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Sample records for exercise training reduces

  1. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

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    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  3. Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

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    Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

  4. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

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    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P < 0.05, all) compared with healthy subjects. In the whole group, HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P < 0.05) and not differently between the healthy and the DGT subjects. Whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT masses are enlarged in DGT. Both HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  5. Whole-body vibration exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension.

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    Figueroa, Arturo; Kalfon, Roy; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Wong, Alexei

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise training on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), blood pressure (BP), and leg muscle function in postmenopausal women. Twenty-five postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension (mean [SE]; age, 56 [1] y; systolic BP, 139 [2] mm Hg; body mass index, 34.7 [0.8] kg/m2) were randomized to 12 weeks of WBV exercise training (n = 13) or to the no-exercise control group. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, carotid-femoral PWV, brachial-ankle PWV, femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV), leg lean mass, and leg muscle strength were measured before and after 12 weeks. There was a group-by-time interaction (P exercise training compared with no change after control. Heart rate decreased (-3 [1] beats/min, P exercise training, but there was no interaction (P > 0.05). Leg lean mass and carotid-femoral PWV were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by WBV exercise training or control. Our findings indicate that WBV exercise training improves systemic and leg arterial stiffness, BP, and leg muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. WBV exercise training may decrease cardiovascular and disability risks in postmenopausal women by reducing legPWV and increasing leg muscle strength.

  6. Trampoline exercise vs. strength training to reduce neck strain in fighter pilots.

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    Sovelius, Roope; Oksa, Juha; Rintala, Harri; Huhtala, Heini; Ylinen, Jari; Siitonen, Simo

    2006-01-01

    Fighter pilots' muscular strength and endurance are subjected to very high demands. Pilots' fatigued muscles are at higher risk for injuries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of two different training methods in reducing muscular loading during in-flight and cervical loading testing (CLT). There were 16 volunteer Finnish Air Force cadets who were divided into 2 groups: a strength training group (STG) and a trampoline training group (TTG). During the 6-wk training period, the STG performed dynamic flexion and extension and isometric rotation exercises, and the TTG performed trampoline bouncing exercises. During in-flight and CLT, muscle strain from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical erector spinae, trapezius, and thoracic erector spinae muscles was recorded with EMG. In-flight muscle strain in the STG after the training period decreased in the sternocleidomastoid 50%, cervical erector spinae 3%, trapezius 4%, and thoracic erector spinae 8%. In the TTG, the decrease was 41%, 30%, 20%, and 6%, respectively. In CLT, the results were similar. After a 3-mo follow-up period with intensive high +Gz flying, EMG during CLT was still lower than in baseline measurements. Both training methods were found to be effective in reducing muscle strain during in-flight and CLT, especially in the cervical muscles. There was no statistically significant difference between the training groups. Introduced exercises expand muscles' capacities in different ways and the authors recommend both strength and trampoline training programs to be included in fighter pilots' physical education programs.

  7. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

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    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  8. Exercise Training Reduces Peripheral Arterial Stiffness and Myocardial Oxygen Demand in Young Prehypertensive Subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. METHODS Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120–139mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80–89mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18–35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. RESULTS PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects. PMID:23736111

  9. Exercise training reduces peripheral arterial stiffness and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Darren T; Martin, Jeffrey S; Casey, Darren P; Braith, Randy W

    2013-09-01

    Large artery stiffness is a major risk factor for the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. Persistent prehypertension accelerates the progression of arterial stiffness. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive (systolic blood pressure (SBP) = 120-139 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) = 80-89 mm Hg) men and women and 15 normotensive time-matched control subjects (NMTCs; n = 15) aged 18-35 years of age met screening requirements and participated in the study. Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to a resistance exercise training (PHRT; n = 15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n = 13) or time-control group (PHTC; n = 15). Treatment groups performed exercise training 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Pulse wave analysis, pulse wave velocity (PWV), and central and peripheral blood pressures were evaluated before and after exercise intervention or time-matched control. PHRT and PHET reduced resting SBP by 9.6±3.6mm Hg and 11.9±3.4mm Hg, respectively, and DBP by 8.0±5.1mm Hg and 7.2±3.4mm Hg, respectively (P endurance exercise alone effectively reduce peripheral arterial stiffness, central blood pressures, augmentation index, and myocardial oxygen demand in young prehypertensive subjects.

  10. Aerobic exercise training without weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women

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    Bernhardt, Vipa; Stickford, Jonathon L.; Bhammar, Dharini M.; Babb, Tony G.

    2015-01-01

    Dyspnea on exertion (DOE) is a common symptom in obesity. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training without weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty-two otherwise healthy obese women participated in a 12-week supervised aerobic exercise training program, exercising 30 min/day at 70–80% heart rate reserve, 4 days/week. Subjects were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60W cycling: +DOE (n = 12, RPB ≥ 4, 37 ± 7 years, 34 ± 4kg/m2) and −DOE (n = 10, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 6 years, 33 ± 3kg/m2). No significant differences between the groups in body composition, pulmonary function, or cardiorespiratory fitness were observed pre-training. Post-training, peak was improved significantly in both groups (+DOE: 12 ± 7, −DOE: 14 ± 8%). RPB was significantly decreased in the + DOE (4.7 ± 1.0–2.5 ± 1.0) and remained low in the −DOE group (1.2 ± 0.6–1.3 ± 1.0) (interaction p exercise training improved cardiorespiratory fitness and DOE and thus appears to be an effective treatment for DOE in obese women. PMID:26593640

  11. Exercise training reduces the frequency of menopausal hot flushes by improving thermoregulatory control.

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    Bailey, Tom G; Cable, N Timothy; Aziz, Nabil; Dobson, Rebecca; Sprung, Victoria S; Low, David A; Jones, Helen

    2016-07-01

    Postmenopausal hot flushes occur due to a reduction in estrogen production causing thermoregulatory and vascular dysfunction. Exercise training enhances thermoregulatory control of sweating, skin and brain blood flow. We aimed to determine if improving thermoregulatory control and vascular function with exercise training alleviated hot flushes. Twenty-one symptomatic women completed a 7-day hot flush questionnaire and underwent brachial artery flow-mediated dilation and a cardiorespiratory fitness test. Sweat rate and skin blood flow temperature thresholds and sensitivities, and middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAv) were measured during passive heating. Women performed 16 weeks of supervised exercise training or control, and measurements were repeated. There was a greater improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (4.45 mL/kg/min [95% CI: 1.87, 8.16]; P = 0.04) and reduced hot flush frequency (48 hot flushes/wk [39, 56]; P core temperature (0.14°C [0.01, 0.27]; P = 0.03) and increased basal MCAv (2.8 cm/s [1.0, 5.2]; P = 0.04) compared with control. Sweat rate and skin blood flow thresholds occurred approximately 0.19°C and 0.17°C earlier, alongside improved sweating sensitivity with exercise. MCAv decreased during heating (P training that improves cardiorespiratory fitness reduces self-reported hot flushes. Improvements are likely mediated through greater thermoregulatory control in response to increases in core temperature and enhanced vascular function in the cutaneous and cerebral circulations.

  12. Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.

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    Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2012-09-01

    Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation.

  13. Regular exercise training reverses ectonucleotidase alterations and reduces hyperaggregation of platelets in metabolic syndrome patients.

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    Martins, Caroline Curry; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Zanini, Daniela; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Dalenogare, Diéssica Padilha; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-15

    Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training (Pexercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

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    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Early postmenopausal phase is associated with reduced prostacyclin-induced vasodilation that is reversed by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyberg, Michael Permin; Egelund, Jon; Mandrup Jensen, Camilla Maria

    2016-01-01

    The postmenopausal phase is associated with an accelerated rate of rise in the prevalence of vascular dysfunction and hypertension; however, the mechanisms underlying these adverse vascular changes and whether exercise training can reverse the decline in vascular function remains unclear. We...... increased (Pphase is associated with a marked reduction in vascular function. Despite of a reduced sensitivity...

  16. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  17. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

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    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  18. Moderate, but not vigorous, intensity exercise training reduces C-reactive protein.

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    Fedewa, Michael V; Hathaway, Elizabeth D; Higgins, Simon; Forehand, Ronald L; Schmidt, Michael D; Evans, Ellen M

    2018-06-01

    Sprint interval cycle training is a contemporary popular mode of training but its relative efficacy, under conditions of matched energy expenditure, to reduce risk factors for cardiometabolic disease is incompletely characterised, especially in young women. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the relative efficacy of six weeks of moderate-intensity cycling (MOD-C) and vigorous sprint-interval cycling (VIG-SIC) on lipid profile, insulin (INS) and insulin resistance using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) in inactive, overweight/obese (OW/OB) young women. Participants (BMI ≥25 kg/m 2 , waist circumference ≥88 cm) were randomly assigned to MOD-C (20-30 min at 60-70% of heart rate reserve(HRR)) or VIG-SIC (5-7 repeated bouts 30-second maximal effort sprints, followed by four minutes of active recovery) supervised training three days/week for six weeks, with each group matched on energy expenditure. Adiposity (%Fat) was measured using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Forty-four participants (20.4 ± 1.6 years, 65.9% Caucasian, 29.8 ± 4.1 kg/m 2 ) were included in the analysis. The improvement in CRP observed in the MOD-C group was larger than the VIG-C group (p = .034). Overall, high-density lipoprotein (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C) levels improved following training (p  .05). These results indicate MOD-C training may be more effective in reducing CRP than VIG-SIC.

  19. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

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    Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet. PMID:23036993

  20. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Mariette J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lenssen, Antoine F; Hendriks, Erik J M; de Bie, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    What are the effects of strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation on pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis compared to control? What are the effects of these interventions relative to each other? A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Adults with osteoarthritis of the knee. INTERVENTION TYPES: Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone (combination of strength training with active range of motion exercises and aerobic activity), or exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation, versus any non-exercise control. Comparisons between the three interventions were also sought. The primary outcome measures were pain and physical function. 12 trials compared one of the interventions against control. The effect size on pain was 0.38 (95% CI 0.23 to 0.54) for strength training, 0.34 (95% CI 0.19 to 0.49) for exercise, and 0.69 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.96) for exercise plus manual mobilisation. Each intervention also improved physical function significantly. No randomised comparisons of the three interventions were identified. However, meta-regression indicated that exercise plus manual mobilisations improved pain significantly more than exercise alone (p = 0.03). The remaining comparisons between the three interventions for pain and physical function were not significant. Exercise therapy plus manual mobilisation showed a moderate effect size on pain compared to the small effect sizes for strength training or exercise therapy alone. To achieve better pain relief in patients with knee osteoarthritis physiotherapists or manual therapists might consider adding manual mobilisation to optimise supervised active exercise programs. Copyright © 2011 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  1. There is not yet strong evidence that exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training can reduce stress urinary incontinence in women: a systematic review.

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    Bø, Kari; Herbert, Robert D

    2013-09-01

    What evidence is there for alternative exercises to specific pelvic floor muscle training for treatment of stress urinary incontinence in women? A systematic review was conducted with searches of PubMed and PEDro to January 2013. The quality of randomised trials was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Each type of exercise was classified as being in a Development Phase, Testing Phase, or Refinement and Dissemination Phase. Women with stress or mixed urinary incontinence with predominantly stress urinary incontinence. Exercise regimens other than pelvic floor muscle training. The primary outcome was urinary leakage. Seven randomised controlled trials were found: three on abdominal training, two on the Paula method, and two on Pilates exercise. The methodological quality score ranged between 4 and 8 with a mean of 5.7. There was no convincing evidence for the effect of these exercise regimens so they remain in the Testing Phase. Because no randomised trials were found for posture correction, breathing exercise, yoga, Tai Chi, and general fitness training, these were classified as being in the Development Phase. There is not yet strong evidence that alternative exercise regimens can reduce urinary leakage in women with stress urinary incontinence. Alternative exercise regimens should not yet be recommended for use in clinical practice for women with stress urinary incontinence. Copyright © 2013 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by .. All rights reserved.

  2. Short-term exercise training reduces anti-inflammatory action of interleukin-10 in adults with obesity.

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    Barry, Julianne C; Simtchouk, Svetlana; Durrer, Cody; Jung, Mary E; Mui, Alice L; Little, Jonathan P

    2018-06-06

    A key pathological component of obesity is chronic low-grade inflammation, which is propagated by infiltration of immune cells into tissues and overproduction of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Cytokines that possess anti-inflammatory properties, such as interleukin (IL)-10 and IL6, may also play an important role. This study was designed to determine the impact of short-term exercise on the anti-inflammatory action of IL10 and IL6. Thirty-three inactive obese adults were randomized to two weeks of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). Fasting blood samples were collected before and after training. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α production was measured in whole blood cultures in the presence or absence of IL10 or IL6. IL10 and IL6 receptor expression were measured on circulating monocytes, neutrophils, and T cells. HIIT and MICT reduced the ability of IL10 to inhibit LPS-induced TNFα production, with a greater effect with HIIT (Group × Time and IL10 × Time interactions, p's  0.05). HIIT and MICT differentially affected IL6 function (Group × Time and IL6 × Time interactions, p's < 0.05) with evidence of reductions in the anti-inflammatory ability of IL6 with HIIT. Neither HIIT nor MICT altered levels of circulating IL10, IL6, or TNFα. The impact of short-term HIIT and MICT resulted in differential effects on anti-inflammatory cytokine function. The clinical implications remain to be determined but these novel findings indicate that measuring anti-inflammatory cytokine action could reveal important immunomodulatory effects of exercise. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Aerobic Exercise Training Selectively Changes Oxysterol Levels and Metabolism Reducing Cholesterol Accumulation in the Aorta of Dyslipidemic Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Silva Ferreira

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxysterols are bioactive lipids that control cellular cholesterol synthesis, uptake, and exportation besides mediating inflammation and cytotoxicity that modulate the development of atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training (AET prevents and regresses atherosclerosis by the improvement of lipid metabolism, reverse cholesterol transport (RCT and antioxidant defenses in the arterial wall. We investigated in dyslipidemic mice the role of a 6-week AET program in the content of plasma and aortic arch cholesterol and oxysterols, the expression of genes related to cholesterol flux and the effect of the exercise-mimetic AICAR, an AMPK activator, in macrophage oxysterols concentration.Methods: Sixteen-week old male apo E KO mice fed a chow diet were included in the protocol. Animals were trained in a treadmill running, 15 m/min, 5 days/week, for 60 min (T; n = 29. A control group was kept sedentary (S; n = 32. Plasma lipids and glucose were determined by enzymatic techniques and glucometer, respectively. Cholesterol and oxysterols in aortic arch and macrophages were measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism was determined by RT-qPCR. The effect of AMPK in oxysterols metabolism was determined in J774 macrophages treated with 0.25 mM AICAR.Results: Body weight and plasma TC, TG, HDL-c, glucose, and oxysterols were similar between groups. As compared to S group, AET enhanced 7β-hydroxycholesterol (70% and reduced cholesterol (32% in aorta. In addition, exercise increased Cyp27a1 (54%, Cd36 (75%, Cat (70%, Prkaa1 (40%, and Prkaa2 (51% mRNA. In macrophages, the activation of AMPK followed by incubation with HDL2 increased Abca1 (52% and Cd36 (220% and decrease Prkaa1 (19%, Cyp27a1 (47% and 7α-hydroxycholesterol level.Conclusion: AET increases 7β-hydroxycholesterol in the aortic arch of dyslipidemic mice, which is related to the enhanced expression of Cd36. In addition, the increase

  4. Specific exercise training for reducing neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2015-01-01

    . Secondary outcomes included: postural balance, strength, stability, and rate of force development for neck and shoulder muscles. Measurements at baseline and follow-up were conducted at four air force bases in Denmark. Sixty-nine participants were individually randomized to either a training group (TG...

  5. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  6. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    metabolic adaptations, such as increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation, which is detrimental in GSDs. Training has not been studied systematically in any FAODs and in just a few GSDs. However, studies on single bouts of exercise in most metabolic myopathies show......Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...

  7. Active Intervention Program Using Dietary Education and Exercise Training for Reducing Obesity in Mexican American Male Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sukho; Misra, Ranjita; Kaster, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 10-week active intervention program (AIP), which incorporates dietary education with exercise training, among 30 healthy Mexican American male children, aged 8-12 years, in Laredo, Texas. Participants were randomly divided into 3 groups: education (EDU), dietary education to participants and parents and…

  8. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance...... by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training....

  9. The Respiratory Exchange Ratio is Associated with Fitness Indicators Both in Trained and Untrained Men: A Possible Application for People with Reduced Exercise Tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Ramos-Jiménez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The respiratory exchange ratio (RER indirectly shows the muscle's oxidative capacity to get energy. Sedentarism, exercise and physically active lifestyles modify it. For that reason, this study evaluates the associations between RER during sub-maximum exercise and other well established fitness indicators (body fat, maximum heart rate, maximum O 2 uptake, workload, and lactate threshold, in physically active trained and untrained men. Methods The RER, O 2 uptake and blood lactate were measured in eight endurance trained and eight untrained men (age, 22.9 ± 4.5 vs. 21.9 ± 2.8 years; body mass, 67.1 ± 5.4 vs. 72.2 ± 7.7 kg; body fat, 10.6 ± 2.4% vs. 16.6 ± 3.8% and maximum O2 uptake, 68.9 ± 6.3 vs. 51.6 ± 5.8 ml · kg −1 · min −1 , during maximum exercise test and during three different sub-maximum exercises at fixed workload: below, within or above the lactate threshold. Results Endurance trained men presented higher O 2 uptake, lower blood lactate concentrations and lower RER values than those in untrained men at the three similar relative workloads. Even though with these differences in RER, a strong association (p < 0.05 of RER during sub-maximum exercise with the other well established fitness indicators was observed, and both maximum O 2 uptake and lactate threshold determined more than 57% of its variance (p < 0.05. Conclusions These data demonstrate that RER measurement under sub-maximum exercise conditions was well correlated with other established physical fitness indicators, despite training condition. Furthermore, the results suggest that RER could help obtain an easy approach of fitness status under low exercise intensity and could be utilized in subjects with reduced exercise tolerance.

  10. Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Saleh A Al Attar

    2017-10-01

    Trial registration: ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017 Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 235–242

  11. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  12. Exercise-induced muscle damage is reduced in resistance-trained males by branched chain amino acids: a randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howatson Glyn

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is well documented that exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD decreases muscle function and causes soreness and discomfort. Branched-chain amino acid (BCAA supplementation has been shown to increase protein synthesis and decrease muscle protein breakdown, however, the effects of BCAAs on recovery from damaging resistance training are unclear. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of a BCAA supplementation on markers of muscle damage elicited via a sport specific bout of damaging exercise in trained volunteers. Methods Twelve males (mean ± SD age, 23 ± 2 y; stature, 178.3 ± 3.6 cm and body mass, 79.6 ± 8.4 kg were randomly assigned to a supplement (n = 6 or placebo (n = 6 group. The damaging exercise consisted of 100 consecutive drop-jumps. Creatine kinase (CK, maximal voluntary contraction (MVC, muscle soreness (DOMS, vertical jump (VJ, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC were measured as markers of muscle damage. All variables were measured immediately before the damaging exercise and at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h post-exercise. Results A significant time effect was seen for all variables. There were significant group effects showing a reduction in CK efflux and muscle soreness in the BCAA group compared to the placebo (P Conclusion The present study has shown that BCAA administered before and following damaging resistance exercise reduces indices of muscle damage and accelerates recovery in resistance-trained males. It seems likely that BCAA provided greater bioavailablity of substrate to improve protein synthesis and thereby the extent of secondary muscle damage associated with strenuous resistance exercise. Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01529281.

  13. Skeletal muscle neuronal nitric oxide synthase micro protein is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and is not normalized by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Scott J; Kingwell, Bronwyn A; Canny, Benedict J; McConell, Glenn K

    2007-10-01

    Skeletal muscle inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS) protein is greatly elevated in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus, whereas endothelial NOS is at normal levels. Diabetic rat studies suggest that skeletal muscle neuronal NOS (nNOS) micro protein expression may be reduced in human insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression is reduced in people with impaired glucose homeostasis and whether exercise training increases nNOSmicro protein expression in these individuals because exercise training increases skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein in rats. Seven people with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes (impaired fasting glucose and/or impaired glucose tolerance) and 7 matched (sex, age, fitness, body mass index, blood pressure, lipid profile) healthy controls aged 36 to 60 years participated in this study. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies for nNOSmicro protein determination were obtained, aerobic fitness was measured (peak pulmonary oxygen uptake [Vo(2) peak]), and glucose tolerance and insulin homeostasis were assessed before and after 1 and 4 weeks of cycling exercise training (60% Vo(2) peak, 50 minutes x 5 d wk(-1)). Skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein was significantly lower (by 32%) in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus or prediabetes compared with that in controls before training (17.7 +/- 1.2 vs 26.2 +/- 3.4 arbitrary units, P glucose homeostasis have reduced skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein content. However, because exercise training improves insulin sensitivity without influencing skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein expression, it seems that changes in skeletal muscle nNOSmicro protein are not central to the control of insulin sensitivity in humans and therefore may be a consequence rather than a cause of diabetes.

  14. Aerobic exercise training reduces cannabis craving and use in non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej S Buchowski

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cannabis dependence is a significant public health problem. Because there are no approved medications for this condition, treatment must rely on behavioral approaches empirically complemented by such lifestyle change as exercise.To examine the effects of moderate aerobic exercise on cannabis craving and use in cannabis dependent adults under normal living conditions.Participants attended 10 supervised 30-min treadmill exercise sessions standardized using heart rate (HR monitoring (60-70% HR reserve over 2 weeks. Exercise sessions were conducted by exercise physiologists under medical oversight.Sedentary or minimally active non-treatment seeking cannabis-dependent adults (n = 12, age 25±3 years, 8 females met criteria for primary cannabis dependence using the Substance Abuse module of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID.Self-reported drug use was assessed for 1-week before, during, and 2-weeks after the study. Participants viewed visual cannabis cues before and after exercise in conjunction with assessment of subjective cannabis craving using the Marijuana Craving Questionnaire (MCQ-SF.Daily cannabis use within the run-in period was 5.9 joints per day (SD = 3.1, range 1.8-10.9. Average cannabis use levels within the exercise (2.8 joints, SD = 1.6, range 0.9-5.4 and follow-up (4.1 joints, SD = 2.5, range 1.1-9.5 periods were lower than during the run-in period (both P<.005. Average MCQ factor scores for the pre- and post-exercise craving assessments were reduced for compulsivity (P  = .006, emotionality (P  = .002, expectancy (P  = .002, and purposefulness (P  = .002.The findings of this pilot study warrant larger, adequately powered controlled trials to test the efficacy of prescribed moderate aerobic exercise as a component of cannabis dependence treatment. The neurobiological mechanisms that account for these beneficial effects on cannabis use may lead to understanding of the physical and

  15. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  16. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  17. Improved insulin sensitivity after exercise training is linked to reduced plasma C14:0 ceramide in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasumov, Takhar; Solomon, Thomas P J; Hwang, Calvin; Huang, Hazel; Haus, Jacob M; Zhang, Renliang; Kirwan, John P

    2015-07-01

    To assess the effect of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and plasma ceramides in obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D). Twenty-four adults with obesity and normal glucose tolerance (NGT, n = 14) or diabetes (n = 10) were studied before and after a 12-week supervised exercise-training program (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 80-85% of maximum heart rate). Changes in body composition were assessed using hydrostatic weighing and computed tomography. Peripheral tissue insulin sensitivity was assessed by a 40 mU/m(2) /min hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp. Plasma ceramides (C14:0, C16:0, C18:0, C18:1, C20:0, C24:0, and C24:1) were quantified using electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry after separation with HPLC. Plasma ceramides were similar for the subjects with obesity and NGT and the subjects with diabetes, despite differences in glucose tolerance. Exercise significantly reduced body weight and adiposity and increased peripheral insulin sensitivity in both groups (P exercise training-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity, and plasma C14:0 ceramide may provide a specific target for investigating lipid-related insulin resistance in obesity and T2D. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  18. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P J; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score). Twenty-one adults (66.2±1.1 years; BMI=35.3±0.9 kg/m2) with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/week at about 85% HRmax) and provided a LoGIx (n=11) or HiGIx (n=10) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and nonesterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. LoGIx and HiGIx diets decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (pdiets decreased the Z-score similarly as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TGs, FPG and WC (pdiet tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared with the LoGIx diet (p=0.06). Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces the severity of the metabolic syndrome whether individuals were randomized to a HiGIx or a LoGIx diet.

  19. Intelligent Physical Exercise Training proves effective in enhancing muscle strength and reducing musculoskeletal pain in a workplace setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    intensity IPET every week within working hours for one year. The training program was based on baseline health check measures of muscle strength, musculoskeletal pain (self-reported on a 0-9 numeric box scale), cardiorespiratory fitness and health risk indicators, as well as functional capacity including...... compared with REF (~ 20 %). Discussion: High intensity IPET during working hours significantly reduced musculoskeletal pain in neck and shoulders as well as increased muscle strength among office workers. Of note is the large proportion of employees in TG who had pain reductions of ≥1, which is considered...... workers based on health checks and to assess the effect on musculoskeletal health (Sjøgaard G et al. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:652). Methods: Office workers were at each of 6 companies randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high...

  20. Effect of outpatient exercise training programmes in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Suzan; Zwerink, Marlies; van Brussel, M.; van der Valk, P.D.; Wajon, E.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2012-01-01

    Advantages of outpatient exercise training are reduced waiting lists, better compliance, reduced time investment by the patient with reduced travel expenses, and less dependence on other people to participate. Therefore, this systematic review studies the effects of outpatient exercise training

  1. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  2. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  3. Intensive training and reduced volume increases muscle FXYD1 expression and phosphorylation at rest and during exercise in athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Martin; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Christensen, Peter Møller

    2016-01-01

    and phosphorylation were determined by western blotting. Expression of FXYD1 (30%), actin (40%), mTOR (12%), PLN (16%) and CaMKII γ/δ (25%) was higher (P... and during exercise, mainly achieved by an increased FXYD1 ser68 phosphorylation, compared to before the intervention. CaMKII thr287 and eEF2 thr56 phosphorylation at rest and during exercise, overall PKCα/β thr638/641 and mTOR ser2448 phosphorylation during repeated intense exercise as well as resting PLN...

  4. Reduced skeletal muscle inhibitor of kappaB beta content is associated with insulin resistance in subjects with type 2 diabetes: reversal by exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriwijitkamol, Apiradee; Christ-Roberts, Christine; Berria, Rachele; Eagan, Phyllis; Pratipanawatr, Thongchai; DeFronzo, Ralph A; Mandarino, Lawrence J; Musi, Nicolas

    2006-03-01

    Skeletal muscle insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. It recently has been hypothesized that excessive activity of the inhibitor of kappaB (IkappaB)/nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB) inflammatory pathway is a mechanism underlying skeletal muscle insulin resistance. However, it is not known whether IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in muscle from subjects with type 2 diabetes is abnormal. We studied IkappaB/NFkappaB signaling in vastus lateralis muscle from six subjects with type 2 diabetes and eight matched control subjects. Muscle from type 2 diabetic subjects was characterized by a 60% decrease in IkappaB beta protein abundance, an indicator of increased activation of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. IkappaB beta abundance directly correlated with insulin-mediated glucose disposal (Rd) during a hyperinsulinemic (40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1))-euglycemic clamp (r = 0.63, P = 0.01), indicating that increased IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway activity is associated with muscle insulin resistance. We also investigated whether reversal of this abnormality could be a mechanism by which training improves insulin sensitivity. In control subjects, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training caused a 50% increase in both IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein. In subjects with type 2 diabetes, training increased IkappaB alpha and IkappaB beta protein to levels comparable with that of control subjects, and these increments were accompanied by a 40% decrease in tumor necrosis factor alpha muscle content and a 37% increase in insulin-stimulated glucose disposal. In summary, subjects with type 2 diabetes have reduced IkappaB protein abundance in muscle, suggesting excessive activity of the IkappaB/NFkappaB pathway. Moreover, this abnormality is reversed by exercise training.

  5. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  6. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  7. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  8. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  9. Exercise training performed simultaneously to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farias JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of concurrent exercise in the degree of the insulin resistance in mice fed with a high-fat diet, and assess adiponectin receptors (ADIPOR1 and ADIPOR2 and endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 in different tissues. Methods Twenty-four mice were randomized into four groups (n = 6: chow standard diet and sedentary (C; chow standard diet and simultaneous exercise training (C-T; fed on a high-fat diet and sedentary (DIO; and fed on a high-fat diet and simultaneous exercise training (DIO-T. Simultaneously to starting high-fat diet feeding, the mice were submitted to a swimming exercise training protocol (2 x 30 minutes, with 5 minutes of interval/day, five days per week, for twelve weeks (90 days. Animals were then euthanized 48 hours after the last exercise training session, and adipose, liver, and skeletal muscle tissue were extracted for an immunoblotting analysis. Results IR, IRs, and Akt phosphorylation decreased in the DIO group in the three analyzed tissues. In addition, the DIO group exhibited ADIPOR1 (skeletal muscle and adipose tissue, ADIPOR2 (liver, and APPL1 reduced when compared with the C group. However, it was reverted when exercise training was simultaneously performed. In parallel, ADIPOR1 and 2 and APPL1 protein levels significantly increase in exercised mice. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that exercise training performed concomitantly to a high-fat diet reduces the degree of insulin resistance and improves adipoR1-2/APPL1 protein levels in the hepatic, adipose, and skeletal muscle tissue.

  10. Tendon neuroplastic training reduces tendon pain and muscle inhibition in-season: Changing the way we think about exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rio, E.; Kidgell, D.; Van Ark, M.; Zwerver, J; Sheek, I.; Moseley, G.L.; Gaida, J.; Docking, S.; Cook, J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Patellar tendon pain is at its highest in-season but there are no published data of successful management when athletes are playing and training. Furthermore, there are changes to the cortical control of the quadriceps in patellar tendinopathy (including excess quadriceps inhibition)

  11. Exercise training in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, Mark

    2018-05-04

    Exercise training (ET) in heart failure (HF) has long been established as an important part of HF care. ET is known to improve quality of life and functional capacity in a number of ways. Despite its proposed benefits, evidence supporting its routine inclusion in standard rehabilitation programme is at times conflicting, partly because of the significant heterogeneity present in available randomised controlled trials. There is lack of evidence with regard to the duration of the overall benefit, the optimal exercise regimen and whether certain types of HF aetiologies benefit more than others. The aim of this review is to provide an update to date literature review of the positive and negative evidence surrounding ET in HF, while proposing an efficient novel in-hospital exercise-based rehabilitation programme for patients with HF in addition to a pre-existing HF clinic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  12. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  13. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  14. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  15. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related

  16. Reducing anxiety sensitivity with exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.A.J.; Berry, A.C.; Rosenfield, D.; Powers, M.B.; Behar, E.; Otto, M.W.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Exercise interventions repeatedly have been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of depression, and initial studies indicate similar efficacy for the treatment of anxiety conditions. To further study the potential beneficial role of prescriptive exercise for anxiety-related

  17. Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.L.; Gibson, T.A.; Vance, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release

  18. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  19. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  20. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exer......Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one......-legged exercise training as well as in response to subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (phuman muscle....... The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of AMPK trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with AICAR in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (p

  1. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    of approximately one training session per week. RESULTS: In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo......INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training...... frequency. METHODS: Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency...

