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Sample records for exercise training prevents

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain ...

  2. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  3. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  6. High-intensity exercise training for the prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rynders, Corey A; Weltman, Arthur

    2014-02-01

    Aerobic exercise training and diet are recommended for the primary prevention of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. The American Diabetes Association (ADA) recommends that adults with prediabetes engage in ≥ 150 minutes per week of moderate activity and target a 7% weight loss. However, traditional moderate-intensity (MI) exercise training programs are often difficult to sustain for prediabetic adults; a commonly cited barrier to physical activity in this population is the "lack of time" to exercise. When matched for total energy expenditure, high-intensity (HI) exercise training has a lower overall time commitment compared with traditional low-intensity (LI) or MI exercise training. Several recent studies comparing HI exercise training with LI and MI exercise training reported that HI exercise training improves skeletal muscle metabolic control and cardiovascular function in a comparable and/or superior way relative to LI and MI exercise training. Although patients can accrue all exercise benefits by performing LI or MI activities such as walking, HI activities represent a time-efficient alternative to meeting physical activity guidelines. High-intensity exercise training is a potent tool for improving cardiometabolic risk for prediabetic patients with limited time and may be prescribed when appropriate.

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 15 repetitions at a slow and controlled pace... Resistance Training Resistance training is exercise done against something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held ...

  8. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for ... Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Chronic Low Back Pain SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched ... DC Directional Exercises Electrothermal Modalities Ergonomic Changes Hydrotherapy Manual Therapy Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items (like small canned goods) ... matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility ... Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic ... Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ... Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 for Spine Epidural Steroid Injections Exercise: The Backbone of Spine Treatment Spondylolisthesis BLOG FIND A SPECIALIST Prevention ...

  15. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back Pain Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics ... increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  17. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  20. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Farah

    Full Text Available The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group: Sedentary control (SC, Trained control (TC, Sedentary Fructose (SF and Trained Fructose (TF. Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40-60% of maximum exercise test. Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05 and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox. The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04, arterial pressure (118±2mmHg, sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training.

  1. Exercise Training Prevents Cardiovascular Derangements Induced by Fructose Overload in Developing Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farah, Daniela; Nunes, Jonas; Sartori, Michelle; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Sirvente, Raquel; Silva, Maikon B.; Fiorino, Patrícia; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana; Farah, Vera; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2016-01-01

    The risks of chronic diseases associated with the increasing consumption of fructose-laden foods are amplified by the lack of regular physical activity and have become a serious public health issue worldwide. Moreover, childhood eating habits are strongly related to metabolic syndrome in adults. Thus, we aimed to investigate the preventive role of exercise training undertaken concurrently with a high fructose diet on cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in male rats after weaning. Male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups (n = 8/group): Sedentary control (SC), Trained control (TC), Sedentary Fructose (SF) and Trained Fructose (TF). Training was performed on a treadmill (8 weeks, 40–60% of maximum exercise test). Evaluations of cardiac function, hemodynamics, cardiovascular autonomic modulation and oxidative stress in plasma and in left ventricle (LV) were performed. Chronic fructose overload induced glucose intolerance and an increase in white adipose tissue (WAT) weight, in myocardial performance index (MPI) (SF:0.42±0.04 vs. SC:0.24±0.05) and in arterial pressure (SF:122±3 vs. SC:113±1 mmHg) associated with increased cardiac and vascular sympathetic modulation. Fructose also induced unfavorable changes in oxidative stress profile (plasmatic protein oxidation- SF:3.30±0.09 vs. SC:1.45±0.08 nmol/mg prot; and LV total antioxidant capacity (TRAP)- SF: 2.5±0.5 vs. SC:12.7±1.7 uM trolox). The TF group showed reduced WAT, glucose intolerance, MPI (0.35±0.04), arterial pressure (118±2mmHg), sympathetic modulation, plasmatic protein oxidation and increased TRAP when compared to SF group. Therefore, our findings indicate that cardiometabolic dysfunctions induced by fructose overload early in life may be prevented by moderate aerobic exercise training. PMID:27930685

  2. Exercise training prevents diastolic dysfunction induced by metabolic syndrome in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Mostarda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High fructose consumption contributes to the incidence of metabolic syndrome and, consequently, to cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether exercise training prevents high fructose diet-induced metabolic and cardiac morphofunctional alterations. METHODS: Wistar rats receiving fructose overload (F in drinking water (100 g/l were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT for 10 weeks or kept sedentary. These rats were compared with a control group (C. Obesity was evaluated by the Lee index, and glycemia and insulin tolerance tests constituted the metabolic evaluation. Blood pressure was measured directly (Windaq, 2 kHz, and echocardiography was performed to determine left ventricular morphology and function. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA, with significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced a metabolic syndrome state, as confirmed by insulin resistance (F: 3.6 ± 0.2 vs. C: 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dl/min, hypertension (mean blood pressure, F: 118 ± 3 vs. C: 104 ± 4 mmHg and obesity (F: 0.31±0.001 vs. C: 0.29 ± 0.001 g/mm. Interestingly, fructose overload rats also exhibited diastolic dysfunction. Exercise training performed during the period of high fructose intake eliminated all of these derangements. The improvements in metabolic parameters were correlated with the maintenance of diastolic function. CONCLUSION: The role of exercise training in the prevention of metabolic and hemodynamic parameter alterations is of great importance in decreasing the cardiac morbidity and mortality related to metabolic syndrome.

  3. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... support for your body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple ... use progressively heavier balls, you will experience more benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can ...

  4. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... following suggested exercises increases your back pain after five repetitions, or causes acute pain, you should stop ... 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or to fatigue... Prone Bridge/Plank Prop ...

  5. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! ... in a straight line. Hold for 10 seconds working towards 30 seconds. Repeat 1-5 times or ...

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both ... Return leg and extend other leg. Repeat to fatigue, about 10-15 repetitions at a slow and ...

  7. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... legs to touch the wall, keeping hips and knees bent. Use your hips to push your body ... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees bent. Draw abdominal wall in. Maintaining abdominal wall ...

  8. Role of PGC-1α in exercise training- and resveratrol-induced prevention of age-associated inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm; Nielsen, Maja Munk

    2013-01-01

    Age-related metabolic diseases are often associated with low-grade inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the transcriptional co-activator PGC-1α in the potential beneficial effects of exercise training and/or resveratrol in the prevention of age-associated low......-grade inflammation. To address this, a long-term voluntary exercise training and resveratrol supplementation study was conducted....

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done with quick short movements, or slow full movements. Repeat 10-15 times, to fatigue... Abdominal Exercise Lay on your back with both knees ... © 2018 North ...

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine ... Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on core strengthening, or building the muscles that provide support for your body. Pilates, yoga ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SI Joint Pain Other Scoliosis Back Pain and Emotional Distress Muscle Spasms Pinched Nerve Discitis Degenerative Conditions ... Physical Therapy Postural Training Traction Watchful Waiting and Education Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections ...

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... back to a standing position, then extend your arms and reach over your head and slightly backward. ... providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. ...

  13. Prevention: Exercise

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    Full Text Available ... Preventing Osteoporosis Back Pain Basics Book RESOURCES Patient Information Feature Articles Patient Q&A Success Stories Definitions Anatomy of the Spine Definitions A-Z Spine Specialists Videos 9 ...

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... something providing resistance. It can be done with weights (hand-held or training machines) or using isometric techniques. Common household items (like small canned goods) can be used instead of hand weights. Ask your doctor or physical therapist to prescribe ...

  15. Exercise training prevents the attenuation of anesthetic pre-conditioning-mediated cardioprotection in diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, L; Meng, F; Li, N; Zhang, L; Wang, J; Wang, H; Li, D; Zhang, X; Dong, P; Chen, Y

    2015-01-01

    Obesity abolishes anesthetic pre-conditioning-induced cardioprotection due to impaired reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway, a consequence of increased basal myocardial oxidative stress. Exercise training has been shown to attenuate obesity-related oxidative stress. This study tests whether exercise training could normalize ROS-mediated AMPK pathway and prevent the attenuation of anesthetic pre-conditioning-induced cardioprotection in obesity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into lean rats fed with control diet and obese rats fed with high-fat diet. After 4 weeks of feeding, lean and obese rats were assigned to sedentary conditions or treadmill exercise for 8 weeks. There was no difference in infarct size between lean sedentary and obese sedentary rats after 25 min of myocardial ischemia followed by 120 min reperfusion. In lean rats, sevoflurane equally reduced infarct size in lean sedentary and lean exercise-trained rats. Molecular studies revealed that AMPK activity, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and superoxide production measured at the end of ischemia in lean rats were increased in response to sevoflurane. In obese rats, sevoflurane increased the above molecular parameters and reduced infarct size in obese exercise-trained rats but not in obese sedentary rats. Additional study showed that obese exercise-trained rats had decreased basal oxidative stress than obese sedentary rats. The results indicate that exercise training can prevent the attenuation of anesthetic cardioprotection in obesity. Preventing the attenuation of this strategy may be associated with reduced basal oxidative stress and normalized ROS-mediated AMPK pathway, but the causal relationship remains to be determined. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Association of Exercise Training with Tobacco Smoking Prevents Fibrosis but has Adverse Impact on Myocardial Mechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis Junior, Dermeval; Antonio, Ednei Luiz; de Franco, Marcello Fabiano; de Oliveira, Helenita Antonia; Tucci, Paulo José Ferreira; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2016-12-01

    There was no data for cardiac repercussion of exercise training associated with tobacco smoking. This issue is interesting because some smoking people can be enrolled in an exercise-training program. Thus, we evaluated swimming training effects on the function and structural myocardial in rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Male Wistar rats were assigned to one of four groups: C, untrained rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; E, exercised rats without exposure to tobacco smoking; CS, untrained rats exposed to tobacco smoking; ECS, exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. Rats swam five times a week twice daily (60min per session) for 8 weeks. Before each bout exercise, rats breathed smoke from 20 cigarettes for 60min. Twenty-four hours after the last day of the protocol, papillary muscles were isolated for in vitro analysis of myocardial mechanics. The myocardial mass and nuclear cardiomyocyte volume were used as hypertrophy markers, and collagen content was determined by picrosirius red staining. There was a well-pronounced myocardial hypertrophic effect for two interventions. The exercise blunted myocardial collagen increases induced by tobacco smoking. However, exercise and tobacco-smoking association was deleterious to myocardial performance. Thereby, in vitro experiments with papillary muscles contracting in isometric showed impairment myocardial inotropism in exercised rats exposed to tobacco smoking. This work presents novel findings on the role of exercise training on cardiac remodeling induced by tobacco smoking. Although exercise has mitigated tissue fibrosis, their association with tobacco smoking exacerbated hypertrophy and in vitro myocardial dysfunction. This is first study to show that the association of an aerobic exercise training with tobacco smoking intensifies the phenotype of pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Therefore, the combination of interventions resulted in exacerbated myocardial hypertrophy and contractility dysfunction. These

  17. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  18. [Physical activity and exercise training in the prevention and therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francesconi, Claudia; Lackinger, Christian; Weitgasser, Raimund; Haber, Paul; Niebauer, Josef

    2016-04-01

    Lifestyle in general (nutrition, exercise, smoking habits), besides the genetic predisposition, is known to be a strong predictor for the development of diabetes. Exercise in particular is not only useful in improving glycaemia by lowering insulin resistance and positively affect insulin secretion, but to reduce cardiovascular risk.To gain substantial health benefits a minimum of 150 min of moderate or vigorous intense aerobic physical activity and muscle strengthening activities per week are needed. The positive effect of training correlates directly with the amount of fitness gained and lasts only as long as the fitness level is sustained. The effect of exercise is independent of age and gender. It is reversible and reproducible.Based on the large evidence of exercise referral and prescription the Austrian Diabetes Associations aims to implement the position of a "physical activity adviser" in multi-professional diabetes care.

  19. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    , exercise training, diet/nutritional counselling, weight control management, lipid management, blood pressure monitoring, smoking cessation, and psychosocial management. Cardiac rehabilitation services are by definition multi-factorial and comprehensive, with physical activity counselling and exercise...... training as central components in all rehabilitation and preventive interventions. Many of the risk factor improvements occurring in CR can be mediated through exercise training programmes. This call-for-action paper presents the key components of a CR programme: physical activity counselling and exercise...

  20. Fall prevention among older adults: Case reports exemplifying the value of incorporating lumbar stabilization training during balance exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Van Der Merwe

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Older adults are at risk of fallingeach year. Fall injuries results in many health care expenses anddisabilities, yet non-western countries lack the infra-structure andresources for prevention programs. Balance exercises have beenfound to be a cost effective evidence-based intervention in treatingand preventing falls among older adults in western countries.Purpose: The aim of this report was to show that lumbar stabilizationexercises are not only a beneficial addition to a balanceprogram for the prevention and treatment of falls in older adults,but to demonstrate that these exercise can more rapidly improve thefunctional status of older adults, limiting healthcare costs.Case description: Two high functional older adults with a historyof falls presented with poor balance and fear of falling. Both patientsreceived the same balance exercise regime however lumbar stabilization exercises were added to one of the patient’s exerciseprograms. Gait speed, lower extremity strength and balance were assessed with the Balance Evaluation systems test (BESTest,figure-of-eight, four-step-square (FSST, five-time-sit-to-stand tests (5TSTS after two weeks and four weeks of treatment.Outcomes. All the outcome measures showed statistically significant improvements. Greater improvements in vertical stabilitylimits (14%, gait speed (9%, stability during gait (20% and five-time-sit-to-stand test were seen with the addition of lumbarstabilization exercises.Discussion. The addition of lumbar stabilization exercises during balance training is of value to improve gait speed, balancetesting scores in stability in gait and vertical stability limits.

  1. Preventive role of exercise training in autonomic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters in rats under high risk of metabolic syndrome development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Silva, Ivana Cinthya; Mostarda, Cristiano; Moreira, Edson Dias; Silva, Kleiton Augusto Santos; dos Santos, Fernando; de Angelis, Kátia; Farah, Vera de Moura Azevedo; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia

    2013-03-15

    High fructose consumption contributes to metabolic syndrome incidence, whereas exercise training promotes several beneficial adaptations. In this study, we demonstrated the preventive role of exercise training in the metabolic syndrome derangements in a rat model. Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/l) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT) or kept sedentary (F) for 10 wk. Control rats treated with normal water were also submitted to exercise training (CT) or sedentarism (C). Metabolic evaluations consisted of the Lee index and glycemia and insulin tolerance test (kITT). Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured, whereas heart rate (HR) and BP variabilities were evaluated in time and frequency domains. Renal sympathetic nerve activity was also recorded. F rats presented significant alterations compared with all the other groups in insulin resistance (in mg · dl(-1) · min(-1): F: 3.4 ± 0.2; C: 4.7 ± 0.2; CT: 5.0 ± 0.5 FT: 4.6 ± 0.4), mean BP (in mmHG: F: 117 ± 2; C: 100 ± 2; CT: 98 ± 2; FT: 105 ± 2), and Lee index (in g/mm: F = 0.31 ± 0.001; C = 0.29 ± 0.001; CT = 0.27 ± 0.002; FT = 0.28 ± 0.002), confirming the metabolic syndrome diagnosis. Exercise training blunted all these derangements. Additionally, FS group presented autonomic dysfunction in relation to the others, as seen by an ≈ 50% decrease in baroreflex sensitivity and 24% in HR variability, and increases in sympathovagal balance (140%) and in renal sympathetic nerve activity (45%). These impairments were not observed in FT group, as well as in C and CT. Correlation analysis showed that both Lee index and kITT were associated with vagal impairment caused by fructose. Therefore, exercise training plays a preventive role in both autonomic and hemodynamic alterations related to the excessive fructose consumption.

  2. Fall prevention in postmenopausal women: the role of Pilates exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hita-Contreras, F; Martínez-Amat, A; Cruz-Díaz, D; Pérez-López, F R

    2016-06-01

    Falls and fall-related injuries are a major public health concern for postmenopausal women. Fear of falling, impairments in gait and postural control, and changes in body composition have been identified as important risk factors for falling. Physical exercise is an important tool in fall prevention and management. The Pilates method is a non-impact activity that can be adapted to different physical conditions and health status and is recommended for various populations. In postmenopausal women, it has been deemed an effective way to improve some fall-related physical and psychological aspects, such as postural and dynamic balance. In addition, some physical capacities, such as flexibility, personal autonomy, mobility, and functional ability have also shown to benefit from Pilates interventions involving women in their second half of life, as well as certain psychological aspects including fear of falling, depressive status, and quality of life. Pilates exercise has shown effectively to prevent falls in postmenopausal women by improving their balance, physical and psychological functioning, and independence. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to demonstrate its validity in different clinical situations.

  3. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load - A randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushoj, C.; Larsen, K.; Albrecht-Beste, E.

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. Hypothesis: A preventive training program base...

  4. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, E.F.S.; Mostarda, C.T.; Rodrigues, B.; Moraes-Silva, I.C.; Feriani, D.J.; De Angelis, K.; Irigoyen, M.C.

    2015-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg 2 ), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg 2 ). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement

  5. Exercise training prevents increased intraocular pressure and sympathetic vascular modulation in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, E.F.S. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Mostarda, C.T. [Universidade Federal do Maranhão, São Luís, MA (Brazil); Rodrigues, B. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Moraes-Silva, I.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Feriani, D.J. [Laboratório do Movimento Humano, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); De Angelis, K. [Laboratório de Fisiologia Translacional, Universidade Nove de Julho, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Irigoyen, M.C. [Unidade de Hipertensão, Instituto do Coração, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-02-13

    The present study aimed to study the effects of exercise training (ET) performed by rats on a 10-week high-fructose diet on metabolic, hemodynamic, and autonomic changes, as well as intraocular pressure (IOP). Male Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/L) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill for 10 weeks (FT group) or kept sedentary (F group), and a control group (C) was kept in normal laboratory conditions. The metabolic evaluation comprised the Lee index, glycemia, and insulin tolerance test (KITT). Arterial pressure (AP) was measured directly, and systolic AP variability was performed to determine peripheral autonomic modulation. ET attenuated impaired metabolic parameters, AP, IOP, and ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) induced by fructose overload (FT vs F). The increase in peripheral sympathetic modulation in F rats, demonstrated by systolic AP variance and low frequency (LF) band (F: 37±2, 6.6±0.3 vs C: 26±3, 3.6±0.5 mmHg{sup 2}), was prevented by ET (FT: 29±3, 3.4±0.7 mmHg{sup 2}). Positive correlations were found between the LF band and right IOP (r=0.57, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=0.64, P=0.003). Negative correlations were noted between KITT values and right IOP (r=-0.55, P=0.01) and left IOP (r=-0.62, P=0.005). ET in rats effectively prevented metabolic abnormalities and AP and IOP increases promoted by a high-fructose diet. In addition, ocular benefits triggered by exercise training were associated with peripheral autonomic improvement.

  6. Controlled ecological evaluation of an implemented exercise training programme to prevent lower limb injuries in sport: differences in implementation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Gabbe, Belinda J; Lloyd, David G; Cook, Jill; Finch, Caroline F

    2018-04-24

    The public health benefits of injury prevention programmes are maximised when programmes are widely adopted and adhered to. Therefore, these programmes require appropriate implementation support. This study evaluated implementation activity outcomes associated with the implementation of FootyFirst, an exercise training injury prevention programme for community Australian football, both with (FootyFirst+S) and without (FootyFirst+NS) implementation support. An evaluation plan based on the Reach Effectiveness Adoption Implementation Maintenance (RE-AIM) Sports Setting Matrix was applied in a controlled ecological evaluation of the implementation of FootyFirst. RE-AIM dimension-specific (range: 0-2) and total RE-AIM scores (range: 0-10) were derived by triangulating data from a number of sources (including surveys, interviews, direct observations and notes) describing FootyFirst implementation activities. The mean dimension-specific and total scores were compared for clubs in regions receiving FootyFirst+S and FootyFirst+NS, through analysis of variance. The mean total RE-AIM score forclubs in the FootyFirst+S regions was 2.4 times higher than for clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region (4.73 vs 1.94; 95% CI for the difference: 1.64 to 3.74). Similarly, all dimension-specific scores were significantly higher for clubs in the FootyFirst+S regions compared with clubs in the FootyFirst+NS region. In all regions, the dimension-specific scores were highest for reach and adoption, and lowest for implementation. Implementing exercise training injury prevention programmes in community sport is challenging. Delivering programme content supported by a context-specific and evidence-informed implementation plan leads to greater implementation activity, which is an important precursor to injury reductions. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise

  7. Aerobic exercise training prevents heart failure-induced skeletal muscle atrophy by anti-catabolic, but not anabolic actions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo W A Souza

    Full Text Available Heart failure (HF is associated with cachexia and consequent exercise intolerance. Given the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training (ET in HF, the aim of this study was to determine if the ET performed during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF would alter the expression of anabolic and catabolic factors, thus preventing skeletal muscle wasting.We employed ascending aortic stenosis (AS inducing HF in Wistar male rats. Controls were sham-operated animals. At 18 weeks after surgery, rats with cardiac dysfunction were randomized to 10 weeks of aerobic ET (AS-ET or to an untrained group (AS-UN. At 28 weeks, the AS-UN group presented HF signs in conjunction with high TNF-α serum levels; soleus and plantaris muscle atrophy; and an increase in the expression of TNF-α, NFκB (p65, MAFbx, MuRF1, FoxO1, and myostatin catabolic factors. However, in the AS-ET group, the deterioration of cardiac function was prevented, as well as muscle wasting, and the atrophy promoters were decreased. Interestingly, changes in anabolic factor expression (IGF-I, AKT, and mTOR were not observed. Nevertheless, in the plantaris muscle, ET maintained high PGC1α levels.Thus, the ET capability to attenuate cardiac function during the transition from cardiac dysfunction to HF was accompanied by a prevention of skeletal muscle atrophy that did not occur via an increase in anabolic factors, but through anti-catabolic activity, presumably caused by PGC1α action. These findings indicate the therapeutic potential of aerobic ET to block HF-induced muscle atrophy by counteracting the increased catabolic state.

  8. Implementing an exercise-training programme to prevent lower-limb injuries: considerations for the development of a randomised controlled trial intervention delivery plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; White, Peta; Twomey, Dara; Ullah, Shahid

    2011-08-01

    To identify important considerations for the delivery of an exercise training intervention in a randomised controlled trial to maximise subsequent participation in that randomised controlled trial and intervention uptake. A cross-sectional survey, with a theoretical basis derived from the Health Belief Model (HBM) and the Reach, Efficacy/Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework. 374 male senior Australian Football players, aged 17-38 years. Beliefs about lower-limb injury causation/prevention, and the relative value of exercise training for performance and injury prevention. The data are interpreted within HBM constructs and implications for subsequent intervention implementation considered within the RE-AIM framework. Ordinal logistic regression compared belief scores across player characteristics. 74.4% of players agreed that doing specific exercises during training would reduce their risk of lower-limb injury and would be willing to undertake them. However, 64.1% agreed that training should focus more on improving game performance than injury prevention. Younger players (both in terms of age and playing experience) generally had more positive views. Players were most supportive of kicking (98.9%) and ball-handling (97.0%) skills for performance and warm-up runs and cool-downs (both 91.5%) for injury prevention. Fewer than three-quarters of all players believed that balance (69.2%), landing (71.3%) or cutting/stepping (72.8) training had injury-prevention benefits. Delivery of future exercise training programmes for injury prevention aimed at these players should be implemented as part of routine football activities and integrated with those as standard practice, as a means of associating them with training benefits for this sport.

  9. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  10. Early exercise training after myocardial infarction prevents contractile but not electrical remodelling or hypertrophy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Bito (Virginie); M.C. de Waard (Monique); L. Biesmans (Liesbeth); I. Lenaerts (Ilse); S. Ozdemir (Semir); E.D. van Deel (Elza); Y. Abdel-Mottaleb (Yousra); R. Driesen (Ronald); P. Holemans (Patricia); D.J.G.M. Duncker (Dirk); K.R. Sipido (Karin)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractAims: Exercise started early after myocardial infarction (MI) improves in vivo cardiac function and myofilament responsiveness to Ca2+. We investigated whether this represents partial or complete reversal of cellular remodelling. Methods and results: Mice with MI following left coronary

  11. Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wesam Saleh A Al Attar

    2017-10-01

    Trial registration: ACTRN12615001206516. [Al Attar WSA, Soomro N, Pappas E, Sinclair PJ, Sanders RH (2017 Adding a post-training FIFA 11+ exercise program to the pre-training FIFA 11+ injury prevention program reduces injury rates among male amateur soccer players: a cluster-randomised trial. Journal of Physiotherapy 63: 235–242

  12. Are we adequately preparing the next generation of physicians to prescribe exercise as prevention and treatment? Residents express the desire for more training in exercise prescription

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kara Solmundson

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: FMR report EP is important, yet do not perceive they are sufficiently prepared to provide EP. In future curricular development, medical educators should consider residents’ low knowledge, competence, perceived program support, and their expressed desire for more training in exercise prescription.

  13. A Live Threat Violence Simulation Exercise for Psychiatric Outpatient Departments: A Valuable Aid to Training in Violence Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinstein, Robert E; Yager, Joel

    2017-10-30

    Violence in psychiatric outpatient settings is a ubiquitous concern. This article describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a live threat violence simulation exercise, designed to reduce the risk of future outpatient clinic violence and minimize the effects of future incidents on staff. The psychiatric outpatient clinic at the University of Colorado Hospital developed, implemented, and evaluated a 4-hour live violence threat simulation exercise as a companion to a 7-hour violence prevention program. The simulation includes an orientation, two threat simulation scenarios, three debriefings, satisfaction surveys, problem identification, action plans, and annual safety and process improvements. The authors have conducted live violence simulation exercises from 2011-2016, and have collected survey data about our annual simulation exercise from 2014-2016. Each year ≥ 52% of participants responded, and each year ≥ 90% of respondents rated the simulation as "very helpful/helpful", ≥ 86% believed themselves to be "much better/better" prepared to deal with violent episodes, and simulation side effects such as worries about past trauma; anxiety; sleep problems; increase in workplace concerns. From 2011-2016, the clinic experienced 4 major violent episodes and 36 episodes of potential violence with no staff injuries and minimal psychological sequelae to one staff member. Violence prevention efforts and the development of close police/staff relationships may have contributed to these fortunate outcomes. Satisfaction surveys suggest that the simulations are very helpful/helpful, with participants feeling much better/ better prepared to manage violence. The exercises led the authors to initiate staff safety related behavioral changes as well as physical space and safety processes improvements. The violence prevention program and simulation exercises have promoted excellent relationships with police and a consistent safety record over six years. This

  14. Bridging the gap between content and context: establishing expert consensus on the content of an exercise training program to prevent lower-limb injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Alex; Cook, Jill; Gabbe, Belinda; Lloyd, David G; Young, Warren; Finch, Caroline F

    2015-05-01

    To achieve expert consensus on the content of an exercise training program (known as FootyFirst) to prevent lower-limb injuries. Three-round online Delphi consultation process. Community Australian Football (AF). Members of the Australian Football Leagues' Medical Officers (n = 94), physiotherapists (n = 50), and Sports Science (n = 19) Associations were invited to participate through e-mail. Five people with more general expertise in sports-related lower-limb injury prevention were also invited to participate. The primary outcome measure was the level of agreement on the appropriateness of the proposed exercises and progressions for inclusion in FootyFirst. Consensus was reached when ≥75% of experts who responded to each item agreed and strongly agreed, or disagreed and strongly disagreed, that an exercise or its progressions were appropriate to include in FootyFirst. Fifty-five experts participated in at least 1 Delphi round. In round 1, consensus was achieved that the proposed warm-up (run through and dynamic stretches) and the exercises and progressions for hamstring strength and for balance, landing, and changing direction were appropriate to include in FootyFirst. There was also consensus in round 1 that progressions for hip/core strength should be included in FootyFirst. Consensus was reached in round 2 that the revised groin strength and hip strength exercises should be included in FootyFirst. Consensus was reached for the progression of the groin strength exercises in round 3. The formal consensus development process has resulted in an evidence-informed, researcher-developed, exercise-based sports injury prevention program that is expert endorsed and specific to the context of AF. Lower-limb injuries are common in running, kicking, and contact sports like AF. These injuries are often costly to treat, and many have high rates of recurrence, making them challenging to treat clinically. Reducing these injuries is a high priority for players, teams, and

  15. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  16. Prevention of overuse injuries by a concurrent exercise program in subjects exposed to an increase in training load: a randomized controlled trial of 1020 army recruits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brushøj, Christoffer; Larsen, Klaus; Albrecht-Beste, Elisabeth

    2008-01-01

    on a literature review of intrinsic risk factors, and performed concurrent with an increase in physical activity, can reduce the incidence of overuse knee injuries and medial tibial stress syndrome, as well as increase running distance. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial; Level of evidence, 1. METHODS...... no significant differences in incidence of injury between the prevention group and the placebo group (incidence, 0.22 vs 0.19; P = .162; relative risk = 1.05 [range, 0.98-1.11]). The soldiers in the prevention group had the greater improvement in running distance in 12-minute run tests (82 vs 43 m; P = .037......BACKGROUND: It is unknown whether an exercise program can prevent overuse injuries in the lower extremity. An often encountered and important risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries is an abrupt increase in activity level. HYPOTHESIS: A preventive training program based...

