential therapeutic for Barth syndrome and other dilated cardiomyopathies resulting from mitochondrial oxidative stress.

  4. Chronic high fat diet induces cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in mice.

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    Wang, Zhi; Li, Liaoliao; Zhao, Huijuan; Peng, Shuling; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2015-08-01

    Obesity can cause pathological changes in organs. We determined the effects of chronic high fat diet (HFD) and intermittent fasting, a paradigm providing organ protection, on mouse heart. Seven-week old CD1 male mice were randomly assigned to control, HFD and intermittent fasting groups. Control mice had free access to regular diet (RD). RD was provided every other day to mice in the intermittent fasting group. Mice in HFD group had free access to HFD. Their left ventricles were harvested 11 months after they had been on these diet regimens. HFD increased cardiomyocyte cross-section area and fibrosis. HFD decreased active caspase 3, an apoptosis marker, and the ratio of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3) II/LC3I, an autophagy marker. HFD increased the phospho-glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β) at Ser9, a sign of GSK-3β inhibition. Nuclear GATA binding protein 4 and yes-associated protein, two GSK-3β targeting transcription factors that can induce hypertrophy-related gene expression, were increased in HFD-fed mice. Mice on intermittent fasting did not have these changes except for the increased active caspase 3 and decreased ratio of LC3II/LC3I. These results suggest that chronic HFD induces myocardial hypertrophy and fibrosis, which may be mediated by GSK-3β inhibition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy and strength gain: strategies and mechanisms.

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    Ozaki, Hayao; Loenneke, J P; Thiebaud, R S; Abe, T

    2015-03-01

    Cycle training is widely performed as a major part of any exercise program seeking to improve aerobic capacity and cardiovascular health. However, the effect of cycle training on muscle size and strength gain still requires further insight, even though it is known that professional cyclists display larger muscle size compared to controls. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the effects of cycle training on muscle size and strength of the lower extremity and the possible mechanisms for increasing muscle size with cycle training. It is plausible that cycle training requires a longer period to significantly increase muscle size compared to typical resistance training due to a much slower hypertrophy rate. Cycle training induces muscle hypertrophy similarly between young and older age groups, while strength gain seems to favor older adults, which suggests that the probability for improving in muscle quality appears to be higher in older adults compared to young adults. For young adults, higher-intensity intermittent cycling may be required to achieve strength gains. It also appears that muscle hypertrophy induced by cycle training results from the positive changes in muscle protein net balance.

  6. Serum uric acid is associated with left ventricular hypertrophy independent of serum parathyroid hormone in male cardiac patients.

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    Shu-ichi Fujita

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown that serum uric acid (UA is associated with left ventricular (LV hypertrophy. Serum levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH, which has bbe shown to be correlated with UA, is also known to be associated with cardiac hypertrophy; however, whether the association between UA and cardiac hypertrophy is independent of PTH remains unknown. PURPOSE: We investigated whether the relationship between serum uric acid (UA and LV hypertrophy is independent of intact PTH and other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related factors in cardiac patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a retrospective study, the association between UA and left ventricular mass index was assessed among 116 male cardiac patients (mean age 65 ± 12 years who were not taking UA lowering drugs. The median UA value was 5.9 mg/dL. Neither age nor body mass index differed significantly among the UA quartile groups. Patients with higher UA levels were more likely to be taking loop diuretics. UA showed a significant correlation with intact PTH (R = 0.34, P<0.001 but not with other calcium-phosphate metabolism-related factors. Linear regression analysis showed that log-transformed UA showed a significant association with left ventricular mass index, and this relationship was found to be significant exclusively in patients who were not taking loop and/or thiazide diuretics. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that log-transformed UA was independently associated with LV hypertrophy with an odds ratio of 2.79 (95% confidence interval 1.48-5.28, P = 0.002 per one standard deviation increase. CONCLUSIONS: Among cardiac patients, serum UA was associated with LV hypertrophy, and this relationship was, at least in part, independent of intact PTH levels, which showed a significant correlation with UA in the same population.

  7. Postexercise blood flow restriction does not enhance muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise.

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    Madarame, Haruhiko; Nakada, Satoshi; Ohta, Takahisa; Ishii, Naokata

    2018-05-01

    To test the applicability of postexercise blood flow restriction (PEBFR) in practical training programmes, we investigated whether PEBFR enhances muscle hypertrophy induced by multiple-set high-load resistance exercise (RE). Seven men completed an eight-week RE programme for knee extensor muscles. Employing a within-subject design, one leg was subjected to RE + PEBFR, whereas contralateral leg to RE only. On each exercise session, participants performed three sets of unilateral knee extension exercise at approximately 70% of their one-repetition maximum for RE leg first, and then performed three sets for RE + PEBFR leg. Immediately after completion of the third set, the proximal portion of the RE + PEBFR leg was compressed with an air-pressure cuff for 5 min at a pressure ranging from 100 to 150 mmHg. If participants could perform 10 repetitions for three sets in two consecutive exercise sessions, the work load was increased by 5% at the next exercise session. Muscle thickness and strength of knee extensor muscles were measured before and after the eight-week training period and after the subsequent eight-week detraining period. There was a main effect of time but no condition × time interaction or main effect of condition for muscle thickness and strength. Both muscle thickness and strength increased after the training period independent of the condition. This result suggests that PEBFR would not be an effective training method at least in an early phase of adaptation to high-load resistance exercise. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of Resistance Training on Ventricular Function and Hypertrophy in a Rat Model

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    Barauna, Valério Garrone; Rosa, Kaleizu Teodoro; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to follow the ventricular function and cardiac hypertrophy in rats undergoing a resistance-training program for a period of 3 months. Design: Forty animals were divided into two major groups: control (n=16) and resistance trained (n=24). From the resistance-trained group, 12 animals were resistance trained for 1 month and another 12 for 3 months. The resistance-training protocol was performed with 4 sets of 12 repetitions using 65% to 75% of one repetition maximum (maximum lifted weight with the exercise apparatus). Methods: Echocardiographic analysis was performed at the beginning of the resistance-training period and at the end of each month. The repetition maximum was measured every 2 weeks. Cardiac hypertrophy was determined by echocardiography, by the absolute weight of the cardiac chambers and by histology of the left ventricle. Results: Before resistance training, both groups had similar repetition maximums, ranging from 1.8-fold to 2-fold the body weight; however, at the end of the resistance-training period, the repetition maximum of the resistance-trained group was 6-fold greater than the body weight. The left ventricular mass as assessed by echocardiography was 8%, 12% and 16% larger in the resistance-trained group than in the control group in the first, second and third months, respectively. This hypertrophy showed a similar increase in the interventricular septum and in the free posterior wall mass. There was no reduction in the end-diastolic left ventricular internal diameter during the 3-month resistance-training period. Systolic function did not differ between the groups throughout the resistance-training period. Conclusion: Resistance training induces the development of concentric cardiac hypertrophy without ventricular dysfunction or cavity reduction. Although diastolic function was not completely investigated, we cannot exclude the possibility that resistance training results in diastolic dysfunction. PMID

  9. Size, shape, and stamina: the impact of left ventricular geometry on exercise capacity.

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    Lam, Carolyn S P; Grewal, Jasmine; Borlaug, Barry A; Ommen, Steve R; Kane, Garvan C; McCully, Robert B; Pellikka, Patricia A

    2010-05-01

    Although several studies have examined the cardiac functional determinants of exercise capacity, few have investigated the effects of structural remodeling. The current study evaluated the association between cardiac geometry and exercise capacity. Subjects with ejection fraction > or = 50% and no valvular disease, myocardial ischemia, or arrhythmias were identified from a large prospective exercise echocardiography database. Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were used to classify geometry into normal, concentric remodeling, eccentric hypertrophy, and concentric hypertrophy. All of the subjects underwent symptom-limited treadmill exercise according to standard Bruce protocol. Maximal exercise tolerance was measured in metabolic equivalents. Of 366 (60+/-14 years; 57% male) subjects, 166 (45%) had normal geometry, 106 (29%) had concentric remodeling, 40 (11%) had eccentric hypertrophy, and 54 (15%) had concentric hypertrophy. Geometry was related to exercise capacity: in descending order, the maximum achieved metabolic equivalents were 9.9+/-2.8 in normal, 8.9+/-2.6 in concentric remodeling, 8.6+/-3.1 in eccentric hypertrophy, and 8.0+/-2.7 in concentric hypertrophy (all P<0.02 versus normal). Left ventricular mass index and relative wall thickness were negatively correlated with exercise tolerance in metabolic equivalents (r=-0.14; P=0.009 and r=-0.21; P<0.001, respectively). Augmentation of heart rate and ejection fraction with exercise were blunted in concentric hypertrophy compared with normal, even after adjusting for medications. In conclusion, the pattern of ventricular remodeling is related to exercise capacity among low-risk adults. Subjects with concentric hypertrophy display the greatest limitation, and this is related to reduced systolic and chronotropic reserve. Reverse remodeling strategies may prevent or treat functional decline in patients with structural heart disease.

  10. Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ Signaling Is Involved in Valsartan Inhibition of Cardiac Hypertrophy in Renovascular Hypertensive Rats.

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    Yao, Jian; Qin, Xiaotong; Zhu, Jianhua; Sheng, Hongzhuan

    2016-01-01

    It is known that the expression, activity and alternative splicing of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIδ (CaMKIIδ) are dysregulated in the cardiac remodeling process. Recently, we found a further signaling pathway, by which dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (Dyrk1A) regulates the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ via the alternative splicing factor (ASF), i.e., Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling was involved in valsartan inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in renovascular hypertensive rats. Rats were subjected to two kidney-one clip (2K1C) surgery and then treated with valsartan (30 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Hypertrophic parameter analysis was then performed. Western blot analysis was used to determine the protein expression of Dyrk1A and ASF and RT-PCR was used to analyze the alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ in the left ventricular (LV) sample. Valsartan attenuated cardiac hypertrophy in 2K1C rats but without impairment of cardiac systolic function. Increased protein expression of Dyrk1A and decreased protein expression of ASF were observed in the LV sample of 2K1C rats. Treatment of 2K1C rats with valsartan reversed the changes in Dyrk1A and ASF expression in the LV sample. Valsartan adjusted the 2K1C-induced imbalance in alternative splicing of CaMKIIδ by upregulating the mRNA expression of CaMKIIδC and downregulating the mRNA expression of CaMKIIδA and CaMKIIδB. Valsartan inhibition of cardiac hypertrophy in renovascular hypertensive rats was mediated, at least partly, by Dyrk1A-ASF-CaMKIIδ signaling. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Exploring Regulatory Mechanisms of Atrial Myocyte Hypertrophy of Mitral Regurgitation through Gene Expression Profiling Analysis: Role of NFAT in Cardiac Hypertrophy.

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    Tzu-Hao Chang

    Full Text Available Left atrial enlargement in mitral regurgitation (MR predicts a poor prognosis. The regulatory mechanisms of atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients remain unknown.This study comprised 14 patients with MR, 7 patients with aortic valve disease (AVD, and 6 purchased samples from normal subjects (NC. We used microarrays, enrichment analysis and quantitative RT-PCR to study the gene expression profiles in the left atria. Microarray results showed that 112 genes were differentially up-regulated and 132 genes were differentially down-regulated in the left atria between MR patients and NC. Enrichment analysis of differentially expressed genes demonstrated that "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway was not only one of the significant associated canonical pathways, but also the only one predicted with a non-zero score of 1.34 (i.e. activated through Ingenuity Pathway Analysis molecule activity predictor. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis Global Molecular Network analysis exhibited that the highest score network also showed high association with cardiac related pathways and functions. Therefore, 5 NFAT associated genes (PPP3R1, PPP3CB, CAMK1, MEF2C, PLCE1 were studies for validation. The mRNA expressions of PPP3CB and MEF2C were significantly up-regulated, and CAMK1 and PPP3R1 were significantly down-regulated in MR patients compared to NC. Moreover, MR patients had significantly increased mRNA levels of PPP3CB, MEF2C and PLCE1 compared to AVD patients. The atrial myocyte size of MR patients significantly exceeded that of the AVD patients and NC.Differentially expressed genes in the "NFAT in cardiac hypertrophy" pathway may play a critical role in the atrial myocyte hypertrophy of MR patients.

  12. Hypertrophy of neurons within cardiac ganglia in human, canine, and rat heart failure: the potential role of nerve growth factor.

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    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S; Nee, Lisa M; Wurster, Robert D

    2013-08-19

    Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hypertrophied in human, canine, and rat heart failure and that nerve growth factor, which we hypothesize is elevated in the failing heart, contributes to this neuronal hypertrophy. Somal morphology of neurons from human (579.54±14.34 versus 327.45±9.17 μm(2); Phearts (767.80±18.37 versus 650.23±9.84 μm(2); Pneurons from spontaneously hypertensive rat hearts (327.98±3.15 versus 271.29±2.79 μm(2); Pneurons in cardiac ganglia compared with controls. Western blot analysis shows that nerve growth factor levels in the explanted, failing human heart are 250% greater than levels in healthy donor hearts. Neurons from cardiac ganglia cultured with nerve growth factor are significantly larger and have greater dendritic arborization than neurons in control cultures. Hypertrophied neurons are significantly less excitable than smaller ones; thus, hypertrophy of vagal postganglionic neurons in cardiac ganglia would help to explain the parasympathetic withdrawal that accompanies heart failure. Furthermore, our observations suggest that nerve growth factor, which is elevated in the failing human heart, causes hypertrophy of neurons in cardiac ganglia.

  13. SERUM IGF-I AND HORMONAL RESPONSES TO INCREMENTAL EXERCISE IN ATHLETES WITH AND WITHOUT LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY

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    Aleksandra Zebrowska

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the response of insulin-like growth factor (IGF- I, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3 and some hormones, i.e., testosterone (T, growth hormone (GH, cortisol (C, and insulin (I, to maximal exercise in road cyclists with and without diagnosed left ventricular hypertrophy. M-mode and two-dimensional Doppler echocardiography was performed in 30 professional male endurance athletes and a group of 14 healthy untrained subjects using a Hewlett-Packard Image Point HX ultrasound system with standard imaging transducers. Echocardiography and an incremental physical exercise test were performed during the competitive season. Venous blood samples were drawn before and immediately after the maximal cycling exercise test for determination of somatomedin and hormonal concentrations. The basal concentration of IGF-I was statistically higher (p < 0.05 in athletes with left ventricular muscle hypertrophy (LVH when compared to athletes with a normal upper limit of the left ventricular wall (LVN (p < 0.05 and to the control group (CG (p < 0.01. The IGF-I level increased significantly at maximal intensity of incremental exercise in CG (p < 0.01, LVN (p < 0.05 and LVH (p < 0.05 compared to respective values at rest. Long-term endurance training induced an increase in resting (p < 0.01 and post-exercise (p < 0.05 IGF-I/IGFBP-3 ratio in athletes with LVH compared to LVN. The testosterone (T level was lower in LVH at rest compared to LVN and CG groups (p < 0.05. These results indicate that resting serum IGF-I concentration were higher in trained subjects with LVH compared to athletes without LVH. Serum IGF- I/IGFBP-3 elevation at rest and after exercise might suggest that IGF-I act as a potent stimulant of left ventricular hypertrophy in chronically trained endurance athletes

  14. Salt-Sensitive Hypertension and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Transgenic Mice Expressing a Corin Variant Identified in African Americans

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    Wang, Wei; Cui, Yujie; Shen, Jianzhong; Jiang, Jingjing; Chen, Shenghan; Peng, Jianhao; Wu, Qingyu

    2012-01-01

    African Americans represent a high risk population for salt-sensitive hypertension and heart disease but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Corin is a cardiac protease that regulates blood pressure by activating natriuretic peptides. A corin gene variant (T555I/Q568P) was identified in African Americans with hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy. In this study, we test the hypothesis that the corin variant contributes to the hypertensive and cardiac hypertrophic phenotype in vivo. Transgenic mice were generated to express wild-type or T555I/Q568P variant corin in the heart under the control of α-myosin heavy chain promoter. The mice were crossed into a corin knockout background to create KO/TgWT and KO/TgV mice that expressed WT or variant corin, respectively, in the heart. Functional studies showed that KO/TgV mice had significantly higher levels of pro-atrial natriuretic peptide in the heart compared with that in control KO/TgWT mice, indicating that the corin variant was defective in processing natriuretic peptides in vivo. By radiotelemetry, corin KO/TgV mice were found to have hypertension that was sensitive to dietary salt loading. The mice also developed cardiac hypertrophy at 12–14 months of age when fed a normal salt diet or at a younger age when fed a high salt diet. The phenotype of salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in KO/TgV mice closely resembles the pathological findings in African Americans who carry the corin variant. The results indicate that corin defects may represent an important mechanism in salt-sensitive hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in African Americans. PMID:22987923

  15. Role of heterotrimeric G protein and calcium in cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by IGF-1.

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    Carrasco, Loreto; Cea, Paola; Rocco, Paola; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejias, Pablo; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Quiroga, Clara; Criollo, Alfredo; Ibarra, Cristian; Chiong, Mario; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-04-01

    In the heart, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is a peptide with pro-hypertrophic and anti-apoptotic actions. The pro-hypertrophic properties of IGF-1 have been attributed to the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK) pathway. Recently, we reported that IGF-1 also increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels through a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive G protein. Here we investigate whether this Ca(2+) signal is involved in IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Our results show that the IGF-1-induced increase in Ca(2+) level is abolished by the IGF-1 receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor AG538, PTX and the peptide inhibitor of Gβγ signaling, βARKct. Increases in the activities of Ca(2+) -dependent enzymes calcineurin, calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), and protein kinase Cα (PKCα) were observed at 5 min after IGF-1 exposure. AG538, PTX, βARKct, and the dominant negative PKCα prevented the IGF-1-dependent phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Participation of calcineurin and CaMKII in ERK phosphorylation was discounted. IGF-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, determined by cell size and β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), was prevented by AG538, PTX, βARKct, dominant negative PKCα, and the MEK1/2 inhibitor PD98059. Inhibition of calcineurin with CAIN did not abolish IGF-1-induced cardiac hypertrophy. We conclude that IGF-1 induces hypertrophy in cultured cardiomyocytes by activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase activity/βγ-subunits of a PTX-sensitive G protein/Ca(2+) /PKCα/ERK pathway without the participation of calcineurin. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Protection of MICU1 against myocardial hypertrophy induced by angiotensin Ⅱ

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    Yi YANG

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the role of mitochondrial calcium uptake 1 (MICU1 in myocardial hypertrophy of mice and underlying mechanism. Methods The model of myocardial hypertrophy was established via incubation of mouse cardiac myocytes (MCM with 300nmol/L angiotensin Ⅱ (Ang Ⅱ for 48 hours in vitro. After that, MICU1 specific small interfering RNA (siRNA was delivered to knockdown MICU1 levels in MCM. On the other hand, adenovirus-mediated over-expression of MICU1 was transfected into MCM. Accordingly, the expressions of ANP and BNP in myocardial cells were measured by qRT- PCR. Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP contents were detected by JC-1 assay kit and ATP assay kit, respectively. Then, Western blotting and qRT-PCR were used to detect the levels of MICU1 in myocardial cells. The mitochondrial Ca2+ contents were measured via atomic absorption flame spectroscopy. The size of myocardial cells was determined by α-actinin staining. Results Mitochondrial membrane potential and ATP contents in hypertrophic cardiomyocytes induced by AngⅡ were both decreased. Meanwhile, myocardial hypertrophy significantly increased mitochondrial Ca2+ contents but decreased MICU1 levels. With the method of genetic intervention, we found that MICU1 deficiency exacerbated mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, increased cell surface and elevated the expression of BNP. Conversely, the overexpression of MICU1 obviously decreased mitochondrial Ca2+ overload, cell surface of MCM and expressions of ANP and BNP. Conclusion MICU1 alleviates AngⅡ-induced myocardial hypertrophy via inhibiting mitochondrial Ca2+ overload. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.12.05

  17. Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy

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    Tharp, Darla L.; Ivey, Jan R.; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K.; Bowles, Douglas K.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K+ currents (IK+) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca2+ from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca2+-sensitive K+ current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ETA-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+ was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca2+-sensitive IK+, illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy. PMID:21841018

  18. Increased natriuretic peptide receptor A and C gene expression in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Tue E.H.; Aplin, Mark; Strom, Claes C.

    2006-01-01

    also affects cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis. In this study we examined the expression of genes for the NPRs in rats with pressure-overload cardiac hypertrophy. The ANG II type 1 receptor was blocked with losartan (10 mg.kg(-1).day(-1)) to investigate a possible role of the renin-angiotensin system......RNAs for the natriuretic peptides or their receptors. Although increased gene expression does not necessarily convey a higher concentration of the protein, the data suggest that pressure overload is accompanied by upregulation of not only ANP and BNP but also their receptors NPR-A and NPR-C in the left ventricle....

  19. Regulation of the instantaneous inward rectifier and the delayed outward rectifier potassium channels by Captopril and Angiotensin II via the Phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway in volume-overload-induced hypertrophied cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvin, Zikiar V; Laurence, Graham G; Coleman, Bernell R; Zhao, Aiqiu; Hajj-Moussa, Majd; Haddad, Georges E

    2011-07-01

    Early development of cardiac hypertrophy may be beneficial but sustained hypertrophic activation leads to myocardial dysfunction. Regulation of the repolarizing currents can be modulated by the activation of humoral factors, such as angiotensin II (ANG II) through protein kinases. The aim of this work is to assess the regulation of IK and IK1 by ANG II through the PI3-K pathway in hypertrophied ventricular myocytes. Cardiac eccentric hypertrophy was induced through volume-overload in adult male rats by aorto-caval shunt (3 weeks). After one week half of the rats were given captopril (2 weeks; 0.5 g/l/day) and the other half served as control. The voltage-clamp and western blot techniques were used to measure the delayed outward rectifier potassium current (IK) and the instantaneous inward rectifier potassium current (IK1) and Akt activity, respectively. Hypertrophied cardiomyocytes showed reduction in IK and IK1. Treatment with captopril alleviated this difference seen between sham and shunt cardiomyocytes. Acute administration of ANG II (10-6M) to cardiocytes treated with captopril reduced IK and IK1 in shunts, but not in sham. Captopril treatment reversed ANG II effects on IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-independent manner. However in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition, ANG II increased both IK and IK1 in a PI3-K-dependent manner in hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Thus, captopril treatment reveals a negative effect of ANG II on IK and IK1, which is PI3-K independent, whereas in the absence of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition IK and IK1 regulation is dependent upon PI3-K.

  20. Characterizing the role of endothelin-1 in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Amie K.; Goens, M. Beth; Nunez, Bethany A.; Walker, Mary K.

    2006-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor characterized to play a role in detection and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Genetic deletion of AhR results in hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), thus AhR appears to contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that ET-1 mediates cardiovascular pathology in AhR null mice via ET A receptor activation. First, we determine the time courses of cardiac hypertrophy, and of plasma and tissue ET-1 expression in AhR wildtype and null mice. AhR null mice exhibited increases in heart-to-body weight ratio and age-related expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers, β-myosin heavy chain (β-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which were significant at 2 months. Similarly, plasma and tissue ET-1 expression was significantly elevated at 2 months and increased further with age. Second, AhR null mice were treated with ET A receptor antagonist, BQ-123 (100 nmol/kg/day), for 7, 28, or 58 days and blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy assessed, respectively. BQ-123 for 7 days significantly reduced mean arterial pressure in conscious, catheterized mice. BQ-123 for 28 days significantly reduced the histological appearance of cardiac fibrosis. Treatment for 58 days significantly reduced cardiac mass, assessed by heart weight, echocardiography, and β-MHC and ANF expression; and reduced cardiac fibrosis as determined by osteopontin and collagen I mRNA expression. These findings establish ET-1 and the ET A receptor as primary determinants of hypertension and cardiac pathology in AhR null mice

  1. Exercise improves cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voulgari, Christina; Pagoni, Stamatina; Vinik, Aaron; Poirier, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Physical activity is a key element in the prevention and management of obesity and diabetes. Regular physical activity efficiently supports diet-induced weight loss, improves glycemic control, and can prevent or delay type 2 diabetes diagnosis. Furthermore, physical activity positively affects lipid profile, blood pressure, reduces the rate of cardiovascular events and associated mortality, and restores the quality of life in type 2 diabetes. However, recent studies have documented that a high percentage of the cardiovascular benefits of exercise cannot be attributed solely to enhanced cardiovascular risk factor modulation. Obesity in concert with diabetes is characterized by sympathetic overactivity and the progressive loss of cardiac parasympathetic influx. These are manifested via different pathogenetic mechanisms, including hyperinsulinemia, visceral obesity, subclinical inflammation and increased thrombosis. Cardiac autonomic neuropathy is an underestimated risk factor for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and diabetes. The same is true for the role of physical exercise in the restoration of the heart cardioprotective autonomic modulation in these individuals. This review addresses the interplay of cardiac autonomic function in obesity and diabetes, and focuses on the importance of exercise in improving cardiac autonomic dysfunction. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Amlodipine decreases fibrosis and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats: persistent effects after withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, María A; Voces, Felipe; Carrón, Rosalía; Guerrero, Estela I; Ardanaz, Noelia; San Román, Luis; Arévalo, Miguel A; Montero, María J

    2004-07-02

    Our objective was to examine the effect of chronic treatment with amlodipine on blood pressure, left ventricular hypertrophy, and fibrosis in spontaneously hypertensive rats and the persistence of such an effect after drug withdrawal. We investigated the effects of treatment with 2, 8 and 20 mg/kg/day of amlodipine given orally for six months and at three months after drug withdrawal. Systolic blood pressure was measured using the tail-cuff method. At the end of the study period, the heart was excised, the left ventricle was isolated, and the left ventricle weight/body weight ratio was calculated as a left ventricular hypertrophy index. Fibrosis, expressed as collagen volume fraction, was evaluated using an automated image-analysis system on sections stained with Sirius red. Age-matched untreated Wistar-Kyoto and SHR were used as normotensive and hypertensive controls, respectively. Systolic blood pressure was reduced in the treated SHR in a dose-dependent way and after amlodipine withdrawal it increased progressively, without reaching the values of the hypertensive controls. Cardiac hypertrophy was reduced by 8 and 20 mg/kg/day amlodipine, but when treatment was withdrawn only the group treated with 8 mg/kg/day maintained significant differences versus the hypertensive controls. All three doses of amlodipine reduced cardiac fibrosis and this regression persisted with the two highest doses after three months without treatment. We concluded that antihypertensive treatment with amlodipine is accompanied by a reduction in left ventricular hypertrophy and regression in collagen deposition. Treatment was more effective in preventing fibrosis than in preventing ventricular hypertrophy after drug withdrawal. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Inc.

  3. Molecular Mechanisms in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is increasingly recognized as modifiable behavioral risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. A partial list of proposed mechanisms for exercise-induced cardioprotection include induction of heat shock proteins, increase in cardiac antioxidant capacity, expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress proteins, anatomical and physiological changes in the coronary arteries, changes in nitric oxide production, adaptational changes in cardiac mitochondria, increased autophagy, and improved function of sarcolemmal and/or mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium channels. It is currently unclear which of these protective mechanisms are essential for exercise-induced cardioprotection. However, most investigations focus on sarcolemmal KATP channels, NO production, and mitochondrial changes although it is very likely that other mechanisms may also exist. This paper discusses current information about these aforementioned topics and does not consider potentially important adaptations within blood or the autonomic nervous system. A better understanding of the molecular basis of exercise-induced cardioprotection will help to develop better therapeutic strategies.

  4. Accessory papillary muscles and papillary muscle hypertrophy are associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhm, Jae-Sun; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Hye-Jeong; Park, Junbeom; Park, Jin-Kyu; Shim, Chi Young; Hong, Geu-Ru; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2015-10-15

    The present study was performed for elucidating the associations between the morphology of the papillary muscles (PMs) and sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). We retrospectively reviewed history, laboratory data, electrocardiography, echocardiography, coronary angiography, and cardiac CT/MRI for 190 patients with SCA. The prevalence of accessory PMs and PM hypertrophy in patients with SCA of unknown cause was compared with that in patients with SCA of known causes and 98 age- and sex-matched patients without SCA. An accessory PM was defined as a PM with origins separated from the anterolateral and posteromedial PMs, or a PM that branched into two or three bellies at the base of the anterolateral or posteromedial PM. PM hypertrophy was defined as at least one of the two PMs having a diameter of ≥1.1cm. In 49 patients (age 49.9±15.9years; 38 men) the cause of SCA was unknown, whereas 141 (age 54.2±16.6years; 121 men) had a known cause. The prevalence of accessory PMs was significantly higher in the unknown-cause group than in the known-cause group (24.5% and 7.8%, respectively; p=0.002) or the no-SCA group (7.1%, p=0.003). The same was true for PM hypertrophy (unknown-cause 12.2%, known-cause 2.1%, p=0.010; no SCA group 1.0%, p=0.006). By logistic regression, accessory PM and PM hypertrophy were independently associated with sudden cardiac arrest of unknown cause. An accessory PM and PM hypertrophy are associated with SCA of unknown cause. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The Role of Exercise in Cardiac Aging: From Physiology to Molecular Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roh, Jason; Rhee, James; Chaudhari, Vinita; Rosenzweig, Anthony

    2016-01-22

    Aging induces structural and functional changes in the heart that are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and impaired functional capacity in the elderly. Exercise is a diagnostic and therapeutic tool, with the potential to provide insights into clinical diagnosis and prognosis, as well as the molecular mechanisms by which aging influences cardiac physiology and function. In this review, we first provide an overview of how aging impacts the cardiac response to exercise, and the implications this has for functional capacity in older adults. We then review the underlying molecular mechanisms by which cardiac aging contributes to exercise intolerance, and conversely how exercise training can potentially modulate aging phenotypes in the heart. Finally, we highlight the potential use of these exercise models to complement models of disease in efforts to uncover new therapeutic targets to prevent or treat heart disease in the aging population. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmias and vagal dysfunction in Chagas disease patients with no apparent cardiac involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrique Silveira Costa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Exercise-induced ventricular arrhythmia (EIVA and autonomic imbalance are considered as early markers of heart disease in Chagas disease (ChD patients. The objective of the present study was to verify the differences in the occurrence of EIVA and autonomic maneuver indexes between healthy individuals and ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement. METHODS : A total of 75 ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement, aged 44.7 (8.5 years, and 38 healthy individuals, aged 44.0 (9.2 years, were evaluated using echocardiography, symptom-limited treadmill exercise testing and autonomic function tests. RESULTS : The occurrence of EIVA was higher in the chagasic group (48% than in the control group (23.7% during both the effort and the recovery phases. Frequent ventricular contractions occurred only in the patient group. Additionally, the respiratory sinus arrhythmia index was significantly lower in the chagasic individuals compared with the control group. CONCLUSIONS : ChD patients with no apparent cardiac involvement had a higher frequency of EIVA as well as more vagal dysfunction by respiratory sinus arrhythmia. These results suggest that even when asymptomatic, ChD patients possess important arrhythmogenic substrates and subclinical disease.

  7. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  8. Isosteviol prevents the prolongation of action potential in hypertrophied cardiomyoctyes by regulating transient outward potassium and L-type calcium channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhuo; Lv, Nanying; Luo, Xiao; Tan, Wen

    2017-10-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a thickening of the heart muscle that is associated with cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension and myocardial infarction. It occurs initially as an adaptive process against increased workloads and often leads to sudden arrhythmic deaths. Studies suggest that the lethal arrhythmia is attributed to hypertrophy-induced destabilization of cardiac electrical activity, especially the prolongation of the action potential. The reduced activity of I to is demonstrated to be responsible for the ionic mechanism of prolonged action potential duration and arrhythmogeneity. Isosteviol (STV), a derivative of stevioside, plays a protective role in a variety of stress-induced cardiac diseases. Here we report effects of STV on rat ISO-induced hypertrophic cardiomyocytes. STV alleviated ISO-induced hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes by decreasing cell area of hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. STV application prevented the prolongation of action potential which was prominent in hypertrophied cells. The decrease and increase of current densities for I to and I CaL observed in hypertrophied myocytes were both prevented by STV application. In addition, the results of qRT-PCR suggested that the changes of electrophysiological activity of I to and I CaL are correlated to the alterations of the mRNA transcription level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Role of cyclic AMP sensor Epac1 in masseter muscle hypertrophy and myosin heavy chain transition induced by β2-adrenoceptor stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnuki, Yoshiki; Umeki, Daisuke; Mototani, Yasumasa; Jin, Huiling; Cai, Wenqian; Shiozawa, Kouichi; Suita, Kenji; Saeki, Yasutake; Fujita, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Okumura, Satoshi

    2014-12-15

    The predominant isoform of β-adrenoceptor (β-AR) in skeletal muscle is β2-AR and that in the cardiac muscle is β1-AR. We have reported that Epac1 (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP 1), a new protein kinase A-independent cAMP sensor, does not affect cardiac hypertrophy in response to pressure overload or chronic isoproterenol (isoprenaline) infusion. However, the role of Epac1 in skeletal muscle hypertrophy remains poorly understood. We thus examined the effect of disruption of Epac1, the major Epac isoform in skeletal muscle, on masseter muscle hypertrophy induced by chronic β2-AR stimulation with clenbuterol (CB) in Epac1-null mice (Epac1KO). The masseter muscle weight/tibial length ratio was similar in wild-type (WT) and Epac1KO at baseline and was significantly increased in WT after CB infusion, but this increase was suppressed in Epac1KO. CB treatment significantly increased the proportion of myosin heavy chain (MHC) IIb at the expense of that of MHC IId/x in both WT and Epac1KO, indicating that Epac1 did not mediate the CB-induced MHC isoform transition towards the faster isoform. The mechanism of suppression of CB-mediated hypertrophy in Epac1KO is considered to involve decreased activation of Akt signalling. In addition, CB-induced histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) phosphorylation on serine 246 mediated by calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII), which plays a role in skeletal muscle hypertrophy, was suppressed in Epac1KO. Our findings suggest that Epac1 plays a role in β2-AR-mediated masseter muscle hypertrophy, probably through activation of both Akt signalling and CaMKII/HDAC4 signalling. © 2014 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  10. Sodium bicarbonate supplementation improves hypertrophy-type resistance exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Benjamin M; Webster, Michael J; Boyd, Joseph C; Hudson, Geoffrey M; Scheett, Timothy P

    2013-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO(3)) administration on lower-body, hypertrophy-type resistance exercise (HRE). Using a double-blind randomized counterbalanced design, 12 resistance-trained male participants (mean ± SD; age = 20.3 ± 2 years, mass = 88.3 ± 13.2 kg, height = 1.80 ± 0.07 m) ingested 0.3 g kg(-1) of NaHCO(3) or placebo 60 min before initiation of an HRE regimen. The protocol employed multiple exercises: squat, leg press, and knee extension, utilizing four sets each, with 10-12 repetition-maximum loads and short rest periods between sets. Exercise performance was determined by total repetitions generated during each exercise, total accumulated repetitions, and a performance test involving a fifth set of knee extensions to failure. Arterialized capillary blood was collected via fingertip puncture at four time points and analyzed for pH, [HCO(3)(-)], base excess (BE), and lactate [Lac(-)]. NaHCO(3) supplementation induced a significant alkaline state (pH: NaHCO(3): 7.49 ± 0.02, placebo: 7.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.05; [HCO(3)(-)]: NaHCO(3): 31.50 ± 2.59, placebo: 25.38 ± 1.78 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05; BE: NaHCO(3): 7.92 ± 2.57, placebo: 1.08 ± 2.11 mEq L(-1), P < 0.05). NaHCO(3) administration resulted in significantly more total repetitions than placebo (NaHCO(3): 139.8 ± 13.2, placebo: 134.4 ± 13.5), as well as significantly greater blood [Lac(-)] after the exercise protocol (NaHCO(3): 17.92 ± 2.08, placebo: 15.55 ± 2.50 mM, P < 0.05). These findings demonstrate ergogenic efficacy for NaHCO(3) during HRE and warrant further investigation into chronic training applications.

  11. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Divya Hitler; Parthasarathy Arumugam; Mathivanan Narayanasamy; Elangovan Vellaichamy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L) DC (Fabaceae; DG), a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO)-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH) in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection) for 7 days induced LVH...

  12. Low-intensity interval exercise training attenuates coronary vascular dysfunction and preserves Ca²⁺-sensitive K⁺ current in miniature swine with LV hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emter, Craig A; Tharp, Darla L; Ivey, Jan R; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Bowles, Douglas K

    2011-10-01

    Coronary vascular dysfunction has been observed in several models of heart failure (HF). Recent evidence indicates that exercise training is beneficial for patients with HF, but the precise intensity and underlying mechanisms are unknown. Left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy can play a significant role in the development of HF; therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effects of low-intensity interval exercise training on coronary vascular function in sedentary (HF) and exercise trained (HF-TR) aortic-banded miniature swine displaying LV hypertrophy. Six months postsurgery, in vivo coronary vascular responses to endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adenosine were measured in the left anterior descending coronary artery. Baseline and maximal coronary vascular conductance were similar between all groups. ET-1-induced reductions in coronary vascular conductance (P < 0.05) were greater in HF vs. sedentary control and HF-TR groups. Pretreatment with the ET type A (ET(A)) receptor blocker BQ-123 prevented ET-1 hypersensitivity in HF animals. Whole cell voltage clamp was used to characterize composite K(+) currents (I(K(+))) in coronary smooth muscle cells. Raising internal Ca(2+) from 200 to 500 nM increased Ca(2+)-sensitive K(+) current in HF-TR and control, but not HF animals. In conclusion, an ET(A)-receptor-mediated hypersensitivity to ET-1, elevated resting LV wall tension, and decreased coronary smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)) was found in sedentary animals with LV hypertrophy. Low-intensity interval exercise training preserved normal coronary vascular function and smooth muscle cell Ca(2+)-sensitive I(K(+)), illustrating a potential mechanism underlying coronary vascular dysfunction in a large-animal model of LV hypertrophy. Our results demonstrate the potential clinical impact of exercise on coronary vascular function in HF patients displaying pathological LV hypertrophy.