  2. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  3. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  4. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P exercise training (P smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P exercise training (P smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  5. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  6. Respiratory Muscle Training and Exercise Endurance at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R

    2016-08-01

    Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.

  7. Quick Tips for Weight Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Weight training is one of the single most popular types of fitness activities in the United States. One of the reasons for its popularity is that it dramatically contributes to improved strength, muscle tone, body composition, health and appearance. Weight training is a progressive resistance exercise in which resistance is gradually increased as…

  8. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  9. Eccentric exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooyackers, J.M.; Berkeljon, D.A.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen cost of eccentric exercise is lower than that of concentric exercise at similar work-loads. In this study, the response to eccentric cycle exercise training (EET) in addition to general exercise training (GET) on exercise performance and quality of life was investigated in 24 patients

  10. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  11. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  12. Comparison of trunk kinematics in trunk training exercises and throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F; Campbell, Brian M; Moyer, Todd M

    2008-01-01

    Strength and conditioning professionals, as well as coaches, have emphasized the importance of training the trunk and the benefits it may have on sport performance and reducing the potential for injury. However, no data on the efficacy of trunk training support such claims. The purpose of this study was to examine the maximum differential trunk rotation and maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso of participants while they performed 4 trunk exercises (seated band rotations, cross-overs, medicine ball throws, and twisters) and compare these trunk exercise kinematics with the trunk kinematics demonstrated in actual throwing performance. Nine NCAA Division I baseball players participated in this study. Each participant's trunk kinematics was analyzed while he performed 5 repetitions of each exercise in both dominant and nondominant rotational directions. Results indicated maximum differentiated rotation in all 4 trunk exercises was similar to maximum differentiated rotation (approximately 50-60 degrees) demonstrated in throwing performance. Maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso in the trunk exercises were appreciably slower (approximately 50% or less) than the angular velocities demonstrated during throwing performance. Incorporating trunk training exercises that demonstrate sufficient trunk ranges of motion and velocities into a strength and conditioning program may help to increase ball velocity and/or decrease the risk injury.

  13. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training a...

  14. Combined exercise training reduces fatigue and modulates the cytokine profile of T-cells from multiple sclerosis patients in response to neuromediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarenga-Filho, Helcio; Sacramento, Priscila M; Ferreira, Thais B; Hygino, Joana; Abreu, Jorge Eduardo Canto; Carvalho, Sonia Regina; Wing, Ana Cristina; Alvarenga, Regina Maria Papais; Bento, Cleonice A M

    2016-04-15

    Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom of multiple sclerosis (MS), a classical Th1- and Th17-mediated autoimmune disease. There is no effective pharmacological treatment for fatigue, but some reports point towards beneficial effects of physical activity on management of the fatigue in MS patients. As both MS and fatigue have been associated with dysregulated cytokine network production, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a physical activity program consisting of a 12-week series of combining Pilates and aerobic exercises on fatigue severity, determined by FSS, and cytokine production, quantified by ELISA, by T cells from MS patients (n=08) with low disability (EDSS≤2). The results showed decrease in FSSs in all patients at the end of physical activity intervention. Regarding the cytokines, a significant reduction of IL-22 release was observed in polyclonally-activated T cells form MS patients post-training follow-up. Interestingly, while the physical activity attenuated the ability of dopamine in up-regulating Th17-related cytokines, it enhanced the anti-inflammatory effects of serotonin, evidenced by high IL-10 production. In summary, all results suggest that programmed physical activity has beneficial effects on management of fatigue in MS patients, and it could be related, at least in part, to its ability in regulating neuroimmune parameters into T cell compartment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  16. Exercise training as treatment of neck pain among fighter pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke

    ) seldom, trained but stopped, 6) no participation at all. Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVC) and Rate of Force Development (RFD) for cervical flexion and extension were measured by strain-gauge transducers. Results Prevalence of neck pain was significantly reduced in ET from baseline (mean ± SD......Introduction Neck and shoulder pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots and a growing aero-medical concern. Unfortunately, previous intervention studies have been unsuccessful in relieving such pain within this occupational group. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise...... intervention could reduce the high prevalence of neck pain among fighter pilots. Methods F-16 pilots were randomized in a controlled intervention trial, to either an exercise-training-group (ET, n=27) or reference-group (REF, n=28). ET underwent 24 weeks of strength, endurance, and coordination training, 3...

  17. Aerobic, resistance or combined training: A systematic review and meta-analysis of exercise to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewege, Michael A; Thom, Jeanette M; Rye, Kerry-Anne; Parmenter, Belinda J

    2018-05-03

    Exercise is beneficial to individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). An understudied group, who represent the majority of the MetS population, are individuals who have not developed diabetes. This review examined aerobic, resistance and combined (aerobic + resistance) exercise for cardiovascular risk factors in MetS without diabetes. Eight electronic databases were searched up to September 2017 for randomised controlled trials >4 weeks in duration that compared an exercise intervention to the non-exercise control in MetS without diabetes. MetS criteria, cardiorespiratory fitness and cardiovascular risk factors were meta-analysed in a random effects model. Eleven studies with 16 interventions were included (12 aerobic, 4 resistance). Aerobic exercise significantly improved waist circumference -3.4 cm (p exercise possibly due to limited data. Sub-analyses suggested that aerobic exercise progressed to vigorous intensity, and conducted 3 days/week for ≥12 weeks offered larger and more widespread improvements. Aerobic exercise following current guidelines offers widespread benefits to individuals with MetS without diabetes. More studies on resistance/combined exercise programs in MetS are required to improve the quality of evidence. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  19. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  20. Exercise reduces inflammation and cell proliferation in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Martins, Lisandra Vanessa; Fernandes, Cleverson Rodrigues; Herrero, Fábio Augusto; Perez, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade; Turatti, Aline; Garcia, Sérgio Britto

    2008-04-01

    There is evidence that the risk of colon cancer is reduced by appropriate levels of physical exercise. Nevertheless, the mechanisms involved in this protective effect of exercise remain largely unknown. Inflammation is emerging as a unifying link between a range of environment exposures and neoplastic risk. The carcinogen dimethyl-hydrazine (DMH) induces an increase in epithelial cell proliferation and in the expression of the inflammation-related enzyme cyclooxigenase-2 (COX-2) in the colon of rats. Our aim was to verify whether these events could be attenuated by exercise. Four groups of eight Wistar rats were used in the experiment. The groups G1 and G3 were sedentary (controls), and the groups G2 and G4 were submitted to 8 wk of swimming training, 5 d.wk. The groups G3 and G4 were given subcutaneous injections of DMH immediately after the exercise protocols. Fifteen days after the neoplasic induction, the rats were sacrificed and the colon was processed for histological examination and immunohistochemistry staining of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and COX-2. We found a significant increase in the PCNA-labeling index in both DMH-treated groups of rats. However, this increase was significantly attenuated in the training group G4 (P < 0.01). Similar results were observed in relation to the COX-2 expression. From our findings, we conclude that exercise training exerts remarkable antiproliferative and antiinflammatory effects in the rat colonic mucosa, suggesting that this may be an important mechanism to explain how exercise protects against colonic cancer.

  1. Predictability of psychic outcome for exercise training and exercise training including relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. van Dixhoorn (J.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Predictability of the psychic outcome for two cardiac rehabilitation programmes was investigated in 119 myocardial infarction patients. They were randomly assigned to either a five-week daily exercise training or to an identical training in combination with six sessions

  2. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 45 minutes into the OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and up to 120 minutes after glucose intake. RESULTS: Exercise training increased Hexokinase II, GLUT4, Akt2, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate......) phosphorylation was increased after exercise training. In the trained state, the PDHa activity was reduced following glucose intake and without changes in phosphorylation level of PDH-E1α. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that exercise training improves glucose regulation in elderly subjects by enhancing......BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind exercise training-induced improvements in glucose regulation in aged subjects. METHODS: Twelve elderly male subjects completed 8 weeks of exercise training. Before and after the training period, the subjects completed an oral...

  3. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  5. Exercise at the Extremes: The Amount of Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Events.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Molossi, S.; Lee, D.C.; Emery, M.S.; Thompson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    Habitual physical activity and regular exercise training improve cardiovascular health and longevity. A physically active lifestyle is, therefore, a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. An appropriate volume and intensity are essential to maximally benefit from exercise

  6. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  7. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  8. Regular endurance training reduces the exercise induced HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha mRNA expression in human skeletal muscle in normoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, Carsten; Gassmann, Max; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2005-01-01

    and 2 (HIFs) are clearly related heterodimeric transcription factors that consist of an oxygen-depended alpha-subunit and a constitutive beta-subunit. With hypoxic exposure, HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha protein are stabilized. Upon heterodimerization, HIFs induce the transcription of a variety of genes......Regular exercise induces a variety of adaptive responses that enhance the oxidative and metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle. Although the physiological adjustments of regular exercise have been known for decades, the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. The hypoxia inducible factors 1...... including erythropoietin (EPO), transferrin and its receptor, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor. Considering that several of these genes are also induced with exercise, we tested the hypothesis that the mRNA level of HIF-1alpha and HIF-2alpha subunits increases...

  9. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell ... its associated cardiovascular risk still pose some consequences for health and ... Moderate intensity aerobic exercise is an effective complementary therapy in ...

  10. Chronic Exercise Reduces CETP and Mesterolone Treatment Counteracts Exercise Benefits on Plasma Lipoproteins Profile: Studies in Transgenic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquero, Andrea Camargo; Berti, Jairo Augusto; Teixeira, Laura Lauand Sampaio; de Oliveira, Helena Coutinho Franco

    2017-12-01

    Regular exercise and anabolic androgenic steroids have opposing effects on the plasma lipoprotein profile and risk of cardio-metabolic diseases in humans. Studies in humans and animal models show conflicting results. Here, we used a mice model genetically modified to mimic human lipoprotein profile and metabolism. They under-express the endogenous LDL receptor gene (R1) and express a human transgene encoding the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), normally absent in mice. The present study was designed to evaluate the independent and interactive effects of testosterone supplementation, exercise training and CETP expression on the plasma lipoprotein profile and CETP activity. CETP/R1 and R1 mice were submitted to a 6-week swimming training and mesterolone (MEST) supplementation in the last 3 weeks. MEST treatment increased markedly LDL levels (40%) in sedentary CETP/R1 mice and reduced HDL levels in exercised R1 mice (18%). A multifactorial ANOVA revealed the independent effects of each factor, as follows. CETP expression reduced HDL (21%) and increased non-HDL (15%) fractions. MEST treatment increased the VLDL concentrations (42%) regardless of other interventions. Exercise training reduced triacylglycerol (25%) and free fatty acids (20%), increased both LDL and HDL (25-33%), and reduced CETP (19%) plasma levels. Significant factor interactions showed that the increase in HDL induced by exercise is explained by reducing CETP activity and that MEST blunted the exercise-induced elevation of HDL-cholesterol. These results reinforce the positive metabolic effects of exercise, resolved a controversy about CETP response to exercise and evidenced MEST potency to counteract specific exercise benefits.

  11. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  12. Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Femminella, Grazia D; Formisano, Roberto; Petraglia, Laura; Allocca, Elena; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2013-11-28

    In heart failure (HF), exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/catecholamine (CA) production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50% of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  13. EXERCISE IN RESISTANCE-TRAINED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8 and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8. Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric (1RMecc test, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The eccentric velocity was controlled to 3 seconds per range of motion for SEV and 0.5 seconds for the FEV group. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001 in the kinetics of blood lactate removal (at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 20 min and higher mean values for peak blood lactate (P = 0.001 for the SEV group (9.1 ± 0.5 mM compared to the FEV group (6.1 ± 0.4 mM. Additionally, serum GH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001 at 15 minutes after bench press exercise in the SEV group (1.7 ± 0.6 ng · mL-1 relative to the FEV group (0.1 ± 0.0 ng · mL-1. In conclusion, the velocity of eccentric muscle action influences acute responses following bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men using a slow velocity resulting in a greater metabolic stress and hormone response.

  14. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  15. Myocardial hypoperfusion/reperfusion tolerance with exercise training in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Patricia O; Barbe, Mary F; Amin, Mamta; Renna, Brian F; Hewston, Leigh Ann; MacDonnell, Scott M; Houser, Steven R; Libonati, Joseph R

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise training, superimposed on compensated-concentric hypertrophy, could increase myocardial hypoperfusion-reperfusion (H/R) tolerance. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (age: 4 mo; N = 40) were placed into a sedentary (SED) or exercise training (TRD) group (treadmill running; 25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 16 wk). Four groups were studied: WKY-SED (n = 10), WKY-TRD (n = 10), SHR-SED (n = 10), and SHR-TRD (n = 10). Blood pressure and heart rate were determined, and in vitro isolated heart performance was measured with a retrogradely perfused, Langendorff isovolumic preparation. The H/R protocol consisted of a 75% reduction in coronary flow for 17 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Although the rate-pressure product was significantly elevated in SHR relative to WKY, training-induced bradycardia reduced the rate-pressure product in SHR-TRD (P Endurance training superimposed on hypertension-induced compensated hypertrophy conferred no further cardioprotection to H/R. Postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was enhanced in WKY-TRD and both groups of SHR relative to WKY-SED (P hypertension and endurance training individually improved H/R and that increased postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was, in part, associated with the cardioprotective phenotype observed in this study.

  16. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqin Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise. Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise and AT VO2 (baseline. The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise were significantly correlated with AT VO2, peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches. Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  17. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Yao, Mengchao; Zhou, Qiulian; Cheng, Yan; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Xiao, Junjie; Shen, Zhongming; Bei, Yihua

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise) showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise). Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) and AT VO 2 (baseline). The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) were significantly correlated with AT VO 2 , peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches). Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  18. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  19. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  20. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF.......Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF....

  1. Dietary nitrate does not reduce oxygen cost of exercise or improve muscle mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nabben, M.; Schmitz, J.P.J.; Ciapaite, J.; le Clercq, C.M.P.; van Riel, N.A.; Haak, H.R.; Nicolay, K.; de Coo, I.F.M.; Smeets, H.; Praet, S.F.; van Loon, L.J.; Prompers, J.J.

    2017-01-01

    Muscle weakness and exercise intol erance negatively affect the quality of life of patients with mitochondrial myopathy. Short-term dietary nitrate supplementation has been shown to improve exercise performance and reduce oxygen cost of exercise in healthy humans and trained athletes. We

  2. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  3. Telemonitoring of home exercise cycle training in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke KJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Josef Franke,1,2 Ulrike Domanski,1 Maik Schroeder,1 Volker Jansen,3 Frank Artmann,4 Uwe Weber,5 Rainer Ettler,6 Georg Nilius1,2 1Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Helios Klinik Ambrock, Hagen, 2Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, 3Lung Practice Jansen, Menden, 4Aeroprax Wuppertal, Wuppertal, 5Lung Practice Witten, Witten, 6Lung Practice Ettler, Hagen, Germany Background: Regular physical activity is associated with reduced mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interventions to reduce time spent in sedentary behavior could improve outcomes. The primary purpose was to investigate the impact of telemonitoring with supportive phone calls on daily exercise times with newly established home exercise bicycle training. The secondary aim was to examine the potential improvement in health-related quality of life and physical activity compared to baseline. Methods: This prospective crossover-randomized study was performed over 6 months in stable COPD patients. The intervention phase (domiciliary training with supporting telephone calls and the control phase (training without phone calls were randomly assigned to the first or the last 3 months. In the intervention phase, patients were called once a week if they did not achieve a real-time monitored daily cycle time of 20 minutes. Secondary aims were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Health-related quality of life was measured by the COPD Assessment Test (CAT, physical activity by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ. Results: Of the 53 included patients, 44 patients completed the study (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 47.5%±15.8% predicted. In the intervention phase, daily exercise time was significantly higher compared to the control phase (24.2±9.4 versus 19.6±10.3 minutes. Compared to baseline (17.6±6.1, the CAT-score improved in the intervention phase to 15.3±7.6 and in the control phase to 15.7±7.3

  4. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  5. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition

  6. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Key words: Aerobic exercise, inflammatory cytokines, obesity, non-insulin ... exercise, include reduced percentage of body fat and ... Skeletal muscle is another source of cytokines, called .... concomitant weight loss diet, is associated with.

  7. The perceived feasibility and acceptability of a conceptually challenging exercise training program in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller CT

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clint T Miller,1 Megan Teychenne,2 Jaimie-Lee Maple2 1School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia Background: Exercise training is an essential component of falls prevention strategies, but they do not fully address components of physical function that leads to falls. The training approaches to achieve this may not be perceived as appropriate or even feasible in older adults. This study aims to assess the perceived feasibility and acceptability of novel exercise training approaches not usually prescribed to older adults. Patients and methods: Fourteen adults were exposed to conceptually and physically demanding exercises. Interviews were then conducted to determine perceptions and acceptability of individual exercise tasks. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Results: Safety and confidence, acceptability, and population participation were the key themes identified. Staff knowledge, presence, program design, and overt safety equipment were important for alleviating initial apprehension. Although physically demanding, participants expressed satisfaction when challenged. Prior disposition, understanding the value, and the appeal of novel exercises were perceived to influence program engagement. Conclusion: Given the evidence for acceptability, this type of training is feasible and may be appropriate as part of an exercise training program for older adults. Further research should be conducted to confirm that the physical adaptations to exercise training approaches as presented in this study occur in a similar manner to that observed in younger adults, and to also determine whether these adaptations lead to prolonged independence and reduced falls in older adults compared to usual care. Keywords: falls, balance, qualitative analysis, thematic

  8. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-12-14

    Muscle soreness typically occurs after intense exercise, unaccustomed exercise or actions that involve eccentric contractions where the muscle lengthens while under tension. It peaks between 24 and 72 hours after the initial bout of exercise. Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods for preventing and reducing the severity and duration of delayed onset muscle soreness following exercise. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of all forms of antioxidant supplementation including specific antioxidant supplements (e.g. tablets, powders, concentrates) and antioxidant-enriched foods or diets on preventing or reducing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We excluded studies where antioxidant supplementation was combined with another supplement. Two review authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included trials using a pre-piloted form. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials, generally using the random-effects model. The outcomes selected for presentation in the 'Summary of findings' table were muscle soreness, collected at times up to 6 hours, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-exercise, subjective recovery and adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Fifty randomised, placebo-controlled trials were included, 12 of which used a cross-over design. Of the 1089 participants, 961 (88.2%) were male and 128 (11.8%) were female. The age range for

  9. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks....... Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were obtained at rest, during and after an acute exercise bout, performed prior to and after the training period, for the determination of muscle VEGF levels, VEGF release, endothelial cell proliferative effect and capillarization. RESULTS......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  10. Exercise training modulates functional sympatholysis and alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    were measured before and after 8 weeks of aerobic training (3-4 times/week) in 8 hypertensive (47 ± 2 years) and 8 normotensive untrained individuals (46 ± 1 years) during arterial tyramine infusion, arterial ATP infusion and/or one-legged knee extensions. Before training, exercise hypaeremia and leg......Essential hypertension is linked to an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and reduced tissue perfusion. We investigated the role of exercise training on functional sympatholysis and postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in individuals with essential hypertension. Leg haemodynamics...... vascular conductance (LVC) were lower in the hypertensive individuals (P Training lowered blood pressure in the hypertensive individuals (P

  11. Prescribing exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Built around exercise training, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is a multidisciplinary, evidence‐based, comprehensive approach to working with the patient as a whole and not just the pulmonary component of the disease. Integrated into the individualized treatment, this intervention aims to reduce symptoms, optimize functional status, increase participation in daily life, and reduce health care costs through stabilizing or reversing systemic manifestations of the disease. Although there are many other components that should be considered to manage the impairment and symptom burden, supervised exercise training is considered the cornerstone of effective pulmonary rehabilitation. This paper addresses our clinical experience at Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec to assess and manage exercise training in line with the current recommendations and guidelines surrounding PR. Resumo: Construída com base no exercício físico, a reabilitação pulmonar (RP é uma abordagem multidisciplinar, fundamentada e abrangente para trabalhar com o doente como um todo, e não apenas com a componente pulmonar da doença. Integrado no tratamento individual, esta intervenção visa reduzir os sintomas, optimizar o estado funcional, aumentar a participação na vida diária e reduzir os custos do tratamento de saúde, através da estabilização ou inversão das manifestações sistémicas da doença. Embora existam muitos outros componentes que devem ser tidos em consideração para gerir o peso da incapacidade e dos sintomas, o exercício físico supervisionado é considerado o fundamento da reabilitação pulmonar eficiente. Este documento trata da nossa experiência clínica no Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec para avaliar e gerir o exercício físico em linha com as recomendações e orientações actuais envolvendo a RP

  12. The perceived feasibility and acceptability of a conceptually challenging exercise training program in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T; Teychenne, Megan; Maple, Jaimie-Lee

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is an essential component of falls prevention strategies, but they do not fully address components of physical function that leads to falls. The training approaches to achieve this may not be perceived as appropriate or even feasible in older adults. This study aims to assess the perceived feasibility and acceptability of novel exercise training approaches not usually prescribed to older adults. Fourteen adults were exposed to conceptually and physically demanding exercises. Interviews were then conducted to determine perceptions and acceptability of individual exercise tasks. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Safety and confidence, acceptability, and population participation were the key themes identified. Staff knowledge, presence, program design, and overt safety equipment were important for alleviating initial apprehension. Although physically demanding, participants expressed satisfaction when challenged. Prior disposition, understanding the value, and the appeal of novel exercises were perceived to influence program engagement. Given the evidence for acceptability, this type of training is feasible and may be appropriate as part of an exercise training program for older adults. Further research should be conducted to confirm that the physical adaptations to exercise training approaches as presented in this study occur in a similar manner to that observed in younger adults, and to also determine whether these adaptations lead to prolonged independence and reduced falls in older adults compared to usual care.

  13. Exercise training improves selected aspects of daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-08-15

    To explore the utility of exercise training for improving daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 27) or low-intensity stretching control treatment (n = 16). As part of a trial investigating the efficacy of exercise training on OSA severity, daytime functioning was assessed before and following the intervention. Sleepiness, functional impairment due to sleepiness, depressive symptoms, mood, and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated with validated questionnaires, and cognitive function was assessed with a neurobehavioral performance battery. OSA severity was measured with one night of laboratory polysomnography before and following the intervention. Compared with stretching control, exercise training resulted in significant improvements in depressive symptoms, fatigue and vigor, and aspects of QOL (p improved following exercise versus control to a similar degree in terms of effect sizes (d > 0.5), though these changes were not statistically significant. No neurobehavioral performance improvements were found. Reduced fatigue following exercise training was mediated by a reduction in OSA severity, but changes in OSA severity did not significantly mediate improvement in any other measure of daytime functioning. These data provide preliminary evidence that exercise training may be helpful for improving aspects of daytime functioning of adults with OSA. Larger trials are needed to further verify the observed improvements.

  14. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  15. Exercise training and the progression of chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Haaber, A B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    The possible beneficial effect of regular exercise training on the progression of chronic renal failure was studied in a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/(min.1.73 m2) (range 10-43) were randomized to physical training...... the rate of progression judged by the slope of GFR versus time plot was equal in the two groups. Hence, the beneficial effect of exercise training, earlier observed in rat studies, could not be reproduced in our patients. Physical exercise had no untoward effect on progression of renal disease....

  16. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of exercise training is to initiate desirable physiological adaptations that ultimately enhance physical work capacity. Optimal training prescription requires an individualized approach, with an appropriate balance of training stimulus and recovery and optimal periodization. Recovery from exercise involves integrated physiological responses. The cardiovascular system plays a fundamental role in facilitating many of these responses, including thermoregulation and delivery/removal of nutrients and waste products. As a marker of cardiovascular recovery, cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following a training session is highly individualized. It appears to parallel the acute/intermediate recovery of the thermoregulatory and vascular systems, as described by the supercompensation theory. The physiological mechanisms underlying cardiac parasympathetic reactivation are not completely understood. However, changes in cardiac autonomic activity may provide a proxy measure of the changes in autonomic input into organs and (by default) the blood flow requirements to restore homeostasis. Metaboreflex stimulation (e.g. muscle and blood acidosis) is likely a key determinant of parasympathetic reactivation in the short term (0-90 min post-exercise), whereas baroreflex stimulation (e.g. exercise-induced changes in plasma volume) probably mediates parasympathetic reactivation in the intermediate term (1-48 h post-exercise). Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation does not appear to coincide with the recovery of all physiological systems (e.g. energy stores or the neuromuscular system). However, this may reflect the limited data currently available on parasympathetic reactivation following strength/resistance-based exercise of variable intensity. In this review, we quantitatively analyse post-exercise cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in athletes and healthy individuals following aerobic exercise, with respect to exercise intensity and duration, and fitness/training

  17. Diet, physical exercise and cognitive behavioral training as a combined workplace based intervention to reduce body weight and increase physical capacity in health care workers - a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holtermann Andreas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Health care workers comprise a high-risk workgroup with respect to deterioration and early retirement. There is high prevalence of obesity and many of the workers are overweight. Together, these factors play a significant role in the health-related problems within this sector. The present study evaluates the effects of the first 3-months of a cluster randomized controlled lifestyle intervention among health care workers. The intervention addresses body weight, general health variables, physical capacity and musculoskeletal pain. Methods 98 female, overweight health care workers were cluster-randomized to an intervention group or a reference group. The intervention consisted of an individually dietary plan with an energy deficit of 1200 kcal/day (15 min/hour, strengthening exercises (15 min/hour and cognitive behavioral training (30 min/hour during working hours 1 hour/week. Leisure time aerobic fitness was planned for 2 hour/week. The reference group was offered monthly oral presentations. Body weight, BMI, body fat percentage (bioimpedance, waist circumference, blood pressure, musculoskeletal pain, maximal oxygen uptake (maximal bicycle test, and isometric maximal muscle strength of 3 body regions were measured before and after the intervention period. Results In an intention-to-treat analysis from pre to post tests, the intervention group significantly reduced body weight with 3.6 kg (p Conclusion The significantly reduced body weight, body fat, waist circumference and blood pressure as well as increased aerobic fitness in the intervention group show the great potential of workplace health promotion among this high-risk workgroup. Long-term effects of the intervention remain to be investigated. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01015716

  18. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer

  19. Whey protein consumption after resistance exercise reduces energy intake at a post-exercise meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteyne, Alistair; Martin, Alex; Jackson, Liam; Corrigan, Nick; Stringer, Ellen; Newey, Jack; Rumbold, Penny L S; Stevenson, Emma J; James, Lewis J

    2018-03-01

    Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23.9 ± 3.6 g protein) or dextrose (CHO 26.5 ± 3.8 g carbohydrate) drink in the 5 min post-exercise. An ad libitum meal was served 60 min later, with subjective appetite measured throughout. Drinks were flavoured and matched for energy content and volume. The PRO drink provided 0.3 g/kg body mass protein. Ad libitum energy intake (PRO 3742 ± 994 kJ; CHO 4172 ± 1132 kJ; P = 0.007) and mean eating rate (PRO 339 ± 102 kJ/min; CHO 405 ± 154 kJ/min; P = 0.009) were lower during PRO. The change in eating rate was associated with the change in energy intake (R = 0.661, P = 0.007). No interaction effects were observed for subjective measures of appetite. The PRO drink was perceived as creamier and thicker, and less pleasant, sweet and refreshing (P consumption after resistance exercise reduces subsequent energy intake, and this might be partially mediated by a reduced eating rate. Whilst this reduced energy intake is unlikely to impair hypertrophy, it may be of value in supporting an energy deficit for weight loss.

  20. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  1. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    and interferes with the exercise-induced adaptive response in human skeletal muscle. Study II demonstrates that mouse liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA content increased in recovery from acute exercise in both wildtype (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) mice, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK......) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise...

  2. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsible for this benefit are not fully understood, exercise is known to have ... smokers, alcoholic, diabetic, other cardiac, renal, respiratory disease patients were ..... rehabilitation should feel confident in the use of this mode of training in the ...

  3. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  4. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    ... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...

  5. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  6. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  7. Lessons learned from the quench-11 training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    16 organizations in 12 countries are participating in a RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise based on the Quench 11 experiment performed at Karlsruhe (Germany) in 2005. This exercise is being conducted in parallel to an International Standard Problem (ISP). Both the ISP and the RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise included a 'semi-blind' portion that was completed in the fall of 2006 and an 'open' portion that is to be completed in the summer of 2007. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise is coordinated by Innovative Systems Software with support by the International SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). The Quench-11 experiment is based on an electrically heated fuel rod bundle representative of a PWR design. The bundle was subjected to a boil down transient, heat-up, and quenching with peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the Zircaloy cladding. This experiment was chosen by the European Union as an International Benchmark exercise to compare the effectiveness of quenching models in the severe accident computer codes used today for accident analysis. This paper briefly describes (a) RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, (b) the Quench facility and experiments used in the training exercise, and (c) the training guidelines provided to the participants followed by a more detailed description of the lessons learned from the initial 'semi-blind' portion. The representative results demonstrate that good analysts can still have a difficult time predicting the thermal hydraulic response of a relative simple transient in a complex system

  8. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Cerebral oxygenation is reduced during hyperthermic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nybo, Lars; Volianitis, S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension (P(mito)O(2)) is elevated during moderate exercise, while it is reduced when exercise becomes strenuous, reflecting an elevated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)) combined with hyperventilation-induced attenuation of cerebral blood flo...

  10. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    in response to 4 weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training. However, the acute exercise-induced increase in mRNA expression of several metabolic and mitochondrial marker genes is impaired in the mice lacking AMPKα1 and α2. In addition to the two studies and some currently unpublished data this thesis...

  11. Improved arterial-ventricular coupling in metabolic syndrome after exercise training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B; Donley, David A; Bonner, Daniel E; Devallance, Evan; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with threefold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is partly due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular (LV) contractility and aerobic capacity and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse peak exercise CV dysfunction. Furthermore, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS before the development of diabetes and/or overt CV disease can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological CV changes can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 wk of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Twenty participants with MetS underwent either 8 wk of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT, n = 10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT, n = 10) during this period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Exercise training did not alter resting LV diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise, an increase in LV contractility (40%, P < 0.01), cardiac output (28%, P < 0.05), and aerobic capacity (20%, P < 0.01), but a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, P < 0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, P < 0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not in the MetS-NonT group. Furthermore, an improvement in lifetime risk score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. These findings have clinical importance because they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and can lower the risk of CV disease.