  17. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  18. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  19. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    metabolic adaptations, such as increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation, which is detrimental in GSDs. Training has not been studied systematically in any FAODs and in just a few GSDs. However, studies on single bouts of exercise in most metabolic myopathies show......Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...

  20. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  1. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  2. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  3. Preventing Australian football injuries with a targeted neuromuscular control exercise programme: comparative injury rates from a training intervention delivered in a clustered randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Twomey, Dara M; Fortington, Lauren V; Doyle, Tim L A; Elliott, Bruce C; Akram, Muhammad; Lloyd, David G

    2016-04-01

    Exercise-based training programmes are commonly used to prevent sports injuries but programme effectiveness within community men's team sport is largely unknown. To present the intention-to-treat analysis of injury outcomes from a clustered randomised controlled trial in community Australian football. Players from 18 male, non-elite, community Australian football clubs across two states were randomly allocated to either a neuromuscular control (NMC) (intervention n=679 players) or standard-practice (control n=885 players) exercise training programme delivered as part of regular team training sessions (2× weekly for 8-week preseason and 18-week regular-season). All game-related injuries and hours of game participation were recorded. Generalised estimating equations, adjusted for clustering (club unit), were used to compute injury incidence rates (IIRs) for all injuries, lower limb injuries (LLIs) and knee injuries sustained during games. The IIRs were compared across groups with cluster-adjusted Injury Rate Ratios (IRRs). Overall, 773 game injuries were recorded. The lower limb was the most frequent body region injured, accounting for 50% of injuries overall, 96 (12%) of which were knee injuries. The NMC players had a reduced LLI rate compared with control players (IRR: 0.78 (95% CI 0.56 to 1.08), p=0.14.) The knee IIR was also reduced for NMC compared with control players (IRR: 0.50 (95% CI 0.24 to 1.05), p=0.07). These intention-to-treat results indicate that positive outcomes can be achieved from targeted training programmes for reducing knee and LLI injury rates in men's community sport. While not statistically significant, reducing the knee injury rate by 50% and the LLI rate by 22% is still a clinically important outcome. Further injury reductions could be achieved with improved training attendance and participation in the programme. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to

  4. Exploration of the methodological quality and clinical usefulness of a cross-sectional sample of published guidance about exercise training and physical activity for the secondary prevention of coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2017-06-13

    Clinicians are encouraged to use guidelines to assist in providing evidence-based secondary prevention to patients with coronary heart disease. However, the expanding number of publications providing guidance about exercise training may confuse cardiac rehabilitation clinicians. We therefore sought to explore the number, scope, publication characteristics, methodological quality, and clinical usefulness of published exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation guidance. We included publications recommending physical activity, exercise or cardiac rehabilitation for patients with coronary heart disease. These included systematically developed clinical practice guidelines, as well as other publications intended to support clinician decision making, such as position papers or consensus statements. Publications were obtained via electronic searches of preventive cardiology societies, guideline databases and PubMed, to November 2016. Publication characteristics were extracted, and two independent assessors evaluated quality using the 23-item Appraisal of Guidelines Research and Evaluation II (AGREE) tool. Fifty-four international publications from 1994 to 2016 were identified. Most were found on preventive cardiology association websites (n = 35; 65%) and were freely accessible (n = 50; 93%). Thirty (56%) publications contained only broad recommendations for physical activity and cardiac rehabilitation referral, while 24 (44%) contained the necessary detailed exercise training recommendations. Many were labelled as "guidelines", however publications with other titles (e.g. scientific statements) were common (n = 24; 44%). This latter group of publications contained a significantly greater proportion of detailed exercise training recommendations than clinical guidelines (p = 0.017). Wide variation in quality also existed, with 'applicability' the worst scoring AGREE II domain for clinical guidelines (mean score 53%) and 'rigour of development' rated lowest for other

  5. Resistance Exercise to Prevent and Manage Sarcopenia and Dynapenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Timothy D; Clark, Leatha A; Clark, Brian C

    For well over twenty centuries the muscle wasting (sarcopenia) and weakness (dynapenia) that occurs with old age has been a predominant concern of mankind. Exercise has long been suggested as a treatment to combat sarcopenia and dynapenia, as it exerts effects on both the nervous and muscular systems that are critical to positive physiological and functional adaptations (e.g., enhanced muscle strength). For more than two decades scientists have recognized the profound role that progressive resistance exercise training can have on increasing muscle strength, muscle size and functional capacity in older adults. In this review article we discuss how resistance exercise training can be used in the management and prevention of sarcopenia and dynapenia. We first provide an overview of the evidence for this notion and highlight certain critical factors- namely exercise intensity, volume and progression- that are key to optimizing the resistance exercise prescription. We then highlight how many, if not most, of the commonly prescribed exercise programs for seniors are not the 'best practices', and subsequently present easy-to-read guidelines for a well-rounded resistance exercise training program designed for the management and prevention of sarcopenia and dynapenia, including example training programs for the beginner through the advanced senior resistance exerciser. These guidelines have been written for the academician as well as the student and health care provider across a variety of disciplines, including those in the long term care industry, such as wellness instructors or activity directors.

  6. Are we adequately preparing the next generation of physicians to prescribe exercise as prevention and treatment? Residents express the desire for more training in exercise prescription

    OpenAIRE

    Solmundson, Kara; Koehle, Michael; McKenzie, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is a key intervention for chronic disease, yet few physicians provide exercise prescription (EP). EP is an important component in larger strategies of reducing non-communicable disease (NCD). Our objective was to assess Family Medicine Residents (FMR) knowledge, competence, and perspectives of EP to help inform future curriculum development. Methods: A 49-item cross-sectional survey was administered to 396 University of British Columbia FMR. Residents’ EP...

  7. Exercise training in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, Mark

    2018-05-04

    Exercise training (ET) in heart failure (HF) has long been established as an important part of HF care. ET is known to improve quality of life and functional capacity in a number of ways. Despite its proposed benefits, evidence supporting its routine inclusion in standard rehabilitation programme is at times conflicting, partly because of the significant heterogeneity present in available randomised controlled trials. There is lack of evidence with regard to the duration of the overall benefit, the optimal exercise regimen and whether certain types of HF aetiologies benefit more than others. The aim of this review is to provide an update to date literature review of the positive and negative evidence surrounding ET in HF, while proposing an efficient novel in-hospital exercise-based rehabilitation programme for patients with HF in addition to a pre-existing HF clinic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  9. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  10. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  11. Prevention of hyperglycemia in Zucker diabetic fatty rats by exercise training: effects on gene expression in insulin-sensitive tissues determined by high-density oligonucleotide microarray analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colombo, Michele; Gregersen, Soeren; Kruhoeffer, Mogens

    2005-01-01

    , blood samples, soleus muscle, liver, visceral fat (epididymal fat pads), and islet tissue were collected. Gene expression was quantified with Affymetrix RG-U34A array (16 chips). Exercise training ameliorates the development of hyperglycemia and reduces plasma free fatty acid and the level of glucagon...

  12. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of strength training on cardiac risk prevention in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It has widely been shown that exercise, particularly aerobic exercise, has extensive cardioprotective benefits and is an important tool in the prevention of coronary heart disease (CHD). The present investigation aimed to determine the multivariate impact of strength training, designed to prevent the development of CHD, on ...

  14. Can exercise prevent cognitive decline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behrman, Sophie; Ebmeier, Klaus P

    2014-01-01

    As the tolerability of pharmacological agents decreases with age, exercise may be particularly helpful as a possible treatment or stabiliser of mood and cognitive function in older age. Exercise has been most commonly evaluated for the treatment of depression. Exercise interventions designed primarily for treatment of physical conditions in the elderly do appear to confer psychological benefits as well, with reduction in depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. The effects of exercise on reducing depressive symptoms are not dissimilar to the effects of antidepressant drugs and cognitive behaviour therapy. Exercise may be a useful low-tech intervention for people with mild to moderate depression. In particular, exercise may be helpful in the elderly and in patients who have had insufficient response to, or are intolerant of, pharmacotherapy. Mastery of a new skill and positive feedback from others may increase feelings of self-esteem and improve mood. Exercise may distract participants from persistent negative thoughts. Exercise has been shown to improve executive function acutely in adults of all ages. It is possible that dance routines or other exercise regimens requiring some cognitive input may confer additional benefit to cognitive function. Exercise has a moderate effect on the ability of people with dementia to perform activities of daily living and may improve cognitive function. Midlife exercise may also have an impact on later cognitive function.

  15. Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.L.; Gibson, T.A.; Vance, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release

  16. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  17. The Impact of Experiential Exercises on Communication and Relational Skills in a Suicide Prevention Gatekeeper-Training Program for College Resident Advisors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Susan; Wallack, Cory; Sartin, Robert M.; Dayton, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: In an effort to identify students at risk for suicide, many colleges are implementing suicide prevention training for campus gatekeepers. This study evaluated the efficacy of a 3-hour, experiential-based gatekeeper training that included an emphasis on enhancing communication skills and relational connection in addition to the didactic…

  18. Ingestion of glucose or sucrose prevents liver but not muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise in trained cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Stevenson, Emma J; Trenell, Michael I; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise. Expired breath was sampled during exercise to estimate whole body substrate use. After glucose and sucrose ingestion, liver glycogen levels did not show a significant decline after exercise (from 325 ± 168 to 345 ± 205 and 321 ± 177 to 348 ± 170 mmol/l, respectively; P > 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Muscle glycogen concentrations declined (from 101 ± 49 to 60 ± 34 and 114 ± 48 to 67 ± 34 mmol/l, respectively; P glycogen concentrations declined during exercise when only water was ingested. Both glucose and sucrose ingestion prevent liver glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Sucrose ingestion does not preserve liver glycogen concentrations more than glucose ingestion. However, sucrose ingestion does increase whole body carbohydrate utilization compared with glucose ingestion. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110836. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  20. Exercise-Based Performance Enhancement and Injury Prevention for Firefighters: Contrasting the Fitness- and Movement-Related Adaptations to Two Training Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, David M; Beach, Tyson A C; Callaghan, Jack P; McGill, Stuart M

    2015-09-01

    Using exercise to enhance physical fitness may have little impact on performers' movement patterns beyond the gym environment. This study examined the fitness and movement adaptations exhibited by firefighters in response to 2 training methodologies. Fifty-two firefighters were assigned to a movement-guided fitness (MOV), conventional fitness (FIT), or control (CON) group. Before and after 12 weeks of training, participants performed a fitness evaluation and laboratory-based test. Three-dimensional lumbar spine and frontal plane knee kinematics were quantified. Five whole-body tasks not included in the interventions were used to evaluate the transfer of training. FIT and MOV groups exhibited significant improvements in all aspects of fitness; however, only MOV exhibited improvements in spine and frontal plane knee motion control when performing each transfer task (effect sizes [ESs] of 0.2-1.5). FIT exhibited less controlled spine and frontal plane knee motions while squatting, lunging, pushing, and pulling (ES: 0.2-0.7). More MOV participants (43%) exhibited only positive posttraining changes (i.e., improved control), in comparison with FIT (30%) and CON (23%). Fewer negative posttraining changes were also noted (19, 25, and 36% for MOV, FIT, and CON). These findings suggest that placing an emphasis on how participants move while exercising may be an effective training strategy to elicit behavioral changes beyond the gym environment. For occupational athletes such as firefighters, soldiers, and police officers, this implies that exercise programs designed with a movement-oriented approach to periodization could have a direct impact on their safety and effectiveness by engraining desirable movement patterns that transfer to occupational tasks.

  1. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  2. The role of exercise for fall prevention in older age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Tiedemann

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Falls are a common, costly and preventable consequence of sensorimotor impairments that increase in prevalence with advancing age. A fall occurs when the physical ability of the individual is unable to match the immediate demands of the environment and/or of the activity being undertaken. Targeted exercise aimed at improving the physical ability of the individual, such as balance and strength training, is crucial for promoting functional independence and mobility and reducing the risk of falling in older age. Exercise programs that provide a high challenge to balance, have a high dose, include progression of intensity over time and are ongoing are most effective for preventing falls. This paper provides guidance to health professionals involved with the prescription of physical activity and exercise to older people regarding the safe and effective provision of programs aimed at improving strength and balance and preventing falls in older age.

  3. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  4. Quick Tips for Weight Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Weight training is one of the single most popular types of fitness activities in the United States. One of the reasons for its popularity is that it dramatically contributes to improved strength, muscle tone, body composition, health and appearance. Weight training is a progressive resistance exercise in which resistance is gradually increased as…

  5. Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training at Home randomised, controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Bates

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Falling when older is a major public health issue. There is compelling evidence to show that specific exercise programs can reduce the risk and rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Another major health issue for older people living in the community is upper limb dysfunction, including shoulder pain. Home-based exercise programs appeal to some older people, due to their convenience. Research questions: This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based lower limb exercise program compared with a home-based upper limb exercise program to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling people aged 65+ years. Design: Randomised, controlled trial. Participants and setting: A total of 576 community-dwelling people will be recruited from the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South Wales, Australia. Intervention: Participants will be randomised to either a home-based lower limb exercise intervention or a home-based upper limb exercise intervention. The lower limb program is designed to improve balance and strength in the lower limbs. The upper limb program is designed to improve upper limb strength and mobility. Participants will attend three group-based instruction sessions to learn and progress the exercises, and will be instructed to perform the exercises three times per week at home for 12 months. Outcome measures: The two primary outcomes will be fall rates, recorded with monthly calendars for a 12-month period, and upper limb dysfunction, measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include: lower limb strength and balance; shoulder strength and mobility; physical activity; quality of life; attitudes to exercise; proportion of fallers; fear of falling; and health and community service use. The cost-effectiveness of both exercise programs from a health and community service provider perspective will be evaluated

  6. Trial Protocol: Home-based exercise programs to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling older people: study protocol for the BEST (Balance Exercise Strength Training) at Home randomised, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Amanda; Furber, Susan; Tiedemann, Anne; Ginn, Karen; van den Dolder, Paul; Howard, Kirsten; Bauman, Adrian; Chittenden, Catherine; Franco, Lisa; Kershaw, Michelle; Sherrington, Catherine

    2018-04-01

    Falling when older is a major public health issue. There is compelling evidence to show that specific exercise programs can reduce the risk and rate of falls in community-dwelling older people. Another major health issue for older people living in the community is upper limb dysfunction, including shoulder pain. Home-based exercise programs appeal to some older people, due to their convenience. This trial aims to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a home-based lower limb exercise program compared with a home-based upper limb exercise program to prevent falls and upper limb dysfunction among community-dwelling people aged 65+ years. Randomised, controlled trial. A total of 576 community-dwelling people will be recruited from the Illawarra and Shoalhaven regions of New South Wales, Australia. Participants will be randomised to either a home-based lower limb exercise intervention or a home-based upper limb exercise intervention. The lower limb program is designed to improve balance and strength in the lower limbs. The upper limb program is designed to improve upper limb strength and mobility. Participants will attend three group-based instruction sessions to learn and progress the exercises, and will be instructed to perform the exercises three times per week at home for 12 months. The two primary outcomes will be fall rates, recorded with monthly calendars for a 12-month period, and upper limb dysfunction, measured with the Disability of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand questionnaire. Secondary outcomes will include: lower limb strength and balance; shoulder strength and mobility; physical activity; quality of life; attitudes to exercise; proportion of fallers; fear of falling; and health and community service use. The cost-effectiveness of both exercise programs from a health and community service provider perspective will be evaluated. Negative binomial regression models will be used to estimate the between-group difference in fall rates. Modified

  7. Eccentric exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooyackers, J.M.; Berkeljon, D.A.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen cost of eccentric exercise is lower than that of concentric exercise at similar work-loads. In this study, the response to eccentric cycle exercise training (EET) in addition to general exercise training (GET) on exercise performance and quality of life was investigated in 24 patients

  8. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  9. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.

  10. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang

    2015-01-01

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command

  11. Exercises to help prevent falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... help prevent falls because it can: Make your muscles stronger and more flexible Improve your balance Increase how ... To make your calves and ankle muscles stronger: Hold on to a solid ... of a chair. Stand with your back straight and slightly bend ...

  12. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  13. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training a...

  14. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  15. Playful home training for falls prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Jari Due; Lund, Henrik Hautop

    2015-01-01

    of training makes the elderly train more than they normally do, and they continue to find the training fun for up to 70 training times. Such motivation to train this much is important to understand, since studies of elderly people’s barriers to exercises indicate that motivation can be one of the very common...

  16. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beijsterveldt, A.M.C. van; Horst, N. van der; Port, I.G.L. van de; Backx, F.J.G.

    2013-01-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. Objective To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training

  17. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. [Prevention and treatment of cachexia : Exercise and nutritional therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilms, B; Schmid, S M; Luley, K; Wiskemann, J; Lehnert, H

    2016-10-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial and complex syndrome characterized by progressive functional impairment and ongoing loss in quality of life, which lead to a deterioration of the prognosis for affected patients. The prevalence of cachexia can be very high and is up to 80 % in patients with malignant tumors. The aim of the study was to assess the relevance of exercise and nutrition in the prevention and therapy of cachexia. An evaluation of the current literature on exercise and nutritional therapy in patients with cachexia or with advanced stage diseases where a high prevalence of cachexia is probable, was carried out. There is a lack of scientific evidence for the benefits of exercise in cachexia. A major problem of relevant studies was that cachexia was frequently not defined according to valid criteria; however, data indicate a benefit of exercise training in patients with advanced diseases associated with a high prevalence of cachexia. A solely nutritional intervention and dietary counselling seem to be of minimal benefit. The administration of omega 3 fatty acids is controversially discussed. Although there is a lack of data on the effects of exercise and nutritional therapy in cachexia, there is evidence for the benefits. The present data indicate the necessity for the use of a multimodal treatment including exercise, nutritional and pharmacological therapy in cachexia. There is a great necessity for prospective studies.

  19. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  20. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  1. Predictability of psychic outcome for exercise training and exercise training including relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. van Dixhoorn (J.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Predictability of the psychic outcome for two cardiac rehabilitation programmes was investigated in 119 myocardial infarction patients. They were randomly assigned to either a five-week daily exercise training or to an identical training in combination with six sessions

  2. Eccentric exercise: mechanisms and effects when used as training regime or training adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current review is to discuss applications and mechanism of eccentric exercise in training regimes of competitive sports. Eccentric muscle work is important in most sports. Eccentric muscle contractions enhance the performance during the concentric phase of stretch-shortening cycles, which is important in disciplines like sprinting, jumping, throwing, and running. Muscles activated during lengthening movements can also function as shock absorbers, to decelerate during landing tasks or to precisely deal with high external loading in sports like alpine skiing. The few studies available on trained subjects reveal that eccentric training can further enhance maximal muscle strength and power. It can further optimize muscle length for maximal tension development at a greater degree of extension, and has potential to improve muscle coordination during eccentric tasks. In skeletal muscles, these functional adaptations are based on increases in muscle mass, fascicle length, number of sarcomeres, and cross-sectional area of type II fibers. Identified modalities for eccentric loading in athletic populations involve classical isotonic exercises, accentuated jumping exercises, eccentric overloading exercises, and eccentric cycle ergometry. We conclude that eccentric exercise offers a promising training modality to enhance performance and to prevent injuries in athletes. However, further research is necessary to better understand how the neuromuscular system adapts to eccentric loading in athletes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    Electrical stimulation has a long history of use in medicine dating back to 46 A.D. when the Roman physician Largus found the electrical discharge of torpedo fishes useful in the treatment of pain produced by headache and gout. A rival Greek physician, Dioscorides, discounted the value of the torpedo fish for headache relief but did recommend its use in the treatment of hemorrhoids. In 1745, the Leyden jar and various sized electrostatic generators were used to treat angina pectoris, epilepsy, hemiplegia, kidney stones, and sciatica. Benjamin Franklin used an electrical device to treat successfully a young woman suffering from convulsive fits. In the late 1800's battery powered hydroelectric baths were used to treat chronic inflammation of the uterus while electrified athletic supporters were advertised for the treatment of male problems. Fortunately, such an amusing early history of the simple beginnings of electrical stimulation did not prevent eventual development of a variety of useful therapeutic and rehabilitative applications of electrical stimulation. Over the centuries electrical stimulation has survived as a modality in the treatment of various medical disorders with its primary application being in the rehabilitation area. Recently, a surge of new interest in electrical stimulation has been kindled by the work of a Russian sport scientist who reported remarkable muscle strength and endurance improvements in elite athletes. Yakov Kots reported his research on electric stimulation and strength improvements in 1977 at a Canadian-Soviet Exchange Symposium held at Concordia University in Montreal. Since then an explosion of new studies has been seen in both sport science and in medicine. Based upon the reported works of Kots and the present surge of new investigations, one could be misled as to the origin of electrical stimulation as a technique to increase muscle strength. As a matter of fact, electric stimulation has been used as a technique to improve

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell ... its associated cardiovascular risk still pose some consequences for health and ... Moderate intensity aerobic exercise is an effective complementary therapy in ...

  5. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  6. EXERCISE IN RESISTANCE-TRAINED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8 and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8. Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric (1RMecc test, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The eccentric velocity was controlled to 3 seconds per range of motion for SEV and 0.5 seconds for the FEV group. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001 in the kinetics of blood lactate removal (at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 20 min and higher mean values for peak blood lactate (P = 0.001 for the SEV group (9.1 ± 0.5 mM compared to the FEV group (6.1 ± 0.4 mM. Additionally, serum GH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001 at 15 minutes after bench press exercise in the SEV group (1.7 ± 0.6 ng · mL-1 relative to the FEV group (0.1 ± 0.0 ng · mL-1. In conclusion, the velocity of eccentric muscle action influences acute responses following bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men using a slow velocity resulting in a greater metabolic stress and hormone response.

  7. The perceived feasibility and acceptability of a conceptually challenging exercise training program in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miller CT

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Clint T Miller,1 Megan Teychenne,2 Jaimie-Lee Maple2 1School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Physical Activity and Nutrition (IPAN, School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, Geelong, VIC, Australia Background: Exercise training is an essential component of falls prevention strategies, but they do not fully address components of physical function that leads to falls. The training approaches to achieve this may not be perceived as appropriate or even feasible in older adults. This study aims to assess the perceived feasibility and acceptability of novel exercise training approaches not usually prescribed to older adults. Patients and methods: Fourteen adults were exposed to conceptually and physically demanding exercises. Interviews were then conducted to determine perceptions and acceptability of individual exercise tasks. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Results: Safety and confidence, acceptability, and population participation were the key themes identified. Staff knowledge, presence, program design, and overt safety equipment were important for alleviating initial apprehension. Although physically demanding, participants expressed satisfaction when challenged. Prior disposition, understanding the value, and the appeal of novel exercises were perceived to influence program engagement. Conclusion: Given the evidence for acceptability, this type of training is feasible and may be appropriate as part of an exercise training program for older adults. Further research should be conducted to confirm that the physical adaptations to exercise training approaches as presented in this study occur in a similar manner to that observed in younger adults, and to also determine whether these adaptations lead to prolonged independence and reduced falls in older adults compared to usual care. Keywords: falls, balance, qualitative analysis, thematic

  8. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  9. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  10. Regular exercise training reverses ectonucleotidase alterations and reduces hyperaggregation of platelets in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Caroline Curry; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Zanini, Daniela; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Dalenogare, Diéssica Padilha; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-15

    Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training (Pexercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF.......Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF....

  12. The perceived feasibility and acceptability of a conceptually challenging exercise training program in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T; Teychenne, Megan; Maple, Jaimie-Lee

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training is an essential component of falls prevention strategies, but they do not fully address components of physical function that leads to falls. The training approaches to achieve this may not be perceived as appropriate or even feasible in older adults. This study aims to assess the perceived feasibility and acceptability of novel exercise training approaches not usually prescribed to older adults. Fourteen adults were exposed to conceptually and physically demanding exercises. Interviews were then conducted to determine perceptions and acceptability of individual exercise tasks. Qualitative thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Safety and confidence, acceptability, and population participation were the key themes identified. Staff knowledge, presence, program design, and overt safety equipment were important for alleviating initial apprehension. Although physically demanding, participants expressed satisfaction when challenged. Prior disposition, understanding the value, and the appeal of novel exercises were perceived to influence program engagement. Given the evidence for acceptability, this type of training is feasible and may be appropriate as part of an exercise training program for older adults. Further research should be conducted to confirm that the physical adaptations to exercise training approaches as presented in this study occur in a similar manner to that observed in younger adults, and to also determine whether these adaptations lead to prolonged independence and reduced falls in older adults compared to usual care.