  13. β-Adrenergic receptors desensitization is not involved in exercise-induced cardiac fatigue: NADPH oxidase-induced oxidative stress as a new trigger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitiello, Damien; Boissière, Julien; Doucende, Grégory; Gayrard, Sandrine; Polge, Anne; Faure, Patrice; Goux, Aurélie; Tanguy, Stéphane; Obert, Philippe; Reboul, Cyril; Nottin, Stéphane

    2011-11-01

    Prolonged strenuous exercise (PSE) induces transient left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Previous studies suggest that β-adrenergic pathway desensitization could be involved in this phenomenon, but it remains to be confirmed. Moreover, other underlying mechanisms involving oxidative stress have been recently proposed. The present study aimed to evaluate the involvement of both the β-adrenergic pathway and NADPH oxidase (Nox) enzyme-induced oxidative stress in myocardial dysfunction in rats following PSE. Rats were divided into 4 groups: controls (Ctrl), 4-h exercised on treadmill (PSE), and 2 groups in which Nox enzyme was inhibited with apocynin treatment (Ctrl APO and PSE APO, respectively). We evaluated cardiac function in vivo and ex vivo during basal conditions and isoproterenol stress. GSH/GSSG ratio, cardiac troponin I (cTnI) release, and lipid peroxidation (MDA) were evaluated. PSE induced a decrease in LV developed pressure, intrinsic myocardial contractility, and relaxation associated with an increase in plasma cTnI release. Our in vivo and ex vivo results demonstrated no differences in myocardial response to isoproterenol and of effective dose 50 between control and PSE rats. Interestingly, the LV dysfunction was reversed by apocynin treatment. Moreover, apocynin prevented cellular oxidation [GSH/GSSG ratio: PSE APO rats vs. PSE rats in arbitrary units (au): 1.98 ± 0.07 vs. 1.35 ± 0.10; P stress from the Nox enzyme.

  14. Effect of vildagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor, on cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic beta-adrenergic stimulation in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Heart failure with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy is often associated with insulin resistance and inflammation. Recent studies have shown that dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitors improve glucose metabolism and inflammatory status. We therefore evaluated whether vildagliptin, a DPP4 inhibitor, prevents LV hypertrophy and improves diastolic function in isoproterenol-treated rats. Methods Male Wistar rats received vehicle (n = 20), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO), subcutaneous isoproterenol (2.4 mg/kg/day + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (ISO-VL), or vehicle + oral vildagliptin (30 mg/kg/day, n = 20) (vehicle-VL) for 7 days. Results Blood pressure was similar among the four groups, whereas LV hypertrophy was significantly decreased in the ISO-VL group compared with the ISO group (heart weight/body weight, vehicle: 3.2 ± 0.40, ISO: 4.43 ± 0.39, ISO-VL: 4.14 ± 0.29, vehicle-VL: 3.16 ± 0.16, p vildagliptin lowered the elevated LV end-diastolic pressure observed in the ISO group, but other parameters regarding LV diastolic function such as the decreased minimum dp/dt were not ameliorated in the ISO-VL group. Histological analysis showed that vildagliptin attenuated the increased cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and perivascular fibrosis, but it did not affect angiogenesis in cardiac tissue. In the ISO-VL group, quantitative PCR showed attenuation of increased mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, insulin-like growth factor-l, and restoration of decreased mRNA expression of glucose transporter type 4. Conclusions Vildagliptin may prevent LV hypertrophy caused by continuous exposure to isoproterenol in rats. PMID:24521405

  15. Role of hypoxia-inducible factor in diabetic myocardial hypertrophy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diabetes or hyperglycemia disrupts HIF-mediated cardiac hypertrophy adaptive regulatory mechanism [14]. In diabetic retinopathy, abnormal increase of ... detection system. Flow cytometry. After digesting with EDTA-free trypsin, the H9C2 cells were centrifuged at 1000 rpm for 5 min. After discarding the medium, the cells ...

  16. A radiocardiographic method for continuous registration of cardiac and pulmonary blood volume changes during exercise in normals, athlets and patients with latent cardiac insufficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoeck, A.; Hoeck, A.; Vyska, K.; Freundlieb, C.; Feinendegen, L.E.

    1978-01-01

    Radiocardiographic methods thus far measure transit times, ejection fractions and ventricular wall motion. In the present study a method is described that permits continuous registration of exercise induced changes of cardiac and pulmonary volume and their ratio. 12 normal individuals, 15 athlets and 6 patients with latent cardiac insufficiency received i.v. 2-3 mCi 99m-Tc-Albumin. Fast serial scintigrams were taken in AP projection of the chest for 5 minutes at rest, during 5 minutes of graded exercise and 5 minutes rest again. The ROIs were the entire heart and left upper lung. The athlets showed, compared to normals, an exercise induced increase of the pulmonary counting rates and a decrease of the cardiac counting rates; the opposite phenomen was observed in patients with latent cardiac insufficiency. The ratio of the two counting rates amplyfied the signal of deviation. The method is simple, safe and highly sensitive for measuring changes in cardio-pulmonary hemodynamics. (author)

  17. Increased sarcolemmal Na+/H+ exchange activity in hypertrophied myocytes from dogs with chronic atrioventricular block

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Borren, Marcel M. G. J.; Vos, Marc A.; Houtman, Marien J. C.; Antoons, Gudrun; Ravesloot, Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    Dogs with compensated biventricular hypertrophy due to chronic atrioventricular block (cAVB), are more susceptible to develop drug-induced Torsade-de-Pointes arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. It has been suggested that the increased Na+ influx in hypertrophied cAVB ventricular myocytes

  18. Effect of Berberine on PPARα/NO Activation in High Glucose- and Insulin-Induced Cardiomyocyte Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingfeng Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoma coptidis, the root of Coptis chinensis Franch, has been used in China as a folk medicine in the treatment of diabetes for thousands of years. Berberine, one of the active ingredients of Rhizoma coptidis, has been reported to improve symptoms of diabetes and to treat experimental cardiac hypertrophy, respectively. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential effect of berberine on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in diabetes and its possible influence on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα/nitric oxide (NO signaling pathway. The cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by high glucose (25.5 mmol/L and insulin (0.1 μmol/L (HGI was characterized in rat primary cardiomyocyte by measuring the cell surface area, protein content, and atrial natriuretic factor mRNA expression level. Protein and mRNA expression were measured by western blot and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The enzymatic activity of NO synthase (NOS was measured using a spectrophotometric assay, and NO concentration was measured using the Griess assay. HGI significantly induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and decreased the expression of PPARα and endothelial NOS at the mRNA and protein levels, which occurred in parallel with declining NOS activity and NO concentration. The effect of HGI was inhibited by berberine (0.1 to 100 μmol/L, fenofibrate (0.3 μmol/L, or L-arginine (100 μmol/L. MK886 (0.3 μmol/L, a selective PPARα antagonist, could abolish the effects of berberine and fenofibrate. NG-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (100 μmol/L, a NOS inhibitor, could block the effects of L-arginine, but only partially blocked the effects of berberine. These results suggest that berberine can blunt HGI-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro, through the activation of the PPARα/NO signaling pathway.

  19. Exercise capacity and cardiac hemodynamic response in female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice: a paradox of preserved V’O2max and exercise capacity despite coronary atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojewoda, M.; Tyrankiewicz, U.; Gwozdz, P.; Skorka, T.; Jablonska, M.; Orzylowska, A.; Jasinski, K.; Jasztal, A.; Przyborowski, K.; Kostogrys, R. B.; Zoladz, J. A.; Chlopicki, S.

    2016-01-01

    We assessed exercise performance, coronary blood flow and cardiac reserve of female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice with advanced atherosclerosis compared with age-matched, wild-type C57BL6/J mice. Exercise capacity was assessed as whole body maximal oxygen consumption (V’O2max), maximum running velocity (vmax) and maximum distance (DISTmax) during treadmill exercise. Cardiac systolic and diastolic function in basal conditions and in response to dobutamine (mimicking exercise-induced cardiac stress) were assessed by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in vivo. Function of coronary circulation was assessed in isolated perfused hearts. In female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice V’O2max, vmax and DISTmax were not impaired as compared with C57BL6/J mice. Cardiac function at rest and systolic and diastolic cardiac reserve were also preserved in female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice as evidenced by preserved fractional area change and similar fall in systolic and end diastolic area after dobutamine. Moreover, endothelium-dependent responses of coronary circulation induced by bradykinin (Bk) and acetylcholine (ACh) were preserved, while endothelium-independent responses induced by NO-donors were augmented in female ApoE/LDLR−/− mice. Basal COX-2-dependent production of 6-keto-PGF1α was increased. Concluding, we suggest that robust compensatory mechanisms in coronary circulation involving PGI2- and NO-pathways may efficiently counterbalance coronary atherosclerosis-induced impairment in V’O2max and exercise capacity. PMID:27108697

  20. Low intensity exercise prevents disturbances in rat cardiac insulin signaling and endothelial nitric oxide synthase induced by high fructose diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanišić, Jelena; Korićanac, Goran; Ćulafić, Tijana; Romić, Snježana; Stojiljković, Mojca; Kostić, Milan; Pantelić, Marija; Tepavčević, Snežana

    2016-01-15

    Increase in fructose consumption together with decrease in physical activity contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome and consequently cardiovascular diseases. The current study examined the preventive role of exercise on defects in cardiac insulin signaling and function of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in fructose fed rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into control, sedentary fructose (received 10% fructose for 9 weeks) and exercise fructose (additionally exposed to low intensity exercise) groups. Concentration of triglycerides, glucose, insulin and visceral adipose tissue weight were determined to estimate metabolic syndrome development. Expression and/or phosphorylation of cardiac insulin receptor (IR), insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS1), tyrosine-specific protein phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), Akt, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and eNOS were evaluated. Fructose overload increased visceral adipose tissue, insulin concentration and homeostasis model assessment index. Exercise managed to decrease visceral adiposity and insulin level and to increase insulin sensitivity. Fructose diet increased level of cardiac PTP1B and pIRS1 (Ser307), while levels of IR and ERK1/2, as well as pIRS1 (Tyr 632), pAkt (Ser473, Thr308) and pERK1/2 were decreased. These disturbances were accompanied by reduced phosphorylation of eNOS at Ser1177. Exercise managed to prevent most of the disturbances in insulin signaling caused by fructose diet (except phosphorylation of IRS1 at Tyr 632 and phosphorylation and protein expression of ERK1/2) and consequently restored function of eNOS. Low intensity exercise could be considered as efficient treatment of cardiac insulin resistance induced by fructose diet. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiac renin-angiotensin system in an obese Zucker rat strain.

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    Diego Lopes Mendes Barretti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity and renin angiotensin system (RAS hyperactivity are profoundly involved in cardiovascular diseases, however aerobic exercise training (EXT can prevent obesity and cardiac RAS activation. The study hypothesis was to investigate whether obesity and its association with EXT alter the systemic and cardiac RAS components in an obese Zucker rat strain. METHODS: THE RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING GROUPS: Lean Zucker rats (LZR; lean Zucker rats plus EXT (LZR+EXT; obese Zucker rats (OZR and obese Zucker rats plus EXT (OZR+EXT. EXT consisted of 10 weeks of 60-min swimming sessions, 5 days/week. At the end of the training protocol heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, cardiac hypertrophy (CH and function, local and systemic components of RAS were evaluated. Also, systemic glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and its LDL and HDL fractions were measured. RESULTS: The resting HR decreased (∼12% for both LZR+EXT and OZR+EXT. However, only the LZR+EXT reached significance (p<0.05, while a tendency was found for OZR versus OZR+EXT (p = 0.07. In addition, exercise reduced (57% triglycerides and (61% LDL in the OZR+EXT. The systemic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE activity did not differ regardless of obesity and EXT, however, the OZR and OZR+EXT showed (66% and (42%, respectively, less angiotensin II (Ang II plasma concentration when compared with LZR. Furthermore, the results showed that EXT in the OZR prevented increase in CH, cardiac ACE activity, Ang II and AT2 receptor caused by obesity. In addition, exercise augmented cardiac ACE2 in both training groups. CONCLUSION: Despite the unchanged ACE and lower systemic Ang II levels in obesity, the cardiac RAS was increased in OZR and EXT in obese Zucker rats reduced some of the cardiac RAS components and prevented obesity-related CH. These results show that EXT prevented the heart RAS hyperactivity and cardiac maladaptive morphological alterations in obese Zucker rats.

  2. Changes in myonuclear domain size do not precede muscle hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snijders, T; Smeets, J S J; van Kranenburg, J; Kies, A K; van Loon, L J C; Verdijk, L B

    2016-02-01

    Muscle fibre hypertrophy is accompanied by an increase in myonuclear number, an increase in myonuclear domain size or both. It has been suggested that increases in myonuclear domain size precede myonuclear accretion and subsequent muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged exercise training. In this study, we assessed the changes in muscle fibre size, myonuclear and satellite cell content throughout 12 weeks of resistance-type exercise training in young men. Twenty-two young men (23 ± 1 year) were assigned to a progressive, 12-weeks resistance-type exercise training programme (3 sessions per week). Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle were taken before and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of exercise training. Muscle fibre size, myonuclear content, myonuclear domain size and satellite cell content were assessed by immunohistochemistry. Type I and type II muscle fibre size increased gradually throughout the 12 weeks of training (type I: 18 ± 5%, type II: 41 ± 6%, P muscle fibres. No changes in type I and type II myonuclear domain size were observed at any time point throughout the intervention. Satellite cell content increased significantly over time in both type I and type II muscle fibres (P muscle fibre hypertrophy during prolonged resistance-type exercise training in vivo in humans. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Blueberry Anthocyanins-Enriched Extracts Attenuate Cyclophosphamide-Induced Cardiac Injury.

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    Yunen Liu

    Full Text Available We sought to explore the effect of blueberry anthocyanins-enriched extracts (BAE on cyclophosphamide (CTX-induced cardiac injury. The rats were divided randomly into five groups including normal control, CTX 100 mg/kg, BAE 80mg/kg, CTX+BAE 20mg/kg and CTX+BAE 80mg/kg groups. The rats in the three BAE-treated groups were administered BAE for four weeks. Seven days after BAE administration, rats in CTX group and two BAE-treated groups were intraperitoneally injected with a single dose of 100 mg/kg CTX. Cardiac injury was assessed using physiological parameters, Echo, morphological staining, real-time PCR and western blot. In addition, cardiotoxicity indices, inflammatory cytokines expression and oxidative stress markers were also detected. Four weeks 20mg/kg and 80mg/kg dose of BAE treatment following CTX exposure attenuated mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate and activities of heart enzymes, improved cardiac dysfunction, left ventricular hypertrophy and fibrosis. Importantly, BAE also attenuated CTX-induced LV leukocyte infiltration and inflammatory cytokines expression, ameliorated oxidative stress as well as cardiomyocyte apoptosis. In conclusion, BAE attenuated the CTX-induced cardiac injury and the protective mechanisms were related closely to the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory characteristics of BAE.

  4. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  5. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  6. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  7. Impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function in heart failure. An iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G.; Lecluse, E.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C.; Belin, A.; Babatasi, G.; Amar, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    Exercise training can induce important haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction. This study examined the impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function using iodine-123 metaiobodenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Fourteen patients (11 men, 3 women; mean age 48 years; range: 36-66 years) with stable chronic heart failure of NYHA class II-III and an initial resting radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 123 I-MIBG scintigraphy provided measurements of cardiac neuronal uptake (heart-mediastinum ratio activity, 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of MIBG). Radionuclide LVEF was also assessed at the outset and after 6 months of exercise training. Workload (801±428 vs 1229±245 kpm.min -1 , P=0.001), exercise duration (504±190 vs 649±125 s, P=0.02), and myocardial MIBG uptake (135%±19% vs 156%±25%, P=0.02) increased significantly after rehabilitation. However, LVEF did not change significantly (23%±9% vs 21%±10%, p=NS). It is concluded that exercise rehabilitation induces improvement of cardiac neuronal function without having negative effects on cardiac contractility in patients with stable chronic heart failure. (orig.)

  8. Renin angiotensin system and cardiac hypertrophy after sinoaortic denervation in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Cristina Piratello

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of angiotensin I, II and 1-7 on left ventricular hypertrophy of Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats submitted to sinoaortic denervation. METHODS: Ten weeks after sinoaortic denervation, hemodynamic and morphofunctional parameters were analyzed, and the left ventricle was dissected for biochemical analyses. RESULTS: Hypertensive groups (controls and denervated showed an increase on mean blood pressure compared with normotensive ones (controls and denervated. Blood pressure variability was higher in denervated groups than in their respective controls. Left ventricular mass and collagen content were increased in the normotensive denervated and in both spontaneously hypertensive groups compared with Wistar controls. Both hypertensive groups presented a higher concentration of angiotensin II than Wistar controls, whereas angiotensin 1-7 concentration was decreased in the hypertensive denervated group in relation to the Wistar groups. There was no difference in angiotensin I concentration among groups. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that not only blood pressure variability and reduced baroreflex sensitivity but also elevated levels of angiotensin II and a reduced concentration of angiotensin 1-7 may contribute to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy. These data indicate that baroreflex dysfunction associated with changes in the renin angiotensin system may be predictive factors of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac failure.

  9. Pentoxifylline Attenuates Cardiac Remodeling Induced by Tobacco Smoke Exposure

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    Minicucci, Marcos; Oliveira, Fernando; Santos, Priscila; Polegato, Bertha; Roscani, Meliza; Fernandes, Ana Angelica; Lustosa, Beatriz; Paiva, Sergio; Zornoff, Leonardo; Azevedo, Paula, E-mail: paulasa@fmb.unesp.br [Faculdade de Medicina de Botucatu, Universidade Estadual Paulista, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2016-05-15

    Tobacco smoke exposure is an important risk factor for cardiac remodeling. Under this condition, inflammation, oxidative stress, energy metabolism abnormalities, apoptosis, and hypertrophy are present. Pentoxifylline has anti‑inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, anti-thrombotic and anti-proliferative properties. The present study tested the hypothesis that pentoxifylline would attenuate cardiac remodeling induced by smoking. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: Control (C), Pentoxifylline (PX), Tobacco Smoke (TS), and PX-TS. After two months, echocardiography, invasive blood pressure measurement, biochemical, and histological studies were performed. The groups were compared by two-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. TS increased left atrium diameter and area, which was attenuated by PX. In the isolated heart study, TS lowered the positive derivate (+dp/dt), and this was attenuated by PX. The antioxidants enzyme superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase were decreased in the TS group; PX recovered these activities. TS increased lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and decreased 3-hydroxyacyl Coenzyme A dehydrogenases (OH-DHA) and citrate synthase (CS). PX attenuated LDH, 3-OH-DHA and CS alterations in TS-PX group. TS increased IL-10, ICAM-1, and caspase-3. PX did not influence these variables. TS induced cardiac remodeling, associated with increased inflammation, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and changed energy metabolism. PX attenuated cardiac remodeling by reducing oxidative stress and improving cardiac bioenergetics, but did not act upon cardiac cytokines and apoptosis.

  10. Hypertrophic response of the Association of Thyroid Hormone and Exercise in the Heart of Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda Rodrigues de, E-mail: nandaeduca@yahoo.com.br; Resende, Elmiro Santos; Lopes, Leandro; Gonçalves, Alexandre; Chagas, Rafaella; Fidale, Thiago; Rodrigues, Poliana [UFU - Universidade Federal de Uberlândia, Uberlândia, MG (Brazil)

    2014-02-15

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a component of cardiac remodeling occurring in response to an increase of the activity or functional overload of the heart. Assess hypertrophic response of the association of thyroid hormone and exercise in the rat heart. We used 37 Wistar rats, male, adults were randomly divided into four groups: control, hormone (TH), exercise (E), thyroid hormone and exercise (H + E); the group received daily hormone levothyroxine sodium by gavage at a dose of 20 μg thyroid hormone/100g body weight, the exercise group took swimming five times a week, with additional weight corresponding to 20% of body weight for six weeks; in group H + E were applied simultaneously TH treatment groups and E. The statistics used was analysis of variance, where appropriate, by Tukey test and Pearson correlation test. The T4 was greater in groups TH and H + E. The total weight of the heart was greater in patients who received thyroid hormone and left ventricular weight was greater in the TH group. The transverse diameter of cardiomyocytes increased in groups TH, E and H + E. The percentage of collagen was greater in groups E and H + E Correlation analysis between variables showed distinct responses. The association of thyroid hormone with high-intensity exercise produced cardiac hypertrophy, and generated a standard hypertrophy not directly correlated to the degree of fibrosis.

  11. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  12. Impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function in heart failure. An iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Lecluse, E.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C. [Service de Cardiologie, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Belin, A. [Service de Readaptation Cardiaque, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Babatasi, G. [Service de Chirurgie Cardio-Thoracique, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Amar, M.H. [Centre Francois Baclesse, Caen (France). Service de Recherche Clinique

    1998-03-01

    Exercise training can induce important haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction. This study examined the impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function using iodine-123 metaiobodenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Fourteen patients (11 men, 3 women; mean age 48 years; range: 36-66 years) with stable chronic heart failure of NYHA class II-III and an initial resting radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent progressive, supervised endurance training (treadmill test, Bruce protocol) during a 6-month period (60 sessions, 3 sessions per week) at a cardiac rehabilitation referral centre in order to measure exercise parameters. Planar {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy provided measurements of cardiac neuronal uptake (heart-mediastinum ratio activity, 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of MIBG). Radionuclide LVEF was also assessed at the outset and after 6 months of exercise training. Workload (801{+-}428 vs 1229{+-}245 kpm.min{sup -1}, P=0.001), exercise duration (504{+-}190 vs 649{+-}125 s, P=0.02), and myocardial MIBG uptake (135%{+-}19% vs 156%{+-}25%, P=0.02) increased significantly after rehabilitation. However, LVEF did not change significantly (23%{+-}9% vs 21%{+-}10%, p=NS). It is concluded that exercise rehabilitation induces improvement of cardiac neuronal function without having negative effects on cardiac contractility in patients with stable chronic heart failure. (orig.)

  13. Melatonin protects against myocardial hypertrophy induced by lipopolysaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qi; Yi, Xin; Cheng, Xiang; Sun, Xiaohui; Yang, Xiangjun

    2015-04-01

    Melatonin is thought to have the ability of antiatherogenic, antioxidant, and vasodilatory. It is not only a promising protective in acute myocardial infarction but is also a useful tool in the treatment of pathological remodeling. However, its role in myocardial hypertrophy remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of melatonin on myocardial hypertrophy induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to identify their precise mechanisms. The cultured myocardial cell was divided into six groups: control group, LPS group, LPS + ethanol (4%), LPS + melatonin (1.5 mg/ml) group, LPS + melatonin (3 mg/ml) group, and LPS + melatonin (6 mg/ml) group. The morphologic change of myocardial cell was observed by inverted phase contrast microscope. The protein level of myocardial cell was measured by Coomassie brilliant blue protein kit. The secretion level of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Ca(2+) transient in Fura-2/AM-loaded cells was measured by Till image system. The expression of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) was measured by Western blot analysis. Our data demonstrated that LPS induced myocardial hypertrophy, promoted the secretion levels of TNF-α, and increased Ca(2+) transient level and the expression of CaMKII and CaN. Administration of melatonin 30 min prior to LPS stimulation dose-dependently attenuated myocardial hypertrophy. In conclusion, the results revealed that melatonin had the potential to protect against myocardial hypertrophy induced by LPS in vitro through downregulation of the TNF-α expression and retains the intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis.

  14. Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion immediately following maximal treadmill exercise inside the MRI room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ballinger Michelle R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treadmill exercise stress testing is an essential tool in the prevention, detection, and treatment of a broad spectrum of cardiovascular disease. After maximal exercise, cardiac images at peak stress are typically acquired using nuclear scintigraphy or echocardiography, both of which have inherent limitations. Although CMR offers superior image quality, the lack of MRI-compatible exercise and monitoring equipment has prevented the realization of treadmill exercise CMR. It is critical to commence imaging as quickly as possible after exercise to capture exercise-induced cardiac wall motion abnormalities. We modified a commercial treadmill such that it could be safely positioned inside the MRI room to minimize the distance between the treadmill and the scan table. We optimized the treadmill exercise CMR protocol in 20 healthy volunteers and successfully imaged cardiac function and myocardial perfusion at peak stress, followed by viability imaging at rest. Imaging commenced an average of 30 seconds after maximal exercise. Real-time cine of seven slices with no breath-hold and no ECG-gating was completed within 45 seconds of exercise, immediately followed by stress perfusion imaging of three short-axis slices which showed an average time to peak enhancement within 57 seconds of exercise. We observed a 3.1-fold increase in cardiac output and a myocardial perfusion reserve index of 1.9, which agree with reported values for healthy subjects at peak stress. This study successfully demonstrates in-room treadmill exercise CMR in healthy volunteers, but confirmation of feasibility in patients with heart disease is still needed.

  15. YY1 Protects Cardiac Myocytes from Pathologic Hypertrophy by Interacting with HDAC5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dockstader, Karen; McKinsey, Timothy A.

    2008-01-01

    YY1 is a transcription factor that can repress or activate the transcription of a variety of genes. Here, we show that the function of YY1 as a repressor in cardiac myocytes is tightly dependent on its ability to interact with histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5). YY1 interacts with HDAC5, and overexpression of YY1 prevents HDAC5 nuclear export in response to hypertrophic stimuli and the increase in cell size and re-expression of fetal genes that accompany pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Knockdown of YY1 results in up-regulation of all genes present during fetal development and increases the cell size of neonatal cardiac myocytes. Moreover, overexpression of a YY1 deletion construct that does not interact with HDAC5 results in transcription activation, suggesting that HDAC5 is necessary for YY1 function as a transcription repressor. In support of this relationship, we show that knockdown of HDAC5 results in transcription activation by YY1. Finally, we show that YY1 interaction with HDAC5 is dependent on the HDAC5 phosphorylation domain and that overexpression of YY1 reduces HDAC5 phosphorylation in response to hypertrophic stimuli. Our results strongly suggest that YY1 functions as an antihypertrophic factor by preventing HDAC5 nuclear export and that up-regulation of YY1 in human heart failure may be a protective mechanism against pathological hypertrophy. PMID:18632988

  16. Aldosterone Inhibits the Fetal Program and Increases Hypertrophy in the Heart of Hypertensive Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azibani, Feriel; Devaux, Yvan; Coutance, Guillaume; Schlossarek, Saskia; Polidano, Evelyne; Fazal, Loubina; Merval, Regine; Carrier, Lucie; Solal, Alain Cohen; Chatziantoniou, Christos; Launay, Jean-Marie; Samuel, Jane-Lise; Delcayre, Claude

    2012-01-01

    Background Arterial hypertension (AH) induces cardiac hypertrophy and reactivation of “fetal” gene expression. In rodent heart, alpha-Myosin Heavy Chain (MyHC) and its micro-RNA miR-208a regulate the expression of beta-MyHC and of its intronic miR-208b. However, the role of aldosterone in these processes remains unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings RT-PCR and western-blot were used to investigate the genes modulated by arterial hypertension and cardiac hyperaldosteronism. We developed a model of double-transgenic mice (AS-Ren) with cardiac hyperaldosteronism (AS mice) and systemic hypertension (Ren). AS-Ren mice had increased (x2) angiotensin II in plasma and increased (x2) aldosterone in heart. Ren and AS-Ren mice had a robust and similar hypertension (+70%) versus their controls. Anatomical data and echocardiography showed a worsening of cardiac hypertrophy (+41%) in AS-Ren mice (P<0.05 vs Ren). The increase of ANP (x 2.5; P<0.01) mRNA observed in Ren mice was blunted in AS-Ren mice. This non-induction of antitrophic natriuretic peptides may be involved in the higher trophic cardiac response in AS-Ren mice, as indicated by the markedly reduced cardiac hypertrophy in ANP-infused AS-Ren mice for one month. Besides, the AH-induced increase of ßMyHC and its intronic miRNA-208b was prevented in AS-Ren. The inhibition of miR 208a (−75%, p<0.001) in AS-Ren mice compared to AS was associated with increased Sox 6 mRNA (x 1.34; p<0.05), an inhibitor of ßMyHC transcription. Eplerenone prevented all aldosterone-dependent effects. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that increased aldosterone in heart inhibits the induction of atrial natriuretic peptide expression, via the mineralocorticoid receptor. This worsens cardiac hypertrophy without changing blood pressure. Moreover, this work reveals an original aldosterone-dependent inhibition of miR-208a in hypertension, resulting in the inhibition of β-myosin heavy chain expression through the induction of

  17. Aldosterone inhibits the fetal program and increases hypertrophy in the heart of hypertensive mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feriel Azibani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Arterial hypertension (AH induces cardiac hypertrophy and reactivation of "fetal" gene expression. In rodent heart, alpha-Myosin Heavy Chain (MyHC and its micro-RNA miR-208a regulate the expression of beta-MyHC and of its intronic miR-208b. However, the role of aldosterone in these processes remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: RT-PCR and western-blot were used to investigate the genes modulated by arterial hypertension and cardiac hyperaldosteronism. We developed a model of double-transgenic mice (AS-Ren with cardiac hyperaldosteronism (AS mice and systemic hypertension (Ren. AS-Ren mice had increased (x2 angiotensin II in plasma and increased (x2 aldosterone in heart. Ren and AS-Ren mice had a robust and similar hypertension (+70% versus their controls. Anatomical data and echocardiography showed a worsening of cardiac hypertrophy (+41% in AS-Ren mice (P<0.05 vs Ren. The increase of ANP (x 2.5; P<0.01 mRNA observed in Ren mice was blunted in AS-Ren mice. This non-induction of antitrophic natriuretic peptides may be involved in the higher trophic cardiac response in AS-Ren mice, as indicated by the markedly reduced cardiac hypertrophy in ANP-infused AS-Ren mice for one month. Besides, the AH-induced increase of ßMyHC and its intronic miRNA-208b was prevented in AS-Ren. The inhibition of miR 208a (-75%, p<0.001 in AS-Ren mice compared to AS was associated with increased Sox 6 mRNA (x 1.34; p<0.05, an inhibitor of ßMyHC transcription. Eplerenone prevented all aldosterone-dependent effects. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that increased aldosterone in heart inhibits the induction of atrial natriuretic peptide expression, via the mineralocorticoid receptor. This worsens cardiac hypertrophy without changing blood pressure. Moreover, this work reveals an original aldosterone-dependent inhibition of miR-208a in hypertension, resulting in the inhibition of β-myosin heavy chain expression through the induction

  18. Vitamin D attenuates pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liang; Yan, Xiao; Zhang, Yun-Long; Bai, Jie; Hidru, Tesfaldet Habtemariam; Wang, Qing-Shan; Li, Hui-Hua

    2018-04-01

    Vitamin D (VD) and its analogues play critical roles in metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated that VD exerts a protective role in cardiovascular diseases. However, the beneficial effect of VD on pressure overload-induced cardiac remodeling and dysfunction and its underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. In this study, cardiac dysfunction and hypertrophic remodeling in mice were induced by pressure overload. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography, and myocardial histology was detected by H&E and Masson's trichrome staining. Cardiomyocyte size was detected by wheat germ agglutinin staining. The protein levels of signaling mediators were examined by western blotting while mRNA expression of hypertrophic and fibrotic markers was examined by qPCR analysis. Oxidative stress was detected by dihydroethidine staining. Our results showed that administration of VD3 significantly ameliorates pressure overload-induced contractile dysfunction, cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and inflammation in mice. In addition, VD3 treatment also markedly inhibited cardiac oxidative stress and apoptosis. Moreover, protein levels of calcineurin A, ERK1/2, AKT, TGF-β, GRP78, cATF6, and CHOP were significantly reduced whereas SERCA2 level was upregulated in the VD3-treated hearts compared with control. These results suggest that VD3 attenuates cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by pressure overload, and this protective effect is associated with inhibition of multiple signaling pathways. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic value of exercise-induced changes in circulating high sensitive troponin T in stable chest pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Mette Rauhe; Nielsen, Olav Wendelboe; Pedersen, Ole Dyg

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects.......We investigated the diagnostic value of exercise-induced increase in cardiac Troponin T (cTnT) in stable chest pain subjects....

  20. Sitagliptin reduces cardiac apoptosis, hypertrophy and fibrosis primarily by insulin-dependent mechanisms in experimental type-II diabetes. Potential roles of GLP-1 isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belén Picatoste

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Myocardial fibrosis is a key process in diabetic cardiomyopathy. However, their underlying mechanisms have not been elucidated, leading to a lack of therapy. The glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 enhancer, sitagliptin, reduces hyperglycemia but may also trigger direct effects on the heart. METHODS: Goto-Kakizaki (GK rats developed type-II diabetes and received sitagliptin, an anti-hyperglycemic drug (metformin or vehicle (n=10, each. After cardiac structure and function assessment, plasma and left ventricles were isolated for biochemical studies. Cultured cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts were used for in vitro assays. RESULTS: Untreated GK rats exhibited hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, plasma GLP-1 decrease, and cardiac cell-death, hypertrophy, fibrosis and prolonged deceleration time. Moreover, cardiac pro-apoptotic/necrotic, hypertrophic and fibrotic factors were up-regulated. Importantly, both sitagliptin and metformin lessened all these parameters. In cultured cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts, high-concentration of palmitate or glucose induced cell-death, hypertrophy and fibrosis. Interestingly, GLP-1 and its insulinotropic-inactive metabolite, GLP-1(9-36, alleviated these responses. In addition, despite a specific GLP-1 receptor was only detected in cardiomyocytes, GLP-1 isoforms attenuated the pro-fibrotic expression in cardiomyocytes and fibroblasts. In addition, GLP-1 receptor signalling may be linked to PPARδ activation, and metformin may also exhibit anti-apoptotic/necrotic and anti-fibrotic direct effects in cardiac cells. CONCLUSIONS: Sitagliptin, via GLP-1 stabilization, promoted cardioprotection in type-II diabetic hearts primarily by limiting hyperglycemia e hyperlipidemia. However, GLP-1 and GLP-1(9-36 promoted survival and anti-hypertrophic/fibrotic effects on cultured cardiac cells, suggesting cell-autonomous cardioprotective actions.

  1. The metabolic and temporal basis of muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Matthew S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Smith, Kenneth; Atherton, Philip J

    2016-09-01

    Constituting ∼40% of body mass, skeletal muscle has essential locomotory and metabolic functions. As such, an insight into the control of muscle mass is of great importance for maintaining health and quality-of-life into older age, under conditions of cachectic disease and with rehabilitation. In healthy weight-bearing individuals, muscle mass is maintained by the equilibrium between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown; when this balance tips in favour of MPS hypertrophy occurs. Despite considerable research into pharmacological/nutraceutical interventions, resistance exercise training (RE-T) remains the most potent stimulator of MPS and hypertrophy (in the majority of individuals). However, the mechanism(s) and time course of hypertrophic responses to RE-T remain poorly understood. We would suggest that available data are very much in favour of the notion that the majority of hypertrophy occurs in the early phases of RE-T (though still controversial to some) and that, for the most part, continued gains are hard to come by. Whilst the mechanisms of muscle hypertrophy represent the culmination of mechanical, auto/paracrine and endocrine events, the measurement of MPS remains a cornerstone for understanding the control of hypertrophy - mainly because it is the underlying driving force behind skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Development of sophisticated isotopic techniques (i.e. deuterium oxide) that lend to longer term insight into the control of hypertrophy by sustained RE-T will be paramount in providing insights into the metabolic and temporal regulation of hypertrophy. Such technologies will have broad application in muscle mass intervention for both athletes and for mitigating disease/age-related cachexia and sarcopenia, alike.

  2. Exercise and type 2 diabetes mellitus: changes in tissue-specific fat distribution and cardiac function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonker, Jacqueline T; de Mol, Pieter; de Vries, Suzanna T; Widya, Ralph L; Hammer, Sebastiaan; van Schinkel, Linda D; van der Meer, Rutger W; Gans, Rijk O B; Webb, Andrew G; Kan, Hermien E; de Koning, Eelco J P; Bilo, Henk J G; Lamb, Hildo J

    2013-11-01

    To prospectively assess the effects of an exercise intervention on organ-specific fat accumulation and cardiac function in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants, and the study protocol was approved by the medical ethics committee. The study followed 12 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (seven men; mean age, 46 years ± 2 [standard error]) before and after 6 months of moderate-intensity exercise, followed by a high-altitude trekking expedition with exercise of long duration. Abdominal, epicardial, and paracardial fat volume were measured by using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Cardiac function was quantified with cardiac MR, and images were analyzed by a researcher who was supervised by a senior researcher (4 and 21 years of respective experience in cardiac MR). Hepatic, myocardial, and intramyocellular triglyceride (TG) content relative to water were measured with proton MR spectroscopy at 1.5 and 7 T. Two-tailed paired t tests were used for statistical analysis. Exercise reduced visceral abdominal fat volume from 348 mL ± 57 to 219 mL ± 33 (P Exercise decreased hepatic TG content from 6.8% ± 2.3 to 4.6% ± 1.6 (P Exercise did not change epicardial fat volume (P = .9), myocardial TG content (P = .9), intramyocellular lipid content (P = .3), or cardiac function (P = .5). A 6-month exercise intervention in type 2 diabetes mellitus decreased hepatic TG content and visceral abdominal and paracardial fat volume, which are associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but cardiac function was unaffected. Tissue-specific exercise-induced changes in body fat distribution in type 2 diabetes mellitus were demonstrated in this study. RSNA, 2013

  3. Are There Deleterious Cardiac Effects of Acute and Chronic Endurance Exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M. H.; Fernandez, Antonio B.; Thompson, Paul D.

    2015-01-01

    Multiple epidemiological studies document that habitual physical activity reduces the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and most demonstrate progressively lower rates of ASCVD with progressively more physical activity. Few studies have included individuals performing high-intensity, lifelong endurance exercise, however, and recent reports suggest that prodigious amounts of exercise may increase markers for, and even the incidence of, cardiovascular disease. This review examines the evidence that extremes of endurance exercise may increase cardiovascular disease risk by reviewing the causes and incidence of exercise-related cardiac events, and the acute effects of exercise on cardiovascular function, the effect of exercise on cardiac biomarkers, including “myocardial” creatine kinase, cardiac troponins, and cardiac natriuretic peptides. This review also examines the effect of exercise on coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, the frequency of atrial fibrillation in aging athletes, and the possibility that exercise may be deleterious in individuals genetically predisposed to such cardiac abnormalities as long QT syndrome, right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. This review is to our knowledge unique because it addresses all known potentially adverse cardiovascular effects of endurance exercise. The best evidence remains that physical activity and exercise training benefit the population, but it is possible that prolonged exercise and exercise training can adversely affect cardiac function in some individuals. This hypothesis warrants further examination. PMID:26607287

  4. Leukaemia inhibitory factor--an exercise-induced myokine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broholm, Christa; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund

    2010-01-01

    During and following exercise skeletal muscle synthesises and releases a number of myokines that exert their effects either systemically or locally within the muscle. Several of these myokines influence metabolism, regeneration and/or hypertrophy and are therefore considered to be important...... to oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. However, circulating levels of LIF are not increased with exercise suggesting that LIF exerts its effect locally. LIF stimulates muscle satellite cell proliferation and is involved in muscle hypertrophy and regeneration. Thus, LIF may be produced by skeletal...... contributing factors in muscle homeostasis and muscle adaptation to exercise training. Leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is produced and released from muscle cells in vitro and from intact skeletal muscle in vivo. During exercise, skeletal muscle potently up-regulates LIF mRNA expression, likely due...