  12. Ventilatory responses to exercise training in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Estève, François; Perrin, Claudine; Levy, Patrick; Wuyam, Bernard; Flore, Patrice

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine ventilatory responses to training in obese adolescents. We assessed body composition, pulmonary function and ventilatory responses (among which expiratory flow limitation and operational lung volumes) during progressive cycling exercise in 16 obese adolescents (OB) before and after 12 weeks of exercise training and in 16 normal-weight volunteers. As expected, obese adolescents' resting expiratory reserve volume was lower and inversely correlated with thoraco-abdominal fat mass (r = -0.74, p<0.0001). OB presented lower end expiratory (EELV) and end inspiratory lung volumes (EILV) at rest and during submaximal exercise, and modest expiratory flow limitation. After training, OB increased maximal aerobic performance (+19%) and maximal inspiratory pressure (93.7±31.4 vs. 81.9±28.2 cm H2O, +14%) despite lack of decrease in trunk fat and body weight. Furthermore, EELV and EILV were greater during submaximal exercise (+11% and +9% in EELV and EILV, respectively), expiratory flow limitation delayed but was not accompanied by increased V(T). However, submaximal exertional symptoms (dyspnea and leg discomfort) were significantly decreased (-71.3% and -70.7%, respectively). Our results suggest that exercise training can improve pulmonary function at rest (static inspiratory muscle strength) and exercise (greater operating lung volumes and delayed expiratory flow limitation) but these modifications did not entirely account for improved dyspnea and exercise performance in obese adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  14. Exercise Training positively modulates the Ectonucleotidase Enzymes in Lymphocytes of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Bagatini, M D; Cardoso, A M; Zanini, D; Abdalla, F H; Baldissarelli, J; Dalenogare, D P; Dos Santos, D L; Schetinger, M R C; Morsch, V M M

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular risk factors as well as ectonucleotidase activities in lymphocytes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients before and after an exercise intervention. 20 MetS patients, who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks, 3 times/week, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and hepatic parameters and hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and nucleoside in lymphocytes were collected from patients before and after 15 and 30 weeks of the exercise intervention as well as from participants of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP, and a decrease in adenosine deamination in lymphocytes of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training after 30 weeks of intervention. Additionally, exercise training reduced the inflammatory and hepatic markers to baseline levels after 30 weeks of exercise. Our results clearly indicated alteration in ectonucleotidase enzymes in lymphocytes in the MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on the enzymatic alterations and on inflammatory and hepatic parameters, especially if it is performed regularly and for a long period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  16. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2014-08-30

    Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).

  17. Clinical and Physiological Effects of Exercise Training in Dyspneic Mild COPD Patients: Design of the Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Labarca; Andrea Bustamante; Francisco Rodríguez; Igor Nuñez; Gonzalo Valdivia; Paul Mac Nab; Álvaro Huete; Jaime Leppe; Fernando Saldías; Orlando Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be associated with physical inactivity, exercise limitation, and impaired health related quality of life, because of a combination of deconditioning, dyspnea, and reduced peripheral muscle mass. Although the benefits of exercise training (ET) in counteracting these consequences are well established in moderate-to-very-severe COPD, it is unclear if they are also effective in mild disease. The aim of this paper is to describe t...

  18. Cardiovascular disease markers in type 2 diabetes: the effects of a moderate home-based exercise training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Benee Olsen, David; Reving, Danny

    2009-01-01

    -based exercise training program improves biomarker levels and insulin sensitivity. Patients with T2DM (n=12), IGT (n=4) and healthy control subjects (n=9) were studied before and after eight weeks of exercise training by rowing ergometry at 65-70% of peak oxygen uptake. Conclusions: 1) patients with T2DM have...... elevated plasma concentrations of CVD biomarkers compared to the matched control and IGT groups; 2) a moderate to vigorous intensity home-based training program did not reduce plasma concentrations of these CVD markers; 3) insulin sensitivity improved as a result of exercise training in the control group...

  19. Exercise at the Extremes: The Amount of Exercise to Reduce Cardiovascular Events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Molossi, Silvana; Lee, Duck-Chul; Emery, Michael S; Thompson, Paul D

    2016-01-26

    Habitual physical activity and regular exercise training improve cardiovascular health and longevity. A physically active lifestyle is, therefore, a key aspect of primary and secondary prevention strategies. An appropriate volume and intensity are essential to maximally benefit from exercise interventions. This document summarizes available evidence on the relationship between the exercise volume and risk reductions in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Furthermore, the risks and benefits of moderate- versus high-intensity exercise interventions are compared. Findings are presented for the general population and cardiac patients eligible for cardiac rehabilitation. Finally, the controversy of excessive volumes of exercise in the athletic population is discussed. Copyright © 2016 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  1. Exercise training starting at weaning age preserves cardiac pacemaker function in adulthood of diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Lima, Daniel; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Silveira, Simonton Andrade; Haibara, Andrea Siqueira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral sympathetic overdrive in young obese subjects contributes to further aggravation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension, thus inducing worsening clinical conditions in adulthood. Exercise training has been considered a strategy to repair obesity autonomic dysfunction, thereby reducing the cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of early exercise training, starting immediately after weaning, on cardiac autonomic control in diet-induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (weaning) were divided into four groups: (i) a control group (n = 6); (ii) an exercise-trained control group (n = 6); (iii) a diet-induced obesity group (n = 6); and (iv) an exercise-trained diet-induced obesity group (n = 6). The development of obesity was induced by 9 weeks of palatable diet intake, and the training program was implemented in a motor-driven treadmill (5 times per week) during the same period. After this period, animals were submitted to vein and artery catheter implantation to assess cardiac autonomic balance by methylatropine (3 mg/kg) and propranolol (4 mg/kg) administration. Exercise training increased running performance in both groups (p Exercise training also prevented the increased resting heart rate in obese rats, which seemed to be related to cardiac pacemaker activity preservation (p exercise program beginning at weaning age prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in obese rats, indicating that exercise training may be used as a nonpharmacological therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.

  2. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  3. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  4. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.

  5. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang

    2015-01-01

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command

  6. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  8. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  9. Irisin Response to Two Types of Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Khalafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is reduced with type 2 diabetes and improves insulin resistance via the browning of white adipose tissues. However, irisin response to two types of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes is unknown. Materials and Methods: In this study, 22 diabetic Wistar rats (Induced by high-fat diet and injections Stz were randomly assigned to 3 groups: high intensity interval exercise (HIIT, low intensity continuous training (LICT and control (C. Both HIIT and LICT groups trained on the treadmill 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after the last training session and plasma irisin, insulin and glucose levels were measured. ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used to analyze data and the level of significance has been considered at p≤0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that plasma irisin levels in the HIIT group were significantly increased compared to the control group (p0.05. Plasma glucose in both HIIT and LICT groups was significantly decreased compared to the control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that exercise training can increase plasma irisin in rats with type 2 diabetes. However, these changes are partially dependent on the type of exercise training.

  10. Avoiding radiation exposure while training to locate a radioactive source: a virtual reality exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marins, E.R.; Cotelli do Espírito Santo, A.; Abreu Mól, A. C. de; Cunha, G.; Landau, L.

    2015-01-01

    A technician undergoing radioprotection training must learn to use radiation detectors. Practical exercises involve being near to radiation sources. The work here presented reduces the exposure to individuals using a virtual environment to achieve preliminary apprenticeship prior using real radioactive sources. (authors)

  11. Physiological Adaptations to Chronic Endurance Exercise Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    In a roundtable format, five doctors explore the reasons why regular physical activity should continue to play a significant role in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Endurance exercise training improves aerobic capacity, reduces blood pressure, and decreases risk. (Author/MT)

  12. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  13. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  14. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  15. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Supplementation Strategies to Reduce Muscle Damage and Improve Recovery Following Exercise in Females: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Köhne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD caused by unaccustomed or strenuous exercise can result in reduced muscle force, increased muscle soreness, increased intramuscular proteins in the blood, and reduced performance. Pre- and post-exercise optimal nutritional intake is important to assist with muscle-damage repair and reconditioning to allow for an accelerated recovery. The increased demand for training and competing on consecutive days has led to a variety of intervention strategies being used to reduce the negative effects of EIMD. Nutritional intervention strategies are largely tested on male participants, and few report on sex-related differences relating to the effects of the interventions employed. This review focuses on nutritional intervention strategies employed to negate the effects of EIMD, focussing solely on females.

  17. Exercise and exercise training-induced increase in autophagy markers in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10...... muscle AMPKThr172 and ULKSer317 phosphorylation was elevated immediately after exercise, whereas mTORSer2448 and ULKSer757 phosphorylation was unchanged. Two hours after exercise LC3I, LC3II and BNIP3 protein content was overall higher than before exercise with no change in p62 protein. In MOD, Beclin1...... protein content was higher immediately and 2 h after exercise than before exercise, while there were no differences within SPRINT. Oxphos complex I, LC3I, BNIP3 and Parkin protein content was higher after the training intervention than before in both groups, while there was no difference in LC3II and p62...

  18. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  19. Changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins Cunha, Raphael; Raiana Bentes, Mariana; Araújo, Victor H; DA Costa Souza, Mayara C; Vasconcelos Noleto, Marcelo; Azevedo Soares, Ademar; Machado Lehnen, Alexandre

    2016-12-01

    Blood glucose changes response during and after exercise are modulated by the postabsorptive state, intensity and duration of exercise, and the level of physical fitness as well. This study focused on the idea that high-intensity interval exercise, as mini-trampoline class, can reduce blood glucose. Thus, we examined acute changes in blood glucose among trained normoglycemic adults during a mini-trampoline exercise session. Twenty-four normoglycemic adult subjects were enrolled in the study. After physical assessment they were randomly assigned to either the experimental (N.=12) or the control group (N.=12). The experimental group performed a 50-minute session of moderate-to-high intensity (70 to 85% HRmax) exercise on a mini-trampoline commonly used in fitness classes. The control group did not perform any exercise, and all procedures were otherwise similar to the experimental group. Capillary blood glucose was measured before and every 15 minutes during the exercise session. The effects of exercise on blood glucose levels (group; time; and group interaction) were estimated using a generalized estimating equation (GEE) followed by Bonferroni's post-hoc Test (Ptrampoline can be used for reducing blood glucose levels and thus can potentially control blood glucose.

  20. Endurance exercise training increases peripheral vascular response in human fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Shimoda, M; Maeda, J; Takemiya, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure is changed by endurance exercise training. The healthy male subjects (training group; n = 6) performed endurance exercise training that consisted of cycle ergometer exercise 5 d.week-1 and 30 min.d-1 for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in the peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger were measured by a differential digital photoplethysmogram (DeltaDPG) and blood pressure during passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level. Following 8 weeks of endurance training, percent changes in DeltaDPG from heart level in the training group increased significantly (mean +/- SD, -48.1 +/- 7. 3 to -58.7 +/- 9.3% at the lowered position, 46.1 +/- 13.4 to 84.6 +/- 8.8% at the elevated position, ppressure, also significantly changed in the training group over the 8 weeks (5.6 +/- 1.3 to 2.7 +/- 1.6 mV. V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the lowered position, 30.0 +/- 12.4 to 54.4 +/- 18. 9 mV.V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the elevated position ). Maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2 max) was significantly increased in the training group. On the other hand, the control group (n = 6) showed no significant changes in all parameters for 8 weeks. Therefore these results suggest that endurance exercise training induces an increase in peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger.

  1. Exercise coupled with dietary restriction reduces oxidative stress in male adolescents with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunyan; Feng, Feihu; Xiong, Xiaoling; Li, Rui; Chen, Ning

    2017-04-01

    The increased oxidative stress is usually observed in obese population, but the control of body weight by calorie restriction and/or exercise training can ameliorate oxidative stress. In order to evaluate oxidative stress in response to exercise and dietary restriction in obese adolescents, a total of 20 obese volunteers were enrolled in a 4-week intervention program including exercise training and dietary restriction. Body compositions and blood samples were analysed before and after 4-week intervention, and biomarkers associated with oxidative stress were examined. After 4-week exercise training coupled with dietary restriction, physical composition parameters including body mass, body mass index (BMI), lean body mass, body fat mass and fat mass ratio had obvious reduction by 12.43%, 13.51%, 5.83%, 25.05% and 14.52%, respectively. In addition, the activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) revealed a remarkable enhancement. On the other hand, protein carbonyls (PC) exhibited an obvious reduction. Moreover, total thiols and nitrites with respect to baseline revealed a reducing trend although no significant difference was observed. Therefore, the 4-week exercise intervention coupled with dietary restriction is benefit for the loss of body weight and the mitigation of oxidative stress in obese population so that it can be a recommendable intervention prescription for the loss of body weight.

  2. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  3. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1......). There were no changes in quality of life. Conclusions. The effect of exercise training in these older CHF-patients was not as impressive as reported in younger and more selected patients. More studies on the efficiency of exercise training that reflect the age- and co-morbidity of the majority of CHF...

  4. Exercise Training at Maximal Fat Oxidation Intensity for Older Women with Type 2 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sijie; Du, Ping; Zhao, Wanting; Pang, Jiaqi; Wang, Jianxiong

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pleiotropic effects of 12 weeks of supervised exercise training at maximal fat oxidation (FATmax) intensity on body composition, lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin sensitivity and serum adipokine levels in older women with type 2 diabetes. Thirty-one women with type 2 diabetes, aged 60 to 69 years, were randomly allocated into exercise and control groups. Body composition, lipid profile, blood glucose, insulin resistance and serum leptin and adiponectin concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Exercise group (n=16) walked at individualized FATmax intensities for 1 h/day for 3 days/week over 12 weeks. No dietary intervention was introduced during the experimental period. Maximal fat oxidation rate was 0.37±0.10 g/min, and occurred at 37.3±7.3% of the estimated VO 2 max. Within the exercise group, significant improvements were observed for most of the measured variables compared to non-exercising controls; in particular, the FATmax program reduced body fat% (presistance (pchange in daily energy intake for all participants during the intervention period. These results suggest that individualized FATmax training is an effective exercise training intensity for managing type 2 diabetes in older women. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  6. Rehabilitation (exercise and strength training) and osteoarthritis: A critical narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Christelle; Lefèvre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Poiraudeau, Serge; Rannou, François

    2016-06-01

    Rehabilitation is widely recommended in national and international guidelines for managing osteoarthritis (OA) in primary care settings. According to the 2014 OA Research Society International (OARSI) recommendations, rehabilitation is even considered the core treatment of OA and is recommended for all patients. Rehabilitation for OA widely includes land- and water-based exercise, strength training, weight management, self-management and education, biomechanical interventions, and physically active lifestyle. We performed a critical narrative review of the efficacy and safety of rehabilitation for managing OA and discuss evidence-based international recommendations. The process of article selection was unsystematic. Articles were selected based on authors' expertise, self-knowledge, and reflective practice. For the purpose of the review, we focused on land- and water-based exercise and strength training for knee, hip and hand OA. Other aspects of rehabilitation in OA are treated elsewhere in this special issue. Exercise therapy is widely recommended for managing knee, hip and hand OA. However, the level of evidence varies according to OA location. Overall, consistent evidence suggests that exercise therapy and specific strengthening exercise or strength training for the lower limb reduce pain and improve physical function in knee OA. Evidence for other OA sites are less consistent. Therefore, because of the lack of specific studies, recommendations for hip and hand OA are mainly derived from studies of knee OA. In addition, no recommendations have been established regarding the exercise regimen. The efficacy and safety of exercise therapy and strength training need to be further evaluated in randomized controlled trials of patients with hip and hand OA. The optimal delivery of exercise programs also has to be more clearly defined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently some plasma biomarkers of inflammation have been recognized as important cardiovascular risk factors. There is little information about the effects of aerobic exercise training on these biomarkers and the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: To compare the ...

  8. Impact of exercise training on arterial wall thickness in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been

  9. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma/Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawka, Michael N.; Convertino, Victor A.; Eichner, E. Randy; Schnieder, Suzanne M.; Young, Andrew J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the influence of several perturbations (physical exercise, heat stress, terrestrial altitude, microgravity, and trauma/sickness) on adaptations of blood volume (BV), erythrocyte volume (EV), and plasma volume (PV). Exercise training can induced BV expansion; PV expansion usually occurs immediately, but EV expansion takes weeks. EV and PV expansion contribute to aerobic power improvements associated with exercise training. Repeated heat exposure induces PV expansion but does not alter EV. PV expansion does not improve thermoregulation, but EV expansion improves thermoregulation during exercise in the heat. Dehydration decreases PV (and increases plasma tonicity) which elevates heat strain and reduces exercise performance. High altitude exposure causes rapid (hours) plasma loss. During initial weeks at altitude, EV is unaffected, but a gradual expansion occurs with extended acclimatization. BV adjustments contribute, but are not key, to altitude acclimatization. Microgravity decreases PV and EV which contribute to orthostatic intolerance and decreased exercise capacity in astronauts. PV decreases may result from lower set points for total body water and central venous pressure, which EV decrease bay result form increased erythrocyte destruction. Trauma, renal disease, and chronic diseases cause anemia from hemorrhage and immune activation, which suppressions erythropoiesis. The re-establishment of EV is associated with healing, improved life quality, and exercise capabilities for these injured/sick persons.

  10. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center and Regional Security; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  11. The response of circulating omentin-1 concentration to 16-week exercise training in male children with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehsaz, Farzad; Farhangi, Negin; Ghahramani, Mehri

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of the 16-week exercise training program on serum omentin-1 in relation to change in insulin resistance in obese male children. Thirty-two obese male children, aged 9-12 years, were randomly assigned into Exercise Group (ExG; n = 16) and Control Group (CG; n = 16). ExG participated in a 16-week exercise training program which combined various forms of aerobic activities and resistance training. Body composition, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose and insulin, homeostasis model assessment estimate of insulin resistance (HOMA2-IR), blood lipids and serum omentin-1 were assessed before and after 16 weeks of training. Exercise training significantly decreased body mass (7.5%), BMI (7.6%), WC (4.3%), body fat % (15%), fasting insulin (18.5%), total cholesterol (TC) (5.4%), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) (17%) and triglyceride (TG) (7.4%) compared to CG. Between-groups comparison showed a considerable exercise-induced upregulation in omentin-1 (ES = 89; P Exercise training resulted in a significant increase in serum omentin-1 concentrations in children with obesity. The findings suggest that exercise-induced changes in omentin-1 may be associated with the beneficial effects of exercise on reduced insulin and weight lost.

  12. Exercise training raises daily activity stronger than predicted from exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michaela; Wewel, Alexandra R; Kirsten, Detlef; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-06-01

    The 6-min walking (6MWD) and 6-min treadmill distance (6MTD) are often used as measures of exercise performance in patients with COPD. The aim of our study was to assess their relationship to daily activity in the course of an exercise training program. Eighty-eight patients with stable COPD (71m/17f; mean +/- SD age, 60 +/-8 year; FEV1, 43+/-14% pred) were recruited, 66 of whom performed a hospital-based 10-day walking training, whereas 22 were treated as control. On day 16MTD, and on days 8 and 10, 6MTD and 6MWD were determined. In addition, patients used an accelerometer (TriTrac-R3D) to record 24 h-activity, whereby training sessions were excluded. In both groups there was a linear relationship (r > or = 0.84 and P daily activity did not markedly vary with exercise capacity under baseline conditions. Participation in a training program increased activity significantly stronger than predicted from the gain in exercise capacity. This underlines the importance of non-physiological, patient-centered factors associated with training in COPD.

  13. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  14. Effects of exercise training on circulating and skeletal muscle renin-angiotensin system in chronic heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Santos, Igor Lucas; Fernandes, Tiago; Couto, Gisele Kruger; Ferreira-Filho, Julio César Ayres; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Fernandes, Fernanda Barrinha; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Rossoni, Luciana Venturini; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Negrao, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is markedly activated in chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies provide information that Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a metabolite of AngII, counteracts the effects of AngII. However, this balance between AngII and Ang-(1-7) is still little understood in CHF. We investigated the effects of exercise training on circulating and skeletal muscle RAS in the ischemic model of CHF. Male Wistar rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or a Sham operation. They were divided into four groups: 1) Sedentary Sham (Sham-S), 2) exercise-trained Sham (Sham-Ex), sedentary CHF (CHF-S), and exercise-trained CHF (CHF-Ex). Angiotensin concentrations and ACE and ACE2 activity in the circulation and skeletal muscle (soleus and plantaris) were quantified. Skeletal muscle ACE and ACE2 protein expression, and AT1, AT2, and Mas receptor gene expression were also evaluated. CHF reduced ACE2 serum activity. Exercise training restored ACE2 and reduced ACE activity in CHF. Exercise training reduced plasma AngII concentration in both Sham and CHF rats and increased the Ang-(1-7)/AngII ratio in CHF rats. CHF and exercise training did not change skeletal muscle ACE and ACE2 activity and protein expression. CHF increased AngII levels in both soleus and plantaris muscle, and exercise training normalized them. Exercise training increased Ang-(1-7) in the plantaris muscle of CHF rats. The AT1 receptor was only increased in the soleus muscle of CHF rats, and exercise training normalized it. Exercise training increased the expression of the Mas receptor in the soleus muscle of both exercise-trained groups, and normalized it in plantaris muscle. Exercise training causes a shift in RAS towards the Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in skeletal muscle, which can be influenced by skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics. The changes in RAS circulation do not necessarily reflect the changes occurring in the RAS of skeletal

  15. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  16. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqin Li; Mengchao Yao; Qiulian Zhou; Yan Cheng; Lin Che; Jiahong Xu; Junjie Xiao; Zhongming Shen; Yihua Bei

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response ...

  17. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  18. Benefits of lifelong exercise training on left ventricular function after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Stevens, G.G.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Endurance exercise training induces cardio-protective effects, but athletes are not exempted from a myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies suggests that exercise training attenuates pathological left ventricular remodelling following myocardial infarction. We tested the

  19. A randomized study of the effects of exercise training on patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Kjaer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown.......Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown....

  20. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  1. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  2. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control)

  3. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Finck; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; David Chamberlain; Don Dry; George Brooks; Margaret Goldberg

    2012-03-01

    The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a Radioactive Response Training Range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive Br-82 isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics.

  4. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  5. Improved Function and Reduced Pain after Swimming and Cycling Training in Patients with Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkatan, Mohammed; Baker, Jeffrey R; Machin, Daniel R; Park, Wonil; Akkari, Amanda S; Pasha, Evan P; Tanaka, Hirofumi

    2016-03-01

    Arthritis and its associated joint pain act as significant barriers for adults attempting to perform land-based physical activity. Swimming can be an ideal form of exercise for patients with arthritis. Yet there is no information on the efficacy of regular swimming exercise involving patients with arthritis. The effect of a swimming exercise intervention on joint pain, stiffness, and physical function was evaluated in patients with osteoarthritis (OA). Using a randomized study design, 48 sedentary middle-aged and older adults with OA underwent 3 months of either swimming or cycling exercise training. Supervised exercise training was performed for 45 min/day, 3 days/week at 60-70% heart rate reserve for 12 weeks. The Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index was used to measure joint pain, stiffness, and physical limitation. After the exercise interventions, there were significant reductions in joint pain, stiffness, and physical limitation accompanied by increases in quality of life in both groups (all p swimming and cycling training. Regular swimming exercise reduced joint pain and stiffness associated with OA and improved muscle strength and functional capacity in middle-aged and older adults with OA. Additionally, the benefits of swimming exercise were similar to the more frequently prescribed land-based cycling training. clinicaltrials.gov NCT01836380.

  6. Exercise, especially combined stretching and strengthening exercise, reduces myofascial pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Bergamaschine Mata Diz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Among people with myofascial pain, does exercise reduce the intensity of the pain and disability? Design: Systematic review of randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials. Participants: People with myofascial pain of any duration. Intervention: Exercise versus minimal or no intervention and exercise versus other intervention. Outcome measures: Pain intensity and disability. Results: Eight studies involving 255 participants were included. Pooled estimates from six studies showed statistically significant effects of exercise when compared with minimal or no intervention (support and encouragement or no treatment on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise was –1.2 points (95% CI –2.3 to –0.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Pooled estimates from two studies showed a non-significant effect of exercise when compared with other interventions (electrotherapy or dry needling on pain intensity at short-term follow-up. The weighted mean difference in pain intensity due to exercise instead of other therapies was 0.4 points (95% CI –0.3 to 1.1 on a 0 to 10 scale. Individual studies reported no significant effects of exercise on disability compared with minimal intervention (–0.4, 95% CI –1.3 to 0.5 and other interventions (0.0, 95% CI –0.8 to 0.8 at short-term follow-up. Sensitivity analysis suggested that combining stretching and strengthening achieves greater short-term effects on pain intensity compared with minimal or no intervention (–2.3, 95% CI –4.1 to –0.5. Conclusion: Evidence from a limited number of trials indicates that exercise has positive small-to-moderate effects on pain intensity at short-term follow-up in people with myofascial pain. A combination of stretching and strengthening exercises seems to achieve greater effects. These estimates may change with future high-quality studies. [Mata Diz JB, de Souza JRLM, Leopoldino AAO, Oliveira VC (2016 Exercise

  7. Physical exercise reduces pyruvate carboxylase (PCB) and contributes to hyperglycemia reduction in obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz, Vitor Rosetto; Gaspar, Rafael Calais; Crisol, Barbara Moreira; Formigari, Guilherme Pedron; Sant'Ana, Marcella Ramos; Botezelli, José Diego; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; da Silva, Adelino S R; Cintra, Dennys Esper; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2018-07-01

    The present study evaluated the effects of exercise training on pyruvate carboxylase protein (PCB) levels in hepatic tissue and glucose homeostasis control in obese mice. Swiss mice were distributed into three groups: control mice (CTL), fed a standard rodent chow; diet-induced obesity (DIO), fed an obesity-inducing diet; and a third group, which also received an obesity-inducing diet, but was subjected to an exercise training protocol (DIO + EXE). Protocol training was carried out for 1 h/d, 5 d/wk, for 8 weeks, performed at an intensity of 60% of exhaustion velocity. An insulin tolerance test (ITT) was performed in the last experimental week. Twenty-four hours after the last physical exercise session, the animals were euthanized and the liver was harvested for molecular analysis. Firstly, DIO mice showed increased epididymal fat and serum glucose and these results were accompanied by increased PCB and decreased p-Akt in hepatic tissue. On the other hand, physical exercise was able to increase the performance of the mice and attenuate PCB levels and hyperglycemia in DIO + EXE mice. The above findings show that physical exercise seems to be able to regulate hyperglycemia in obese mice, suggesting the participation of PCB, which was enhanced in the obese condition and attenuated after a treadmill running protocol. This is the first study to be aimed at the role of exercise training in hepatic PCB levels, which may be a novel mechanism that can collaborate to reduce the development of hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes in DIO mice.

  8. The Effect of Exercise Training on Pulmonary Function in Type 2 Diabetic Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Afshonpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced lung function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise training on indicators of lung function in type 2 diabetic men. Materials and Methods: The population of the research was all men with diabetes type II in District 2 of Ahwaz. Twenty four patients with diabetes type II, aged 40-55 years and fasting blood glucose lower than 200 mg /dl were selected by purposive sampling. First, the anthropometric variables and indices of lung function were measured, then subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental, n=12 and control, n=12. Combined exercise training was done for 8 weeks (5 days/week, 30 to 50 minutes for experimental group. To analyze the changes in the parameters, one-way ANOVA was applied. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: After eight-week combined exercise training, pulmonary indicators FVC FEV1, PEF, FEV/FVC and VO2max significantly increased. Blood glucose and HBA1c significantly reduced. Also, the inverse relationship between blood glucose and pulmonary indicators was observed (P≤ 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that regular combined exercise training can lower blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, are effective therapeutic interventions for improving lung function and VO2max in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  9. Airflow-Restricting Mask Reduces Acute Performance in Resistance Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri L. Motoyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to compare the number of repetitions to volitional failure, the blood lactate concentration, and the perceived exertion to resistance training with and without an airflow-restricting mask. Methods: Eight participants participated in a randomized, counterbalanced, crossover study. Participants were assigned to an airflow-restricting mask group (MASK or a control group (CONT and completed five sets of chest presses and parallel squats until failure at 75% one-repetition-maximum test (1RM with 60 s of rest between sets. Ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs, blood lactate concentrations (Lac−, and total repetitions were taken after the training session. Results: MASK total repetitions were lower than those of the CONT, and (Lac− and MASK RPEs were higher than those of the CONT in both exercises. Conclusions: We conclude that an airflow-restricting mask in combination with resistance training increase perceptions of exertion and decrease muscular performance and lactate concentrations when compared to resistance training without this accessory. This evidence shows that the airflow-restricting mask may change the central nervous system and stop the exercise beforehand to prevent some biological damage.

  10. Exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Medeiros, Renata Frauches; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Lima, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Gaique, Thaiane Gadioli; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Vieira, Carla Paulo; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of exercise training on the hepatic renin-angiotensin system and their contribution to damage resulting from fructose overload in rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training attenuated the deleterious actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and increased expression of the counter-regulatory (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor) axis in the liver. Therefore, our study provides evidence that exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to reducing the progression of metabolic dysfunction and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in fructose-fed rats. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. We investigated whether the hepatic RAS is modulated by exercise training and whether this modulation improves the deleterious effects of fructose overload in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (CT), exercise control (CT-Ex), high-fructose (HFr) and exercise high-fructose (HFr-Ex) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received d-fructose (100 g l -1 ). After 2 weeks, CT-Ex and HFr-Ex rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at moderate intensity for 8 weeks (60 min day -1 , 4 days per week). We assessed body mass, glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic histopathology, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, the angiotensin concentration and the expression profile of proteins affecting the hepatic RAS, gluconeogenesis and inflammation. Neither fructose overload nor exercise training influenced body mass gain and serum ACE and ACE2 activity. The HFr group showed hyperinsulinaemia, but exercise training normalized this parameter. Exercise training was effective in preventing hepatic steatosis and in preventing triacylglycerol and

  11. INTEGRATING PILATES EXERCISE INTO AN EXERCISE PROGRAM FOR 65+ YEAR-OLD WOMEN TO REDUCE FALLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonul Babayigit Irez

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p < 0. 05 in the exercise group when compared to the non-exercise group. In conclusion, Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women.

  12. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training...