  13. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  14. An Evidence-Based Framework for Strengthening Exercises to Prevent Hamstring Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, Matthew N; Timmins, Ryan G; Opar, David A; Pizzari, Tania; Ruddy, Joshua D; Sims, Casey; Williams, Morgan D; Shield, Anthony J

    2018-02-01

    Strength training is a valuable component of hamstring strain injury prevention programmes; however, in recent years a significant body of work has emerged to suggest that the acute responses and chronic adaptations to training with different exercises are heterogeneous. Unfortunately, these research findings do not appear to have uniformly influenced clinical guidelines for exercise selection in hamstring injury prevention or rehabilitation programmes. The purpose of this review was to provide the practitioner with an evidence-base from which to prescribe strengthening exercises to mitigate the risk of hamstring injury. Several studies have established that eccentric knee flexor conditioning reduces the risk of hamstring strain injury when compliance is adequate. The benefits of this type of training are likely to be at least partly mediated by increases in biceps femoris long head fascicle length and improvements in eccentric knee flexor strength. Therefore, selecting exercises with a proven benefit on these variables should form the basis of effective injury prevention protocols. In addition, a growing body of work suggests that the patterns of hamstring muscle activation diverge significantly between different exercises. Typically, relatively higher levels of biceps femoris long head and semimembranosus activity have been observed during hip extension-oriented movements, whereas preferential semitendinosus and biceps femoris short head activation have been reported during knee flexion-oriented movements. These findings may have implications for targeting specific muscles in injury prevention programmes. An evidence-based approach to strength training for the prevention of hamstring strain injury should consider the impact of exercise selection on muscle activation, and the effect of training interventions on hamstring muscle architecture, morphology and function. Most importantly, practitioners should consider the effect of a strength training programme on

  15. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  16. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  17. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    Voluntary exercise is the traditional way of improving performance of the human body in both the healthy and unhealthy states. Physiological responses to voluntary exercise are well documented. It benefits the functions of bone, joints, connective tissue, and muscle. In recent years, research has shown that neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) simulates voluntary exercise in many ways. Generically, NMES can perform three major functions: suppression of pain, improve healing of soft tissues, and produce muscle contractions. Low frequency NMES may gate or disrupt the sensory input to the central nervous system which results in masking or control of pain. At the same time NMES may contribute to the activation of endorphins, serotonin, vasoactive intestinal polypeptides, and ACTH which control pain and may even cause improved athletic performances. Soft tissue conditions such as wounds and inflammations have responded very favorably to NMES. NMES of various amplitudes can induce muscle contractions ranging from weak to intense levels. NMES seems to have made its greatest gains in rehabilitation where directed muscle contractions may improve joint ranges of motion correct joint contractures that result from shortening muscles; control abnormal movements through facilitating recruitment or excitation into the alpha motoneuron in orthopedically, neurologically, or healthy subjects with intense sensory, kinesthetic, and proprioceptive information; provide a conservative approach to management of spasticity in neurological patients; by stimulation of the antagonist muscle to a spastic muscle stimulation of the agonist muscle, and sensory habituation; serve as an orthotic substitute to conventional bracing used with stroke patients in lieu of dorsiflexor muscles in preventing step page gait and for shoulder muscles to maintain glenohumeral alignment to prevent subluxation; and of course NMES is used in maintaining or improving the performance or torque producing

  18. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  19. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  20. Antioxidants for preventing and reducing muscle soreness after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranchordas, Mayur K; Rogerson, David; Soltani, Hora; Costello, Joseph T

    2017-12-14

    Muscle soreness typically occurs after intense exercise, unaccustomed exercise or actions that involve eccentric contractions where the muscle lengthens while under tension. It peaks between 24 and 72 hours after the initial bout of exercise. Many people take antioxidant supplements or antioxidant-enriched foods before and after exercise in the belief that these will prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of antioxidant supplements and antioxidant-enriched foods for preventing and reducing the severity and duration of delayed onset muscle soreness following exercise. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, SPORTDiscus, trial registers, reference lists of articles and conference proceedings up to February 2017. We included randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials investigating the effects of all forms of antioxidant supplementation including specific antioxidant supplements (e.g. tablets, powders, concentrates) and antioxidant-enriched foods or diets on preventing or reducing delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS). We excluded studies where antioxidant supplementation was combined with another supplement. Two review authors independently screened search results, assessed risk of bias and extracted data from included trials using a pre-piloted form. Where appropriate, we pooled results of comparable trials, generally using the random-effects model. The outcomes selected for presentation in the 'Summary of findings' table were muscle soreness, collected at times up to 6 hours, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours post-exercise, subjective recovery and adverse effects. We assessed the quality of the evidence using GRADE. Fifty randomised, placebo-controlled trials were included, 12 of which used a cross-over design. Of the 1089 participants, 961 (88.2%) were male and 128 (11.8%) were female. The age range for

  1. Molecular Mechanisms Linking Exercise to Cancer Prevention and Treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hojman, Pernille; Gehl, Julie; Christensen, Jesper F.

    2018-01-01

    The benefits of exercise training for cancer patients are becoming increasingly evident. Physical exercise has been shown to reduce cancer incidence and inhibit tumor growth. Here we provide the status of the current molecular understanding of the effect of exercise on cancer. We propose...... that exercise has a role in controlling cancer progression through a direct effect on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of anti-cancer treatment efficacy. These findings have wide-ranging societal implications......, as this understanding may lead to changes in cancer treatment strategies. Hojman et al. discuss the role of exercise in controlling cancer progression through direct effects on tumor-intrinsic factors, interplay with whole-body exercise effects, alleviation of cancer-related adverse events, and improvement of cancer...

  2. Exercise training starting at weaning age preserves cardiac pacemaker function in adulthood of diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho de Lima, Daniel; Guimarães, Juliana Bohnen; Rodovalho, Gisele Vieira; Silveira, Simonton Andrade; Haibara, Andrea Siqueira; Coimbra, Cândido Celso

    2014-08-01

    Peripheral sympathetic overdrive in young obese subjects contributes to further aggravation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and hypertension, thus inducing worsening clinical conditions in adulthood. Exercise training has been considered a strategy to repair obesity autonomic dysfunction, thereby reducing the cardiometabolic risk. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of early exercise training, starting immediately after weaning, on cardiac autonomic control in diet-induced obese rats. Male Wistar rats (weaning) were divided into four groups: (i) a control group (n = 6); (ii) an exercise-trained control group (n = 6); (iii) a diet-induced obesity group (n = 6); and (iv) an exercise-trained diet-induced obesity group (n = 6). The development of obesity was induced by 9 weeks of palatable diet intake, and the training program was implemented in a motor-driven treadmill (5 times per week) during the same period. After this period, animals were submitted to vein and artery catheter implantation to assess cardiac autonomic balance by methylatropine (3 mg/kg) and propranolol (4 mg/kg) administration. Exercise training increased running performance in both groups (p Exercise training also prevented the increased resting heart rate in obese rats, which seemed to be related to cardiac pacemaker activity preservation (p exercise program beginning at weaning age prevents cardiovascular dysfunction in obese rats, indicating that exercise training may be used as a nonpharmacological therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases.

  3. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  4. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  5. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  6. Exercise and Sports Science Australia position statement on exercise and falls prevention in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Anne; Sherrington, Catherine; Close, Jacqueline C T; Lord, Stephen R

    2011-11-01

    Falls affect a significant number of older Australians and present a major challenge to health care providers and health systems. The purpose of this statement is to inform and guide exercise practitioners and health professionals in the safe and effective prescription of exercise for older community-dwelling people with the goal of preventing falls. Falls in older people are not random events but can be predicted by assessing a number of risk factors. Of particular importance are lower limb muscle strength, gait and balance, all of which can be improved with appropriate exercise. There is now extensive evidence to demonstrate that many falls are preventable, with exercise playing a crucial role in prevention. Research evidence has identified that programs which include exercises that challenge balance are more effective in preventing falls than those which do not challenge balance. It is important for exercise to be progressively challenging, ongoing and of sufficient dose to maximise its benefits in reducing falls. Other (non-exercise) interventions are necessary for certain people with complex medical conditions or recent hospitalisation and risk factors relating to vision and the use of psychotropic medications. Qualified exercise professionals are well placed to implement the research evidence and to prescribe and supervise specific exercise aimed at preventing falls in both healthy older community-dwelling people and those with co-morbidities. Copyright © 2011 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Eccentric exercise training as a countermeasure to non-weight-bearing soleus muscle atrophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Ryan, Mirelle J.; Booth, Frank W.

    1992-01-01

    This investigation tested whether eccentric resistance training could prevent soleus muscle atrophy during non-weight bearing. Adult female rats were randomly assigned to either weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes or non-weight bearing +/- intramuscular electrodes groups. Electrically stimulated maximal eccentric contractions were performed on anesthetized animals at 48-h intervals during the 10-day experiment. Non-weight bearing significantly reduced soleus muscle wet weight (28-31 percent) and noncollagenous protein content (30-31 percent) compared with controls. Eccentric exercise training during non-weight bearing attenuated but did not prevent the loss of soleus muscle wet weight and noncollagenous protein by 77 and 44 percent, respectively. The potential of eccentric exercise training as an effective and highly efficient counter-measure to non-weight-bearing atrophy is demonstrated in the 44 percent attenuation of soleus muscle noncollagenous protein loss by eccentric exercise during only 0.035 percent of the total non-weight-bearing time period.

  8. Exercise training and the progression of chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Haaber, A B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    The possible beneficial effect of regular exercise training on the progression of chronic renal failure was studied in a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/(min.1.73 m2) (range 10-43) were randomized to physical training...... the rate of progression judged by the slope of GFR versus time plot was equal in the two groups. Hence, the beneficial effect of exercise training, earlier observed in rat studies, could not be reproduced in our patients. Physical exercise had no untoward effect on progression of renal disease....

  9. Exercise Interventions for Preventing Falls Among Older People in Care Facilities: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seon Heui; Kim, Hee Sun

    2017-02-01

    Falls in older people are a common problem, often leading to considerable morbidity. However, the overall effect of exercise interventions on fall prevention in care facilities remains controversial. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions on the rate of falls and number of fallers in care facilities. A meta-analysis was conducted of randomized controlled trials published up to December 2014. Eight databases were searched including Ovid-Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, KoreaMed, KMbase, KISS, and KisTi. Two investigators independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Twenty-one studies were selected, that included 5,540 participants. Fifteen studies included exercise as a single intervention, whereas the remaining six included exercise combined with two or more fall interventions tailored to each resident's fall risk (i.e., medication review, environmental modification or staff education). Meta-analysis showed that exercise had a preventive effect on the rate of falls (risk ratio [RR] 0.81, 95% CI 0.68-0.97). This effect was stronger when exercise combined with other fall interventions on the rate of falls (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.52-0.72) and on the number of fallers (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.77-0.95). Exercise interventions including balance training (i.e., gait, balance, and functional training; or balance and strength) resulted in reduced the rate of falls. Sensitivity analyses indicated that exercise interventions resulted in reduced numbers of recurrent fallers (RR 0.71, 95% CI 0.53-0.97). This review provides an important basis for developing evidence-based exercise intervention protocols for older people living in care facilities. Exercise programs, which are combined with tailored other fall interventions and challenge balance training to improve balance skills, should be applied to frail older people with functional limitations in institutional settings. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.

  10. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exer......Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one......-legged exercise training as well as in response to subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (phuman muscle....... The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of AMPK trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with AICAR in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (p

  11. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of exercise training is to initiate desirable physiological adaptations that ultimately enhance physical work capacity. Optimal training prescription requires an individualized approach, with an appropriate balance of training stimulus and recovery and optimal periodization. Recovery from exercise involves integrated physiological responses. The cardiovascular system plays a fundamental role in facilitating many of these responses, including thermoregulation and delivery/removal of nutrients and waste products. As a marker of cardiovascular recovery, cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following a training session is highly individualized. It appears to parallel the acute/intermediate recovery of the thermoregulatory and vascular systems, as described by the supercompensation theory. The physiological mechanisms underlying cardiac parasympathetic reactivation are not completely understood. However, changes in cardiac autonomic activity may provide a proxy measure of the changes in autonomic input into organs and (by default) the blood flow requirements to restore homeostasis. Metaboreflex stimulation (e.g. muscle and blood acidosis) is likely a key determinant of parasympathetic reactivation in the short term (0-90 min post-exercise), whereas baroreflex stimulation (e.g. exercise-induced changes in plasma volume) probably mediates parasympathetic reactivation in the intermediate term (1-48 h post-exercise). Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation does not appear to coincide with the recovery of all physiological systems (e.g. energy stores or the neuromuscular system). However, this may reflect the limited data currently available on parasympathetic reactivation following strength/resistance-based exercise of variable intensity. In this review, we quantitatively analyse post-exercise cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in athletes and healthy individuals following aerobic exercise, with respect to exercise intensity and duration, and fitness/training

  12. Preventive strength training improves working ergonomics during welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krüger, Karsten; Petermann, Carmen; Pilat, Christian; Schubert, Emil; Pons-Kühnemann, Jörn; Mooren, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a preventive strength training program on cardiovascular, metabolic and muscular strains during welding. Welders are one of the occupation groups which typically have to work in extended forced postures which are known to be an important reason for musculoskeletal disorders. Subjects (exercise group) accomplished a 12-week strength training program, while another group served as controls (control group). Pre and post training examinations included the measurements of the one repetition maximum and an experimental welding test. Local muscle activities were analysed by surface electromyography. Furthermore, heart rate, blood pressure, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were examined. In the exercise group, strength training lead to a significant increase of one repetition maximum in all examined muscles (pwelding test muscle activities of trunk and shoulder muscles and arm muscles were significantly reduced in the exercise group after intervention (pwelding (p<.05). Effects of strength training can be translated in an improved working ergonomics and tolerance against the exposure to high physical demands at work.

  13. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Fernanda R.; Soci, Ursula Paula Renó; De Angelis, Katia; Coelho, Marcele A.; Furstenau, Cristina R.; Vassallo, Dalton V.; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia; Oliveira, Edilamar M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C) and trained (T). An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05). RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 5′-nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion. PMID:22189737

  14. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Roque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  15. Exercise for falls prevention in older people: assessing the knowledge of exercise science students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturnieks, Daina L; Finch, Caroline F; Close, Jacqueline C T; Tiedemann, Anne; Lord, Stephen R; Pascoe, Deborah A

    2010-01-01

    Participation in appropriate exercise can help reduce the risk of falls and falls injury in older people. Delivery of population-level exercise interventions requires an expert workforce with skills in development and delivery of group exercise programs and prescription of individually targeted exercise. This study assessed the current knowledge of university exercise science students (as future exercise professionals) across different levels of study. A structured survey designed to assess knowledge in relation to falls in older people and exercise prescription for falls prevention was administered during second, third and fourth year lectures in seven Australian universities. Students' knowledge was assessed as the percent of correct responses. Overall, 566 students completed the survey and knowledge levels increased significantly with study year. Mean knowledge levels were significantly knowledge. They were lowest for falls risk factor questions and highest for issue/cost related questions in second and third year students. Fourth year students had best knowledge about falls interventions and this was the only group and topic with a mean score >70%. In conclusion, knowledge about falls and exercise prescription for falls prevention in current students does not meet a desired competency level of 70% and is therefore insufficient to ensure an adequately equipped future workforce in this area. There is a clear need for the development and widespread delivery of an evidence-based "exercise for falls prevention" curriculum module for exercise professionals. Copyright (c) 2009 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme in community football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Caroline F; Diamantopoulou, Kathy; Twomey, Dara M; Doyle, Tim L A; Lloyd, David G; Young, Warren; Elliott, Bruce C

    2014-04-01

    To determine the reach and adoption of a coach-led exercise training programme for lower limb injury prevention. Secondary analysis of data from a group-clustered randomised controlled trial. A periodised exercise training warm-up programme was delivered to players during training sessions over an 8-week preseason (weeks 1-8) and 18-week playing season. 1564 community Australian football players. Reach, measured weekly, was the number of players who attended training sessions. Adoption was the number of attending players who completed the programme in full, partially or not at all. Reasons for partial or non-participation were recorded. In week 1, 599 players entered the programme; 55% attended 1 training session and 45% attended > 1 session. By week 12, 1540 players were recruited but training attendance (reach) decreased to <50%. When players attended training, the majority adopted the full programme-ranging from 96% (week 1) to above 80% until week 20. The most common reasons for low adoption were players being injured, too sore, being late for training or choosing their own warm-up. The training programme's reach was highest preseason and halved at the playing season's end. However, when players attended training sessions, their adoption was high and remained close to 70% by season end. For sports injury prevention programmes to be fully effective across a season, attention also needs to be given to (1) encouraging players to attend formal training sessions and (2) considering the possibility of some form of programme delivery outside of formal training.

  17. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    and interferes with the exercise-induced adaptive response in human skeletal muscle. Study II demonstrates that mouse liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA content increased in recovery from acute exercise in both wildtype (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) mice, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK......) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise...

  18. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsible for this benefit are not fully understood, exercise is known to have ... smokers, alcoholic, diabetic, other cardiac, renal, respiratory disease patients were ..... rehabilitation should feel confident in the use of this mode of training in the ...

  19. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  20. Spreadsheet Decision Support Model for Training Exercise Material Requirements Planning

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tringali, Arthur

    1997-01-01

    ... associated with military training exercises. The model combines the business practice of Material Requirements Planning and the commercial spreadsheet software capabilities of Lotus 1-2-3 to calculate the requirements for food, consumable...

  1. Exercise following Mental Work Prevented Overeating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumeier, William H; Goodner, Emily; Biasini, Fred; Dhurandhar, Emily J; Menear, Kristi S; Turan, Bulent; Hunter, Gary R

    2016-09-01

    Mental work may promote caloric intake, whereas exercise may offset positive energy balance by decreasing energy intake and increasing energy expenditure. This study aimed to replicate previous findings that mental work increases caloric intake compared with a rest condition and assess whether exercise after mental work can offset this effect. Thirty-eight male and female university students were randomly assigned to mental work + rest (MW + R) or mental work + exercise (MW + E). Participants also completed a baseline rest (BR) visit consisting of no mental work or exercise. Visit order was counterbalanced. During the MW + R or MW + E visit, participants completed a 20-min mental task and either a 15-min rest (MW + R) or a 15-min interval exercise (MW + E). Each visit ended with an ad libitum pizza lunch. A two-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to compare eating behavior between groups. Participants in the MW + R condition consumed an average of 100 more kilocalories compared with BR (633.3 ± 72.9 and 533.9 ± 67.7, respectively, P = 0.02), and participants in MW + E consumed an average of 25 kcal less compared with BR (432.3 ± 69.2 and 456.5 ± 64.2, respectively, P > 0.05). When including the estimated energy expenditure of exercise in the MW + E conditions, participants were in negative energy balance by an average of 98.5 ± 41.5 kcal, resulting in a significant difference in energy balance between the two groups (P = 0.001). An acute bout of interval exercise after mental work resulted in significantly decreased food consumption compared with a nonexercise condition. These results suggest that an acute bout of exercise may be used to offset positive energy balance induced by mental tasks.

  2. Resistance exercise prevents plantar flexor deconditioning during bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamman, M. M.; Hunter, G. R.; Stevens, B. R.; Guilliams, M. E.; Greenisen, M. C.

    1997-01-01

    Because resistance exercise (REX) and unloading induce opposing neuromuscular adaptations, we tested the efficacy of REX against the effects of 14 d of bed rest unloading (BRU) on the plantar flexor muscle group. Sixteen men were randomly assigned to no exercise (NOE, N = 8) or REX (N = 8). REX performed 5 sets x 6-10 repetitions to failure of constant resistance concentric/eccentric plantar flexion every other day during BRU. One-repetition maximum (1RM) strength was tested on the training device. The angle-specific torque-velocity relationship across 5 velocities (0, 0.52, 1.05, 1.75, and 2.97 rad.s-1) and the full range-of-motion power-velocity relationship were assessed on a dynamometer. Torque-position analyses identified strength changes at shortened, neutral, and stretched muscle lengths. Concentric and eccentric contractile work were measured across ten repetitions at 1.05 rad.s-1. Maximal neural activation was measured by surface electromyography (EMG). 1RM decreased 9% in NOE and improved 11% in REX (P joint positions. Concentric (15%) and eccentric (11%) contractile work fell in NOE (P < 0.05) but not in REX. Maximal plantar flexor EMG did not change in either group. In summary, constant resistance concentric/eccentric REX completely prevented plantar flexor performance deconditioning induced by BRU. The reported benefits of REX should prove useful in prescribing exercise for astronauts in microgravity and for patients susceptible to functional decline during bed- or chair-bound hospital stays.

  3. PGC-1α in aging and lifelong exercise training-mediated regulation of UPR in mouse liver

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maag Kristensen, Caroline; Brandt, Christina Tingbjerg; Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    2017-01-01

    of specific UPR pathways and increased activity of the ATF6 pathway in the liver with aging. Lifelong exercise training prevented the age-associated change in BiP and IRE1α protein, but not cleaved ATF6 protein and resulted in further decreased PERK protein. Taken together, the present study provides evidence...... that the capacity and activity of the three UPR pathways are differentially regulated in the liver with aging and lifelong exercise training. In addition, PGC-1α does not seem to regulate the activity of hepatic UPR in response to exercise training, but to influence the capacity of the liver to induce UPR......Aging is associated with changes in several metabolic pathways affecting liver function including the adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR). On the other hand, exercise training has been shown to exert beneficial effects on metabolism in the liver and exercise training has been reported...

  4. Benefits of Exercise Training For Computer-Based Staff: A Meta Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mothna Mohammed

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Office workers sit down to work for approximately 8 hours a day and, as a result, many of them do not have enough time for any form of physical exercise. This can lead to musculoskeletal discomforts, especially low back pain and recently, many researchers focused on home/office-based exercise training for prevention/treatment of low back pain among this population. Objective: This Meta analyses paper tried to discuss about the latest suggested exercises for the office workers based on the mechanisms and theories behind low back pain among office workers. Method: In this Meta analyses the author tried to collect relevant papers which were published previously on the subject. Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed were used as sources to find the articles. Only articles that were published using the same methodology, including office workers, musculoskeletal discomforts, low back pain, and exercise training keywords, were selected. Studies that failed to report sufficient sample statistics, or lacked a substantial review of past academic scholarship and/or clear methodologies, were excluded. Results: Limited evidence regarding the prevention of, and treatment methods for, musculoskeletal discomfort, especially those in the low back, among office workers, is available. The findings showed that training exercises had a significant effect (p<0.05 on low back pain discomfort scores and decreased pain levels in response to office-based exercise training. Conclusion: Office-based exercise training can affect pain/discomfort scores among office workers through positive effects on flexibility and strength of muscles. As such, it should be suggested to occupational therapists as a practical way for the treatment/prevention of low back pain among office workers.

  5. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  6. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African-Americans versus Caucasians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M.; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Cook, Marc D.; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2015-01-01

    African-Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared to their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 weeks of moderate-high intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Methods Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men = 28, women = 36) with mean age = 24 underwent measures of arterial structure, function and blood pressure variables at baseline, post-4 week control period and 8 weeks post-training. Results There was a significant increase in VO2peak amongst both groups post exercise training. Brachial systolic blood pressure decreased significantly following control period in both groups but not following exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups post exercise training as compared to baseline. There was no change in any of the other blood pressure variables. AAs had a higher intima-media thickness at baseline and post-control period, but significantly decreased following exercise training compared to CAs. AAs had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and RH compared to CAs, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (cPWV) and wave-reflection (AIx) between the two groups at any time point. Conclusions This is the first study to show that, 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AAs, making it comparable to the CAs and with minimal effects on blood pressure variables. PMID:26225767

  7. Aerobic Exercise Training and Arterial Changes in African Americans versus Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranadive, Sushant M; Yan, Huimin; Lane, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Cook, Marc D; Sun, Peng; Harvey, Idethia; Ploutz-Synder, Robert; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Fernhall, B O

    2016-01-01

    African Americans (AA) have increased carotid artery intima-media thickness and decreased vascular function compared with their Caucasian (CA) peers. Aerobic exercise prevents and potentially reverses arterial dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 8 wk of moderate- to high-intensity aerobic training in young healthy sedentary AA and CA men and women. Sixty-four healthy volunteers (men, 28; women, 36) with mean age 24 yr underwent measures of arterial structure, function, and blood pressure (BP) variables at baseline, after the 4-wk control period, and 8 wk after training. There was a significant increase in VO2peak among both groups after exercise training. Brachial systolic BP decreased significantly after the control period in both groups but not after exercise training. Carotid pulse pressure decreased significantly in both groups after exercise training as compared with that in baseline. There was no change in any of the other BP variables. AA had higher intima-media thickness at baseline and after the control period but it significantly decreased after exercise training compared with that of CA. AA had significantly lower baseline forearm blood flow and reactive hyperemia compared with those of CA, but exercise training had no effect on these variables. There was no significant difference in arterial stiffness (central pulse wave velocity) and wave-reflection (augmentation index) between the two groups at any time point. This is the first study to show that 8 wk of aerobic exercise training causes significant improvement in the arterial structure in young, healthy AA, making it comparable with the CA and with minimal effects on BP variables.

  8. Low intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle regeneration potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana ePietrangelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 days of low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude (598 m a.s.l. improves skeletal muscle regeneration in sedentary adult women.Methods: Satellite cells were obtained from the vastus lateralis skeletal muscle of seven women before and after this exercise training at low altitude. They were investigated for differentiation aspects, superoxide anion production, antioxidant enzymes, mitochondrial potential variation after a depolarizing insult, intracellular Ca2+ concentrations, and micro (miRNA expression (miR-1, miR-133, miR-206.Results: In these myogenic populations of adult stem cells, those obtained after exercise training, showed increased Fusion Index and intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. This exercise training also generally reduced superoxide anion production in cells (by 12% to 67%, although not in two women, where there was an increase of ~15% along with a reduced superoxide dismutase activity. miRNA expression showed an exercise-induced epigenetic transcription profile that was specific according to the reduced or increased superoxide anion production of the cells. Conclusions: The present study shows that low-to-moderate exercise training at low altitude improves the regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult women. The differentiation of cells was favored by increased intracellular calcium concentration and increased the fusion index. This low-to-moderate training at low altitude also depicted the epigenetic signature of cells.

  9. Lessons learned from the quench-11 training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    16 organizations in 12 countries are participating in a RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise based on the Quench 11 experiment performed at Karlsruhe (Germany) in 2005. This exercise is being conducted in parallel to an International Standard Problem (ISP). Both the ISP and the RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise included a 'semi-blind' portion that was completed in the fall of 2006 and an 'open' portion that is to be completed in the summer of 2007. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise is coordinated by Innovative Systems Software with support by the International SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). The Quench-11 experiment is based on an electrically heated fuel rod bundle representative of a PWR design. The bundle was subjected to a boil down transient, heat-up, and quenching with peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the Zircaloy cladding. This experiment was chosen by the European Union as an International Benchmark exercise to compare the effectiveness of quenching models in the severe accident computer codes used today for accident analysis. This paper briefly describes (a) RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, (b) the Quench facility and experiments used in the training exercise, and (c) the training guidelines provided to the participants followed by a more detailed description of the lessons learned from the initial 'semi-blind' portion. The representative results demonstrate that good analysts can still have a difficult time predicting the thermal hydraulic response of a relative simple transient in a complex system

  10. Exercise Prescriptions to Prevent Musculoskeletal Disorders in Dentists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dodda Kiran; Mohan, Sreevalli; Begum, Mohammadi; Prasad, Bhanu; Prasad, Eswar Ravi Vara

    2014-01-01

    Since the number of dental patients is increasing day by day dentists are forced to spend longer times in dental chairs. This is increasing the prevalence of musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. This article reviews the mechanisms causing musculoskeletal disorders among dentists and also covers the exercises that can be done to prevent them. Exercises that increase the fitness of a dentist are divided into aerobic exercises – concentrating on total body fitness, stretching exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that tend to tighten in prolonged dental postures and strengthening exercises – that concentrate on the muscles that are opposite to the tight muscles. These exercises are made simple and of minimal intensity so that a dentist can practice them independently. PMID:25177661

  11. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    in response to 4 weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training. However, the acute exercise-induced increase in mRNA expression of several metabolic and mitochondrial marker genes is impaired in the mice lacking AMPKα1 and α2. In addition to the two studies and some currently unpublished data this thesis...

  12. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P exercise training (P smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P exercise training (P smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  13. Ventilatory responses to exercise training in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, Monique; Michallet, Anne-Sophie; Estève, François; Perrin, Claudine; Levy, Patrick; Wuyam, Bernard; Flore, Patrice

    2012-10-15

    The aim of this study was to examine ventilatory responses to training in obese adolescents. We assessed body composition, pulmonary function and ventilatory responses (among which expiratory flow limitation and operational lung volumes) during progressive cycling exercise in 16 obese adolescents (OB) before and after 12 weeks of exercise training and in 16 normal-weight volunteers. As expected, obese adolescents' resting expiratory reserve volume was lower and inversely correlated with thoraco-abdominal fat mass (r = -0.74, p<0.0001). OB presented lower end expiratory (EELV) and end inspiratory lung volumes (EILV) at rest and during submaximal exercise, and modest expiratory flow limitation. After training, OB increased maximal aerobic performance (+19%) and maximal inspiratory pressure (93.7±31.4 vs. 81.9±28.2 cm H2O, +14%) despite lack of decrease in trunk fat and body weight. Furthermore, EELV and EILV were greater during submaximal exercise (+11% and +9% in EELV and EILV, respectively), expiratory flow limitation delayed but was not accompanied by increased V(T). However, submaximal exertional symptoms (dyspnea and leg discomfort) were significantly decreased (-71.3% and -70.7%, respectively). Our results suggest that exercise training can improve pulmonary function at rest (static inspiratory muscle strength) and exercise (greater operating lung volumes and delayed expiratory flow limitation) but these modifications did not entirely account for improved dyspnea and exercise performance in obese adolescents. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    of approximately one training session per week. RESULTS: In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo......INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training...... frequency. METHODS: Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency...