  5. Long Non-Coding RNA Malat-1 Is Dispensable during Pressure Overload-Induced Cardiac Remodeling and Failure in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Peters

    Full Text Available Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs are a class of RNA molecules with diverse regulatory functions during embryonic development, normal life, and disease in higher organisms. However, research on the role of lncRNAs in cardiovascular diseases and in particular heart failure is still in its infancy. The exceptionally well conserved nuclear lncRNA Metastasis associated in lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (Malat-1 is a regulator of mRNA splicing and highly expressed in the heart. Malat-1 modulates hypoxia-induced vessel growth, activates ERK/MAPK signaling, and scavenges the anti-hypertrophic microRNA-133. We therefore hypothesized that Malat-1 may act as regulator of cardiac hypertrophy and failure during cardiac pressure overload induced by thoracic aortic constriction (TAC in mice.Absence of Malat-1 did not affect cardiac hypertrophy upon pressure overload: Heart weight to tibia length ratio significantly increased in WT mice (sham: 5.78±0.55, TAC 9.79±1.82 g/mm; p<0.001 but to a similar extend also in Malat-1 knockout (KO mice (sham: 6.21±1.12, TAC 8.91±1.74 g/mm; p<0.01 with no significant difference between genotypes. As expected, TAC significantly reduced left ventricular fractional shortening in WT (sham: 38.81±6.53%, TAC: 23.14±11.99%; p<0.01 but to a comparable degree also in KO mice (sham: 37.01±4.19%, TAC: 25.98±9.75%; p<0.05. Histological hallmarks of myocardial remodeling, such as cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, increased interstitial fibrosis, reduced capillary density, and immune cell infiltration, did not differ significantly between WT and KO mice after TAC. In line, the absence of Malat-1 did not significantly affect angiotensin II-induced cardiac hypertrophy, dysfunction, and overall remodeling. Above that, pressure overload by TAC significantly induced mRNA levels of the hypertrophy marker genes Nppa, Nppb and Acta1, to a similar extend in both genotypes. Alternative splicing of Ndrg2 after TAC was apparent in WT (isoform ratio

  6. Molecular and cellular characterization of cardiac overload-induced hypertrophy and failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umar, Soban

    2009-01-01

    In neonatal rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (NRVCs), we activated integrins by RGD to test whether integrin stimulation produced hypertrophy. Effect of RGD was compared with pro-hypertrophic effects of phenylephrine (chapter 2). Ventricular failure is associated with disturbed collagen turnover.

  7. Sex differences in cardiac function after prolonged strenuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Foulds, Heather J; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Koehle, Michael S; Warburton, Darren E R

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate sex differences in left ventricular (LV) function after an ultramarathon, and the association of vascular and training indices with the magnitude of exercise-induced cardiac fatigue. Descriptive field study. Fat Dog 100 Ultramarathon Trail Race, Canada. Thirty-four (13 women) recreational runners (aged 28-56 years). A 100-km or 160-km mountain marathon. Baseline baroreceptor sensitivity, heart rate variability, and arterial compliance; Pre-exercise and postexercise echocardiographic evaluations of LV dimensions, volumes, Doppler flow velocities, tissue velocities, strain, and strain rate. Finishers represented 17 men (44.8 ± 6.6 years) and 8 women (45.9 ± 10.2 years; P = 0.758). After ultraendurance exercise, significant reductions (P training status/experience. These findings suggest that vascular health is an important contributor to the degree of cardiovascular strain incurred as the result of an acute bout of prolonged strenuous exercise.

  8. Impact of ethnicity on cardiac adaptation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Nabeel; Sharma, Sanjay

    2014-04-01

    The increasing globalization of sport has resulted in athletes from a wide range of ethnicities emerging onto the world stage. Fuelled by the untimely death of a number of young professional athletes, data generated from the parallel increase in preparticipation cardiovascular evaluation has indicated that ethnicity has a substantial influence on cardiac adaptation to exercise. From this perspective, the group most intensively studied comprises athletes of African or Afro-Caribbean ethnicity (black athletes), an ever-increasing number of whom are competing at the highest levels of sport and who often exhibit profound electrical and structural cardiac changes in response to exercise. Data on other ethnic cohorts are emerging, but remain incomplete. This Review describes our current knowledge on the impact of ethnicity on cardiac adaptation to exercise, starting with white athletes in whom the physiological electrical and structural changes--collectively termed the 'athlete's heart'--were first described. Discussion of the differences in the cardiac changes between ethnicities, with a focus on black athletes, and of the challenges that these variations can produce for the evaluating physician is also provided. The impact of ethnically mediated changes on preparticipation cardiovascular evaluation is highlighted, particularly with respect to false positive results, and potential genetic mechanisms underlying racial differences in cardiac adaptation to exercise are described.

  9. Cardiac Hypertrophy and Brain Natriuretic Peptide Levels in an Ovariectomized Rat Model Fed a High-Fat Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Gleisy Kelly; de Oliveira, Thiago Henrique Caldeira; de Oliveira Belo, Najara

    2017-01-01

    Background Heart failure in women increases around the time of menopause when high-fat diets may result in obesity. The heart produces brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), also known as B-type natriuretic peptide. This aims of this study were to assess cardiac hypertrophy and BNP levels in ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet. Material/Methods Forty-eight female Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated rats fed a control diet (SC) (n=12); ovariectomized rats fed a control diet (OC) (n=12); sham-operated rats fed a high-fat diet (SF) (n=12); and ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet (OF) (n=12). Body weight and blood pressure were measured weekly for 24 weeks. Rats were then euthanized, and plasma samples and heart tissue were studied for gene expression, hydroxyproline levels, and histological examination. Results A high-fat diet and ovariectomy (group OF) increased the weight body and the systolic blood pressure after three months and five months, respectively. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was associated with increased expression of ventricular BNP, decreased natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-A and increased levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. The plasma levels of BNP and estradiol were inversely correlated; expression of estrogen receptor (ER)β and ERα were reduced. Conclusions The findings of this study showed that, in the ovariectomized rats fed a high-fat diet, the BNP-NPR-A receptor complex was involved in cardiac remodeling. BNP may be a marker of cardiac hypertrophy in this animal model. PMID:29249795

  10. Pressure overload-induced mild cardiac hypertrophy reduces leftventricular transmural differences in mitochondrial respiratory chainactivity and increases oxidative stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel eKINDO

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Increased mechanical stress and contractility characterizes normal left ventricular subendocardium (Endo but whether Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complex activities is reduced as compared to subepicardium (Epi and whether pressure overload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH might modulate transmural gradients through increased reactive oxygen species (ROS production is unknown. Methods: LVH was induced by 6 weeks abdominal aortic banding and cardiac structure and function were determined with echocardiography and catheterization in sham-operated and LVH rats (n=10 for each group. Mitochondrial respiration rates, coupling, content and ROS production were measured in LV Endo and Epi, using saponin-permeabilised fibres, Amplex Red fluorescence and citrate synthase activity.Results: In sham, a transmural respiratory gradient was observed with decreases in endo maximal oxidative capacity (-36.7%, P<0.01 and complex IV activity (-57.4%, P<0.05. Mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 production was similar in both LV layers.Aortic banding induced mild LVH (+31.7% LV mass, associated with normal LV fractional shortening and end diastolic pressure. LVH reduced maximal oxidative capacity (-23.6 and -33.3%, increased mitochondrial H2O2 production (+86.9 and +73.1%, free radical leak (+27.2% and +36.3% and citrate synthase activity (+27.2% and +36.3% in Endo and Epi, respectively.Transmural mitochondrial respiratory chain complex IV activity was reduced in LVH (-57.4 vs –12.2%; P=0.02. Conclusions: Endo mitochondrial respiratory chain complexes activities are reduced compared to LV Epi. Mild LVH impairs mitochondrial oxidative capacity, increases oxidative stress and reduces transmural complex IV activity. Further studies will be helpful to determine whether reduced LV transmural gradient in mitochondrial respiration might be a new marker of a transition from uncomplicated toward complicated LVH.

  11. Empagliflozin lessened cardiac injury and reduced visceral adipocyte hypertrophy in prediabetic rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hiroaki; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Hasegawa, Yu; Ogawa, Hisao; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2016-11-11

    The potential benefit of SGLT2 inhibitors in metabolic syndrome is with prediabetic stage unclear. This work was undertaken to investigate the non-glycemic effect of empagliflozin on metabolic syndrome rats with prediabetes. SHR/NDmcr-cp(+/+) rats (SHRcp), a model of metabolic syndrome with prediabetes, were given empagliflozin for 10 weeks to examine the effects on urinary sodium and water balance, visceral and subcutaneous adipocyte, and cardiac injury. Further, the effect of empagliflozin on blood pressure and autonomic nervous system was continuously investigated by using radiotelemetry system. Empagliflozin significantly reduced urinary sodium and water balance of SHRcp only within 1 week of the treatment, but later than 1 week did not alter them throughout the treatment. Empagliflozin significantly reduced body weight of SHRcp, which was mainly attributed to the significant reduction of subcutaneous fat mass. Empagliflozin significantly reduced the size of visceral adipocytes and increased the number of smaller size of adipocytes, which was associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress. Empagliflozin ameliorated cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis of SHRcp, in association with the attenuation of cardiac oxidative stress and inflammation. However, empagliflozin did not significantly change blood pressure, heart rate, sympathetic activity, or baroreceptor function, as evidenced by radiotelemetry analysis. Our present work provided the evidence that SGLT2 inhibition reduced visceral adipocytes hypertrophy and ameliorated cardiac injury in prediabetic metabolic syndrome rat, independently of diuretic effect or blood pressure lowering effect. Thus, SGLT2 inhibition seems to be a promising therapeutic strategy for prediabetic metabolic syndrome.

  12. Adaptations to iron deficiency: cardiac functional responsiveness to norepinephrine, arterial remodeling, and the effect of beta-blockade on cardiac hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walker LeeAnn

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Iron deficiency (ID results in ventricular hypertrophy, believed to involve sympathetic stimulation. We hypothesized that with ID 1 intravenous norepinephrine would alter heart rate (HR and contractility, 2 abdominal aorta would be larger and more distensible, and 3 the beta-blocker propanolol would reduce hypertrophy. Methods 1 30 CD rats were fed an ID or replete diet for 1 week or 1 month. Norepinephrine was infused via jugular vein; pressure was monitored at carotid artery. Saline infusions were used as a control. The pressure trace was analyzed for HR, contractility, systolic and diastolic pressures. 2 Abdominal aorta catheters inflated the aorta, while digital microscopic images were recorded at stepwise pressures to measure arterial diameter and distensibility. 3 An additional 10 rats (5 ID, 5 control were given a daily injection of propanolol or saline. After 1 month, the hearts were excised and weighed. Results Enhanced contractility, but not HR, was associated with ID hypertrophic hearts. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were consistent with an increase in arterial diameter associated with ID. Aortic diameter at 100 mmHg and distensibility were increased with ID. Propanolol was associated with an increase in heart to body mass ratio. Conclusions ID cardiac hypertrophy results in an increased inotropic, but not chronotropic response to the sympathetic neurotransmitter, norepinephrine. Increased aortic diameter is consistent with a flow-dependent vascular remodeling; increased distensibility may reflect decreased vascular collagen content. The failure of propanolol to prevent hypertrophy suggests that ID hypertrophy is not mediated via beta-adrenergic neurotransmission.

  13. Dealing with existential anxiety in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte; Pedersen, Birthe D; Dreyer, Pia

    2015-01-01

    rehabilitation. Focus group interviews were conducted at the programme end, and individual interviews were performed one to two months later. The interpretation comprised three methodological steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive interpretation and discussion. Findings Although both......Aims and objectives To investigate patients' lived experiences of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Background Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is used to enable patients with cardiac problems to move forward to lead satisfying lives. However, knowledge of patients' concerns while...... it requires specific care. Recognising this anxiety also highlights how participating in the programme can be very demanding, which can help us understand aspects of adherence problems. Of greatest importance is that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation enables patients to find a new foothold, which...

  14. What Limits Cardiac Performance during Exercise in Normal Subjects and in Healthy Fontan Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André La Gerche

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is an important determinant of health but is significantly reduced in the patient with a univentricular circulation. Normal exercise physiology mandates an increase in pulmonary artery pressures which places an increased work demand on the right ventricle (RV. In a biventricular circulation with pathological increases in pulmonary vascular resistance and/or reductions in RV function, exercise-induced augmentation of cardiac output is limited. Left ventricular preload reserve is dependent upon flow through the pulmonary circulation and this requires adequate RV performance. In the Fontan patient, the reasons for exercise intolerance are complex. In those patients with myocardial dysfunction or other pathologies of the circulatory components, it is likely that these abnormalities serve as a limitation to cardiac performance during exercise. However, in the healthy Fontan patient, it may be the absence of a sub-pulmonary pump which limits normal increases in pulmonary pressures, trans-pulmonary flow requirements and cardiac output. If so, performance will be exquisitely dependent on pulmonary vascular resistance. This provides a potential explanation as to why pulmonary vasodilators may improve exercise tolerance. As has recently been demonstrated, these agents may offer an important new treatment strategy which directly addresses the physiological limitations in the Fontan patient.

  15. The Effect of High-Intensity Interval Cycling Sprints Subsequent to Arm-Curl Exercise on Upper-Body Muscle Strength and Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Naoki; Yoshida, Shou; Okuyama, Mizuki; Nakazato, Koichi

    2016-08-01

    Kikuchi, N, Yoshida, S, Okuyama, M, and Nakazato, K. The effect of high-intensity interval cycling sprints subsequent to arm-curl exercise on upper-body muscle strength and hypertrophy. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2318-2323, 2016-The purpose of this study was to examine whether lower limb sprint interval training (SIT) after arm resistance training (RT) influences training response of arm muscle strength and hypertrophy. Twenty men participated in this study. We divided subjects into RT group (n = 6) and concurrent training group (CT, n = 6). The RT program was designed to induce muscular hypertrophy (3 sets × 10 repetitions [reps] at 80% 1 repetition maximum [1RM] of arm-curl exercise) and was performed in an 8-week training schedule performed 3 times per week on nonconsecutive days. Subjects assigned to the CT group performed identical protocols as strength training and modified SIT (4 sets of 30-s maximal effort, separated in 4 m 30-s rest intervals) on the same day. Pretest and posttest maximal oxygen consumption (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), and 1RM were measured. Significant increase in V[Combining Dot Above]O2max from pretest to posttest was observed in the CT group (p = 0.010, effect size [ES] = 1.84) but not in the RT group (p = 0.559, ES = 0.35). Significant increase in CSA from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.030, ES = 1.49) but not in the CT group (p = 0.110, ES = 1.01). Significant increase in 1RM from pretest to posttest was observed in the RT group (p = 0.021, ES = 1.57) but not in the CT group (p = 0.065, ES = 1.19). In conclusion, our data indicate that concurrent lower limb SIT interferes with arm muscle hypertrophy and strength.

  16. ELABELA-APJ axis protects from pressure overload heart failure and angiotensin II-induced cardiac damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Teruki; Sato, Chitose; Kadowaki, Ayumi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ho, Lena; Ishida, Junji; Yamaguchi, Tomokazu; Kimura, Akinori; Fukamizu, Akiyoshi; Penninger, Josef M; Reversade, Bruno; Ito, Hiroshi; Imai, Yumiko; Kuba, Keiji

    2017-06-01

    Elabela/Toddler/Apela (ELA) has been identified as a novel endogenous peptide ligand for APJ/Apelin receptor/Aplnr. ELA plays a crucial role in early cardiac development of zebrafish as well as in maintenance of self-renewal of human embryonic stem cells. Apelin was the first identified APJ ligand, and exerts positive inotropic heart effects and regulates the renin-angiotensin system. The aim of this study was to investigate the biological effects of ELA in the cardiovascular system. Continuous infusion of ELA peptide significantly suppressed pressure overload-induced cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and impaired contractility in mice. ELA treatment reduced mRNA expression levels of genes associated with heart failure and fibrosis. The cardioprotective effects of ELA were diminished in APJ knockout mice, indicating that APJ is the key receptor for ELA in the adult heart. Mechanistically, ELA downregulated angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) expression in the stressed hearts, whereas it showed little effects on angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) expression, which are distinct from the effects of Apelin. FoxM1 transcription factor, which induces ACE expression in the stressed hearts, was downregulated by ELA but not by Apelin. ELA antagonized angiotensin II-induced hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy, and fibrosis in mice. The ELA-APJ axis protects from pressure overload-induced heart failure possibly via suppression of ACE expression and pathogenic angiotensin II signalling. The different effects of ELA and Apelin on the expression of ACE and ACE2 implicate fine-tuned mechanisms for a ligand-induced APJ activation and downstream signalling. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Cardiac arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in systemic hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sultana, R.; Sultana, N.; Rashid, A.; Rasheed, S.Z.; Ahmed, M.; Ishaq, M.; Samad, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and mortality. Objective was to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and LVH in systemic hypertension. Methods: In all subjects blood pressure was measured, electrocardiography and echocardiography was done. Holter monitoring and exercise test perform in certain cases. There were 500 hypertensive patients, 156 (31.2%) men and 344 (69%) women >30 years of age in the study. Among them 177 (35.4%) were diabetic, 224 (45%) were dyslipidemia, 188 (37.6%) were smokers, and 14 (3%) had homocysteinemia. Mean systolic BP (SBP) was 180 +- 20 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 95 +- 12 in male and female patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 119.2 +- 30 2 2gm/m in male while 103 +- 22 gm/m in female patients. Palpitation was seen in 126 (25%) male and 299 (59.8%) female patients. Atrial fibrillation was noted in 108 (21.6%) male and 125 (25%) female patients, 30 (6%) male and 82 (16.4%) female patients had atrial flutter. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 37 (7.4%) male and 59 (11.8%) female patients. Holter monitoring showed significant premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S) in 109 (21.8%) male and 128 (25.69%) female patients while Holter showed atrial arrhythmias (APC'S) in 89 (17.8%) males and 119 (23.8%) females. Angiography findings diagnosed coronary artery disease in 119 (23.8%) with CAD male and 225 (45%) without CAD while 47 (9.4%) females presented with CAD and 109 (21.8%) without CAD. Conclusion: A significant association has been demonstrated between hypertension and arrhythmias. Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, left atrial size and function, as well as LVH have been suggested as the underlying risk factors for supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in hypertensives with LVH. (author)

  18. Cardiac arrhythmias and left ventricular hypertrophy in systemic hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sultana, R; Sultana, N; Rashid, A; Rasheed, S Z; Ahmed, M; Ishaq, M; Samad, A [Karachi Institute of Heart Diseases, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2010-10-15

    Background: Hypertensive left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is associated with increased risk of arrhythmias and mortality. Objective was to investigate the prevalence of cardiac arrhythmias and LVH in systemic hypertension. Methods: In all subjects blood pressure was measured, electrocardiography and echocardiography was done. Holter monitoring and exercise test perform in certain cases. There were 500 hypertensive patients, 156 (31.2%) men and 344 (69%) women >30 years of age in the study. Among them 177 (35.4%) were diabetic, 224 (45%) were dyslipidemia, 188 (37.6%) were smokers, and 14 (3%) had homocysteinemia. Mean systolic BP (SBP) was 180 +- 20 mm Hg and diastolic BP (DBP) was 95 +- 12 in male and female patients. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was 119.2 +- 30 2 2gm/m in male while 103 +- 22 gm/m in female patients. Palpitation was seen in 126 (25%) male and 299 (59.8%) female patients. Atrial fibrillation was noted in 108 (21.6%) male and 125 (25%) female patients, 30 (6%) male and 82 (16.4%) female patients had atrial flutter. Ventricular tachycardia was noted in 37 (7.4%) male and 59 (11.8%) female patients. Holter monitoring showed significant premature ventricular contractions (PVC'S) in 109 (21.8%) male and 128 (25.69%) female patients while Holter showed atrial arrhythmias (APC'S) in 89 (17.8%) males and 119 (23.8%) females. Angiography findings diagnosed coronary artery disease in 119 (23.8%) with CAD male and 225 (45%) without CAD while 47 (9.4%) females presented with CAD and 109 (21.8%) without CAD. Conclusion: A significant association has been demonstrated between hypertension and arrhythmias. Diastolic dysfunction of the left ventricle, left atrial size and function, as well as LVH have been suggested as the underlying risk factors for supraventricular, ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death in hypertensives with LVH. (author)

  19. Cinnamaldehyde impairs high glucose-induced hypertrophy in renal interstitial fibroblasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, Louis Kuoping; Chang, W.-T.; Shih, Y.-W.; Huang, J.-S.

    2010-01-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a major and a bioactive compound isolated from the leaves of Cinnamomum osmophloeum kaneh. To explore whether cinnamaldehyde was linked to altered high glucose (HG)-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in diabetic nephropathy (DN), the molecular mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde responsible for inhibition of HG-induced hypertrophy in renal interstitial fibroblasts were examined. We found that cinnamaldehyde caused inhibition of HG-induced cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in HG or cinnamaldehyde treatments in these cells. HG-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) (but not the Janus kinase 2/signal transducers and activators of transcription) activation was markedly blocked by cinnamaldehyde. The ability of cinnamaldehyde to inhibit HG-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of collagen IV, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA). The results obtained in this study suggest that cinnamaldehyde treatment of renal interstitial fibroblasts that have been stimulated by HG reduces their ability to proliferate and hypertrophy through mechanisms that may be dependent on inactivation of the ERK/JNK/p38 MAPK pathway.

  20. Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation programs' exercise therapy for patients undergoing cardiac surgery: National Korean Questionnaire Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yong Gon; Jang, Mi Ja; Park, Won Hah; Hong, Kyung Pyo; Sung, Jidong

    2017-02-01

    Inpatient cardiac rehabilitation (ICR) has been commonly conducted after cardiac surgery in many countries, and has been reported a lots of results. However, until now, there is inadequacy of data on the status of ICR in Korea. This study described the current status of exercise therapy in ICR that is performed after cardiac surgery in Korean hospitals. Questionnaires modified by previous studies were sent to the departments of thoracic surgery of 10 hospitals in Korea. Nine replies (response rate 90%) were received. Eight nurses and one physiotherapist completed the questionnaire. Most of the education on wards after cardiac surgery was conducted by nurses. On postoperative day 1, four sites performed sitting on the edge of bed, sit to stand, up to chair, and walking in the ward. Only one site performed that exercise on postoperative day 2. One activity (stairs up and down) was performed on different days at only two sites. Patients received education preoperatively and predischarge for preventing complications and reducing muscle weakness through physical inactivity. The results of the study demonstrate that there are small variations in the general care provided by nurses after cardiac surgery. Based on the results of this research, we recommended that exercise therapy programs have to conduct by exercise specialists like exercise physiologists or physiotherapists for patients in hospitalization period.

  1. Optimal technique for deep breathing exercises after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E

    2015-06-01

    Cardiac surgery patients often develop a restrictive pulmonary impairment and gas exchange abnormalities in the early postoperative period. Chest physiotherapy is routinely prescribed in order to reduce or prevent these complications. Besides early mobilization, positioning and shoulder girdle exercises, various breathing exercises have been implemented as a major component of postoperative care. A variety of deep breathing maneuvres are recommended to the spontaneously breathing patient to reduce atelectasis and to improve lung function in the early postoperative period. Different breathing exercises are recommended in different parts of the world, and there is no consensus about the most effective breathing technique after cardiac surgery. Arbitrary instructions are given, and recommendations on performance and duration vary between hospitals. Deep breathing exercises are a major part of this therapy, but scientific evidence for the efficacy has been lacking until recently, and there is a lack of trials describing how postoperative breathing exercises actually should be performed. The purpose of this review is to provide a brief overview of postoperative breathing exercises for patients undergoing cardiac surgery via sternotomy, and to discuss and suggest an optimal technique for the performance of deep breathing exercises.

  2. Clinical significance of normal exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy in subjects with abnormal exercise electrocardiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Takeshi; Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Hayashida, Kohei; Chiba, Hiroshi; Mitani, Isao; Saito, Muneyasu; Sumiyoshi, Tetsuya

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between exercise thallium-201 scintigraphic findings and clinical features (chest pain, risk factors, resting electrocardiography, exercise electrocardiography and prognosis) was studied in the 234 patients with profound ST-segment depression (J 80 ≥ -2 mm) or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. We classified these cases into two groups by exercise thallium perfusion; (I) normal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 24), (II) abnormal thallium-201 perfusion (n = 210). The incidence of female in group I was larger than that in group II. In resting electrocardiography, left ventricular hypertrophy was found more frequent in group I. In exercise electrocardiography, most of ST-segment depression in group I revealed up-slope type and a rapid recovery to baseline. Group I had lower incidence of cardiac events (cardiac death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty, coronary artery bypass grafting). In conclusion, normal thallium-201 perfusion in exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was more useful indicator for prognosis, even if the patients had the findings of profound ST-segment depression or negative U wave in exercise electrocardiography. (author)

  3. Short-term exercise worsens cardiac oxidative stress and fibrosis in 8-month-old db/db mice by depleting cardiac glutathione.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laher, Ismail; Beam, Julianne; Botta, Amy; Barendregt, Rebekah; Sulistyoningrum, Dian; Devlin, Angela; Rheault, Mark; Ghosh, Sanjoy

    2013-01-01

    Moderate exercise improves cardiac antioxidant status in young humans and animals with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). Given that both diabetes and advancing age synergistically decrease antioxidant expression in most tissues, it is unclear whether exercise can upregulate cardiac antioxidants in chronic animal models of T2D. To this end, 8-month-old T2D and normoglycemic mice were exercised for 3 weeks, and cardiac redox status was evaluated. As expected, moderate exercise increased cardiac antioxidants and attenuated oxidative damage in normoglycemic mice. In contrast, similar exercise protocol in 8-month-old db/db mice worsened cardiac oxidative damage, which was associated with a specific dysregulation of glutathione (GSH) homeostasis. Expression of enzymes for GSH biosynthesis [γ-glutamylcysteine synthase, glutathione reductase] as well as for GSH-mediated detoxification (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase) was lower, while toxic metabolites dependent on GSH for clearance (4-hydroxynonenal) were increased in exercised diabetic mice hearts. To validate GSH loss as an important factor for such aggravated damage, daily administration of GSH restored cardiac GSH levels in exercised diabetic mice. Such supplementation attenuated both oxidative damage and fibrotic changes in the myocardium. Expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and its regulated genes which are responsible for such profibrotic changes were also attenuated with GSH supplementation. These novel findings in a long-term T2D animal model demonstrate that short-term exercise by itself can deplete cardiac GSH and aggravate cardiac oxidative stress. As GSH administration conferred protection in 8-month-old diabetic mice undergoing exercise, supplementation with GSH-enhancing agents may be beneficial in elderly diabetic patients undergoing exercise.

  4. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester prevents cadmium-induced cardiac impairment in rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollaoglu, Hakan; Gokcimen, Alpaslan; Ozguner, Fehmi; Oktem, Faruk; Koyu, Ahmet; Kocak, Ahmet; Demirin, Hilmi; Gokalp, Osman; Cicek, Ekrem

    2006-01-01

    Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a flavonoid like compound, is one of the major components of honeybee propolis. It was found to be a potent free radical scavenger and antioxidant recently. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of CAPE on cadmium (Cd)-induced hypertension and cardiomyopathy in rats. In particular, nitric oxide (NO) may contribute to the pathophysiology of Cd induced cardiac impairment. Malondialdehyde (MDA, an index of lipid peroxidation) levels and nitric oxide (NO, a vasodilator) levels were used as markers Cd-induced cardiac impairment and the success of CAPE treatment. Also, the findings have been supported by the histopathologic evidences. The rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups each (12), as follows: the control group, Cd-treated group (Cd) and Cd plus CAPE-treated group (Cd + CAPE). CdCl 2 in 0.9% NaCl was administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with a dose of 1 mg/kg/day. CAPE was co-administered i.p. a dose of 10 μM/kg for 15 days. Hypertension was found to be induced by intraperitoneal administration of Cd in a dose of 1 mg/kg/day on the measurements taken 15 days later. MDA levels were increased (p < 0.001) in cardiac tissue and NO levels were decreased (p < 0.05) in serum in the Cd group than those of the control group had. On the other hand, there was a slight difference (increase) in MDA levels in the Cd + CAPE group than the ones in the control group (p < 0.003). In addition, MDA levels were decreased and NO levels were increased in the Cd + CAPE group compared with the Cd group (p < 0.001, p < 0.0001, respectively). As a result, treatment with CAPE significantly reversed the increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) product, MDA, and decreased NO levels in Cd treated animals. In the histopathologic examination, a significant hypertrophy in atrial and ventricular myofibrils was observed in only Cd administered group, in comparison with the control group. There was no statistically significant difference

  5. Cardiac-specific inducible overexpression of human plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase 4b is cardioprotective and improves survival in mice following ischemic injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadi, Al Muktafi; Afroze, Talat; Siraj, M Ahsan; Momen, Abdul; White-Dzuro, Colin; Zarrin-Khat, Dorrin; Handa, Shivalika; Ban, Kiwon; Kabir, M Golam; Trivieri, Maria G; Gros, Robert; Backx, Peter; Husain, Mansoor

    2018-03-30

    Background: Heart failure (HF) is associated with reduced expression of plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase 4 (PMCA4). Cardiac-specific overexpression of human PMCA4b in mice inhibited nNOS activity and reduced cardiac hypertrophy by inhibiting calcineurin. Here we examine temporally regulated cardiac-specific overexpression of hPMCA4b in mouse models of myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) ex vivo , and HF following experimental myocardial infarction (MI) in vivo Methods and results: Doxycycline-regulated cardiomyocyte-specific overexpression and activity of hPMCA4b produced adaptive changes in expression levels of Ca 2+ -regulatory genes, and induced hypertrophy without significant differences in Ca 2+ transients or diastolic Ca 2+ concentrations. Total cardiac NOS and nNOS-specific activities were reduced in mice with cardiac overexpression of hPMCA4b while nNOS, eNOS and iNOS protein levels did not differ. hMPCA4b-overexpressing mice also exhibited elevated systolic blood pressure vs. controls, with increased contractility and lusitropy in vivo In isolated hearts undergoing IRI, hPMCA4b overexpression was cardioprotective. NO donor-treated hearts overexpressing hPMCA4b showed reduced LVDP and larger infarct size versus vehicle-treated hearts undergoing IRI, demonstrating that the cardioprotective benefits of hPMCA4b-repressed nNOS are lost by restoring NO availability. Finally, both pre-existing and post-MI induction of hPMCA4b overexpression reduced infarct expansion and improved survival from HF. Conclusions: Cardiac PMCA4b regulates nNOS activity, cardiac mass and contractility, such that PMCA4b overexpression preserves cardiac function following IRI, heightens cardiac performance and limits infarct progression, cardiac hypertrophy and HF, even when induced late post-MI. These data identify PMCA4b as a novel therapeutic target for IRI and HF. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  6. Regulation of cardiac remodeling by cardiac Na/K-ATPase isoforms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijun Catherine Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Cardiac remodeling occurs after cardiac pressure/volume overload or myocardial injury during the development of heart failure and is a determinant of heart failure. Preventing or reversing remodeling is a goal of heart failure therapy. Human cardiomyocyte Na+/K+-ATPase has multiple α isoforms (1-3. The expression of the α subunit of the Na+/K+-ATPase is often altered in hypertrophic and failing hearts. The mechanisms are unclear. There are limited data from human cardiomyocytes. Abundant evidences from rodents show that Na+/K+-ATPase regulates cardiac contractility, cell signaling, hypertrophy and fibrosis. The α1 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase is the ubiquitous isoform and possesses both pumping and signaling functions. The α2 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase regulates intracellular Ca2+ signaling, contractility and pathological hypertrophy. The α3 isoform of the Na+/K+-ATPase may also be a target for cardiac hypertrophy. Restoration of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase expression may be an effective approach for prevention of cardiac remodeling. In this article, we will overview: (1 the distribution and function of isoform specific Na+/K+-ATPase in the cardiomyocytes. (2 the role of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase in the regulation of cell signaling, contractility, cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in vitro and in vivo. Selective targeting of cardiac Na+/K+-ATPase isoform may offer a new target for the prevention of cardiac remodeling.

  7. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risom, Signe Stelling; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Johansen, Pernille Palm

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may benefit adults with atrial fibrillation or those who had been treated for atrial fibrillation. Atrial fibrillation is caused by multiple micro re-entry circuits within the atrial tissue, which result in chaotic rapid activity in the atria....... OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of exercise-based rehabilitation programmes, alone or with another intervention, compared with no-exercise training controls in adults who currently have AF, or have been treated for AF. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the following electronic databases; CENTRAL...... the benefits and harms of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults with atrial fibrillation on patient-relevant outcomes....

  8. High-intensity interval training, but not continuous training, reverses right ventricular hypertrophy and dysfunction in a rat model of pulmonary hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Mary Beth; Neves, Evandro; Long, Gary; Graber, Jeremy; Gladish, Brett; Wiseman, Andrew; Owens, Matthew; Fisher, Amanda J; Presson, Robert G; Petrache, Irina; Kline, Jeffrey; Lahm, Tim

    2017-02-01

    Exercise is beneficial in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), although studies to date indicate little effect on the elevated pulmonary pressures or maladaptive right ventricle (RV) hypertrophy associated with the disease. For chronic left ventricle failure, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) promotes greater endothelial stimulation and superior benefit than customary continuous exercise training (CExT); however, HIIT has not been tested for PAH. Therefore, here we investigated acute and chronic responses to HIIT vs. CExT in a rat model of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced mild PAH. Six weeks of treadmill training (5 times/wk) were performed, as either 30 min HIIT or 60 min low-intensity CExT. To characterize acute hemodynamic responses to the two approaches, novel recordings of simultaneous pulmonary and systemic pressures during running were obtained at pre- and 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk post-MCT using long-term implantable telemetry. MCT-induced decrement in maximal aerobic capacity was ameliorated by both HIIT and CExT, with less pronounced pulmonary vascular remodeling and no increase in RV inflammation or apoptosis observed. Most importantly, only HIIT lowered RV systolic pressure, RV hypertrophy, and total pulmonary resistance, and prompted higher cardiac index that was complemented by a RV increase in the positive inotrope apelin and reduced fibrosis. HIIT prompted a markedly pulsatile pulmonary pressure during running and was associated with greater lung endothelial nitric oxide synthase after 6 wk. We conclude that HIIT may be superior to CExT for improving hemodynamics and maladaptive RV hypertrophy in PAH. HIIT's superior outcomes may be explained by more favorable pulmonary vascular endothelial adaptation to the pulsatile HIIT stimulus.

  9. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for adults after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sibilitz, Kirstine Lærum; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Tang, Lars Hermann

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation may benefit heart valve surgery patients. We conducted a systematic review to assess the evidence for the use of exercise-based intervention programmes following heart valve surgery. OBJECTIVES: To assess the benefits and harms of exercise......-based cardiac rehabilitation compared with no exercise training intervention, or treatment as usual, in adults following heart valve surgery. We considered programmes including exercise training with or without another intervention (such as a psycho-educational component). SEARCH METHODS: We searched...... handsearched Web of Science, bibliographies of systematic reviews and trial registers (ClinicalTrials.gov, Controlled-trials.com, and The World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform). SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised clinical trials that investigated exercise...

  10. Cardiac-specific overexpression of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 exacerbates cardiac remodeling in response to pressure overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujith Dassanayaka

    2018-07-01

    Full Text Available Pathological cardiac remodeling during heart failure is associated with higher levels of lipid peroxidation products and lower abundance of several aldehyde detoxification enzymes, including aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2. An emerging idea that could explain these findings concerns the role of electrophilic species in redox signaling, which may be important for adaptive responses to stress or injury. The purpose of this study was to determine whether genetically increasing ALDH2 activity affects pressure overload-induced cardiac dysfunction. Mice subjected to transverse aortic constriction (TAC for 12 weeks developed myocardial hypertrophy and cardiac dysfunction, which were associated with diminished ALDH2 expression and activity. Cardiac-specific expression of the human ALDH2 gene in mice augmented myocardial ALDH2 activity but did not improve cardiac function in response to pressure overload. After 12 weeks of TAC, ALDH2 transgenic mice had larger hearts than their wild-type littermates and lower capillary density. These findings show that overexpression of ALDH2 augments the hypertrophic response to pressure overload and imply that downregulation of ALDH2 may be an adaptive response to certain forms of cardiac pathology. Keywords: Heart failure, Hypertrophy, Oxidative stress, Aldehydes, Cardiac remodeling, Hormesis

  11. Genetic Dissection of Cardiac Remodeling in an Isoproterenol-Induced Heart Failure Mouse Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Jen-Chu Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to understand the genetic control of cardiac remodeling using an isoproterenol-induced heart failure model in mice, which allowed control of confounding factors in an experimental setting. We characterized the changes in cardiac structure and function in response to chronic isoproterenol infusion using echocardiography in a panel of 104 inbred mouse strains. We showed that cardiac structure and function, whether under normal or stress conditions, has a strong genetic component, with heritability estimates of left ventricular mass between 61% and 81%. Association analyses of cardiac remodeling traits, corrected for population structure, body size and heart rate, revealed 17 genome-wide significant loci, including several loci containing previously implicated genes. Cardiac tissue gene expression profiling, expression quantitative trait loci, expression-phenotype correlation, and coding sequence variation analyses were performed to prioritize candidate genes and to generate hypotheses for downstream mechanistic studies. Using this approach, we have validated a novel gene, Myh14, as a negative regulator of ISO-induced left ventricular mass hypertrophy in an in vivo mouse model and demonstrated the up-regulation of immediate early gene Myc, fetal gene Nppb, and fibrosis gene Lgals3 in ISO-treated Myh14 deficient hearts compared to controls.

  12. Serotonin-promoted elevation of ROS levels may lead to cardiac pathologies in diabetic rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Tahir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with diabetes mellitus (DM develop tendencies toward heart disease. Hyperglycemia induces the release of serotonin from enterochromaffin cells (EC. Serotonin was observed to elevate reactive oxygen species (ROS and downregulate antioxidant enzymes. As a result, elevated levels of serotonin could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy. In the present study, diabetes mellitus was induced in rats by alloxan administration; this was followed by the administration of serotonin to experimental animals. ROS, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP expression, and histopathological assessments were performed. Elevated ROS concentrations and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities were detected. Further, we observed an increase in cell surface area and elevated BNP expression which suggests that events associated with cardiac hypertrophy were increased in serotonin-administered diabetic rats. We conclude that serotonin secretion in diabetes could contribute to diabetic complications, including cardiac hypertrophy, through enhanced ROS production.