  13. Prevalent digoxin use and subsequent risk of death or hospitalization in ambulatory heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction-Findings from the Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambrosy, Andrew P; Bhatt, Ankeet S; Stebbins, Amanda L; Wruck, Lisa M; Fudim, Marat; Greene, Stephen J; Kraus, William E; O'Connor, Christopher M; Piña, Ileana L; Whellan, David J; Mentz, Robert J

    2018-05-01

    Despite more than 200 years of clinical experience and a pivotal trial, recently published research has called into question the safety and efficacy of digoxin therapy in heart failure (HF). HF-ACTION (ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT00047437) enrolled 2331 outpatients with HF and an EF ≤35% between April 2003 and February 2007 and randomized them to aerobic exercise training versus usual care. Patients were grouped according to prevalent digoxin status at baseline. The association between digoxin therapy and outcomes was assessed using Cox proportional hazard and inverse-probability weighted (IPW) regression models adjusted for demographics, medical history, medications, laboratory values, quality of life, and exercise parameters. The prevalence of digoxin therapy decreased from 52% during the first 6 months of enrollment to 35% at the end of the HF-ACTION trial (P <0.0001). Study participants were 59± 13 years of age, 72% were male, and approximately half had an ischemic etiology of HF. Patients receiving digoxin at baseline tended to be younger and were more likely to report New York Heart Association functional class III/IV symptoms (rather than class II) compared to those not receiving digoxin. Patients taking digoxin had worse baseline exercise capacity as measured by peak VO 2 and 6-min walk test and greater impairments in health status as reflected by the Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire. The association between digoxin and the risk of death or hospitalization differed depending on whether Cox proportional hazard (Hazard Ratio 1.03, 95% Confidence Interval 0.92-1.16; P = .62) or IPW regression models (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.00-1.17; P = .057) were used to adjust for potential confounders. Although digoxin use was associated with high-risk clinical features, the association between digoxin therapy and outcomes was dependent on the statistical methods used for multivariable adjustment. Clinical equipoise exists and additional prospective research is

  14. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  15. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  16. Supplemental Oxygen During High-Intensity Exercise Training in Nonhypoxemic Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neunhäuserer, Daniel; Steidle-Kloc, Eva; Weiss, Gertraud; Kaiser, Bernhard; Niederseer, David; Hartl, Sylvia; Tschentscher, Marcus; Egger, Andreas; Schönfelder, Martin; Lamprecht, Bernd; Studnicka, Michael; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-11-01

    Physical exercise training is an evidence-based treatment in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and patients' peak work rate is associated with reduced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease mortality. We assessed whether supplemental oxygen during exercise training in nonhypoxemic patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease might lead to superior training outcomes, including improved peak work rate. This was a randomized, double-blind, controlled, crossover trial. Twenty-nine patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (aged 63.5 ± 5.9 years; forced expiratory volume in 1 second percent predicted, 46.4 ± 8.6) completed 2 consecutive 6-week periods of endurance and strength training with progressive intensity, which was performed 3 times per week with supplemental oxygen or compressed medical air (flow via nasal cannula: 10 L/min). Each session of electrocardiography-controlled interval cycling lasted 31 minutes and consisted of a warm-up, 7 cycles of 1-minute intervals at 70% to 80% of peak work rate alternating with 2 minutes of active recovery, and final cooldown. Thereafter, patients completed 8 strength-training exercises of 1 set each with 8 to 15 repetitions to failure. Change in peak work rate was the primary study end point. The increase in peak work rate was more than twice as high when patients exercised with supplemental oxygen compared with medical air (0.16 ± 0.02 W/kg vs 0.07 ± 0.02 W/kg; P work rate was 39.1% of the overall training effect, whereas it had no influence on strength gain (P > .1 for all exercises). We report that supplemental oxygen in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease doubled the effect of endurance training but had no effect on strength gain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E; Egan, Brendan

    2017-05-01

    Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post-exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise-trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti-lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  18. [Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care.

  19. Regular aerobic exercise reduces endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Caitlin A; Stauffer, Brian L; Brunjes, Danielle L; Greiner, Jared J; DeSouza, Christopher A

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does aerobic exercise training reduce endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight/obese adults? And, if so, does lower ET-1 vasoconstriction underlie the exercise-related enhancement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults? What is the main finding and its importance? Regular aerobic exercise reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in previously sedentary overweight/obese adults, independent of weight loss. Decreased ET-1 vasoconstriction is an important mechanism underlying the aerobic exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilator function in overweight/obese adults. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated vasoconstrictor tone is elevated in overweight and obese adults, contributing to vasomotor dysfunction and increased cardiovascular disease risk. Although the effects of habitual aerobic exercise on endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in overweight/obese adults have been studied, little is known regarding ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction. Accordingly, the aims of the present study were to determine the following: (i) whether regular aerobic exercise training reduces ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in overweight and obese adults; and, if so, (ii) whether the reduction in ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction contributes to exercise-induced improvement in endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in this population. Forearm blood flow (FBF) in response to intra-arterial infusion of selective ET A receptor blockade (BQ-123, 100 nmol min -1 for 60 min), acetylcholine [4.0, 8.0 and 16.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] in the absence and presence of ET A receptor blockade and sodium nitroprusside [1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 μg (100 ml tissue) -1  min -1 ] were determined before and after a 3 month aerobic exercise training intervention in 25 (16 men and nine women) overweight/obese (body mass index 30.1 ± 0.5 kg m -2 ) adults. The vasodilator response to BQ-123 was

  20. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  1. Exercise training improves heart rate variability after methamphetamine dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Brett Andrew; Chudzynski, Joy; Dickerson, Daniel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A; Garfinkel, Alan; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent participants with age-matched, drug-free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the methamphetamine-dependent participants. In 50 participants (MD = 28; DF = 22), resting heart rate (HR; R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice-weekly exercise training (ME = 14) or equal attention without training (MC = 14) over 8 wk. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Participant characteristics were matched between groups (mean ± SD): age = 33 ± 6 yr; body mass = 82.7 ± 12 kg, body mass index = 26.8 ± 4.1 kg·min. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting HR (P HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase in HRV, representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance.

  2. Improved Arterial–Ventricular Coupling in Metabolic Syndrome after Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B.; Donley, David A.; Bonner, Daniel E.; DeVallance, Evan; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a three-fold increase risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is in part, due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular contractility and aerobic capacity, and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse the peak exercise CV dysfunction. Further, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS prior to the development of diabetes and/or overt CVD, can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological changes to the CV can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Methods Twenty MetS underwent either 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT; n=10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT; n=10) during this time period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Results Exercise training did not alter resting left ventricular diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise an increase in LV contractility (40%, p<0.01), cardiac output (28%, p<0.05) and aerobic capacity (20%, p<0.01), while a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, p<0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, p<0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not the MetS-NonT group. Further, an improvement in Lifetime Risk Score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. Conclusions These findings have clinical importance as they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and lower the risk of CVD. PMID:24870568

  3. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2013-01-01

    following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that mTOR is preferentially activated in response to resistance exercise compared to endurance exercise in trained individuals without concomitant activation of Akt. In the present study, we extended this investigation by examining IκB kinase complex (IKK...

  4. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  5. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  6. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731

  7. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.

  9. The peculiarities of acrobat exercises usage in the handballers training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk Dmitrii Georgievich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Special complexes of acrobatic exercises for training handballers are developed. The level of efficiency of effect of exercises on development of coordination abilities is determined. During application of exercises of the given type it is necessary to take into account a period and a cycle of preparation, personalities of handballers, a general orientation of training process. It allows avoidance of negative effect of acrobatic exercises on special exercises of competitive character.

  10. 'Nordic' Hamstrings Exercise - Engagement Characteristics and Training Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Iga, J; Fruer, C S; Deighan, Martine A; De Ste Croix, Mark B; James, David V

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neuromuscular activation characteristics of the hamstrings during the 'Nordic' hamstrings exercise (NHE) and changes in the eccentric strength of the knee flexors with NHE training. Initially, the normalised root mean square electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hamstrings of both limbs during various phases (90-61 degrees, 60-31 degrees and 30-0 degrees of knee extension) of the NHE were determined in 18 soccer players. Subsequently participants were randomly...

  11. Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Orthostatic Tolerance in Aging Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Diqun; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shande; Ross, Sarah; Liu, Howe; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert; Raven, Peter B; Shi, Xiangrong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training of the elderly will increase aerobic fitness without compromising orthostatic tolerance (OT). Eight healthy sedentary volunteers (67.0 ± 1.7 yr old, four women) participated in 1 yr of endurance exercise training (stationary bicycle and/or treadmill) program at the individuals' 65%-75% of HRpeak. Peak O2 uptake (V˙O2peak) and HRpeak were determined by a maximal exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer. Carotid baroreceptor reflex (CBR) control of HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed by a neck pressure-neck suction protocol. Each subject's maximal gain (Gmax), or sensitivity, of the CBR function curves were derived from fitting their reflex HR and MAP responses to the corresponding neck pressure-neck suction stimuli using a logistic function curve. The subjects' OT was assessed using lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) graded to -50 mm Hg; the sum of the product of LBNP intensity and time (mm Hg·min) was calculated as the cumulative stress index. Training increased V˙O2peak (before vs after: 22.8 ± 0.92 vs 27.9 ± 1.33 mL·min·kg, P stress index was increased from 767 ± 68 mm Hg·min pretraining to 946 ± 44 mm Hg·min posttraining (P Aerobic exercise training improved the aerobic fitness and OT in elderly subjects. An improved OT is likely associated with an enhanced CBR function that has been reset to better maintain cerebral perfusion and cerebral tissue oxygenation during LBNP.

  12. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    = 0.051) and time to complete 3000 m tended (P = 0.09) to increase in LHTH but not after sea level training. In study III haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after classical altitude and sea level training and ABP thresholds for [Hb], %ret, OFF......-score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were generated using the official ABP software. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: Two swimmers exceeded the OFF-score thresholds at day 7; One swimmer exceeded the OFF-score threshold at day 28; One swimmer exceeded the threshold...... for %ret at day 14; One swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day 7 and one swimmer exceeded the ABPS threshold 28 days after altitude training. No values exceeded the individual thresholds in the control group. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated that BV is a main determinant of the exercise induced...

  13. Energy Compensation in Response to Aerobic Exercise Training in Overweight Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Kyle D; Ufholz, Kelsey Elise; Johnson, LuAnn K; Fitzgerald, John S; Roemmich, James N

    2018-06-13

    Weight loss from exercise is often less than expected. Putative compensatory mechanisms may limit exercise-induced reductions in body fat and might be proportional to exercise energy expenditure. To determine compensation (difference between accumulated exercise energy expenditure and changes in body tissue energy stores) and compensatory responses to 1500 or 3000 kcal/week of exercise energy expenditure. Overweight to obese (n=36) sedentary men and women were randomized to groups expending 300 or 600 kcal/exercise session, 5 days/week, for 12 weeks. 14 participants in the 300 kcal group and 15 in the 600 kcal group completed the study. The primary outcome was energy compensation assessed through changes in body tissue energy stores. Secondary outcomes were putative compensatory responses of resting metabolic rate (RMR), food reinforcement, dietary intake, and serum acylated ghrelin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). All measures were determined pre- and post-training. The 3000 kcal/week group decreased (<0.01) percentage and kg body fat while the 1500 kcal/week group did not. The 1500 and 3000 kcal/week groups compensated 943 (-164 to 2050) and 1007 (32 to 1982) kcal/week (mean, 95% CI, P>0.93), or 62.9% and 33.6% of exercise energy expenditure, respectively. RMR and energy intake did not change. Food reinforcement and GLP-1 decreased (P<0.02), while acylated ghrelin increased (P<0.02). Compensation is not proportional to exercise energy expenditure. Similar energy compensation occurred in response to1500 kcal/week and 3000 kcal/week of exercise energy expenditure. Exercise energy expenditure of 3000 kcal/week is great enough to exceed compensatory responses and reduce fat mass.

  14. Chronic exercise reduces hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β1 in middle-aged obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Vagner R R; Katashima, Carlos K; Lenhare, Luciene; Silva, Carla G B; Morari, Joseane; Camargo, Rafael L; Velloso, Licio A; Saad, Mario A; da Silva, Adelino S R; Pauli, Jose Rodrigo; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete

    2017-08-28

    Obesity and aging are associated with hypothalamic inflammation, hyperphagia and abnormalities in the thermogenesis control. It has been demonstrated that the association between aging and obesity induces hypothalamic inflammation and metabolic disorders, at least in part, through the atypical hypothalamic transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β1). Physical exercise has been used to modulate several metabolic parameters. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exercise on TGF-β1 expression in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged mice submitted to a one year of high-fat diet (HFD) treatment. We observed that long-term of HFD-feeding induced hypothalamic TGF-β1 accumulation, potentiated the hypothalamic inflammation, body weight gain and defective thermogenesis of Middle-Aged mice when compared to Middle-Aged animals fed on chow diet. As expected, chronic exercise induced negative energy balance, reduced food consumption and increasing the energy expenditure, which promotes body weight loss. Interestingly, exercise training reduced the TGF-β1 expression and IkB-α ser32 phosphorylation in the hypothalamus of Middle-Aged obese mice. Taken together our study demonstrated that chronic exercise suppressed the TGF-β1/IkB-α axis in the hypothalamus and improved the energy homeostasis in an animal model of obesity-associated to aging.

  15. AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE AFTER EXERCISE IN TRAINED WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F Henríquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW. A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT and eight moderately trained (MT, who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s, and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability – SD1 analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s. Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05 and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05 and SD145-60s (p <0.05. The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW.

  16. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crossman David C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise training has been shown to reduce angina and promote collateral vessel development in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the mechanism whereby exercise exerts these beneficial effects is unclear. There has been increasing interest in the use of whole genome peripheral blood gene expression in a wide range of conditions to attempt to identify both novel mechanisms of disease and transcriptional biomarkers. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effect of a structured exercise programme on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina, and correlate this with changes in angina level, anxiety, depression, and exercise capacity. Methods/Design Sixty patients with stable angina will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to exercise training or conventional care. Patients randomised to exercise training will attend an exercise physiology laboratory up to three times weekly for supervised aerobic interval training sessions of one hour in total duration. Patients will undergo assessments of angina, anxiety, depression, and peripheral blood gene expression at baseline, after six and twelve weeks of training, and twelve weeks after formal exercise training ceases. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with angina. By correlating this with improvement in angina status we will identify candidate peripheral blood transcriptional markers predictive of improvements in angina level in response to exercise training. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01147952

  17. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β‐hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post‐exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise‐trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti‐lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. PMID:27861911

  18. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. PMID:25987736

  19. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L

    2015-07-01

    Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  20. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Eccentric exercise: mechanisms and effects when used as training regime or training adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current review is to discuss applications and mechanism of eccentric exercise in training regimes of competitive sports. Eccentric muscle work is important in most sports. Eccentric muscle contractions enhance the performance during the concentric phase of stretch-shortening cycles, which is important in disciplines like sprinting, jumping, throwing, and running. Muscles activated during lengthening movements can also function as shock absorbers, to decelerate during landing tasks or to precisely deal with high external loading in sports like alpine skiing. The few studies available on trained subjects reveal that eccentric training can further enhance maximal muscle strength and power. It can further optimize muscle length for maximal tension development at a greater degree of extension, and has potential to improve muscle coordination during eccentric tasks. In skeletal muscles, these functional adaptations are based on increases in muscle mass, fascicle length, number of sarcomeres, and cross-sectional area of type II fibers. Identified modalities for eccentric loading in athletic populations involve classical isotonic exercises, accentuated jumping exercises, eccentric overloading exercises, and eccentric cycle ergometry. We conclude that eccentric exercise offers a promising training modality to enhance performance and to prevent injuries in athletes. However, further research is necessary to better understand how the neuromuscular system adapts to eccentric loading in athletes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Exercise training preserves vagal preganglionic neurones and restores parasympathetic tonus in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichige, Marcelo H A; Santos, Carla R; Jordão, Camila P; Ceroni, Alexandre; Negrão, Carlos E; Michelini, Lisete C

    2016-11-01

    Heart Failure (HF) is accompanied by reduced ventricular function, activation of compensatory neurohormonal mechanisms and marked autonomic dysfunction characterized by exaggerated sympathoexcitation and reduced parasympathetic activity. With 6 weeks of exercise training, HF-related loss of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive vagal preganglionic neurones is avoided, restoring the parasympathetic tonus to the heart, and the immunoreactivity of dopamine β-hydroxylase-positive premotor neurones that drive sympathetic outflow to the heart is reduced. Training-induced correction of autonomic dysfunction occurs even with the persistence of abnormal ventricular function. Strong positive correlation between improved parasympathetic tonus to the heart and increased ChAT immunoreactivity in vagal preganglionic neurones after training indicates this is a crucial mechanism to restore autonomic function in heart failure. Exercise training is an efficient tool to attenuate sympathoexcitation, a hallmark of heart failure (HF). Although sympathetic modulation in HF is widely studied, information regarding parasympathetic control is lacking. We examined the combined effects of sympathetic and vagal tonus to the heart in sedentary (Sed) and exercise trained (ET) HF rats and the contribution of respective premotor and preganglionic neurones. Wistar rats submitted to coronary artery ligation or sham surgery were assigned to training or sedentary protocols for 6 weeks. After haemodynamic, autonomic tonus (atropine and atenolol i.v.) and ventricular function determinations, brains were collected for immunoreactivity assays (choline acetyltransferase, ChATir; dopamine β-hydroxylase, DBHir) and neuronal counting in the dorsal motor nucleus of vagus (DMV), nucleus ambiguus (NA) and rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM). HF-Sed vs. SHAM-Sed exhibited decreased exercise capacity, reduced ejection fraction, increased left ventricle end diastolic pressure, smaller positive and negative

  3. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralf Jäger

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29 recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01, with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08. The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03, whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%. Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage

  4. Probiotic Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086 reduces exercise-induced muscle damage and increases recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäger, Ralf; Shields, Kevin A.; Lowery, Ryan P.; De Souza, Eduardo O.; Partl, Jeremy M.; Hollmer, Chase; Purpura, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Probiotics have been reported to support healthy digestive and immune function, aid in protein absorption, and decrease inflammation. Further, a trend to increase vertical jump power has been observed following co-administration of protein and probiotics in resistance-trained subjects. However, to date the potential beneficial effect of probiotics on recovery from high intensity resistance exercise have yet to be explored. Therefore, this study examined the effect of co-administration of protein and probiotics on muscle damage, recovery and performance following a damaging exercise bout. Design. Twenty nine (n = 29) recreationally-trained males (mean ± SD; 21.5 ± 2.8 years; 89.7 ± 28.2 kg; 177.4 ± 8.0 cm) were assigned to consume either 20 g of casein (PRO) or 20 g of casein plus probiotic (1 billion CFU Bacillus coagulans GBI-30, 6086, PROBC) in a crossover, diet-controlled design. After two weeks of supplementation, perceptional measures, athletic performance, and muscle damage were analyzed following a damaging exercise bout. Results. The damaging exercise bout significantly increased muscle soreness, and reduced perceived recovery; however, PROBC significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h, and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise in comparison to PRO. Perceptual measures were confirmed by increases in CK (PRO: +266.8%, p = 0.0002; PROBC: +137.7%, p = 0.01), with PROBC showing a trend towards reduced muscle damage (p = 0.08). The muscle-damaging exercise resulted in significantly increased muscle swelling and Blood Urea Nitrogen levels in both conditions with no difference between groups. The strenuous exercise significantly reduced athletic performance in PRO (Wingate Peak Power; PRO: (−39.8 watts, −5.3%, p = 0.03)), whereas PROBC maintained performance (+10.1 watts, +1.7%). Conclusions. The results provide evidence that probiotic supplementation in combination with protein tended to reduce indices of muscle damage, improves recovery

  5. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    ) and upper neck extensors (UNE). Secondary outcome: Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) for cervical extension/flexion and shoulder elevation. Training compliance was self-reported and categorized as regular if performed ≥ 1 times a week. Results: Neck pain at baseline was 1.9±1.7 (mean±SD) in ETG and 2......Introduction: Flight related neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew and affect individual health, operational capacity and flight safety. Exercise training has proven effective in reducing neck pain within other job professions. The aim of this study was to investigate...... if an exercise intervention might reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: A total of 31 helicopter pilots and 38 crew members were randomized to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG received 20 weeks of strength, endurance and coordination training...

  6. Aerobic exercise training induces skeletal muscle hypertrophy and age-dependent adaptations in myofiber function in young and older men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konopka, Adam R.; Undem, Miranda K.; Hinkley, James M.; Minchev, Kiril; Kaminsky, Leonard A.; Trappe, Todd A.; Trappe, Scott

    2012-01-01

    To examine potential age-specific adaptations in skeletal muscle size and myofiber contractile physiology in response to aerobic exercise, seven young (YM; 20 ± 1 yr) and six older men (OM; 74 ± 3 yr) performed 12 wk of cycle ergometer training. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis to determine size and contractile properties of isolated slow [myosin heavy chain (MHC) I] and fast (MHC IIa) myofibers, MHC composition, and muscle protein concentration. Aerobic capacity was higher (P 0.05) with training. Training reduced (P aerobic capacity are similar between YM and OM, while adaptations in myofiber contractile function showed a general improvement in OM. Training-related increases in MHC I and MHC IIa peak power reveal that skeletal muscle of OM is responsive to aerobic exercise training and further support the use of aerobic exercise for improving cardiovascular and skeletal muscle health in older individuals. PMID:22984247

  7. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  8. Influence of Sequential vs. Simultaneous Dual-Task Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jamie L; Duckham, Rachel L; Milte, Catherine M; Main, Luana C; Daly, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults. Based on the available evidence, there are inconsistent findings with regard to the cognitive benefits of sequential training in comparison to cognitive or exercise training alone. In contrast, simultaneous training interventions, particularly multimodal exercise programs in combination with secondary tasks regulated by sensory cues, have significantly improved cognition in both healthy older and clinical populations. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal characteristics of a successful simultaneous training program for optimizing cognitive function in older people.

  9. The Effects of Exercise Training on Anxiety in Fibromyalgia Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Cillian P; Cook, Dane B; Herring, Matthew P

    2017-09-01

    Physical inactivity and comorbid anxiety symptoms are prevalent among fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Exercise training may be an effective alternative therapy to reduce these symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on anxiety symptoms in patients with FM and to examine whether variables of theoretical or practical importance moderate the estimated mean effect. Twenty-five effects were derived from 10 articles published before June 2016 located using Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Trials involved 595 patients with FM (mean age = 47.6 yr, 97.5% female) and included both randomization to exercise training (n = 297) or a nonexercise control condition (n = 298) and an anxiety outcome measured at baseline and during and/or after exercise training. Hedges' d effect sizes were computed, data for moderator variables were extracted, and random effects models were used to estimate sampling error and population variance for all analyses. Meta-regression quantified the extent to which patient and trial characteristics moderated the mean effect. Exercise training significantly reduced anxiety symptoms by a mean effect Δ of 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16-0.40). No significant heterogeneity was observed (Q24 = 30.79, P = 0.16, I = 25.29%). Program duration (β = 1.44, z = 2.50, P ≤ 0.01) was significantly related to the overall effect, with significantly larger anxiety improvements resulting from programs lasting greater than 26 wk (Δ = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.05-0.66) compared with those lasting less than 26 wk (Δ = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.13-0.39). Exercise training improves anxiety symptoms among FM patients. The findings also suggest that larger anxiety symptom reductions will be achieved by focusing on longer exercise programs while promoting long-term adherence. Future well-designed investigations are required to examine the potential moderating effect of pain-related improvements in FM patients.

  10. Exercise training during normobaric hypoxic confinement does not alter hormonal appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    Full Text Available Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health.Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003% either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2 or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2. A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre and after the confinement (Post to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests.While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01 following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01. At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01 and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03. Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01 at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01. No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05.These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does not alter hormonal appetite regulation but

  11. Exercise training during normobaric hypoxic confinement does not alter hormonal appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Tadej; Simpson, Elizabeth J; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-01-01

    Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003%) either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2)) or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2)). A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre) and after the confinement (Post) to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01) following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01). At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01) and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03). Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01) at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01). No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05). These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does not alter hormonal appetite regulation but can

  12. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  13. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Carney; Martha Finck; Christopher McGrath; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; Donald Dry; George Brooks; David Chamberlain

    2013-01-01

    Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a radioactive response training range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive 82 Br isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics. (author)

  14. Modulation of mitochondrial biomarkers by intermittent hypobaric hypoxia and aerobic exercise after eccentric exercise in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizo-Roca, David; Ríos-Kristjánsson, Juan Gabriel; Núñez-Espinosa, Cristian; Santos-Alves, Estela; Magalhães, José; Ascensão, António; Pagès, Teresa; Viscor, Ginés; Torrella, Joan Ramon

    2017-07-01

    Unaccustomed eccentric contractions induce muscle damage, calcium homeostasis disruption, and mitochondrial alterations. Since exercise and hypoxia are known to modulate mitochondrial function, we aimed to analyze the effects on eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage (EEIMD) in trained rats using 2 recovery protocols based on: (i) intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (IHH) and (ii) IHH followed by exercise. The expression of biomarkers related to mitochondrial biogenesis, dynamics, oxidative stress, and bioenergetics was evaluated. Soleus muscles were excised before (CTRL) and 1, 3, 7, and 14 days after an EEIMD protocol. The following treatments were applied 1 day after the EEIMD: passive normobaric recovery (PNR), 4 h daily exposure to passive IHH at 4000 m (PHR) or IHH exposure followed by aerobic exercise (AHR). Citrate synthase activity was reduced at 7 and 14 days after application of the EEIMD protocol. However, this reduction was attenuated in AHR rats at day 14. PGC-1α and Sirt3 and TOM20 levels had decreased after 1 and 3 days, but the AHR group exhibited increased expression of these proteins, as well as of Tfam, by the end of the protocol. Mfn2 greatly reduced during the first 72 h, but returned to basal levels passively. At day 14, AHR rats had higher levels of Mfn2, OPA1, and Drp1 than PNR animals. Both groups exposed to IHH showed a lower p66shc(ser 36 )/p66shc ratio than PNR animals, as well as higher complex IV subunit I and ANT levels. These results suggest that IHH positively modulates key mitochondrial aspects after EEIMD, especially when combined with aerobic exercise.

  15. Integrating Pilates Exercise into an Exercise Program for 65+ Year-Old Women to Reduce Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irez, Gonul Babayigit; Ozdemir, Recep Ali; Evin, Ruya; Irez, Salih Gokhan; Korkusuz, Feza

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if Pilates exercise could improve dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength in order to reduce the number of falls among older women. 60 female volunteers over the age of 65 from a residential home in Ankara participated in this study. Participants joined a 12-week series of 1-hour Pilates sessions three times per week. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength were measured before and after the program. The number of falls before and during the 12-week period was also recorded. Dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time and muscle strength improved (p Pilates exercises are effective in improving dynamic balance, flexibility, reaction time, and muscle strength as well as decreasing the propensity to fall in older women. Key points Pilates-based exercises improve dynamic balance, reaction time and muscle strength in the elderly. Pilates exercise may reduce the number of falls in elderly women by increasing these fitness parameters. PMID:24149302

  16. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  18. Previous exercise training has a beneficial effect on renal and cardiovascular function in a model of diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kleiton Augusto dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training (ET is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM. However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. Additionally, RSNA was normalized in the trained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (p<0.05. The ejection fraction was increased in the previously trained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05, and the myocardial performance index was improved in the previously trained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. In addition, the previously trained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05. This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  20. Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: Theory into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and exercise training play an important role in the clinical management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Exercise training is more common and recognized as an essential part of rehabilitation programmes and overall CF care. Regular exercise training is associated with improved aerobic and anaerobic capacity, higher pulmonary function, and enhanced airway mucus clearance. Furthermore, patients with higher aerobic fitness have an improved survival. Aerobic and anaerobic training may have different effects, while the combination of both have been reported to be beneficial in CF. However, exercise training remains underutilised and not always incorporated into routine CF management. We provide an update on aerobic and anaerobic responses to exercise and general training recommendations in children and adolescents with CF. We propose that an active lifestyle and exercise training are an efficacious part of regular CF patient management.

  1. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  2. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  3. The Comparison of Two Methods of Exercise (intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on Fasting Sugar, Insulin and Insulin Resistance in Women with Mellitus Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Bazyar

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Exercise is an important component of health and an integral approach to the management of diabetes mellitus. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of intense interval training and concurrent resistance- endurance training on fasting sugar, insulin and insulin resistance in women with mellitus diabetes.   Methods: Fifty-two overweight female diabetic type 2 patients (aged 45-60 years old with fasting blood glucose≥ 126 mg/dl were selected to participate in the present study. Participants were assigned to intense interval training group (N=17, concurrent resistance- endurance training group (N=17 and control group (N=18. The exercises incorporated 10 weeks of concurrent resistance- endurance training and intense interval training. Fasting blood sugar, serum insulin concentrations levels were measured. Concurrent training group trained eight weeks, three times a week of endurance training at 60% of maximum heart rate (MHR and two resistance training sessions per week with 70% of one repetition maximum (1-RM. Intense interval training group trained for eight weeks, three sessions per week for 4 to 10 repeats Wingate test on the ergometer 30s performed with maximum effort. The control group did no systematic exercise. At the end of experiment 42 subjects were succeed and completed the study period, and 10 subjects were removed due to illness and absence in the exercise sessions. Fasting blood sugar and insulin levels 24 hours before and 48 hours after the last training session was measured.   Results: The findings indicated that in periodic fasting, the blood sugar in intensive training group had a marked decrease (p= 0.000 however, the fasting blood sugar of exercise and power stamina groups reduced significantly (p=0.062. The results showed no significant difference between the groups (171/0 p =0.171. Fasting insulin (p <0.001 and insulin resistance (0001/0 = p=0.001 in periodic intensive training group were

  4. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinkman, W.M.; Buzink, S.N.; Alevizos, L.; De Hingh, I.H.J.T.; Jakimowicz, J.J.

    2011-01-01

    The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns

  5. Should we treat obesity in COPD? The effects of diet and resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G; Scott, Hayley A; Baines, Penelope J; Hensley, Michael J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Wood, Lisa G

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for poor health outcomes, but paradoxically in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is associated with improved survival and lung function. A major evidence gap exisits to inform treatment recommendations for patients with COPD who are obese. We aimed to determine the effect of weight reduction involving a low-energy diet utilizing a partial meal replacement plan, coupled with resistance exercise training in obese COPD patients. In a proof of concept before-after clinical trial, obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ) COPD patients received a 12 week weight reduction programme involving meal replacements, dietary counselling by a dietitian and resistance exercise training prescribed and supervised by a physiotherapist. Patients were reviewed face to face by the dietitian and physiotherapist every 2 weeks for counselling. Twenty-eight participants completed the intervention. Mean (standard deviation) body mass index was 36.3 kg/m(2) (4.6) at baseline and reduced by 2.4 kg/m(2) ((1.1) P exercise capacity, health status, dyspnea, strength and functional outcomes. There was also a significant reduction in the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise score (BODE). Systemic inflammation measured by C-reactive protein however did not change. In obese COPD patients, dietary energy restriction coupled with resistance exercise training results in clinically significant improvements in body mass index, exercise tolerance and health status, whilst preserving skeletal muscle mass. This novel study provides a framework for development of guidelines for the management of obese COPD patients and in guiding future research. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  6. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  7. Benefits of supplemental oxygen in exercise training in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtner, Margareta; Porszasz, Janos; Burns, Mary; Somfay, Attila; Casaburi, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Supplemental oxygen improves exercise tolerance of normoxemic and hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We determined whether nonhypoxemic COPD patients undergoing exercise training while breathing supplemental oxygen achieve higher intensity and therefore improve exercise capacity more than patients breathing air. A double-blinded trial was performed involving 29 nonhypoxemic patients (67 years, exercise SaO2 > 88%) with COPD (FEV1 = 36% predicted). All exercised on cycle ergometers for 45 minutes, 3 times per week for 7 weeks at high-intensity targets. During exercise, they received oxygen (3 L/minute) (n = 14) or compressed air (3 L/minute) (n = 15). Both groups had a higher exercise tolerance after training and when breathing oxygen. However, the oxygen-trained group increased the training work rate more rapidly than the air-trained group. The mean +/- SD work rate during the last week was 62 +/- 19 W (oxygen-trained group) and 52 +/- 22 W (air-trained group) (p work rate tests increased more in the oxygen-trained group (14.5 minutes) than in the air-trained group (10.5 minutes) (p < 0.05). At isotime, the breathing rate decreased four breaths per minute in the oxygen-trained group and one breath per minute in the air-trained group (p = 0.001). We conclude that supplemental oxygen provided during high-intensity training yields higher training intensity and evidence of gains in exercise tolerance in laboratory testing.

  8. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

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    Marcelo Mendonça Mota

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. Objectives: The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Methods: Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8; sedentary diabetic (n = 8; and trained diabetic (n = 8. Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. Results: A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2% and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3% without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05 in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05 in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Conclusions: Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  9. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão [Departamento de Educação Física - UFS, São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil); Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana, E-mail: marciorvsantos@bol.com.br [Departamento de Fisiologia - Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), São Cristóvão, SE (Brazil)

    2014-07-15

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats.