  15. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  16. Can endurance exercise preconditioning prevention disuse muscle atrophy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Wiggs

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence suggests that exercise training can provide a level of protection against disuse muscle atrophy. Endurance exercise training imposes oxidative, metabolic, and heat stress on skeletal muscle which activates a variety of cellular signaling pathways that ultimately leads to the increased expression of proteins that have been demonstrated to protect muscle from inactivity –induced atrophy. This review will highlight the effect of exercise-induced oxidative stress on endogenous enzymatic antioxidant capacity (i.e., superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase, the role of oxidative and metabolic stress on PGC1-α, and finally highlight the effect heat stress and HSP70 induction. Finally, this review will discuss the supporting scientific evidence that these proteins can attenuate muscle atrophy through exercise preconditioning.

  17. Computer-assisted upper extremity training using interactive biking exercise (iBikE) platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, In Cheol; Finkelstein, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Upper extremity exercise training has been shown to improve clinical outcomes in different chronic health conditions. Arm-operated bicycles are frequently used to facilitate upper extremity training however effective use of these devices at patient homes is hampered by lack of remote connectivity with clinical rehabilitation team, inability to monitor exercise progress in real time using simple graphical representation, and absence of an alert system which would prevent exertion levels exceeding those approved by the clinical rehabilitation team. We developed an interactive biking exercise (iBikE) platform aimed at addressing these limitations. The platform uses a miniature wireless 3-axis accelerometer mounted on a patient wrist that transmits the cycling acceleration data to a laptop. The laptop screen presents an exercise dashboard to the patient in real time allowing easy graphical visualization of exercise progress and presentation of exercise parameters in relation to prescribed targets. The iBikE platform is programmed to alert the patient when exercise intensity exceeds the levels recommended by the patient care provider. The iBikE platform has been tested in 7 healthy volunteers (age range: 26-50 years) and shown to reliably reflect exercise progress and to generate alerts at pre-setup levels. Implementation of remote connectivity with patient rehabilitation team is warranted for future extension and evaluation efforts.

  18. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  19. Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: physical activity counselling and exercise training: key components of the position paper from the Cardiac Rehabilitation Section of the European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corrà, Ugo; Piepoli, Massimo F; Carré, François

    2010-01-01

    of a healthy lifestyle. These secondary prevention targets are included in the overall goal of cardiac rehabilitation (CR). Cardiac rehabilitation can be viewed as the clinical application of preventive care by means of a professional multi-disciplinary integrated approach for comprehensive risk reduction...... and global long-term care of cardiac patients. The CR approach is delivered in tandem with a flexible follow-up strategy and easy access to a specialized team. To promote implementation of cardiac prevention and rehabilitation, the CR Section of the EACPR (European Association of Cardiovascular Prevention...... and Rehabilitation) has recently completed a Position Paper, entitled 'Secondary prevention through cardiac rehabilitation: A condition-oriented approach'. Components of multidisciplinary CR for seven clinical presentations have been addressed. Components include patient assessment, physical activity counselling...

  20. Artificial Gravity with Ergometric Exercise Training Improves Cardiovascular Function in Ambulatory Men

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xi-Qing; Zhu, Chao; Shang, Shu; Yao, Yong-Jie

    2008-06-01

    The necessity of preventing physiological deconditioning in astronauts exposed to long-term space flights is well known. Artificial gravity training via short-arm centrifugation as a countermeasure to microgravity has been considered for many years. However, an optimal duration, level and rate of exposure to artificial gravity have not yet been determined. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the cardiovascular effects of three weeks of intermittent artificial gravity with ergometric exercise training on normal ambulatory men. During 3 weeks experiment, eight healthy male subjects received alternate +1 to +2 Gz (at the foot) short-arm centrifuge training with 30 W ergometric exercise for 30 min per day. Cardiac function, heart rate variability, heart rate and blood pressure were measured before and after training. Stroke volume and total peripheral resistance increased significantly after 3 weeks training, compared with the pre-training baseline. Left ventricular ejection time (LVET) and ejection fraction increased significantly after 3 weeks training, while heart rate, the ratio of pre-ejection period to LVET, and the ratio of low frequency to high frequency power decreased significantly after 3 weeks training. These results suggest that three weeks short-arm centrifuge training with ergometric exercise could improve human cardiac systolic and pumping functions, and increase cardiac vagal modulation.

  1. Respiratory Muscle Training and Exercise Endurance at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R

    2016-08-01

    Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.

  2. Exercise and Sports Science Australia (ESSA) position statement on exercise prescription for the prevention and management of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Belinda R; Daly, Robin M; Singh, Maria A Fiatarone; Taaffe, Dennis R

    2017-05-01

    Osteoporotic fractures are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. Although exercise has long been recommended for the prevention and management of osteoporosis, existing guidelines are often non-specific and do not account for individual differences in bone health, fracture risk and functional capacity. The aim of the current position statement is to provide health practitioners with specific, evidence-based guidelines for safe and effective exercise prescription for the prevention or management of osteoporosis, accommodating a range of potential comorbidities. Position statement. Interpretation and application of research reports describing the effects of exercise interventions for the prevention and management of low bone mass, osteoporosis and osteoporotic fracture. Evidence from animal and human trials indicates that bone responds positively to impact activities and high intensity progressive resistance training. Furthermore, the optimisation of muscle strength, balance and mobility minimises the risk of falls (and thereby fracture), which is particularly relevant for individuals with limited functional capacity and/or a very high risk of osteoporotic fracture. It is important that all exercise programs be accompanied by sufficient calcium and vitamin D, and address issues of comorbidity and safety. For example, loaded spine flexion is not recommended, and impact activities may require modification in the presence of osteoarthritis or frailty. Specific guidelines for safe and effective exercise for bone health are presented. Individual exercise prescription must take into account existing bone health status, co-morbidities, and functional or clinical risk factors for falls and fracture. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system in fructose-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, Eliete Dalla Corte; Medeiros, Renata Frauches; Giori, Isabele Gomes; Lima, Juliana Bittencourt Silveira; Bento-Bernardes, Thais; Gaique, Thaiane Gadioli; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline; Fernandes, Tiago; Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Vieira, Carla Paulo; Conte-Junior, Carlos Adam; Oliveira, Karen Jesus; Nobrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas

    2017-09-01

    What is the central question of this study? What are the effects of exercise training on the hepatic renin-angiotensin system and their contribution to damage resulting from fructose overload in rats? What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training attenuated the deleterious actions of the angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin II/angiotensin II type 1 receptor axis and increased expression of the counter-regulatory (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2/angiotensin (1-7)/Mas receptor) axis in the liver. Therefore, our study provides evidence that exercise training modulates the hepatic renin-angiotensin system, which contributes to reducing the progression of metabolic dysfunction and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in fructose-fed rats. The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been implicated in the development of metabolic syndrome. We investigated whether the hepatic RAS is modulated by exercise training and whether this modulation improves the deleterious effects of fructose overload in rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into (n = 8 each) control (CT), exercise control (CT-Ex), high-fructose (HFr) and exercise high-fructose (HFr-Ex) groups. Fructose-drinking rats received d-fructose (100 g l -1 ). After 2 weeks, CT-Ex and HFr-Ex rats were assigned to a treadmill training protocol at moderate intensity for 8 weeks (60 min day -1 , 4 days per week). We assessed body mass, glucose and lipid metabolism, hepatic histopathology, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity, the angiotensin concentration and the expression profile of proteins affecting the hepatic RAS, gluconeogenesis and inflammation. Neither fructose overload nor exercise training influenced body mass gain and serum ACE and ACE2 activity. The HFr group showed hyperinsulinaemia, but exercise training normalized this parameter. Exercise training was effective in preventing hepatic steatosis and in preventing triacylglycerol and

  4. Genetic testing for exercise prescription and injury prevention: AIS-Athlome consortium-FIMS joint statement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David C; Griffiths, Lyn R; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis P; Pigozzi, Fabio; Bachl, Nobert; Eynon, Nir

    2017-11-14

    There has been considerable growth in basic knowledge and understanding of how genes are influencing response to exercise training and predisposition to injuries and chronic diseases. On the basis of this knowledge, clinical genetic tests may in the future allow the personalisation and optimisation of physical activity, thus providing an avenue for increased efficiency of exercise prescription for health and disease. This review provides an overview of the current status of genetic testing for the purposes of exercise prescription and injury prevention. As such there are a variety of potential uses for genetic testing, including identification of risks associated with participation in sport and understanding individual response to particular types of exercise. However, there are many challenges remaining before genetic testing has evidence-based practical applications; including adoption of international standards for genomics research, as well as resistance against the agendas driven by direct-to-consumer genetic testing companies. Here we propose a way forward to develop an evidence-based approach to support genetic testing for exercise prescription and injury prevention. Based on current knowledge, there is no current clinical application for genetic testing in the area of exercise prescription and injury prevention, however the necessary steps are outlined for the development of evidence-based clinical applications involving genetic testing.

  5. Cognitive decline in prostate cancer patients undergoing ADT: a potential role for exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundell, Niamh L; Daly, Robin M; Macpherson, Helen; Fraser, Steve F

    2017-04-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) is an effective and widely prescribed treatment for prostate cancer (PCa), but it is associated with multiple treatment-induced adverse effects that impact on various musculoskeletal and cardiometabolic health outcomes. Emerging research has shown that ADT is also associated with cognitive impairment, which has been linked to a loss of independence, increased falls and fracture risk and greater use of medical services. The aim of this review is to outline the evidence related to the effect of ADT use on cognitive function, and propose a role for exercise training as part of usual care to prevent and/or manage cognitive impairments for PCa survivors on ADT. The following results have been obtained from this study. ADT has been shown to adversely affect specific cognitive domains, particularly verbal memory, visuomotor function, attention and executive function. However, current clinical guidelines do not recommend routine assessment of cognitive function in these men. No studies have examined whether exercise training can preserve or improve cognitive function in these men, but in healthy adults', multimodal exercise training incorporating aerobic training, progressive resistance training (PRT) and challenging motor control exercises have the potential to attenuate cognitive decline. In conclusion, as treatment with ADT for men with PCa has been associated with a decline in cognition, it is recommended that cognitive function be routinely monitored in these men and that regular exercise training be prescribed to preserve (or improve) cognitive function. Assessment of cognition and individualised exercise training should be considered in the usual treatment plan of PCa patients receiving ADT. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  6. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  7. Redox modulation of mitochondriogenesis in exercise. Does antioxidant supplementation blunt the benefits of exercise training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Cabrera, Mari Carmen; Salvador-Pascual, Andrea; Cabo, Helena; Ferrando, Beatriz; Viña, Jose

    2015-09-01

    Physical exercise increases the cellular production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in muscle, liver, and other organs. This is unlikely due to increased mitochondrial production but rather to extramitochondrial sources such as NADPH oxidase or xanthine oxidase. We have reported a xanthine oxidase-mediated increase in ROS production in many experimental models from isolated cells to humans. Originally, ROS were considered as detrimental and thus as a likely cause of cell damage associated with exhaustion. In the past decade, evidence showing that ROS act as signals has been gathered and thus the idea that antioxidant supplementation in exercise is always recommendable has proved incorrect. In fact, we proposed that exercise itself can be considered as an antioxidant because training increases the expression of classical antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase and, in general, lowering the endogenous antioxidant enzymes by administration of antioxidant supplements may not be a good strategy when training. Antioxidant enzymes are not the only ones to be activated by training. Mitochondriogenesis is an important process activated in exercise. Many redox-sensitive enzymes are involved in this process. Important signaling molecules like MAP kinases, NF-κB, PGC-1α, p53, heat shock factor, and others modulate muscle adaptation to exercise. Interventions aimed at modifying the production of ROS in exercise must be performed with care as they may be detrimental in that they may lower useful adaptations to exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (ptraining devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after training. There

  9. Forward lunge: a training study of eccentric exercises of the lower limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jönhagen, Sven; Ackermann, Paul; Saartok, Tönu

    2009-05-01

    A few studies have shown that eccentric exercise is effective for prevention and treatment of muscle injuries. Most earlier studies on eccentric exercises have used training with advanced equipment. Forward lunges are considered eccentric exercises, and they may be performed without any equipment. These exercises are commonly used by sprint runners. We performed a prospective, randomized, 6-week training study comparing the effects of walking or jumping forward lunges on hamstring and quadriceps strength and function. Thirty-two soccer players were included in the study. The forward lunge training was done as an addition to ordinary soccer training twice a week for 6 weeks. The outcome was measured by the maximal hamstring and quadriceps strength tests and by functional tests with 1-leg hop tests and 30-m sprint runs. Overall muscle pain was evaluated using a visual analogue scale score, and local pain was estimated with an algometer. Whereas the walking lunge improved hamstring strength, the jumping lunge resulted in sprint running improvements. Algometer testing showed a general increase in the pain detection thresholds of all subjects, including the controls. Thus, precautions should be taken when algometers are used for temporal studies of pain. Walking and jumping forward lunges can be used for improving hamstring strength and running speed in young soccer player. The findings may have relevance when designing protocols for prevention and rehabilitation of muscle injuries.

  10. [Factors regarding awareness of preventive care exercises: Distance to exercise facilities and their social networks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soma, Yuki; Tsunoda, Kenji; Kitano, Naruki; Jindo, Takashi; Okura, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines factors affecting individuals' awareness of certain types of preventive care exercises, particularly the distance from their home to an exercise facility and their social networks. Participants were 3206 men (age, 73.0±6.2 years) and 3395 women (age, 73.2±6.4 years) aged ≥65 years who had not been certified as persons with care needs and who had responded to an inventory survey conducted in Kasama City, Japan, in 2013. We performed multiple logistic regression analysis to assess the characteristics associated with participants' awareness of two types of exercises for preventive care: "silver rehabili taisou" (SRT) and "square-stepping exercise" (SSE). Independent variables were distance from home to the exercise facility, social networks, transportation availability, physical function, cognitive function, and neighborhood population density. Older adults who were aware of the exercises lived significantly closer to an exercise facility (SRT, aware: 1,148.5±961.3 m vs. unaware: 1,284.2±1,027.4 m; SSE, aware: 1,415.9±1104.1 m vs. unaware: 1,615.7±1,172.2 m). Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that participation in community activities (men, SRT-odds ratio [OR]=2.54 and SSE-OR=2.19; women, SRT-OR=4.14 and SSE-OR=3.34] and visiting friends (men, SRT-OR=1.45 and SSE-OR=1.49; women SRT-OR=1.44 and SSE-OR=1.73) were promoting factors for awareness of both types of exercises. In men and women, low physical function (SRT-OR=0.73 and SSE-OR=0.56) and dependence on another person to drive them to the destination (SRT-OR=0.79 and SSE-OR=0.78) were inhibiting factors, respectively. A distance of >500 m between their home and the facility tended to be an inhibiting factor. A shorter distance from home to an exercise facility and better social networks increased awareness of preventive care exercises in both sexes and for both types of exercise. Establishing exercise centers and devising effective methods of imparting information to

  11. Comparison of trunk kinematics in trunk training exercises and throwing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stodden, David F; Campbell, Brian M; Moyer, Todd M

    2008-01-01

    Strength and conditioning professionals, as well as coaches, have emphasized the importance of training the trunk and the benefits it may have on sport performance and reducing the potential for injury. However, no data on the efficacy of trunk training support such claims. The purpose of this study was to examine the maximum differential trunk rotation and maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso of participants while they performed 4 trunk exercises (seated band rotations, cross-overs, medicine ball throws, and twisters) and compare these trunk exercise kinematics with the trunk kinematics demonstrated in actual throwing performance. Nine NCAA Division I baseball players participated in this study. Each participant's trunk kinematics was analyzed while he performed 5 repetitions of each exercise in both dominant and nondominant rotational directions. Results indicated maximum differentiated rotation in all 4 trunk exercises was similar to maximum differentiated rotation (approximately 50-60 degrees) demonstrated in throwing performance. Maximum angular velocities of the pelvis and upper torso in the trunk exercises were appreciably slower (approximately 50% or less) than the angular velocities demonstrated during throwing performance. Incorporating trunk training exercises that demonstrate sufficient trunk ranges of motion and velocities into a strength and conditioning program may help to increase ball velocity and/or decrease the risk injury.

  12. Epidemiological studies of exercise in diabetes prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing public health problems in both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that the number of people with diabetes in the world will double in coming years, from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Cardiovascular disease accounts...... and increase in physical activity) can prevent type 2 diabetes. Our review of the scientific evidence confirms that 30 min/d of moderate- or high-level physical activity is an effective and safe way to prevent type 2 diabetes in all populations....

  13. What's new since Hippocrates? Preventing type 2 diabetes by physical exercise and diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawley, J A; Gibala, M J

    2012-03-01

    Since the work of Eriksson and Lindgärde, published over two decades ago (Diabetologia 1991;34:891-898), we have known that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed by supervised lifestyle interventions (physical exercise and diet modification) in persons at risk of the disease. Here we discuss a novel, time-efficient approach to physical exercise prescription, low-volume, high-intensity interval training (LVHIT), and its efficacy for inducing a range of health benefits in a variety of populations at risk of inactivity-related diseases. We look to the future and suggest that current guidelines for exercise may need to be revised to include different training techniques to deliver the optimum exercise prescription. Indeed, we predict that subsequent exercise guidelines will include LVHIT as part of a comprehensive 'fitness menu' that allows individuals to select the exercise regimen that best fulfils their medical needs, is suited to their lifestyle and daily time restraints, and meets their personal goals.

  14. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  15. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  16. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  17. Exercise and exercise training-induced increase in autophagy markers in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Moderately trained male subjects (mean age 25 years; range 19-33 years) completed an 8-week exercise training intervention consisting of continuous moderate cycling at 157 ± 20 W for 60 min (MOD; n = 6) or continuous moderate cycling (157 ± 20 W) interspersed by 30-sec sprints (473 ± 79 W) every 10...... muscle AMPKThr172 and ULKSer317 phosphorylation was elevated immediately after exercise, whereas mTORSer2448 and ULKSer757 phosphorylation was unchanged. Two hours after exercise LC3I, LC3II and BNIP3 protein content was overall higher than before exercise with no change in p62 protein. In MOD, Beclin1...... protein content was higher immediately and 2 h after exercise than before exercise, while there were no differences within SPRINT. Oxphos complex I, LC3I, BNIP3 and Parkin protein content was higher after the training intervention than before in both groups, while there was no difference in LC3II and p62...

  18. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  19. Gatekeeper Training in Campus Suicide Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, Cory; Servaty-Seib, Heather L.; Taub, Deborah J.

    2013-01-01

    Gatekeeper training is one of the most commonly employed methods for identifying and intervening with at-risk students (Davidson and Locke, 2010). Within the context of campus suicide prevention, a gatekeeper is broadly defined as any individual who has the potential to come into contact with at-risk students (Davidson and Locke, 2010). Although…

  20. Endurance exercise training increases peripheral vascular response in human fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, K; Shimoda, M; Maeda, J; Takemiya, T

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify whether peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure is changed by endurance exercise training. The healthy male subjects (training group; n = 6) performed endurance exercise training that consisted of cycle ergometer exercise 5 d.week-1 and 30 min.d-1 for a period of 8 weeks. Changes in the peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger were measured by a differential digital photoplethysmogram (DeltaDPG) and blood pressure during passive movement of the arm to different vertical hand positions relative to heart level. Following 8 weeks of endurance training, percent changes in DeltaDPG from heart level in the training group increased significantly (mean +/- SD, -48.1 +/- 7. 3 to -58.7 +/- 9.3% at the lowered position, 46.1 +/- 13.4 to 84.6 +/- 8.8% at the elevated position, ppressure, also significantly changed in the training group over the 8 weeks (5.6 +/- 1.3 to 2.7 +/- 1.6 mV. V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the lowered position, 30.0 +/- 12.4 to 54.4 +/- 18. 9 mV.V-1.s-1.mmHg-1 at the elevated position ). Maximal oxygen uptake (V.O2 max) was significantly increased in the training group. On the other hand, the control group (n = 6) showed no significant changes in all parameters for 8 weeks. Therefore these results suggest that endurance exercise training induces an increase in peripheral vascular response to alteration of transmural pressure in the human finger.

  1. Are we having fun yet? Fostering adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keats, Melanie R; Emery, Carolyn A; Finch, Caroline F

    2012-03-01

    Sport and recreational activities are the leading cause of injury in youth, yet there is increasing evidence that many sport-related injuries are preventable. For injury prevention strategies to be effective, individuals must understand, adopt and adhere to the recommended prevention strategy or programme. Despite the recognized importance of a behavioural approach, the inclusion of behavioural change strategies in sport injury prevention has been historically neglected. The purpose of this commentary is to outline the rationale for the inclusion and application of behavioural science in reducing the burden of injury by increasing adherence to proven prevention strategies. In an effort to provide an illustrative example of a behavioural change approach, the authors suggest a specific plan for the implementation of a neuromuscular training strategy to reduce the risk of lower limb injury in youth sport. Given the paucity of evidence in the sport injury prevention setting, and the lack of application of theoretical frameworks to predicting adoption and adherence to injury preventive exercise recommendations in youth sport, data from the related physical activity promotion domain is utilized to describe how sound, theory-based injury prevention exercise interventions in youth may be developed. While the question of how to facilitate behavioural change and optimize adherence to preventive exercise recommendations remains an ongoing challenge, the authors detail several strategies based on two prominent behavioural theories to aid the reader in conceptualizing, designing and implementing effective interventions. Despite the minimal application of behavioural theory within the field of sport injury prevention in youth, behavioural science has the potential to make a significant impact on the understanding and prevention of youth sport injury. Appropriate evaluation of adherence and maintenance components based on models of behavioural change should be a critical

  2. Physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles during military helicopter flight - a need for exercise training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir

    /shoulder muscles to assess possible overload that may call for exercise training to improve capacity and prevent neck pain. Methods Nine pilots and nine crew members from the Royal Danish Air Force participated in a standardized representative flight sortie encompassing: Patient transportation (A-B flight...... with the flexed and/or rotated positioning of the head may play a role for the high prevalence of neck/shoulder pain among this occupational group. The present exposure-assessment suggests that strengthening exercises for the UNE, lowering the relative load during flights, could potentially alleviate neck pain....

  3. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  4. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1......). There were no changes in quality of life. Conclusions. The effect of exercise training in these older CHF-patients was not as impressive as reported in younger and more selected patients. More studies on the efficiency of exercise training that reflect the age- and co-morbidity of the majority of CHF...

  5. An Insight into the Effect of Exercises on the Prevention of Osteoporosis and Associated Fractures in High-Risk Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Senderovich

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this review was to investigate what type of exercises can potentially prevent osteoporosis (OP and its associated fractures in high-risk populations. MEDLINE was searched for work relevant to various types of exercises used to prevent osteoporotic fractures in high-risk population, from the year 1995 onwards. Twelve articles were identified, and, from them, four were deemed suitable to the objective. The studies reviewed show that various types of exercise are effective and safe in preventing the onset of OP. For example, high-intensity progressive resistance training (HiPRT has been shown to increase vertebral height and femoral neck bone mineral density (BMD, in addition to improving functional performance. Additional studies reviewed suggested that bone reabsorption levels may be positively impacted by low-impact exercise, such as walking. This review provides insight into the effectiveness of various types of exercise to combat and possibly prevent OP for high-risk individuals, which include postmenstrual Caucasian females, people with multiple comorbidities, individuals who smoke or consume alcohol, and the frail elderly population. The prevention of OP should reduce both the social (emotional and economic burdens faced by patients, caregivers, and health-care systems. Moving forward, research that identifies and bridges pharmaceutical treatment and exercise should be conducted, in addition to the comparison of passive versus active forms of exercise to determine which treatment best prevents OP in high-risk populations.

  6. High-intensity interval training vs. moderate-intensity continuous training in the prevention/management of cardiovascular disease

    OpenAIRE

    Hussain, S; Macaluso, A; Pearson, S

    2016-01-01

    Moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) has long been considered the most effective exercise treatment modality for the prevention and management of cardiovascular disease, but more recently high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has emerged into the clinical environment has been viewed as a potential alternative to MICT in accruing such benefits. HIIT was initially found to induce significant improvements in numerous physiological and health-related indices, to a similar if not superi...

  7. Is hypoxia training good for muscles and exercise performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans

    2010-01-01

    Altitude training has become very popular among athletes as a means to further increase exercise performance at sea level or to acclimatize to competition at altitude. Several approaches have evolved during the last few decades, with "live high-train low" and "live low-train high" being the most popular. This review focuses on functional, muscular, and practical aspects derived from extensive research on the "live low-train high" approach. According to this, subjects train in hypoxia but remain under normoxia for the rest of the time. It has been reasoned that exercising in hypoxia could increase the training stimulus. Hypoxia training studies published in the past have varied considerably in altitude (2300-5700 m) and training duration (10 days to 8 weeks) and the fitness of the subjects. The evidence from muscle structural, biochemical, and molecular findings point to a specific role of hypoxia in endurance training. However, based on the available performance capacity data such as maximal oxygen uptake (Vo(2)max) and (maximal) power output, hypoxia as a supplement to training is not consistently found to be advantageous for performance at sea level. Stronger evidence exists for benefits of hypoxic training on performance at altitude. "Live low-train high" may thus be considered when altitude acclimatization is not an option. In addition, the complex pattern of gene expression adaptations induced by supplemental training in hypoxia, but not normoxia, suggest that muscle tissue specifically responds to hypoxia. Whether and to what degree these gene expression changes translate into significant changes in protein concentrations that are ultimately responsible for observable structural or functional phenotypes remains open. It is conceivable that the global functional markers such as Vo(2)max and (maximal) power output are too coarse to detect more subtle changes that might still be functionally relevant, at least to high-level athletes.

  8. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently some plasma biomarkers of inflammation have been recognized as important cardiovascular risk factors. There is little information about the effects of aerobic exercise training on these biomarkers and the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: To compare the ...

  9. Impact of exercise training on arterial wall thickness in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been

  10. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center and Regional Security; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  12. Exercise training raises daily activity stronger than predicted from exercise capacity in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behnke, Michaela; Wewel, Alexandra R; Kirsten, Detlef; Jörres, Rudolf A; Magnussen, Helgo

    2005-06-01

    The 6-min walking (6MWD) and 6-min treadmill distance (6MTD) are often used as measures of exercise performance in patients with COPD. The aim of our study was to assess their relationship to daily activity in the course of an exercise training program. Eighty-eight patients with stable COPD (71m/17f; mean +/- SD age, 60 +/-8 year; FEV1, 43+/-14% pred) were recruited, 66 of whom performed a hospital-based 10-day walking training, whereas 22 were treated as control. On day 16MTD, and on days 8 and 10, 6MTD and 6MWD were determined. In addition, patients used an accelerometer (TriTrac-R3D) to record 24 h-activity, whereby training sessions were excluded. In both groups there was a linear relationship (r > or = 0.84 and P daily activity did not markedly vary with exercise capacity under baseline conditions. Participation in a training program increased activity significantly stronger than predicted from the gain in exercise capacity. This underlines the importance of non-physiological, patient-centered factors associated with training in COPD.

  13. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  14. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  15. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqin Li; Mengchao Yao; Qiulian Zhou; Yan Cheng; Lin Che; Jiahong Xu; Junjie Xiao; Zhongming Shen; Yihua Bei

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response ...