  13. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heran, Balraj S; Chen, Jenny MH; Ebrahim, Shah; Moxham, Tiffany; Oldridge, Neil; Rees, Karen; Thompson, David R; Taylor, Rod S

    2014-01-01

    Background The burden of coronary heart disease (CHD) worldwide is one of great concern to patients and healthcare agencies alike. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation aims to restore patients with heart disease to health. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (exercise training alone or in combination with psychosocial or educational interventions) on mortality, morbidity and health-related quality of life of patients with CHD. Search methods RCTs have been identified by searching CENTRAL, HTA, and DARE (using The Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2009), as well as MEDLINE (1950 to December 2009), EMBASE (1980 to December 2009), CINAHL (1982 to December 2009), and Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to December 2009). Selection criteria Men and women of all ages who have had myocardial infarction (MI), coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA), or who have angina pectoris or coronary artery disease defined by angiography. Data collection and analysis Studies were selected and data extracted independently by two reviewers. Authors were contacted where possible to obtain missing information. Main results This systematic review has allowed analysis of 47 studies randomising 10,794 patients to exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation or usual care. In medium to longer term (i.e. 12 or more months follow-up) exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation reduced overall and cardiovascular mortality [RR 0.87 (95% CI 0.75, 0.99) and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.87), respectively], and hospital admissions [RR 0.69 (95% CI 0.51, 0.93)] in the shorter term (< 12 months follow-up) with no evidence of heterogeneity of effect across trials. Cardiac rehabilitation did not reduce the risk of total MI, CABG or PTCA. Given both the heterogeneity in outcome measures and methods of reporting findings, a meta-analysis was not undertaken for health-related quality of life. In seven out of 10 trials reporting health

  14. Sildenafil prevents the up-regulation of transient receptor potential canonical channels in the development of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiso, Hironori; Ohba, Takayoshi; Iino, Kenji; Sato, Kazuhiro; Terata, Yutaka; Murakami, Manabu; Ono, Kyoichi; Watanabe, Hiroyuki; Ito, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPC1, 3 and 6) are up-regulated by ET-1. •Sildenafil inhibited hypertrophic responses (BNP, Ca entry, NFAT activation). •Sildenafil suppressed TRPC1, 3 and 6 expression. -- Abstract: Background: Transient receptor potential canonical (TRPCs) channels are up-regulated in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Sildenafil inhibits TRPC6 activation and expression, leading to the prevention of cardiac hypertrophy. However, the effects of sildenafil on the expression of other TRPCs remain unknown. We hypothesized that in addition to its effects of TRPC6, sildenafil blocks the up-regulation of other TRPC channels to suppress cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Methods and results: In cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes, a 48 h treatment with 10 nM endothelin (ET)-1 induced hypertrophic responses characterized by nuclear factor of activated T cells activation and enhancement of brain natriuretic peptide expression and cell surface area. Co-treatment with sildenafil (1 μM, 48 h) inhibited these ET-1-induced hypertrophic responses. Although ET-1 enhanced the gene expression of TRPCs, sildenafil inhibited the enhanced gene expression of TRPC1, C3 and C6. Moreover, co-treatment with sildenafil abolished the augmentation of SOCE in the hypertrophied cardiomyocytes. Conclusions: These results suggest that sildenafil inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy by suppressing the up-regulation of TRPC expression

  15. Comparative study of the antioxidant properties of monocarbonyl curcumin analogues C66 and B2BrBC in isoproteranol induced cardiac damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzi-Petrushev, Nikola; Bogdanov, Jane; Krajoska, Jovanka; Ilievska, Jovana; Bogdanova-Popov, Biljana; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Mitrokhin, Vadim; Sopi, Ramadan; Gagov, Hristo; Kamkin, Andre; Mladenov, Mitko

    2018-03-15

    To test the antioxidant properties of the newly synthesized (2E,6E)-2,6-bis(2-bromobenzylidene)cyclohexanone (B2BrBC) in parallel with C66 in rats with cardiac hypertrophy. The protective effects of both C66 and B2BrBC against oxidative stress in rats with cardiac hypertrophy, was studied by evaluating the activity of antioxidant enzymes, the relationship between the ratio of the activities of the antioxidant enzymes R = SOD/(GPx + CAT) and levels of thiols and lipid peroxidation in the heart. In order to gain better understanding of the antioxidant properties of the studied compounds, computational methods were utilized. The properties of selected structurally related derivatives were obtained on optimized geometries for ground states, using semi-empirical PM3 quantum mechanical calculations. The ratio R shows disequilibrium in rats with induced hypertrophy (p antioxidant. The obtained results indicated that the antioxidant ability of B2BrBC is positively associated with the catalytic SOD and GPx activities expressed through preserved t-SH levels. It seems plausible that for a compound to exhibit antioxidant activity, as most of the 2,6-bis(benzylidene)cyclohexanones do, they should be good electron donors. Understanding the relationship between cardiac hypertrophy induced oxidative injuries and supporters of endogenous reparatory machinery will help in establishing the beneficial role of adequate antioxidant supplementation. In this study reliable data on the preventive effects of newly synthesized symmetric monocarbonyl curcumin analogue B2BrBC and its role in the prevention of oxidative injuries on three levels (enzymatic, protein and lipid), in the heart hypertrophic onset, were obtained. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. SIRT1 may play a crucial role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltai, Erika; Bori, Zoltán; Chabert, Clovis; Dubouchaud, Hervé; Naito, Hisashi; Machida, Shuichi; Davies, Kelvin Ja; Murlasits, Zsolt; Fry, Andrew C; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2017-06-01

    Silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) activity and content increased significantly in overload-induced hypertrophy. SIRT1-mediated signalling through Akt, the endothelial nitric oxide synthase mediated pathway, regulates anabolic process in the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. The regulation of catabolic signalling via forkhead box O 1 and protein ubiquitination is SIRT1 dependent. Overload-induced changes in microRNA levels regulate SIRT1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 signalling. Significant skeletal muscle mass guarantees functional wellbeing and is important for high level performance in many sports. Although the molecular mechanism for skeletal muscle hypertrophy has been well studied, it still is not completely understood. In the present study, we used a functional overload model to induce plantaris muscle hypertrophy by surgically removing the soleus and gastrocnemius muscles in rats. Two weeks of muscle ablation resulted in a 40% increase in muscle mass, which was associated with a significant increase in silent mating type information regulation 2 homologue 1 (SIRT1) content and activity (P overload-induced hypertrophy. These findings, along with the well-known regulatory roles that SIRT1 plays in modulating both anabolic and catabolic pathways, allow us to propose the hypothesis that SIRT1 may actually play a crucial causal role in overload-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. This hypothesis will now require rigorous direct and functional testing. © 2017 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  17. Exome Sequencing Identified a Splice Site Mutation in FHL1 that Causes Uruguay Syndrome, an X-Linked Disorder With Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy and Premature Cardiac Death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yuan; Schoser, Benedikt; Rao, Aliz R; Quadrelli, Roberto; Vaglio, Alicia; Rupp, Verena; Beichler, Christine; Nelson, Stanley F; Schapacher-Tilp, Gudrun; Windpassinger, Christian; Wilcox, William R

    2016-04-01

    Previously, we reported a rare X-linked disorder, Uruguay syndrome in a single family. The main features are pugilistic facies, skeletal deformities, and muscular hypertrophy despite a lack of exercise and cardiac ventricular hypertrophy leading to premature death. An ≈19 Mb critical region on X chromosome was identified through identity-by-descent analysis of 3 affected males. Exome sequencing was conducted on one affected male to identify the disease-causing gene and variant. A splice site variant (c.502-2A>G) in the FHL1 gene was highly suspicious among other candidate genes and variants. FHL1A is the predominant isoform of FHL1 in cardiac and skeletal muscle. Sequencing cDNA showed the splice site variant led to skipping of exons 6 of the FHL1A isoform, equivalent to the FHL1C isoform. Targeted analysis showed that this splice site variant cosegregated with disease in the family. Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis of muscle from the proband showed a significant decrease in protein expression of FHL1A. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of different isoforms of FHL1 demonstrated that the FHL1C is markedly increased. Mutations in the FHL1 gene have been reported in disorders with skeletal and cardiac myopathy but none has the skeletal or facial phenotype seen in patients with Uruguay syndrome. Our data suggest that a novel FHL1 splice site variant results in the absence of FHL1A and the abundance of FHL1C, which may contribute to the complex and severe phenotype. Mutation screening of the FHL1 gene should be considered for patients with uncharacterized myopathies and cardiomyopathies. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Cardiac hypertrophy in chick embryos induced by hypothermia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boehm, C.; Johnson, T.R.; Caston, J.D.; Przybylski, R.J.

    1987-01-01

    A decrease in incubation temperature from 38 to 32 0 C elicits a decrease in chicken embryo size and weight with concomitant heart enlargement if done after day 10 of incubation. When assayed at day 18 of incubation with the hypothermia started on day 11 or 14, evidence is presented that the heart enlargement is an hypertrophy with no detectable hyperplasia. Supporting data are presented for various physical parameters showing increases in heart wet and dry weight, volume, area, wall thickness, and cell size. There was little difference in DNA content and nuclear [ 3 H]thymidine labeling index between hearts of control and hypothermic embryos. Hearts of hypothermic embryos showed a slight increase in water content and considerable increases in RNA, protein, and glycogen content per unit DNA. The average size of polysomes isolated from hypothermic hearts was larger than that of polysomes isolated from controls. Microscopic studies showed no obvious increase in amount of capillary beds, connective tissue, and myocardial cells. Annulate lamellae were found only in myocardial cells of hypothermic embryos in sparse amounts and low frequency but always associated with large deposits of glycogen

  19. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsung-I Chen

    Full Text Available In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA, recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE. During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE, whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl ethylenediamine (TPEN, or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect.

  20. Zinc Is Indispensable in Exercise-Induced Cardioprotection against Intermittent Hypoxia-Induced Left Ventricular Function Impairment in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Michael Yu-Chih

    2016-01-01

    In obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), recurrent obstruction of the upper airway leads to intermittent hypoxia (IH) during sleep, which can result in impairment of cardiac function. Although exercise can have beneficial effects against IH-induced cardiac dysfunction, the mechanism remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the interactions of zinc and exercise on IH-triggered left ventricular dysfunction in a rat model that mimics IH in OSA patients. Nine-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to either a control group (CON) or to a group receiving 10 weeks of exercise training (EXE). During weeks 9 and 10, half the rats in each group were subjected to IH for 8 h per day for 14 days (IHCON, IHEXE), whereas the remainder continued to breathe room air. Rats within each of the CON, IHCON, EXE, and IHEXE groups were further randomly assigned to receive intraperitoneal injections of either zinc chloride, the zinc chelator N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl) ethylenediamine (TPEN), or injection vehicle only. IH induced a lower left ventricular fractional shortening, reduced ejection fraction, higher myocardial levels of inflammatory factors, increased levels oxidative stress, and lower levels of antioxidative capacity, all of which were abolished by zinc treatment. IHEXE rats exhibited higher levels of cardiac function and antioxidant capacity and lower levels of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress than IHCON rats; however, IHEXE rats receiving TPEN did not exhibit these better outcomes. In conclusion, zinc is required for protecting against IH-induced LV functional impairment and likely plays a critical role in exercise-induced cardioprotection by exerting a dual antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. PMID:27977796

  1. Relationship between plasma xanthine oxidoreductase activity and left ventricular ejection fraction and hypertrophy among cardiac patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki Fujimura

    Full Text Available Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR, which catalyzes purine catabolism, has two interconvertible forms, xanthine dehydrogenase and xanthine oxidase, the latter of which produces superoxide during uric acid (UA synthesis. An association between plasma XOR activity and cardiovascular and renal outcomes has been previously suggested. We investigated the potential association between cardiac parameters and plasma XOR activity among cardiology patients.Plasma XOR activity was measured by [13C2,15N2]xanthine coupled with liquid chromatography/triplequadrupole mass spectrometry. Among 270 patients who were not taking UA-lowering drugs, XOR activity was associated with body mass index (BMI, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, HbA1c and renal function. Although XOR activity was not associated with serum UA overall, patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, those with higher XOR activity had higher serum UA among patients without CKD. Compared with patients with the lowest XOR activity quartile, those with higher three XOR activity quartiles more frequently had left ventricular hypertrophy. In addition, plasma XOR activity showed a U-shaped association with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF and increased plasma B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP levels, and these associations were independent of age, gender, BMI, ALT, HbA1C, serum UA, and CKD stages.Among cardiac patients, left ventricular hypertrophy, low LVEF, and increased BNP were significantly associated with plasma XOR activity independent of various confounding factors. Whether pharmaceutical modification of plasma XOR activity might inhibit cardiac remodeling and improve cardiovascular outcome should be investigated in future studies.

  2. Moderate-Intensity Exercise Affects Gut Microbiome Composition and Influences Cardiac Function in Myocardial Infarction Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuheng Liu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is commonly regarded as protective against cardiovascular disease (CVD. Recent studies have reported that exercise alters the gut microbiota and that modification of the gut microbiota can influence cardiac function. Here, we focused on the relationships among exercise, the gut microbiota and cardiac function after myocardial infarction (MI. Four-week-old C57BL/6J mice were exercised on a treadmill for 4 weeks before undergoing left coronary artery ligation. Cardiac function was assessed using echocardiography. Gut microbiomes were evaluated post-exercise and post-MI using 16S rRNA gene sequencing on an Illumina HiSeq platform. Exercise training inhibited declines in cardiac output and stroke volume in post-MI mice. In addition, physical exercise and MI led to alterations in gut microbial composition. Exercise training increased the relative abundance of Butyricimonas and Akkermansia. Additionally, key operational taxonomic units were identified, including 24 lineages (mainly from Bacteroidetes, Barnesiella, Helicobacter, Parabacteroides, Porphyromonadaceae, Ruminococcaceae, and Ureaplasma that were closely related to exercise and cardiac function. These results suggested that exercise training improved cardiac function to some extent in addition to altering the gut microbiota; therefore, they could provide new insights into the use of exercise training for the treatment of CVD.

  3. Chronic Cardiac-Targeted RNA Interference for the Treatment of Heart Failure Restores Cardiac Function and Reduces Pathological Hypertrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckau, Lennart; Fechner, Henry; Chemaly, Elie; Krohn, Stefanie; Hadri, Lahouaria; Kockskämper, Jens; Westermann, Dirk; Bisping, Egbert; Ly, Hung; Wang, Xiaomin; Kawase, Yoshiaki; Chen, Jiqiu; Liang, Lifan; Sipo, Isaac; Vetter, Roland; Weger, Stefan; Kurreck, Jens; Erdmann, Volker; Tschope, Carsten; Pieske, Burkert; Lebeche, Djamel; Schultheiss, Heinz-Peter; Hajjar, Roger J.; Poller, Wolfgang Ch.

    2009-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) has the potential to be a novel therapeutic strategy in diverse areas of medicine. We report on targeted RNAi for the treatment of heart failure (HF), an important disorder in humans resulting from multiple etiologies. Successful treatment of HF is demonstrated in a rat model of transaortic banding by RNAi targeting of phospholamban (PLB), a key regulator of cardiac Ca2+ homeostasis. Whereas gene therapy rests on recombinant protein expression as its basic principle, RNAi therapy employs regulatory RNAs to achieve its effect. Methods and Results We describe structural requirements to obtain high RNAi activity from adenoviral (AdV) and adeno-associated virus (AAV9) vectors and show that an AdV short hairpin RNA vector (AdV-shRNA) silenced PLB in cardiomyocytes (NRCMs) and improved hemodynamics in HF rats 1 month after aortic root injection. For simplified long-term therapy we developed a dimeric cardiotropic AAV vector (rAAV9-shPLB) delivering RNAi activity to the heart via intravenous injection. Cardiac PLB protein was reduced to 25% and SERCA2a suppression in the HF groups was rescued. In contrast to traditional vectors rAAV9 shows high affinity for myocardium, but low affinity for liver and other organs. rAAV9-shPLB therapy restored diastolic (LVEDP, dp/dtmin, Tau) and systolic (fractional shortening) functional parameters to normal range. The massive cardiac dilation was normalized and the cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte diameter and cardiac fibrosis significantly reduced. Importantly, there was no evidence of microRNA deregulation or hepatotoxicity during these RNAi therapies. Conclusion Our data show, for the first time, high efficacy of an RNAi therapeutic strategy in a cardiac disease. PMID:19237664

  4. Cardiovascular and Renal Effects of Birdseed Associated with Aerobic Exercise in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Clévia Santos; Ribeiro, Rosemara Silva; Rosa, Thiago Santos; Neves, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos; Costa, Fernando; Ginoza, Milton; Boim, Mirian Aparecida

    2016-10-01

    Phalaris canariensis L. (Pc), known as birdseed, is rich in tryptophan. The aqueous extract of Pc (AEPc) treatment reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) via mechanisms mediated by the tryptophan metabolizing enzyme indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO). Hypertension is a risk factor to cardiovascular and renal diseases. Considering that physical exercise improves hypertension and cardiovascular function, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether the benefits of exercise (Ex) would be enhanced by concomitant AEPc treatment (400 mg·kg·d p.o.). Vascular reactivity was assessed in aorta rings from SHR treated with AEPc for 4 wk. Training intensity was based on maximal lactate steady state obtained during the 2-wk adaptation period in a treadmill running. Then exercised (60 min running, five times per week during 8 wk) or sedentary SHR were untreated or treated with AEPc during 8 wk. SBP was estimated by plethysmograph. Heart mass and body mass were used to obtain the index of cardiac hypertrophy. Glucose tolerance test was evaluated by oral glucose overload, and the mRNA expressions of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and IL-10 in the kidney were obtained by real time polymerase chain reaction. AEPc induced endothelial-mediated vascular relaxation. AEPc or Ex alone reduced SBP, the index of cardiac hypertrophy and ventricular fibrosis, improved glucose metabolism, and attenuated proteinuria and the renal expression of the proinflammatory IL-1β with an overexpression in the anti-inflammatory IL-10. AEPc potentiated the benefits of the Ex on the cardiovascular system, metabolic parameters, and renal inflammation. Birdseed reduced cardiovascular risk related to hypertension and had positive effects when associated to physical exercise.

  5. Cardiac output during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Siebenmann, C; Rasmussen, P.; Sørensen, H.

    2015-01-01

    Several techniques assessing cardiac output (Q) during exercise are available. The extent to which the measurements obtained from each respective technique compares to one another, however, is unclear. We quantified Q simultaneously using four methods: the Fick method with blood obtained from...... the right atrium (Q(Fick-M)), Innocor (inert gas rebreathing; Q(Inn)), Physioflow (impedance cardiography; Q(Phys)), and Nexfin (pulse contour analysis; Q(Pulse)) in 12 male subjects during incremental cycling exercise to exhaustion in normoxia and hypoxia (FiO2  = 12%). While all four methods reported...... a progressive increase in Q with exercise intensity, the slopes of the Q/oxygen uptake (VO2) relationship differed by up to 50% between methods in both normoxia [4.9 ± 0.3, 3.9 ± 0.2, 6.0 ± 0.4, 4.8 ± 0.2 L/min per L/min (mean ± SE) for Q(Fick-M), Q(Inn), QP hys and Q(Pulse), respectively; P = 0...

  6. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 negatively regulates cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3 phosphorylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Soushi; Nakamura, Tomoe Y; Wakabayashi, Shigeo

    2015-07-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy is a leading cause of serious heart diseases. Although many signaling molecules are involved in hypertrophy, the functions of some proteins in this process are still unknown. Calcineurin B homologous protein 3 (CHP3)/tescalcin is an EF-hand Ca(2+)-binding protein that is abundantly expressed in the heart; however, the function of CHP3 is unclear. Here, we aimed to identify the cardiac functions of CHP3. CHP3 was expressed in hearts at a wide range of developmental stages and was specifically detected in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVMs) but not in cardiac fibroblasts in culture. Moreover, knockdown of CHP3 expression using adenoviral-based RNA interference in NRVMs resulted in enlargement of cardiomyocyte size, concomitant with increased expression of a pathological hypertrophy marker ANP. This same treatment elevated glycogen synthase kinase (GSK3α/β) phosphorylation, which is known to inhibit GSK3 function. In contrast, CHP3 overexpression blocked the insulin-induced phosphorylation of GSK3α/β without affecting the phosphorylation of Akt, which is an upstream kinase of GSK3α/β, in HEK293 cells, and it inhibited both IGF-1-induced phosphorylation of GSK3β and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in NRVMs. Co-immunoprecipitation experiments revealed that GSK3β interacted with CHP3. However, a Ca(2+)-binding-defective mutation of CHP3 (CHP3-D123A) also interacted with GSK3β and had the same inhibitory effect on GSK3α/β phosphorylation, suggesting that the action of CHP3 was independent of Ca(2+). These findings suggest that CHP3 functions as a novel negative regulator of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of GSK3α/β phosphorylation and subsequent enzymatic activation of GSK3α/β. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Relation of maximum blood pressure during exercise and regular physical activity in normotensive men with left ventricular mass and hypertrophy. MARATHOM Investigators. Medida de la Actividad fisica y su Relación Ambiental con Todos los Lípidos en el HOMbre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, L; Elosua, R; Marrugat, J; Pons, S

    1999-10-15

    The relation between maximum systolic blood pressure (BP) during exercise and left ventricular (LV) mass is controversial. Physical activity also induces LV mass increase. The objective was to assess the relation between BP response to exercise and LV mass in normotensive men, taking into account physical activity practice. A cross-sectional study was performed. Three hundred eighteen healthy normotensive men, aged between 20 and 60 years, participated in this study. The Minnesota questionnaire was used to assess physical activity practice. An echocardiogram and a maximum exercise test were performed. LV mass was calculated and indexed to body surface area. LV hypertrophy was defined as a ventricular mass index > or =134 g/m2. BP was measured at the moment of maximum effort. Hypertensive response was considered when BP was > or =210 mm Hg. In the multiple linear regression model, maximum systolic BP was associated with LV mass index and correlation coefficient was 0.27 (SE 0.07). Physical activity practice and age were also associated with LV mass. An association between hypertensive response to exercise and LV hypertrophy was observed (odds ratio 3.16). Thus, BP response to exercise is associated with LV mass and men with systolic BP response > or =210 mm Hg present a 3-times higher risk of LV hypertrophy than those not reaching this limit. Physical activity practice is related to LV mass, but not to LV hypertrophy.

  8. Muscular and Systemic Correlates of Resistance Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, Cameron J.; Churchward-Venne, Tyler A.; Bellamy, Leeann; Parise, Gianni; Baker, Steven K.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To determine relationships between post-exercise changes in systemic [testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin like grow factor 1 (IGF-1) and interleukin 6 (IL-6)], or intramuscular [skeletal muscle androgen receptor (AR) protein content and p70S6K phosphorylation status] factors in a moderately-sized cohort of young men exhibiting divergent resistance training-mediated muscle hypertrophy. METHODS: Twenty three adult males completed 4 sessions•wk⁻¹ of resistance training for 16 wk....

  9. Zinc rescues obesity-induced cardiac hypertrophy via stimulating metallothionein to suppress oxidative stress-activated BCL10/CARD9/p38 MAPK pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shudong; Gu, Junlian; Xu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhiguo; Bai, Tao; Xu, Jianxiang; Cai, Jun; Barnes, Gregory; Liu, Qiu-Ju; Freedman, Jonathan H; Wang, Yonggang; Liu, Quan; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Lu

    2017-06-01

    Obesity often leads to obesity-related cardiac hypertrophy (ORCH), which is suppressed by zinc-induced inactivation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK). In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which zinc inactivates p38 MAPK to prevent ORCH. Mice (4-week old) were fed either high fat diet (HFD, 60% kcal fat) or normal diet (ND, 10% kcal fat) containing variable amounts of zinc (deficiency, normal and supplement) for 3 and 6 months. P38 MAPK siRNA and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 were used to suppress p38 MAPK activity in vitro and in vivo, respectively. HFD activated p38 MAPK and increased expression of B-cell lymphoma/CLL 10 (BCL10) and caspase recruitment domain family member 9 (CARD9). These responses were enhanced by zinc deficiency and attenuated by zinc supplement. Administration of SB203580 to HFD mice or specific siRNA in palmitate-treated cardiomyocytes eliminated the HFD and zinc deficiency activation of p38 MAPK, but did not significantly impact the expression of BCL10 and CARD9. In cultured cardiomyocytes, inhibition of BCL10 expression by siRNA prevented palmitate-induced increased p38 MAPK activation and atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) expression. In contrast, inhibition of p38 MAPK prevented ANP expression, but did not affect BCL10 expression. Deletion of metallothionein abolished the protective effect of zinc on palmitate-induced up-regulation of BCL10 and phospho-p38 MAPK. HFD and zinc deficiency synergistically induce ORCH by increasing oxidative stress-mediated activation of BCL10/CARD9/p38 MAPK signalling. Zinc supplement ameliorates ORCH through activation of metallothionein to repress oxidative stress-activated BCL10 expression and p38 MAPK activation. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  10. Vagus nerve stimulation mitigates intrinsic cardiac neuronal remodeling and cardiac hypertrophy induced by chronic pressure overload in guinea pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Eric; Wright, Gary L.; Southerland, Elizabeth M.; Li, Ying; Chui, Ray; KenKnight, Bruce H.; Armour, J. Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to determine whether chronic vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) mitigates pressure overload (PO)-induced remodeling of the cardioneural interface. Guinea pigs (n = 48) were randomized to right or left cervical vagus (RCV or LCV) implant. After 2 wk, chronic left ventricular PO was induced by partial (15–20%) aortic constriction. Of the 31 animals surviving PO induction, 10 were randomized to RCV VNS, 9 to LCV VNS, and 12 to sham VNS. VNS was delivered at 20 Hz and 1.14 ± 0.03 mA at a 22% duty cycle. VNS commenced 10 days after PO induction and was maintained for 40 days. Time-matched controls (n = 9) were evaluated concurrently. Echocardiograms were obtained before and 50 days after PO. At termination, intracellular current-clamp recordings of intrinsic cardiac (IC) neurons were studied in vitro to determine effects of therapy on soma characteristics. Ventricular cardiomyocyte sizes were assessed with histology along with immunoblot analysis of selected proteins in myocardial tissue extracts. In sham-treated animals, PO increased cardiac output (34%, P < 0.004), as well as systolic (114%, P < 0.04) and diastolic (49%, P < 0.002) left ventricular volumes, a hemodynamic response prevented by VNS. PO-induced enhancements of IC synaptic efficacy and muscarinic sensitivity of IC neurons were mitigated by chronic VNS. Increased myocyte size, which doubled in PO (P < 0.05), was mitigated by RCV. PO hypertrophic myocardium displayed decreased glycogen synthase (GS) protein levels and accumulation of the phosphorylated (inactive) form of GS. These PO-induced changes in GS were moderated by left VNS. Chronic VNS targets IC neurons accompanying PO to obtund associated adverse cardiomyocyte remodeling. PMID:26993230

  11. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarmento, Adriana de Oliveira; Santos, Amilton da Cruz; Trombetta, Ivani Credidio; Dantas, Marciano Moacir; Oliveira Marques, Ana Cristina; do Nascimento, Leone Severino; Barbosa, Bruno Teixeira; Dos Santos, Marcelo Rodrigues; Andrade, Maria do Amparo; Jaguaribe-Lima, Anna Myrna; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis) and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography) were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline) and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver). Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac sympathetic activity compared to physically active older adult subjects at baseline (63.13±3.31 vs 50.45±3.55 nu, P=0.02). The variance (heart rate variability index) was increased in active older adults (1,438.64±448.90 vs 1,402.92±385.14 ms, P=0.02), and cardiac sympathetic activity (symbolic analysis) was increased in sedentary older adults (5,660.91±1,626.72 vs 4,381.35±1,852.87, P=0.03) during isometric handgrip exercise. Sedentary older adults showed higher cardiac sympathetic activity (spectral analysis) (71.29±4.40 vs 58.30±3.50 nu, P=0.03) and lower parasympathetic modulation (28.79±4.37 vs 41.77±3.47 nu, P=0.03) compared to physically active older adult subjects during isometric handgrip exercise. Regarding muscle vasodilation response, there was an increase in the skeletal muscle blood flow in the second (4.1±0.5 vs 3.7±0.4 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.01) and third minute (4.4±0.4 vs 3.9±0.3 mL/min per 100 mL, P=0.03) of handgrip exercise in active older adults. The results indicate that

  12. Exercise-Induced Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Videos for Educators Search English Español Exercise-Induced Asthma KidsHealth / For Parents / Exercise-Induced Asthma What's in ... Exercise-Induced Asthma Print What Is Exercise-Induced Asthma? Most kids and teens with asthma have symptoms ...

  13. Andrographis paniculata extract attenuates pathological cardiac hypertrophy and apoptosis in high-fat diet fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, You-Liang; Shibu, Marthandam Asokan; Lii, Chong-Kuei; Viswanadha, Vijaya Padma; Lin, Yi-Lin; Lai, Chao-Hung; Chen, Yu-Feng; Lin, Kuan-Ho; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-11-04

    Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees (Acanthaceae) has a considerable medicinal reputation in most parts of Asia as a potent medicine in the treatment of Endocrine disorders, inflammation and hypertension. Water extract of A. paniculata and its active constituent andrographolide are known to possess anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Our aim is to identify whether A. paniculata extract could protect myocardial damage in high-fat diet induced obese mice. The test mice were divided into three groups fed either with normal chow or with high fat diet (obese) or with high fat diet treated with A. paniculata extract (2g/kg/day, through gavage, for a week). We found that the myocardial inflammation pathway related proteins were increased in the obese mouse which potentially contributes to cardiac hypertrophy and myocardial apoptosis. But feeding with A. paniculata extract showed significant inhibition on the effects of high fat diet. Our study strongly suggests that supplementation of A. paniculata extract can be used for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease in obese patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Thyroid hormone-induced hypertrophy in mesenchymal stem cell chondrogenesis is mediated by bone morphogenetic protein-4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karl, Alexandra; Olbrich, Norman; Pfeifer, Christian; Berner, Arne; Zellner, Johannes; Kujat, Richard; Angele, Peter; Nerlich, Michael; Mueller, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    Chondrogenic differentiating mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) express markers of hypertrophic growth plate chondrocytes. As hypertrophic cartilage undergoes ossification, this is a concern for the application of MSCs in articular cartilage tissue engineering. To identify mechanisms that elicit this phenomenon, we used an in vitro hypertrophy model of chondrifying MSCs for differential gene expression analysis and functional experiments with the focus on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. Hypertrophy was induced in chondrogenic MSC pellet cultures by transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and dexamethasone withdrawal and addition of triiodothyronine. Differential gene expression analysis of BMPs and their receptors was performed. Based on these results, the in vitro hypertrophy model was used to investigate the effect of recombinant BMP4 and the BMP inhibitor Noggin. The enhancement of hypertrophy could be shown clearly by an increased cell size, alkaline phosphatase activity, and collagen type X deposition. Upon induction of hypertrophy, BMP4 and the BMP receptor 1B were upregulated. Addition of BMP4 further enhanced hypertrophy in the absence, but not in the presence of TGFβ and dexamethasone. Thyroid hormone induced hypertrophy by upregulation of BMP4 and this induced enhancement of hypertrophy could be blocked by the BMP antagonist Noggin. BMP signaling is an important modulator of the late differentiation stages in MSC chondrogenesis and the thyroid hormone induces this pathway. As cartilage tissue engineering constructs will be exposed to this factor in vivo, this study provides important insight into the biology of MSC-based cartilage. Furthermore, the possibility to engineer hypertrophic cartilage may be helpful for critical bone defect repair.

  15. Diagnostic impact of thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy when the exercise ECG is strongly positive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitman, B.R.; Brevers, G.; Dupras, G.; Lesperance, J.; Bourassa, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    We studied 83 men, who had a chest pain syndrome, no prior history of myocardial infarction, and exercise-induced horizontal or downsloping ST segment depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV. The 38 patients unable to complete Bruce stage II had a significant increased risk of coronary (0.97 vs 0.71) and multivessel (0.88 vs 0.61) disease (p less than 0.01) compared to the pretest risk; data obtained from exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy did not alter the risk of coronary or multivessel disease. The 45 patients who had ST depression greater than or equal to 0.2 mV and a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III did not have a significant increased risk of coronary (0.76) or multivessel disease (0.44). When both exercise-reperfusion thallium scintigraphy and cardiac fluoroscopy were abnormal in this latter patient subgroup, the post-test risk of multivessel disease was increased from 0.44 to 0.82 (p less than 0.03); when both tests were normal, none of the patients had multivessel disease (p less than 0.03) and only 0.18 had coronary artery disease. Thus, cardiac fluoroscopy and exercise thallium scintigraphy increase the diagnostic content of the strongly positive exercise ECG, particularly in men who have a peak work capacity greater than or equal to Bruce stage III

  16. Melatonin attenuates angiotensin II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hongyan; Li, Jingyuan; Chen, Tongshuai; Li, Na; Xiao, Jie; Wang, Shujian; Guo, Xiaobin; Yang, Yi; Bu, Peili

    2016-11-01

    Melatonin is well known for its cardioprotective effects; however, whether melatonin exerts therapeutic effects on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy remains to be investigated, as do the mechanisms underlying these effects, if they exist. Cyclophilin A (CyPA) and its corresponding receptor, CD147, which exists in a variety of cells, play crucial roles in modulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. In this study, we explored the role of the CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway in angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and the protective effects exerted by melatonin against Ang II-induced injury in cultured H9C2 cells. Cyclosporine A, a specific CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway inhibitor, was used to manipulate CyPA/CD147 activity. H9C2 cells were then subjected to Ang II or CyPA treatment in either the absence or presence of melatonin. Our results indicate that Ang II induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through the CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway and promotes ROS production, which can be blocked by melatonin pretreatment in a concentration-dependent manner, in cultured H9C2 cells and that CyPA/CD147 signaling pathway inhibition protects against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. The protective effects of melatonin against Ang II-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy depend at least partially on CyPA/CD147 inhibition.

  17. Cardiac Autonomic Dysfunction in Offspring of Hypertensive Parents During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Leonardo Barbosa de; Peçanha, Tiago; Mira, Pedro Augusto de Carvalho; Souza, Livia Victorino de; da Silva, Lílian Pinto; Martinez, Daniel Godoy; Freitas, Isabelle Magalhães Guedes; Laterza, Mateus Camaroti

    2017-12-01

    Offspring of hypertensive parents present autonomic dysfunction at rest and during physiological maneuvers. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise remains unknown. This study tested whether the cardiac autonomic modulation would be reduced in offspring of hypertensive parents during exercise. Fourteen offspring of hypertensive and 14 offspring of normotensive individuals were evaluated. The groups were matched by age (24.5±1.0 vs. 26.6±1.5 years; p=0.25) and BMI (22.8±0.6 vs. 24.2±1.0 kg/m 2 ; p=0.30). Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed simultaneously during 3 min at baseline followed by 3-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction. Cardiac autonomic modulation was evaluated using heart rate variability. Primary variables were subjected to two-way ANOVA (group vs. time). P valueexercise protocol. In contrast, offspring of hypertensive subjects showed a reduction of SDNN (Basal=34.8±3.5 vs. 45.2±3.7 ms; Exercise=30.8±3.3 vs. 41.5±3.9 ms; p group=0.01), RMSSD (Basal=37.1±3.7 vs. 52.0±6.0 ms; Exercise=28.6±3.4 vs. 41.9±5.3 ms; p group=0.02) and pNN50 (Basal=15.7±4.0 vs. 29.5±5.5%; Exercise=7.7±2.4 vs. 18.0±4.3%; p group=0.03) during the exercise protocol in comparison with offspring of normotensive parents. We concluded that normotensive offspring of hypertensive parents exhibit impaired cardiac autonomic modulation during exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Aerobic exercise training rescues cardiac protein quality control and blunts endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozi, Luiz H M; Jannig, Paulo R; Rolim, Natale; Voltarelli, Vanessa A; Dourado, Paulo M M; Wisløff, Ulrik; Brum, Patricia C

    2016-11-01

    Cardiac endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress through accumulation of misfolded proteins plays a pivotal role in cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to reestablish ER homoeostasis, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated. However, if ER stress persists, sustained UPR activation leads to apoptosis. There is no available therapy for ER stress relief. Considering that aerobic exercise training (AET) attenuates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and calcium imbalance, it may be a potential strategy to reestablish cardiac ER homoeostasis. We test the hypothesis that AET would attenuate impaired cardiac ER stress after myocardial infarction (MI). Wistar rats underwent to either MI or sham surgeries. Four weeks later, rats underwent to 8 weeks of moderate-intensity AET. Myocardial infarction rats displayed cardiac dysfunction and lung oedema, suggesting heart failure. Cardiac dysfunction in MI rats was paralleled by increased protein levels of UPR markers (GRP78, DERLIN-1 and CHOP), accumulation of misfolded and polyubiquitinated proteins, and reduced chymotrypsin-like proteasome activity. These results suggest an impaired cardiac protein quality control. Aerobic exercise training improved exercise capacity and cardiac function of MI animals. Interestingly, AET blunted MI-induced ER stress by reducing protein levels of UPR markers, and accumulation of both misfolded and polyubiquinated proteins, which was associated with restored proteasome activity. Taken together, our study provide evidence for AET attenuation of ER stress through the reestablishment of cardiac protein quality control, which contributes to better cardiac function in post-MI heart failure rats. These results reinforce the importance of AET as primary non-pharmacological therapy to cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  19. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Daniel W D; Phillips, Stuart M

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between acute exercise-induced hormone responses and adaptations to high intensity resistance training in a large cohort (n = 56) of young men. Acute post-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), free testosterone (fT), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and cortisol responses were determined following an acute intense leg resistance exercise routine at the midpoint of a 12-week resistance exercise training study. Acute hormonal responses were correlated with gains in lean body mass (LBM), muscle fibre cross-sectional area (CSA) and leg press strength. There were no significant correlations between the exercise-induced elevations (area under the curve-AUC) of GH, fT and IGF-1 and gains in LBM or leg press strength. Significant correlations were found for cortisol, usually assumed to be a hormone indicative of catabolic drive, AUC with change in LBM (r = 0.29, P training-induced changes in fibre CSA and LBM (cortisol only), but not with changes in strength.

  20. Constant infusion transpulmonary thermodilution for the assessment of cardiac output in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calbet, J A L; Mortensen, Stefan; Munch, G D W

    2016-01-01

    To determine the accuracy and precision of constant infusion transpulmonary thermodilution cardiac output (CITT-Q) assessment during exercise in humans, using indocyanine green (ICG) dilution and bolus transpulmonary thermodilution (BTD) as reference methods, cardiac output (Q) was determined......: 6.1-11.1%). In conclusion, cardiac output can be precisely and accurately determined with constant infusion transpulmonary thermodilution in exercising humans....