  10. Resistance Exercise Restores Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Type 1 Diabetic Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mota, Marcelo Mendonça; Silva, Tharciano Luiz Teixeira Braga da; Fontes, Milene Tavares; Barreto, André Sales; Araújo, João Eliakim dos Santos; Oliveira, Antônio Cesar Cabral de; Wichi, Rogério Brandão; Santos, Márcio Roberto Viana

    2014-01-01

    Resistance exercise effects on cardiovascular parameters are not consistent. The effects of resistance exercise on changes in blood glucose, blood pressure and vascular reactivity were evaluated in diabetic rats. Wistar rats were divided into three groups: control group (n = 8); sedentary diabetic (n = 8); and trained diabetic (n = 8). Resistance exercise was carried out in a squat device for rats and consisted of three sets of ten repetitions with an intensity of 50%, three times per week, for eight weeks. Changes in vascular reactivity were evaluated in superior mesenteric artery rings. A significant reduction in the maximum response of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (78.1 ± 2%) and an increase in the trained diabetic group (95 ± 3%) without changing potency. In the presence of NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, the acetylcholine-induced relaxation was significantly reduced in the control and trained diabetic groups, but not in the sedentary diabetic group. Furthermore, a significant increase (p < 0.05) in mean arterial blood pressure was observed in the sedentary diabetic group (104.9 ± 5 to 126.7 ± 5 mmHg) as compared to that in the control group. However, the trained diabetic group showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the mean arterial blood pressure levels (126.7 ± 5 to 105.1 ± 4 mmHg) as compared to the sedentary diabetic group. Resistance exercise could restore endothelial function and prevent an increase in arterial blood pressure in type 1 diabetic rats

  11. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  12. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance, however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilizati...

  13. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  14. Exercise training improves endothelial function in resistance arteries of young prehypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, D T; Martin, J S; Casey, D P; Braith, R W

    2014-05-01

    Prehypertension is associated with reduced conduit artery endothelial function and perturbation of oxidant/antioxidant status. It is unknown whether endothelial dysfunction persists to resistance arteries and whether exercise training affects oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives. We examined resistance artery function using venous occlusion plethysmography measurement of forearm (FBF) and calf blood flow (CBF) at rest and during reactive hyperaemia (RH), as well as lipid peroxidation (8-iso-PGF2α) and antioxidant capacity (Trolox-equivalent antioxidant capacity; TEAC) before and after exercise intervention or time control. Forty-three unmedicated prehypertensive and 15 matched normotensive time controls met screening requirements and participated in the study (age: 21.1±0.8 years). Prehypertensive subjects were randomly assigned to resistance exercise training (PHRT; n=15), endurance exercise training (PHET; n=13) or time-control groups (PHTC; n=15). Treatment groups exercised 3 days per week for 8 weeks. Peak and total FBF were lower in prehypertensives than normotensives (12.7±1.2 ml min(-1) per100 ml tissue and 89.1±7.7 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue vs 16.3±1.0 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue and 123.3±6.4 ml min(-1) per 100 ml tissue, respectively; Pendurance training are effective in improving resistance artery endothelial function and oxidant/antioxidant balance in young prehypertensives.

  15. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  16. Exercise for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendrick, Denise; Kumar, Arun; Carpenter, Hannah; Zijlstra, G A Rixt; Skelton, Dawn A; Cook, Juliette R; Stevens, Zoe; Belcher, Carolyn M; Haworth, Deborah; Gawler, Sheena J; Gage, Heather; Masud, Tahir; Bowling, Ann; Pearl, Mirilee; Morris, Richard W; Iliffe, Steve; Delbaere, Kim

    2014-11-28

    Fear of falling is common in older people and associated with serious physical and psychosocial consequences. Exercise (planned, structured, repetitive and purposive physical activity aimed at improving physical fitness) may reduce fear of falling by improving strength, gait, balance and mood, and reducing the occurrence of falls. To assess the effects (benefits, harms and costs) of exercise interventions for reducing fear of falling in older people living in the community. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (July 2013), the Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL 2013, Issue 7), MEDLINE (1946 to July Week 3 2013), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 Week 30), CINAHL (1982 to July 2013), PsycINFO (1967 to August 2013), AMED (1985 to August 2013), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (accessed 7 August 2013) and Current Controlled Trials (accessed 7 August 2013). We applied no language restrictions. We handsearched reference lists and consulted experts. We included randomised and quasi-randomised trials that recruited community-dwelling people (where the majority were aged 65 and over) and were not restricted to specific medical conditions (e.g. stroke, hip fracture). We included trials that evaluated exercise interventions compared with no intervention or a non-exercise intervention (e.g. social visits), and that measured fear of falling. Exercise interventions were varied; for example, they could be 'prescriptions' or recommendations, group-based or individual, supervised or unsupervised. Pairs of review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, assessed the risk of bias in the studies and extracted data. We combined effect sizes across studies using the fixed-effect model, with the random-effect model used where significant statistical heterogeneity was present. We estimated risk ratios (RR) for dichotomous outcomes and incidence rate ratios (IRR) for rate outcomes. We

  17. Short-Term Intensified Cycle Training Alters Acute and Chronic Responses of PGC1α and Cytochrome C Oxidase IV to Exercise in Human Skeletal Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepto, Nigel K.; Benziane, Boubacar; Wadley, Glenn D.; Chibalin, Alexander V.; Canny, Benedict J.; Eynon, Nir; McConell, Glenn K.

    2012-01-01

    Reduced activation of exercise responsive signalling pathways have been reported in response to acute exercise after training; however little is known about the adaptive responses of the mitochondria. Accordingly, we investigated changes in mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance in response to the same acute exercise before and after 10-d of intensive cycle training. Nine untrained, healthy participants (mean±SD; VO2peak 44.1±17.6 ml/kg/min) performed a 60 min bout of cycling exercise at 164±18 W (72% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle at rest, immediately and 3 h after exercise. The participants then underwent 10-d of cycle training which included four high-intensity interval training sessions (6×5 min; 90–100% VO2peak) and six prolonged moderate-intensity sessions (45–90 min; 75% VO2peak). Participants repeated the pre-training exercise trial at the same absolute work load (64% of pre-training VO2peak). Muscle PGC1-α mRNA expression was attenuated as it increased by 11- and 4- fold (Pexercise pre- and post-training, respectively. PGC1-α protein expression increased 1.5 fold (Pexercise pre-training with no further increases after the post-training exercise bout. RIP140 protein abundance was responsive to acute exercise only (Pexercise pre- and post-training. These findings demonstrate that short-term intensified training promotes increased mitochondrial gene expression and protein abundance. Furthermore, acute indicators of exercise-induced mitochondrial adaptation appear to be blunted in response to exercise at the same absolute intensity following short-term training. PMID:23285255

  18. Rest Interval Required for Power Training With Power Load in the Bench Press Throw Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Davó, Jose L; Solana, Rafael Sabido; Sarabia Marín, Jose M; Fernández Fernández, Jaime; Moya Ramón, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed to test the influence of various rest interval (RI) durations used between sets on power output performance and physiological and perceptual variables during a strength training session using 40% of the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) in the bench press throw exercise. Thirty-one college students (18 males and 13 females) took part in the study. The experimental protocol consists of 5 sets of 8 repetitions of the bench press throw exercise with a load representing 40% of 1RM. Subjects performed the experimental protocol on 3 different occasions, differing by the RI between sets (1, 2, or 3 minutes). During the sessions, power data (mean power and peak power), physiological (lactate concentration [La]) and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion) variables were measured. In addition, delayed onset muscular soreness was reported 24 and 48 hours after the training session. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that 1-minute RI entailed higher power decreases and greater increases in values of physiological and perceptual variables compared with both 2- and 3-minute RIs. Nevertheless, no differences were found between 2- and 3-minute RIs. Therefore, this study showed that, when training with 40% of 1RM in the bench press throw exercise, a 2-minute RI between sets can be enough to avoid significant decreases in power output. Consequently, training sessions' duration could be reduced without causing excessive fatigue, allowing additional time to focus on other conditioning priorities.

  19. Exercise training prevents the attenuation of anesthetic pre-conditioning-mediated cardioprotection in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Meng, F; Li, N; Zhang, L; Wang, J; Wang, H; Li, D; Zhang, X; Dong, P; Chen, Y

    2015-01-01

    Obesity abolishes anesthetic pre-conditioning-induced cardioprotection due to impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, a consequence of increased basal myocardial oxidative stress. Exercise training has been shown to attenuate obesity-related oxidative stress. This study tests whether exercise training could normalize ROS-mediated AMPK pathway and prevent the attenuation of anesthetic pre-conditioning-induced cardioprotection in obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into lean rats fed with control diet and obese rats fed with high-fat diet. After 4 weeks of feeding, lean and obese rats were assigned to sedentary conditions or treadmill exercise for 8 weeks. There was no difference in infarct size between lean sedentary and obese sedentary rats after 25 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. In lean rats, sevoflurane equally reduced infarct size in lean sedentary and lean exercise-trained rats. Molecular studies revealed that AMPK activity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and superoxide production measured at the end of ischemia in lean rats were increased in response to sevoflurane. In obese rats, sevoflurane increased the above molecular parameters and reduced infarct size in obese exercise-trained rats but not in obese sedentary rats. Additional study showed that obese exercise-trained rats had decreased basal oxidative stress than obese sedentary rats. The results indicate that exercise training can prevent the attenuation of anesthetic cardioprotection in obesity. Preventing the attenuation of this strategy may be associated with reduced basal oxidative stress and normalized ROS-mediated AMPK pathway, but the causal relationship remains to be determined. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  1. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck pain is frequent among military helicopter pilots and crew-members, and pain may influence individual health and work performance. The aim of this study was to examine if an exercise intervention could reduce neck pain among helicopter pilots and crew-members. METHODS: Thirty......-one pilots and thirty-eight crew-members were randomized to either an exercise-training-group (n = 35) or a reference-group (n = 34). The exercise-training-group received 20-weeks of specific neck/shoulder training. The reference-group received no training. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Intensity of neck pain previous 3......-to-treat and per-protocol. Students t-test was performed (p 

  2. Effects of combined exercise training and electromyostimulation treatments in chronic heart failure: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Marie C; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Pavy, Bruno; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Monpère, Catherine; Richard, Rudy; Verdier, Jean C

    2017-08-01

    Background Exercise training as part of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients with cardiac heart failure. It is a valuable method for the improvement of exercise tolerance. Some studies reported a similar improvement with quadricipital electrical myostimulation, but the effect of combined exercise training and electrical myostimulation in cardiac heart failure has not been yet evaluated in a large prospective multicentre study. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low frequency electrical myostimulation to exercise training may improve exercise capacity and/or muscular strength in cardiac heart failure patients. Methods Ninety-one patients were included (mean age: 58 ± 9 years; New York Heart Association II/III: 52/48%, left ventricular ejection fraction: 30 ± 7%) in a prospective French study. The patients were randomised into two groups: 41 patients in exercise training and 50 in exercise training + electrical myostimulation. All patients underwent 20 exercise training sessions. In addition, in the exercise training + electrical myostimulation group, patients underwent 20 low frequency (10 Hz) quadricipital electrical myostimulation sessions. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a six-minute walk test, a muscular function evaluation and a quality of life questionnaire, before and at the end of the study. Results A significant improvement of exercise capacity (Δ peak oxygen uptake+15% in exercise training group and +14% in exercise training + electrical myostimulation group) and of quality of life was observed in both groups without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Mean creatine kinase level increased in the exercise training group whereas it remained stable in the combined group. Conclusions This prospective multicentre study shows that electrical myostimulation on top of exercise training does not demonstrate any significant

  3. Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; da Conceição, Fabiana Gomes; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise

  4. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wesendonck Caponi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. The animals were allocated to the following groups: MS (sedentary metabolic syndrome, MS-T (trained on a treadmill for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 10 weeks, H (sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats and H-T (trained spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Lee index, blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of training. Glucose transporter Type 4 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: At baseline, the MS rats exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and increased Lee index compared with the H rats. Training decreased the body weight and Lee index of the MS rats (MS-T vs. MS, but not of the H rats (H-T vs. H. There were no differences in food intake between the groups. At the end of the experiments, the systolic blood pressure was lower in the two trained groups than in their sedentary controls. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in the trained groups. Glucose transporter Type 4 content increased in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle of the trained groups relative to their respective untrained groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study shows that an isolated aerobic exercise training intervention is an efficient means of improving several components of metabolic syndrome, that is, training reduces obesity and hypertension and increases insulin sensitivity.

  5. MAP Training My Brain™: Meditation Plus Aerobic Exercise Lessens Trauma of Sexual Violence More Than Either Activity Alone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey J. Shors

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD, a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016. These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014. Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60–80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com. In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016. We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women (n = 105, many of whom had a history of sexual violence (n = 32. Groups were trained with (1 MAP Training, (2 meditation alone, (3 aerobic exercise alone, or (4 not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive

  6. MAP Training My Brain™: Meditation Plus Aerobic Exercise Lessens Trauma of Sexual Violence More Than Either Activity Alone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shors, Tracey J; Chang, Han Y M; Millon, Emma M

    2018-01-01

    Sexual violence against women often leads to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a mental illness characterized by intrusive thoughts and memories about the traumatic event (Shors and Millon, 2016). These mental processes are obviously generated by the brain but often felt in the body. MAP Training My Brain ™ is a novel clinical intervention that combines mental training of the brain with physical training of the body (Curlik and Shors, 2013; Shors et al., 2014). Each training session begins with 20-min of sitting meditation, followed by 10-min of slow-walking meditation, and ending with 30-min of aerobic exercise at 60-80% of the maximum heart rate (see maptrainmybrain.com). In previous studies, the combination of mental and physical (MAP) training together significantly reduced symptoms of depression and ruminative thoughts, while reducing anxiety (Shors et al., 2014, 2017; Alderman et al., 2016). We also documented positive changes in brain activity during cognitive control and whole-body oxygen consumption in various populations. In the present pilot study, we asked whether the combination of meditation and aerobic exercise during MAP Training would reduce trauma-related thoughts, ruminations, and memories in women and if so, whether the combination would be more effective than either activity alone. To test this hypothesis, interventions were provided to a group of women ( n = 105), many of whom had a history of sexual violence ( n = 32). Groups were trained with (1) MAP Training, (2) meditation alone, (3) aerobic exercise alone, or (4) not trained. Individuals in training groups completed two sessions a week for at least 6 weeks. MAP Training My Brain ™ significantly reduced post-traumatic cognitions and ruminative thoughts in women with a history of sexual violence, whereas meditation alone, and exercise alone did not. MAP Training significantly enhanced a measure of self-worth, whereas meditation and exercise alone did not. Similar positive effects

  7. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Fernanda R; Briones, Ana M; García-Redondo, Ana B; Galán, María; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Avendaño, Maria S; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Fernandes, Tiago; Vassallo, Dalton V; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Salaices, Mercedes

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Experimental Approach Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties. Key Results Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O2− production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production. Conclusions and Implications Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure. PMID:22994554

  8. Aerobic exercise reduces oxidative stress and improves vascular changes of small mesenteric and coronary arteries in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Fernanda R; Briones, Ana M; García-Redondo, Ana B; Galán, María; Martínez-Revelles, Sonia; Avendaño, Maria S; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Fernandes, Tiago; Vassallo, Dalton V; Oliveira, Edilamar M; Salaices, Mercedes

    2013-02-01

    Regular physical activity is an effective non-pharmacological therapy for prevention and control of hypertension. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise training in vascular remodelling and in the mechanical and functional alterations of coronary and small mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Normotensive Wistar Kyoto (WKY), SHR and SHR trained on a treadmill for 12 weeks were used to evaluate vascular structural, mechanical and functional properties. Exercise did not affect lumen diameter, wall thickness and wall/lumen ratio but reduced vascular stiffness of coronary and mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise also reduced collagen deposition and normalized altered internal elastic lamina organization and expression of MMP-9 in mesenteric arteries from SHR. Exercise did not affect contractile responses of coronary arteries but improved the endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. In mesenteric arteries, training normalized the increased contractile responses induced by U46619 and by high concentrations of acetylcholine. In vessels from SHR, exercise normalized the effects of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin and the NOS inhibitor l-NAME in vasodilator or vasoconstrictor responses, normalized the increased O(2) (-) production and the reduced Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase expression and increased NO production. Exercise training of SHR improves endothelial function and vascular stiffness in coronary and small mesenteric arteries. This might be related to the concomitant decrease of oxidative stress and increase of NO bioavailability. Such effects demonstrate the beneficial effects of exercise on the vascular system and could contribute to a reduction in blood pressure. © 2012 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2012 The British Pharmacological Society.

  9. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...... status was also quantified by measuring muscle antioxidant enzymatic activity and oxidative damage product, such as protein carbonyl content (PCC). Quercetin supplementation increased oxidative damage in both exercised and sedentary rats by inducing higher amounts of PCC (P ...

  10. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Monique E.; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J.; Halperin, Frank A.; Chang, Courtney; Little, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interv...

  11. Intermittent versus continuous exercise training in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil A; Dieberg, Gudrun; Giallauria, Francesco

    2013-06-20

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials of combined strength and intermittent aerobic training, intermittent aerobic training only and continuous exercise training in heart failure patients. A systematic search was conducted of Medline (Ovid) (1950-September 2011), Embase.com (1974-September 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL (1981-September 19 2011). The search strategy included a mix of MeSH and free text terms for the key concepts heart failure, exercise training, interval training and intermittent exercise training. The included studies contained an aggregate of 446 patients, 212 completed intermittent exercise training, 66 only continuous exercise training, 59 completed combined intermittent and strength training and 109 sedentary controls. Weighted mean difference (MD) in Peak VO2 was 1.04mlkg(-1)min(-1) and (95% C.I.) was 0.42-1.66 (p=0.0009) in intermittent versus continuous exercise training respectively. Weighted mean difference in Peak VO2 was -1.10mlkg(-1)min(-1) (95% C.I.) was -1.83-0.37 p=0.003 for intermittent only versus intermittent and strength (combined) training respectively. In studies reporting VE/VCO2 for intermittent versus control groups, MD was -1.50 [(95% C.I. -2.64, -0.37), p=0.01] and for intermittent versus continuous exercise training MD was -1.35 [(95% C.I. -2.15, -0.55), p=0.001]. Change in peak VO2 was positively correlated with weekly exercise energy expenditure for intermittent exercise groups (r=0.48, p=0.05). Combined strength and intermittent exercise appears superior for peak VO2 changes when compared to intermittent exercise of similar exercise energy expenditure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Training with a balance exercise assist robot is more effective than conventional training for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kenichi; Kondo, Izumi; Hirano, Satoshi; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Osawa, Aiko; Fujinori, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of postural strategy training using a balance exercise assist robot (BEAR) as compared with conventional balance training for frail older adults. The present study was designed as a cross-over trial without a washout term. A total of 27 community-dwelling frail or prefrail elderly residents (7 men, 20 women; age range 65-85 years) were selected from a volunteer sample. Two exercises were prepared for interventions: robotic exercise moving the center of gravity by the balance exercise assist robot system; and conventional balance training combining muscle-strengthening exercise, postural strategy training and applied motion exercise. Each exercise was carried out twice a week for 6 weeks. Participants were allocated randomly to either the robotic exercise first group or the conventional balance exercise first group. preferred and maximal gait speeds, tandem gait speeds, timed up-and-go test, functional reach test, functional base of support, center of pressure, and muscle strength of the lower extremities were assessed before and after completion of each exercise program. Robotic exercise achieved significant improvements for tandem gait speed (P = 0.012), functional reach test (P = 0.002), timed up-and-go test (P = 0.023) and muscle strength of the lower extremities (P = 0.001-0.030) compared with conventional exercise. In frail or prefrail older adults, robotic exercise was more effective for improving dynamic balance and lower extremity muscle strength than conventional exercise. These findings suggest that postural strategy training with the balance exercise assist robot is effective to improve the gait instability and muscle weakness often seen in frail older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1982-1990. © 2017 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  13. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  14. Effect of exercise and dietary restraint on energy intake of reduced-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keim, N L; Canty, D J; Barbieri, T F; Wu, M M

    1996-02-01

    Self-selected food intake of 15 reduced-obese women living in a metabolic ward was studied for 14 consecutive days to determine the effect of exercise and other metabolic and behavioral variables on energy intake. A choice of prepared food items were offered at breakfast, lunch and dinner, and a variety of additional food items were available continuously 24 h/day. Subjects performed either moderate intensity aerobic exercise (A-EX) (n = 8) expending 354 +/- 76 kcal/session or low intensity resistance weight training (R-EX)(n =7) expending 96 +/- kcal/session, 5 days/week. Mean energy intakes (kcal/day, +/- SEM) of the exercise groups were similar: 1867 +/- 275 for A-EX, 1889 +/- 294 for R-EX. Mean energy intakes of individuals ranged from 49 to 157% of the predetermined level required for weight maintenance. Resting metabolic rate per kg 0.75 and the Eating Inventory hunger score contributed significantly to the between subject variance in energy intake, whereas exercise energy expenditure did not. Regardless of exercise, eight women consistently restricted their energy intake (undereaters), and seven other consumed excess energy (overeaters). Overeaters were distinguished by higher Eating Inventory disinhibition (P = 0.023) and hunger (p = 0.004) scores. The overeaters' diet had a higher fat content 34 +/- 1% (p = 0.007). Also, overeaters took a larger percentage of their daily energy, than that of undereaters, 27 +/- 1 energy intake in the evening, 13 +/- 2%, compared to undereaters, 7 +/- 1% (p = 0.005). We conclude that the Eating Inventory is useful for identifying reduced-obese women at risk of overeating, and these individuals may benefit from dietary counseling aimed at reducing fat intake and evening snacking.

  15. Comparing the effects of eccentric training with eccentric training and static stretching exercises in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos; Pantelis, Manias; Kalliopi, Stasinopoulou

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of eccentric training and eccentric training with static stretching exercises in the management of patellar tendinopathy. Controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology and rehabilitation centre. Forty-three patients who had patellar tendinopathy for at least three months. They were allocated to two groups by alternative allocation. Group A (n = 22) was treated with eccentric training of patellar tendon and static stretching exercises of quadriceps and hamstrings and Group B (n = 21) received eccentric training of patellar tendon. All patients received five treatments per week for four weeks. Pain and function were evaluated using the VISA-P score at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 4), and six months (week 24) after the end of treatment. At the end of treatment, there was a rise in VISA-P score in both groups compared with baseline (Peccentric training and static stretching exercises produced the largest effect (PEccentric training and static stretching exercises is superior to eccentric training alone to reduce pain and improve function in patients with patellar tendinopathy at the end of the treatment and at follow-up.

  16. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE VERSUS COMBINED CONCENTRIC-ECCENTRIC EXERCISE TRAINING IN PATIENTS WITH OSTEOARTHRITIS KNEE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigombam Amit Kumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Osteoarthritis is a slowly evolving articular disease, which appears to originate in the cartilage and affects the underlying bone and soft tissues. OA results in pain and functional disability. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of isometric exercises and combined concentric-eccentric exercises in reducing pain and functional disability in patients with osteoarthritis of knee. Methods: Forty individuals who were diagnosed as osteoarthritis by qualified orthopaedics and orthopaedic surgeons were chosen and were randomly divided into 2 groups Group A (N=20 and Group B (N=20. Group A was treated with isometric exercises and Group B was treated with combined concentric-eccentric exercises. The intervention lasted eight weeks and the physical activity was carried out for 3 days a week. Both the groups were assessed for pain and functional disability of knee joint by using WOMAC osteoarthritis index and VAS. Results: Between group analysis of pre and post study data reveals that VAS and WOMAC osteoarthritis index revealed significant findings (P=0.00. Group B performs significantly better on both the scales after the treatment. Conclusion: Both the groups showed significant improvement in decreasing pain and functional disability. But mean scores of Group B showed greater improvement in reducing pain and functional disability as compared to Group A in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Thus the results suggest that a combined concentric-eccentric e

  17. Exercise training improves exercise capacity in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; van der Bom, Teun; de Vries, Leonie C. S.; Balducci, Anna; Bouma, Berto J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Picchio, Fernando M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    To assess whether exercise training in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) improves exercise capacity and quality of life and lowers serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Multi-centre parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients with a systemic

  18. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  19. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    capability of muscle. NMES in exercise training is our major concern.

  20. ISO training program mixes lectures, hands-on exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakofsky, S.; Vitale, D.

    1994-01-01

    Early in 1990, the Dresser-Rand Co., made the decision to upgrade its purchased material quality program and pursue ISO 9000 registration for all product divisions. A joint quality-purchasing council from all US based divisions met and developed a new strategy that included: developing and maintaining a common external audit schedule eliminating duplicate audits; development of a formal training program for auditors; implementing a rule for all divisions that called for internal and external audits to be conducted by certified auditors; implementing an aggressive internal audit program for each division preparing for ISO 9001 or 9002 registration. Development of a formal training program began with educating and training future instructors. Two people were selected who had previous audit and quality system experience. Both were sent to various seminars on ISO 9000, attended a lead assessor course, passed the examination, and became registered with the Institute of Quality Assurance (IQA) in the United Kingdom. The original course was developed by a consultant along with one future instructor. Course content used traditional auditing methodology, but included many team exercises including an actual factory audit. The paper describes the methods and contents of this training course

  1. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  2. Effects of aging and exercise training on leg hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann; Jørgensen, Tue Smith; Egelund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise engaging the knee-extensor muscles in young (n=15, 25{plus minus}1 years) and older (n=15, 72{plus minus}1 years) subjects before and after a period of aerobic high-intensity exercise training. To enhance cGMP signaling....... The rate of increase in leg VO2 was, however, similar in the two groups as a result of higher ( PGMP signaling did not affect the rate of increase in blood flow or VO2 in either group. Exercise training augmented ( P.... A lower blood flow response in aging does not appear to be a result of reduced cGMP signaling....

  3. Effect of endurance exercise training on oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after emergence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroko; Kon, Nobuko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Mukaida, Masahiro; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuko; Sone, Hirohito; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effect of wheel training on oxidative stress maker levels in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the aorta of SHRs were allowed to run for 10 weeks from the age of 15 weeks were measured and compared with those of nonexercised SHRs. The 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the exercised group were significantly lower than those in the nonexercised group. The exercised group showed a significant increase of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase. Endurance exercise showed a possible suppressing effect on the arteriosclerosis development by reducing oxidative stress, even after emergence of hypertension.

  4. Eccentric Exercises Reduce Hamstring Strains in Elite Adult Male Soccer Players: A Critically Appraised Topic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadle, Ian B; Cacolice, Paul A

    2017-11-01

    Clinical Scenario: Hamstring strains are a common sport-related injury, which may limit athletic performance for an extended period of time. These injuries are common in the soccer setting. As such, it is important to determine an appropriate prevention program to minimize the risk of such an injury for these athletes. Eccentric hamstring training may be an effective and practical hamstring strain prevention strategy. What is the effect of eccentric exercises on hamstring strain prevention in adult male soccer players? Summary of Key Findings: Current literature was searched for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that investigated the effect of eccentric exercises in preventing hamstring strains in adult male soccer players. Three articles returned from the literature search met the inclusion criteria. A fourth article looked at differences in strength gains between eccentric and concentric hamstring strengthening exercises, but did not record hamstring strain incidence. A fifth article, a systematic review, met all the criteria except for the correct population. Of the 3 studies, 2 were randomized control trails and 1 was a cohort study. Clinical Bottom Line: There is robust supportive evidence that eccentric hamstring exercises can prevent a hamstring injury to an elite adult male soccer player. Therefore, it is recommended that athletic trainers and other sports medicine providers evaluate current practices relating to reducing hamstring strains and consider implementing eccentric exercise based prevention programs. Strength of Recommendation: All evidence was attained from articles with a level of evidence 2b or higher, based on the Center for Evidence-Based Medicine (CEBM) criteria, stating that eccentric exercises can decrease hamstring strains.

  5. Autophagy Is a Promoter for Aerobic Exercise Performance during High Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear. In this narrative review article, we will summarize current research advances in the improvement of exercise performance through high altitude training and its reasonable molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy, which will provide a new field to explore the molecular mechanisms of adaptive response to high altitude training.

  6. Lifelong Aerobic Exercise Reduces the Stress Response in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrelli, A; Di Nardo, M; Masucci, A; Brusco, A; Basso, N; Matkovic, L

    2018-04-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of lifelong aerobic exercise (AE) on the adaptive response of the stress system in rats. It is well known that hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) activity differs when triggered by voluntary or forced exercise models. Male Wistar rats belonging to exercise (E) or control (C) groups were subjected to chronic AE, and two cutoff points were established at 8 (middle age) and 18 months (old age). Behavioral, biochemical and histopathological studies were performed on the main components/targets of the stress system. AE increased adrenal sensitivity (AS), brain corticosterone (CORT) and corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), but had no effect on the thymus, adrenal glands (AGs) weight or plasma CORT. In addition, AE exerted no effect on the sympathetic tone, but significantly reduced anxiety-related behavior and emotionality. Aging decreased AS and deregulated neuroendocrine feedback, leading to an anxiogenic state which was mitigated by AE. Histopathological and morphometric analysis of AGs showed no alterations in middle-aged rats but adrenal vacuolization in approximately 20% old rats. In conclusion, lifelong AE did not produce adverse effects related to a chronic stress state. On the contrary, while AE upregulated some components of the HPA axis, it generated an adaptive response to cumulative changes, possibly through different compensatory and/or super compensatory mechanisms, modulated by age. The long-term practice of AE had a strong positive impact on stress resilience so that it could be recommended as a complementary therapy in stress and depression disease. Copyright © 2018 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise training and weight loss, not always a happy marriage: single blind exercise trials in females with diverse BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Fatahi, Fardin; Alabduljader, Kholoud; Jelleyman, Charlotte; Moore, Jonathan P; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted 2 single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50%-90% peak oxygen uptake for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted. Thirty-four females finished the 4-week intervention and 36 females the 8-week intervention. Overweight/obese (OV/OB) and lean female participants' weight/body composition responses were assessed and fasting and postprandial appetite hormone levels (PYY, insulin, amylin, leptin, ghrelin) were measured before and after the intervention for understanding potential contribution to individuals' body weight response to exercise training (study 2). Exercise training in both studies did not lead to a significant reduction of weight/body mass index (BMI) in the participants' groups; however, lean participants gained muscle mass. Appetite hormones levels were significantly (p training did not lead to weight loss in female participants, while a considerable proportion of variance in body weight response to training could be explained by individuals' appetite hormone levels and BMI.