  16. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  17. Effect of outpatient exercise training programmes in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Suzan; Zwerink, Marlies; van Brussel, M.; van der Valk, P.D.; Wajon, E.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2012-01-01

    Advantages of outpatient exercise training are reduced waiting lists, better compliance, reduced time investment by the patient with reduced travel expenses, and less dependence on other people to participate. Therefore, this systematic review studies the effects of outpatient exercise training

  18. Benefits of lifelong exercise training on left ventricular function after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Stevens, G.G.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Endurance exercise training induces cardio-protective effects, but athletes are not exempted from a myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies suggests that exercise training attenuates pathological left ventricular remodelling following myocardial infarction. We tested the

  19. A randomized study of the effects of exercise training on patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Kjaer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown.......Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown....

  20. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  1. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  2. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control)

  3. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martha Finck; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; David Chamberlain; Don Dry; George Brooks; Margaret Goldberg

    2012-03-01

    The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a Radioactive Response Training Range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive Br-82 isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics.

  4. Exercise training as treatment of neck pain among fighter pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke

    ) seldom, trained but stopped, 6) no participation at all. Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contraction (MVC) and Rate of Force Development (RFD) for cervical flexion and extension were measured by strain-gauge transducers. Results Prevalence of neck pain was significantly reduced in ET from baseline (mean ± SD......Introduction Neck and shoulder pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots and a growing aero-medical concern. Unfortunately, previous intervention studies have been unsuccessful in relieving such pain within this occupational group. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise...... intervention could reduce the high prevalence of neck pain among fighter pilots. Methods F-16 pilots were randomized in a controlled intervention trial, to either an exercise-training-group (ET, n=27) or reference-group (REF, n=28). ET underwent 24 weeks of strength, endurance, and coordination training, 3...

  5. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  6. High Intensity Exercise Countermeasures does not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following Prolonged Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platts, Steven H.; Stenger, Michael B.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 20% of Space Shuttle astronauts became presyncopal during operational stand and 80deg head-up tilt tests, and the prevalence of orthostatic intolerance increases after longer missions. Greater than 60% of the US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions experienced presyncope during post-flight tilt tests, perhaps related to limitations of the exercise hardware that prevented high intensity exercise training until later ISS missions. The objective of this study was to determine whether an intense resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasure program designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 d of bed rest (BR), a space flight analog, would protect against post-BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS Twenty-six subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups: non-exercise controls (n=11) or one of two exercise groups (ExA, n=8; ExB, n=7). Both ExA and ExB groups performed the same resistive and aerobic exercise countermeasures during BR, but one exercise group received testosterone supplementation while the other received a placebo during BR in a double-blinded fashion. On 3 d/wk, subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and 30 min of continuous aerobic exercise (=75% max heart rate). On the other 3 d/wk, subjects performed only highintensity, interval-style aerobic exercise. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80? head-up tilt test performed 2 d (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using carbon monoxide rebreathing on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). The code for the exercise groups has not been broken, and results are reported here without group identification. RESULTS Only one subject became presyncopal during tilt testing on BR-2, but 7 of 11 (63%) controls, 3 of 8 (38%) ExA, and 4 of 7 (57%) ExB subjects were presyncopal on BR70. Survival analysis of post-BR tilt tests revealed no

  7. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  8. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of training...

  9. Exercise for prevention of cardiovascular disease: Evidence-based recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geevar Zachariah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Sedentary lifestyle is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD. In India, a large percentage of the people are physically inactive with fewer than 10% engaging in recreational physical activity. Physical activity has many beneficial effects on the risk factors for CVD. Apart from improving fitness level, it decreases myocardial oxygen demand and improves myocardial perfusion. There is an inverse association between physical activity and all-cause mortality. In primary prevention, physical inactivity is associated with a two-fold increase in the risk for coronary events. In secondary prevention, data confirm the existence of an inverse dose–response relationship between cardiovascular fitness and the all-cause mortality in large populations of cardiovascular patients. Guidelines from the American authorities as well as the European Society of Cardiology provide specific recommendations for exercise depending on the clinical setting (primary or secondary prevention of CVD and the patient-specific factors (the patient's physical activity level and the perceived CVD risk. The present review summarizes the clinical evidence regarding the role of exercise in CVD prevention and the exercise recommendations from the leading Cardiac societies.

  10. Creatine supplementation prevents acute strength loss induced by concurrent exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Salles Painelli, Vítor; Alves, Victor Tavares; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos; Benatti, Fabiana Braga; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Gualano, Bruno; Roschel, Hamilton

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the effect of creatine (CR) supplementation on the acute interference induced by aerobic exercise on subsequent maximum dynamic strength (1RM) and strength endurance (SE, total number of repetitions) performance. Thirty-two recreationally strength-trained men were submitted to a graded exercise test to determine maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max: 41.56 ± 5.24 ml kg(-1) min(-1)), anaerobic threshold velocity (ATv: 8.3 ± 1.18 km h(-1)), and baseline performance (control) on the 1RM and SE (4 × 80 % 1RM to failure) tests. After the control tests, participants were randomly assigned to either a CR (20 g day(-1) for 7 days followed by 5 g day(-1) throughout the study) or a placebo (PL-dextrose) group, and then completed 4 experimental sessions, consisting of a 5-km run on a treadmill either continuously (90 % ATv) or intermittently (1:1 min at vVO2max) followed by either a leg- or bench-press SE/1RM test. CR was able to maintain the leg-press SE performance after the intermittent aerobic exercise when compared with C (p > 0.05). On the other hand, the PL group showed a significant decrease in leg-press SE (p ≤ 0.05). CR supplementation significantly increased bench-press SE after both aerobic exercise modes, while the bench-press SE was not affected by either mode of aerobic exercise in the PL group. Although small increases in 1RM were observed after either continuous (bench press and leg press) or intermittent (bench press) aerobic exercise in the CR group, they were within the range of variability of the measurement. The PL group only maintained their 1RM. In conclusion, the acute interference effect on strength performance observed in concurrent exercise may be counteracted by CR supplementation.

  11. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  12. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  13. Protein and exercise in the prevention of sarcopenia and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeb, Manal A; Volpe, Stella L

    2017-04-01

    Aging is associated with a progressive decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength. The decline, known as sarcopenia, could lead to physical disability, poor quality of life, and death. In addition, the older population usually experiences age-related muscle changes that affect muscle mass, muscular strength, and functional abilities. The purpose of this review is to describe the role of protein and exercise in slowing the progression of sarcopenia. It will also discuss whether age-related changes can be attenuated by dietary protein and exercise in the older population. This review will also cover one of the possible mechanisms of how dietary protein and exercise are involved in sarcopenia prevention, as well as the available measurement tools. Based on the findings of this review, the adequate amount of protein required for older men and women needs to be revised and likely be higher. Moreover, studies are required to explore some inconclusive findings concerning sarcopenia in the older population. Further research is required to investigate the following: (1) the safety and effectiveness concerning the consumption of 1.4 g of protein/kg of body weight (or more) in this vulnerable population; (2) the effectiveness of amino acid supplementation in reducing progression of sarcopenia over time through longitudinal studies; (3) the preferred source and timing of protein for the older population to maintain muscular strength and attenuate sarcopenia; (4) exercise interventions, especially those of longer duration, in the attenuation of sarcopenia; (5) other types of exercise and their effects on age-related muscle changes; (6) the mechanism of how protein and exercise prevent muscle loss with aging; and (7) determine the best method to diagnose sarcopenia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafer, Marissa J; White, Thomas A; Evans, Glenda; Tonne, Jason M; Verzosa, Grace C; Stout, Michael B; Mazula, Daniel L; Palmer, Allyson K; Baker, Darren J; Jensen, Michael D; Torbenson, Michael S; Miller, Jordan D; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Tchkonia, Tamara; van Deursen, Jan M; Kirkland, James L; LeBrasseur, Nathan K

    2016-06-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the hypothesis that exercise prevents premature senescent cell accumulation and systemic metabolic dysfunction induced by a fast-food diet (FFD). Using transgenic mice that express EGFP in response to activation of the senescence-associated p16(INK4a) promoter, we demonstrate that FFD consumption causes deleterious changes in body weight and composition as well as in measures of physical, cardiac, and metabolic health. The harmful effects of the FFD were associated with dramatic increases in several markers of senescence, including p16, EGFP, senescence-associated β-galactosidase, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) specifically in visceral adipose tissue. We show that exercise prevents the accumulation of senescent cells and the expression of the SASP while nullifying the damaging effects of the FFD on parameters of health. We also demonstrate that exercise initiated after long-term FFD feeding reduces senescent phenotype markers in visceral adipose tissue while attenuating physical impairments, suggesting that exercise may provide restorative benefit by mitigating accrued senescent burden. These findings highlight a novel mechanism by which exercise mediates its beneficial effects and reinforces the effect of modifiable lifestyle choices on health span. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  15. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Aerobic training suppresses exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and inflammation in overweight/obese adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Hala; Groussard, Carole; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Pincemail, Joel; Jacob, Christophe; Moussa, Elie; Fazah, Abdallah; Cillard, Josiane; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Delamarche, Arlette

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to determine whether aerobic training could reduce lipid peroxidation and inflammation at rest and after maximal exhaustive exercise in overweight/obese adolescent girls. Thirty-nine adolescent girls (14-19 years old) were classified as nonobese or overweight/obese and then randomly assigned to either the nontrained or trained group (12-week multivariate aerobic training program). Measurements at the beginning of the experiment and at 3 months consisted of body composition, aerobic fitness (VO2peak) and the following blood assays: pre- and postexercise lipid peroxidation (15F2a-isoprostanes [F2-Isop], lipid hydroperoxide [ROOH], oxidized LDL [ox-LDL]) and inflammation (myeloperoxidase [MPO]) markers. In the overweight/ obese group, the training program significantly increased their fat-free mass (FFM) and decreased their percentage of fat mass (%FM) and hip circumference but did not modify their VO2peak. Conversely, in the nontrained overweight/obese group, weight and %FM increased, and VO2peak decreased, during the same period. Training also prevented exercise-induced lipid peroxidation and/or inflammation in overweight/obese girls (F2-Isop, ROOH, ox-LDL, MPO). In addition, in the trained overweight/obese group, exercise-induced changes in ROOH, ox-LDL and F2-Isop were correlated with improvements in anthropometric parameters (waist-to-hip ratio, %FM and FFM). In conclusion aerobic training increased tolerance to exercise-induced oxidative stress in overweight/obese adolescent girls partly as a result of improved body composition.

  17. Role of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Yuhei; Fujita, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) has been shown to increase the risk of injury due to falls and incidence of metabolic complications including insulin resistance and diabetes, which subsequently becomes a significant factor to disability among the elderly population. Nutrient intake is the most important anabolic stimulus for skeletal muscle. Specifically, the amino acid leucine and meal-induced insulin both independently stimulate muscle protein synthesis. However, age-specific changes in muscle anabolic responses to leucine become apparent when sub-maximal amounts of amino acids are administered in older subjects. Furthermore, insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism with aging has been demonstrated in healthy non-diabetic older subjects. Resistance exercise is another anabolic stimulus which increases myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis in both young and older individuals. The increased muscle anabolism is apparent within 2-3 h after a single bout of heavy resistance exercise and remains elevated up to 2 d following the exercise. The mTOR signaling pathway in skeletal muscle is associated with an increased rate of muscle protein synthesis during the early recovery phase following a bout of resistance exercise. Finally, recent evidence on the cumulative effect of resistance exercise in combination with nutritional supplement on muscle protein metabolism will be discussed to propose a possible preventative measure against sarcopenia.

  18. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  19. Exercise training improves heart rate variability after methamphetamine dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolezal, Brett Andrew; Chudzynski, Joy; Dickerson, Daniel; Mooney, Larissa; Rawson, Richard A; Garfinkel, Alan; Cooper, Christopher B

    2014-06-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) reflects a healthy autonomic nervous system and is increased with physical training. Methamphetamine dependence (MD) causes autonomic dysfunction and diminished HRV. We compared recently abstinent methamphetamine-dependent participants with age-matched, drug-free controls (DF) and also investigated whether HRV can be improved with exercise training in the methamphetamine-dependent participants. In 50 participants (MD = 28; DF = 22), resting heart rate (HR; R-R intervals) was recorded over 5 min while seated using a monitor affixed to a chest strap. Previously reported time domain (SDNN, RMSSD, pNN50) and frequency domain (LFnu, HFnu, LF/HF) parameters of HRV were calculated with customized software. MD were randomized to thrice-weekly exercise training (ME = 14) or equal attention without training (MC = 14) over 8 wk. Groups were compared using paired and unpaired t-tests. Statistical significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Participant characteristics were matched between groups (mean ± SD): age = 33 ± 6 yr; body mass = 82.7 ± 12 kg, body mass index = 26.8 ± 4.1 kg·min. Compared with DF, the MD group had significantly higher resting HR (P HRV indices were similar between ME and MC groups. However, after training, the ME group significantly (all P HRV, based on several conventional indices, was diminished in recently abstinent, methamphetamine-dependent individuals. Moreover, physical training yielded a marked increase in HRV, representing increased vagal modulation or improved autonomic balance.

  20. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. Methods The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. Results The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Conclusion Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743 PMID:23497731

  1. Resistance exercise, but not endurance exercise, induces IKKβ phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle of training-accustomed individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Andreas Buch; Vendelbo, Mikkel Holm; Rahbek, Stine Klejs

    2013-01-01

    following exercise. Previously, we demonstrated that mTOR is preferentially activated in response to resistance exercise compared to endurance exercise in trained individuals without concomitant activation of Akt. In the present study, we extended this investigation by examining IκB kinase complex (IKK...

  2. Oxidative stress and antioxidants in athletes undertaking regular exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Trent A; MacDonald-Wicks, Lesley K; Garg, Manohar L

    2005-04-01

    Exercise has been shown to increase the production of reactive oxygen species to a point that can exceed antioxidant defenses to cause oxidative stress. Dietary intake of antioxidants, physical activity levels, various antioxidants and oxidative stress markers were examined in 20 exercise-trained "athletes" and 20 age- and sex-matched sedentary "controls." Plasma F2-isoprostanes, antioxidant enzyme activities, and uric acid levels were similar in athletes and sedentary controls. Plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene were higher in athletes compared with sedentary controls. Total antioxidant capacity tended to be lower in athletes, with a significant difference between male athletes and male controls. Dietary intakes of antioxidants were also similar between groups and well above recommended dietary intakes for Australians. These findings suggest that athletes who consume a diet rich in antioxidants have elevated plasma alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene that were likely to be brought about by adaptive processes resulting from regular exercise.

  3. Vision and agility training in community dwelling older adults: incorporating visual training into programs for fall prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed-Jones, Rebecca J; Dorgo, Sandor; Hitchings, Maija K; Bader, Julia O

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to examine the effect of visual training on obstacle course performance of independent community dwelling older adults. Agility is the ability to rapidly alter ongoing motor patterns, an important aspect of mobility which is required in obstacle avoidance. However, visual information is also a critical factor in successful obstacle avoidance. We compared obstacle course performance of a group that trained in visually driven body movements and agility drills, to a group that trained only in agility drills. We also included a control group that followed the American College of Sports Medicine exercise recommendations for older adults. Significant gains in fitness, mobility and power were observed across all training groups. Obstacle course performance results revealed that visual training had the greatest improvement on obstacle course performance (22%) following a 12 week training program. These results suggest that visual training may be an important consideration for fall prevention programs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  5. The peculiarities of acrobat exercises usage in the handballers training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk Dmitrii Georgievich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Special complexes of acrobatic exercises for training handballers are developed. The level of efficiency of effect of exercises on development of coordination abilities is determined. During application of exercises of the given type it is necessary to take into account a period and a cycle of preparation, personalities of handballers, a general orientation of training process. It allows avoidance of negative effect of acrobatic exercises on special exercises of competitive character.

  6. Hamstring injury prevention in soccer: Before or after training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, R; Knox, M; Weston, M; Siegler, J C; Brennan, S; Marshall, P W M

    2018-02-01

    We examined the effects of a 12-week program of Nordic hamstring exercises (NHE), administered before or after football training, upon eccentric hamstring strength, muscle activity, and architectural adaptations. Amateur soccer players were randomized into three groups. The control group (CON; n=11) undertook core stability exercises, whereas a periodized NHE program was delivered either before (NHE BEF ; n=10) or after (NHE AFT ; n=14) biweekly training sessions. Outcome measures included peak torque and concomitant normalized peak surface electromyography signals (sEMG) of the biceps femoris (BF) and medial hamstring (MH) muscles during knee flexor maximal eccentric contractions, performed at 30°·s -1 . Ultrasonography was used to determine BF muscle thickness, muscle fiber pennation angle, and fascicle length. Performing the NHE derived likely moderate peak torque increases in both NHE BEF (+11.9%; 90% confidence interval: 3.6%-20.9%) and NHE AFT (+11.6%; 2.6%-21.5%) vs CON. Maximum sEMG increases were moderately greater in the BF of both NHE training groups vs CON. There were likely moderate increases in BF muscle thickness (+0.17 cm; 0.05-0.29 cm) and likely small pennation angle increases (+1.03°; -0.08° to 2.14°) in NHE AFT vs CON and NHE BEF . BF fascicle length increases were likely greater in NHE BEF (+1.58 cm; 0.48-2.68 cm; small effect) vs CON and NHE AFT . A 12-week eccentric hamstring strengthening program increased strength and sEMG to a similar magnitude irrespective of its scheduling relative to the football training session. However, architectural adaptations to support the strength gains differed according to the timing of the injury prevention program. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. 'Nordic' Hamstrings Exercise - Engagement Characteristics and Training Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Iga, J; Fruer, C S; Deighan, Martine A; De Ste Croix, Mark B; James, David V

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined the neuromuscular activation characteristics of the hamstrings during the 'Nordic' hamstrings exercise (NHE) and changes in the eccentric strength of the knee flexors with NHE training. Initially, the normalised root mean square electromyographic (EMG) activity of the hamstrings of both limbs during various phases (90-61 degrees, 60-31 degrees and 30-0 degrees of knee extension) of the NHE were determined in 18 soccer players. Subsequently participants were randomly...

  8. Aerobic Exercise Training Improves Orthostatic Tolerance in Aging Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Diqun; Wang, Hong; Chen, Shande; Ross, Sarah; Liu, Howe; Olivencia-Yurvati, Albert; Raven, Peter B; Shi, Xiangrong

    2017-04-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that aerobic exercise training of the elderly will increase aerobic fitness without compromising orthostatic tolerance (OT). Eight healthy sedentary volunteers (67.0 ± 1.7 yr old, four women) participated in 1 yr of endurance exercise training (stationary bicycle and/or treadmill) program at the individuals' 65%-75% of HRpeak. Peak O2 uptake (V˙O2peak) and HRpeak were determined by a maximal exercise stress test using a bicycle ergometer. Carotid baroreceptor reflex (CBR) control of HR and mean arterial pressure (MAP) were assessed by a neck pressure-neck suction protocol. Each subject's maximal gain (Gmax), or sensitivity, of the CBR function curves were derived from fitting their reflex HR and MAP responses to the corresponding neck pressure-neck suction stimuli using a logistic function curve. The subjects' OT was assessed using lower-body negative pressure (LBNP) graded to -50 mm Hg; the sum of the product of LBNP intensity and time (mm Hg·min) was calculated as the cumulative stress index. Training increased V˙O2peak (before vs after: 22.8 ± 0.92 vs 27.9 ± 1.33 mL·min·kg, P stress index was increased from 767 ± 68 mm Hg·min pretraining to 946 ± 44 mm Hg·min posttraining (P Aerobic exercise training improved the aerobic fitness and OT in elderly subjects. An improved OT is likely associated with an enhanced CBR function that has been reset to better maintain cerebral perfusion and cerebral tissue oxygenation during LBNP.

  9. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    = 0.051) and time to complete 3000 m tended (P = 0.09) to increase in LHTH but not after sea level training. In study III haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after classical altitude and sea level training and ABP thresholds for [Hb], %ret, OFF......-score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were generated using the official ABP software. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: Two swimmers exceeded the OFF-score thresholds at day 7; One swimmer exceeded the OFF-score threshold at day 28; One swimmer exceeded the threshold...... for %ret at day 14; One swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day 7 and one swimmer exceeded the ABPS threshold 28 days after altitude training. No values exceeded the individual thresholds in the control group. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated that BV is a main determinant of the exercise induced...

  10. Myocardial hypoperfusion/reperfusion tolerance with exercise training in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reger, Patricia O; Barbe, Mary F; Amin, Mamta; Renna, Brian F; Hewston, Leigh Ann; MacDonnell, Scott M; Houser, Steven R; Libonati, Joseph R

    2006-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether exercise training, superimposed on compensated-concentric hypertrophy, could increase myocardial hypoperfusion-reperfusion (H/R) tolerance. Female Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) (age: 4 mo; N = 40) were placed into a sedentary (SED) or exercise training (TRD) group (treadmill running; 25 m/min, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk for 16 wk). Four groups were studied: WKY-SED (n = 10), WKY-TRD (n = 10), SHR-SED (n = 10), and SHR-TRD (n = 10). Blood pressure and heart rate were determined, and in vitro isolated heart performance was measured with a retrogradely perfused, Langendorff isovolumic preparation. The H/R protocol consisted of a 75% reduction in coronary flow for 17 min followed by 30 min of reperfusion. Although the rate-pressure product was significantly elevated in SHR relative to WKY, training-induced bradycardia reduced the rate-pressure product in SHR-TRD (P Endurance training superimposed on hypertension-induced compensated hypertrophy conferred no further cardioprotection to H/R. Postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was enhanced in WKY-TRD and both groups of SHR relative to WKY-SED (P hypertension and endurance training individually improved H/R and that increased postreperfusion 72-kDa heat shock protein abundance was, in part, associated with the cardioprotective phenotype observed in this study.

  11. Cerebellar Insulin/IGF-1 signaling in diabetic rats: Effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariana Eiras; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Arantes, Luciana Mendonça; Luciano, Eliete; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; de Almeida Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos; Medeiros, Alessandra; Bertolini, Natália Oliveira; Sibuya, Clarice Yoshiko; Gomes, Ricardo José

    2017-02-03

    The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease associated with loss of brain regions such as the cerebellum, increasing the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brain of diabetic and PD organisms the insulin/IGF-1 signaling is altered. Exercise training is an effective intervention for the prevention of neurodegerative diseases since it release neurotrophic factors and regulating insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the brain. This study aimed to evaluate the proteins involved in the insulin/IGF-1 pathway in the cerebellum of diabetic rats subjected to exercise training protocol. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD) and trained diabetic (TD). Diabetes was induced by Alloxan (ALX) (32mg/kgb.w.). The training program consisted in swimming 5days/week, 1h/day, during 6 weeks, supporting an overload corresponding to 90% of the anaerobic threshold. At the end, cerebellum was extracted to determinate the protein expression of GSK-3β, IRβ and IGF-1R and the phosphorylation of β-amyloid, Tau, ERK1+ERK2 by Western Blot analysis. All dependent variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with significance level of 5%. Diabetes causes hyperglycemia in both diabetic groups; however, in TD, there was a reduction in hyperglycemia compared to SD. Diabetes increased Tau and β-amyloid phosphorylation in both SD and TD groups. Furthermore, aerobic exercise increased ERK1+ERK2 expression in TC. The data showed that in cerebellum of diabetic rats induced by alloxan there are some proteins expression like Parkinson cerebellum increased, and the exercise training was not able to modulate the expression of these proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  13. Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Femminella, Grazia D; Formisano, Roberto; Petraglia, Laura; Allocca, Elena; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2013-11-28

    In heart failure (HF), exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/catecholamine (CA) production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50% of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  14. Effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy and aerobic exercise training on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Lívia; Tim, Carla; Martignago, Cintia; Gonçalves, Silma Rodrigues; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disease of the knee joints in adults throughout the world. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and physical exercise have been studied for clinical treatment of OA, even though the effects and action mechanisms have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBM and aerobic exercise (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators in articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: OA animals without treatment (OAC); OA plus aerobic exercise training (OAT); OA animals plus PBM treatment (OAP); OA plus aerobic exercise training and PBM treatment (OATP). The exercise training (treadmill; 16m/min; 50 min/day) and the PBM treatment started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results showed that all treated groups showed a lower degenerative process measured by OARSI system and higher thickness values. Moreover, aerobic exercise and PBM (associated or not) decreased iNOS expression and increased IL-10 expression in OAT and OATL compared to OAC. Furthermore, a lower TGF-β expression was observed in associated therapies. These results suggest that PBM and aerobic exercise training were effective in modulating inflammatory process and preventing cartilage degeneration in knees in OA rats.

  15. AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE AFTER EXERCISE IN TRAINED WRESTLERS

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    Carlos F Henríquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW. A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT and eight moderately trained (MT, who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s, and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability – SD1 analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s. Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05 and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05 and SD145-60s (p <0.05. The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW.

  16. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  18. Exercise training attenuated chronic cigarette smoking-induced up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα in lung of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wan-li; Cai, Peng-cheng; Xiong, Xian-zhi; Ye, Hong

    2013-02-01

    FIZZ/RELM is a new gene family named "found in inflammatory zone" (FIZZ) or "resistin-like molecule" (RELM). FIZZ1/RELMα is specifically expressed in lung tissue and associated with pulmonary inflammation. Chronic cigarette smoking up-regulates FIZZ1/RELMα expression in rat lung tissues, the mechanism of which is related to cigarette smoking-induced airway hyperresponsiveness. To investigate the effect of exercise training on chronic cigarette smoking-induced airway hyperresponsiveness and up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα, rat chronic cigarette smoking model was established. The rats were treated with regular exercise training and their airway responsiveness was measured. Hematoxylin and eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization of lung tissues were performed to detect the expression of FIZZ1/RELMα. Results revealed that proper exercise training decreased airway hyperresponsiveness and pulmonary inflammation in rat chronic cigarette smoking model. Cigarette smoking increased the mRNA and protein levels of FIZZ1/RELMα, which were reversed by the proper exercise. It is concluded that proper exercise training prevents up-regulation of FIZZ1/RELMα induced by cigarette smoking, which may be involved in the mechanism of proper exercise training modulating airway hyperresponsiveness.

  19. How effective are exercise-based injury prevention programmes for soccer players? : A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Beijsterveldt, A M C; van der Horst, Nick; van de Port, Ingrid G L; Backx, Frank J G

    2013-04-01

    The incidence of soccer (football) injuries is among the highest in sports. Despite this high rate, insufficient evidence is available on the efficacy of preventive training programmes on injury incidence. To systematically study the evidence on preventive exercise-based training programmes to reduce the incidence of injuries in soccer. The databases EMBASE/MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of controlled trials, PEDro and SPORTDiscus™ were searched for relevant articles, from inception until 20 December 2011. The methodological quality of the included studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. The inclusion criteria for this review were (1) randomized controlled trials or controlled clinical trials; (2) primary outcome of the study is the number of soccer injuries and/or injury incidence; (3) intervention focusing on a preventive training programme, including a set of exercises aimed at improving strength, coordination, flexibility or agility; and (4) study sample of soccer players (no restrictions as to level of play, age or sex). The exclusion criteria were: (1) the article was not available as full text; (2) the article was not published in English, German or Dutch; and (3) the trial and/or training programme relates only to specific injuries and/or specific joints. To compare the effects of the different interventions, we calculated the incidence risk ratio (IRR) for each study. Six studies involving a total of 6,099 participants met the inclusion criteria. The results of the included studies were contradictory. Two of the six studies (one of high and one of moderate quality) reported a statistical significant reduction in terms of their primary outcome, i.e. injuries overall. Four of the six studies described an overall preventive effect (IRRbased programmes to prevent soccer injuries. Some reasons for the contradictory findings could be different study samples (in terms of sex and soccer type) in the included studies, differences between

  20. Influence of Sequential vs. Simultaneous Dual-Task Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jamie L; Duckham, Rachel L; Milte, Catherine M; Main, Luana C; Daly, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults. Based on the available evidence, there are inconsistent findings with regard to the cognitive benefits of sequential training in comparison to cognitive or exercise training alone. In contrast, simultaneous training interventions, particularly multimodal exercise programs in combination with secondary tasks regulated by sensory cues, have significantly improved cognition in both healthy older and clinical populations. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal characteristics of a successful simultaneous training program for optimizing cognitive function in older people.