  1. Does Resistance Training Stimulate Cardiac Muscle Hypertrophy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    Reviews the literature on the left ventricular structural adaptations induced by resistance/strength exercise, focusing on human work, particularly well-trained strength athletes engaged in regular, moderate- to high-intensity resistance training (RT). The article discusses both genders and examines the use of anabolic-androgenic steroids in…

  2. Elevated Levels of Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA in the Pericardial Fluid of Cardiac Patients Correlate with Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Nemeth

    Full Text Available Pericardial fluid (PF contains several biologically active substances, which may provide information regarding the cardiac conditions. Nitric oxide (NO has been implicated in cardiac remodeling. We hypothesized that L-arginine (L-Arg precursor of NO-synthase (NOS and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA, an inhibitor of NOS, are present in PF of cardiac patients and their altered levels may contribute to altered cardiac morphology.L-Arg and ADMA concentrations in plasma and PF, and echocardiographic parameters of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft (CABG, n = 28 or valve replacement (VR, n = 25 were determined.We have found LV hypertrophy in 35.7% of CABG, and 80% of VR patients. In all groups, plasma and PF L-Arg levels were higher than that of ADMA. Plasma L-Arg level was higher in CABG than VR (75.7 ± 4.6 μmol/L vs. 58.1 ± 4.9 μmol/L, p = 0.011, whereas PF ADMA level was higher in VR than CABG (0.9 ± 0.0 μmol/L vs. 0.7 ± 0.0 μmol/L, p = 0.009. L-Arg/ADMA ratio was lower in the VR than CABG (VRplasma: 76.1 ± 6.6 vs. CABGplasma: 125.4 ± 10.7, p = 0.004; VRPF: 81.7 ± 4.8 vs. CABGPF: 110.4 ± 7.2, p = 0.009. There was a positive correlation between plasma L-Arg and ADMA in CABG (r = 0.539, p = 0.015; and plasma and PF L-Arg in CABG (r = 0.357, p = 0.031; and plasma and PF ADMA in VR (r = 0.529, p = 0.003; and PF L-Arg and ADMA in both CABG and VR (CABG: r = 0.468, p = 0.006; VR: r = 0.371, p = 0.034. The following echocardiographic parameters were higher in VR compared to CABG: interventricular septum (14.7 ± 0.5 mm vs. 11.9 ± 0.4 mm, p = 0.000; posterior wall thickness (12.6 ± 0.3 mm vs. 11.5 ± 0.2 mm, p = 0.000; left ventricular (LV mass (318.6 ± 23.5 g vs. 234.6 ± 12.3 g, p = 0.007; right ventricular (RV (33.9 ± 0.9 cm2 vs. 29.7 ± 0.7 cm2, p = 0.004; right atrial (18.6 ± 1.0 cm2 vs. 15.4 ± 0.6 cm2, p = 0.020; left atrial (19.8 ± 1.0 cm2 vs. 16.9 ± 0.6 cm2, p = 0.033 areas. There was a positive correlation

  3. Muscle hypertrophy induced by myostatin inhibition accelerates degeneration in dysferlinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yun-Sil; Lehar, Adam; Sebald, Suzanne; Liu, Min; Swaggart, Kayleigh A; Talbot, C Conover; Pytel, Peter; Barton, Elisabeth R; McNally, Elizabeth M; Lee, Se-Jin

    2015-10-15

    Myostatin is a secreted signaling molecule that normally acts to limit muscle growth. As a result, there is extensive effort directed at developing drugs capable of targeting myostatin to treat patients with muscle loss. One potential concern with this therapeutic approach in patients with muscle degenerative diseases like muscular dystrophy is that inducing hypertrophy may increase stress on dystrophic fibers, thereby accelerating disease progression. To investigate this possibility, we examined the effect of blocking the myostatin pathway in dysferlin-deficient (Dysf(-/-)) mice, in which membrane repair is compromised, either by transgenic expression of follistatin in skeletal muscle or by systemic administration of the soluble form of the activin type IIB receptor (ACVR2B/Fc). Here, we show that myostatin inhibition by follistatin transgene expression in Dysf(-/-) mice results in early improvement in histopathology but ultimately exacerbates muscle degeneration; this effect was not observed in dystrophin-deficient (mdx) mice, suggesting that accelerated degeneration induced by follistatin transgene expression is specific to mice lacking dysferlin. Dysf(-/-) mice injected with ACVR2B/Fc showed significant increases in muscle mass and amelioration of fibrotic changes normally seen in 8-month-old Dysf(-/-) mice. Despite these potentially beneficial effects, ACVR2B/Fc treatment caused increases in serum CK levels in some Dysf(-/-) mice, indicating possible muscle damage induced by hypertrophy. These findings suggest that depending on the disease context, inducing muscle hypertrophy by myostatin blockade may have detrimental effects, which need to be weighed against the potential gains in muscle growth and decreased fibrosis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press.

  4. Myocardial hypertrophy in the recipient with twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, D.L.; Jorgensen, F.S.; Pryds, O.A.

    2008-01-01

    pressure measurements revealed persistent systemic hypertension. Biventricular hypertrophy was demonstrated by echocardiography. Blood pressure normalised after treatment with Nifedipine and the cardiac hypertrophy subsided over the following weeks. A potential contributing mechanism is intrauterine...

  5. Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions & Treatments ▸ Conditions Dictionary ▸ Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction Share | Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) « Back to A to Z Listing Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction, (EIB), often known as exercise-induced ...

  6. The role of Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and calcineurin in TNF-α-induced myocardial hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Gui-Jun; Wang, Hong-Xin; Yao, Yu-Sheng; Guo, Lian-Yi; Liu, Pei

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether Ca 2+ /calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) and calcineurin (CaN) are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The cardiomyocytes of neonatal Wistar rats (1-2 days old) were cultured and stimulated by TNF-α (100 µg/L), and Ca 2+ signal transduction was blocked by several antagonists, including BAPTA (4 µM), KN-93 (0.2 µM) and cyclosporin A (CsA, 0.2 µM). Protein content, protein synthesis, cardiomyocyte volumes, [Ca 2+ ] i transients, CaMKIIδ B and CaN were evaluated by the Lowry method, [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation, a computerized image analysis system, a Till imaging system, and Western blot analysis, respectively. TNF-α induced a significant increase in protein content in a dose-dependent manner from 10 µg/L (53.56 µg protein/well) to 100 µg/L (72.18 µg protein/well), and in a time-dependent manner from 12 h (37.42 µg protein/well) to 72 h (42.81 µg protein/well). TNF-α (100 µg/L) significantly increased the amplitude of spontaneous [Ca 2+ ] i transients, the total protein content, cell size, and [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation in cultured cardiomyocytes, which was abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, an intracellular Ca 2+ chelator. The increases in protein content, cell size and [ 3 H]-leucine incorporation were abolished by 0.2 µM KN-93 or 0.2 µM CsA. TNF-α increased the expression of CaMKIIδ B by 35.21% and that of CaN by 22.22% compared to control. These effects were abolished by 4 µM BAPTA, which itself had no effect. These results suggest that TNF-α induces increases in [Ca 2+ ] i , CaMKIIδ B and CaN and promotes cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Ca 2+ /CaMKII- and CaN-dependent signaling pathways are involved in myocardial hypertrophy induced by TNF-α

  7. AMPKγ3 is dispensable for skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by functional overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedl, Isabelle; Osler, Megan E; Björnholm, Marie; Egan, Brendan; Nader, Gustavo A; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R

    2016-03-15

    Mechanisms regulating skeletal muscle growth involve a balance between the activity of serine/threonine protein kinases, including the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). The contribution of different AMPK subunits to the regulation of cell growth size remains inadequately characterized. Using AMPKγ3 mutant-overexpressing transgenic Tg-Prkag3(225Q) and AMPKγ3-knockout (Prkag3(-/-)) mice, we investigated the requirement for the AMPKγ3 isoform in functional overload-induced muscle hypertrophy. Although the genetic disruption of the γ3 isoform did not impair muscle growth, control sham-operated AMPKγ3-transgenic mice displayed heavier plantaris muscles in response to overload hypertrophy and underwent smaller mass gain and lower Igf1 expression compared with wild-type littermates. The mTOR signaling pathway was upregulated with functional overload but unchanged between genetically modified animals and wild-type littermates. Differences in AMPK-related signaling pathways between transgenic, knockout, and wild-type mice did not impact muscle hypertrophy. Glycogen content was increased following overload in wild-type mice. In conclusion, our functional, transcriptional, and signaling data provide evidence against the involvement of the AMPKγ3 isoform in the regulation of skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Thus, the AMPKγ3 isoform is dispensable for functional overload-induced muscle growth. Mechanical loading can override signaling pathways that act as negative effectors of mTOR signaling and consequently promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Effects of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function during dynamic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pereira, Fernando D; Fernhall, Bo

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the acute effect of cigarette smoking on cardiac autonomic function in young adult smokers during dynamic exercise. Fourteen healthy young smokers (21.4 ± 3.4 years) performed peak and submaximal exercise protocols under control and smoking conditions. Resting and submaximal beat-to-beat R-R series were recorded and spectrally decomposed using the fast Fourier transformation. Smoking resulted in a significant decrease in work time, VO(2peak) and peak O(2) pulse (P exercise after smoking (P smoking, both at rest and during exercise (P smoking (P smoking, but only at rest (P smoking is accompanied by acute changes in heart rate spectral components both at rest and during exercise. Therefore, the cardiac autonomic control is altered by smoking not only at rest, but also during exercise, resulting in reduced vagal modulation and increased sympathetic dominance.

  9. The soluble guanylyl cyclase activator bay 58-2667 selectively limits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Irvine

    Full Text Available Although evidence now suggests cGMP is a negative regulator of cardiac hypertrophy, the direct consequences of the soluble guanylyl cyclase (sGC activator BAY 58-2667 on cardiac remodeling, independent of changes in hemodynamic load, has not been investigated. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the NO(•-independent sGC activator BAY 58-2667 inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy in vitro. Concomitant impact of BAY 58-2667 on cardiac fibroblast proliferation, and insights into potential mechanisms of action, were also sought. Results were compared to the sGC stimulator BAY 41-2272.Neonatal rat cardiomyocytes were incubated with endothelin-1 (ET(1, 60nmol/L in the presence and absence of BAY 41-2272 and BAY 58-2667 (0.01-0.3 µmol/L. Hypertrophic responses and its triggers, as well as cGMP signaling, were determined. The impact of both sGC ligands on basal and stimulated cardiac fibroblast proliferation in vitro was also determined.We now demonstrate that BAY 58-2667 (0.01-0.3 µmol/L elicited concentration-dependent antihypertrophic actions, inhibiting ET(1-mediated increases in cardiomyocyte 2D area and de novo protein synthesis, as well as suppressing ET(1-induced cardiomyocyte superoxide generation. This was accompanied by potent increases in cardiomyocyte cGMP accumulation and activity of its downstream signal, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP, without elevating cardiomyocyte cAMP. In contrast, submicromolar concentrations of BAY 58-2667 had no effect on basal or stimulated cardiac fibroblast proliferation. Indeed, only at concentrations ≥10 µmol/L was inhibition of cardiac fibrosis seen in vitro. The effects of BAY 58-2667 in both cell types were mimicked by BAY 41-2272.Our results demonstrate that BAY 58-2667 elicits protective, cardiomyocyte-selective effects in vitro. These actions are associated with sGC activation and are evident in the absence of confounding hemodynamic factors, at low (submicromolar

  10. Pressure overload stimulated cardiac hypertrophy leads to a rapid decrease in the mRNA for creatine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boheler, K.; Popovich, B.; Dillmann, W.H.

    1987-01-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) leads to a decrease in creatine kinase (CK) enzymatic activity. To determine if the mRNA for CK also decreases with CH, they performed the following studies. Cardiac RNA was isolated from rats subjected to either abdominal aortic stenosis (AS) or sham surgery. Through Northern blot analysis, total cardiac RNA was quantitated with a CK specific 32 P-labelled cDNA clone. At 3 and 8 days post-constriction, the mRNA for CK decreases by 54.6 +/- 7% and 65.3 +/- 18% respectively, whereas the heart weight increases by 19% and 37% relative to controls. Further studies indicate that CK mRNA also decreases by 41.8% in hypothyroid rats (Tx) but decreases by a total of 68.1% in Tx rats subjected to 8 days of AS. Pressure overload stimulated CH leads to a rapid decrease in CK mRNA in normal and Tx rats. This CK mRNA decrease may account for the decreased efficiency of contraction seen in CH

  11. Elevation of serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide after exercise is an index of myocardial damage or a cytoprotective reflection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faviou, E; Zachari, A; Nounopoulos, C; Agrafiotis, E; Vourli, G; Dionyssiou-Asteriou, A

    2008-03-01

    Recent investigations have suggested the occurrence of transient cardiac dysfunction and reversible myocardial injury in healthy individuals after heavy exercise. Our purpose was to examine if the release of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) after intense exercise in obviously healthy participants may have cytoprotective and growth-regulating effects or may result from myocardial dysfunction/damage with changes in cTnT as a marker for myocardial cell necrosis during exercise. In 43 highly-trained male athletes hypertrophy. A normal plasma concentration of NT-proBNP in consecutive routine check-up, before and after exercise, could minimize the possibility of cardiac dysfunction, whereas persistent elevated plasma concentrations warrant further cardiological evaluation.

  12. Serca2a and Na+/Ca2+ exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-01-01

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt max , − dP/dt min and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  13. Exercise-induced arteriovenous intrapulmonary shunting in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stickland, Michael K; Lovering, Andrew T; Eldridge, Marlowe W

    2007-08-01

    We have previously shown, using contrast echocardiography, that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are inducible in healthy humans during exercise; however, this technique does not allow for determination of arteriovenous vessel size or shunt magnitude. The purpose of this study was to determine whether large-diameter (more than 25 microm) intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are present in the dog, and whether exercise recruits these conduits. Through the right forelimb, 10.8 million 25-microm stable isotope-labeled microspheres (BioPAL, Inc., Worcester, MA) were injected either at rest (n = 8) or during high-intensity exercise (6- 8 mph, 10-15% grade, n = 6). Systemic arterial blood was continuously sampled during and for 3 minutes after injection. After euthanasia, tissue samples were obtained from the heart, liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle. In addition, 25- and 50-microm microspheres were infused into four isolated dog lungs that were ventilated and perfused at constant pressures similar to exercise. Blood and tissue samples were commercially analyzed for the presence of microspheres. No microspheres were detected in the arterial blood or tissue samples from resting dogs. In contrast, five of six exercising dogs showed evidence of exercise-induced intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting, as microspheres were detected in arterial blood and/or tissue. Furthermore, shunt magnitude was calculated to be 1.4 +/- 0.8% of cardiac output (n = 3). Evidence of intrapulmonary arteriovenous anastomoses was also found in three of four isolated lungs. Consistent with previous human findings, these data demonstrate that intrapulmonary arteriovenous pathways are functional in the dog and are recruited with exercise.

  14. Electrically induced muscle cramps induce hypertrophy of calf muscles in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behringer, M; Moser, M; Montag, J; McCourt, M; Tenner, D; Mester, J

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscles usually cramp at short lengths, where the tension that can be exerted by muscle fibers is low. Since high tension is an important anabolic stimulus, it is questionable if cramps can induce hypertrophy and strength gains. In the present study we investigated if electrically induced cramps (EIMCs) can elicit these adaptations. 15 healthy male adults were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG; n=10) and a control group (CG; n=5). The cramp protocol (CP) applied twice a week to one leg of the IG, consisted of 3x6 EIMCs, of 5 s each. Calf muscles of the opposite leg were stimulated equally, but were hindered from cramping by fixating the ankle at 0° plantar flexion (nCP). After six weeks, the cross sectional area of the triceps surae was similarly increased in both the CP (+9.0±3.4%) and the nCP (+6.8±3.7%). By contrast, force of maximal voluntary contractions, measured at 0° and 30° plantar flexion, increased significantly only in nCP (0°: +8.5±8.8%; 30°: 11.7±13.7%). The present data indicate that muscle cramps can induce hypertrophy in calf muscles, though lacking high tension as an important anabolic stimulus.

  15. IGF and myostatin pathways are respectively induced during the earlier and the later stages of skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Tokuhisa; Iida, Ryo-Hei; Kaneko, Syuhei; Suga, Takeo; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Yoshiki; Yamane, Akira

    2012-12-01

    Clenbuterol, a β₂-adrenergic agonist, increases the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) is reported to work as a potent positive regulator in the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles. However, the precise regulatory mechanism for the hypertrophy of skeletal muscle induced by clenbuterol is unknown. Myostatin, a member of the TGFβ super family, is a negative regulator of muscle growth. The aim of the present study is to elucidate the function of myostatin and IGF in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol. To investigate the function of myostatin and IGF in regulatory mechanism for the clenbuterol-induced hypertrophy of skeletal muscles, we analysed the expression of myostatin and phosphorylation levels of myostatin and IGF signaling components in the masseter muscle of rat to which clenbuterol was orally administered for 21 days. Hypertrophy of the rat masseter muscle was induced between 3 and 14 days of oral administration of clenbuterol and was terminated at 21 days. The expression of myostatin and the phosphorylation of smad2/3 were elevated at 21 days. The phosphorylation of IGF receptor 1 (IGFR1) and akt1 was elevated at 3 and 7 days. These results suggest that myostatin functions as a negative regulator in the later stages in the hypertrophy of rat masseter muscle induced by clenbuterol, whereas IGF works as a positive regulator in the earlier stages. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Exercise-induced cognitive plasticity, implications for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip P. Foster

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Lifestyle factors such as intellectual stimulation, cognitive and social engagement, nutrition, and various types of exercise appear to reduce the risk for common age-associated disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD and vascular dementia. In fact, many studies have suggested that promoting physical activity can have a protective effect against cognitive deterioration later in life. Slowing or a deterioration of walking speed is associated with a poor performance in tests assessing psychomotor speed and verbal fluency in elderly individuals. Fitness training influences a wide range of cognitive processes, and the largest positive impact observed is for executive (a.k.a. frontal lobe functions. Studies show that exercise improves additional cognitive functions such as tasks mediated by the hippocampus, and result in major changes in plasticity in the hippocampus. Interestingly, this exercise-induced plasticity is also pronounced in APOE ε4 carriers who express a risk factor for late-onset AD that may modulate the effect of treatments. Based on AD staging by Braak et al., we propose that the effects of exercise occur in two temporo-spatial continua of events. The inward continuum from isocortex (neocortex to entorhinal cortex/hippocampus for amyloidosis and a reciprocal outward continuum for neurofibrillary alterations. The exercise-induced hypertrophy of the hippocampus at the core of these continua is evaluated in terms of potential for prevention to stave off neuronal degeneration. Exercise-induced production of growth factors such as the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been shown to enhance neurogenesis and to play a key role in positive cognitive effects. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1 may mediate the exercise-induced response to exercise on BDNF, neurogenesis and cognitive performance. It is also postulated to regulate brain amyloid β (Aβ levels by increased clearance via the choroid plexus. Growth factors

  17. Regular physical exercise improves cardiac autonomic and muscle vasodilatory responses to isometric exercise in healthy elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarmento AO

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Adriana de Oliveira Sarmento,1–3 Amilton da Cruz Santos,1,4 Ivani Credidio Trombetta,2,5 Marciano Moacir Dantas,1 Ana Cristina Oliveira Marques,1,4 Leone Severino do Nascimento,1,4 Bruno Teixeira Barbosa,1,2 Marcelo Rodrigues Dos Santos,2 Maria do Amparo Andrade,3 Anna Myrna Jaguaribe-Lima,3,6 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos1,3,4 1Laboratory of Physical Training Studies Applied to Health, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraiba, João Pessoa, Brazil; 2Unit of Cardiovascular Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology – Heart Institute (InCor/HC-FMUSP, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Graduate Program in Physiotherapy, Federal University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil; 4Associate Graduate Program in Physical Education UPE/UFPB, João Pessoa, Brazil; 5Graduate Program in Medicine, Universidade Nove de Julho (UNINOVE, São Paulo, Brazil; 6Department of Morphology and Animal Physiology, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, Brazil Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate cardiac autonomic control and muscle vasodilation response during isometric exercise in sedentary and physically active older adults. Twenty healthy participants, 10 sedentary and 10 physically active older adults, were evaluated and paired by gender, age, and body mass index. Sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac activity (spectral and symbolic heart rate analysis and muscle blood flow (venous occlusion plethysmography were measured for 10 minutes at rest (baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric handgrip exercise at 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (sympathetic excitatory maneuver. Variables were analyzed at baseline and during 3 minutes of isometric exercise. Cardiac autonomic parameters were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney tests. Muscle vasodilatory response was analyzed by repeated-measures analysis of variance followed by Tukey’s post hoc test. Sedentary older adults had higher cardiac

  18. beta-Adrenergic and cholinergic receptors in hypertension-induced hypertrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vatner, D.E.; Kirby, D.A.; Homcy, C.J.; Vatner, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Perinephritic hypertension was produced in dogs by wrapping one kidney with silk and removing the contralateral kidney 1 week later. Mean arterial pressure rose from 104 +/- 3 to 156 +/- 11 mm Hg, while left ventricular free wall weight, normalized for body weight, was increased by 49%. Muscarinic, cholinergic receptor density measured with [ 3 H]-quinuclidinyl benzilate, fell in hypertensive left ventricles (181 +/- 19 fmol/mg, n = 6; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (272 +/- 16 fmol/mg, n = 8), while receptor affinity was not changed. The beta-adrenergic receptor density, measured by binding studies with [ 3 H]-dihydroalprenolol, rose in the hypertensive left ventricles (108 +/- 10 fmol/mg, n = 7; p less than 0.01) as compared with that found in normal left ventricles (68.6 +/- 5.2 fmol/mg, n = 15), while beta-adrenergic receptor affinity decreased in the hypertensive left ventricles (10.4 +/- 1.2 nM) compared with that found in the normal left ventricles (5.0 +/- 0.7 nM). Plasma norepinephrine levels were similar in the two groups, but myocardial norepinephrine levels were depressed (p less than 0.05) in dogs with hypertension. Moderate left ventricular hypertrophy induced by long-term aortic banding in dogs resulted in elevations in beta-adrenergic receptor density (115 +/- 14 fmol/mg) and decreases in affinity (10.4 +/- 2.2 nM) similar to those observed in the dogs with left ventricular hypertrophy induced by hypertension. Thus, these results suggest that perinephritic hypertension in the dog induces divergent effects on cholinergic and beta-adrenergic receptor density. The increased beta-adrenergic receptor density and decreased affinity may be a characteristic of left ventricular hypertrophy rather than hypertension

  19. Desmodium gangeticum root extract attenuates isoproterenol-induced cardiac hypertrophic growth in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Hitler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: Desmodium gangeticum (L DC (Fabaceae; DG, a medicinal plant that grows in tropical habitats, is widely used to treat various ailments including digestive and inflammatory disorders. Aims: To investigate the possible cardioprotective activity of a DG root extract against isoproterenol (ISO-induced left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy (LVH in adult Wistar rats. Methods: Daily intraperitoneal administration of ISO (10 mg/kg body weight, single injection for 7 days induced LVH in rats. The LVH rats were post-treated orally with DG (100 mg/kg body weight for a period of 30 days. Thereafter, changes in heart weight (HW and body weight (BW, HW/BW ratio, percent of hypertrophy, collagen accumulation, activities of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP -2 and -9, superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT enzymes, and the level of an oxidative stress marker, lipid peroxide (LPO, were determined. Results: HW/BW ratio, an indicator of hypertrophic growth, was significantly reduced in DG root post-treated LVH rats as compared with that for the non-treated LVH rats. The altered levels of ventricular LPO, collagen, MMPs-2 and -9, and antioxidant enzymes in the ISO-treated animals reverted back to near normal upon DG treatment. Further, the anti-hypertrophic activity of DG was comparable to that of the standard drug losartan (10 mg/kg. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the aqueous root extract of DG exhibited anti-hypertrophic activity in-vivo by inhibiting ISO-induced ROS generation and MMP activities.

  20. Serca2a and Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares [Department of Physiology and Biophysic, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Minas Gerais (Brazil); Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de [Department of Pharmacy, University Vila Velha, Vila Velha, Espirito Santo (Brazil); Bissoli, Nazaré Souza, E-mail: nazarebissoli@gmail.com [Department of Physiological Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, Espirito Santo (Brazil)

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. Aim: To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Main methods: Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20 mg/kg/week for 4 weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+ dP/dt{sub max}, − dP/dt{sub min} and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. Results: ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na{sup +}/Ca{sup 2+} exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Conclusion: Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. - Highlights: • ND and resistive exercise enhanced the cardiac function and increased expression of cytosolic calcium regulatory components.

  1. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training

    OpenAIRE

    West, Daniel W. D.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between acute exercise-induced hormone responses and adaptations to high intensity resistance training in a large cohort (n = 56) of young men. Acute post-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), free testosterone (fT), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and cortisol responses were determined following an acute intense leg resistance exercise routine at the midpoint of a 12-week resistance exercise training study. Acute hormonal responses w...

  2. Physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery: a national questionnaire survey in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westerdahl Elisabeth

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Limited published data are available on how patients are mobilized and exercised during the postoperative hospital stay following cardiac surgery. The aim of this survey was to determine current practice of physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery in Sweden. Methods A prospective survey was carried out among physiotherapists treating adult cardiac surgery patients. A total population sample was identified and postal questionnaires were sent to the 33 physiotherapists currently working at the departments of thoracic surgery in Sweden. In total, 29 physiotherapists (response rate 88% from eight hospitals completed the survey. Results The majority (90% of the physiotherapists offered preoperative information. The main rationale of physiotherapy treatment after cardiac surgery was to prevent and treat postoperative complications, improve pulmonary function and promote physical activity. In general, one to three treatment sessions were given by a physiotherapist on postoperative day 1 and one to two treatment sessions were given during postoperative days 2 and 3. During weekends, physiotherapy was given to a lesser degree (59% on Saturdays and 31% on Sundays to patients on postoperative day 1. No physiotherapy treatment was given in the evenings. The routine use of early mobilization and shoulder range of motion exercises was common during the first postoperative days, but the choice of exercises and duration of treatment varied. Patients were reminded to adhere to sternal precautions. There were great variations of instructions to the patients concerning weight bearing and exercises involving the sternotomy. All respondents considered physiotherapy necessary after cardiac surgery, but only half of them considered the physiotherapy treatment offered as optimal. Conclusions The results of this survey show that there are small variations in physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise

  3. Physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery: a national questionnaire survey in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Möller, Margareta

    2010-08-25

    Limited published data are available on how patients are mobilized and exercised during the postoperative hospital stay following cardiac surgery. The aim of this survey was to determine current practice of physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery in Sweden. A prospective survey was carried out among physiotherapists treating adult cardiac surgery patients. A total population sample was identified and postal questionnaires were sent to the 33 physiotherapists currently working at the departments of thoracic surgery in Sweden. In total, 29 physiotherapists (response rate 88%) from eight hospitals completed the survey. The majority (90%) of the physiotherapists offered preoperative information. The main rationale of physiotherapy treatment after cardiac surgery was to prevent and treat postoperative complications, improve pulmonary function and promote physical activity. In general, one to three treatment sessions were given by a physiotherapist on postoperative day 1 and one to two treatment sessions were given during postoperative days 2 and 3. During weekends, physiotherapy was given to a lesser degree (59% on Saturdays and 31% on Sundays to patients on postoperative day 1). No physiotherapy treatment was given in the evenings. The routine use of early mobilization and shoulder range of motion exercises was common during the first postoperative days, but the choice of exercises and duration of treatment varied. Patients were reminded to adhere to sternal precautions. There were great variations of instructions to the patients concerning weight bearing and exercises involving the sternotomy. All respondents considered physiotherapy necessary after cardiac surgery, but only half of them considered the physiotherapy treatment offered as optimal. The results of this survey show that there are small variations in physiotherapy-supervised mobilization and exercise following cardiac surgery in Sweden. However, the frequency and

  4. The Role of PDH Inhibition in the Development of Hypertrophy in the Hyperthyroid Rat Heart: A Combined MRI and Hyperpolarized MRS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Helen J.; Dodd, Michael S.; Heather, Lisa C.; Schroeder, Marie A.; Griffin, Julian L.; Radda, George K.; Clarke, Kieran; Tyler, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Hyperthyroidism increases heart rate, contractility and cardiac output, as well as metabolic rate. It is also accompanied by alterations in the regulation of cardiac substrate utilisation. Specifically, hyperthyroidism increases the ex vivo activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK), thereby inhibiting glucose oxidation via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Cardiac hypertrophy is another effect of hyperthyroidism, with an increase in the abundance of mitochondria. Although the hypertrophy is initially beneficial, it can eventually lead to heart failure. The aim of this study was to use hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to investigate the rate and regulation of in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) flux in the hyperthyroid heart, and to establish whether modulation of flux through PDH would alter cardiac hypertrophy. Methods & Results Hyperthyroidism was induced in 18 male Wistar rats with 7 daily intraperitoneal injections of freshly prepared triiodothyronine (T3; 0.2 mg/kg/day). In vivo PDH flux, assessed using hyperpolarized MRS, was reduced by 59% in hyperthyroid animals (0.0022 ± 0.0002 s−1 vs 0.0055 ± 0.0005 s−1, P = 0.0003) and this reduction was completely reversed by both acute and chronic delivery of the PDK inhibitor, dichloroacetic acid (DCA). Hyperpolarized [2-13C]pyruvate was also used to evaluate Krebs cycle metabolism and demonstrated a unique marker of anaplerosis, the level of which was significantly increased in the hyperthyroid heart. Cine MRI showed that chronic DCA treatment significantly reduced the hypertrophy observed in hyperthyroid animals (100 ± 20 mg vs 200 ± 30 mg; P = 0.04) despite no change to the increase observed in cardiac output. Conclusions This work has demonstrated that inhibition of glucose oxidation in the hyperthyroid heart in vivo is PDK mediated. Relieving this inhibition can increase the metabolic flexibility of the hyperthyroid heart and reduce the level of hypertrophy that develops

  5. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation for coronary heart disease

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, Lindsey; Thompson, David R; Oldridge, Neil; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Rees, Karen; Martin, Nicole; Taylor, Rod S

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary heart disease (CHD) is the single most common cause of death globally. However, with falling CHD mortality rates, an increasing number of people live with CHD and may need support to manage their symptoms and prognosis. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) aims to improve the health and outcomes of people with CHD. This is an update of a Cochrane systematic review previously published in 2011.OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of exercise...

  6. Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by Endonuclease G deficiency requires reactive oxygen radicals accumulation and is inhibitable by the micropeptide humanin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Natividad; Cámara, Yolanda; Núñez, Estefanía; Beà, Aida; Barés, Gisel; Forné, Carles; Ruíz-Meana, Marisol; Girón, Cristina; Barba, Ignasi; García-Arumí, Elena; García-Dorado, David; Vázquez, Jesús; Martí, Ramon; Llovera, Marta; Sanchis, Daniel

    2018-06-01

    The endonuclease G gene (Endog), which codes for a mitochondrial nuclease, was identified as a determinant of cardiac hypertrophy. How ENDOG controls cardiomyocyte growth is still unknown. Thus, we aimed at finding the link between ENDOG activity and cardiomyocyte growth. Endog deficiency induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and abnormal growth in neonatal rodent cardiomyocytes, altering the AKT-GSK3β and Class-II histone deacethylases (HDAC) signal transduction pathways. These effects were blocked by ROS scavengers. Lack of ENDOG reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication independently of ROS accumulation. Because mtDNA encodes several subunits of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, whose activity is an important source of cellular ROS, we investigated whether Endog deficiency compromised the expression and activity of the respiratory chain complexes but found no changes in these parameters nor in ATP content. MtDNA also codes for humanin, a micropeptide with possible metabolic functions. Nanomolar concentrations of synthetic humanin restored normal ROS levels and cell size in Endog-deficient cardiomyocytes. These results support the involvement of redox signaling in the control of cardiomyocyte growth by ENDOG and suggest a pathway relating mtDNA content to the regulation of cell growth probably involving humanin, which prevents reactive oxygen radicals accumulation and hypertrophy induced by Endog deficiency. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Glutaredoxin-2 controls cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and energetics in mice, and protects against human cardiac pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges N. Kanaan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutaredoxin 2 (GRX2, a mitochondrial glutathione-dependent oxidoreductase, is central to glutathione homeostasis and mitochondrial redox, which is crucial in highly metabolic tissues like the heart. Previous research showed that absence of Grx2, leads to impaired mitochondrial complex I function, hypertension and cardiac hypertrophy in mice but the impact on mitochondrial structure and function in intact cardiomyocytes and in humans has not been explored. We hypothesized that Grx2 controls cardiac mitochondrial dynamics and function in cellular and mouse models, and that low expression is associated with human cardiac dysfunction. Here we show that Grx2 absence impairs mitochondrial fusion, ultrastructure and energetics in primary cardiomyocytes and cardiac tissue. Moreover, provision of the glutathione precursor, N-acetylcysteine (NAC to Grx2-/- mice did not restore glutathione redox or prevent impairments. Using genetic and histopathological data from the human Genotype-Tissue Expression consortium we demonstrate that low GRX2 is associated with fibrosis, hypertrophy, and infarct in the left ventricle. Altogether, GRX2 is important in the control of cardiac mitochondrial structure and function, and protects against human cardiac pathologies. Keywords: Human heart, Mitochondria, Oxidative stress, Redox, Cardiac metabolism, Cardiac hypertrophy

  8. Exercise self-efficacy and symptoms of depression after cardiac rehabilitation: predicting changes over time using a piecewise growth curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howarter, Alisha D; Bennett, Kymberley K; Barber, Carolyn E; Gessner, Stacia N; Clark, Jillian M R

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac rehabilitation is often recommended after experiencing a cardiac event and has been shown to significantly improve health outcomes among patients. Several psychosocial variables have been linked with cardiac rehabilitation program success, including exercise self-efficacy. However, little is known about temporal patterns in patients' exercise self-efficacy after program completion. This study examined changes in exercise self-efficacy among 133 cardiac rehabilitation patients and whether symptoms of depression impacted the rate of change in exercise self-efficacy. Participants completed questionnaires at the beginning and end of cardiac rehabilitation and at 6-month intervals for 2 years. Growth curve analyses showed that exercise self-efficacy levels were highest at the beginning of cardiac rehabilitation, significantly declined 6 months after cardiac rehabilitation, and leveled off over the next 18 months. Results also showed that baseline depressive symptoms interacted with time: Compared with participants with fewer symptoms, participants high in depressive symptoms began cardiac rehabilitation with lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and evidenced significant declines 6 months after cardiac rehabilitation. At no time were they equal to their counterparts in exercise self-efficacy, and their means were lower 2 years after cardiac rehabilitation than before cardiac rehabilitation. Our findings imply that patients show unrealistic optimism surrounding the ease of initiating and maintaining an exercise program and that integrating efficacy-building activities into cardiac rehabilitation, especially for patients who show signs of distress, is advisable.

  9. Effect of taurine on advanced glycation end products-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.-S.; Chuang, L.-Y.; Guh, J.-Y.; Yang, Y.-L.; Hsu, M.-S.

    2008-01-01

    Mounting evidence indicates that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a major role in the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Taurine is a well documented antioxidant agent. To explore whether taurine was linked to altered AGE-mediated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis in DN, we examined the molecular mechanisms of taurine responsible for inhibition of AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells. We found that AGE (but not non-glycated BSA) caused inhibition of cellular mitogenesis rather than cell death by either necrosis or apoptosis. There were no changes in caspase 3 activity, bcl-2 protein expression, and mitochondrial cytochrome c release in BSA, AGE, or the antioxidant taurine treatments in these cells. AGE-induced the Raf-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation was markedly blocked by taurine. Furthermore, taurine, the Raf-1 kinase inhibitor GW5074, and the ERK kinase inhibitor PD98059 may have the ability to induce cellular proliferation and cell cycle progression from AGE-treated cells. The ability of taurine, GW5074, or PD98059 to inhibit AGE-induced hypertrophy was verified by the observation that it significantly decreased cell size, cellular hypertrophy index, and protein levels of RAGE, p27 Kip1 , collagen IV, and fibronectin. The results obtained in this study suggest that taurine may serve as the potential anti-fibrotic activity in DN through mechanism dependent of its Raf-1/ERK inactivation in AGE-induced hypertrophy in renal tubular epithelial cells

  10. Does Lifestyle Exercise After a Cardiac Event Improve Metabolic Syndrome Profile in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kathy D; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Sattar, Abdus; Josephson, Richard; Moore, Shirley M

    Exercise is a common recommendation to reduce the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, yet there are limited data on the influence of lifestyle exercise after cardiac events on metabolic syndrome factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether lifestyle exercise improves metabolic syndrome profile in older adults after a cardiac event. Participants were from a post-cardiac-event lifestyle exercise study. Five metabolic syndrome factors were assessed: waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipids, glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Objective measures of exercise were obtained from heart rate monitors over a year. Logistic regression was used to determine whether participants who engaged in the minimum recommendation of 130 hours of exercise or greater during the 12-month period improved their metabolic syndrome profile by improving at least 1 metabolic syndrome factor. In the sample of 116 participants (74% men; average age, 67.5 years), 43% exercised at the recommended amount (≥130 h/y) and 28% (n = 33) improved their metabolic syndrome profile. After controlling for confounding factors of age, gender, race, diabetes, functional ability, and employment, subjects who exercised at least 130 hours a year were 3.6 times more likely to improve at least 1 metabolic syndrome factor (95% confidence interval, 1.24-10.49). Of the 28% who improved their metabolic syndrome profile, 72% increased their high-density lipoprotein and 60.6% reduced their waist circumference and glucose. After a cardiac event, older patients who engage in lifestyle exercise at the recommended amount have improvement in their metabolic syndrome profile.

  11. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Benjamin P; Woodall, Meryl C; Luongo, Timothy S; Grisanti, Laurel A; Tilley, Douglas G; Elrod, John W; Koch, Walter J

    2016-10-14

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl ) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β 2 -adrenergic receptor (β 2 AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2 fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β 2 AR-induced hypertrophy. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  12. Skeletal Muscle-specific G Protein-coupled Receptor Kinase 2 Ablation Alters Isolated Skeletal Muscle Mechanics and Enhances Clenbuterol-stimulated Hypertrophy*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodall, Benjamin P.; Woodall, Meryl C.; Luongo, Timothy S.; Grisanti, Laurel A.; Tilley, Douglas G.; Elrod, John W.; Koch, Walter J.