  8. Acute neuromuscular and performance responses to Nordic hamstring exercises completed before or after football training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Ric; Siegler, Jason C; Knox, Michael; Brennan, Scott; Marshall, Paul W M

    2016-12-01

    The optimal scheduling of Nordic Hamstring exercises (NHEs) relative to football training sessions is unknown. We examined the acute neuromuscular and performance responses to NHE undertaken either before (BT) or after (AT) simulated football training. Twelve amateur players performed six sets of five repetitions of the NHE either before or after 60 min of standardised football-specific exercise (SAFT 60 ). Surface electromyography signals (EMG) of the hamstring muscles were recorded during both the NHE, and maximum eccentric actions of the knee flexors (0.52 rad · s -1 ) performed before and after the NHE programme, and at 15 min intervals during SAFT 60 . Ten-metre sprint times were recorded on three occasions during each 15 min SAFT 60 segment. Greater eccentric hamstring fatigue following the NHE programme was observed in BT versus AT (19.8 %; very likely small effect), which was particularly apparent in the latter range of knee flexion (0-15°; 39.6%; likely moderate effect), and synonymous with hamstring EMG declines (likely small-likely moderate effects). Performing NHE BT attenuated sprint performance declines (2.0-3.2%; likely small effects), but decreased eccentric hamstring peak torque (-14.1 to -18.9%; likely small effects) during football-specific exercise. Performing NHE prior to football training reduces eccentric hamstring strength and may exacerbate hamstring injury risk.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  10. Criterion-based laparoscopic training reduces total training time

    OpenAIRE

    Brinkman, Willem M.; Buzink, Sonja N.; Alevizos, Leonidas; de Hingh, Ignace H. J. T.; Jakimowicz, Jack J.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The benefits of criterion-based laparoscopic training over time-oriented training are unclear. The purpose of this study is to compare these types of training based on training outcome and time efficiency. Methods During four training sessions within 1 week (one session per day) 34 medical interns (no laparoscopic experience) practiced on two basic tasks on the Simbionix LAP Mentor virtual-reality (VR) simulator: ‘clipping and grasping’ and ‘cutting’. Group C (criterion-based) (N...

  11. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Caldwell, Lydia K; Post, Emily M; Beeler, Matthew K; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2017-05-01

    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Variations in leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin levels induced by aerobic exercise in young trained and untrained male subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sermin Algul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to investigate the impacts of acute aerobic exercise on circulating levels of hormones associated with energy metabolism, namely leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin, in trained and untrained male subjects and to determine whether the timing of the exercise (i.e. morning or night amplified these impacts. Thirty trained (19.2±0.7 years and 30 untrained (19.5±0.6 years male subjects performed two aerobic running exercises (3 days between tests to 64-76% of the subjects’ maximal heart rate for about 30 min. Pre- and post-exercise venous blood samples were taken and analysed for leptin, nesfatin-1 and irisin using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. Paired samples and independent samples t-tests were used to analyse data. Irisin levels increased in all the subjects (p<0.001. In both groups, nesfatin-1 levels increased significantly after the night-time exercise (p<0.05. Importantly, leptin and nesfatin-1 levels varied among the trained and untrained groups: Both leptin and nesfatin-1 levels increased in 4 (13% and 12 (40% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercises, and they increased in 9 (30% and 10 (33% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. They decreased in 5 (16% and 7 (23% subjects, respectively, after the morning exercise and in 6 (20% and 3 (10% subjects, respectively, after the night-time exercise. Exercise may result in increased energy consumption by altering irisin levels. However, due to variations among individuals, increasing leptin and nesfatin-1 levels by reducing food intake may not be applicable.

  13. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  14. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shames, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  15. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  16. Metformin modifies the exercise training effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in impaired glucose tolerant adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Nightingale, Joy; Choi, Sung-Eun; Chipkin, Stuart R.; Braun, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) adults are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise or metformin reduce CVD risk, but the efficacy of combining treatments is unclear. To determine the effects of exercise training plus metformin, compared to each treatment alone, on CVD risk factors in IGT adults. Subjects were assigned to: placebo (P), metformin (M), exercise plus placebo (EP), or exercise plus metformin (EM) (8/group). In a double-blind design, P or 2000mg/d of M were administered for 12 weeks and half performed aerobic and resistance training 3 days/week for approximately 60 minutes/day at 70% pre-training heart rate peak. Outcomes included: adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Z-scores were calculated to determine metabolic syndrome severity. M and EM, but not EP, decreased body weight compared to P (p metabolic syndrome Z-score compared to baseline (EP; trend p = 0.07 and EM or M; p exercise and/or metformin improve some CVD risk factors, only training or metformin alone lowered hs-CRP and BP. Thus, metformin may attenuate the effects of training on some CVD risk factors and metabolic syndrome severity in IGT adults. PMID:23505172

  17. Burrowing as a novel voluntary strength training method for mice: A comparison of various voluntary strength or resistance exercise methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemers, P; Mazzola, P N; De Deyn, P P; Bossers, W J; van Heuvelen, M J G; van der Zee, E A

    2018-04-15

    Voluntary strength training methods for rodents are necessary to investigate the effects of strength training on cognition and the brain. However, few voluntary methods are available. The current study tested functional and muscular effects of two novel voluntary strength training methods, burrowing (digging a substrate out of a tube) and unloaded tower climbing, in male C57Bl6 mice. To compare these two novel methods with existing exercise methods, resistance running and (non-resistance) running were included. Motor coordination, grip strength and muscle fatigue were measured at baseline, halfway through and near the end of a fourteen week exercise intervention. Endurance was measured by an incremental treadmill test after twelve weeks. Both burrowing and resistance running improved forelimb grip strength as compared to controls. Running and resistance running increased endurance in the treadmill test and improved motor skills as measured by the balance beam test. Post-mortem tissue analyses revealed that running and resistance running induced Soleus muscle hypertrophy and reduced epididymal fat mass. Tower climbing elicited no functional or muscular changes. As a voluntary strength exercise method, burrowing avoids the confounding effects of stress and positive reinforcers elicited in forced strength exercise methods. Compared to voluntary resistance running, burrowing likely reduces the contribution of aerobic exercise components. Burrowing qualifies as a suitable voluntary strength training method in mice. Furthermore, resistance running shares features of strength training and endurance (aerobic) exercise and should be considered a multi-modal aerobic-strength exercise method in mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

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    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  19. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  20. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    . We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status......Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling...... were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK isoforms a1 and ¿1 were significantly increased while ¿3 levels decreased with training independent of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before...

  1. Exercise testing, limitation and training in patients with cystic fibrosis. A personalized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise testing and training are cornerstones in regular CF care. However, no consensus exists in literature about which exercise test protocol should be used for individual patients. Furthermore, divergence exists in insights about both the dominant exercise limiting mechanisms and the

  2. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  3. Catecholamines and obesity: effects of exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhal, Hassane; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Casazza, Gretchen A; Jabbour, Georges

    2013-07-01

    Excess body fat in obese individuals can affect the catecholamine response to various stimuli. Indeed, several studies report lower plasma catecholamine concentrations in obese subjects compared with nonobese subjects in response to submaximal or maximal exercise. This low catecholamine response reflects decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Although the relationship between the SNS and obesity is not well established, some authors have suggested that low SNS activity may contribute to the development of obesity. A decreased catecholamine response could affect α- and β-adrenoceptor sensitivity in adipose tissue, reducing lipolysis and increasing fat stores. Few studies have examined the effects of obesity on the plasma catecholamine response at rest and during exercise in adolescents. It is interesting to note that the effects of age, sex, and degree of obesity and the impact of very intense exercise on the catecholamine response have not yet been well examined. Moreover, the hormonal concentrations measured in the majority of obesity studies did not take into account plasma volume changes. This methodological factor can also undoubtedly influence plasma catecholamine results.

  4. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women

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    Shenghui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI, and high-intensity training group (HI. Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50–56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI or 65–70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI. Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI. Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  5. Balance training reduces falls risk in older individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Steven; Colberg, Sheri R; Mariano, Mira; Parson, Henri K; Vinik, Arthur I

    2010-04-01

    This study assessed the effects of balance/strength training on falls risk and posture in older individuals with type 2 diabetes. Sixteen individuals with type 2 diabetes and 21 age-matched control subjects (aged 50-75 years) participated. Postural stability and falls risk was assessed before and after a 6-week exercise program. Diabetic individuals had significantly higher falls risk score compared with control subjects. The diabetic group also exhibited evidence of mild-to-moderate neuropathy, slower reaction times, and increased postural sway. Following exercise, the diabetic group showed significant improvements in leg strength, faster reaction times, decreased sway, and, consequently, reduced falls risk. Older individuals with diabetes had impaired balance, slower reactions, and consequently a higher falls risk than age-matched control subjects. However, all these variables improved after resistance/balance training. Together these results demonstrate that structured exercise has wide-spread positive effects on physiological function for older individuals with type 2 diabetes.

  6. Resistance Exercise Training-Induced Muscle Hypertrophy Was Associated with Reduction of Inflammatory Markers in Elderly Women

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    Kishiko Ogawa

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with low-grade inflammation. The benefits of regular exercise for the elderly are well established, whereas less is known about the impact of low-intensity resistance exercise on low-grade inflammation in the elderly. Twenty-one elderly women (mean age ± SD, 85.0 ± 4.5 years participated in 12 weeks of resistance exercise training. Muscle thickness and circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, heat shock protein (HSP70, tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1, IL-6, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP-1, insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF were measured before and after the exercise training. Training reduced the circulating levels of CRP, SAA (P<.05, HSP70, IGF-I, and insulin (P<.01. The training-induced reductions in CRP and TNF-α were significantly (P<.01, P<.05 associated with increased muscle thickness (r=−0.61, r=−0.54, respectively. None of the results were significant after applying a Bonferroni correction. Resistance training may assist in maintaining or improving muscle volume and reducing low-grade inflammation.

  7. Effect of exercise training intensity on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in post myocardial infarction rats

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    Babak Ebadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is the most common type of heart disease. According to recent studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a central player in cardiac disease and evidences point out the association of mitochondrial morphology with development of heart diseases. Exercise training plays a protective role against cardiovascular disease. However, the role of exercise training on proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy system are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these on cardiac mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagy proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. The present study was post-test design experiment with the control group. after MI with ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and ensuring the creation of MI by echocardiography, male rats were subjected to high intensity interval training (HIIT, moderate (MIIT, low (LIIT, sedentary myocardial infarction (SED-MI and healthy control groups. After six weeks exercise, the levels of MFN2, DRP1, Parkin, P62 and PGC-1α proteins were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis showed that proteins levels of MFN2, PGC-1α, Parkin and P62 decreased significantly in SED-MI group compared to healthy control while DRP1 protein levels increased significantly (P≤0.05. Also, MFN2 and PGC-1α proteins increased in MIIT group compared with SED-MI group and DRP1 protein levels were significantly decreased (P≤0.05. Moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT resulted to improve mitochondrial fusion and fusion proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. While high and low intensity interval training (HIIT, LIIT, despite increasing MFN2 and PGC-1α and reducing DRP1, failed to improve fusion and mitochondrial fission

  8. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats.

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    Daniela Farah

    Full Text Available The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group: Sedentary control (SC, Trained control (TC, Sedentary Fructose (SF and Trained Fructose (TF. Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40-60% of maximum exercise test. Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05 and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox. The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04, arterial pressure (118±2mmHg, sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training.

  9. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Daniela; Nunes, Jonas; Sartori, Michelle; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Sirvente, Raquel; Silva, Maikon B.; Fiorino, Patrícia; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana; Farah, Vera; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): Sedentary control (SC), Trained control (TC), Sedentary Fructose (SF) and Trained Fructose (TF). Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40–60% of maximum exercise test). Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV) were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI) (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05) and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg) associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP)- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox). The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04), arterial pressure (118±2mmHg), sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training. PMID:27930685

  10. Is exercise training safe and beneficial in patients receiving left ventricular assist device therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsara, Osama; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Squires, Ray W; Dandamudi, Sanjay; Miranda, William R; Park, Soon J; Thomas, Randal J

    2014-01-01

    Because a limited number of patients receive heart transplantation, alternative therapies, such as left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy, have emerged. Published studies have shown that LVAD implantation, by itself, improves exercise tolerance to the point where it is comparable to those with mild heart failure. The improvement in exercise capacity is maximally achieved 12 weeks after LVAD therapy and can continue even after explantation of the device. This effect varies, depending on the type of LVAD and exercise training. The available data in the literature on safety and benefits of exercise training in patients after LVAD implantation are limited, but the data that are available suggest that training trends to be safe and have an impact on exercise capacity in LVAD patients. Although no studies were identified on the role of cardiac rehabilitation programs in the management of LVAD patients, it appears that cardiac rehabilitation programs offer an ideal setting for the provision of supervised exercise training in this patient group.

  11. Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Yvonne A.W.; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Schreuder, Tim H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M.; Scholten, Ralph R.; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H.; Poelkens, Fleur; Maiorana, Andrew J.; Naylor, Louise H.; Willems, Peter H.; Tack, Cees J.; Thijssen, Dick H.J.; Green, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of

  12. Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.; Bouts, Y.M.; Maiorana, A.J.; Naylor, L.H.; Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.; Pugh, C.J.; Sprung, V.S.; Schreuder, T.H.; Jones, H.; Cable, T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk

  13. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  14. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is

  15. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  16. Ginger extract and aerobic training reduces lipid profile in high-fat fed diet rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravani, M; Azarbayjani, M A; Abolmaesoomi, M; Yusof, A; Zainal Abidin, N; Rahimi, E; Feizolahi, F; Akbari, M; Seyedjalali, S; Dehghan, F

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia, are major risk factors. However, natural therapies, dietary components, and physical activity may effect on these concerns. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic exercise and consumption of liquid ginger extract on lipid profile of Male rats with a high-fat fed diet. 32 rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: 1) aerobic exercise, 2) Ginger extract, 3) combined aerobic exercise and Ginger extract, and 4) the control. Subjects of the first three groups received ginger extract via gavage feeding of 250 mg/kg. The exercise program was 3 sessions per week on 3 different days over 4 weeks. Total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), HDL and LDL were measured 24-h before the first session and 24-h after the final training session. The concentration of TG in the control group was significantly higher than other groups. In addition, the mean concentration of TG in the aerobic exercise group was significantly lower than Ginger extract group but there was no significant difference as compared to combined aerobic exercise and ginger extract group. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger consumption significantly reduced the TG level compared to ginger group. TC and LDL concentrations were significantly decreased in all groups compare to control. The combination of aerobic exercise and ginger extract feeding caused a significant increase in HDL levels. The finding of this study suggests that the combination of aerobic exercise and liquid ginger extract consumption might be an effective method of reducing lipid profiles, which will reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases caused by high-fat diets.

  17. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

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    Monique E. Francois

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown.Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT intervention improves cardiometabolic health in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Design: In a proof-of-concept, double-blind clinical trial 53 adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of three nutritional beverages (500 mL skim-milk, macronutrient control, or flavored water placebo consumed after exercise (3 days/week during a 12 week low-volume HIIT intervention. HIIT involved 10 X 1-min high-intensity intervals separated by 1-min low-intensity recovery periods. Two sessions per week were cardio-based (at ~90% of heart rate max and one session involved resistance-based exercises (at RPE of 5–6; CR-10 scale in the same interval pattern. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c, body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, cardiorespiratory fitness (V˙O2peak, blood pressure, and endothelial function (%FMD were measured before and after the intervention.Results: There were significant main effects of time (all p < 0.05 but no difference between groups (Interaction: all p > 0.71 for CGM 24-h mean glucose (−0.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L, HbA1c (−0.2 ± 0.4%, percent body fat (−0.8 ± 1.6%, and lean mass (+1.1 ± 2.8 kg. Similarly, V˙O2peak (+2.5 ± 1.6 mL/kg/min and %FMD (+1.4 ± 1.9% were increased, and mean arterial blood pressure reduced (−6 ± 7 mmHg, after 12 weeks of HIIT (all p < 0.01 with no difference between beverage groups (Interaction: all p > 0.11.Conclusion: High-intensity interval training is a

  18. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francois, Monique E; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J; Halperin, Frank A; Chang, Courtney; Little, Jonathan P

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervention improves cardiometabolic health in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design: In a proof-of-concept, double-blind clinical trial 53 adults with uncomplicated type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of three nutritional beverages (500 mL skim-milk, macronutrient control, or flavored water placebo) consumed after exercise (3 days/week) during a 12 week low-volume HIIT intervention. HIIT involved 10 X 1-min high-intensity intervals separated by 1-min low-intensity recovery periods. Two sessions per week were cardio-based (at ~90% of heart rate max) and one session involved resistance-based exercises (at RPE of 5-6; CR-10 scale) in the same interval pattern. Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM), glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA 1c ), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), cardiorespiratory fitness ([Formula: see text]), blood pressure, and endothelial function (%FMD) were measured before and after the intervention. Results: There were significant main effects of time (all p 0.71) for CGM 24-h mean glucose (-0.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L), HbA 1c (-0.2 ± 0.4%), percent body fat (-0.8 ± 1.6%), and lean mass (+1.1 ± 2.8 kg). Similarly, [Formula: see text] (+2.5 ± 1.6 mL/kg/min) and %FMD (+1.4 ± 1.9%) were increased, and mean arterial blood pressure reduced (-6 ± 7 mmHg), after 12 weeks of HIIT (all p 0.11). Conclusion: High-intensity interval training is a potent stimulus for improving several important metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors in type 2 diabetes. The benefits

  19. Response to Exercise Training and Outcomes in Patients With Heart Failure and Diabetes Mellitus: Insights From the HF-ACTION Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Adam Z; Mentz, Robert J; Stebbins, Amanda; Mikus, Catherine R; Schulte, Phillip J; Fleg, Jerome L; Cooper, Lawton S; Leifer, Eric S; Badenhop, Dalynn T; Keteyian, Steven J; Piña, Ileana L; Kitzman, Dalane W; Fiuzat, Mona; Whellan, David J; Kraus, William E; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    In HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training), exercise training improved functional capacity in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF). Previous studies have suggested that diabetes mellitus (DM) may be associated with an attenuated response to exercise. We explored whether DM attenuated the improvement in functional capacity with exercise. HF-ACTION randomized 2331 patients with HFrEF to medical therapy with or without exercise training over a median follow-up of 2.5 years. We examined the interaction between DM and exercise response measured by change in 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and peak VO2. We also examined outcomes by DM status. In HF-ACTION, 748 (32%) patients had DM. DM patients had lower functional capacity at baseline and had lower exercise volumes at 3 months. There was a significant interaction between DM status and exercise training for change in peak VO2 (interaction P = .02), but not 6MWD. In the exercise arm, DM patients had a smaller mean increase in peak VO2 than non-DM patients (P = .03). There was no interaction between DM and exercise on clinical outcomes. After risk adjustment, DM was associated with increased all-cause mortality/hospitalization (P = .03). In HF-ACTION, DM was associated with lower baseline functional capacity, an attenuated improvement in peak VO2, and increased hospitalizations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  1. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  2. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  3. Effects of exercise training and exhaustion on 45Ca uptake by rat skeletal muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, H.W.; Leslie, S.W.; Combs, A.B.; Tate, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticular 45 Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity were determined in skeletal muscle from exercise trained and non-trained rats at rest or following short-term exhaustive exercise. In trained rats exercised to exhaustion, mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ uptake was significantly depressed when compared to non-trained rats at rest. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum from trained rats exercised to exhaustion was significantly increased as compared to trained rats at rest. These data suggest that the disruptive influence of Ca 2+ accumulation in mitochondria isolated following exhaustive exercise may be diminished as a result of training

  4. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    because of limb atrophy, weight loss, and inactivity) because erythro- cyte levels of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were in- creased. However...blood volume expansion during exercise training may partially be explained by factors such as initial fitness level , training intensity, exercise mode...335 and their hydration level when measurements are made (131). Plasma volume expansion seems to be greatest when performing upright exercise on about

  5. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsi...

  6. Arterial Stiffness and Autonomic Modulation After Free-Weight Resistance Exercises in Resistance Trained Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsley, J Derek; Mayo, Xián; Tai, Yu Lun; Fennell, Curtis

    2016-12-01

    Kingsley, JD, Mayo, X, Tai, YL, and Fennell, C. Arterial stiffness and autonomic modulation after free-weight resistance exercises in resistance trained individuals. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3373-3380, 2016-We investigated the effects of an acute bout of free-weight, whole-body resistance exercise consisting of the squat, bench press, and deadlift on arterial stiffness and cardiac autonomic modulation in 16 (aged 23 ± 3 years; mean ± SD) resistance-trained individuals. Arterial stiffness, autonomic modulation, and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were assessed at rest and after 3 sets of 10 repetitions at 75% 1-repetition maximum on each exercise with 2 minutes of rest between sets and exercises. Arterial stiffness was analyzed using carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV). Linear heart rate variability (log transformed [ln] absolute and normalized units [nu] of low-frequency [LF] and high-frequency [HF] power) and nonlinear heart rate complexity (Sample Entropy [SampEn], Lempel-Ziv Entropy [LZEn]) were measured to determine autonomic modulation. BRS was measured by the sequence method. A 2 × 2 repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze time (rest, recovery) across condition (acute resistance exercise, control). There were significant increases in cf-PWV (p = 0.05), heart rate (p = 0.0001), normalized LF (LFnu; p = 0.001), and the LF/HF ratio (p = 0.0001). Interactions were also noted for ln HF (p = 0.006), HFnu (p = 0.0001), SampEn (p = 0.001), LZEn (p = 0.005), and BRS (p = 0.0001) such that they significantly decreased during recovery from the resistance exercise compared with rest and the control. There was no effect on ln total power, or ln LF. These data suggest that a bout of resistance exercise using free-weights increases arterial stiffness and reduces vagal activity and BRS in comparison with a control session. Vagal tone may not be fully recovered up to 30 minutes after a resistance exercise bout.

  7. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  8. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  9. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  10. Isometric exercise induces analgesia and reduces inhibition in patellar tendinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, Ebonie; Kidgell, Dawson; Purdam, Craig; Gaida, Jamie; Moseley, G Lorimer; Pearce, Alan J; Cook, Jill

    2015-10-01

    Few interventions reduce patellar tendinopathy (PT) pain in the short term. Eccentric exercises are painful and have limited effectiveness during the competitive season. Isometric and isotonic muscle contractions may have an immediate effect on PT pain. This single-blinded, randomised cross-over study compared immediate and 45 min effects following a bout of isometric and isotonic muscle contractions. Outcome measures were PT pain during the single-leg decline squat (SLDS, 0-10), quadriceps strength on maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), and measures of corticospinal excitability and inhibition. Data were analysed using a split-plot in time-repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). 6 volleyball players with PT participated. Condition effects were detected with greater pain relief immediately from isometric contractions: isometric contractions reduced SLDS (mean±SD) from 7.0±2.04 to 0.17±0.41, and isotonic contractions reduced SLDS (mean±SD) from 6.33±2.80 to 3.75±3.28 (peffect on inhibition (pre 30.26±3.89, post 31.92±4.67; p=0.004). Condition by time analysis showed pain reduction was sustained at 45 min postisometric but not isotonic condition (ptendon pain immediately for at least 45 min postintervention and increased MVIC. The reduction in pain was paralleled by a reduction in cortical inhibition, providing insight into potential mechanisms. Isometric contractions can be completed without pain for people with PT. The clinical implications are that isometric muscle contractions may be used to reduce pain in people with PT without a reduction in muscle strength. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Effects of ovariectomy and exercise training intensity on energy substrate and hepatic lipid metabolism, and spontaneous physical activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, Marc A; Campbell, Sara C; Klein, Dylan J; Shapses, Sue A; Anacker, Keith R; Anthony, Tracy G; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Henderson, Gregory C

    2018-06-01

    Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice. OVX and SHAM were assigned to distance- and duration-matched CE and HIIE, or sedentary control. Energy expenditure during exercise was confirmed to be identical between CE and HIIE and both similarly reduced post-exercise absolute carbohydrate oxidation and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). OVX vs. SHAM displayed impaired glucose tolerance and greater body fat despite lower hepatic TG, and these outcomes were not affected by training. Only HIIE increased hepatic AMPK in OVX and SHAM, but neither training type impacted VLDL-TG secretion. As expected, BMD was lower in OVX, and training did not affect long bones. The results reveal intensity-dependent effects on hepatic AMPK expression and general exercise effects on subsequent SPA and substrate oxidation that is independent of estrogen status. These findings support the notion that HIIE can impact aspects of liver physiology in females while the effects of exercise on whole body substrate selection appear to be independent of training intensity. However, neither exercise approach mitigated the impairment in glucose tolerance and elevated body fat occurring in OVX mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing C-17 Pilot Training Delays

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Moritz, Eric J

    2004-01-01

    .... This research examines most of the current databases used for tracking the flow and effectiveness of the different programs at Altus, including those employed by both training organizations, Boeing...

  13. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  14. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  15. The beneficial effect of regular endurance exercise training on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chen; Yang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Chen, Pei-Ti; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Kao, Pai-Feng; Wang, Chia-Hui; Chan, Paul

    2004-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise can reduce blood pressure and is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Hypertension itself, or/and pharmacological treatment for hypertension is associated with adverse effects on some aspects of quality of life. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of regular endurance exercise training on quality of life and blood pressure. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-180 or diastolic blood pressure 90-110 mm Hg) were randomized to a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group training for 3 sessions/week over 10 weeks or to a non-exercising control group. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and after 6 and 10 weeks. In the 102 subjects (47 male, mean age 47 years) who completed the study, reductions in blood pressure in the exercise group at 10 weeks (-13.1/-6.3 mm Hg) were significant (P endurance training improves both blood pressure and quality of life in hypertensive patients and should be encouraged more widely.

  16. NASA-Navy Telemedicine: Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises for Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acromite, Michael T.; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Davis, Carl; Porter, Henry O.

    2010-01-01

    Airsickness is the most significant medical condition affecting naval aviation training. A 2001 study showed that airsickness was reported in 81% of naval aviation students and was associated with 82% of below average flight scores. The cost to a single training air-wing was over $150,000 annually for fuel and maintenance costs alone. Resistent cases are sent to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) for evaluation and desensitization in the self-paced airsickness desensitization (SPAD) program. This approach is 75% successful, but can take up to 8 weeks at a significant travel cost. NASA Ames Research Center's Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises (AFTE) uses physiological and biofeedback training for motion sickness prevention. It has a remote capability that has been used from Moffett Field, CA to Atlanta, GA . AFTE is administered in twelve (30-minute) training sessions. The success rate for the NASA AFTE program has been over 85%. Methods: Implementation Phases: Phase I: Transfer NASA AFTE to NAMI; NASA will remotely train aviation students at NAMI. Phase II: NAMI-centered AFTE application with NASA oversight. Phase III: NAMI-centered AFTE to remotely train at various Navy sites. Phase IV: NAMI to offer Tri-service application and examine research opportunities. Results: 1. Use available telemedicine connectivity between NAMI and NASA. 2. Save over $2,000 per student trained. 3. Reduce aviation training attrition. 4. Provide standardization of multi-location motion sickness training. 5. Future tri-service initiatives. 6. Data to NASA and Navy for QA and research opportunities.

  17. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stoedefalke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The following review aims to describe what is known about the effects of exercise training in children and adolescents on the following blood lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Only studies that described mode, frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise were included in the review. The results of the studies reviewed were equivocal. Clearly the effects of exercise training on the blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of normolipidemic children and adolescents are equivocal. Of the 14 studies reviewed, six observed a positive alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile, four of the studies observed no alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and one study observed a negative effect on HDL-C but an overall improvement in the lipid and lipoprotein profile due to the decrease in the TC/HDL ratio. It appears that methodological problems present in the majority of the exercise training studies limits the ability to make a conclusive, evidence based statement regarding the effect exercise training has on blood lipid levels in normolipidemic children. Most of the research design flaws can be linked to one or more of the following: small numbers of subjects in each study, low or no representation of girls, inclusion of both boys and girls in the subject pool, inclusion of boys and girls at different maturational stages in the subject pool, exercise training regimes that do not adequately control for exercise intensity, exercise training regimes that do not last longer than 8 weeks and exercise training studies that do not have an adequate exercise volume to elicit a change. Ideally, future research should focus on longitudinal studies which examine the effects of exercise training from the primary school years through adulthood

  18. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  19. Experimental Evidences Supporting the Benefits of Exercise Training in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichige, Marcelo H A; Pereira, Marcelo G; Brum, Patrícia C; Michelini, Lisete C

    2017-01-01

    Heart Failure (HF), a common end point for many cardiovascular diseases, is a syndrome with a very poor prognosis. Although clinical trials in HF have achieved important outcomes in reducing mortality, little is known about functional mechanisms conditioning health improvement in HF patients. In parallel with clinical studies, basic science has been providing important discoveries to understand the mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of HF, as well as to identify potential targets for the treatment of this syndrome. In spite of being the end-point of cardiovascular derangements caused by different etiologies, autonomic dysfunction, sympathetic hyperactivity, oxidative stress, inflammation and hormonal activation are common factors involved in the progression of this syndrome. Together these causal factors create a closed link between three important organs: brain, heart and the skeletal muscle. In the past few years, we and other groups have studied the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training as a safe therapy to avoid the progression of HF. As summarized in this chapter, exercise training, a non-pharmacological tool without side effects, corrects most of the HF-induced neurohormonal and local dysfunctions within the brain, heart and skeletal muscles. These adaptive responses reverse oxidative stress, reduce inflammation, ameliorate neurohormonal control and improve both cardiovascular and skeletal muscle function, thus increasing the quality of life and reducing patients' morbimortality.

  20. Irisin and exercise training in humans - results from a randomized controlled training trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Wegmann, Melissa; Steffen, Anke; Kraushaar, Jochen; Morsch, Arne; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Kaestner, Lars; Meyer, Tim

    2013-11-05

    The recent discovery of a new myokine (irisin) potentially involved in health-related training effects has gained great attention, but evidence for a training-induced increase in irisin remains preliminary. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether irisin concentration is increased after regular exercise training in humans. In a randomized controlled design, two guideline conforming training interventions were studied. Inclusion criteria were age 30 to 60 years, Physical performance provided positive control for the overall efficacy of training. Differences between groups were tested for significance using analysis of variance. For post hoc comparisons with the control group, Dunnett's test was used. Maximum performance increased significantly in the training groups compared with controls (controls: ±0.0 ± 0.7 km/h; AET: 1.1 ± 0.6 km/h, P error probability = 0.7). The general upward trend was mainly accounted for by a negative association of irisin concentration with the storage duration of frozen serum samples (P storage of samples from initial tests.