  1. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  2. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  3. The development of radioactive sample surrogates for training and exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kevin Carney; Martha Finck; Christopher McGrath; Bevin Brush; Dick Jansen; Donald Dry; George Brooks; David Chamberlain

    2013-01-01

    Source term information is required for to reconstruct a device used in a dispersed radiological dispersal device. Simulating a radioactive environment to train and exercise sampling and sample characterization methods with suitable sample materials is a continued challenge. The Idaho National Laboratory has developed and permitted a radioactive response training range (RRTR), an 800 acre test range that is approved for open air dispersal of activated KBr, for training first responders in the entry and exit from radioactively contaminated areas, and testing protocols for environmental sampling and field characterization. Members from the Department of Defense, Law Enforcement, and the Department of Energy participated in the first contamination exercise that was conducted at the RRTR in the July 2011. The range was contaminated using a short lived radioactive 82 Br isotope (activated KBr). Soil samples contaminated with KBr (dispersed as a solution) and glass particles containing activated potassium bromide that emulated dispersed radioactive materials (such as ceramic-based sealed source materials) were collected to assess environmental sampling and characterization techniques. This presentation summarizes the performance of a radioactive materials surrogate for use as a training aide for nuclear forensics. (author)

  4. Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis mechanisms and prevention: A literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jooyoung Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis (exRML, a pathophysiological condition of skeletal muscle cell damage that may cause acute renal failure and in some cases death. Increased Ca2+ level in cells along with functional degradation of cell signaling system and cell matrix have been suggested as the major pathological mechanisms associated with exRML. The onset of exRML may be exhibited in athletes as well as in general population. Previous studies have reported that possible causes of exRML were associated with excessive eccentric contractions in high temperature, abnormal electrolytes balance, and nutritional deficiencies possible genetic defects. However, the underlying mechanisms of exRML have not been clearly established among health professionals or sports medicine personnel. Therefore, we reviewed the possible mechanisms and correlated prevention of exRML, while providing useful and practical information for the athlete and general exercising population.

  5. THE EFFECTS OF OTAGO EXERCISE PROGRAMME FOR FALL PREVENTION IN ELDERLY PEOPLE

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    Nancy N. Patel

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: The ‘Otago exercise programme’ (OEP is a strength and balance retraining programme designed to prevent falls in older people living in the community. The aim of this study was to find the effects of Otago exercise programme for fall prevention in community dwelling elderly people. Method: The sample comprised 30 community dwelling elderly around sinhgad road, pune (out of 30, 4 were dropouts aged over 60 years both male and female falling under moderate fall risk measured by Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment. The intervention consisted mainly strength and balance training. Intervention was done for 1 hr every day, 5 days per week for 6weeks. Outcome measure assessment was done pre, 3rd week and post intervention. Pre and post comparison of following three outcome measures was done. Outcome measures: Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment, 10RM and Chair stand test. Result: Paired t-test was done. Results of p value for 10RM (p value = 0.00, Tinetti performance oriented mobility assessment (p value = 0.00 and chair stand test (p value = 0.01 was found to be highly significant. Out of 26 subjects with moderate risk of fall pre intervention, 24 subjects showed low risk of fall during post intervention assessment of Tinetti Performance Oriented Mobility Assessment. Conclusion: The Otago exercise programme is significantly effective increasing strength of lower limb and improving in balance, gait and therefore ultimately preventing fall in community dwelling Indian elder people. Hence, Otago exercise protocol can be used in day to day clinical practice and also as a home exercise program.

  6. Telemonitoring of home exercise cycle training in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke KJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Josef Franke,1,2 Ulrike Domanski,1 Maik Schroeder,1 Volker Jansen,3 Frank Artmann,4 Uwe Weber,5 Rainer Ettler,6 Georg Nilius1,2 1Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Helios Klinik Ambrock, Hagen, 2Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, 3Lung Practice Jansen, Menden, 4Aeroprax Wuppertal, Wuppertal, 5Lung Practice Witten, Witten, 6Lung Practice Ettler, Hagen, Germany Background: Regular physical activity is associated with reduced mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interventions to reduce time spent in sedentary behavior could improve outcomes. The primary purpose was to investigate the impact of telemonitoring with supportive phone calls on daily exercise times with newly established home exercise bicycle training. The secondary aim was to examine the potential improvement in health-related quality of life and physical activity compared to baseline. Methods: This prospective crossover-randomized study was performed over 6 months in stable COPD patients. The intervention phase (domiciliary training with supporting telephone calls and the control phase (training without phone calls were randomly assigned to the first or the last 3 months. In the intervention phase, patients were called once a week if they did not achieve a real-time monitored daily cycle time of 20 minutes. Secondary aims were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Health-related quality of life was measured by the COPD Assessment Test (CAT, physical activity by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ. Results: Of the 53 included patients, 44 patients completed the study (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 47.5%±15.8% predicted. In the intervention phase, daily exercise time was significantly higher compared to the control phase (24.2±9.4 versus 19.6±10.3 minutes. Compared to baseline (17.6±6.1, the CAT-score improved in the intervention phase to 15.3±7.6 and in the control phase to 15.7±7.3

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

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    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  8. Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: Theory into Practice

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    Craig A. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and exercise training play an important role in the clinical management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Exercise training is more common and recognized as an essential part of rehabilitation programmes and overall CF care. Regular exercise training is associated with improved aerobic and anaerobic capacity, higher pulmonary function, and enhanced airway mucus clearance. Furthermore, patients with higher aerobic fitness have an improved survival. Aerobic and anaerobic training may have different effects, while the combination of both have been reported to be beneficial in CF. However, exercise training remains underutilised and not always incorporated into routine CF management. We provide an update on aerobic and anaerobic responses to exercise and general training recommendations in children and adolescents with CF. We propose that an active lifestyle and exercise training are an efficacious part of regular CF patient management.

  9. Diet and exercise interventions for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bain, Emily; Crane, Morven; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2015-04-12

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their babies in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. To assess the effects of combined diet and exercise interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health consequences for women and their babies. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (11 February 2014) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We updated the search in February 2015 but these results have not yet been incorporated and are awaiting classification. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs assessing the effects of interventions that included diet and exercise components. We included studies where combined diet and exercise interventions were compared with no intervention (i.e. standard care).We planned to also compare diet and exercise interventions with alternative diet and/or exercise interventions but no trials were identified for this comparison. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. We included 13 randomised controlled trials (involving 4983 women and their babies). We assessed the included trials as being of moderate risk of bias overall.When comparing women receiving a diet and exercise intervention with those receiving no intervention, there was no clear difference in the risk of developing GDM (average risk ratio (RR) 0.92, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 1.23; 11 trials, 3744 women), caesarean section (RR 0.92, 95% CI 0.83 to 1.01; seven trials, 3246 women), or large-for-gestational age (RR 0.90, 95% CI 0.77 to 1.05; 2950 infants). Only one trial reported on perinatal mortality, and found no clear difference in the risk of stillbirth (RR 0.99, 95

  10. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  11. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuates aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction through preserving aortic mitochondrial function in aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Qi; Wang, Bing; Zhang, Xiao-Feng; Ma, Yan-Ping; Liu, Jian-Dong; Wang, Xiao-Ze

    2014-08-01

    Aging leads to large vessel arterial stiffening and endothelial dysfunction, which are important determinants of cardiovascular risk. The aim of present work was to assess the effects of chronic aerobic exercise training on aortic stiffening and endothelial dysfunction in aged rats and investigate the underlying mechanism about mitochondrial function. Chronic aerobic exercise training attenuated aortic stiffening with age marked by reduced collagen concentration, increased elastin concentration and reduced pulse wave velocity (PWV), and prevented aging-related endothelial dysfunction marked by improved endothelium-mediated vascular relaxation of aortas in response to acetylcholine. Chronic aerobic exercise training abated oxidative stress and nitrosative stress in aortas of aged rats. More importantly, we found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats preserved aortic mitochondrial function marked by reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation and mitochondrial swelling, increased ATP formation and mitochondrial DNA content, and restored activities of complexes I and III and electron-coupling capacity between complexes I and III and between complexes II and III. In addition, it was found that chronic aerobic exercise training in old rats enhanced protein expression of uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator 1α (PGC-1α), manganese superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), prohibitin (PHB) and AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) phosphorylation in aortas. In conclusion, chronic aerobic exercise training preserved mitochondrial function in aortas, which, at least in part, explained the aorta-protecting effects of exercise training in aging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Smoking Counteracts the Favorable Effect of Exercise Training on Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinji Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise training can improve endothelial function in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that the favorable effect of exercise training on endothelial function in patients with diabetes is counteracted by cigarette smoking. Purpose To assess whether there is a difference in the effect of exercise on endothelial function in smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a 3-month controlled trial in 27 never-smoking and 17 smoking individuals with type 2 diabetes who participated in a home-based walking program. The percentage decrease in post-exercise ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI, which is an index of endothelial function, was assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results Compared to the smoking group, the never-smoking group showed a more significant improvement in post exercise ABI during the 3 months of home-based training (interaction, P < 0.01. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking may counteract the favorable effects of exercise training on endothelial function. Endothelial function plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes. Therefore, a Certified Diabetes Educator should strongly advise diabetic patients not to smoke.

  13. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  14. Benefits of supplemental oxygen in exercise training in nonhypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emtner, Margareta; Porszasz, Janos; Burns, Mary; Somfay, Attila; Casaburi, Richard

    2003-11-01

    Supplemental oxygen improves exercise tolerance of normoxemic and hypoxemic chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. We determined whether nonhypoxemic COPD patients undergoing exercise training while breathing supplemental oxygen achieve higher intensity and therefore improve exercise capacity more than patients breathing air. A double-blinded trial was performed involving 29 nonhypoxemic patients (67 years, exercise SaO2 > 88%) with COPD (FEV1 = 36% predicted). All exercised on cycle ergometers for 45 minutes, 3 times per week for 7 weeks at high-intensity targets. During exercise, they received oxygen (3 L/minute) (n = 14) or compressed air (3 L/minute) (n = 15). Both groups had a higher exercise tolerance after training and when breathing oxygen. However, the oxygen-trained group increased the training work rate more rapidly than the air-trained group. The mean +/- SD work rate during the last week was 62 +/- 19 W (oxygen-trained group) and 52 +/- 22 W (air-trained group) (p work rate tests increased more in the oxygen-trained group (14.5 minutes) than in the air-trained group (10.5 minutes) (p < 0.05). At isotime, the breathing rate decreased four breaths per minute in the oxygen-trained group and one breath per minute in the air-trained group (p = 0.001). We conclude that supplemental oxygen provided during high-intensity training yields higher training intensity and evidence of gains in exercise tolerance in laboratory testing.

  15. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  16. Individual preferences for physical exercise as secondary prevention for non-specific low back pain: A discrete choice experiment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Aboagye

    Full Text Available Exercise is effective in improving non-specific low back pain (LBP. Certain components of physical exercise, such as the type, intensity and frequency of exercise, are likely to influence participation among working adults with non-specific LBP, but the value and relative importance of these components remain unknown. The study's aim was to examine such specific components and their influence on individual preferences for exercise for secondary prevention of non-specific LBP among working adults.In a discrete choice experiment, working individuals with non-specific LBP answered a web-based questionnaire. Each respondent was given ten pairs of hypothetical exercise programs and asked to choose one option from each pair. The choices comprised six attributes of exercise (i.e., type of training, design, intensity, frequency, proximity and incentives, each with either three or four levels. A conditional logit regression that reflected the random utility model was used to analyze the responses.The final study population consisted of 112 participants. The participants' preferred exercise option was aerobic (i.e., cardiovascular rather than strength training, group exercise with trainer supervision, rather than individual or unsupervised exercise. They also preferred high intensity exercise performed at least once or twice per week. The most popular types of incentive were exercise during working hours and a wellness allowance rather than coupons for sports goods. The results show that the relative value of some attribute levels differed between young adults (age ≤ 44 years and older adults (age ≥ 45 years in terms of the level of trainer supervision required, exercise intensity, travel time to exercise location and financial incentives. For active study participants, exercise frequency (i.e., twice per week, 1.15; CI: 0.25; 2.06 influenced choice of exercise. For individuals with more than one child, travel time (i.e., 20 minutes, -0.55; CI: 0

  17. Diet and exercise training reduce blood pressure and improve autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Allan R K; Silva, Bruno M; Neves, Fabricia J; Rocha, Natália G; Medeiros, Renata F; Castro, Renata R T; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2012-09-01

    Despite mortality from heart disease has been decreasing, the decline in death in women remains lower than in men. Hypertension (HT) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Therefore, approaches to prevent or delay the onset of HT would be valuable in women. Given this background, we investigated the effect of diet and exercise training on blood pressure (BP) and autonomic modulation in women with prehypertension (PHT). Ten women with PHT (39 ± 6 years, mean ± standard deviation) and ten with normotension (NT) (35 ± 11 years) underwent diet and exercise training for 12 weeks. Autonomic modulation was assessed through heart rate (HR) and systolic BP (SBP) variability, using time and frequency domain analyses. At preintervention, women with PHT had higher SBP (PHT: 128 ± 7 vs. NT: 111 ± 6 mmHg, p 0.05). Moreover, reduction in SBP was associated with augmentation in SDNN (r = -0.46, p diet and exercise training reduced SBP in women with PHT, and this was associated with augmentation in parasympathetic and probably reduction in sympathetic cardiac modulation.

  18. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance, however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilizati...

  19. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  20. Exercise-training intervention studies in competitive swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspenes, Stian Thoresen; Karlsen, Trine

    2012-06-01

    Competitive swimming has a long history and is currently one of the largest Olympic sports, with 16 pool events. Several aspects separate swimming from most other sports such as (i) the prone position; (ii) simultaneous use of arms and legs for propulsion; (iii) water immersion (i.e. hydrostatic pressure on thorax and controlled respiration); (iv) propulsive forces that are applied against a fluctuant element; and (v) minimal influence of equipment on performance. Competitive swimmers are suggested to have specific anthropometrical features compared with other athletes, but are nevertheless dependent on physiological adaptations to enhance their performance. Swimmers thus engage in large volumes of training in the pool and on dry land. Strength training of various forms is widely used, and the energetic systems are addressed by aerobic and anaerobic swimming training. The aim of the current review was to report results from controlled exercise training trials within competitive swimming. From a structured literature search we found 17 controlled intervention studies that covered strength or resistance training, assisted sprint swimming, arms-only training, leg-kick training, respiratory muscle training, training the energy delivery systems and combined interventions across the aforementioned categories. Nine of the included studies were randomized controlled trials. Among the included studies we found indications that heavy strength training on dry land (one to five repetitions maximum with pull-downs for three sets with maximal effort in the concentric phase) or sprint swimming with resistance towards propulsion (maximal pushing with the arms against fixed points or pulling a perforated bowl) may be efficient for enhanced performance, and may also possibly have positive effects on stroke mechanics. The largest effect size (ES) on swimming performance was found in 50 m freestyle after a dry-land strength training regimen of maximum six repetitions across three

  1. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  2. Effects of combined exercise training and electromyostimulation treatments in chronic heart failure: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Marie C; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Pavy, Bruno; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Monpère, Catherine; Richard, Rudy; Verdier, Jean C

    2017-08-01

    Background Exercise training as part of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients with cardiac heart failure. It is a valuable method for the improvement of exercise tolerance. Some studies reported a similar improvement with quadricipital electrical myostimulation, but the effect of combined exercise training and electrical myostimulation in cardiac heart failure has not been yet evaluated in a large prospective multicentre study. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low frequency electrical myostimulation to exercise training may improve exercise capacity and/or muscular strength in cardiac heart failure patients. Methods Ninety-one patients were included (mean age: 58 ± 9 years; New York Heart Association II/III: 52/48%, left ventricular ejection fraction: 30 ± 7%) in a prospective French study. The patients were randomised into two groups: 41 patients in exercise training and 50 in exercise training + electrical myostimulation. All patients underwent 20 exercise training sessions. In addition, in the exercise training + electrical myostimulation group, patients underwent 20 low frequency (10 Hz) quadricipital electrical myostimulation sessions. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a six-minute walk test, a muscular function evaluation and a quality of life questionnaire, before and at the end of the study. Results A significant improvement of exercise capacity (Δ peak oxygen uptake+15% in exercise training group and +14% in exercise training + electrical myostimulation group) and of quality of life was observed in both groups without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Mean creatine kinase level increased in the exercise training group whereas it remained stable in the combined group. Conclusions This prospective multicentre study shows that electrical myostimulation on top of exercise training does not demonstrate any significant

  3. Prescribing exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Built around exercise training, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is a multidisciplinary, evidence‐based, comprehensive approach to working with the patient as a whole and not just the pulmonary component of the disease. Integrated into the individualized treatment, this intervention aims to reduce symptoms, optimize functional status, increase participation in daily life, and reduce health care costs through stabilizing or reversing systemic manifestations of the disease. Although there are many other components that should be considered to manage the impairment and symptom burden, supervised exercise training is considered the cornerstone of effective pulmonary rehabilitation. This paper addresses our clinical experience at Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec to assess and manage exercise training in line with the current recommendations and guidelines surrounding PR. Resumo: Construída com base no exercício físico, a reabilitação pulmonar (RP é uma abordagem multidisciplinar, fundamentada e abrangente para trabalhar com o doente como um todo, e não apenas com a componente pulmonar da doença. Integrado no tratamento individual, esta intervenção visa reduzir os sintomas, optimizar o estado funcional, aumentar a participação na vida diária e reduzir os custos do tratamento de saúde, através da estabilização ou inversão das manifestações sistémicas da doença. Embora existam muitos outros componentes que devem ser tidos em consideração para gerir o peso da incapacidade e dos sintomas, o exercício físico supervisionado é considerado o fundamento da reabilitação pulmonar eficiente. Este documento trata da nossa experiência clínica no Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec para avaliar e gerir o exercício físico em linha com as recomendações e orientações actuais envolvendo a RP

  4. Preventing Relapse to Cigarette Smoking by Behavioral Skill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Crossed two relapse prevention conditions (skills training-vs-discussion control) with two levels of aversive smoking in volunteer subjects (N=123). Results indicated that relapse-prevention skill training did prevent relapse among cigarette smokers. Lighter smokers were more favorably influenced. (LLL)

  5. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  6. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...... status was also quantified by measuring muscle antioxidant enzymatic activity and oxidative damage product, such as protein carbonyl content (PCC). Quercetin supplementation increased oxidative damage in both exercised and sedentary rats by inducing higher amounts of PCC (P ...

  7. Mandatory physical exercise for the prevention of mental illness in medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Bitonte

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Medical students experience higher rates of mental illness than the general population. With competition rising for success in medical school, and residency, increasing incidence of distress are leading this population to experience higher rates of thoughts of dropping out of school, and even suicide. Since many stigmas deter medical students from receiving mental health counseling, such as the perceived inability to handle the stresses of medical school, and the potential lack of competitiveness for residencies if reported, prevention of mental illness may be a better course to take in reducing prevalence in this population. Regular exercise has demonstrated a positive effect on not only promoting physical health, but also mental health. Exercise encourages a healthy mood, positive self esteem, and better cognition, while decreasing the chances of depression, anxiety, and burnout. Implementing exercise time into medical school curriculums, just like the basic sciences, albeit for less time in the day, could provide a feasible way to ensure that all students are taking time to partake in this important activity for their well being. Though medical schools are rigid with attempts to make changes in their curriculum, thirty minutes a day, three to five times a week of exercise of the students’ choice not only is more cost effective than counseling, but it also reduces the chances that they will experience burnout, which if left untreated could transcend into a compromised training experience.

  8. Moderate exercise prevents neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice

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    Li Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available D-galactose has been widely used in aging research because of its efficacy in inducing senescence and accelerating aging in animal models. The present study investigated the benefits of exercise for preventing neurodegeneration, such as synaptic plasticity, spatial learning and memory abilities, in mouse models of aging. D-galactose-induced aging mice were administered daily subcutaneous injections of D-galactose at the base of the neck for 10 consecutive weeks. Then, the mice were subjected to exercise training by running on a treadmill for 6 days a week. Shortened escape latency in a Morris water maze test indicated that exercise improved learning and memory in aging mice. The ameliorative changes were likely induced by an upregulation of Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor, the repression of apoptosis factors such as Fas and Bax, and an increase in the activity of glucose transporters-1 and 4. The data suggest moderate exercise may retard or inhibit neurodegeneration in D-galactose-induced aging mice.

  9. Effect of DHA on plasma fatty acid availability and oxidative stress during training season and football exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Joan M; Llompart, Isabel; Argelich, Emma; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with 1.14 g per day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for eight weeks on the plasma oxidative balance and anti-inflammatory markers after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male football players were randomly assigned to placebo or experimental and supplemented groups. Blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and after eight weeks of training under resting and post-exercise conditions. The experimental beverage increased the plasma DHA availability in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and triglyceride fatty acids (TGFAs) and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fraction of NEFAs but had no effects on the biomarkers for oxidative balance in plasma. During training, plasma protein markers of oxidative damage, the haemolysis degree and the antioxidant enzyme activities increased, but did not affect lipid oxidative damage. Training season and DHA influenced the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Acute exercise did not alter the basal levels of plasma markers for oxidative and nitrosative damage of proteins and lipids, and the antioxidant enzyme activities, although DHA-diet supplementation significantly increased the PGE2 in plasma after acute exercise. In conclusion, the training season and acute exercise, but not the DHA diet supplementation, altered the pattern of plasma oxidative damage, as the antioxidant system proved sufficient to prevent the oxidative damage induced by the acute exercise in well-trained footballers. The DHA-diet supplementation increased the prostaglandin PGE2 plasma evidencing anti-inflammatory effects of DHA to control inflammation after acute exercise.

  10. Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; da Conceição, Fabiana Gomes; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise

  11. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Monique E.; Durrer, Cody; Pistawka, Kevin J.; Halperin, Frank A.; Chang, Courtney; Little, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interv...

  12. Intermittent versus continuous exercise training in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil A; Dieberg, Gudrun; Giallauria, Francesco

    2013-06-20

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials of combined strength and intermittent aerobic training, intermittent aerobic training only and continuous exercise training in heart failure patients. A systematic search was conducted of Medline (Ovid) (1950-September 2011), Embase.com (1974-September 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL (1981-September 19 2011). The search strategy included a mix of MeSH and free text terms for the key concepts heart failure, exercise training, interval training and intermittent exercise training. The included studies contained an aggregate of 446 patients, 212 completed intermittent exercise training, 66 only continuous exercise training, 59 completed combined intermittent and strength training and 109 sedentary controls. Weighted mean difference (MD) in Peak VO2 was 1.04mlkg(-1)min(-1) and (95% C.I.) was 0.42-1.66 (p=0.0009) in intermittent versus continuous exercise training respectively. Weighted mean difference in Peak VO2 was -1.10mlkg(-1)min(-1) (95% C.I.) was -1.83-0.37 p=0.003 for intermittent only versus intermittent and strength (combined) training respectively. In studies reporting VE/VCO2 for intermittent versus control groups, MD was -1.50 [(95% C.I. -2.64, -0.37), p=0.01] and for intermittent versus continuous exercise training MD was -1.35 [(95% C.I. -2.15, -0.55), p=0.001]. Change in peak VO2 was positively correlated with weekly exercise energy expenditure for intermittent exercise groups (r=0.48, p=0.05). Combined strength and intermittent exercise appears superior for peak VO2 changes when compared to intermittent exercise of similar exercise energy expenditure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Training with a balance exercise assist robot is more effective than conventional training for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kenichi; Kondo, Izumi; Hirano, Satoshi; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Osawa, Aiko; Fujinori, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of postural strategy training using a balance exercise assist robot (BEAR) as compared with conventional balance training for frail older adults. The present study was designed as a cross-over trial without a washout term. A total of 27 community-dwelling frail or prefrail elderly residents (7 men, 20 women; age range 65-85 years) were selected from a volunteer sample. Two exercises were prepared for interventions: robotic exercise moving the center of gravity by the balance exercise assist robot system; and conventional balance training combining muscle-strengthening exercise, postural strategy training and applied motion exercise. Each exercise was carried out twice a week for 6 weeks. Participants were allocated randomly to either the robotic exercise first group or the conventional balance exercise first group. preferred and maximal gait speeds, tandem gait speeds, timed up-and-go test, functional reach test, functional base of support, center of pressure, and muscle strength of the lower extremities were assessed before and after completion of each exercise program. Robotic exercise achieved significant improvements for tandem gait speed (P = 0.012), functional reach test (P = 0.002), timed up-and-go test (P = 0.023) and muscle strength of the lower extremities (P = 0.001-0.030) compared with conventional exercise. In frail or prefrail older adults, robotic exercise was more effective for improving dynamic balance and lower extremity muscle strength than conventional exercise. These findings suggest that postural strategy training with the balance exercise assist robot is effective to improve the gait instability and muscle weakness often seen in frail older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1982-1990. © 2017 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  15. Physical exercise is effective in preventing cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary oxidative response in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nesi RT

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Renata Tiscoski Nesi,1 Priscila Soares de Souza,1 Giulia Pedroso dos Santos,1 Anand Thirupathi,1 Bruno T Menegali,1 Paulo Cesar Lock Silveira,1 Luciano Acordi da Silva,1 Samuel Santos Valença,2 Ricardo Aurino Pinho11Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry and Physiology, Graduate Program in Health Sciences, Health Sciences Unit, Universidade do Extremo Sul Catarinense, Criciúma, SC, Brazil; 2Biomedical Science Institute, Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, BrazilAbstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS are important in the pathogenesis of pulmonary injury induced by cigarette smoke (CS exposure, and physical exercise (Ex is useful in combating impaired oxidative process. We verified the preventive effects of Ex on lung oxidative markers induced by smoking. In this study, 36 mice (C57BL-6, 30–35 g were split into four groups: control, CS, Ex, and CS plus Ex. Ex groups were given prior physical training in water (2×30 min/d, 5 days/wk, 8 weeks. After training, the CS groups were subjected to passive exposure to four cigarettes, 3 × per day, for 60 consecutive days. After 24 hours from the last exposure, CS animals were sacrificed, and lung samples were collected for further analysis. Left lung sample was prepared for histological analysis, and right lung was used for biochemical analysis (superoxide, hydroxyproline, lipid peroxidation [thiobarbituric acid reactive species], protein carbonylation [carbonyl groups formation], superoxide dismutase [SOD], catalase [CAT], and glutathione peroxidase [GPx] activities. Group comparisons were evaluated by analysis of variance (ANOVA. Results were expressed as mean ± standard deviation, with P<0.05 considered significantly different. Preventive Ex impeded histological changes and increased the enzymatic defense system (SOD and GPx by reducing oxidative damage in lipids and proteins. This preventive effect of prior physical Ex alleviates damage caused by CS exposure.Keywords: exercise

  16. Exercise Prevents Memory Impairment Induced by Arsenic Exposure in Mice: Implication of Hippocampal BDNF and CREB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Fei Sun

    Full Text Available High concentrations of arsenic, which can be occasionally found in drinking water, have been recognized as a global health problem. Exposure to arsenic can disrupt spatial memory; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we tested whether exercise could interfere with the effect of arsenic exposure on the long-term memory (LTM of object recognition in mice. Arsenic (0, 1, 3, and 10 mg/ kg, i.g. was administered daily for 12 weeks. We found that arsenic at dosages of 1, 3, and 10 mg/kg decreased body weight and increased the arsenic content in the brain. The object recognition LTM (tested 24 h after training was disrupted by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not 1 mg/ kg arsenic exposure. Swimming exercise also prevented LTM impairment induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not with 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein (pCREB in the CA1 and dentate gyrus areas (DG of the dorsal hippocampus were decreased by 3 mg/ kg and 10 mg/ kg, but not by 1 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure. The decrease in BDNF and pCREB in the CA1 and DG induced by 3 mg/ kg, but not 10 mg/ kg, of arsenic exposure were prevented by swimming exercise. Arsenic exposure did not affect the total CREB expression in the CA1 or DG. Taken together, these results indicated that swimming exercise prevented the impairment of object recognition LTM induced by arsenic exposure, which may be mediated by BDNF and CREB in the dorsal hippocampus.