    2016-01-01

    GRK2, a G protein-coupled receptor kinase, plays a critical role in cardiac physiology. Adrenergic receptors are the primary target for GRK2 activity in the heart; phosphorylation by GRK2 leads to desensitization of these receptors. As such, levels of GRK2 activity in the heart directly correlate with cardiac contractile function. Furthermore, increased expression of GRK2 after cardiac insult exacerbates injury and speeds progression to heart failure. Despite the importance of this kinase in both the physiology and pathophysiology of the heart, relatively little is known about the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle function and disease. In this study we generated a novel skeletal muscle-specific GRK2 knock-out (KO) mouse (MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl) to gain a better understanding of the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology. In isolated muscle mechanics testing, GRK2 ablation caused a significant decrease in the specific force of contraction of the fast-twitch extensor digitorum longus muscle yet had no effect on the slow-twitch soleus muscle. Despite these effects in isolated muscle, exercise capacity was not altered in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice compared with wild-type controls. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy stimulated by clenbuterol, a β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) agonist, was significantly enhanced in MLC-Cre:GRK2fl/fl mice; mechanistically, this seems to be due to increased clenbuterol-stimulated pro-hypertrophic Akt signaling in the GRK2 KO skeletal muscle. In summary, our study provides the first insights into the role of GRK2 in skeletal muscle physiology and points to a role for GRK2 as a modulator of contractile properties in skeletal muscle as well as β2AR-induced hypertrophy. PMID:27566547

  13. Hypertrophy of Neurons Within Cardiac Ganglia in Human, Canine, and Rat Heart Failure: The Potential Role of Nerve Growth Factor

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Sanjay; Sayers, Scott; Walter, James S.; Thomas, Donald; Dieter, Robert S.; Nee, Lisa M.; Wurster, Robert D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Autonomic imbalances including parasympathetic withdrawal and sympathetic overactivity are cardinal features of heart failure regardless of etiology; however, mechanisms underlying these imbalances remain unknown. Animal model studies of heart and visceral organ hypertrophy predict that nerve growth factor levels should be elevated in heart failure; whether this is so in human heart failure, though, remains unclear. We tested the hypotheses that neurons in cardiac ganglia are hyper...

  14. Gender and post-ischemic recovery of hypertrophied rat hearts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Popov Kirill M

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gender influences the cardiac response to prolonged increases in workload, with differences at structural, functional, and molecular levels. However, it is unknown if post-ischemic function or metabolism of female hypertrophied hearts differ from male hypertrophied hearts. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that gender influences post-ischemic function of pressure-overload hypertrophied hearts and determined if the effect of gender on post-ischemic outcome could be explained by differences in metabolism, especially the catabolic fate of glucose. Methods Function and metabolism of isolated working hearts from sham-operated and aortic-constricted male and female Sprague-Dawley rats before and after 20 min of no-flow ischemia (N = 17 to 27 per group were compared. Parallel series of hearts were perfused with Krebs-Henseleit solution containing 5.5 mM [5-3H/U-14C]-glucose, 1.2 mM [1-14C]-palmitate, 0.5 mM [U-14C]-lactate, and 100 mU/L insulin to measure glycolysis and glucose oxidation in one series and oxidation of palmitate and lactate in the second. Statistical analysis was performed using two-way analysis of variance. The sequential rejective Bonferroni procedure was used to correct for multiple comparisons and tests. Results Female gender negatively influenced post-ischemic function of non-hypertrophied hearts, but did not significantly influence function of hypertrophied hearts after ischemia such that mass-corrected hypertrophied heart function did not differ between genders. Before ischemia, glycolysis was accelerated in hypertrophied hearts, but to a greater extent in males, and did not differ between male and female non-hypertrophied hearts. Glycolysis fell in all groups after ischemia, except in non-hypertrophied female hearts, with the reduction in glycolysis after ischemia being greatest in males. Post-ischemic glycolytic rates were, therefore, similarly accelerated in hypertrophied male and female hearts and higher in

  15. Cardiovascular Benefits of Moderate Exercise Training in Marfan Syndrome: Insights From an Animal Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas-Stachurska, Aleksandra; Siegert, Anna-Maria; Batlle, Monsterrat; Gorbenko Del Blanco, Darya; Meirelles, Thayna; Rubies, Cira; Bonorino, Fabio; Serra-Peinado, Carla; Bijnens, Bart; Baudin, Julio; Sitges, Marta; Mont, Lluís; Guasch, Eduard; Egea, Gustavo

    2017-09-25

    Marfan syndrome (MF) leads to aortic root dilatation and a predisposition to aortic dissection, mitral valve prolapse, and primary and secondary cardiomyopathy. Overall, regular physical exercise is recommended for a healthy lifestyle, but dynamic sports are strongly discouraged in MF patients. Nonetheless, evidence supporting this recommendation is lacking. Therefore, we studied the role of long-term dynamic exercise of moderate intensity on the MF cardiovascular phenotype. In a transgenic mouse model of MF ( Fbn1 C1039G/+ ), 4-month-old wild-type and MF mice were subjected to training on a treadmill for 5 months; sedentary littermates served as controls for each group. Aortic and cardiac remodeling was assessed by echocardiography and histology. The 4-month-old MF mice showed aortic root dilatation, elastic lamina rupture, and tunica media fibrosis, as well as cardiac hypertrophy, left ventricular fibrosis, and intramyocardial vessel remodeling. Over the 5-month experimental period, aortic root dilation rate was significantly greater in the sedentary MF group, compared with the wild-type group (∆mm, 0.27±0.07 versus 0.13±0.02, respectively). Exercise significantly blunted the aortic root dilation rate in MF mice compared with sedentary MF littermates (∆mm, 0.10±0.04 versus 0.27±0.07, respectively). However, these 2 groups were indistinguishable by aortic root stiffness, tunica media fibrosis, and elastic lamina ruptures. In MF mice, exercise also produced cardiac hypertrophy regression without changes in left ventricular fibrosis. Our results in a transgenic mouse model of MF indicate that moderate dynamic exercise mitigates the progression of the MF cardiovascular phenotype. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  16. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Mengwei [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Huang, Chenglin [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu [Key Laboratory of State General Administration of Sport, Shanghai Research Institute of Sports Science, Shanghai 200031 (China); Chen, Hong, E-mail: hchen100@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China); Shen, Weili, E-mail: weili_shen@hotmail.com [Shanghai Key Laboratory of Vascular Biology, Department of Hypertension and Pharmacology, Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University, School of Medicine, Shanghai 200025 (China)

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria.

  17. Ginsenoside Rg3 improves cardiac mitochondrial population quality: Mimetic exercise training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Mengwei; Huang, Chenglin; Wang, Cheng; Zheng, Jianheng; Zhang, Peng; Xu, Yangshu; Chen, Hong; Shen, Weili

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Rg3 is an ergogenic aid. •Rg3 improves mitochondrial antioxidant capacity. •Rg3 regulates mitochondria dynamic remodeling. •Rg3 alone matches some the benefits of aerobic exercise. -- Abstract: Emerging evidence indicates exercise training could mediate mitochondrial quality control through the improvement of mitochondrial dynamics. Ginsenoside Rg3 (Rg3), one of the active ingredients in Panax ginseng, is well known in herbal medicine as a tonic and restorative agent. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of Rg3 has been elusive. In the present study, we compared the effects of Rg3 administration with aerobic exercise on mitochondrial adaptation in cardiac muscle tissue of Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats. Three groups of SD rats were studied: (1) sedentary control, (2) Rg3-treated and (3) aerobic exercise trained. Both aerobic exercise training and Rg3 supplementation enhanced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels in cardiac muscle. The activation of PGC-1α led to increased mRNA levels of mitochondrial transcription factor A (Tfam) and nuclear related factor 1(Nrf1), these changes were accompanied by increases in mitochondrial DNA copy number and complex protein levels, while activation of Nrf2 increased levels of phase II detoxifying enzymes, including nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate:quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1), superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and catalase. Aerobic exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of beclin1 and autophagy-related protein 7 (ATG7), these effects of aerobic exercise are comparable to that of Rg3. These results demonstrate that Rg3 mimics improved cardiac adaptations to exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quantity and quality of mitochondria

  18. Cardiodynamicsgram: a novel tool for monitoring cardiac function in exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Guo, Bokai; Gong, Yinglan; Xia, Ling; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) for monitoring the cardiac functions of athletes and exercisers. CDG could provide an effective, simple, and economical tool for exercise training. Seventeen middle-distance race athletes aged 14-28 years old were recruited. CDG tests and blood test including creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) were performed before a high-intensity prolonged training, as well as 2 and 14 h after training, respectively. The CDG test result was unsatisfactory when the CK test result was used as standard. However, the accuracy of CDG test was about 80% when CK-MB and hsTnI were used as standards. Thus, CDG offers a noninvasive, simple, and economical approach for monitoring the cardiac function of athletes and exercisers during exercise training. Nonetheless, the applicability of CDG needs further investigation.

  19. Exercise electrocardiogram in middle-aged and older leisure time sportsmen: 100 exercise tests would be enough to identify one silent myocardial ischemia at risk for cardiac event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hupin, David; Edouard, Pascal; Oriol, Mathieu; Laukkanen, Jari; Abraham, Pierre; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Guy, Jean-Michel; Carré, François; Barthélémy, Jean-Claude; Roche, Frédéric; Chatard, Jean-Claude

    2018-04-15

    The importance of exercise electrocardiogram (ECG) has been controversial in the prevention of cardiac events among sportsmen. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency of silent myocardial ischemia (SMI) from an exercise ECG and its relationship with induced coronary angiographic assessment and potentially preventable cardiac events. This prospective cohort study included leisure time asymptomatic sportsmen over 35years old, referred from 2011 to 2014 in the Sports Medicine Unit of the University Hospital of Saint-Etienne. Of the cohort of 1500 sportsmen (1205 men; mean age 50.7±9.4years; physical activity level 32.8±26.8MET-h/week), 951 (63%) had at least one cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor. Family history, medical examination and standard resting 12-lead were collected. A total of 163 exercise ECGs (10.9%) were defined as positive, most of them due to SMI (n=129, 8.6%). SMI was an indication for coronary angiography in 23 cases, leading to 17 documented SMIs (1.1%), including 11 significant stenoses requiring revascularization. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, a high risk of CVD (OR=2.65 [CI 95%: 1.33-5.27], p=0.005) and an age >50years (OR=2.71 [CI 95%: 1.65-4.44], p<0.0001) were independently associated with confirmed SMI. The association of positive exercise ECG with significant coronary stenosis was stronger among sportsmen with CVD risk factors and older than 50years. Screening by exercise ECG can lower the risk of cardiac events in middle-aged and older sportsmen. One hundred tests would be enough to detect one silent myocardial ischemia at risk for cardiac event. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Role of IGF-I in follistatin-induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbé, Caroline; Kalista, Stéphanie; Loumaye, Audrey; Ritvos, Olli; Lause, Pascale; Ferracin, Benjamin; Thissen, Jean-Paul

    2015-09-15

    Follistatin, a physiological inhibitor of myostatin, induces a dramatic increase in skeletal muscle mass, requiring the type 1 IGF-I receptor/Akt/mTOR pathway. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of IGF-I and insulin, two ligands of the IGF-I receptor, in the follistatin hypertrophic action on skeletal muscle. In a first step, we showed that follistatin increases muscle mass while being associated with a downregulation of muscle IGF-I expression. In addition, follistatin retained its full hypertrophic effect toward muscle in hypophysectomized animals despite very low concentrations of circulating and muscle IGF-I. Furthermore, follistatin did not increase muscle sensitivity to IGF-I in stimulating phosphorylation of Akt but, surprisingly, decreased it once hypertrophy was present. Taken together, these observations indicate that increased muscle IGF-I production or sensitivity does not contribute to the muscle hypertrophy caused by follistatin. Unlike low IGF-I, low insulin, as obtained by streptozotocin injection, attenuated the hypertrophic action of follistatin on skeletal muscle. Moreover, the full anabolic response to follistatin was restored in this condition by insulin but also by IGF-I infusion. Therefore, follistatin-induced muscle hypertrophy requires the activation of the insulin/IGF-I pathway by either insulin or IGF-I. When insulin or IGF-I alone is missing, follistatin retains its full anabolic effect, but when both are deficient, as in streptozotocin-treated animals, follistatin fails to stimulate muscle growth. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Early exercise training after myocardial infarction prevents contractile but not electrical remodelling or hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bito (Virginie); M.C. de Waard (Monique); L. Biesmans (Liesbeth); I. Lenaerts (Ilse); S. Ozdemir (Semir); E.D. van Deel (Elza); Y. Abdel-Mottaleb (Yousra); R. Driesen (Ronald); P. Holemans (Patricia); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); K.R. Sipido (Karin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAims: Exercise started early after myocardial infarction (MI) improves in vivo cardiac function and myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+. We investigated whether this represents partial or complete reversal of cellular remodelling. Methods and results: Mice with MI following left coronary

  2. Daily exercise prevents diastolic dysfunction and oxidative stress in a female mouse model of western diet induced obesity by maintaining cardiac heme oxygenase-1 levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bostick, Brian; Aroor, Annayya R; Habibi, Javad; Durante, William; Ma, Lixin; DeMarco, Vincent G; Garro, Mona; Hayden, Melvin R; Booth, Frank W; Sowers, James R

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is a global epidemic with profound cardiovascular disease (CVD) complications. Obese women are particularly vulnerable to CVD, suffering higher rates of CVD compared to non-obese females. Diastolic dysfunction is the earliest manifestation of CVD in obese women but remains poorly understood with no evidence-based therapies. We have shown early diastolic dysfunction in obesity is associated with oxidative stress and myocardial fibrosis. Recent evidence suggests exercise may increase levels of the antioxidant heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Accordingly, we hypothesized that diastolic dysfunction in female mice consuming a western diet (WD) could be prevented by daily volitional exercise with reductions in oxidative stress, myocardial fibrosis and maintenance of myocardial HO-1 levels. Four-week-old female C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat/high-fructose WD for 16weeks (N=8) alongside control diet fed mice (N=8). A separate cohort of WD fed females was allowed a running wheel for the entire study (N=7). Cardiac function was assessed at 20weeks by high-resolution cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Functional assessment was followed by immunohistochemistry, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Western blotting to identify pathologic mechanisms and assess HO-1 protein levels. There was no significant body weight decrease in exercising mice, normalized body weight 14.3g/mm, compared to sedentary mice, normalized body weight 13.6g/mm (p=0.38). Total body fat was also unchanged in exercising, fat mass of 6.6g, compared to sedentary mice, fat mass 7.4g (p=0.55). Exercise prevented diastolic dysfunction with a significant reduction in left ventricular relaxation time to 23.8ms for exercising group compared to 33.0ms in sedentary group (pstress and myocardial fibrosis with improved mitochondrial architecture. HO-1 protein levels were increased in the hearts of exercising mice compared to sedentary WD fed females. This study provides seminal evidence that exercise

  3. Aggravated Cardiac Remodeling post Aortocaval Fistula in Unilateral Nephrectomized Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wu

    Full Text Available Aortocaval fistula (AV in rat is a unique model of volume-overload congestive heart failure and cardiac hypertrophy. Living donor kidney transplantation is regarded as beneficial to allograft recipients and not particularly detrimental to the donors. Impact of AV on animals with mild renal dysfunction is not fully understood. In this study, we explored the effects of AV in unilateral nephrectomized (UNX rats.Adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats were divided into Sham (n = 10, UNX (right kidney remove, n = 10, AV (AV established between the levels of renal arteries and iliac bifurcation, n = 18 and UNX+AV (AV at one week after UNX, n = 22, respectively. Renal outcome was measured by glomerular filtration rate, effective renal plasma flow, fractional excretion of sodium, albuminuria, plasma creatinine, and cystatin C. Focal glomerulosclerosis (FGS incidence was evaluated by renal histology. Cardiac function was measured by echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements.UNX alone induced compensatory left kidney enlargement, increased plasma creatinine and cystatin C levels, and slightly reduced glomerular filtration rate and increased FGS. AV induced significant cardiac enlargement and hypertrophy and reduced cardiac function and increased FGS, these changes were aggravated in UNX+AV rats.Although UNX only induces minor renal dysfunction, additional chronic volume overload placement during the adaptation phase of the remaining kidney is associated with aggravated cardiac dysfunction and remodeling in UNX rats, suggesting special medical care is required for UNX or congenital monokidney subjects in case of chronic volume overload as in the case of pregnancy and hyperthyroidism to prevent further adverse cardiorenal events in these individuals.

  4. Psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in exercising and sedentary coronary artery disease patients: a case-control study

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    A. Sardinha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise has been shown to favorably influence mood and anxiety; however, there are few studies regarding psychiatric aspects of physically active patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in sedentary and exercising CAD patients. A total sample of 119 CAD patients (74 men were enrolled in a case-control study. The subjects were interviewed to identify psychiatric disorders and responded to the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire. In the exercise group (N = 60, there was a lower prevalence (45 vs 81%; P < 0.001 of at least one psychiatric diagnosis, as well as multiple comorbidities, when compared to the sedentary group (N = 59. Considering the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, sedentary patients presented higher scores compared to exercisers (mean ± SEM = 55.8 ± 1.9 vs 37.3 ± 1.6; P < 0.001. In a regression model, to be attending a medically supervised exercise program presented a relevant potential for a 35% reduction in cardiac anxiety. CAD patients regularly attending an exercise program presented less current psychiatric diagnoses and multiple mental-related comorbidities and lower scores of cardiac anxiety. These salutary mental effects add to the already known health benefits of exercise for CAD patients.

  5. Maternal Cardiac Adaptations to a Physical Exercise Program during Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, María; Santos-Lozano, Alejandro; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Luaces, María; Pareja-Galeano, Helios; Garatachea, Nuria; Barakat, Rubén; Lucia, Alejandro

    2016-05-01

    Scarce evidence exists regarding the effects of regular pregnancy exercise on maternal cardiovascular health. We aimed to study, using a randomized controlled trial design, the effects of pregnancy exercise on echocardiographic indicators of hemodynamics, cardiac remodeling, left ventricular (LV) function, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Two hundred forty-one healthy pregnant women were assigned to a control (standard care) or intervention (exercise) group (initial n = 121/120). The intervention (weeks 9-11 to 38-39) included three supervised sessions per week (55-60 min, with light-moderate intensity aerobic and strength exercises). The main findings were as follows: (i) the proportion of women with excessive weight gain at end pregnancy was lower in the exercise group compared with controls (18% vs 40%, P = 0.005), and (ii) there was a tendency toward lower prevalence of depression at end pregnancy in the former (P = 0.029, threshold P value set at 0.013). No significant exercise training effect was essentially found for echocardiographic variables, CVD risk factors, type/duration of labor, or newborn's outcomes (weight, height, head circumference, Apgar scores, and umbilical cord pH). Light-moderate intensity supervised exercise is safe for healthy pregnant women and does not impose an additional cardiac overload beyond gestation or affect the main pregnancy outcomes. Such intervention might help decrease, at least partly, the risk of two CVD-associated conditions, excessive weight gain and depression.

  6. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats.

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    Daniela Farah

    Full Text Available The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group: Sedentary control (SC, Trained control (TC, Sedentary Fructose (SF and Trained Fructose (TF. Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40-60% of maximum exercise test. Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05 and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox. The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04, arterial pressure (118±2mmHg, sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training.

  7. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Daniela; Nunes, Jonas; Sartori, Michelle; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Sirvente, Raquel; Silva, Maikon B.; Fiorino, Patrícia; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana; Farah, Vera; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): Sedentary control (SC), Trained control (TC), Sedentary Fructose (SF) and Trained Fructose (TF). Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40–60% of maximum exercise test). Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV) were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI) (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05) and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg) associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP)- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox). The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04), arterial pressure (118±2mmHg), sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training. PMID:27930685

  8. Long-term treatment with nebivolol improves arterial reactivity and reduces ventricular hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero, Estela; Voces, Felipe; Ardanaz, Noelia; Montero, María José; Arévalo, Miguel; Sevilla, María Angeles

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of long-term nebivolol therapy on high blood pressure, impaired endothelial function in aorta, and damage observed in heart and conductance arteries in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). For this purpose, SHR were treated for 9 weeks with nebivolol (8 mg/kg per day). Untreated SHR and Wistar Kyoto rats were used as hypertensive and normotensive controls, respectively. The left ventricle/body weight ratio was used as an index of cardiac hypertrophy, and to evaluate vascular function, responses induced by potassium chloride, noradrenaline, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside were tested on aortic rings. Aortic morphometry and fibrosis were determined in parallel by a quantitative technique. Systolic blood pressure, measured by the tail-cuff method, was lower in treated SHR than in the untreated group (194 +/- 3 versus 150 +/- 4 mm Hg). The cardiac hypertrophy index was significantly reduced by the treatment. In aortic rings, treatment with nebivolol significantly reduced the maximal response to both KCl and NA in SHR. In vessels precontracted with phenylephrine relaxant, activity due to acetylcholine was higher in normotensive rats than in SHR and the treatment significantly improved this response. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on aortic rings was similar in all groups. Medial thickness and collagen content were significantly reduced in comparison with SHR. In conclusion, the chronic antihypertensive effect of nebivolol in SHR was accompanied by an improvement in vascular structure and function and in the cardiac hypertrophy index.

  9. H- ras deletion protects against angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling through protein kinase G-Iβ pathway activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Sánchez, Paloma; Luengo, Alicia; Griera, Mercedes; Orea, María Jesús; López-Olañeta, Marina; Chiloeches, Antonio; Lara-Pezzi, Enrique; de Frutos, Sergio; Rodríguez-Puyol, Manuel; Calleros, Laura; Rodríguez-Puyol, Diego

    2018-02-01

    Ras proteins regulate cell survival, growth, differentiation, blood pressure, and fibrosis in some organs. We have demonstrated that H- ras gene deletion produces mice hypotension via a soluble guanylate cyclase-protein kinase G (PKG)-dependent mechanism. In this study, we analyzed the consequences of H- ras deletion on cardiac remodeling induced by continuous angiotensin II (AngII) infusion and the molecular mechanisms implied. Left ventricular posterior wall thickness and mass and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area were similar between AngII-treated H-Ras knockout (H -ras -/- ) and control wild-type (H -ras +/+ ) mice, as were extracellular matrix protein expression. Increased cardiac PKG-Iβ protein expression in H -ras -/- mice suggests the involvement of this protein in heart protection. Ex vivo experiments on cardiac explants could support this mechanism, as PKG blockade blunted protection against AngII-induced cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis markers in H -ras -/- mice. Genetic modulation studies in cardiomyocytes and cardiac and embryonic fibroblasts revealed that the lack of H-Ras down-regulates the B-RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, which induces the glycogen synthase kinase-3β-dependent activation of the transcription factor, cAMP response element-binding protein, which is responsible for PKG-Iβ overexpression in H -ras -/- mouse embryonic fibroblasts. This study demonstrates that H- ras deletion protects against AngII-induced cardiac remodeling, possibly via a mechanism in which PKG-Iβ overexpression could play a partial role, and points to H-Ras and/or downstream proteins as potential therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease.-Martín-Sánchez, P., Luengo, A., Griera, M., Orea, M. J., López-Olañeta, M., Chiloeches, A., Lara-Pezzi, E., de Frutos, S., Rodríguez-Puyol, M., Calleros, L., Rodríguez-Puyol, D. H- ras deletion protects against angiotensin II-induced arterial hypertension and cardiac remodeling through protein kinase G-Iβ pathway activation.

  10. Leptin induces cardiac fibrosis through galectin-3, mTOR and oxidative stress: potential role in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Martínez, Ernesto; Jurado-López, Raquel; Valero-Muñoz, María; Bartolomé, María Visitación; Ballesteros, Sandra; Luaces, María; Briones, Ana María; López-Andrés, Natalia; Miana, María; Cachofeiro, Victoria

    2014-05-01

    Leptin acts as a cardiac profibrotic factor. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the mediators involved in this process and the potential role of leptin in cardiac fibrosis associated with obesity. Male Wistar rats were fed either a high-fat diet (HFD; 33.5% fat), or a standard diet (3.5% fat) for 6 weeks. HFD animals show cardiac hypertrophy, fibrosis and an increase in O2- production as evaluated by dihydroethidium. Echocardiographic parameters of cardiac structure and systolic function were similar in both groups. Cardiac levels of leptin, collagen I, galectin-3 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) were higher in HFD than in controls. In cardiac myofibroblasts, leptin (10-100 ng/ml) increased O2-, collagen I, galectin-3, TGF-β and connective tissue growth factor production (CTGF). These effects were prevented by the presence of either melatonin (10 mmol/l) or the inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin (10 mmol/l). Blockage of galectin-3 activity by N-acetyllactosamine (LacNac 10 mmol/l) reduced both collagen I and O2(*-) production induced by leptin. The p70S6 kinase activation/phosphorylation, the downstream mediator of mTOR, induced by leptin was not modified by melatonin. Leptin reduced the metalloproteinase (MMP) 2 activity and the presence of melatonin, rapamycin or LacNac were unable to prevent it. The data suggest that leptin locally produced in the heart could participate in the fibrosis observed in HFD by affecting collagen turnover. Collagen synthesis induced by leptin seems to be mediated by the production of galectin-3, TGF-β and CTGF through oxidative stress increased by activation of mTOR pathway.

  11. Intermolecular failure of L-type Ca2+ channel and ryanodine receptor signaling in hypertrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Xu

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Pressure overload-induced hypertrophy is a key step leading to heart failure. The Ca(2+-induced Ca(2+ release (CICR process that governs cardiac contractility is defective in hypertrophy/heart failure, but the molecular mechanisms remain elusive. To examine the intermolecular aspects of CICR during hypertrophy, we utilized loose-patch confocal imaging to visualize the signaling between a single L-type Ca(2+ channel (LCC and ryanodine receptors (RyRs in aortic stenosis rat models of compensated (CHT and decompensated (DHT hypertrophy. We found that the LCC-RyR intermolecular coupling showed a 49% prolongation in coupling latency, a 47% decrease in chance of hit, and a 72% increase in chance of miss in DHT, demonstrating a state of "intermolecular failure." Unexpectedly, these modifications also occurred robustly in CHT due at least partially to decreased expression of junctophilin, indicating that intermolecular failure occurs prior to cellular manifestations. As a result, cell-wide Ca(2+ release, visualized as "Ca(2+ spikes," became desynchronized, which contrasted sharply with unaltered spike integrals and whole-cell Ca(2+ transients in CHT. These data suggested that, within a certain limit, termed the "stability margin," mild intermolecular failure does not damage the cellular integrity of excitation-contraction coupling. Only when the modification steps beyond the stability margin does global failure occur. The discovery of "hidden" intermolecular failure in CHT has important clinical implications.

  12. Serca2a and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger are involved in left ventricular function following cardiac remodelling of female rats treated with anabolic androgenic steroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Andrews Marques do; Lima, Ewelyne Miranda de; Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Caliman, Izabela Facco; Silva, Josiane Fernandes da; Lemos, Virgínia Soares; Andrade, Tadeu Uggere de; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza

    2016-06-15

    Anabolic-androgenic steroids are misused, including by women, but little is known about the cardiovascular effects of these drugs on women. To evaluated the effects of nandrolone decanoate (ND) and resistive physical exercise on cardiac contractility in young female rats. Female Wistar rats were separated into 4 groups: C (untrained animals); E (animals were submitted to resistance exercise by jumping in water 5 times per week); ND (animals were treated with ND, 20mg/kg/week for 4weeks); and NDE (trained and treated). The haemodynamic parameters (+dP/dtmax, -dP/dtmin and Tau) were assessed in the left ventricle. The heart was collected for histological analyses and collagen deposition. The gastrocnemius muscle was weighed, and hypertrophy was assessed by the ratio of their weights to gastrocnemius/tibia length. The expression of calcium handling proteins was measured by western blot analysis. ND treatment and physical exercise increased cardiac contractility and relaxation. In addition, ND promoted increases in phospholamban phosphorylated (p-PLB) and isoforms of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 2 (SERCA2a) expression, while resistance exercise increased the phosphorylation of PLB and expression of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchangers (NCX). Cardiac hypertrophy and collagen deposition were observed after ND treatment. Regulatory components of cytosolic calcium, such as SERCA2a and p-PLB, play important roles in modulating the contractility and relaxation effects of ND in females. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of obesity on hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling: role of oxidative stress and its modulation by gemfibrozil treatment in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Randhir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Singh, Manjeet; Krishan, Pawan

    2011-01-15

    This study investigated the possible synergistic role of obesity in hypertension-induced cardiac remodeling and its modulation by gemfibrozil treatment in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 90 days. Normal rats were subjected to hypertension by partial abdominal aortic constriction (PAAC) for 28 days. In the HFD+PAAC control group, rats on HFD were subjected to PAAC on the 62nd day and were sacrificed on the 90th day. HFD and PAAC individually resulted in significant cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis along with increased oxidative stress and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) in rats as evidenced by various morphological, biochemical, and histological parameters. Moreover, the HFD + PAAC control group showed marked cardiac remodeling compared to rats subjected to HFD or PAAC alone. The HFD+gemfibrozil and HFD+PAAC+gemfibrozil groups showed significant reduction in cardiac remodeling along with reduction in oxidative stress and MABP. Hence, it may be concluded that oxidative stress plays a key role in obesity-mediated synergistic effects on induction and progression of PAAC-induced cardiac remodeling, and its deleterious effects could be reversed by gemfibrozil treatment in rats through its antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. [Role of cardiac magnetic resonance in cardiac involvement of Fabry disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, Viviana M; Barba, Miguel Angel; Torrá, Roser; Pérez De Isla, Leopoldo; López, Mónica; Calli, Andrea; Feltes, Gisela; Torras, Joan; Valverde, Victor; Zamorano, José L

    2010-09-04

    Fabry disease is a hereditary disorder. Clinical manifestations are multisystemic. The majority of the patients remain undiagnosed until late in life, when alterations could be irreversible. Early detection of cardiac symptoms is of major interest in Fabry's disease (FD) in order to gain access to enzyme replacement therapy. Echo-Doppler tissular imaging (TDI) has been used as a cardiologic early marker in FD. This study is intended to determine whether the cardiac magnetic resonance is as useful tool as TDI for the early detection of cardiac affectation in FD. Echocardiography, tissue Doppler and Cardio magnetic resonance was performed in 20 patients with confirmed Fabry Disease. Left ventricular hypertrophy was defined as septum and left ventricular posterior wall thickness ≥12 mm. An abnormal TDI velocity was defined as (Sa), (Ea) and/or (Aa) velocities gadolinium-enhanced images sequences were obtained using magnetic resonance. Twenty patients included in the study were divided into three groups: 1. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy nor tissue Doppler impairment 2. Those without left ventricular hypertrophy and tissue Doppler impairment 3. Those with left ventricular hypertrophy and Tissue Doppler impairment. Late gadolinium enhancement was found in only one patient, who has already altered DTI and LVH. Tissue Doppler imaging (TDI) is the only diagnostic tool able to provide early detection of cardiac affectation in patients with FD. Magnetic resonance provides information of the disease severity in patients with LVH, but can not be used as an early marker of cardiac disease in patients with FD. However MRI could be of great value for diagnostic stratification. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  15. Increased IGF-IEc expression and mechano-growth factor production in intestinal muscle of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease and smooth muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Vu, Kent; Hazelgrove, Krystina; Kuemmerle, John F

    2015-12-01

    The igf1 gene is alternatively spliced as IGF-IEa and IGF-IEc variants in humans. In fibrostenotic Crohn's disease, the fibrogenic cytokine TGF-β1 induces IGF-IEa expression and IGF-I production in intestinal smooth muscle and results in muscle hyperplasia and collagen I production that contribute to stricture formation. Mechano-growth factor (MGF) derived from IGF-IEc induces skeletal and cardiac muscle hypertrophy following stress. We hypothesized that increased IGF-IEc expression and MGF production mediated smooth muscle hypertrophy also characteristic of fibrostenotic Crohn's disease. IGF-IEc transcripts and MGF protein were increased in muscle cells isolated from fibrostenotic intestine under regulation by endogenous TGF-β1. Erk5 and MEF2C were phosphorylated in vivo in fibrostenotic muscle; both were phosphorylated and colocalized to nucleus in response to synthetic MGF in vitro. Smooth muscle-specific protein expression of α-smooth muscle actin, γ-smooth muscle actin, and smoothelin was increased in affected intestine. Erk5 inhibition or MEF2C siRNA blocked smooth muscle-specific gene expression and hypertrophy induced by synthetic MGF. Conditioned media of cultured fibrostenotic muscle induced muscle hypertrophy that was inhibited by immunoneutralization of endogenous MGF or pro-IGF-IEc. The results indicate that TGF-β1-dependent IGF-IEc expression and MGF production in patients with fibrostenotic Crohn's disease regulates smooth muscle cell hypertrophy a critical factor that contributes to intestinal stricture formation. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Higher exercise intensity delays postexercise recovery of impedance-derived cardiac sympathetic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Scott; Jay, Ollie; Graham, Kenneth S; Davis, Glen M

    2017-08-01

    Systolic time intervals (STIs) provide noninvasive insights into cardiac sympathetic neural activity (cSNA). As the effect of exercise intensity on postexercise STI recovery is unclear, this study investigated the STI recovery profile after different exercise intensities. Eleven healthy males cycled for 8 min at 3 separate intensities: LOW (40%-45%), MOD (75%-80%), and HIGH (90%-95%) of heart-rate (HR) reserve. Bio-impedance cardiography was used to assess STIs - primarily pre-ejection period (PEP; inversely correlated with cSNA), as well as left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and PEP:LVET - during 10 min seated recovery immediately postexercise. Heart-rate variability (HRV), i.e., natural-logarithm of root mean square of successive differences (Ln-RMSSD), was calculated as an index of cardiac parasympathetic neural activity (cPNA). Higher preceding exercise intensity elicited a slower recovery of HR and Ln-RMSSD (p return to baseline by 10 min following any intensity (p ≤ 0.009). Recovery of STIs was also slower following higher intensity exercise (p ≤ 0.002). By 30 s postexercise, higher preceding intensity resulted in a lower PEP (98 ± 14 ms, 75 ± 6 ms, 66 ± 5 ms for LOW, MOD, and HIGH, respectively, p fashion. While exercise intensity must be considered, acute recovery may be a valuable period during which to concurrently monitor these noninvasive indices, to identify potentially abnormal cardiac autonomic responses.

  17. Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kishiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Muscle thickness and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, heat shock protein (HSP70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured before and after the exercise training. Training reduced the circulating levels of CRP, SAA (P<.05, HSP70, IGF-I, and insulin (P<.01. The training-induced reductions in CRP and TNF-α were significantly (P<.01, P<.05 associated with increased muscle thickness (r=−0.61, r=−0.54, respectively. None of the results were significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Resistance training may assist in maintaining or improving muscle volume and reducing low-grade inflammation.

  18. Combinatorial therapy of exercise-preconditioning and nanocurcumin formulation supplementation improves cardiac adaptation under hypobaric hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehra, Sarita; Bhardwaj, Varun; Bansal, Anju; Saraswat, Deepika

    2017-09-26

    Chronic hypobaric hypoxia (cHH) mediated cardiac insufficiencies are associated with pathological damage. Sustained redox stress and work load are major causative agents of cardiac insufficiencies under cHH. Despite the advancements made in pharmacological (anti-oxidants, vasodilators) and non-pharmacological therapeutics (acclimatization strategies and schedules), only partial success has been achieved in improving cardiac acclimatization to cHH. This necessitates the need for potent combinatorial therapies to improve cardiac acclimatization at high altitudes. We hypothesize that a combinatorial therapy comprising preconditioning to mild aerobic treadmill exercise and supplementation with nanocurcumin formulation (NCF) consisting of nanocurcumin (NC) and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) might improve cardiac adaptation at high altitudes. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats pre-conditioned to treadmill exercise and supplemented with NCF were exposed to cHH (7620 m altitude corresponding to pO2~8% at 28±2°C, relative humidity 55%±1%) for 3 weeks. The rat hearts were analyzed for changes in markers of oxidative stress (free radical leakage, lipid peroxidation, manganese-superoxide dismutase [MnSOD] activity), cardiac injury (circulating cardiac troponin I [TnI] and T [cTnT], myocardial creatine kinase [CK-MB]), metabolic damage (lactate dehydrogenase [LDH] and acetyl-coenzyme A levels, lactate and pyruvate levels) and bio-energetic insufficiency (ATP, p-AMPKα). Significant modulations (p≤0.05) in cardiac redox status, metabolic damage, cardiac injury and bio-energetics were observed in rats receiving both NCF supplementation and treadmill exercise-preconditioning compared with rats receiving only one of the treatments. The combinatorial therapeutic strategy showed a tremendous improvement in cardiac acclimatization to cHH compared to either exercise-preconditioning or NCF supplementation alone which was evident from the effective modulation in redox, metabolic, contractile

  19. Maternal Diet-Induced Obesity Programmes Cardiac Dysfunction in Male Mice Independently of Post-Weaning Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loche, Elena; Blackmore, Heather L; Carpenter, Asha A M; Beeson, Jessica H; Pinnock, Adele; Ashmore, Thomas J; Aiken, Catherine E; de Almeida-Faria, Juliana; Schoonejans, Josca; Giussani, Dino A; Fernandez-Twinn, Denise S; Ozanne, Susan E

    2018-04-04

    Obesity during pregnancy increases risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the offspring and individuals exposed to over-nutrition during fetal life are likely to be exposed to a calorie-rich environment postnatally. Here, we established the consequences of combined exposure to a maternal and post-weaning obesogenic diet on offspring cardiac structure and function using an established mouse model of maternal diet-induced obesity. The impact of the maternal and postnatal environment on the offspring metabolic profile, arterial blood pressure, cardiac structure and function was assessed in 8-week old C57BL/6 male mice. Measurement of cardiomyocyte cell area, the transcriptional re-activation of cardiac fetal genes as well as genes involved in the regulation of contractile function and matrix remodelling in the adult heart were determined as potential mediators of effects on cardiac function. In the adult offspring: a post-weaning obesogenic diet coupled with exposure to maternal obesity increased serum insulin (P<0.0001) and leptin levels (P<0.0001); maternal obesity (P=0.001) and a post-weaning obesogenic diet (P=0.002) increased absolute heart weight; maternal obesity (P=0.01) and offspring obesity (P=0.01) caused cardiac dysfunction but effects were not additive; cardiac dysfunction resulting from maternal obesity was associated with re-expression of cardiac fetal genes (Myh7:Myh6 ratio; P=0.0004), however these genes were not affected by offspring diet; maternal obesity (P=0.02) and offspring obesity (P=0.05) caused hypertension and effects were additive. Maternal diet-induced obesity and offspring obesity independently promote cardiac dysfunction and hypertension in adult male progeny. Exposure to maternal obesity alone programmed cardiac dysfunction, associated with hallmarks of pathological left ventricular hypertrophy, including increased cardiomyocyte area, upregulation of fetal genes and remodelling of cardiac structure. These data highlight that the

  20. Deep breathing exercises performed 2 months following cardiac surgery: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, Elisabeth; Urell, Charlotte; Jonsson, Marcus; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Hedenström, Hans; Emtner, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Postoperative breathing exercises are recommended to cardiac surgery patients. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue exercises after discharge vary, and the significance of treatment needs to be determined. Our aim was to assess the effects of home-based deep breathing exercises performed with a positive expiratory pressure device for 2 months following cardiac surgery. The study design was a prospective, single-blinded, parallel-group, randomized trial. Patients performing breathing exercises 2 months after cardiac surgery (n = 159) were compared with a control group (n = 154) performing no breathing exercises after discharge. The intervention consisted of 30 slow deep breaths performed with a positive expiratory pressure device (10-15 cm H2O), 5 times a day, during the first 2 months after surgery. The outcomes were lung function measurements, oxygen saturation, thoracic excursion mobility, subjective perception of breathing and pain, patient-perceived quality of recovery (40-Item Quality of Recovery score), health-related quality of life (36-Item Short Form Health Survey), and self-reported respiratory tract infection/pneumonia and antibiotic treatment. Two months postoperatively, the patients had significantly reduced lung function, with a mean decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 second to 93 ± 12% (P< .001) of preoperative values. Oxygenation had returned to preoperative values, and 5 of 8 aspects in the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey were improved compared with preoperative values (P< .01). There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the measured outcomes. No significant differences in lung function, subjective perceptions, or quality of life were found between patients performing home-based deep breathing exercises and control patients 2 months after cardiac surgery.