  1. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  2. Exercise training for blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Veronique A; Smart, Neil A

    2013-02-01

    We conducted meta-analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Randomized controlled trials lasting ≥4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ≥18 years) and published in a peer-reviewed journal up to February 2012 were included. Random effects models were used for analyses, with data reported as weighted means and 95% confidence interval. We included 93 trials, involving 105 endurance, 29 dynamic resistance, 14 combined, and 5 isometric resistance groups, totaling 5223 participants (3401 exercise and 1822 control). Systolic BP (SBP) was reduced after endurance (-3.5 mm Hg [confidence limits -4.6 to -2.3]), dynamic resistance (-1.8 mm Hg [-3.7 to -0.011]), and isometric resistance (-10.9 mm Hg [-14.5 to -7.4]) but not after combined training. Reductions in diastolic BP (DBP) were observed after endurance (-2.5 mm Hg [-3.2 to -1.7]), dynamic resistance (-3.2 mm Hg [-4.5 to -2.0]), isometric resistance (-6.2 mm Hg [-10.3 to -2.0]), and combined (-2.2 mm Hg [-3.9 to -0.48]) training. BP reductions after endurance training were greater (Phypertensive subjects (-8.3 [-10.7 to -6.0]/-5.2 [-6.8 to -3.4] mm Hg) than in 50 groups of prehypertensive subjects (-2.1 [-3.3 to -0.83]/-1.7 [-2.7 to -0.68]) and 29 groups of subjects with normal BP levels (-0.75 [-2.2 to +0.69]/-1.1 [-2.2 to -0.068]). BP reductions after dynamic resistance training were largest for prehypertensive participants (-4.0 [-7.4 to -0.5]/-3.8 [-5.7 to -1.9] mm Hg) compared with patients with hypertension or normal BP. Endurance, dynamic resistance, and isometric resistance training lower SBP and DBP, whereas combined training lowers only DBP. Data from a small number of isometric resistance

  3. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  4. Enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status following an 8-week aerobic exercise training program in heavy drinkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Manthou, Eirini; Fatouros, Ioannis G; Georgoulias, Panagiotis; Deli, Chariklia K; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Theodorakis, Yannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2018-06-01

    Alcohol-induced oxidative stress is involved in the development and progression of various pathological conditions and diseases. On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to improve redox status, thus attenuating oxidative stress-associated disease processes. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of an exercise training program that has been previously reported to decrease alcohol consumption on blood redox status in heavy drinkers. In a non-randomized within-subject design, 11 sedentary, heavily drinking men (age: 30.3 ± 3.5 years; BMI: 28.4 ± 0.86 kg/m 2 ) participated first in a control condition for 4 weeks, and then in an intervention where they completed an 8-week supervised aerobic training program of moderate intensity (50-60% of the heart rate reserve). Blood samples were collected in the control condition (pre-, post-control) as well as before, during (week 4 of the training program), and after intervention (week 8 of the training program). Samples were analyzed for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyls (PC), uric acid (UA), bilirubin, reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase activity. No significant change in indices of redox status in the pre- and post-control was observed. Catalase activity increased (p program enhanced erythrocyte antioxidant status in heavy drinkers, indicating that aerobic training may attenuate pathological processes caused by alcohol-induced oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  6. Combined exercise reduces arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and blood markers for cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Won-Mok; Sung, Ki-Dong; Cho, Jae-Min; Park, Song-Young

    2017-03-01

    Postmenopausal women exhibit elevated brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an indicator of arterial stiffness, which is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events and mortality. The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of combined resistance and aerobic exercise training on baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and cardiovascular fitness in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Twenty postmenopausal women (age, 75 ± 2 y; systolic BP, 152 ± 2 mm Hg, diastolic BP, 95 ± 3 mm Hg) were randomly assigned to a "no-exercise" (CON, n = 10) or combined exercise (EX, n = 10) group. The EX group performed resistance and aerobic exercise for 12 weeks, 3 times per week. Exercise intensity was increased gradually, from 40% to 70% of heart rate reserve, every 4 weeks. BaPWV, BP, blood nitrite/nitrate, endothelin-1 (ET-1), cardiovascular fitness, and body composition were measured before and after the 12-week intervention. BP, baPWV (-1.2 ± 0.4 m/s), ET-1 (-2.7 ± 0.3 μmol/mL), nitrite/nitrate (+4.5 ± 0.5 μM), functional capacity, and body composition were significantly improved (P exercise training improves arterial stiffness, BP, ET-1, blood nitrite/nitrate, functional capacity, and body composition in postmenopausal women with stage 1 hypertension. Thus, this study provides evidence that combined exercise training is a useful therapeutic method to improve cardiovascular health which can reduce cardiovascular disease risk in postmenopausal women with hypertension.

  7. Does training-induced orthostatic hypotension result from reduced carotid baroreflex responsiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawelczyk, James A.; Raven, Peter B.

    1994-01-01

    As manned space travel has steadily increased in duration and sophistication, the answer to a simple, relevant question remains elusive. Does endurance exercise training - high intensity rhythmic activity, performed regularly for extended periods of time - alter the disposition to, or severity of, postflight orthostatic hypotension? Research results continue to provide different views; however, data are difficult to compare because of the following factors that vary between investigations: the type of orthostatic stress imposed (+Gz, lower body negative pressure (LBNP), head-up tilt); pretest perturbations used (exercise, heat exposure, head-down tilting, bed rest, water immersion, hypohydration, pharmacologically-induced diuresis); the length of the training program used in longitudinal investigations (days versus weeks versus months); the criteria used to define fitness; and the criteria used to define orthostatic tolerance. Generally, research results indicate that individuals engaged in aerobic exercise activities for a period of years have been reported to have reduced orthostatic tolerance compared to untrained control subjects, while the results of shorter term longitudinal studies remain equivocal. Such conclusions suggest that chronic athletic training programs reduce orthostatic tolerance, whereas relatively brief (days to weeks) training programs do not affect orthostatic tolerance to any significant degree (increase or decrease). A primary objective was established to identify the alterations in blood pressure control that contribute to training-induced orthostatic hypotension (TIOH). Although any aspect of blood pressure regulation is suspect, current research has been focused on the baroreceptor system. Reductions in carotid baroreflex responsiveness have been documented in exercise-trained rabbits, reportedly due to an inhibitory influence from cardiac afferent, presumably vagal, nerve fibers that is abolished with intrapericardiac denervation. The

  8. A call for the better utilization of physical activity and exercise training in the defense against cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlasits, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    Statins, also known as 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, effectively reduce elevated levels of serum LDL-C concentration and in turn lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regular exercise and physical activity also have significant preventive effects against cardiovascular diseases by simultaneously reducing multiple risk factors. However, statins also produce a number of adverse events, including muscle pain, which increases dramatically in statin users who also exercise, likely limiting the cardiovascular benefits. Most importantly, reduced physical activity participation due to statin-related side effects can cancel out the benefits of the pharmacological treatment. Although exercise training offers more modest benefits compared to pharmacological therapy against traditional risk factors, considering the total impact of exercise on cardiovascular health, it is now evident that this intervention may offer a greater reduction of risks compared to statin therapy alone. However, primary recommendations regarding cardiovascular therapy still center around pharmacological approaches. Thus a new outlook is called for in clinical practice that provides room for physical activity and exercise training, thus lipid targets can be reached by a combined intervention along with improvements in other cardiovascular parameters, such as endothelial function and low-grade inflammation. Databases such as Pubmed and Google Scholar as well as the reference list of the relevant articles were searched to collect information for this opinion article.

  9. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  10. The Effects of Exercise Training on Tumor Vascularity and Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Operable Breast Cancer: A Phase I-II Study (Idea Award)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Lee W; Peterson, Bercedis; Blackwell, Kimberly; Dewhirst, Mark W; Marcom, P. K; Kraus, WIlliam; Baker, Jay; Allen, Jason D

    2006-01-01

    .... Participants assigned to combined exercise training and chemotherapy will perform an individualized exercise training program consisting of three cycle ergometry sessions per week at approximately 60-80...

  11. Exercise training does not improve myocardial diastolic tissue velocities in Type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nenonen Arja

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Myocardial diastolic tissue velocities are reduced already in newly onset Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D. Poor disease control may lead to left ventricular (LV systolic dysfunction and heart failure. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of exercise training on myocardial diastolic function in T2D patients without ischemic heart disease. Methods 48 men (52.3 ± 5.6 yrs with T2D were randomized to supervised training four times a week and standard therapy (E, or standard treatment alone (C for 12 months. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c, oxygen consumption (VO2max, and muscle strength (Sit-up were measured. Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI was used to determine the average maximal mitral annular early (Ea and late (Aa diastolic as well as systolic (Sa velocities, systolic strain (ε and strain rate (έ from the septum, and an estimation of left ventricular end diastolic pressure (E/Ea. Results Exercise capacity (VO2max, E 32.0 to 34.7 vs. C 32.6 to 31.5 ml/kg/min, p = .001, muscle strength (E 12.7 to 18.3 times vs. C 14.6 to 14.7 times, p 1c (E 8.2 to 7.5% vs. C 8.0 to 8.4%, p = .006 improved significantly in the exercise group compared to the controls (ANOVA. Systolic blood pressure decreased in the E group (E 144 to 138 mmHg vs. C 146 to 144 mmHg, p = .04. Contrary to risk factor changes diastolic long axis relaxation did not improve significantly, early diastolic velocity Ea from 8.1 to 7.9 cm/s for the E group vs. C 7.4 to 7.8 cm/s (p = .85, ANOVA. Likewise, after 12 months the mitral annular systolic velocity, systolic strain and strain rate, as well as E/Ea were unchanged. Conclusion Exercise training improves endurance and muscle fitness in T2D, resulting in better glycemic control and reduced blood pressure. However, myocardial diastolic tissue velocities did not change significantly. Our data suggest that a much longer exercise intervention may be needed in order to reverse diastolic impairment in diabetics, if at all

  12. ATTITUDES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT RANKS TOWARDS TRAINING EXERCISES OF RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Training exercises of recovery of sportsmen include both exercises implying hig- her level of training and exercises of optimal recovery of sportsmen. In order to use training exercises of recovery best way it is necessary to know how they react to the body of a sportsman concerning their character and length. It is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that human body adapts equally both to burden and adequ- ate recovery exercises. To increase the efficiency of training exercises of recovery it is inevitable to use different exercises and methods changing their use, that is, they should be applied in a complex way considering their change depending on sport activities and structure of training process. The aim of the study is to check and analyse attitudes of fooyball players of different ranks towards training exercises of recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different ranks (super league of Serbia = 43, the first league of Serbia = 40 and Serbian league = 37. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal ca- tegories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been ap- plied. Concerning the attitudes of training exercises of recovery statistically significant differences were got between the groups where 7 out of 10 attitudes were different. Con- cerning the correlation two types of attitudes were noticed. Footballers of different competition ranks do not have the same attitudes towards training exercises of recovery.

  13. Changes in ventilatory threshold with exercise training in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, S E; Walker, A J; Serfass, R A; Bouchard, C; Gagnon, J; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Leon, A S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training intensity relative to the ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in work (watts) and VO2 at the ventilatory threshold and at maximal exercise in previously sedentary participants in the HERITAGE Family Study. We hypothesized that those who exercised below their VT would improve less in VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (VO2vt) and VO2max than those who trained at an intensity greater than their VT. Supervised cycle ergometer training was performed at the 4 participating clinical centers, 3 times a week for 20 weeks. Exercise training progressed from the HR corresponding to 55% VO2max for 30 minutes to the HR associated with 75% VO2max for 50 minutes for the final 6 weeks. VT was determined at baseline and after exercise training using standardized methods. 432 sedentary white and black men (n = 224) and women (n = 208), aged 17 to 65 years, were retrospectively divided into groups based on whether exercise training was initiated below, at, or above VT. 1) Training intensity (relative to VT) accounting for about 26% of the improvement in VO2vt (R2 = 0.26, p accounted for approximately 56% of the training effect at VT (R2 = 0.56, p 0.70). 3) Training intensity (relative to VT) had no effect on DeltaVO2max. These data clearly show that as a result of aerobic training both the VO2 and W associated with VT respond and become similar to the absolute intensity of sustained (3 x /week for 50 min) aerobic exercise training. Higher intensities of exercise, relative to VT, result in larger gains in VO2vt but not in VO2max.

  14. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  15. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained subjects before and after prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects were recruited into an untrained (n = 8, VO2,max 3.8 +/- 0.2 1 min1) and a trained (n = 8, Vo2,max 5.1 +/- 0.1 1 min2) group. Before and after a 3-h exercise bout (58 +/- 1% VO2,max) a muscle biopsy...... was measured using N-[14CH3]-sphingomyelin as a substrate. Prior to exercise, the muscle total ceramide fatty acid content in both groups was similar (201 +/- 18 and 197 +/- 9 nmol g(-1) in the untrained and trained group, respectively) and after exercise a 25% increase in the content was observed in each...... group. At rest, the muscle total sphingomyelin fatty acid content was higher in untrained than in trained subjects (456 +/- 10, 407 +/- 7 nmol g(-1), respectively; P trained subjects. The muscle neutral, Mg...

  16. Training working memory to reduce rumination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Onraedt

    Full Text Available Cognitive symptoms of depression, such as rumination, have shown to be associated with deficits in working memory functioning. More precisely, the capacity to expel irrelevant negative information from working memory seems to be affected. Even though these associations have repeatedly been demonstrated, the nature and causal direction of this association is still unclear. Therefore, within an experimental design, we tried to manipulate working memory functioning of participants with heightened rumination scores in two similar experiments (n = 72 and n = 45 using a six day working memory training compared to active and passive control groups. Subsequently the effects on the processing of non-emotional and emotional information in working memory were monitored. In both experiments, performance during the training task significantly increased, but this performance gain did not transfer to the outcome working memory tasks or rumination and depression measures. Possible explanations for the failure to find transfer effects are discussed.

  17. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  18. Reduced Physical Fidelity Training Device Concepts for Army Maintenance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-09-01

    rapidly. In addition, the task- orientet ’ nature of self-pacee training is creating a need f~r even more equipment to support this newer method of...substitution for AET devices might be considered, to specify the conceptual form for such RPF devices, and to provide proceduial guidance for the future ...describe the RPF alternatives that can be considered for future development by the Army, and to set forth a procedure for their evaluation. The

  19. Effect of exercise training on inflammation status among people with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensvold, Dorthe; Slørdahl, Stig Arild; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, a condition thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Among a number of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-18 (IL-18) seems to be the best marker for inflammation among people with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic training versus strength training on circulating IL-18 and other proinflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-one inactive men and women with metabolic syndrome were randomized to either high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT, n=11), strength training (ST, n=10), or a control group (n=10). Exercise training was carried out three times per week for 12 weeks. Serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-18, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured before and after the intervention. Serum IL-18 was reduced by 43% after AIT (Pmetabolic syndrome. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00986024/ .

  20. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty.Methods/design: The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conce......BACKGROUND: Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty.Methods/design: The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol...... parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk...... indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees...

  1. Lifelong training preserves some redox-regulated adaptive responses after an acute exercise stimulus in aged human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, J N; Sakellariou, G K; Owens, D J; Murray, S; Waldron, S; Gregson, W; Fraser, W D; Burniston, J G; Iwanejko, L A; McArdle, A; Morton, J P; Jackson, M J; Close, G L

    2014-05-01

    Several redox-regulated responses to an acute exercise bout fail in aged animal skeletal muscle, including the ability to upregulate the expression of antioxidant defense enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). These findings are generally derived from studies on sedentary rodent models and thus may be related to reduced physical activity and/or intraspecies differences as opposed to aging per se. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the influence of age and training status on the expression of HSPs, antioxidant enzymes, and NO synthase isoenzymes in quiescent and exercised human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 3 days after an acute high-intensity-interval exercise bout in young trained, young untrained, old trained, and old untrained subjects. Levels of HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS were significantly higher in quiescent muscle of older compared with younger subjects, irrespective of training status. 3-NT levels were elevated in muscles of the old untrained but not the old trained state, suggesting that lifelong training may reduce age-related macromolecule damage. SOD1, CAT, and HSP27 levels were not significantly different between groups. HSP27 content was upregulated in all groups studied postexercise. HSP72 content was upregulated to a greater extent in muscle of trained compared with untrained subjects postexercise, irrespective of age. In contrast to every other group, old untrained subjects failed to upregulate CAT postexercise. Aging was associated with a failure to upregulate SOD2 and a downregulation of PRX5 in muscle postexercise, irrespective of training status. In conclusion, lifelong training is unable to fully prevent the progression toward a more stressed muscular state as evidenced by increased HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS protein levels in quiescent muscle. Moreover, lifelong training preserves some (e.g., CAT) but not all (e.g., SOD2, HSP72, PRX5) of the adaptive redox-regulated responses after an

  2. Continuous Exercise but Not High Intensity Interval Training Improves Fat Distribution in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of high intensity interval training (HIIT versus continuous aerobic exercise training (CONT or placebo (PLA on body composition by randomized controlled design. Methods. Work capacity and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were measured before and after 12 weeks of intervention in 38 previously inactive overweight adults. Results. There was a significant group × time interaction for change in work capacity (P<0.001, which increased significantly in CONT (23.8±3.0% and HIIT (22.3±3.5% but not PLA (3.1±5.0%. There was a near-significant main effect for percentage trunk fat, with trunk fat reducing in CONT by 3.1±1.6% and in PLA by 1.1±0.4%, but not in HIIT (increase of 0.7±1.0% (P=0.07. There was a significant reduction in android fat percentage in CONT (2.7±1.3% and PLA (1.4±0.8% but not HIIT (increase of 0.8±0.7% (P=0.04. Conclusion. These data suggest that HIIT may be advocated as a time-efficient strategy for eliciting comparable fitness benefits to traditional continuous exercise in inactive, overweight adults. However, in this population HIIT does not confer the same benefit to body fat levels as continuous exercise training.

  3. Eight weeks of a combination of high intensity interval training and conventional training reduce visceral adiposity and improve physical fitness: a group-based intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannaki, Christoforos D; Aphamis, George; Sakkis, Panikos; Hadjicharalambous, Marios

    2016-04-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) has been recently promoted as an effective, low volume and time-efficient training method for improving fitness and health related parameters. The aim of the current study was to examine the effect of a combination of a group-based HIIT and conventional gym training on physical fitness and body composition parameters in healthy adults. Thirty nine healthy adults volunteered to participate in this eight-week intervention study. Twenty three participants performed regular gym training 4 days a week (C group), whereas the remaining 16 participants engaged twice a week in HIIT and twice in regular gym training (HIIT-C group) as the other group. Total body fat and visceral adiposity levels were calculated using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Physical fitness parameters such as cardiorespiratory fitness, speed, lower limb explosiveness, flexibility and isometric arm strength were assessed through a battery of field tests. Both exercise programs were effective in reducing total body fat and visceral adiposity (Ptraining improved cardiorespiratory fitness levels (Ptraining (Ptraining improve various physical fitness parameters and reduce both total and visceral fat levels. This type of training was also found to be superior compared with conventional exercise training alone in terms of reducing more visceral adiposity levels. Group-based HIIT may consider as a good methods for individuals who exercise in gyms and craving to acquire significant fitness benefits in relatively short period of time.

  4. The Role of Exercise in Reducing Childhood and Adolescent PTSD, Anxiety, and Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, Robert W.; McWilliams, Meredith E.; Schwartz, Jennifer T.; Cavera, Robert S.

    2012-01-01

    The authors review the role of physical exercise in reducing childhood and adolescent posttraumatic stress disorder, anxiety, and depression. A good deal of the existing research on the influence of exercise in reducing negative emotional states and enhancing perceptions of self-efficacy has been conducted with adult samples. Comparatively few…

  5. One day of moderate energy deficit reduces fasting and postprandial triacylglycerolemia in women: the role of calorie restriction and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maraki, Maria; Magkos, Faidon; Christodoulou, Nektarios; Aggelopoulou, Niki; Skenderi, Katerina P; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Kavouras, Stavros A; Sidossis, Labros S

    2010-08-01

    Fasting and postprandial hypertriacylglycerolemia are important cardiovascular risk factors in women. We sought to examine the effects of acute (1 day), moderate ( approximately 2 MJ) energy deficit induced by calorie restriction, exercise, or combination of both on fasting and postprandial triacylglycerol (TAG) metabolism in women. Six healthy premenopausal women performed four oral fat tolerance tests in the morning after a day of a) rest (control), b) calorie restriction ( approximately 2 MJ), c) exercise (net deficit of approximately 2 MJ) and d) calorie restriction-plus-exercise (total energy deficit of approximately 2 MJ). All energy deficit trials significantly reduced fasting and postprandial total plasma TAG concentrations by 15-23% and 12-23%, respectively, and triacylglycerol-rich lipoprotein TAG concentrations by 37-43% and 25-39%, respectively, compared with the control condition (Pwomen. Exercise elicits a somewhat greater effect than calorie restriction in the postprandial state. The acute effect of diet and exercise should be taken into account when studying the long-term effects of weight loss and exercise training on TAG metabolism. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  6. Swimming exercise increases serum irisin level and reduces body fat mass in high-fat-diet fed Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yun; Li, Hongwei; Shen, Shi-Wei; Shen, Zhen-Hai; Xu, Ming; Yang, Cheng-Jian; Li, Feng; Feng, Yin-Bo; Yun, Jing-Ting; Wang, Ling; Qi, Hua-Jin

    2016-05-13

    It has been shown that irisin levels are reduced in skeletal muscle and plasma of obese rats; however, the effect of exercise training on irisin level remains controversial. We aim to evaluate the association of swimming exercise with serum irisin level and other obesity-associated parameters. Forty healthy male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to 4 groups: a normal diet and sedentary group (ND group), normal diet and exercise group (NDE group), high-fat diet and sedentary group (HFD group), and high-fat diet and exercise group (HFDE group. After 8 consecutive weeks of swimming exercise, fat mass and serum irisin level was determined. Higher serum irisin levels were detected in the HFDE group (1.15 ± 0.28 μg/L) and NDE group (1.76 ± 0.17 μg/L) than in the HFD group (0.84 ± 0.23 μg/L) or the ND group (1.24 ± 0.29 μg/L), respectively (HFDE group vs. HFD group, P mass (r = -0.68, P mass (r = -0.576, P mass (r = -0.439, P mass, visceral fat mass and percentage fat mass were lower in the HFDE group than the HFD group (all P values mass in high-fat-fed Wistar rats, which may be attributable to elevated irisin levels induced by swimming exercise.

  7. Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (Paerobic exercise training as a treatment option for male factor infertility. The 4-week detraining period was not enough to reverse all benefits promoted by exercise intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies. PMID:26240667

  9. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  10. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. PENGARUH KOMBINASI BLADDER TRAINING DAN KEGEL EXERCISE TERHADAP PEMULIHAN INKONTINENSIA PADA PADA PASIEN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ernawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke adalah suatu gangguan fungsi saraf akut yang disebabkan oleh adanya gangguan peredaran darah otak secara mendadak (dalam beberapa detik atau secara cepat (dalam beberapa jam timbul gejala dan tanda sesuai dengan daerah fokal di otak yang terganggu. Komplikasi akibat stroke diantaranya adalah lemahnya otot spingter uretra yang mengendalikan kemampuan berkemihpasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh kombinasi bladder training dan kegel exercise terhadap pemulihanin kontinensia urine pada pasien stroke di Ruang Tulip Rumah Sakit Dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara Serang. Metode penelitian ini adalah kuasi eksperimen pre test and post test one group design. Populasi adalah semua pasien stroke di RS dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara berjumlah 112 orang. Sampel yang diambil adalah 36 respondendengan intervenesibladder training selama 3 haridilanjutkankegel exercise selama 7 hari.Pengukuran inkontinen dengan menggunakan Sandvik Severity Scale, sedangkan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise menggunakan SOP yang telah dibakukan. Hasil didapatkan rata-rata scor inkontinensia urine mengalami penurunan dengan intervensi bladder training sebesar 0,92. Umur secara bersama-sama mempengaruhi bladder training dan kegel exercise dan mempengaruhi pemulihan inkontinensia urine sebesar 0,002 . Adapengaruh yang bermakna intervensibladder training dankegel exercise terhadap pemulihan inkontinensia urine dengan p-value 0,000 dan r: 1,16. Pemulihan inkontinensia urine dapat dilakukan dengan memberikan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise.

  12. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute...... isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Design: Experimental, randomized crossover study. Setting: Laboratory at Marquette University. Subjects: Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Methods: Subjects underwent CPM....... Results: PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0...

  13. Resveratrol modulates the angiogenic response to exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The polyphenol resveratrol has in animal studies been shown to influence several pathways of importance for angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The aim was to examine the angiogenic effect of resveratrol supplementation with parallel exercise training in aged men. Methods: Forty-three healthy...... physically inactive aged men (65±1 years) were divided into A) a training group that conducted 8 weeks of intense exercise training where half of the subjects received a daily intake of either 250 mg trans resveratrol (n=14) and the other half received placebo (n=13); and B) a non-training group...... show that exercise training has a strong angiogenic effect whereas resveratrol supplementation may limit basal and training-induced angiogenesis....

  14. Systemic Exercise-Induced Hypoalgesia Following Isometric Exercise Reduces Conditioned Pain Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsouhibani, Ali; Vaegter, Henrik Bjarke; Hoeger Bement, Marie

    2018-04-03

    Physically active individuals show greater conditioned pain modulation (CPM) compared with less active individuals. Understanding the effects of acute exercise on CPM may allow for a more targeted use of exercise in the management of pain. This study investigated the effects of acute isometric exercise on CPM. In addition, the between-session and within-session reliability of CPM was investigated. Experimental, randomized crossover study. Laboratory at Marquette University. Thirty healthy adults (19.3±1.5 years, 15 males). Subjects underwent CPM testing before and after isometric exercise (knee extension, 30% maximum voluntary contraction for three minutes) and quiet rest in two separate experimental sessions. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) at the quadriceps and upper trapezius muscles were assessed before, during, and after ice water immersions. PPTs increased during ice water immersion (i.e., CPM), and quadriceps PPT increased after exercise (P CPM decreased similarly following exercise and quiet rest (P > 0.05). CPM within-session reliability was fair to good (intraclass correlation coefficient [ICC] = 0.43-0.70), and the between-session reliability was poor (ICC = 0.20-0.35). Due to the variability in the systemic exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH) response, participants were divided into systemic EIH responders (N = 9) and nonresponders (N = 21). EIH responders experienced attenuated CPM following exercise (P = 0.03), whereas the nonresponders showed no significant change (P > 0.05). Isometric exercise decreased CPM in individuals who reported systemic EIH, suggesting activation of shared mechanisms between CPM and systemic EIH responses. These results may improve the understanding of increased pain after exercise in patients with chronic pain and potentially attenuated CPM.

  15. The effect of exercise training on clinical outcomes in patients with the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, C; Smart, N A; Morcos, D; Duller, A; Ridley, W; Jewiss, D

    2017-08-30

    Purpose: to establish if exercise training improves clinical outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Registered with PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/Identifier:CRD42017055491 ). studies were identified through a MEDLINE search strategy (1985 to Jan 12, 2017), Cochrane controlled trials registry, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. prospective randomized or controlled trials of exercise training in humans with metabolic syndrome, lasting 12 weeks or more. We included 16 studies with 23 intervention groups; 77,000 patient-hours of exercise training. In analyses of aerobic exercise studies versus control: body mass index was significantly reduced, mean difference (MD) -0.29 (kg m -2 ) (95% CI -0.44, -0.15, p exercise versus control: waist circumference, MD -3.80 cm (95% CI -5.65, -1.95, p exercise interventions. Exercise training improves body composition, cardiovascular, and, metabolic outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome. For some outcome measures, isolated aerobic exercise appears optimal.

  16. Exercise training improves ambulatory blood pressure but not arterial stiffness in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoalino, Lucas Nóbilo; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Tavares, Aline Cristina; Castro, Rafael Ertner; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bacal, Fernando; Issa, Victor Sarli; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent comorbidity after heart transplantation (HT). Exercise training (ET) is widely recommended as a key non-pharmacologic intervention for the prevention and management of hypertension, but its effects on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and some mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension have not been studied in this population. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ET on ABP and arterial stiffness of HT recipients. 40 HT patients, randomized to ET (n = 31) or a control group (n = 9) underwent a maximal graded exercise test, 24-hour ABP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment before the intervention and at a 12-week follow-up assessment. The ET program was performed thrice-weekly and consisted primarily of endurance exercise (40 minutes) at ~70% of maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2MAX). The ET group had reduced 24-hour (4.0 ± 1.4 mm Hg, p endurance ET may be a tool to counteract hypertension in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  18. Cardiodynamicsgram: a novel tool for monitoring cardiac function in exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Guo, Bokai; Gong, Yinglan; Xia, Ling; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) for monitoring the cardiac functions of athletes and exercisers. CDG could provide an effective, simple, and economical tool for exercise training. Seventeen middle-distance race athletes aged 14-28 years old were recruited. CDG tests and blood test including creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) were performed before a high-intensity prolonged training, as well as 2 and 14 h after training, respectively. The CDG test result was unsatisfactory when the CK test result was used as standard. However, the accuracy of CDG test was about 80% when CK-MB and hsTnI were used as standards. Thus, CDG offers a noninvasive, simple, and economical approach for monitoring the cardiac function of athletes and exercisers during exercise training. Nonetheless, the applicability of CDG needs further investigation.

  19. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  20. 77 FR 33718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises within the... issue an LOA to the Navy that includes the use of time delayed firing devices (TDFDs), which have not been explicitly addressed previously, to [[Page 33719

  1. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  2. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  3. Insulin-like growth factors and leucine kinetics during exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulmans, [No Value; van der Laag, J; Wattimena, D; van Doorn, J; Oostveen, D; Berger, R; van de Meer, K

    Background: Little is known about the metabolic effects of exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis. The hypothesis for the current study was that in patients with declining clinical status, exercise increases circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and improves protein kinetics.

  4. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Bala

    2014-12-01

    The results showed that the children’s computation performance was enhanced significantly in the groups with 30, or 45, or 60 min of physical exercise, but not in the groups without physical exercise. This means that even acute intensive physical training can yield positive effects on children's mathematical abilities.

  5. Monitoring training response in young Friesian dressage horses using two different standardised exercise tests (SETs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Cornelis Marinus; Houterman, Willem; Ploeg, Margreet; Ducro, Bart; Boshuizen, Berit; Goethals, Klaartje; Verdegaal, Elisabeth-Lidwien; Delesalle, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most Friesian horses reach their anaerobic threshold during a standardized exercise test (SET) which requires lower intensity exercise than daily routine training. AIM: to study strengths and weaknesses of an alternative SET-protocol. Two different SETs (SETA and SETB) were applied

  6. Monitoring training response in young Friesian dressage horses using two different standardised exercise tests (SETs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Cornelis Marinus; Houterman, Willem; Ploeg, Margreet; Ducro, Bart; Boshuizen, Berit; Goethals, Klaartje; Verdegaal, Elisabeth Lidwien; Delesalle, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most Friesian horses reach their anaerobic threshold during a standardized exercise test (SET) which requires lower intensity exercise than daily routine training. Aim: to study strengths and weaknesses of an alternative SET-protocol. Two different SETs (SETA and SETB) were applied

  7. Relation of Angina Pectoris to Outcomes, Quality of Life and Response to Exercise Training in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure (from HF-ACTION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Kishan S.; Coles, Adrian; Schulte, Phillip J.; Kraus, William E.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Piña, Ileana L.; Fiuzat, Mona; Whellan, David J.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Mentz, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Angina pectoris (AP) is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure (HF). We investigated the association of AP with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), exercise capacity, and clinical outcomes, and its interaction with exercise training in a HF population. We grouped 2,331 HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF) in the HF-ACTION trial of usual care +/− exercise training according to whether they had self-reported AP by Canadian classification score (CCS). HRQoL and clinical outcomes were assessed by AP status. In HF-ACTION, 406 (17%) patients had AP at baseline (44% with CCS ≥ II) with HF severity similar to those without AP. Patients with AP had similar baseline exercise capacity but worse depressive symptoms and HRQoL. AP was associated with 22% greater adjusted risk for all-cause mortality/hospitalizations, driven by hospitalizations. There was significant interaction between baseline AP and exercise training peak VO2 change (P=0.019), but not other endpoints. Exercise training was associated with greater peak VO2 improvement after 3 months in patients with AP (treatment effect=1.25 mL/kg/min, 95% CI=0.6–1.9). In conclusion, AP was associated with worse HRQoL and depressive symptoms. Despite greater peak VO2 improvement with exercise training, patients with AP experienced more adverse outcomes. PMID:27561194

  8. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  9. Action video game training reduces the Simon Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Claire V; Barrett, Doug J K; Nitka, Aleksander; Raynes, Kerry

    2016-04-01

    A number of studies have shown that training on action video games improves various aspects of visual cognition including selective attention and inhibitory control. Here, we demonstrate that action video game play can also reduce the Simon Effect, and, hence, may have the potential to improve response selection during the planning and execution of goal-directed action. Non-game-players were randomly assigned to one of four groups; two trained on a first-person-shooter game (Call of Duty) on either Microsoft Xbox or Nintendo DS, one trained on a visual training game for Nintendo DS, and a control group who received no training. Response times were used to contrast performance before and after training on a behavioral assay designed to manipulate stimulus-response compatibility (the Simon Task). The results revealed significantly faster response times and a reduced cost of stimulus-response incompatibility in the groups trained on the first-person-shooter game. No benefit of training was observed in the control group or the group trained on the visual training game. These findings are consistent with previous evidence that action game play elicits plastic changes in the neural circuits that serve attentional control, and suggest training may facilitate goal-directed action by improving players' ability to resolve conflict during response selection and execution.