  17. Can community care workers deliver a falls prevention exercise program? A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burton E

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Elissa Burton,1 Gill Lewin,2 Hilary O’Connell,3 Mark Petrich,4,5 Eileen Boyle,1 Keith D Hill1 1School of Physiotherapy and Exercise Science, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 2School of Nursing, Midwifery and Paramedicine, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 3Independent Living Centre Western Australia, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 4Western Australian Department of Health, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; 5School of Public Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia Background: Almost half of older people receiving community care fall each year and this rate has not improved in the last decade. Falls prevention programs targeted at this group are uncommon, and expensively delivered by university trained allied health professionals. Purpose: To investigate the feasibility of community care workers delivering a falls prevention exercise program to older clients, at low or medium risk of falling, as part of an existing service provision. Patients and methods: Community care workers from 10 community care organizations participated in the training for, and delivery to their clients of, an 8-week evidence-based falls prevention exercise program. Community care workers included assessment staff (responsible for identifying the need for community care services through completing an assessment and support workers (responsible for providing support in the home. Clients were surveyed anonymously at the completion of the intervention and workers participated in a semi-structured interview. Results: Twenty-five community care workers participated in the study. The falls prevention program was delivered to 29 clients, with an average age of 82.7 (SD: 8.72 years and consisting of 65.5% female. The intervention was delivered safely with no adverse events recorded, and the eligibility and assessment tools

  18. Combined diet and exercise interventions for preventing gestational diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, Emily; Gomersall, Judith C; Tieu, Joanna; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A; Middleton, Philippa

    2017-11-13

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is associated with a wide range of adverse health consequences for women and their infants in the short and long term. With an increasing prevalence of GDM worldwide, there is an urgent need to assess strategies for GDM prevention, such as combined diet and exercise interventions. This is an update of a Cochrane review that was first published in 2015. To assess the effects of diet interventions in combination with exercise interventions for pregnant women for preventing GDM, and associated adverse health consequences for the mother and her infant/child. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (27 November 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and cluster-RCTs, comparing combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (i.e. standard care), that reported on GDM diagnosis as an outcome. Quasi-RCTs were excluded. Cross-over trials were not eligible for inclusion. We planned to include RCTs comparing two or more different diet/exercise interventions, however none were identified. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of the included trials and assessed quality of evidence for selected maternal and infant/child outcomes using the GRADE approach. We checked data for accuracy. In this update, we included 23 RCTs (involving 8918 women and 8709 infants) that compared combined diet and exercise interventions with no intervention (standard care). The studies varied in the diet and exercise programs evaluated and health outcomes reported. None reported receiving funding from a drug manufacturer or agency with interests in the results. Overall risk of bias was judged to be unclear due to the lack of methodological detail reported. Most studies were undertaken in high-income countries.For our primary review outcomes, there was a possible reduced risk of GDM in the diet and

  19. Intradialytic Cognitive and Exercise Training May Preserve Cognitive Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAdams-DeMarco, Mara A; Konel, Jonathan; Warsame, Fatima; Ying, Hao; Fernández, Marlís González; Carlson, Michelle C; Fine, Derek M; Appel, Lawrence J; Segev, Dorry L

    2018-01-01

    Cognitive decline is common and increases mortality risk in hemodialysis patients. Intradialytic interventions like cognitive training (CT) and exercise training (ET) may preserve cognitive function. We conducted a pilot randomized controlled trial of 20 hemodialysis patients to study the impact of 3 months of intradialytic CT (tablet-based brain games) (n = 7), ET (foot peddlers) (n = 6), or standard of care (SC) (n = 7) on cognitive function. Global cognitive function was measured by the Modified Mini Mental Status Exam (3MS), psychomotor speed was measured by Trail Making Tests A and B (TMTA and TMTB), and executive function was assessed by subtracting (TMTB - TMTA). Lower 3MS scores and slower TMTA and TMTB times reflected worse cognitive function. P values for differences were generated using analysis of variance, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) and P values were generated from linear regression. Patients with SC experienced a decrease in psychomotor speed and executive function by 3 months (TMTA: 15 seconds; P  = 0.055; TMTB: 47.4 seconds; P  = 0.006; TMTB - TMTA; 31.7 seconds; P  = 0.052); this decline was not seen among those with CT or ET (all P > 0.05). Compared with SC, the difference in the mean change in 3MS score was -3.29 points (95% CI: -11.70 to 5.12; P  = 0.42) for CT and 4.48 points (95% CI: -4.27 to 13.22; P  = 0.30) for ET. Compared with SC, the difference in mean change for TMTA was -15.13 seconds (95% CI: -37.64 to 7.39; P  = 0.17) for CT and -17.48 seconds (95% CI: -41.18 to 6.22; P  = 0.14) for ET, for TMTB, the difference was -46.72 seconds (95% CI: -91.12 to -2.31; P  = 0.04) for CT and -56.21 seconds (95% CI: -105.86 to -6.56; P  = 0.03) for ET, and for TMTB - TMTA, the difference was -30.88 seconds (95% CI: -76.05 to 14.28; P  = 0.16) for CT and -34.93 seconds (95% CI: -85.43 to 15.56; P  = 0.16) for ET. Preliminary findings of our pilot study suggested that cognitive decline in psychomotor speed

  20. Exercise training improves exercise capacity in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle : a randomized clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; van der Bom, Teun; de Vries, Leonie C. S.; Balducci, Anna; Bouma, Berto J.; Pieper, Petronella G.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Picchio, Fernando M.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    To assess whether exercise training in adult patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV) improves exercise capacity and quality of life and lowers serum N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels. Multi-centre parallel randomized controlled trial. Patients with a systemic

  1. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 45 minutes into the OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and up to 120 minutes after glucose intake. RESULTS: Exercise training increased Hexokinase II, GLUT4, Akt2, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate......) phosphorylation was increased after exercise training. In the trained state, the PDHa activity was reduced following glucose intake and without changes in phosphorylation level of PDH-E1α. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that exercise training improves glucose regulation in elderly subjects by enhancing......BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind exercise training-induced improvements in glucose regulation in aged subjects. METHODS: Twelve elderly male subjects completed 8 weeks of exercise training. Before and after the training period, the subjects completed an oral...

  2. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  3. ISO training program mixes lectures, hands-on exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakofsky, S.; Vitale, D.

    1994-01-01

    Early in 1990, the Dresser-Rand Co., made the decision to upgrade its purchased material quality program and pursue ISO 9000 registration for all product divisions. A joint quality-purchasing council from all US based divisions met and developed a new strategy that included: developing and maintaining a common external audit schedule eliminating duplicate audits; development of a formal training program for auditors; implementing a rule for all divisions that called for internal and external audits to be conducted by certified auditors; implementing an aggressive internal audit program for each division preparing for ISO 9001 or 9002 registration. Development of a formal training program began with educating and training future instructors. Two people were selected who had previous audit and quality system experience. Both were sent to various seminars on ISO 9000, attended a lead assessor course, passed the examination, and became registered with the Institute of Quality Assurance (IQA) in the United Kingdom. The original course was developed by a consultant along with one future instructor. Course content used traditional auditing methodology, but included many team exercises including an actual factory audit. The paper describes the methods and contents of this training course

  4. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqin Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise. Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise and AT VO2 (baseline. The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise were significantly correlated with AT VO2, peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches. Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  5. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Yao, Mengchao; Zhou, Qiulian; Cheng, Yan; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Xiao, Junjie; Shen, Zhongming; Bei, Yihua

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise) showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise). Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) and AT VO 2 (baseline). The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) were significantly correlated with AT VO 2 , peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches). Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  6. Autophagy Is a Promoter for Aerobic Exercise Performance during High Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear. In this narrative review article, we will summarize current research advances in the improvement of exercise performance through high altitude training and its reasonable molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy, which will provide a new field to explore the molecular mechanisms of adaptive response to high altitude training.

  7. Exercise training and weight loss, not always a happy marriage: single blind exercise trials in females with diverse BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Fatahi, Fardin; Alabduljader, Kholoud; Jelleyman, Charlotte; Moore, Jonathan P; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted 2 single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50%-90% peak oxygen uptake for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted. Thirty-four females finished the 4-week intervention and 36 females the 8-week intervention. Overweight/obese (OV/OB) and lean female participants' weight/body composition responses were assessed and fasting and postprandial appetite hormone levels (PYY, insulin, amylin, leptin, ghrelin) were measured before and after the intervention for understanding potential contribution to individuals' body weight response to exercise training (study 2). Exercise training in both studies did not lead to a significant reduction of weight/body mass index (BMI) in the participants' groups; however, lean participants gained muscle mass. Appetite hormones levels were significantly (p training did not lead to weight loss in female participants, while a considerable proportion of variance in body weight response to training could be explained by individuals' appetite hormone levels and BMI.

  8. The prevalence of adverse cardiometabolic responses to exercise training with evidence-based practice is low

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalleck LC

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lance C Dalleck,1 Gary P Van Guilder,2 Tara B Richardson,1 Chantal A Vella3 1Recreation, Exercise, and Sport Science Department, Western State Colorado University, Gunnison, CO, USA; 2Department of Health and Nutritional Sciences, South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD, USA; 3Department of Movement Sciences, WWAMI Medical Education Program, University of Idaho, Moscow, ID, USA Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of individuals who experienced exercise-induced adverse cardiometabolic response (ACR, following an evidence-based, individualized, community exercise program. Methods: Prevalence of ACR was retrospectively analyzed in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men before and after a 14-week supervised community exercise program. ACR included an exercise training-induced increase in systolic blood pressure of 10 mmHg, increase in plasma triglycerides (TG of >37.0 mg/dL (0.42 mmol/L, or decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C of >4.0 mg/dL (0.12 mmol/L. A second category of ACR was also defined – this was ACR that resulted in a metabolic syndrome component (ACR-risk as a consequence of the adverse response. Results: According to the above criteria, prevalence of ACR between baseline and post-program was systolic blood pressure (6.0%, TG (3.6%, and HDL-C (5.1%. The prevalence of ACR-risk was elevated TG (3.2%, impaired fasting blood glucose (2.7%, low HDL-C (2.2%, elevated waist circumference (1.3%, and elevated blood pressure (0.6%. Conclusion: Evidence-based practice exercise programming may attenuate the prevalence of exercise training-induced ACR. Our findings provide important preliminary evidence needed for the vision of exercise prescription as a personalized form of preventative medicine to become a reality. Keywords: evidence-based research, cardiovascular health, community-based research, metabolic health

  9. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX or sham operation (SO. OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL, high triglyceride diet (HT, or restricted diet (CR. The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet.

  10. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Caldwell, Lydia K; Post, Emily M; Beeler, Matthew K; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2017-05-01

    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  12. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shames, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  13. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  14. NASA-Navy Telemedicine: Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises for Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acromite, Michael T.; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William; Davis, Carl; Porter, Henry O.

    2010-01-01

    Airsickness is the most significant medical condition affecting naval aviation training. A 2001 study showed that airsickness was reported in 81% of naval aviation students and was associated with 82% of below average flight scores. The cost to a single training air-wing was over $150,000 annually for fuel and maintenance costs alone. Resistent cases are sent to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) for evaluation and desensitization in the self-paced airsickness desensitization (SPAD) program. This approach is 75% successful, but can take up to 8 weeks at a significant travel cost. NASA Ames Research Center's Autogenic Feedback Training Exercises (AFTE) uses physiological and biofeedback training for motion sickness prevention. It has a remote capability that has been used from Moffett Field, CA to Atlanta, GA . AFTE is administered in twelve (30-minute) training sessions. The success rate for the NASA AFTE program has been over 85%. Methods: Implementation Phases: Phase I: Transfer NASA AFTE to NAMI; NASA will remotely train aviation students at NAMI. Phase II: NAMI-centered AFTE application with NASA oversight. Phase III: NAMI-centered AFTE to remotely train at various Navy sites. Phase IV: NAMI to offer Tri-service application and examine research opportunities. Results: 1. Use available telemedicine connectivity between NAMI and NASA. 2. Save over $2,000 per student trained. 3. Reduce aviation training attrition. 4. Provide standardization of multi-location motion sickness training. 5. Future tri-service initiatives. 6. Data to NASA and Navy for QA and research opportunities.

  15. [Daily practice using the guidelines for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. Effectiveness of exercise for preventing and treating osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyakoshi, Naohisa

    2008-08-01

    There is increasing evidence that exercise is an effective strategy for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis. The randomized controlled trials and their meta-analyses to date, evaluating the effects of exercise on osteoporosis reveal that the exercise is effective in preserving bone mass, preventing fractures and falls, and improving quality of life in patients with osteoporosis. Emphasis is also given to the importance of the specific protocols of exercises needed to achieve positive effects safely, keeping in view the age and general physical condition of the person.

  16. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  17. Catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of vasoprotective proteins in venous tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Vu Thao-Vi; Floeren, Melanie; Kumpf, Stephanie; Both, Charlotte; Peter, Bärbel; Balz, Vera; Suvorava, Tatsiana; Kojda, Georg

    2011-11-01

    Physical activity induces favourable changes of arterial gene expression and protein activity, although little is known about its effect in venous tissue. Although our understanding of the initiating molecular signals is still incomplete, increased expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) is considered a key event. This study sought to investigate the effects of two different training protocols on the expression of eNOS and extracellular superoxide dismutase (ecSOD) in venous and lung tissue and to evaluate the underlying molecular mechanisms. C57Bl/6 mice underwent voluntary exercise or forced physical activity. Changes of vascular mRNA and protein levels and activity of eNOS, ecSOD and catalase were determined in aorta, heart, lung and vena cava. Both training protocols similarly increased relative heart weight and resulted in up-regulation of aortic and myocardial eNOS. In striking contrast, eNOS expression in vena cava and lung remained unchanged. Likewise, exercise up-regulated ecSOD in the aorta and in left ventricular tissue but remained unchanged in lung tissue. Catalase expression in lung tissue and vena cava of exercised mice exceeded that in aorta by 6.9- and 10-fold, respectively, suggesting a lack of stimulatory effects of hydrogen peroxide. In accordance, treatment of mice with the catalase inhibitor aminotriazole for 6 weeks resulted in significant up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD in vena cava. These data suggest that physiological venous catalase activity prevents exercise-induced up-regulation of eNOS and ecSOD. Furthermore, therapeutic inhibition of vascular catalase might improve pulmonary rehabilitation. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    . We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status......Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling...... were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK isoforms a1 and ¿1 were significantly increased while ¿3 levels decreased with training independent of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before...

  19. Exercise testing, limitation and training in patients with cystic fibrosis. A personalized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise testing and training are cornerstones in regular CF care. However, no consensus exists in literature about which exercise test protocol should be used for individual patients. Furthermore, divergence exists in insights about both the dominant exercise limiting mechanisms and the

  20. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  1. The roles of exercise and fall risk reduction in the prevention of osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, N K; White, C P; Eisman, J A

    1998-06-01

    In summary, the optimal model for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures includes maximization and maintenance of bone strength and minimization of trauma. Numerous determinants of each have been identified, but further work to develop preventative strategies based on these determinants remains to be undertaken. Physical activity is a determinant of peak BMD. There also is evidence that activity during growth modulates the external geometry and trabecular architecture, potentially enhancing skeletal strength, while during the adult years activity may reduce age-related bone loss. The magnitude of the effect of a 7% to 8% increase in peak BMD, if maintained through the adult years, could translate to a 1.5-fold reduction in fracture risk. Moreover, in the older population, appropriate forms of exercise could reduce the risk of falling and, thus, further reduce fracture risk. These data must be considered as preliminary in view of the paucity of long-term fracture outcome data from randomized clinical trials. However, current information suggests that the optimal form of exercise to achieve these objectives may vary through life. Vigorous physical activity (including weight-bearing, resistance, and impact components) during childhood may maximize peak BMD. This type of activity seems optimal through the young adult years, but as inevitable age-related degeneration occurs, activity modification to limit the impact component of exercise may become necessary. In the elderly, progressive strength training has been demonstrated to be a safe and effective form of exercise that reduces risk factors for falling and may also enhance BMD. In the frail elderly, activity to improve balance and confidence also may be valuable. Group activities such as Tai Chi may be cost-effective. Precise prescriptions must await the outcome of well-designed, controlled longitudinal studies that include fracture as an outcome. However, increased physical activity seems to be a sensible

  2. Decrease in rat cardiac beta1- and beta2- adrenoceptors by training and endurance exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werle, E.O.; Strobel, G.; Weicker, H.

    1990-01-01

    The cardiac β-adrenoceptor adaptation to physical activity was investigated in rats which were subjected to a six-week endurance swimming training (ET; n=7) and a training of high intensity (MT; n=7). In addition, the effect of a single bout of endurance exercise without preceding training (EE; n=7) was evaluated. These groups were compared with a sedentary control group (C; n=9). Beta-adrenergic receptors in rat myocardial membranes were labelled using the high affinity antagonist radioligand (-) 125 iodocyanopindolol (ICYP). Computer modelling techniques provided estimates of the maximal binding capacity (B max ) and the dissociation constants (K D ). Tissue was constantly kept at temperatures of ≤4 degrees C and incubated at 4 degrees C for 18 h in buffer containing 100 μM GTP so as to prevent masking of β-adrenoceptors by endogenous norepinephrine. In comparison with the C group computerized coanalyses of saturation binding data of ET, MT, and EE revealed a 13.0%, 25.5%, and 16.6% decrease in B max , respectively, without significantly differing K D values. We provide the first evidence that acute exercise lowers the sarcolemmal β-adrenoceptor number in the rat heart. In the competition radioligand binding, CGP20712A and ICI118.551 were employed as subtype-selective antagonists of β 1 - and β 2 -adrenoceptors, respectively, to determine the relative proportions of the receptor subtypes

  3. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  4. Is exercise training safe and beneficial in patients receiving left ventricular assist device therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsara, Osama; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Squires, Ray W; Dandamudi, Sanjay; Miranda, William R; Park, Soon J; Thomas, Randal J

    2014-01-01

    Because a limited number of patients receive heart transplantation, alternative therapies, such as left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy, have emerged. Published studies have shown that LVAD implantation, by itself, improves exercise tolerance to the point where it is comparable to those with mild heart failure. The improvement in exercise capacity is maximally achieved 12 weeks after LVAD therapy and can continue even after explantation of the device. This effect varies, depending on the type of LVAD and exercise training. The available data in the literature on safety and benefits of exercise training in patients after LVAD implantation are limited, but the data that are available suggest that training trends to be safe and have an impact on exercise capacity in LVAD patients. Although no studies were identified on the role of cardiac rehabilitation programs in the management of LVAD patients, it appears that cardiac rehabilitation programs offer an ideal setting for the provision of supervised exercise training in this patient group.

  5. Respiratory Muscle Training and Cognitive Function Exercising at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quackenbush, Joseph; Duquin, Aubrey; Helfer, Samuel; Pendergast, David R

    2016-01-01

    Hiking and trekking often occur at altitudes up to 12,000 ft altitude. The hypoxia-induced hyperventilation at altitude paradoxically reduces arterial CO2 (Paco2). A reduction in Paco2 results in vasoconstriction of the blood vessels of the brain and thus in local hypoxia. The local hypoxia likely affects cognitive function, which may result in reduced performance and altitude accidents. Recent publications have demonstrated that voluntary isocapnic hyperventilatory training of the respiratory muscles (VIHT) can markedly enhance exercise endurance as it is associated with reduced ventilation and its energy cost. VIHT may be useful in blunting the altitude-induced hyperventilation leading to higher Paco2 and improved cognitive function. This study examined the effects of VIHT, compared to control (C) and placebo (PVIHT) groups, on selected measures of executive functioning, including working memory and processing speed (i.e., Stroop Test, Symbol Digit Modalities Test, and Digit Span Forward) at simulated altitude up to 12,000 ft. Associated physiological parameters were also measured. The Digit Span Forward Test did not show improvements after VIHT in any group. The VIHT group, but not C or PVIHT groups, improved significantly (17-30%) on the Stroop Test. Similarly the VIHT group, but not the C and PVIHT groups, improved correct responses (26%) and number of attempts (24%) on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test. In addition, reaction time was also improved (16%). VIHT improved processing speed and working memory during exercise at altitude.

  6. Improvements in fitness are not obligatory for exercise training-induced improvements in CV risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, Yvonne A.W.; Hopman, Maria T.E.; Schreuder, Tim H.; Verheggen, Rebecca J.H.M.; Scholten, Ralph R.; Oudegeest-Sander, Madelijn H.; Poelkens, Fleur; Maiorana, Andrew J.; Naylor, Louise H.; Willems, Peter H.; Tack, Cees J.; Thijssen, Dick H.J.; Green, Daniel J.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether changes in physical fitness relate to changes in cardiovascular risk factors following standardized, center-based and supervised exercise training programs in subjects with increased cardiovascular risk. We pooled data from exercise training studies of

  7. Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Green, D.J.; Eijsvogels, T.M.; Bouts, Y.M.; Maiorana, A.J.; Naylor, L.H.; Scholten, R.R.; Spaanderman, M.E.; Pugh, C.J.; Sprung, V.S.; Schreuder, T.H.; Jones, H.; Cable, T.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk

  8. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  9. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is

  10. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  11. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  12. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  13. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  14. Effects of exercise training and exhaustion on 45Ca uptake by rat skeletal muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, H.W.; Leslie, S.W.; Combs, A.B.; Tate, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticular 45 Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity were determined in skeletal muscle from exercise trained and non-trained rats at rest or following short-term exhaustive exercise. In trained rats exercised to exhaustion, mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ uptake was significantly depressed when compared to non-trained rats at rest. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum from trained rats exercised to exhaustion was significantly increased as compared to trained rats at rest. These data suggest that the disruptive influence of Ca 2+ accumulation in mitochondria isolated following exhaustive exercise may be diminished as a result of training

  15. Blood Volume: Importance and Adaptations to Exercise Training, Environmental Stresses and Trauma Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-02-01

    because of limb atrophy, weight loss, and inactivity) because erythro- cyte levels of 2,3- diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) were in- creased. However...blood volume expansion during exercise training may partially be explained by factors such as initial fitness level , training intensity, exercise mode...335 and their hydration level when measurements are made (131). Plasma volume expansion seems to be greatest when performing upright exercise on about

  16. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsi...

  17. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  18. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  19. High Intensity Resistive and Rowing Exercise Countermeasures Do Not Prevent Orthostatic Intolerance Following 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Laurie, Steven S.; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori L.; Platts, Steven H.

    2015-01-01

    More than 60% of US astronauts participating in Mir and early International Space Station missions (greater than 5 months) were unable to complete a 10-min 80 deg head-up tilt test on landing day. This high incidence of post-spaceflight orthostatic intolerance may be related to limitations of the inflight exercise hardware that prevented high intensity training. PURPOSE: This study sought to determine if a countermeasure program that included intense lower-body resistive and rowing exercises designed to prevent cardiovascular and musculoskeletal deconditioning during 70 days of 6 deg head-down tilt bed rest (BR), a spaceflight analog, also would protect against post- BR orthostatic intolerance. METHODS: Sixteen males participated in this study and performed no exercise (Control, n=10) or performed an intense supine exercise protocol with resistive and aerobic components (Exercise, n=6). On 3 days/week, exercise subjects performed lower body resistive exercise and a 30-min continuous bout of rowing (greater than or equal to 75% max heart rate). On 3 other days/week, subjects performed only high-intensity, interval-style rowing. Orthostatic intolerance was assessed using a 15-min 80 deg head-up tilt test performed 2 days (BR-2) before and on the last day of BR (BR70). Plasma volume was measured using a carbon monoxide rebreathing technique on BR-3 and before rising on the first recovery day (BR+0). RESULTS: Following 70 days of BR, tilt tolerance time decreased significantly in both the Control (BR-2: 15.0 +/- 0.0, BR70: 9.9 +/- 4.6 min, mean +/- SD) and Exercise (BR-2: 12.2 +/- 4.7, BR70: 4.9 +/- 1.9 min) subjects, but the decreased tilt tolerance time was not different between groups (Control: -34 +/- 31, Exercise: -56 +/- 16%). Plasma volume also decreased (Control: -0.56 +/- 0.40, Exercise: -0.48 +/- 0.33 L) from pre to post-BR, with no differences between groups (Control: -18 +/- 11%, Exerciser: -15 +/-1 0%). CONCLUSIONS: These findings confirm previous reports

  20. Clinical Utility of Exercise Training in Heart Failure with Reduced and Preserved Ejection Fraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrar Ul Haq, Muhammad; Goh, Cheng Yee; Levinger, Itamar; Wong, Chiew; Hare, David L

    2015-01-01

    Reduced exercise tolerance is an independent predictor of hospital readmission and mortality in patients with heart failure (HF). Exercise training for HF patients is well established as an adjunct therapy, and there is sufficient evidence to support the favorable role of exercise training programs for HF patients over and above the optimal medical therapy. Some of the documented benefits include improved functional capacity, quality of life (QoL), fatigue, and dyspnea. Major trials to assess exercise training in HF have, however, focused on heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). At least half of the patients presenting with HF have heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF) and experience similar symptoms of exercise intolerance, dyspnea, and early fatigue, and similar mortality risk and rehospitalization rates. The role of exercise training in the management of HFPEF remains less clear. This article provides a brief overview of pathophysiology of reduced exercise tolerance in HFREF and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF), and summarizes the evidence and mechanisms by which exercise training can improve symptoms and HF. Clinical and practical aspects of exercise training prescription are also discussed. PMID:25698883

  1. Maximal power output during incremental exercise by resistance and endurance trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivelavan, D S; Sumathilatha, S

    2010-01-01

    This study was aimed at comparing the maximal power output by resistance trained and endurance trained athletes during incremental exercise. Thirty male athletes who received resistance training (Group I) and thirty male athletes of similar age group who received endurance training (Group II) for a period of more than 1 year were chosen for the study. Physical parameters were measured and exercise stress testing was done on a cycle ergometer with a portable gas analyzing system. The maximal progressive incremental cycle ergometer power output at peak exercise and carbon dioxide production at VO2max were measured. Highly significant (P biofeedback and perk up the athlete's performance.

  2. Whole-body vibration exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa, Arturo; Kalfon, Roy; Madzima, Takudzwa A; Wong, Alexei

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise training on arterial stiffness (pulse wave velocity [PWV]), blood pressure (BP), and leg muscle function in postmenopausal women. Twenty-five postmenopausal women with prehypertension and hypertension (mean [SE]; age, 56 [1] y; systolic BP, 139 [2] mm Hg; body mass index, 34.7 [0.8] kg/m2) were randomized to 12 weeks of WBV exercise training (n = 13) or to the no-exercise control group. Systolic BP, diastolic BP, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, carotid-femoral PWV, brachial-ankle PWV, femoral-ankle PWV (legPWV), leg lean mass, and leg muscle strength were measured before and after 12 weeks. There was a group-by-time interaction (P exercise training compared with no change after control. Heart rate decreased (-3 [1] beats/min, P exercise training, but there was no interaction (P > 0.05). Leg lean mass and carotid-femoral PWV were not significantly (P > 0.05) affected by WBV exercise training or control. Our findings indicate that WBV exercise training improves systemic and leg arterial stiffness, BP, and leg muscle strength in postmenopausal women with prehypertension or hypertension. WBV exercise training may decrease cardiovascular and disability risks in postmenopausal women by reducing legPWV and increasing leg muscle strength.