  1. Exercise-induced ST-segment depression and myocardial ischemia in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Myocardial scintigraphic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyai, Nobuyuki; Kawasaki, Tatsuya; Taniguchi, Takuya; Kamitani, Tadaaki; Kawasaki, Shingo; Sugihara, Hiroki

    2005-01-01

    Patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) sometimes develop myocardial ischemia during exercise in the absence of coronary lesions. The relationship between myocardial ischemia and ST-segment depression was investigated during exercise testing in patients with HCM. Regional hypoperfusion and/or transient left ventricular cavity dilation, a parameter of subendocardial hypoperfusion, were assessed on exercise 99 m Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial scintigraphy in 42 patients with non-obstructive HCM. The scintigraphic results were further correlated with the ST-segment responses to exercise. Regional hypoperfusion or transient left ventricular cavity dilation were observed in 19 (45%) or 16 (38%) patients with HCM, respectively. The incidence of ST-segment depression ≥0.1 mV during exercise testing was similar in HCM patients with regional hypoperfusion, with transient left ventricular cavity dilation, and without hypoperfusion (42%, 38%, 38%, p=0.95). Furthermore, exercise-induced ST-segment depression ≥0.1 mV occurred similarly irrespective of symptoms, exercise tolerance, the degree or the site of hypertrophy, or the presence or absence of resting ST-segment depression. ST-segment depression during exercise testing was common in patients with HCM, but seems to be an unreliable marker of myocardial ischemia as assessed by exercise scintigraphy. (author)

  2. Exercise capacity in diabetes mellitus is predicted by activity status and cardiac size rather than cardiac function: a case control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Timothy J; Burns, Andrew T; MacIsaac, Richard J; MacIsaac, Andrew I; Prior, David L; La Gerche, André

    2018-03-23

    The reasons for reduced exercise capacity in diabetes mellitus (DM) remains incompletely understood, although diastolic dysfunction and diabetic cardiomyopathy are often favored explanations. However, there is a paucity of literature detailing cardiac function and reserve during incremental exercise to evaluate its significance and contribution. We sought to determine associations between comprehensive measures of cardiac function during exercise and maximal oxygen consumption ([Formula: see text]peak), with the hypothesis that the reduction in exercise capacity and cardiac function would be associated with co-morbidities and sedentary behavior rather than diabetes itself. This case-control study involved 60 subjects [20 with type 1 DM (T1DM), 20 T2DM, and 10 healthy controls age/sex-matched to each diabetes subtype] performing cardiopulmonary exercise testing and bicycle ergometer echocardiography studies. Measures of biventricular function were assessed during incremental exercise to maximal intensity. T2DM subjects were middle-aged (52 ± 11 years) with a mean T2DM diagnosis of 12 ± 7 years and modest glycemic control (HbA 1c 57 ± 12 mmol/mol). T1DM participants were younger (35 ± 8 years), with a 19 ± 10 year history of T1DM and suboptimal glycemic control (HbA 1c 65 ± 16 mmol/mol). Participants with T2DM were heavier than their controls (body mass index 29.3 ± 3.4 kg/m 2 vs. 24.7 ± 2.9, P = 0.001), performed less exercise (10 ± 12 vs. 28 ± 30 MET hours/week, P = 0.031) and had lower exercise capacity ([Formula: see text]peak = 26 ± 6 vs. 38 ± 8 ml/min/kg, P accounting for age, sex and body surface area in a multivariate analysis, significant positive predictors of [Formula: see text]peak were cardiac size (LV end-diastolic volume, LVEDV) and estimated MET-hours, while T2DM was a negative predictor. These combined factors accounted for 80% of the variance in [Formula: see text

  3. Cardiac atrophy after bed rest and spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhonen, M. A.; Franco, F.; Lane, L. D.; Buckey, J. C.; Blomqvist, C. G.; Zerwekh, J. E.; Peshock, R. M.; Weatherall, P. T.; Levine, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    Cardiac muscle adapts well to changes in loading conditions. For example, left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy may be induced physiologically (via exercise training) or pathologically (via hypertension or valvular heart disease). If hypertension is treated, LV hypertrophy regresses, suggesting a sensitivity to LV work. However, whether physical inactivity in nonathletic populations causes adaptive changes in LV mass or even frank atrophy is not clear. We exposed previously sedentary men to 6 (n = 5) and 12 (n = 3) wk of horizontal bed rest. LV and right ventricular (RV) mass and end-diastolic volume were measured using cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 2, 6, and 12 wk of bed rest; five healthy men were also studied before and after at least 6 wk of routine daily activities as controls. In addition, four astronauts were exposed to the complete elimination of hydrostatic gradients during a spaceflight of 10 days. During bed rest, LV mass decreased by 8.0 +/- 2.2% (P = 0.005) after 6 wk with an additional atrophy of 7.6 +/- 2.3% in the subjects who remained in bed for 12 wk; there was no change in LV mass for the control subjects (153.0 +/- 12.2 vs. 153.4 +/- 12.1 g, P = 0.81). Mean wall thickness decreased (4 +/- 2.5%, P = 0.01) after 6 wk of bed rest associated with the decrease in LV mass, suggesting a physiological remodeling with respect to altered load. LV end-diastolic volume decreased by 14 +/- 1.7% (P = 0.002) after 2 wk of bed rest and changed minimally thereafter. After 6 wk of bed rest, RV free wall mass decreased by 10 +/- 2.7% (P = 0.06) and RV end-diastolic volume by 16 +/- 7.9% (P = 0.06). After spaceflight, LV mass decreased by 12 +/- 6.9% (P = 0.07). In conclusion, cardiac atrophy occurs during prolonged (6 wk) horizontal bed rest and may also occur after short-term spaceflight. We suggest that cardiac atrophy is due to a physiological adaptation to reduced myocardial load and work in real or simulated microgravity and demonstrates the plasticity

  4. Effect of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation on mobility and self-esteem of persons after cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, J Y; Tam, S F

    2000-08-01

    This study adopted an experimental design with using a nonequivalent, posttest only control group to study the rehabilitation outcomes of 152 persons who received cardiac surgery. 37 subjects in a rehabilitation group participated in a 2-mo. exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programme, and another 115 subjects who did not attend the programme formed the control group. The subjects' self-esteem was measured on the Adult Source of Self-esteem Inventory by Elvoson and Fleming, and their mobility skill was measured by a simple mobility test based on New York Heart Association Classification. Analysis of covariance (with covariance analysis of the subjects' age, years of education, occupational skill, and mobility skill) indicated that the experimental group scored higher on positive self esteem and showed significantly better improvement in mobility skill. The exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation programme positively affected physical and psychological outcomes. Also, subjects' self-esteem was significantly correlated with their mobility skills (r=.21, p<.05) among those aged under 60 years (n=96) but not among those aged 60 or above (n=53).

  5. PDE1C deficiency antagonizes pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Walter E.; Chen, Si; Zhang, Yishuai; Oikawa, Masayoshi; Wu, Meiping; Zhou, Qian; Miller, Clint L.; Cai, Yujun; Mickelsen, Deanne M.; Moravec, Christine; Small, Eric M.; Abe, Junichi; Yan, Chen

    2016-01-01

    Cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase 1C (PDE1C) represents a major phosphodiesterase activity in human myocardium, but its function in the heart remains unknown. Using genetic and pharmacological approaches, we studied the expression, regulation, function, and underlying mechanisms of PDE1C in the pathogenesis of cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. PDE1C expression is up-regulated in mouse and human failing hearts and is highly expressed in cardiac myocytes but not in fibroblasts. In adult mouse cardiac myocytes, PDE1C deficiency or inhibition attenuated myocyte death and apoptosis, which was largely dependent on cyclic AMP/PKA and PI3K/AKT signaling. PDE1C deficiency also attenuated cardiac myocyte hypertrophy in a PKA-dependent manner. Conditioned medium taken from PDE1C-deficient cardiac myocytes attenuated TGF-β–stimulated cardiac fibroblast activation through a mechanism involving the crosstalk between cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. In vivo, cardiac remodeling and dysfunction induced by transverse aortic constriction, including myocardial hypertrophy, apoptosis, cardiac fibrosis, and loss of contractile function, were significantly attenuated in PDE1C-knockout mice relative to wild-type mice. These results indicate that PDE1C activation plays a causative role in pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction. Given the continued development of highly specific PDE1 inhibitors and the high expression level of PDE1C in the human heart, our findings could have considerable therapeutic significance. PMID:27791092

  6. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase inhibition in the development of hypertrophy in the hyperthyroid rat heart: a combined magnetic resonance imaging and hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atherton, Helen J; Dodd, Michael S; Heather, Lisa C; Schroeder, Marie A; Griffin, Julian L; Radda, George K; Clarke, Kieran; Tyler, Damian J

    2011-06-07

    Hyperthyroidism increases heart rate, contractility, cardiac output, and metabolic rate. It is also accompanied by alterations in the regulation of cardiac substrate use. Specifically, hyperthyroidism increases the ex vivo activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, thereby inhibiting glucose oxidation via pyruvate dehydrogenase. Cardiac hypertrophy is another effect of hyperthyroidism, with an increase in the abundance of mitochondria. Although the hypertrophy is initially beneficial, it can eventually lead to heart failure. The aim of this study was to use hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy to investigate the rate and regulation of in vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase flux in the hyperthyroid heart and to establish whether modulation of flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase would alter cardiac hypertrophy. Hyperthyroidism was induced in 18 male Wistar rats with 7 daily intraperitoneal injections of freshly prepared triiodothyronine (0.2 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1)). In vivo pyruvate dehydrogenase flux, assessed with hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy, was reduced by 59% in hyperthyroid animals (0.0022 ± 0.0002 versus 0.0055 ± 0.0005 second(-1); P=0.0003), and this reduction was completely reversed by both short- and long-term delivery of dichloroacetic acid, a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase inhibitor. Hyperpolarized [2-(13)C]pyruvate was also used to evaluate Krebs cycle metabolism and demonstrated a unique marker of anaplerosis, the level of which was significantly increased in the hyperthyroid heart. Cine magnetic resonance imaging showed that long-term dichloroacetic acid treatment significantly reduced the hypertrophy observed in hyperthyroid animals (100 ± 20 versus 200 ± 30 mg; P=0.04) despite no change in the increase observed in cardiac output. This work has demonstrated that inhibition of glucose oxidation in the hyperthyroid heart in vivo is mediated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase. Relieving this inhibition can increase the metabolic

  7. Odanacatib Inhibits Resistin-induced Hypertrophic H9c2 Cardiomyoblast Cells Through LKB1/AMPK Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian Zheng

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Odanacatib (ODN is a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K. The cysteine protease cathepsin K has been implicated in cardiac hypertrophy. Resistine is an adipokine which is identified to promote cardiac hypertrophy. Here, we hypothesize that ODN mitigates resistin-induced myocyte hypertrophy. Cell surface area and protein synthesis were measured after treatment with resistin and ODN in H9c2 cells. The expression of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy marker BNP and β-MHC was detected by RT-qPCR. The expression and phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1 were analyzed with Western blot. Resistin could significantly increase cardiomyocyte cell surface area, protein synthesis, and embryonic gene BNP and β-MHC expression, inhibit phosphorylation of AMPK and LKB1. ODN could significantly reverse the effects of resistin. Collectively, our data suggest that ODN can inhibit cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by resistin and the underlying mechanism may be involved in LKB1/AMPK pathway.

  8. Cancer-induced cardiac cachexia: Pathogenesis and impact of physical activity (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belloum, Yassine; Rannou-Bekono, Françoise; Favier, François B

    2017-05-01

    Cachexia is a wasting syndrome observed in many patients suffering from several chronic diseases including cancer. In addition to the progressive loss of skeletal muscle mass, cancer cachexia results in cardiac function impairment. During the severe stage of the disease, patients as well as animals bearing cancer cells display cardiac atrophy. Cardiac energy metabolism is also impeded with disruption of mitochondrial homeostasis and reduced oxidative capacity, although the available data remain equivocal. The release of inflammatory cytokines by tumor is a key mechanism in the initiation of heart failure. Oxidative stress, which results from the combination of chemotherapy, inadequate antioxidant consumption and chronic inflammation, will further foster heart failure. Protein catabolism is due to the concomitant activation of proteolytic systems and inhibition of protein synthesis, both processes being triggered by the deactivation of the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway. The reduction in oxidative capacity involves AMP-activated protein kinase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α dysregulation. The nuclear factor-κB transcription factor plays a prominent role in the coordination of these alterations. Physical exercise appears as an interesting non-pharmaceutical way to counteract cancer cachexia-induced-heart failure. Indeed, aerobic training has anti-inflammatory effects, increases anti-oxidant defenses, prevents atrophy and promotes oxidative metabolism. The present review points out the importance of better understanding the concurrent structural and metabolic changes within the myocardium during cancer and the protective effects of exercise against cardiac cachexia.

  9. Resistance training-induced changes in integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis are related to hypertrophy only after attenuation of muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damas, Felipe; Phillips, Stuart M; Libardi, Cleiton A; Vechin, Felipe C; Lixandrão, Manoel E; Jannig, Paulo R; Costa, Luiz A R; Bacurau, Aline V; Snijders, Tim; Parise, Gianni; Tricoli, Valmor; Roschel, Hamilton; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2016-09-15

    Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes from resistance training (RT), but how it is modulated throughout training is still unknown. We show that changes in myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) after an initial resistance exercise (RE) bout in the first week of RT (T1) were greater than those seen post-RE at the third (T2) and tenth week (T3) of RT, with values being similar at T2 and T3. Muscle damage (Z-band streaming) was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, lower at T2 and minimal at T3. When muscle damage was the highest, so was the integrated MyoPS (at T1), but neither were related to hypertrophy; however, integrated MyoPS at T2 and T3 were correlated with hypertrophy. We conclude that muscle hypertrophy is the result of accumulated intermittent increases in MyoPS mainly after a progressive attenuation of muscle damage. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy is one of the main outcomes of resistance training (RT), but how hypertrophy is modulated and the mechanisms regulating it are still unknown. To investigate how muscle hypertrophy is modulated through RT, we measured day-to-day integrated myofibrillar protein synthesis (MyoPS) using deuterium oxide and assessed muscle damage at the beginning (T1), at 3 weeks (T2) and at 10 weeks of RT (T3). Ten young men (27 (1) years, mean (SEM)) had muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) taken to measure integrated MyoPS and muscle damage (Z-band streaming and indirect parameters) before, and 24 h and 48 h post resistance exercise (post-RE) at T1, T2 and T3. Fibre cross-sectional area (fCSA) was evaluated using biopsies at T1, T2 and T3. Increases in fCSA were observed only at T3 (P = 0.017). Changes in MyoPS post-RE at T1, T2 and T3 were greater at T1 (P Muscle damage was the highest during post-RE recovery at T1, attenuated at T2 and further attenuated at T3. The change in MyoPS post-RE at both T2 and T3, but not at T1, was strongly correlated (r ≈ 0.9, P muscle hypertrophy. Initial Myo

  10. Exercise-induced intra-ventricular gradients as a frequent potential cause of myocardial ischemia in cardiac syndrome X patients

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    Almeida Ana G

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of intra-ventricular gradients (IVG during dobutamine or exercise stress is not infrequent, and can be associated to symptoms during stress. The purpose of this study was to assess the occurrence of IVG during exercise stress echocardiography in cardiac syndrome X patients. Methods We prospectively evaluated 91 patients (pts mean aged 51 ± 12 years (age ranged 20 to 75 years old, 44 of whom were women. All pts had angina, positive exercise ECG treadmill testing, normal rest echocardiogram and no coronary artery disease on coronary angiogram (cardiac X syndrome. After complete Doppler echocardiographic evaluation with determination of left ventricular outflow tract index (LVOTi, relative left ventricular wall thickness (RLVWT and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVDVi, all patients underwent stress echocardiography with two-dimensional and Doppler echographic evaluation during and after treadmill exercise. Results For analysis purpose patients were divided in 2 groups, according to the development of IVG. Doppler evidence of IVG was found in 33 (36% of the patients (Group A, with mean age 47 ± 14 years old (age ranged 20 to 72 years and with a mean end-systolic peak gradient of 86 ± 34 mmHg (ranging from 30 to 165 mmHg. The IVG development was accompanied by SAM of the mitral valve in 23 pts. Three of these pts experienced symptomatic hypotension. Ten were women (30% pts. 58 pts in group B, 34 of whom were women (59% (p = 0,01 vs group A, mean aged 53,5 ± 10,9 years old (age ranged 34 to 75 years (p = 0,03 vs group A, did not develop IVG. LVOTi was 10,29 ± 0,9 mm/m2 in group A and 11,4 ± 1 mm/m2 in group B (p 2 in group A and 56 ± 11,6 ml/m2 in group B (p = 0,000. Conclusion 1. A significant number of patients with cardiac X syndrome developed IVG during upright exercise in treadmill. These pts (group A are mainly males and younger than those who did not develop IVG. 2. The development of IVG

  11. Tissue characteristics in left ventricular hypertrophy using magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Shigeru; Ueno, Yuji; Arita, Mikio; Nishio, Ichiro; Masuyama, Yoshiaki

    1988-01-01

    For 15 normotensive patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), 10 hypertensive patients with concentric hypertrophy (CH), and five normal subjects (N), we examined changes in myocardial T 1 and T 2 values related to the cardiac cycle. The usefulness of those values in differentiating diseases with left ventricular hypertrophy was evaluated. Left ventricular (LV) short-axis spin echo images and inversion recovery images were obtained at endsystolic and diastolic cardiac phases, and T 1 and T 2 images were calculated. The regional wall thickness (WT) and T 1 and T 2 values were measured in the anterior septum, anterior wall, lateral wall, posterior wall and posterior septum. Myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were significantly decreased in systole (T 1 : 185.6±37.9 msec, T 2 : 24.4±6.3 msec, mean±SD) compared to those in diastole (T 1 : 249.2±56.7 msec, T 2 : 31.7±9.4 msec). In both the ASH and CH groups, significant correlations were observed between diastolic T 1 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.80, p 2 values and WT (ASH: r = 0.58, p 1 values in the ASH group (343.4±40.5 msec) were significantly higher than those of the CH group (247.3±21.4 msec), although the mean wall thickness values were similar in both groups. The T 1 /WT and T 2 /WT were significantly lower in the CH group than those in the ASH and N groups. In conclusion, myocardial T 1 and T 2 values were related not only to the cardiac cycle, but to wall thickness and to types of hypertrophy. The T 1 and T 2 values may be useful for distinguishing hypertrophic cardiomyopathy from hypertrophy due to hypertension. (author)

  12. Pathophysiologic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain in asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pringle, S.D.; Macfarlane, P.W.; McKillop, J.H.; Lorimer, A.R.; Dunn, F.G.

    1989-01-01

    To investigate the significance of the electrocardiographic (ECG) pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain, two groups of asymptomatic patients with essential hypertension were compared. The patients were similar in terms of age, smoking habit, serum cholesterol and blood pressure levels, but differed in the presence (Group I, n = 23) or absence (Group II, n = 23) of the ECG pattern of left ventricular hypertrophy and strain. Group I patients had significantly more episodes of exercise-induced ST segment depression (14 versus 4, p less than 0.05) and reversible thallium perfusion abnormalities (11 of 23 versus 3 of 23, p less than 0.05) despite similar exercise capacity and absence of chest pain. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was detected on 24 h ambulatory ECG monitoring in two patients in Group I, but no patient in Group II. Coronary arteriography performed in 20 Group I patients demonstrated significant coronary artery disease in 8 patients. This study has shown that there is a subgroup of hypertensive patients with ECG left ventricular hypertrophy and strain who have covert coronary artery disease. This can be detected by thallium perfusion scintigraphy, and may contribute to the increased risk known to be associated with this ECG abnormality

  13. Compensatory Hypertrophy of Skeletal Muscle: Contractile Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ianuzzo, C. D.; Chen, V.

    1977-01-01

    Describes an experiment using rats that demonstrates contractile characteristics of normal and hypertrophied muscle. Compensatory hypertrophy of the plantaris muscle is induced by surgical removal of the synergistic gastrocnemium muscle. Includes methods for determination of contractile properties of normal and hypertrophied muscle and…

  14. In vivo cardiac role of migfilin during experimental pressure overload.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haubner, Bernhard Johannes; Moik, Daniel; Schuetz, Thomas; Reiner, Martin F; Voelkl, Jakob G; Streil, Katrin; Bader, Kerstin; Zhao, Lei; Scheu, Claudia; Mair, Johannes; Pachinger, Otmar; Metzler, Bernhard

    2015-06-01

    Increased myocardial wall strain triggers the cardiac hypertrophic response by increasing cardiomyocyte size, reprogramming gene expression, and enhancing contractile protein synthesis. The LIM protein, migfilin, is a cytoskeleton-associated protein that was found to translocate in vitro into the nucleus in a Ca(2+)-dependent manner, where it co-activates the pivotal cardiac transcription factor Csx/Nkx2.5. However, the in vivo role of migfilin in cardiac function and stress response is unclear. To define the role of migfilin in cardiac hypertrophy, we induced hypertension by transverse aortic constriction (TAC) and compared cardiac morphology and function of migfilin knockout (KO) with wild-type (WT) hearts. Heart size and myocardial contractility were comparable in untreated migfilin KO and WT hearts, but migfilin-null hearts presented a reduced extent of hypertrophic remodelling in response to chronic hypertensile stress. Migfilin KO mice maintained their cardiac function for a longer time period compared with WT mice, which presented extensive fibrosis and death due to heart failure. Migfilin translocated into the nucleus of TAC-treated cardiomyocytes, and migfilin KO hearts showed reduced Akt activation during the early response to pressure overload. Our findings indicate an important role of migfilin in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy upon experimental TAC. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Estrogen receptor beta is involved in skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by the phytoecdysteroid ecdysterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parr, Maria Kristina; Zhao, Piwen; Haupt, Oliver; Ngueu, Sandrine Tchoukouegno; Hengevoss, Jonas; Fritzemeier, Karl Heinrich; Piechotta, Marion; Schlörer, Nils; Muhn, Peter; Zheng, Wen-Ya; Xie, Ming-Yong; Diel, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    The phytoectysteroid ecdysterone (Ecdy) was reported to stimulate protein synthesis and enhance physical performance. The aim of this study was to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms particularly the role of ER beta (ERβ). In male rats, Ecdy treatment increased muscle fiber size, serum IGF-1 increased, and corticosteron and 17β-estradiol (E2) decreased. In differentiated C2C12 myoblastoma cells, treatment with Ecdy, dihydrotestosterone, IGF-1 but also E2 results in hypertrophy. Hypertrophy induced by E2 and Ecdy could be antagonized with an antiestrogen but not by an antiandrogen. In HEK293 cells transfected with ER alpha (ERα) or ERβ, Ecdy treatment transactivated a reporter gene. To elucidate the role of ERβ in Ecdy-mediated muscle hypertrophy, C2C12 myotubes were treated with ERα (ALPHA) and ERβ (BETA) selective ligands. Ecdy and BETA treatment but not ALPHA induced hypertrophy. The effect of Ecdy, E2, and BETA could be antagonized by an ERβ-selective antagonist (ANTIBETA). In summary, our results indicate that ERβ is involved in the mediation of the anabolic activity of the Ecdy. These findings provide new therapeutic perspectives for the treatment of muscle injuries, sarcopenia, and cachectic disease, but also imply that such a substance could be abused for doping purposes. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Effect of Thymol on Serum Antioxidant Capacity of Rats Following Myocardial Hypertrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohabbat Jamhiri

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertension- induced cardiac hypertrophy. Plants are a rich source of antioxidant compounds. Thymol is a natural monoterpen phenol which is plentiful in some plants and shows many biological effects. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of thymol on activity of antioxidant enzyme catalase, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of the inhibition of free radical DPPH (2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl, following left ventricular hypertrophy in rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, rats were divided into hypertrophied group without any treatment (H group and rats pretreated with 25 and 50 mg/kg/day of thymol (Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, respectively. Intact animals were served as control (Ctl. Animal model of left ventricular hypertrophy was induced by abdominal aortic banding. Serum catalase (CAT activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level and the activity of inhibition of free radicals DPPH were determined by the biochemical methods. Results: In Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups, the CAT activity was increased significantly in serum (p<0.01, vs. Ctl. Also, serum level of MDA was decreased significantly compared to the group H in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively. The effect of inhibiting DPPH free radicals was increased significantly in Thy25+H and Thy50+H groups compared to the group H (p<0.001 and p<0.05, respectively. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that thymol as an antioxidant causes cardioprotective effects and as well as prevents left ventricular hypertrophy via augmentation of serum antioxidant capacity.

  17. Chronic sustained inflammation links to left ventricular hypertrophy and aortic valve sclerosis: a new link between S100/RAGE and FGF23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ling; Bowman, Marion A Hofmann

    Cardiovascular disease including left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction and ectopic valvular calcification are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Both S100A12 and fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) have been identified as biomarkers of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in patients with CKD. We tested the hypothesis that human S100/calgranulin would accelerate cardiovascular disease in mice subjected to CKD. This review paper focuses on S100 proteins and their receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and summarizes recent findings obtained in novel developed transgenic hBAC-S100 mice that express S100A12 and S100A8/9 proteins. A bacterial artificial chromosome of the human S100/calgranulin gene cluster containing the genes and regulatory elements for S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12 was expressed in C57BL/6J mice (hBAC-S100). CKD was induced by ureteral ligation, and hBAC-S100 mice and WT mice were studied after 10 weeks of chronic uremia. hBAC-S100 mice with CKD showed increased FGF23 in the heart, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), diastolic dysfunction, focal cartilaginous metaplasia and calcification of the mitral and aortic valve annulus together with aortic valve sclerosis. This phenotype was not observed in WT mice with CKD or in hBAC-S100 mice lacking RAGE with CKD, suggesting that the inflammatory milieu mediated by S100/RAGE promotes pathological cardiac hypertrophy in CKD. In vitro, inflammatory stimuli including IL-6, TNFα, LPS, or serum from hBAC-S100 mice up regulated FGF23 mRNA and protein in primary murine neonatal and adult cardiac fibroblasts. Taken together, our study shows that myeloid-derived human S100/calgranulin is associated with the development of cardiac hypertrophy and ectopic cardiac calcification in a RAGE dependent manner in a mouse model of CKD. We speculate that FGF23 produced by cardiac fibroblasts in response to cytokines may act in a paracrine manner to accelerate LVH and diastolic

  18. Do interindividual differences in cardiac output during submaximal exercise explain differences in exercising muscle oxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, Robert F; Jones, Joshua H; Hirai, Daniel M; Zelt, Joel T; Giles, Matthew D; Raleigh, James P; Quadrilatero, Joe; Gurd, Brendon J; Neder, J Alberto; Tschakovsky, Michael E

    2018-01-01

    Considerable interindividual differences in the Q˙-V˙O2 relationship during exercise have been documented but implications for submaximal exercise tolerance have not been considered. We tested the hypothesis that these interindividual differences were associated with differences in exercising muscle deoxygenation and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) across a range of submaximal exercise intensities. A total of 31 (21 ± 3 years) healthy recreationally active males performed an incremental exercise test to exhaustion 24 h following a resting muscle biopsy. Cardiac output (Q˙ L/min; inert gas rebreathe), oxygen uptake (V˙O2 L/min; breath-by-breath pulmonary gas exchange), quadriceps saturation (near infrared spectroscopy) and exercise tolerance (6-20; Borg Scale RPE) were measured. The Q˙-V˙O2 relationship from 40 to 160 W was used to partition individuals post hoc into higher (n = 10; 6.3 ± 0.4) versus lower (n = 10; 3.7 ± 0.4, P exercise (all P > 0.4). Lower cardiac responders had greater leg (P = 0.027) and whole body (P = 0.03) RPE only at 185 W, but this represented a higher %peak V˙O2 in lower cardiac responders (87 ± 15% vs. 66 ± 12%, P = 0.005). Substantially lower Q˙-V˙O2 in the lower responder group did not result in altered RPE or exercising muscle deoxygenation. This suggests substantial recruitment of blood flow redistribution in the lower responder group as part of protecting matching of exercising muscle oxygen delivery to demand. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  19. The benefits of soluble non-bacterial fraction of kefir on blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in hypertensive rats are mediated by an increase in baroreflex sensitivity and decrease in angiotensin-converting enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Girlandia Alexandre; Silva-Cutini, Mirian de Almeida; Moraes, Flávia de Souza Andrade; Pereira, Thiago de Melo Costa; Vasquez, Elisardo Corral; Lenz, Dominik; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Endringer, Denise Coutinho; de Lima, Ewelyne Miranda; Biancardi, Vinícia Campana; Maia, June Ferreira; de Andrade, Tadeu Uggere

    We aimed to evaluate whether long-term treatment with the soluble non-bacterial fraction of kefir affects mean arterial pressure (MAP) and cardiac hypertrophy through the modulation of baroreflex sensitivity, ACE activity, and the inflammatory-to-anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). SHRs were treated with the soluble non-bacterial kefir fraction (SHR-kefir) or with kefir vehicle (SHR-soluble fraction of milk). Normotensive control Wistar Kyoto animals received the soluble fraction of milk. All treatments were administered by gavage (0.3 mL/100g/body weight), once daily for eight weeks. At the end, after basal MAP and Heart Rate (HT) measurement, barorreflex sensitivity was evaluated through in bolus administrations of sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine (AP 50 [arterial pressure 50%], the lower plateau, and HR range were measured). ACE activity and cytokines (TNF-α and IL-10) were evaluated by ELISA. Cardiac hypertrophy was analysed morphometrically. Compared to SHR control, SHR-kefir exhibited a significant decrease in both MAP (SHR: 184 ± 5; SHR-Kefir: 142 ± 8 mmHg), and HR (SHR: 360 ± 10; SHR-kefir: 310 ± 14 bpm). The non-bacterial fraction of kefir also reduced cardiac hypertrophy, TNF-α-to-IL10 ratio, and ACE activity in SHRs. SHR-kefir baroreflex sensitivity, resulted in a partial but significant recovery of baroreflex gain, as demonstrated by improvements in AP 50 , the lower plateau, and HR range. In summary, our results indicate that long-term administration of the non-bacterial fraction of kefir promotes a significant decrease in both MAP and HR, by improving baroreflex, and reduces cardiac hypertrophy in SHRs, likely via ACE inhibition, and reduction of the TNF-α-to-IL10 ratio. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise-Based Cardiac Rehabilitation for Coronary Heart Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderson, Lindsey; Oldridge, Neil; Thompson, David R

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although recommended in guidelines for the management of coronary heart disease (CHD), concerns have been raised about the applicability of evidence from existing meta-analyses of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR). OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study is to update the Cochrane...... systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise-based CR for CHD. METHODS: The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and Science Citation Index Expanded were searched to July 2014. Retrieved papers, systematic reviews, and trial registries were hand-searched. We included...... randomized controlled trials with at least 6 months of follow-up, comparing CR to no-exercise controls following myocardial infarction or revascularization, or with a diagnosis of angina pectoris or CHD defined by angiography. Two authors screened titles for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk...

  1. Ghrelin and its promoter variant associated with cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukkola, O; Pääkkö, T; Kesäniemi, Y A

    2012-07-01

    The roles of ghrelin, a peptide hormone that has a role in regulating food intake and energy homeostasis, in the cardiovascular system have not yet been unambiguously established. We evaluated the association between plasma ghrelin concentrations and -501A>C single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the ghrelin gene 5' flanking area and echocardiographic measurements in 1037 middle-aged subjects. Left ventricular mass index (LVMI) was calculated according to Devereux's method. The ambulatory blood pressure (BP) was recorded using the fully automatic SpaceLabs 90207 oscillometric unit. Results suggested that plasma ghrelin was not related to mean ambulatory BP values. However, the highest plasma ghrelin tertile was associated with increased intraventricular septum (P=0.043) and posterior ventricular wall (P=0.002) thicknesses as well as left ventricular mass (P=0.05). After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index and systolic BP, the association persisted between ghrelin tertiles and intraventricular septum (P=0.05) and posterior ventricular wall (P=0.001) thicknesses. The SNP -501A>C polymorphism was associated with LVMI after adjustments for age, sex and systolic BP. In conclusion, ghrelin and its promoter variant are associated with cardiac hypertrophy indexes independent of BP. Positive correlation between ghrelin levels and increased wall thickness parameters may reflect compensatory up-regulation of ghrelin concentrations or direct effects of ghrelin on myocardium. The effects of the SNP seem not to be mediated through its effects on ghrelin plasma levels.

  2. Cardiac Autonomic and Blood Pressure Responses to an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Alexei; Nordvall, Michael; Walters-Edwards, Michelle; Lastova, Kevin; Francavillo, Gwendolyn; Summerfield, Liane; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos

    2017-10-07

    Kettlebell (KB) training has become an extremely popular exercise program for improving both muscle strength and aerobic fitness. However, the cardiac autonomic modulation and blood pressure (BP) responses induced by an acute KB exercise session are currently unknown. Understanding the impact of this exercise modality on the post-exercise autonomic modulation and BP would facilitate appropriate exercise prescription in susceptible populations. The present study evaluated the effects of an acute session of KB exercise on heart rate variability (HRV) and BP responses in healthy individuals. Seventeen (M=10, F=7) healthy subjects completed either a KB or non-exercise control trial in randomized order. HRV and BP measurements were collected at baseline, 3, 10 and 30 min after each trial. There were significant increases (P < 0.01) in heart rate, markers of sympathetic activity (nLF) and sympathovagal balance (nLF/nHF) for 30 min after the trial KB trial, while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. There were also significant decreases (P < 0.01) in markers of vagal tone (RMMSD, nHF) for 30 min as well as (P < 0.01) systolic BP and diastolic BP at 10 and 30 min after the trial KB trial while no changes from baseline were observed after the control trial. Our findings indicate that KB exercise increases sympathovagal balance for 30 min post-intervention which is concurrent with an important hypotensive effect. Further research is warranted to evaluate the potential clinical application of KB training in populations that might benefit from post-exercise hypotension, such as hypertensives.

  3. Trpm4 gene invalidation leads to cardiac hypertrophy and electrophysiological alterations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Demion

    Full Text Available RATIONALE: TRPM4 is a non-selective Ca2+-activated cation channel expressed in the heart, particularly in the atria or conduction tissue. Mutations in the Trpm4 gene were recently associated with several human conduction disorders such as Brugada syndrome. TRPM4 channel has also been implicated at the ventricular level, in inotropism or in arrhythmia genesis due to stresses such as ß-adrenergic stimulation, ischemia-reperfusion, and hypoxia re-oxygenation. However, the physiological role of the TRPM4 channel in the healthy heart remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the role of the TRPM4 channel on whole cardiac function with a Trpm4 gene knock-out mouse (Trpm4-/- model. METHODS AND RESULTS: Morpho-functional analysis revealed left ventricular (LV eccentric hypertrophy in Trpm4-/- mice, with an increase in both wall thickness and chamber size in the adult mouse (aged 32 weeks when compared to Trpm4+/+ littermate controls. Immunofluorescence on frozen heart cryosections and qPCR analysis showed no fibrosis or cellular hypertrophy. Instead, cardiomyocytes in Trpm4-/- mice were smaller than Trpm4+/+with a higher density. Immunofluorescent labeling for phospho-histone H3, a mitosis marker, showed that the number of mitotic myocytes was increased 3-fold in the Trpm4-/-neonatal stage, suggesting hyperplasia. Adult Trpm4-/- mice presented multilevel conduction blocks, as attested by PR and QRS lengthening in surface ECGs and confirmed by intracardiac exploration. Trpm4-/-mice also exhibited Luciani-Wenckebach atrioventricular blocks, which were reduced following atropine infusion, suggesting paroxysmal parasympathetic overdrive. In addition, Trpm4-/- mice exhibited shorter action potentials in atrial cells. This shortening was unrelated to modifications of the voltage-gated Ca2+ or K+ currents involved in the repolarizing phase. CONCLUSIONS: TRPM4 has pleiotropic roles in the heart, including the regulation of conduction and cellular

  4. Down-regulation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha and vascular endothelial growth factor by HEXIM1 attenuates myocardial angiogenesis in hypoxic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Noritada; Shimizu, Noriaki; Ojima, Hidenori; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Hosono, Osamu; Tanaka, Hirotoshi

    2014-10-24

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) sustains elevation of pulmonary vascular resistance and ultimately leads to right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy and failure and death. Recently, proangiogenic factors hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have been known to promote left ventricular myocardial angiogenesis and lead to cardiac hypertrophy, and this would be involved in RV hypertrophy of PH patients. Previously, we revealed that overexpression of HEXIM1 prevents endothelin-1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and hypertrophic genes expression, and that cardiomyocyte-specific HEXIM1 transgenic mice ameliorates RV hypertrophy in hypoxia-induced PH model. Given these results, here we analyzed the effect of HEXIM1 on the expression of HIF-1α and VEGF and on myocardial angiogenesis of RV in PH. We revealed that overexpression of HEXIM1 prevented hypoxia-induced expression of HIF-1α protein and its target genes including VEGF in the cultured cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts, and that cardiomyocyte-specific HEXIM1 transgenic mice repressed RV myocardial angiogenesis in hypoxia-induced PH model. Thus, we conclude that HEXIM1 could prevent RV hypertrophy, at least in part, via suppression of myocardial angiogenesis through down-regulation of HIF-1α and VEGF in the myocardium under hypoxic condition. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. PATHway: Decision Support in Exercise Programmes for Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filos, Dimitris; Triantafyllidis, Andreas; Chouvarda, Ioanna; Buys, Roselien; Cornelissen, Véronique; Budts, Werner; Walsh, Deirdre; Woods, Catherine; Moran, Kieran; Maglaveras, Nicos

    2016-01-01

    Rehabilitation is important for patients with cardiovascular diseases (CVD) to improve health outcomes and quality of life. However, adherence to current exercise programmes in cardiac rehabilitation is limited. We present the design and development of a Decision Support System (DSS) for telerehabilitation, aiming to enhance exercise programmes for CVD patients through ensuring their safety, personalising the programme according to their needs and performance, and motivating them toward meeting their physical activity goals. The DSS processes data originated from a Microsoft Kinect camera, a blood pressure monitor, a heart rate sensor and questionnaires, in order to generate a highly individualised exercise programme and improve patient adherence. Initial results within the EU-funded PATHway project show the potential of our approach.