  10. Chronic aerobic exercise training alleviates myocardial fibrosis in aged rats through restoring bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Hong-Mei; Xia, Ting; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2018-06-02

    Age-related fibrosis is attenuated by aerobic exercise; however, little is known concerning the underlying molecular mechanism. To address this question, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks. After exercise in aged rats, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels in plasma and heart increased 39.8% and 90.9%, respectively. Exercise upregulated expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3-MST) in heart of aged rats. Furthermore, aged rats were given moderate-intensity exercise for 12 weeks or treated with NaHS (intraperitoneal injection of 0.1 ml/kg/day of 0.28 mol/l NaHS). After exercise in aged rats, Masson-trichrome staining area decreased 34.8% and myocardial hydroxyproline levels decreased 29.6%. Exercise downregulated expression of collagen-I and α-SMA in heart of aged rats. Exercise in aged rats reduced malondialdehyde levels in plasma and heart and 3-nitrotyrosine in heart. Exercise in aged rats reduced mRNA and protein expression of CHOP, GRP78, and XBP1. Exercise also reduced mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and MCP-1 and suppressed activation of JNK in aging heart. Similar effects were demonstrated in aged rats treated with NaHS. Collectively, exercise restored bioavailability of hydrogen sulfide in the heart of aged rats, which partly explained the benefits of exercise against myocardial fibrosis of aged population.

  11. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  12. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  13. Effect of metformin on substrate utilization after exercise training in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Braun, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Metformin attenuates the higher insulin sensitivity that occurs with exercise training. Sixteen people with prediabetes trained for 10 weeks while taking metformin (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8). Substrate utilization was assessed using glucose kinetics and indirect calorimetry. After training, exercise whole-body fat oxidation was higher and glycogen use lower (p use was unchanged. Training-induced enhancement of insulin sensitivity (clamp) correlated with higher peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.70; p < 0.05), but was independent of glucose kinetic and substrate metabolism.

  14. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  15. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  16. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  17. Combined resistance and endurance exercise training improves arterial stiffness, blood pressure, and muscle strength in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Park, Song Y; Seo, Dae Y; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Marcos A; Baek, Yeong H

    2011-09-01

    Menopause is associated with increased arterial stiffness and reduced muscle strength. Combined resistance (RE) and endurance (EE) exercise training can decrease brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV), an index of arterial stiffness, in young men. We tested the hypothesis that combined circuit RE and EE training would improve baPWV, blood pressure (BP), and muscle strength in postmenopausal women. Twenty-four postmenopausal women (age 47-68 y) were randomly assigned to a "no exercise" control (n = 12) or to combined exercise training (EX; n = 12) group. The EX group performed concurrent circuit RE training followed by EE training at 60% of the predicted maximal heart rate (HR) 3 days per week. Brachial systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, baPWV, HR, and dynamic and isometric muscle strength were measured before and after the 12-week study. Mean ± SE baPWV (-0.8 ± 0.2 meters/s), systolic BP (-6.0 ± 1.9 mm Hg), diastolic BP (-4.8 ± 1.7 mm Hg), HR (-4.0 ± 1.0 beats/min), and mean arterial pressure (-5.1 ± 1.6 mm Hg) decreased (P hypertension and frailty in postmenopausal women.

  18. Consumption of a high-fat diet, but not regular endurance exercise training, regulates hypothalamic lipid accumulation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Melissa L; Omran, Simin Fallah; Weir, Jacquelyn; Meikle, Peter J; Watt, Matthew J

    2012-09-01

    Obesity is characterised by increased storage of fatty acids in an expanded adipose tissue mass and in peripheral tissues such as the skeletal muscle and liver, where it is associated with the development of insulin resistance. Insulin resistance also develops in the central nervous system with high-fat feeding. The capacity for hypothalamic cells to accumulate/store lipids, and the effects of obesity remain undefined. The aims of this study were (1) to examine hypothalamic lipid content in mice with increased dietary fat intake and in obese ob/ob mice fed a low-fat diet, and (2) to determine whether endurance exercise training could reduce hypothalamic lipid accumulation in high-fat fed mice. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed a low- (LFD) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks; ob/ob mice were maintained on a chow diet. HFD-exercise (HFD-ex) mice underwent 12 weeks of high-fat feeding with 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training (increasing from 30 to 70 min day(-1)). Hypothalamic lipids were assessed by unbiased mass spectrometry. The HFD increased body mass and hepatic lipid accumulation, and induced glucose intolerance, while the HFD-ex mice had reduced body weight and improved glucose tolerance. A total of 335 lipid molecular species were identified and quantified. Lipids known to induce insulin resistance, including ceramide (22%↑), diacylglycerol (25%↑), lysophosphatidylcholine (17%↑), cholesterol esters (60%↑) and dihexosylceramide (33%↑), were increased in the hypothalamus of HFD vs. LFD mice. Hypothalamic lipids were unaltered with exercise training and in the ob/ob mice, suggesting that obesity per se does not alter hypothalamic lipids. Overall, hypothalamic lipid accumulation is regulated by dietary lipid content and is refractory to change with endurance exercise training.

  19. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  20. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  1. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  2. Fast axonal transport of labeled proteins in motoneurons of exercise-trained rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jasmin, B.J.; Lavoie, P.A.; Gardiner, P.F.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the fast orthograde axonal transport of radiolabeled proteins was measured to determine the effects of endurance-running training on transport velocity and amounts of transported proteins in rat sciatic motoneurons. Female rats were subjected to a progressive running-training program for 10-12 wk. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, rats underwent right L4-L5 dorsal root ganglionectomy. The next day, 20 microCi of [3H]leucine was injected bilaterally in the vicinity of the motoneuronal cell bodies supplying the sciatic nerve, to study axonal transport parameters. Results showed that peak and average transport velocities of labeled proteins were significantly (P less than 0.05) increased by 22 and 29%, respectively, in the deafferented nerves of the runners as compared with controls. Moreover, the amount of total transported protein-bound radioactivity was increased in both left (40%) and right (37%) sciatic nerves of the runners. An exhaustive exercise session reduced (P less than 0.05) peak displacement (8%) and total transported protein-bound radioactivity (36%) in the sciatic nerves of control rats, whereas no changes were noticed in trained animals. The data suggest that chronic endurance running induces significant adaptations in the fast axonal transport of labeled proteins

  3. Risks and Benefits of Exercise Training in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Marie-A; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Khairy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Exercise capacity in adults with various forms of congenital heart disease is substantially lower than that of the general population. Although the underlying congenital heart defect, and its sequelae, certainly contribute to observed exercise limitations, there is evidence suggesting that deconditioning and a sedentary lifestyle are important implicated factors. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular comorbidities is on the increase in the aging population with congenital heart disease, such that obesity and a sedentary lifestyle confer increased risk. Health fears and misconceptions are common barriers to regular physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease, despite evidence linking lower functional capacity to poor outcomes, and data supporting the safety and efficacy of exercise in bestowing numerous physical and psychosocial rewards. With few exceptions, adults with congenital heart disease should be counselled to exercise regularly. In this contemporary review, we provide a practical approach to assessing adults with congenital heart disease before exercise training. We examine available evidence supporting the safety and benefits of exercise training. Risks associated with exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease are discussed, particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death. Finally, recommendations for exercise training are provided, with consideration for the type of congenital heart disease, the nature (ie, static vs dynamic) and intensity (ie, low, medium, high) of the physical activity, and associated factors such as systemic ventricular dysfunction and residual defects. Further research is required to determine optimal exercise regimens and to identify effective strategies to implement exercise training as a key determinant of healthy living. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  5. Reduced Tic Symptomatology in Tourette Syndrome After an Acute Bout of Exercise: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, Elena; Glazebrook, Cris; Hollis, Chris; Jackson, Georgina M

    2014-03-01

    In light of descriptive accounts of attenuating effects of physical activity on tics, we used an experimental design to assess the impact of an acute bout of aerobic exercise on tic expression in young people (N = 18) with Tourette Syndrome (TS). We compared video-based tic frequency estimates obtained during an exercise session with tic rates obtained during pre-exercise (baseline) and post-exercise interview-based sessions. Results showed significantly reduced tic rates during the exercise session compared with baseline, suggesting that acute exercise has an attenuating effect on tics. Tic rates also remained reduced relative to baseline during the post-exercise session, likely reflecting a sustained effect of exercise on tic reduction. Parallel to the observed tic attenuation, exercise also had a beneficial impact on self-reported anxiety and mood levels. The present findings provide novel empirical evidence for the beneficial effect of exercise on TS symptomatology bearing important research and clinical implications. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. Randomized Controlled Trial Considering Varied Exercises for Reducing Proactive Memory Interference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Frith

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of exercise on proactive memory interference. Study 1 (n = 88 employed a 15-min treadmill walking protocol, while Study 2 (n = 88 included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. Each study included four distinct groups, in which groups of 22 participants each were randomly assigned to: (a exercise before memory encoding, (b a control group with no exercise, (c exercise during memory encoding, and (d exercise after memory encoding (i.e., during memory consolidation. We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT to assess proactive memory interference. In both studies, the group that exercised prior to memory encoding recalled the most words from list B (distractor list of the RAVLT, though group differences were not statistically significant for Study 1 (walking exercise (p = 0.521 or Study 2 (high-intensity exercise (p = 0.068. In this sample of young adults, high intensity exercise prior to memory encoding showed a non-significant tendency to attenuate impairments in recall attributable to proactive memory interference. Thus, future work with larger samples is needed to clarify potential beneficial effects of exercise for reducing proactive memory interference.

  7. Randomized Controlled Trial Considering Varied Exercises for Reducing Proactive Memory Interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Sng, Eveleen; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-06-11

    We evaluated the effects of exercise on proactive memory interference. Study 1 ( n = 88) employed a 15-min treadmill walking protocol, while Study 2 ( n = 88) included a 15-min bout of progressive maximal exertion treadmill exercise. Each study included four distinct groups, in which groups of 22 participants each were randomly assigned to: (a) exercise before memory encoding, (b) a control group with no exercise, (c) exercise during memory encoding, and (d) exercise after memory encoding (i.e., during memory consolidation). We used the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT) to assess proactive memory interference. In both studies, the group that exercised prior to memory encoding recalled the most words from list B (distractor list) of the RAVLT, though group differences were not statistically significant for Study 1 (walking exercise) ( p = 0.521) or Study 2 (high-intensity exercise) ( p = 0.068). In this sample of young adults, high intensity exercise prior to memory encoding showed a non-significant tendency to attenuate impairments in recall attributable to proactive memory interference. Thus, future work with larger samples is needed to clarify potential beneficial effects of exercise for reducing proactive memory interference.

  8. The efficacy of a movement control exercise programme to reduce injuries in youth rugby: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, M D; Stokes, K A; Williams, S; McKay, C D; England, M; Kemp, S P T

    2016-01-01

    Background Injuries to youth rugby players have become an increasingly prominent health concern, highlighting the importance of developing and implementing appropriate preventive strategies. A growing body of evidence from other youth sports has demonstrated the efficacy of targeted exercise regimens to reduce injury risk. However, studies have yet to investigate the effect of such interventions in youth contact sport populations like rugby union. Objective To determine the efficacy of an evidence-based movement control exercise programme compared with a sham exercise programme to reduce injury risk in youth rugby players. Exercise programme compliance between trial arms and the effect of coach attitudes on compliance will also be evaluated. Setting School rugby coaches in England will be the target of the researcher intervention, with the effects of the injury prevention programmes being measured in male youth players aged 14–18 years in school rugby programmes over the 2015–2016 school winter term. Methods A cluster-randomised controlled trial with schools randomly allocated to either a movement control exercise programme or a sham exercise programme, both of which are coach-delivered. Injury measures will derive from field-based injury surveillance, with match and training exposure and compliance recorded. A questionnaire will be used to evaluate coach attitudes, knowledge, beliefs and behaviours both prior to and on the conclusion of the study period. Outcome measures Summary injury measures (incidence, severity and burden) will be compared between trial arms, as will the influence of coach attitudes on compliance and injury burden. Additionally, changes in these outcomes through using the exercise programmes will be evaluated. Trial registration number ISRTCNN13422001. PMID:27900148

  9. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  10. Exercise training characteristics in cardiac rehabilitation programmes: a cross-sectional survey of Australian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Briffa, Tom; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), however, little information exists regarding the specific exercise interventions currently provided for coronary heart disease in Australian practice. We aimed to analyse the current status of exercise-based CR services across Australia. Cross-sectional survey. Australian sites offering exercise-based CR were identified from publically available directories. All sites were invited by email to participate in an online Survey Monkey questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015, with reminders via email and phone follow-up. Questions investigated the demographics and format of individual programmes, as well as specific exercise training characteristics. 297 eligible programmes were identified, with an 82% response rate. Most sites (82%) were based at hospital or outpatient centres, with home (15%), community (18%) or gym-based options (5%) less common. While CR was most often offered in a comprehensive format (72% of sites), the level of exercise intervention varied greatly among programmes. Most frequently, exercise was prescribed 1-2 times per week for 60 min over 7 weeks. Almost one-quarter (24%) had a sole practitioner supervising exercise, although the majority used a nurse/physiotherapist combination. Low to moderate exercise intensities were used in 60% of programmes, however, higher intensity prescriptions were not uncommon. Few sites (technology, such as mobile phones or the internet, to deliver or support exercise training. While advances have been made towards providing flexible and accessible exercise-based CR, much of Australia's service remains within traditional models of care. A continuing focus on service improvement and evidence-based care should, therefore, be considered a core aim of those providing exercise for CR in order to improve health service delivery and optimise outcomes for patients.

  11. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  12. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  13. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (ptraining devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There

  14. Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity by Exercise Training as a Basis for Ischemic Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke draws more and more attention in the world, and has been linked to changes of synaptic plasticity. Exercise training improves motor function of ischemia as well as cognition which is associated with formation of learning and memory. The molecular basis of learning and memory might be synaptic plasticity. Research has therefore been conducted in an attempt to relate effects of exercise training to neuroprotection and neurogenesis adjacent to the ischemic injury brain. The present paper reviews the current literature addressing this question and discusses the possible mechanisms involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity by exercise training. This review shows the pathological process of synaptic dysfunction in ischemic roughly and then discusses the effects of exercise training on scaffold proteins and regulatory protein expression. The expression of scaffold proteins generally increased after training, but the effects on regulatory proteins were mixed. Moreover, the compositions of postsynaptic receptors were changed and the strength of synaptic transmission was enhanced after training. Finally, the recovery of cognition is critically associated with synaptic remodeling in an injured brain, and the remodeling occurs through a number of local regulations including mRNA translation, remodeling of cytoskeleton, and receptor trafficking into and out of the synapse. We do provide a comprehensive knowledge of synaptic plasticity enhancement obtained by exercise training in this review.

  15. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  16. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Fernanda R.; Soci, Ursula Paula Renó; De Angelis, Katia; Coelho, Marcele A.; Furstenau, Cristina R.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Oliveira, Edilamar M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and trained (T). An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05). RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion. PMID:22189737

  17. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Roque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  18. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Janssen, Thomas Wj; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Takken, Tim

    2014-09-01

    An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from their respective inceptions in October 2013. Exercise training studies with at least one outcome measure regarding wheelchair propulsion capacity were included. In this study wheelchair propulsion capacity includes four parameters to reflect functional wheelchair propulsion: cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity), anaerobic capacity, muscular fitness and mechanical efficiency. Articles were not selected on diagnosis, training type or mode. Studies were divided into four training types: interval, endurance, strength, and mixed training. Methodological quality was rated with the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was determined. The 21 included studies represented 249 individuals with spinal-cord injury (50%), various diagnoses like spina bifida (4%), cerebral palsy (2%), traumatic injury, (3%) and able-bodied participants (38%). All interval training studies found a significant improvement of 18-64% in wheelchair propulsion capacity. Three out of five endurance training studies reported significant effectiveness. Methodological quality was generally poor and there were only two randomised controlled trials. Exercise training programs seem to be effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. However, there is remarkably little research, particularly for individuals who do not have spinal-cord injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  19. Telomere length and long-term endurance exercise: does exercise training affect biological age? A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Beate Ø Østhus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO(2max are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO(2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise training and VO(2max in younger and older people. METHODS: Twenty men; 10 young (22-27 years and 10 old (66-77 years, were studied in this cross-sectional study. Five out of 10 young adults and 5 out of 10 older were endurance athletes, while other halves were exercising at a medium level of activity. Mean telomere length was measured as telomere/single copy gene-ratio (T/S-ratio using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. VO(2max was measured directly running on a treadmill. RESULTS: Older endurance trained athletes had longer telomere length compared with older people with medium activity levels (T/S ratio 1.12±0.1 vs. 0.92±0.2, p = 0.04. Telomere length of young endurance trained athletes was not different than young non-athletes (1.47±0.2 vs. 1.33±0.1, p = 0.12. Overall, there was a positive association between T/S ratio and VO(2max (r = 0.70, p = 0.001. Among endurance trained athletes, we found a strong correlation between VO(2max and T/S ratio (r = 0.78, p = 0.02. However, corresponding association among non-athlete participants was relatively weak (r = 0.58, p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that VO(2max is positively associated with telomere length, and we found that long-term endurance exercise training may provide a protective effect on muscle telomere length in older people.

  20. The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on resistance exercise induced lipid peroxidation in trained and untrained participants

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    LaVoie Norm

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theoretical benefits of using antioxidant vitamin supplements to quench oxygen free radicals appear large. High intensity aerobic-type exercise produces oxygen free radicals that can cause damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation that may lead to many problems such as the inactivation of cell membrane enzymes, the progression of degenerative diseases (cardiovascular disease and cancer and lessening of the effectiveness of the immune system. The major function of vitamin E is to work as a chain-breaking antioxidant in a fat soluble environment. Little research has examined lipid peroxidation associated with high intensity resistance exercise or possible protective effects of antioxidant supplementation or the effects of training state. Results There were no significant group (trained vs untrained or treatment (vitamin E vs placebo effects found between the 4 groups assessed. There was only one significant difference found and that was in the main effect for time (F = 22.41, p Conclusions The Resistance Exercise Test caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde in all 4 groups at 6 hours post exercise. There was no evidence that vitamin E supplementation was effective in reducing oxidative damage in comparison to the placebo group. As well, there was no difference between the trained and untrained groups with respect to their impact on lipid peroxidation measures.

  1. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  2. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  3. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African Americans versus Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Fernhall, B O

    2016-01-01

    African Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared with their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 wk of moderate- to high-intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men, 28; women, 36) with mean age 24 yr underwent measures of arterial structure, function, and blood pressure (BP) variables at baseline, after the 4-wk control period, and 8 wk after training. There was a significant increase in VO2peak among both groups after exercise training. Brachial systolic BP decreased significantly after the control period in both groups but not after exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups after exercise training as compared with that in baseline. There was no change in any of the other BP variables. AA had higher intima-media thickness at baseline and after the control period but it significantly decreased after exercise training compared with that of CA. AA had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and reactive hyperemia compared with those of CA, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (central pulse wave velocity) and wave-reflection (augmentation index) between the two groups at any time point. This is the first study to show that 8 wk of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AA, making it comparable with the CA and with minimal effects on BP variables.

  4. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriye Özengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19 and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19. Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. Results: An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05. There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05. A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05, and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05 in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05. A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05 in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Conclusions: It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse.

  5. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijwel, Sara; Cardinale, Daniele A; Norrbom, Jessica; Chapman, Mark; Ivarsson, Niklas; Wengström, Yvonne; Sundberg, Carl Johan; Rundqvist, Helene

    2018-05-11

    Exercise has been suggested to ameliorate the detrimental effects of chemotherapy on skeletal muscle. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different exercise regimens with usual care on skeletal muscle morphology and mitochondrial markers in patients being treated with chemotherapy for breast cancer. Specifically, we compared moderate-intensity aerobic training combined with high-intensity interval training (AT-HIIT) and resistance training combined with high-intensity interval training (RT-HIIT) with usual care (UC). Resting skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained pre- and postintervention from 23 randomly selected women from the OptiTrain breast cancer trial who underwent RT-HIIT, AT-HIIT, or UC for 16 wk. Over the intervention, citrate synthase activity, muscle fiber cross-sectional area, capillaries per fiber, and myosin heavy chain isoform type I were reduced in UC, whereas RT-HIIT and AT-HIIT were able to counteract these declines. AT-HIIT promoted up-regulation of the electron transport chain protein levels vs. UC. RT-HIIT favored satellite cell count vs. UC and AT-HIIT. There was a significant association between change in citrate synthase activity and self-reported fatigue. AT-HIIT and RT-HIIT maintained or improved markers of skeletal muscle function compared with the declines found in the UC group, indicating a sustained trainability in addition to the preservation of skeletal muscle structural and metabolic characteristics during chemotherapy. These findings highlight the importance of supervised exercise programs for patients with breast cancer during chemotherapy.-Mijwel, S., Cardinale, D. A., Norrbom, J., Chapman, M., Ivarsson, N., Wengström, Y., Sundberg, C. J., Rundqvist, H. Exercise training during chemotherapy preserves skeletal muscle fiber area, capillarization, and mitochondrial content in patients with breast cancer.

  6. A five-week exercise program can reduce falls and improve obstacle avoidance in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteyn, [No Value; Rijken, H; Smits-Engelsman, BCM; Mulder, T; Duysens, J

    2006-01-01

    Background: Falls in the elderly are a major health problem. Although exercise programs have been shown to reduce the risk of falls, the optimal exercise components, as well as the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of these programs, have not yet been established. Objective: To test

  7. A five-week exercise program can reduce falls and improve obstacle avoidance in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdesteijn, V.G.M.; Rijken, H.A.F.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.; Smits-Engelsman, B.C.M.; Mulder, T.; Duysens, J.E.J.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Falls in the elderly are a major health problem. Although exercise programs have been shown to reduce the risk of falls, the optimal exercise components, as well as the working mechanisms that underlie the effectiveness of these programs, have not yet been established. OBJECTIVE: To test

  8. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Effect of endurance exercise training on left ventricular size and remodeling in older adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Ehsani, A A

    2000-04-01

    It is not known whether exercise training can induce a reduction of blood pressure (BP) and a regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in older hypertensive subjects. This study was designed to determine whether endurance exercise training, by lowering BP, can induce regression of LVH and left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling in older hypertensive adults. We studied 11 older adults with mild to moderate hypertension (BP 152.0 +/- 2.5/91.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg, mean +/- SE), 65.5 +/- 1.2 years old, who exercised for 6.8 +/- 3.8 months. Seven sedentary hypertensive (BP 153 +/- 3/89 +/- 2 mm Hg) subjects, 68.5 +/- 1 years old, served as controls. LV size and geometry and function were assessed with the use of two-dimensional echocardiography. Exercise training increased aerobic power by 16% (p hypertension.

  10. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training - IPET - intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. Methods/Design The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. Discussion If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950. PMID:24964869

  11. A conceptual model for worksite intelligent physical exercise training--IPET--intervention for decreasing life style health risk indicators among employees: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike; Dalager, Tina; Søgaard, Karen

    2014-06-26

    Health promotion at the work site in terms of physical activity has proven positive effects but optimization of relevant exercise training protocols and implementation for high adherence are still scanty. The aim of this paper is to present a study protocol with a conceptual model for planning the optimal individually tailored physical exercise training for each worker based on individual health check, existing guidelines and state of the art sports science training recommendations in the broad categories of cardiorespiratory fitness, muscle strength in specific body parts, and functional training including balance training. The hypotheses of this research are that individually tailored worksite-based intelligent physical exercise training, IPET, among workers with inactive job categories will: 1) Improve cardiorespiratory fitness and/or individual health risk indicators, 2) Improve muscle strength and decrease musculoskeletal disorders, 3) Succeed in regular adherence to worksite and leisure physical activity training, and 3) Reduce sickness absence and productivity losses (presenteeism) in office workers. The present RCT study enrolled almost 400 employees with sedentary jobs in the private as well as public sectors. The training interventions last 2 years with measures at baseline as well as one and two years follow-up. If proven effective, the intelligent physical exercise training scheduled as well as the information for its practical implementation can provide meaningful scientifically based information for public health policy. ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950.

  12. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  13. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  14. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  15. Training reduces catabolic and inflammatory response to a single practice in female volleyball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Portal, Shawn; Zadik, Zvi; Meckel, Yoav; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    We examined the effect of training on hormonal and inflammatory response to a single volleyball practice in elite adolescent players. Thirteen female, national team level, Israeli volleyball players (age 16.0 ± 1.4 years, Tanner stage 4-5) participated in the study. Blood samples were collected before and immediately after a typical 60 minutes of volleyball practice, before and after 7 weeks of training during the initial phase of the season. Training involved tactic and technical drills (20% of time), power and speed drills (25% of time), interval sessions (25% of time), endurance-type training (15% of time), and resistance training (15% of time). To achieve greater training responses, the study was performed during the early phase (first 7 weeks) of the volleyball season. Hormonal measurements included the anabolic hormones growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and IGF-binding protein-3, the catabolic hormone cortisol, the proinflammatory marker interleukin-6 (IL-6), and the anti-inflammatory marker IL-1 receptor antagonist. Training led to a significant improvement of vertical jump, anaerobic properties (peak and mean power by the Wingate Anaerobic Test), and predicted VO2max (by the 20-m shuttle run). Volleyball practice, both before and after the training intervention, was associated with a significant increase of serum lactate, GH, and IL-6. Training resulted in a significantly reduced cortisol response ([INCREMENT]cortisol: 4.2 ± 13.7 vs. -4.4 ± 12.3 ng · ml, before and after training, respectively; p volleyball practice. The results suggest that along with the improvement of power and anaerobic and aerobic characteristics, training reduces the catabolic and inflammatory response to exercise.

  16. Body temperature and cold sensation during and following exercise under temperate room conditions in cold‐sensitive young trained females

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Naoto; Aoki‐Murakami, Erii; Tsuji, Bun; Kenny, Glen P.; Nagashima, Kei; Kondo, Narihiko; Nishiyasu, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Abstract We evaluated cold sensation at rest and in response to exercise‐induced changes in core and skin temperatures in cold‐sensitive exercise trained females. Fifty‐eight trained young females were screened by a questionnaire, selecting cold‐sensitive (Cold‐sensitive, n = 7) and non‐cold‐sensitive (Control, n = 7) individuals. Participants rested in a room at 29.5°C for ~100 min after which ambient temperature was reduced to 23.5°C where they remained resting for 60 min. Participants then...

  17. No Additive Effects of Polyphenol Supplementation and Exercise Training on White Adiposity Determinants of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lambert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major insulin resistance instigators is excessive adiposity and visceral fat depots. Individually, exercise training and polyphenol intake are known to exert health benefits as improving insulin sensitivity. However, their combined curative effects on established obesity and insulin resistance need further investigation particularly on white adipose tissue alterations. Therefore, we compared the effects on different white adipose tissue depot alterations of a combination of exercise and grape polyphenol supplementation in obese insulin-resistant rats fed a high-fat diet to the effects of a high-fat diet alone or a nutritional supplementation of grape polyphenols (50 mg/kg/day or exercise training (1 hr/day to 5 days/wk consisting of treadmill running at 32 m/min for a 10% slope, for a total duration of 8 weeks. Separately, polyphenol supplementation and exercise decreased the quantity of all adipose tissue depots and mesenteric inflammation. Exercise reduced adipocytes’ size in all fat stores. Interestingly, combining exercise to polyphenol intake presents no more cumulative benefit on adipose tissue alterations than exercise alone. Insulin sensitivity was improved at systemic, epididymal, and inguinal adipose tissues levels in trained rats thus indicating that despite their effects on adipocyte morphological/metabolic changes, polyphenols at nutritional doses remain less effective than exercise in fighting insulin resistance.

  18. Blood flow restriction training and the exercise pressor reflex: a call for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranger, Marty D; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Levy, Phillip D; O'Leary, Donal S; Smith, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training (also known as Kaatsu training) is an increasingly common practice employed during resistance exercise by athletes attempting to enhance skeletal muscle mass and strength. During BFR training, blood flow to the exercising muscle is mechanically restricted by placing flexible pressurizing cuffs around the active limb proximal to the working muscle. This maneuver results in the accumulation of metabolites (e.g., protons and lactic acid) in the muscle interstitium that increase muscle force and promote muscle growth. Therefore, the premise of BFR training is to simulate and receive the benefits of high-intensity resistance exercise while merely performing low-intensity resistance exercise. This technique has also been purported to provide health benefits to the elderly, individuals recovering from joint injuries, and patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Since the seminal work of Alam and Smirk in the 1930s, it has been well established that reductions in blood flow to exercising muscle engage the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), a reflex that significantly contributes to the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. However, the EPR and its likely contribution to the BFR-mediated cardiovascular response to exercise is glaringly missing from the scientific literature. Inasmuch as the EPR has been shown to generate exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity in disease states such as hypertension (HTN), heart failure (HF), and peripheral artery disease (PAD), concerns are raised that BFR training can be used safely for the rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular disease, as has been suggested. Abnormal BFR-induced and EPR-mediated cardiovascular complications generated during exercise could precipitate adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death). Moreover, although altered EPR function in HTN, HF, and PAD underlies our

  19. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  20. Reduced AMPK-ACC and mTOR signaling in muscle from older men, and effect of resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mengyao; Verdijk, Lex B; Sakamoto, Kei; Ely, Brian; van Loon, Luc J C; Musi, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy-sensitive enzyme that controls numerous metabolic and cellular processes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is another energy/nutrient-sensitive kinase that controls protein synthesis and cell growth. In this study we determined whether older versus younger men have alterations in the AMPK and mTOR pathways in skeletal muscle, and examined the effect of a long term resistance type exercise training program on these signaling intermediaries. Older men had decreased AMPKα2 activity and lower phosphorylation of AMPK and its downstream signaling substrate acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). mTOR phosphylation also was reduced in muscle from older men. Exercise training increased AMPKα1 activity in older men, however, AMPKα2 activity, and the phosphorylation of AMPK, ACC and mTOR, were not affected. In conclusion, older men have alterations in the AMPK-ACC and mTOR pathways in muscle. In addition, prolonged resistance type exercise training induces an isoform-selective up regulation of AMPK activity. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.