  6. ALDH2 restores exhaustive exercise-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Qiuping; Zheng, Jianheng; Qiu, Jun; Wu, Xiahong; Xu, Yangshuo; Shen, Weili; Sun, Mengwei

    2017-01-01

    Background: Mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is highly expressed in heart and skeletal muscles, and is the major enzyme that metabolizes acetaldehyde and toxic aldehydes. The cardioprotective effects of ALDH2 during cardiac ischemia/reperfusion injury have been recognized. However, less is known about the function of ALDH2 in skeletal muscle. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of ALDH2 on exhaustive exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury. Methods: We created transgenic mice expressing ALDH2 in skeletal muscles. Male wild-type C57/BL6 (WT) and ALDH2 transgenic mice (ALDH2-Tg), 8-weeks old, were challenged with exhaustive exercise for 1 week to induce skeletal muscle injury. Animals were sacrificed 24 h post-exercise and muscle tissue was excised. Results: ALDH2-Tg mice displayed significantly increased treadmill exercise capacity compared to WT mice. Exhaustive exercise caused an increase in mRNA levels of the muscle atrophy markers, Atrogin-1 and MuRF1, and reduced mitochondrial biogenesis and fusion in WT skeletal muscles; these effects were attenuated in ALDH2-Tg mice. Exhaustive exercise also enhanced mitochondrial autophagy pathway activity, including increased conversion of LC3-I to LC3-II and greater expression of Beclin1 and Bnip3; the effects of which were mitigated by ALDH2 overexpression. In addition, ALDH2-Tg reversed the increase of an oxidative stress biomarker (4-hydroxynonenal) and decreased levels of mitochondrial antioxidant proteins, including manganese superoxide dismutase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1, in skeletal muscle induced by exhaustive exercise. Conclusion: ALDH2 may reverse skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction due to exhaustive exercise by regulating mitochondria dynamic remodeling and enhancing the quality of mitochondria. - Highlights: • Skeletal muscle ALDH2 expression and activity declines during exhaustive exercise. • ALDH2 overexpression enhances physical performance and restores muscle

  7. The Effect of a High-Protein Diet and Exercise on Cardiac AQP7 and GLUT4 Gene Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palabiyik, Orkide; Karaca, Aziz; Taştekin, Ebru; Yamasan, Bilge Eren; Tokuç, Burcu; Sipahi, Tammam; Vardar, Selma Arzu

    2016-10-01

    High-protein (HP) diets are commonly consumed by athletes despite their potential health hazard, which is postulated to enforce a negative effect on bone and renal health. However, its effects on heart have not been known yet. Aquaporin-7 (AQP7) is an aquaglyceroporin that facilitates glycerol and water transport. Glycerol is an important cardiac energy production substrate, especially during exercise, in conjunction with fatty acids and glucose. Glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is an insulin-sensitive glucose transporter in heart. We aimed to investigate the effect of HPD on AQP7 and GLUT4 levels in the rat heart subjected to exercise. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into control (n = 12), exercise (E) training (n = 10), HPD (n = 12), and HPD-E training (n = 9) groups. The HPD groups were fed a 45 % protein-containing diet 5 weeks. The HPD-E and E groups were performed the treadmill exercise during the 5-week study period. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry techniques were used to determine the gene expression and localization of AQP7 and GLUT4 in heart tissue. Results of relative gene expression were calculated by the 'Pfaffl' mathematical method using the REST program. Differences in AQP7 and GLUT4 gene expression were expressed as fold change compared to the control group. Heart weight/tibia ratio and ventricular wall thickness were evaluated as markers of cardiac hypertrophy. Further, serum glucose, glycerol, and insulin levels were also measured. AQP7 gene expression was found to be increased in the E (3.47-fold, p protein expression was also increased in the HPD and HPD-E groups (p protein expression was significantly increased in the E, HPD, and HPD-E groups compared to the control group (p = 0.024, p protein diet groups (C and E). Serum insulin levels were higher for HPD groups compared with the normal-protein diet groups (p < 0.001), whereas no differences were observed between the exercise and sedentary

  8. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, George

    2014-11-03

    Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis, or exertional rhabdomyolysis (ER), is a clinical entity typically considered when someone presents with muscle stiffness, swelling, and pain out of proportion to the expected fatigue post exercise. The diagnosis is confirmed by myoglobinuria, and an elevated serum Creatinine Phosphokinase (CPK) level, usually 10 times the normal range. However, an elevation in CPK is seen in most forms of strenuous exercise, up to 20 times the upper normal range. Therefore, there is no definitive pathologic CPK cut-off. Fortunately the dreaded complication of acute renal failure is rare compared to other forms rhabdomyolysis. We review the risks, diagnosis, clinical course and treatment for exercise- induced rhabdomyolysis.

  9. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  10. Chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises for cardiac surgery patients in Sweden--a national survey of practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westerdahl, E; Olsén, M Fagevik

    2011-06-01

    Various chest physiotherapy techniques are recommended after cardiac surgery around the world. There is limited published data on what breathing exercises actually are recommended to patients after surgery in Europe. The aim of this national survey was to establish the current practice of chest physiotherapy and breathing exercises for adult patients following cardiac surgery in Sweden. A postal questionnaire was sent to a total population sample of 33 Swedish physiotherapists working at the departments of cardiothoracic surgery in December 2007 and January 2008. In total, 29 replies (88%) were received. Seven male and twenty two female physiotherapists completed the questionnaire. All physiotherapists instructed, on a regular basis, the cardiac surgery patients to perform post-operative breathing exercises. Positive expiratory pressure (PEP) breathing was routinely used as the first choice for treatment by 22 (83%) of the physiotherapists. Expiratory pressures used varied between 2 and 20 cm H2O. Recommended frequency and duration of the exercises varied from 4 to 30 breaths hourly during the daytime in the first post-operative days. All physiotherapists provided coughing support to the patients. Recommendations to continue breathing exercises after discharge varied from not at all up to 3 months after surgery. Breathing exercises are regularly prescribed during the initial post-operative days after cardiac surgery in Sweden. Hourly deep breathing exercises performed with or without a PEP device were reported to be first choice treatments during the hospital stay. Instructions concerning how long patients should continue the exercises after discharge varied notably.

  11. Prevalence of exercise-induced bronchoconstriction and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction in a general adolescent population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Henrik; Norlander, Katarina; Berglund, Lars; Janson, Christer; Malinovschi, Andrei; Nordvall, Lennart; Nordang, Leif; Emtner, Margareta

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-induced respiratory symptoms are common among adolescents. Exercise is a known stimulus for transient narrowing of the airways, such as exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) and exercise-induced laryngeal obstruction (EILO). Our aim was to investigate the prevalence of EIB and EILO in a general population of adolescents. In this cross-sectional study, a questionnaire on exercise-induced dyspnoea was sent to all adolescents born in 1997 and 1998 in Uppsala, Sweden (n=3838). A random subsample of 146 adolescents (99 with self-reported exercise-induced dyspnoea and 47 without this condition) underwent standardised treadmill exercise tests for EIB and EILO. The exercise test for EIB was performed while breathing dry air; a positive test was defined as a decrease of ≥10% in FEV1 from baseline. EILO was investigated using continuous laryngoscopy during exercise. The estimated prevalence of EIB and EILO in the total population was 19.2% and 5.7%, respectively. No gender differences were found. In adolescents with exercise-induced dyspnoea, 39.8% had EIB, 6% had EILO and 4.8% had both conditions. In this group, significantly more boys than girls had neither EIB nor EILO (64.7% vs 38.8%; p=0.026). There were no significant differences in body mass index, lung function, diagnosed asthma or medication between the participants with exercise-induced dyspnoea who had or did not have a positive EIB or EILO test result. Both EIB and EILO are common causes of exercise-induced dyspnoea in adolescents. EILO is equally common among girls and boys and can coexist with EIB. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Evidence of direct cardiac damage following high-intensity exercise in chronic energy restriction: A case report and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, Marianne F; Grace, Fergal; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Graham, Scott M; Fleming, Audrey; Baker, Julien S

    2017-07-01

    Following prolonged endurance events such as marathons, elevated levels of cardiospecific biomarkers are commonly reported. Although transiently raised levels are generally not considered to indicate clinical myocardial damage, comprehension of this phenomenon remains incomplete. The popularity of high-intensity interval training highlights a paucity of research measuring cardiac biomarker response to this type of exercise. This a posteriori case report discusses the elevation of cardiac troponins (cTn) associated with short interval, high-intensity exercise. In this case report, an apparently healthy 29-year-old recreationally active female presented clinically raised cardiac troponin I (cTnI) levels (>0.04 ng/mL), after performing high-intensity cycle ergometer sprints. As creatine kinase (CK) is expressed by multiple organs (e.g., skeletal muscle, brain, and myocardium), cTnI assays were performed to determine any changes in total serum CK levels not originating from skeletal muscle damage. A posteriori the individual's daily energy expenditure indicated chronically low-energy availability. Psychometric testing suggested that the individual scored positive for disordered eating, highly for fatigue levels, and low in mental health components. The current case report provides novel evidence of elevated cTnI occurring as a result of performing short duration, high intensity, cycle ergometer exercise in an individual with self-reported chronically depleted energy balance. A schematic to identify potentially "at risk" individuals is presented. Considering this as a case report, results cannot be generalized; however, the main findings suggest that individuals who habitually restrict their calorie intake below their bodies' daily energy requirements, may have elevated biomarkers of exercise induced myocardial stress from performing high-intensity exercise.

  13. Protein Supplementation Augments Muscle Fiber Hypertrophy but Does Not Modulate Satellite Cell Content During Prolonged Resistance-Type Exercise Training in Frail Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks, Marlou L; Tieland, Michael; Verdijk, Lex B; Losen, Mario; Nilwik, Rachel; Mensink, Marco; de Groot, Lisette C P G M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2017-07-01

    Protein supplementation increases gains in lean body mass following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older adults. We assessed whether the greater increase in lean body mass can be attributed to muscle fiber type specific hypertrophy with concomitant changes in satellite cell (SC) content. A total of 34 frail elderly individuals (77 ± 1 years, n = 12 male adults) participated in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with 2 arms in parallel. Participants performed 24 weeks of progressive resistance-type exercise training (2 sessions per week) during which they were supplemented twice-daily with milk protein (2 × 15 g) or a placebo. Muscle biopsies were taken at baseline, and after 12 and 24 weeks of intervention, to determine type I and type II muscle fiber specific cross-sectional area (CSA), SC content, and myocellular characteristics. In the placebo group, a trend for a 20% ± 11% increase in muscle fiber CSA was observed in type II fibers only (P = .051), with no increase in type I muscle fiber CSA. In the protein group, type I and II muscle fiber CSA increased by 23% ± 7% and 34% ± 10% following 6 months of training, respectively (P  .05). No changes in myonuclear content and SC contents were observed over time in either group (both P > .05). Regression analysis showed that changes in myonuclear content and domain size are predictive of muscle fiber hypertrophy. Protein supplementation augments muscle fiber hypertrophy following prolonged resistance-type exercise training in frail older people, without changes in myonuclear and SC content. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aerobic exercise training improves oxidative stress and ubiquitin proteasome system activity in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Andrade, Luiz Henrique Soares; de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Matsuo Junior, Eduardo Hiroshi; de Orleans Carvalho de Moura, Elizabeth; Antunes, Hanna Karen Moreira; Montemor, Jairo; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; Serra, Andrey Jorge; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-04-01

    The activity of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) and the level of oxidative stress contribute to the transition from compensated cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertension. Moreover, aerobic exercise training (AET) is an important therapy for the treatment of hypertension, but its effects on the UPS are not completely known. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AET on UPS's activity and oxidative stress level in heart of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). A total of 53 Wistar and SHR rats were randomly divided into sedentary and trained groups. The AET protocol was 5×/week in treadmill for 13 weeks. Exercise tolerance test, non-invasive blood pressure measurement, echocardiographic analyses, and left ventricle hemodynamics were performed during experimental period. The expression of ubiquitinated proteins, 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), Akt, phospho-Akt(ser473), GSK3β, and phospho-GSK3β(ser9) were analyzed by western blotting. The evaluation of lipid hydroperoxide concentration was performed using the xylenol orange method, and the proteasomal chymotrypsin-like activity was measured by fluorimetric assay. Sedentary hypertensive group presented cardiac hypertrophy, unaltered expression of total Akt, phospho-Akt, total GSK3β and phospho-GSK3β, UPS hyperactivity, increased lipid hydroperoxidation as well as elevated expression of 4-HNE but normal cardiac function. In contrast, AET significantly increased exercise tolerance, decreased resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive animals. In addition, the AET increased phospho-Akt expression, decreased phospho-GSK3β, and did not alter the expression of total Akt, total GSK3β, and ubiquitinated proteins, however, significantly attenuated 4-HNE levels, lipid hydroperoxidation, and UPS's activity toward normotensive group levels. Our results provide evidence for the main effect of AET on attenuating cardiac ubiquitin proteasome hyperactivity and oxidative stress in SHR

  15. Use of post-exercise laryngoscopy to evaluate exercise induced dyspnea.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNally, P

    2010-10-01

    We present the case of a child with asthma who continued to have marked exercise induced dyspnea despite appropriate treatment, and in the face of adequate control of all other asthma symptoms. Spirometry showed a marked truncation of inspiratory flow, and laryngoscopy performed immediately after exercise showed laryngomalacia with dynamic, partial inspiratory obstruction. Exercise induced laryngomalacia (EIL) is a rare cause of exercise induced dyspnea which is diagnosed by post exercise flexible laryngoscopy and may require supraglottoplasty.

  16. Dasatinib Attenuates Pressure Overload Induced Cardiac Fibrosis in a Murine Transverse Aortic Constriction Model.

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    Sundaravadivel Balasubramanian

    Full Text Available Reactive cardiac fibrosis resulting from chronic pressure overload (PO compromises ventricular function and contributes to congestive heart failure. We explored whether nonreceptor tyrosine kinases (NTKs play a key role in fibrosis by activating cardiac fibroblasts (CFb, and could potentially serve as a target to reduce PO-induced cardiac fibrosis. Our studies were carried out in PO mouse myocardium induced by transverse aortic constriction (TAC. Administration of a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, dasatinib, via an intraperitoneally implanted mini-osmotic pump at 0.44 mg/kg/day reduced PO-induced accumulation of extracellular matrix (ECM proteins and improved left ventricular geometry and function. Furthermore, dasatinib treatment inhibited NTK activation (primarily Pyk2 and Fak and reduced the level of FSP1 positive cells in the PO myocardium. In vitro studies using cultured mouse CFb showed that dasatinib treatment at 50 nM reduced: (i extracellular accumulation of both collagen and fibronectin, (ii both basal and PDGF-stimulated activation of Pyk2, (iii nuclear accumulation of Ki67, SKP2 and histone-H2B and (iv PDGF-stimulated CFb proliferation and migration. However, dasatinib did not affect cardiomyocyte morphologies in either the ventricular tissue after in vivo administration or in isolated cells after in vitro treatment. Mass spectrometric quantification of dasatinib in cultured cells indicated that the uptake of dasatinib by CFb was greater that that taken up by cardiomyocytes. Dasatinib treatment primarily suppressed PDGF but not insulin-stimulated signaling (Erk versus Akt activation in both CFb and cardiomyocytes. These data indicate that dasatinib treatment at lower doses than that used in chemotherapy has the capacity to reduce hypertrophy-associated fibrosis and improve ventricular function.

  17. β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMβ supplementation stimulates skeletal muscle hypertrophy in rats via the mTOR pathway

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    Pimentel Gustavo D

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract β-Hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate (HMβ supplementation is used to treat cancer, sepsis and exercise-induced muscle damage. However, its effects on animal and human health and the consequences of this treatment in other tissues (e.g., fat and liver have not been examined. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of HMβ supplementation on skeletal muscle hypertrophy and the expression of proteins involved in insulin signalling. Rats were treated with HMβ (320 mg/kg body weight or saline for one month. The skeletal muscle hypertrophy and insulin signalling were evaluated by western blotting, and hormonal concentrations were evaluated using ELISAs. HMβ supplementation induced muscle hypertrophy in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL and soleus muscles and increased serum insulin levels, the expression of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and phosphorylation of p70S6K in the EDL muscle. Expression of the insulin receptor was increased only in liver. Thus, our results suggest that HMβ supplementation can be used to increase muscle mass without adverse health effects.

  18. Myocardial involvement in diabetic patients evaluated by exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy and cardiac catheterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Sumio; Genda, Akira; Nakayama, Akira; Igarashi, Yutaka; Takeda, Ryoyu

    1985-01-01

    To evaluate myocardial involvement in diabetes mellitus, we studied 39 patients with negative double-Master's test and without hypertension by exercise thallium-201 (Tl-201) myocardial scintigraphy using a bicycle ergometer. Among the 39 patients, 12 (30.8 %) showed filling defects in the scintigrams (positive cases), including eight with stress-induced defects and four with fixed defects. The positive cases had higher scores of diabetic complications (3.6 +- 2.4 vs 2.1 +- 1.8; p < 0.05) and longer durations of diabetes as compared with those of the negative cases. The frequency of insulin therapy was also greater in the positive cases. Eleven patients (5 positive and 6 negative cases) who underwent cardiac catheterization had no significant stenotic lesions of their coronary arteries. However, all of the positive cases showed abnormal wall motion, mainly hypokinesis, by left ventriculography (LVG). The abnormalities of the LVG corresponded to the findings of the scintigrams (i.e. filling defects and decrease in washout ratios by circumferential profile analysis). These results suggest that in some diabetics myocardial involvement exists in the early stage without overt cardiac disease and exercise Tl-201 scintigraphy is useful in detecting pre-clinical cardiomyopathy. Cardiomyopathy in diabetics seems to be due to disturbances of the myocardial microcirculation. (author)

  19. Cardiac parasympathetic outflow during dynamic exercise in humans estimated from power spectral analysis of P-P interval variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Makoto; Nakamoto, Tomoko; Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Watanabe, Tae; Sekikawa, Kiyokazu; Hamada, Hironobu

    2016-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Should we use the high-frequency (HF) component of P-P interval as an index of cardiac parasympathetic nerve activity during moderate exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? The HF component of P-P interval variability remained even at a heart rate of 120-140 beats min(-1) and was further reduced by atropine, indicating incomplete cardiac vagal withdrawal during moderate exercise. The HF component of R-R interval is invalid as an estimate of cardiac parasympathetic outflow during moderate exercise; instead, the HF component of P-P interval variability should be used. The high-frequency (HF) component of R-R interval variability has been widely used as an indirect estimate of cardiac parasympathetic (vagal) outflow to the sino-atrial node of the heart. However, we have recently found that the variability of the R-R interval becomes much smaller during dynamic exercise than that of the P-P interval above a heart rate (HR) of ∼100 beats min(-1). We hypothesized that cardiac parasympathetic outflow during dynamic exercise with a higher intensity may be better estimated using the HF component of P-P interval variability. To test this hypothesis, the HF components of both P-P and R-R interval variability were analysed using a Wavelet transform during dynamic exercise. Twelve subjects performed ergometer exercise to increase HR from the baseline of 69 ± 3 beats min(-1) to three different levels of 100, 120 and 140 beats min(-1). We also examined the effect of atropine sulfate on the HF components in eight of the 12 subjects during exercise at an HR of 140 beats min(-1) . The HF component of P-P interval variability was significantly greater than that of R-R interval variability during exercise, especially at the HRs of 120 and 140 beats min(-1). The HF component of P-P interval variability was more reduced by atropine than that of R-R interval variability. We conclude that cardiac parasympathetic outflow to the

  20. Exercise training prevents diastolic dysfunction induced by metabolic syndrome in rats

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    Cristiano Mostarda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High fructose consumption contributes to the incidence of metabolic syndrome and, consequently, to cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether exercise training prevents high fructose diet-induced metabolic and cardiac morphofunctional alterations. METHODS: Wistar rats receiving fructose overload (F in drinking water (100 g/l were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT for 10 weeks or kept sedentary. These rats were compared with a control group (C. Obesity was evaluated by the Lee index, and glycemia and insulin tolerance tests constituted the metabolic evaluation. Blood pressure was measured directly (Windaq, 2 kHz, and echocardiography was performed to determine left ventricular morphology and function. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA, with significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced a metabolic syndrome state, as confirmed by insulin resistance (F: 3.6 ± 0.2 vs. C: 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dl/min, hypertension (mean blood pressure, F: 118 ± 3 vs. C: 104 ± 4 mmHg and obesity (F: 0.31±0.001 vs. C: 0.29 ± 0.001 g/mm. Interestingly, fructose overload rats also exhibited diastolic dysfunction. Exercise training performed during the period of high fructose intake eliminated all of these derangements. The improvements in metabolic parameters were correlated with the maintenance of diastolic function. CONCLUSION: The role of exercise training in the prevention of metabolic and hemodynamic parameter alterations is of great importance in decreasing the cardiac morbidity and mortality related to metabolic syndrome.

  1. Gene Expression Profile in the Early Stage of Angiotensin II-induced Cardiac Remodeling: a Time Series Microarray Study in a Mouse Model

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    Meng-Qiu Dang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Angiotensin II (Ang II plays a critical role in the cardiac remodeling contributing to heart failure. However, the gene expression profiles induced by Ang II in the early stage of cardiac remodeling remain unknown. Methods: Wild-type male mice (C57BL/6 background, 10-weeek-old were infused with Ang II (1500 ng/kg/min for 7 days. Blood pressure was measured. Cardiac function and remodeling were examined by echocardiography, H&E and Masson staining. The time series microarrays were then conducted to detected gene expression profiles. Results: Microarray results identified that 1,489 genes were differentially expressed in the hearts at day 1, 3 and 7 of Ang II injection. These genes were further classified into 26 profiles by hierarchical cluster analysis. Of them, 4 profiles were significant (No. 19, 8, 21 and 22 and contained 904 genes. Gene Ontology showed that these genes mainly participate in metabolic process, oxidation-reduction process, extracellular matrix organization, apoptotic process, immune response, and others. Significant pathways included focal adhesion, ECM-receptor interaction, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, MAPK and insulin signaling pathways, which were known to play important roles in Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling. Moreover, gene co-expression networks analysis suggested that serine/cysteine peptidase inhibitor, member 1 (Serpine1, also known as PAI-1 localized in the core of the network. Conclusions: Our results indicate that many genes are mainly involved in metabolism, inflammation, cardiac fibrosis and hypertrophy. Serpine1 may play a central role in the development of Ang II-induced cardiac remodeling at the early stage.

  2. Research progress of exercise-induced fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng-yi DAI

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced fatigue is a comprehensive response to a variety of physiological and biochemical changes in the body, and can affect people's quality of life to different extents. If no timely recovery after occurrence of fatigue, accumulated gradually, it can lead to "burnout", a "overtraining syndrome", "chronic fatigue syndrome", etc., which will cause endocrine disturbance, immune suppression, even physical illness. Exercise-induced fatigue becomes an important factor endangering human health. In recent years, many experts and scholars at home and abroad are committed to the research of exercise-induced fatigue, and have put forward a variety of hypothesis to explain the cause of exercise-induced fatigue. They expect to find out the methods for preventing and eliminating exercise-induced fatigue. This article discusses mainly the pathogenesis, model building, elimination/ relief, etc. of exercise-induced fatigue to point out the research achievements of exercise-induced fatigue and its existing problems. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2016.11.14

  3. Apelin and APJ orchestrate complex tissue-specific control of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and contractility in the hypertrophy-heart failure transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Victoria Nicole; Liu, Jing; Shang, Ching; Woods, Christopher; Chang, Alex Chia Yu; Zhao, Mingming; Charo, David N; Grunwald, Zachary; Huang, Yong; Seo, Kinya; Tsao, Philip S; Bernstein, Daniel; Ruiz-Lozano, Pilar; Quertermous, Thomas; Ashley, Euan A

    2018-05-18

    The G protein coupled receptor APJ is a promising therapeutic target for heart failure. Constitutive deletion of APJ in the mouse is protective against the hypertrophy-heart failure transition via elimination of ligand-independent, β-arrestin dependent stretch transduction. However, the cellular origin of this stretch transduction and the details of its interaction with apelin signaling remain unknown. We generated mice with conditional elimination of APJ in the endothelium (APJ endo-/- ) and myocardium (APJ myo-/- ). No baseline difference was observed in LV function in APJ endo-/- , APJ myo-/- or controls (APJ endo+/+ , APJ myo+/+ ). After exposure to transaortic constriction (TAC), APJ endo-/- animals developed left ventricular failure while APJ myo-/- were protected. At the cellular level, carbon fiber stretch of freshly isolated single cardiomyocytes demonstrated decreased contractile response to stretch in APJ -/- cardiomyocytes compared to APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes. Calcium transient did not change with stretch in either APJ -/- or APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes. Application of apelin to APJ +/+ cardiomyocytes resulted in decreased calcium transient. Further, hearts of mice treated with apelin exhibited decreased phosphorylation at Troponin I (cTnI) N-terminal residues (Ser 22,23), consistent with increased calcium sensitivity. These data establish that APJ stretch transduction is mediated specifically by myocardial APJ, that APJ is necessary for stretch-induced increases in contractility, and that apelin opposes APJ's stretch-mediated hypertrophy signaling by lowering calcium transient while maintaining contractility through myofilament calcium sensitization. These findings underscore apelin's unique potential as a therapeutic agent that can simultaneously support cardiac function and protect against the hypertrophy-heart failure transition.

  4. Impact of Obesity and Other Chronic Conditions on Lifestyle Exercise During the Year After Completion of Cardiac Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sattar, Abdus; Josephson, Richard; Moore, Shirley M

    2017-07-01

    Patients who attend cardiac rehabilitation programs have a high prevalence of multiple chronic conditions (MCCs). The extent to which different constellations of MCC influence lifestyle exercise in the year after completion of an outpatient phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation program (CRP) is unknown. Our objective was to examine the effects of MCC on lifestyle exercise in the year after completion of a CRP. The effects of different constellations of comorbidities on objectively measured lifestyle exercise were examined using data from a randomized controlled trial testing lifestyle behavior change interventions in patients with cardiac events (n = 379) who completed a phase 2 CRP. Adjusting for important covariates, the relationships between the primary outcome, exercise amount, and the presence of common chronic conditions (hypertension, obesity, diabetes, and arthritis) were studied using robust linear mixed-effects models. Diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and their dyads, triads, and quads have a negative impact on amount of exercise. For example, the cooccurrences of obesity and hypertension reduced lifestyle exercise by 2.83 hours per month (95% CI, 1.33-4.33) after adjustment for the effects of covariates. The presence of obesity was a major factor in the comorbid constellations affecting lifestyle exercise. The presence of obesity and other chronic conditions negatively impacts lifestyle exercise in the year after a CRP. The magnitude of the effect depends on the comorbidities. Different constellations of comorbid conditions can be used to identify those persons at greatest risk for not exercising after cardiac rehabilitation.

  5. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  6. Resveratrol prevents angiotensin II-induced hypertrophy of vascular smooth muscle cells through the transactivation of growth factor receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ekhtear; Anand-Srivastava, Madhu B

    2017-08-01

    We previously showed that augmented levels of endogenous angiotensin II (AngII) contribute to vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptors in spontaneously hypertensive rats. Resveratrol (RV), a polyphenolic component of red wine, has also been shown to attenuate AngII-evoked VSMC hypertrophy; however, the molecular mechanism mediating this response is obscure. The present study was therefore undertaken to examine whether RV could prevent AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the transactivation of growth factor receptor and associated signaling pathways. AngII treatment of VSMC enhanced the protein synthesis that was attenuated towards control levels by RV pretreatment as well as by the inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, c-Src, and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, RV pretreatment also inhibited enhanced levels of superoxide anion, NADPH oxidase activity, increased expression of NADPH oxidase subunits, and phosphorylation of c-Src, EGF-R, PDGE-R, ERK1/2, and AKT1/2. In conclusion, these results indicate that RV attenuates AngII-induced VSMC hypertrophy through the inhibition of enhanced oxidative stress and activation of c-Src, growth factor receptors, and MAPK/AKT signaling. We suggest that RV could be used as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of vascular complications associated with hypertension and hypertrophy.

  7. Cardiac chambers and their walls in cardiomyopathies as evaluated with CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, J.; Pawlak, B.; Lehman, Z.; Karwowski, A.; Akademia Medyczna, Poznan

    1984-01-01

    Thirty-two patients with cardiomyopathy, 25 with hypertrophic and 7 with dilated form were examined by cardiac catheterisation, left ventriculography, selective coronary angiography and ungated cardiac computed tomography. Diffuse hypertrophy, localized hypertrophy and dilated cardiomyopathy were diagnosed and assessed quantitatively based on CT linear, surface and volumetric parameters of cardiac morphology. Absolute septal thickness and left ventricular mass measured in CT image are the most discriminative attributes. (orig.)

  8. Exercise-Induced Hypertrophic and Oxidative Signaling Pathways and Myokine Expression in Fast Muscle of Adult Zebrafish

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    Mireia Rovira

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle is a plastic tissue that undergoes cellular and metabolic adaptations under conditions of increased contractile activity such as exercise. Using adult zebrafish as an exercise model, we previously demonstrated that swimming training stimulates hypertrophy and vascularization of fast muscle fibers, consistent with the known muscle growth-promoting effects of exercise and with the resulting increased aerobic capacity of this tissue. Here we investigated the potential involvement of factors and signaling mechanisms that could be responsible for exercise-induced fast muscle remodeling in adult zebrafish. By subjecting zebrafish to swimming-induced exercise, we observed an increase in the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR and Mef2 protein levels in fast muscle. We also observed an increase in the protein levels of the mitotic marker phosphorylated histone H3 that correlated with an increase in the protein expression levels of Pax7, a satellite-like cell marker. Furthermore, the activity of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK was also increased by exercise, in parallel with an increase in the mRNA expression levels of pgc1α and also of pparda, a β-oxidation marker. Changes in the mRNA expression levels of slow and fast myosin markers further supported the notion of an exercise-induced aerobic phenotype in zebrafish fast muscle. The mRNA expression levels of il6, il6r, apln, aplnra and aplnrb, sparc, decorin and igf1, myokines known in mammals to be produced in response to exercise and to signal through mTOR/AMPK pathways, among others, were increased in fast muscle of exercised zebrafish. These results support the notion that exercise increases skeletal muscle growth and myogenesis in adult zebrafish through the coordinated activation of the mTOR-MEF2 and AMPK-PGC1α signaling pathways. These results, coupled with altered expression of markers for oxidative metabolism and fast-to-slow fiber-type switch, also suggest

  9. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation after heart valve surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, T B; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Berg, S K

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Owing to a lack of evidence, patients undergoing heart valve surgery have been offered exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) since 2009 based on recommendations for patients with ischaemic heart disease in Denmark. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of CR...... expensive outpatient visits. Further studies should investigate the benefits of CR to heart valve surgery patients as part of a formal cost-utility analysis....

  10. Rapid upregulation and clearance of distinct circulating microRNAs after prolonged aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baggish, Aaron L; Park, Joseph; Min, Pil-Ki; Isaacs, Stephanie; Parker, Beth A; Thompson, Paul D; Troyanos, Chris; D'Hemecourt, Pierre; Dyer, Sophia; Thiel, Marissa; Hale, Andrew; Chan, Stephen Y

    2014-03-01

    Short nonprotein coding RNA molecules, known as microRNAs (miRNAs), are intracellular mediators of adaptive processes, including muscle hypertrophy, contractile force generation, and inflammation. During basal conditions and tissue injury, miRNAs are released into the bloodstream as "circulating" miRNAs (c-miRNAs). To date, the impact of extended-duration, submaximal aerobic exercise on plasma concentrations of c-miRNAs remains incompletely characterized. We hypothesized that specific c-miRNAs are differentially upregulated following prolonged aerobic exercise. To test this hypothesis, we measured concentrations of c-miRNAs enriched in muscle (miR-1, miR-133a, miR-499-5p), cardiac tissue (miR-208a), and the vascular endothelium (miR-126), as well as those important in inflammation (miR-146a) in healthy male marathon runners (N = 21) at rest, immediately after a marathon (42-km foot race), and 24 h after the race. In addition, we compared c-miRNA profiles to those of conventional protein biomarkers reflective of skeletal muscle damage, cardiac stress and necrosis, and systemic inflammation. Candidate c-miRNAs increased immediately after the marathon and declined to prerace levels or lower after 24 h of race completion. However, the magnitude of change for each c-miRNA differed, even when originating from the same tissue type. In contrast, traditional biomarkers increased after exercise but remained elevated 24 h postexercise. Thus c-miRNAs respond differentially to prolonged exercise, suggesting the existence of specific mechanisms of c-miRNA release and clearance not fully explained by generalized cellular injury. Furthermore, c-miRNA expression patterns differ in a temporal fashion from corollary conventional tissue-specific biomarkers, emphasizing the potential of c-miRNAs as unique, real-time markers of exercise-induced tissue adaptation.

  11. Acromegaly-induced cardiomyopathy with dobutamine-induced outflow tract obstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelsalam, Mahmoud A; Nippoldt, Todd B; Geske, Jeffrey B

    2016-03-09

    A 50-year-old man with a history of acromegaly was referred for preoperative cardiac evaluation preceding trans-sphenoidal resection of a pituitary macroadenoma. Dobutamine stress echocardiography was negative for myocardial ischaemia. Resting left ventricular (LV) LV ejection fraction (LVEF) was 64% and there was hypertrophy of ventricular septum (18 mm) without resting LV outflow tract obstruction. With 40 µg/kg/min of dobutamine, the LVEF became hyperdynamic at 80%, and there was a maximal instantaneous LV outflow tract gradient of 77 mm Hg. There was no delayed myocardial enhancement on cardiac MRI and the pattern of hypertrophy was concentric. Acromegaly-induced cardiomyopathy can mimic hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the setting of dobutamine provocation. Because cardiomyopathy is an important cause of mortality in acromegaly, diagnosis and appropriate management are critical to improve survival. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. Patients' preference for exercise setting and its influence on the health benefits gained from exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Lars H; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Christensen, Jan; Lawaetz, Jannik; Doherty, Patrick; Taylor, Rod S; Langberg, Henning; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe

    2017-04-01

    To assess patient preference for exercise setting and examine if choice of setting influences the long-term health benefit of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Patients participating in a randomised controlled trial following either heart valve surgery, or radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation were given the choice to perform a 12-week exercise programme in either a supervised centre-based, or a self-management home-based setting. Exercise capacity and physical and mental health outcomes were assessed for up to 24months after hospital discharge. Outcomes between settings were compared using a time×setting interaction using a mixed effects regression model. Across the 158 included patients, an equivalent proportion preferred to undertake exercise rehabilitation in a centre-based setting (55%, 95% CI: 45% to 63%) compared to a home-based setting (45%, 95% CI: 37% to 53%, p=0.233). At baseline, those who preferred a home-based setting reported better physical health (mean difference in physical component score: 5.0, 95% CI 2.3 to 7.4; p=0.001) and higher exercise capacity (mean between group difference 15.9watts, 95% CI 3.7 to 28.1; p=0.011). With the exception of the depression score in the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (F(3.65), p=0.004), there was no evidence of a significant difference in outcomes between settings. The preference of patients to participate in home-based and centre-based exercise programmes appears to be equivalent and provides similar health benefits. Whilst these findings support that patients should be given the choice between exercise-settings when initiating cardiac rehabilitation, further confirmatory evidence is needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Adiponectin and Cardiac Hypertrophy in Acromegaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurbulak, Sabriye; Akin, Fulya; Yerlikaya, Emrah; Yaylali, Guzin F; Topsakal, Senay; Tanriverdi, Halil; Akdag, Beyza; Kaptanoglu, Bunyamin

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocytes-derived hormone which has been shown to possess insulin-sensitizing, antiatherogenic, and anti-inflammatory properties. In acromegaly, the data on adiponectin is contradictory. The relationship between adiponectin levels and cardiac parameters has not been studied. The aim of this study was to find out how adiponectin levels were affected in acromegalic patients and the relationship between adiponectin levels and cardiac parameters. We included 30 subjects (15 male, 15 female), diagnosed with acromegaly and 30 healthy (10 male, 20 female) subjects. Serum glucose, insulin, GH, IGF-1 and adiponectin levels were obtained and the insulin resistance of the subjects was calculated. Echocardiographic studies of the subjects were performed. We determined that adiponectin levels were significantly higher in the acromegalic group than the control group. In the acromegalic group, there was no statistically significant relation between serum adiponectin and growth hormone (GH), or insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels (p = 0.3, p = 0.1). We demonstrated that cardiac function and structure are affected by acromegaly. IVST, PWT, LVMI, E/A ratio, DT, ET, IVRT, VPR, and LVESV values were increased and the results were statistically significant. In the acromegalic group, adiponectin levels were positively related with left ventricle mass index (LVMI) but this correlation was found to be statistically weak (p = 0.03). In our study, there was a positive correlation between VAI and LVM. We also could not find any correlation between VAI and adiponectin levels. Although insulin resistance and high insulin levels occur in active acromegaly patients, adiponectin levels were higher in our study as a consequence of GH lowering therapies. Our study showed that adiponectin levels may be an indicator of the cardiac involvement acromegaly. However, the usage of serum adiponectin levels in acromegalic patients as an indicator of cardiac involvement should be

  14. Tacrolimus-related hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in an adult cardiac transplant patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tong; DONG Jian-zeng; GAO Yun; GAO Yu-long; CHENG Yu-tong; WANG Su; LI Zhi-zhong; ZHANG Hai-bo; MENG Xu; MA Chang-sheng

    2012-01-01