  3. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  4. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stoedefalke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The following review aims to describe what is known about the effects of exercise training in children and adolescents on the following blood lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Only studies that described mode, frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise were included in the review. The results of the studies reviewed were equivocal. Clearly the effects of exercise training on the blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of normolipidemic children and adolescents are equivocal. Of the 14 studies reviewed, six observed a positive alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile, four of the studies observed no alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and one study observed a negative effect on HDL-C but an overall improvement in the lipid and lipoprotein profile due to the decrease in the TC/HDL ratio. It appears that methodological problems present in the majority of the exercise training studies limits the ability to make a conclusive, evidence based statement regarding the effect exercise training has on blood lipid levels in normolipidemic children. Most of the research design flaws can be linked to one or more of the following: small numbers of subjects in each study, low or no representation of girls, inclusion of both boys and girls in the subject pool, inclusion of boys and girls at different maturational stages in the subject pool, exercise training regimes that do not adequately control for exercise intensity, exercise training regimes that do not last longer than 8 weeks and exercise training studies that do not have an adequate exercise volume to elicit a change. Ideally, future research should focus on longitudinal studies which examine the effects of exercise training from the primary school years through adulthood

  5. Pollution prevention opportunity assessments, a training and resource guide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    VALERO, O.J.

    1998-11-03

    The intention of the ''Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment Training and Resource Guide'' is to help Hanford waste generators identify ways to reduce waste through the Pollution Prevention Opportunity Assessment (P20A) process. This document presents pollution prevention tools and provides a step-by-step approach for conducting assessments.

  6. Irisin and exercise training in humans - results from a randomized controlled training trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecksteden, Anne; Wegmann, Melissa; Steffen, Anke; Kraushaar, Jochen; Morsch, Arne; Ruppenthal, Sandra; Kaestner, Lars; Meyer, Tim

    2013-11-05

    The recent discovery of a new myokine (irisin) potentially involved in health-related training effects has gained great attention, but evidence for a training-induced increase in irisin remains preliminary. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine whether irisin concentration is increased after regular exercise training in humans. In a randomized controlled design, two guideline conforming training interventions were studied. Inclusion criteria were age 30 to 60 years, Physical performance provided positive control for the overall efficacy of training. Differences between groups were tested for significance using analysis of variance. For post hoc comparisons with the control group, Dunnett's test was used. Maximum performance increased significantly in the training groups compared with controls (controls: ±0.0 ± 0.7 km/h; AET: 1.1 ± 0.6 km/h, P error probability = 0.7). The general upward trend was mainly accounted for by a negative association of irisin concentration with the storage duration of frozen serum samples (P storage of samples from initial tests.

  7. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  8. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  9. Effect of square stepping exercise for older adults to prevent fall and injury related to fall: systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Fisseha, Berihu; Janakiraman, Balamurugan; Yitayeh, Asmare; Ravichandran, Hariharasudhan

    2017-01-01

    Falls and fall related injuries become an emerging health problem among older adults. As a result a review of the recent evidences is needed to design a prevention strategy. The aim of this review was to determine the effect of square stepping exercise (SSE) for fall down injury among older adults compared with walking training or other exercises. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2005 to 2016 was conducted. Articles with outcome me...

  10. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  11. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  12. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition

  13. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-04-07

    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations. Subjects performed a ballistic training and then the HIIT either before (HIIT_before) or after (HIIT_after) practicing an interfering accuracy task (AT). The control group (No_HIIT) did not participate in the HIIT but rested instead. Performance in the ballistic task (BT) was tested before and after the ballistic training, after the exercise and practice of the AT and 24h later. After ballistic training, all groups showed comparable increases in performance in the trained and untrained limb. Despite the practice of the AT, HIIT_before maintained their BT performance after the high-intensity interval training whereas HIIT_after (trend) & No_HIIT showed prominent interference effects. After 24h, HIIT_before still did not show any interference effects but further improved ballistic motor performance. HIIT_after counteracted the interference resulting in a comparable BT performance after 24h than directly after the ballistic training while No_HIIT had a significantly lower BT performance in the retention test. The results were similar in the trained and untrained limb. The current results imply that a single session of cardiovascular exercise can prevent motor interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere. Overall learning was best, and interference least, when HIIT was performed before the interfering motor task. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Long-term exercise adherence after public health training in at-risk adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riktrup Hansen Saida, Trine Gro; Juul Sørensen, Tina; Langberg, Henning

    2017-01-01

    and self-rated health. Predictors of long-term exercise adherence were assessed by logistic regression, estimating crude odds-ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) and adjusting for age, gender, education, smoking, moderate and vigorous exercise. Results: In total, 214 adults (mean age 58......Objectives: Sustainment of healthy exercise behavior is essential in preventing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Few studies have explored long-term exercise adherence after an exercise referral scheme. The objective of this study was to examine 12-month exercise adherence after an exercise...... intervention program. Methods: This was a pragmatic follow-up study in at-risk people performed between June 2012 and January 2014. The main outcome measure was self-reported single-item exercise adherence. Secondary outcomes were change in exercise level, quality of life rated on a visual analog scale...

  15. Exercise training decreases store-operated Ca2+entry associated with metabolic syndrome and coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Jason M; Neeb, Zachary P; Alloosh, Mouhamad A; Long, Xin; Bratz, Ian N; Peller, Cassandra R; Byrd, James P; Kumar, Sanjay; Obukhov, Alexander G; Sturek, Michael

    2010-02-01

    Stenting attenuates restenosis, but accelerated coronary artery disease (CAD) adjacent to the stent (peri-stent CAD) remains a concern in metabolic syndrome (MetS). Smooth muscle cell proliferation, a major mechanism of CAD, is mediated partly by myoplasmic Ca2+ dysregulation and store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) via canonical transient receptor potential 1 (TRPC1) channels is proposed to play a key role. Exercise is known to prevent Ca2+ dysregulation in CAD. We tested the hypothesis that MetS increases SOCE and peri-stent CAD and exercise attenuates these events. Groups (n = 9 pigs each) were (i) healthy lean Ossabaw swine fed standard chow, (ii) excess calorie atherogenic diet fed (MetS), and (iii) aerobically exercise trained starting after 50 weeks of development of MetS (XMetS). Bare metal stents were placed after 54 weeks on diets, and CAD and SOCE were assessed 4 weeks later. Coronary cells were dispersed proximal to the stent (peri-stent) and from non-stent segments, and fura-2 fluorescence was used to assess SOCE, which was verified by Ni2+ blockade and insensitivity to nifedipine. XMetS pigs had increased physical work capacity and decreased LDL/HDL (P molecular expression of TRPC1, STIM1, and Orai1 in MetS.

  16. Exercise training improves ambulatory blood pressure but not arterial stiffness in heart transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoalino, Lucas Nóbilo; Ciolac, Emmanuel Gomes; Tavares, Aline Cristina; Castro, Rafael Ertner; Ayub-Ferreira, Silvia Moreira; Bacal, Fernando; Issa, Victor Sarli; Bocchi, Edimar Alcides; Guimarães, Guilherme Veiga

    2015-05-01

    Hypertension is the most prevalent comorbidity after heart transplantation (HT). Exercise training (ET) is widely recommended as a key non-pharmacologic intervention for the prevention and management of hypertension, but its effects on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and some mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension have not been studied in this population. The primary purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of ET on ABP and arterial stiffness of HT recipients. 40 HT patients, randomized to ET (n = 31) or a control group (n = 9) underwent a maximal graded exercise test, 24-hour ABP monitoring, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) assessment before the intervention and at a 12-week follow-up assessment. The ET program was performed thrice-weekly and consisted primarily of endurance exercise (40 minutes) at ~70% of maximum oxygen uptake (Vo2MAX). The ET group had reduced 24-hour (4.0 ± 1.4 mm Hg, p endurance ET may be a tool to counteract hypertension in this high-risk population. Copyright © 2015 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Role of n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Exercise in Breast Cancer Prevention: Identifying Common Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salma A. Abdelmagid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Diet and exercise are recognized as important lifestyle factors that significantly influence breast cancer risk. In particular, dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs have been shown to play an important role in breast cancer prevention. Growing evidence also demonstrates a role for exercise in cancer and chronic disease prevention. However, the potential synergistic effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise is yet to be determined. This review explores targets for breast cancer prevention that are common between n-3 PUFA intake and exercise and that may be important study outcomes for future research investigating the combined effect of n-3 PUFA intake and exercise. These lines of evidence highlight potential new avenues for research and strategies for breast cancer prevention.

  18. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  19. The Effects of Exercise Training on Tumor Vascularity and Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Operable Breast Cancer: A Phase I-II Study (Idea Award)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Lee W; Peterson, Bercedis; Blackwell, Kimberly; Dewhirst, Mark W; Marcom, P. K; Kraus, WIlliam; Baker, Jay; Allen, Jason D

    2006-01-01

    .... Participants assigned to combined exercise training and chemotherapy will perform an individualized exercise training program consisting of three cycle ergometry sessions per week at approximately 60-80...

  20. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  1. ATTITUDES OF FOOTBALL PLAYERS OF DIFFERENT RANKS TOWARDS TRAINING EXERCISES OF RECOVERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Molnar

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Training exercises of recovery of sportsmen include both exercises implying hig- her level of training and exercises of optimal recovery of sportsmen. In order to use training exercises of recovery best way it is necessary to know how they react to the body of a sportsman concerning their character and length. It is also necessary to take into consideration the fact that human body adapts equally both to burden and adequ- ate recovery exercises. To increase the efficiency of training exercises of recovery it is inevitable to use different exercises and methods changing their use, that is, they should be applied in a complex way considering their change depending on sport activities and structure of training process. The aim of the study is to check and analyse attitudes of fooyball players of different ranks towards training exercises of recovery. The sample of examinees consists of 120 footballers of different ranks (super league of Serbia = 43, the first league of Serbia = 40 and Serbian league = 37. The sample of variables consists of the system of 10 attitudes (claims, and each attitude (claim consists of 5 verbal ca- tegories (marked from -2 to +2. To determine multivariate and univariate significance of differences between footballers of different competition ranks multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and univariate analysis of variance (ANOVA have been ap- plied. Concerning the attitudes of training exercises of recovery statistically significant differences were got between the groups where 7 out of 10 attitudes were different. Con- cerning the correlation two types of attitudes were noticed. Footballers of different competition ranks do not have the same attitudes towards training exercises of recovery.

  2. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  3. Changes in ventilatory threshold with exercise training in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, S E; Walker, A J; Serfass, R A; Bouchard, C; Gagnon, J; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Leon, A S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training intensity relative to the ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in work (watts) and VO2 at the ventilatory threshold and at maximal exercise in previously sedentary participants in the HERITAGE Family Study. We hypothesized that those who exercised below their VT would improve less in VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (VO2vt) and VO2max than those who trained at an intensity greater than their VT. Supervised cycle ergometer training was performed at the 4 participating clinical centers, 3 times a week for 20 weeks. Exercise training progressed from the HR corresponding to 55% VO2max for 30 minutes to the HR associated with 75% VO2max for 50 minutes for the final 6 weeks. VT was determined at baseline and after exercise training using standardized methods. 432 sedentary white and black men (n = 224) and women (n = 208), aged 17 to 65 years, were retrospectively divided into groups based on whether exercise training was initiated below, at, or above VT. 1) Training intensity (relative to VT) accounting for about 26% of the improvement in VO2vt (R2 = 0.26, p accounted for approximately 56% of the training effect at VT (R2 = 0.56, p 0.70). 3) Training intensity (relative to VT) had no effect on DeltaVO2max. These data clearly show that as a result of aerobic training both the VO2 and W associated with VT respond and become similar to the absolute intensity of sustained (3 x /week for 50 min) aerobic exercise training. Higher intensities of exercise, relative to VT, result in larger gains in VO2vt but not in VO2max.

  4. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Key words: Aerobic exercise, inflammatory cytokines, obesity, non-insulin ... exercise, include reduced percentage of body fat and ... Skeletal muscle is another source of cytokines, called .... concomitant weight loss diet, is associated with.

  5. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  6. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  7. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained subjects before and after prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects were recruited into an untrained (n = 8, VO2,max 3.8 +/- 0.2 1 min1) and a trained (n = 8, Vo2,max 5.1 +/- 0.1 1 min2) group. Before and after a 3-h exercise bout (58 +/- 1% VO2,max) a muscle biopsy...... was measured using N-[14CH3]-sphingomyelin as a substrate. Prior to exercise, the muscle total ceramide fatty acid content in both groups was similar (201 +/- 18 and 197 +/- 9 nmol g(-1) in the untrained and trained group, respectively) and after exercise a 25% increase in the content was observed in each...... group. At rest, the muscle total sphingomyelin fatty acid content was higher in untrained than in trained subjects (456 +/- 10, 407 +/- 7 nmol g(-1), respectively; P trained subjects. The muscle neutral, Mg...

  8. [Review of the approach to exercise behavior modification from the viewpoint of preventive medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Takuo; Kouta, Munetsugu; Shigemori, Kenta; Yoshimoto, Yoshinobu; Sato, Atsushi

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the approaches to behavior modification for exercise from the viewpoint of preventive medicine. Articles were searched according to the particular field of preventive medicine, i.e., primary prevention, secondary prevention, tertiary prevention, and other fields of prevention. In the field of primary prevention for elderly people living at home, many fall prevention programs were found to have been carried out. In these studies, various programs were found to be effective if the exercise proved to be sufficient. Although some approaches were observed to be based on the productive aging theory and social capital, the number of such studies was small. In the field of secondary prevention, illness and functional disorders are prevented from becoming worse. It is therefore important for each individual to exercise by himself/herself and also acquire sufficient self-monitoring skills. Social capital is useful for learning good exercise habits. In the field of tertiary prevention, although exercise therapy is effective for improving physical functions and preventing disease recurrence in patients with chronic disease, some patients nevertheless find it difficult to continue such an exercise therapy. The approaches to behavior modification were extremely effective for patients with chronic disease. In other fields of preventive medicine, daily exercises such stair climbing are effective methods for reducing the risk of chronic disease and such a behavior modification may lead to a considerable public health gain. In the future, further studies with a many lines of evidence should be performed, and approaches based on behavioral science should be established.

  9. Lifelong training preserves some redox-regulated adaptive responses after an acute exercise stimulus in aged human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, J N; Sakellariou, G K; Owens, D J; Murray, S; Waldron, S; Gregson, W; Fraser, W D; Burniston, J G; Iwanejko, L A; McArdle, A; Morton, J P; Jackson, M J; Close, G L

    2014-05-01

    Several redox-regulated responses to an acute exercise bout fail in aged animal skeletal muscle, including the ability to upregulate the expression of antioxidant defense enzymes and heat shock proteins (HSPs). These findings are generally derived from studies on sedentary rodent models and thus may be related to reduced physical activity and/or intraspecies differences as opposed to aging per se. This study, therefore, aimed to determine the influence of age and training status on the expression of HSPs, antioxidant enzymes, and NO synthase isoenzymes in quiescent and exercised human skeletal muscle. Muscle biopsy samples were obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 3 days after an acute high-intensity-interval exercise bout in young trained, young untrained, old trained, and old untrained subjects. Levels of HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS were significantly higher in quiescent muscle of older compared with younger subjects, irrespective of training status. 3-NT levels were elevated in muscles of the old untrained but not the old trained state, suggesting that lifelong training may reduce age-related macromolecule damage. SOD1, CAT, and HSP27 levels were not significantly different between groups. HSP27 content was upregulated in all groups studied postexercise. HSP72 content was upregulated to a greater extent in muscle of trained compared with untrained subjects postexercise, irrespective of age. In contrast to every other group, old untrained subjects failed to upregulate CAT postexercise. Aging was associated with a failure to upregulate SOD2 and a downregulation of PRX5 in muscle postexercise, irrespective of training status. In conclusion, lifelong training is unable to fully prevent the progression toward a more stressed muscular state as evidenced by increased HSP72, PRX5, and eNOS protein levels in quiescent muscle. Moreover, lifelong training preserves some (e.g., CAT) but not all (e.g., SOD2, HSP72, PRX5) of the adaptive redox-regulated responses after an

  10. A call for the better utilization of physical activity and exercise training in the defense against cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murlasits, Zsolt

    2015-11-01

    Statins, also known as 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, effectively reduce elevated levels of serum LDL-C concentration and in turn lower cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Regular exercise and physical activity also have significant preventive effects against cardiovascular diseases by simultaneously reducing multiple risk factors. However, statins also produce a number of adverse events, including muscle pain, which increases dramatically in statin users who also exercise, likely limiting the cardiovascular benefits. Most importantly, reduced physical activity participation due to statin-related side effects can cancel out the benefits of the pharmacological treatment. Although exercise training offers more modest benefits compared to pharmacological therapy against traditional risk factors, considering the total impact of exercise on cardiovascular health, it is now evident that this intervention may offer a greater reduction of risks compared to statin therapy alone. However, primary recommendations regarding cardiovascular therapy still center around pharmacological approaches. Thus a new outlook is called for in clinical practice that provides room for physical activity and exercise training, thus lipid targets can be reached by a combined intervention along with improvements in other cardiovascular parameters, such as endothelial function and low-grade inflammation. Databases such as Pubmed and Google Scholar as well as the reference list of the relevant articles were searched to collect information for this opinion article.

  11. Exercise Training Mitigates Water Pipe Smoke Exposure-Induced Pulmonary Impairment via Inhibiting NF-κB and Activating Nrf2 Signalling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abderrahim Nemmar

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Water pipe smoking is a tobacco smoking method commonly used in Eastern countries and is gaining popularity in Europe and North America, in particular among adolescents and young adults. Several clinical and experimental studies have reported that exposure to water pipe smoke (WPS induces lung inflammation and impairment of pulmonary function. However, the mechanisms of such effects are not understood, as are data on the possible palliative effect of exercise training. The present study evaluated the effects of regular aerobic exercise training (treadmill: 5 days/week, 40 min/day on subchronic exposure to WPS (30 minutes/day, 5 days/week for 2 months. C57BL/6 mice were exposed to air or WPS with or without exercise training. Airway resistance measured using forced oscillation technique was significantly and dose-dependently increased in the WPS-exposed group when compared with the air-exposed one. Exercise training significantly prevented the effect of WPS on airway resistance. Histologically, the lungs of WPS-exposed mice had focal moderate interstitial inflammatory cell infiltration consisting of neutrophil polymorphs, plasma cells, and lymphocytes. There was a mild increase in intra-alveolar macrophages and a focal damage to alveolar septae in some foci. Exercise training significantly alleviated these effects and also decreased the WPS-induced increase of tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin 6 concentrations and attenuated the increase of 8-isoprostane in lung homogenates. Likewise, the lung DNA damage induced by WPS was significantly inhibited by exercise training. Moreover, exercise training inhibited nuclear factor kappa-B (NF-κB expression induced by WPS and increased that of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2. Our findings suggest that exercise training significantly mitigated WPS-induced increase in airway resistance, inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage via mechanisms that include inhibiting NF-κB and

  12. Stress Prevention Training; Sex Differences inTypes of Stressors, Coping, and Training Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekker, M.H.J.; Hens, G.; Nijssen, A.

    2001-01-01

    The present study was aimed at examining the effectiveness of preventive group training and sex differences in types of work stressors, coping strategies, and training effects. Sixty-eight trainees of stress prevention courses of Regional Institutions for Ambulatory Mental Health Care (RIAGGs) in

  13. Exercise training improves selected aspects of daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2012-08-15

    To explore the utility of exercise training for improving daytime functioning in adults with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (apnea-hypopnea index ≥ 15) were randomized to 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise training (n = 27) or low-intensity stretching control treatment (n = 16). As part of a trial investigating the efficacy of exercise training on OSA severity, daytime functioning was assessed before and following the intervention. Sleepiness, functional impairment due to sleepiness, depressive symptoms, mood, and quality of life (QOL) were evaluated with validated questionnaires, and cognitive function was assessed with a neurobehavioral performance battery. OSA severity was measured with one night of laboratory polysomnography before and following the intervention. Compared with stretching control, exercise training resulted in significant improvements in depressive symptoms, fatigue and vigor, and aspects of QOL (p improved following exercise versus control to a similar degree in terms of effect sizes (d > 0.5), though these changes were not statistically significant. No neurobehavioral performance improvements were found. Reduced fatigue following exercise training was mediated by a reduction in OSA severity, but changes in OSA severity did not significantly mediate improvement in any other measure of daytime functioning. These data provide preliminary evidence that exercise training may be helpful for improving aspects of daytime functioning of adults with OSA. Larger trials are needed to further verify the observed improvements.

  14. Exercise and Life-Satisfactory-Fitness: Complementary Strategies in the Prevention and Rehabilitation of Illnesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christiane Jennen

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Moderate training of an endurance nature, but also other exercise activities, not only has a preventive effect on various illnesses and pre-illness states such as the metabolic syndrome and cancer, but is also effective in treating patients in the rehabilitation phase after illness, e.g. cardiovascular or cancer. Our investigation demonstrates that even low level physical activity has a very good preventive effect too, which is enhanced when it is accompanied by mental activity and psychological well-being. In total, we investigated 13 000 people on the basis of socio-economic panel polls with respect to life contentment, health status and leisure-time activities. Life contentment is positively linked to contentment with labor, which seems to be an essential aspect with regard to the increasing number of unemployed people in Europe. The second important factor is health-promoting activities during leisure time. Exercise, especially, has a significant influence on life satisfaction as a feeling of physical fitness feeling is regarded as synonymous with good health. The results underline the psycho-neuroimmunological network, which stabilizes our health and shows that different activities in older adults have a significant effect on the aging process and age-related illnesses. Besides the various activities that are important in this arena, namely muscle and mental mobility (‘brawn and brain’, a third component must be taken into consideration: life contentment in the form of a successful retrospective view and a positive outlook, embedded in a psychosocial family environment (‘brood’ and integrated in a stress-free biotope, where life does make sense. Alternative and complementary strategies should be considered in light of these three aspects when we think about additional anti-inflammatory strategies in preventing diseases or treating them and their relapses.

  15. Moderate aerobic exercise training for improving reproductive function in infertile patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh Maleki, Behzad; Tartibian, Bakhtyar

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated for the first time the changes in seminal markers of inflammation, oxidative stress status, semen parameters, sperm DNA integrity as well as pregnancy rate following 24weeks of moderate aerobic exercise in infertile patients. A total of 1026 sedentary men (aged 25-40years) attending the infertility clinic with history of more than one year of infertility, were screened and 419 were randomized to either exercise (EX, n=210) or non-exercise (NON-EX, n=209) groups. Exercise training favorably attenuated seminal markers of both inflammation (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α) and oxidative stress (ROS, MDA, 8-Isoprostane) as well as enhanced antioxidant defense system (SOD, catalase and TAC) (Paerobic exercise training as a treatment option for male factor infertility. The 4-week detraining period was not enough to reverse all benefits promoted by exercise intervention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Self-Determination and Physical Exercise Adherence in the Contexts of Fitness Academies and Personal Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klain, Ingi Petitemberte; de Matos, Dihogo Gama; Leitão, José Carlos; Cid, Luís; Moutão, João

    2015-01-01

    This research aimed to analyze the validity of the relations hypothesized by the theory of self-determination in predicting adherence to physical exercise in fitness academy users and subjects following personal training. A total of 588 persons from Pelotas / RS / Brazil (405 gym users and 183 subjects following personal training) completed the Portuguese version of the three questionnaires, i.e. the Perceived Autonomy Support Climate Exercise Questionnaire, Basic Psychological Needs in the Exercise Scale and Behavioral Regulation in the Exercise Questionnaire −2. The results support the factorial structure of the questionnaires used in this sample. There was a significant multivariate effect of context on self-determination for physical exercise training [Wilks’ λ = 0.934, F (10, 576.000) = 4.03, p amotivation and external regulation were significantly higher in the context of fitness academies. PMID:26240667

  17. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  18. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Exercise Training Attenuates the Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines and Oxidative Stress in White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sakurai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity-induced inflammatory changes in white adipose tissue (WAT, which caused dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Moreover, current literature reports state that WAT generates reactive oxygen species (ROS, and the enhanced production of ROS in obese WAT has been closely associated with the dysregulated expression of adipokines in WAT. Therefore, the reduction in excess WAT and oxidative stress that results from obesity is thought to be one of the important strategies in preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only brings about a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the adipokines in WAT. Furthermore, some reports indicate that TR affects the generation of oxidative stress in WAT. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression of inflammation-related adipokines and oxidative stress in WAT.

  20. PENGARUH KOMBINASI BLADDER TRAINING DAN KEGEL EXERCISE TERHADAP PEMULIHAN INKONTINENSIA PADA PADA PASIEN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ernawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke adalah suatu gangguan fungsi saraf akut yang disebabkan oleh adanya gangguan peredaran darah otak secara mendadak (dalam beberapa detik atau secara cepat (dalam beberapa jam timbul gejala dan tanda sesuai dengan daerah fokal di otak yang terganggu. Komplikasi akibat stroke diantaranya adalah lemahnya otot spingter uretra yang mengendalikan kemampuan berkemihpasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh kombinasi bladder training dan kegel exercise terhadap pemulihanin kontinensia urine pada pasien stroke di Ruang Tulip Rumah Sakit Dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara Serang. Metode penelitian ini adalah kuasi eksperimen pre test and post test one group design. Populasi adalah semua pasien stroke di RS dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara berjumlah 112 orang. Sampel yang diambil adalah 36 respondendengan intervenesibladder training selama 3 haridilanjutkankegel exercise selama 7 hari.Pengukuran inkontinen dengan menggunakan Sandvik Severity Scale, sedangkan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise menggunakan SOP yang telah dibakukan. Hasil didapatkan rata-rata scor inkontinensia urine mengalami penurunan dengan intervensi bladder training sebesar 0,92. Umur secara bersama-sama mempengaruhi bladder training dan kegel exercise dan mempengaruhi pemulihan inkontinensia urine sebesar 0,002 . Adapengaruh yang bermakna intervensibladder training dankegel exercise terhadap pemulihan inkontinensia urine dengan p-value 0,000 dan r: 1,16. Pemulihan inkontinensia urine dapat dilakukan dengan memberikan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise.

  1. Resveratrol modulates the angiogenic response to exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The polyphenol resveratrol has in animal studies been shown to influence several pathways of importance for angiogenesis in skeletal muscle. The aim was to examine the angiogenic effect of resveratrol supplementation with parallel exercise training in aged men. Methods: Forty-three healthy...... physically inactive aged men (65±1 years) were divided into A) a training group that conducted 8 weeks of intense exercise training where half of the subjects received a daily intake of either 250 mg trans resveratrol (n=14) and the other half received placebo (n=13); and B) a non-training group...... show that exercise training has a strong angiogenic effect whereas resveratrol supplementation may limit basal and training-induced angiogenesis....

  2. Training Manual for HIV/AIDS Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Patricia H.; Vallenari, Allison

    This manual includes all necessary information for implementing the Champs program, which trains older elementary school students or middle/high school students to operate puppets to deliver an HIV/AIDS message to kindergarten through sixth graders. Relying on a peer approach, the Program provides scripted, prerecorded lessons intended to reach…

  3. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  4. Cardiodynamicsgram: a novel tool for monitoring cardiac function in exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xu; Guo, Bokai; Gong, Yinglan; Xia, Ling; Yu, Jie

    2018-04-27

    This study evaluated the feasibility of cardiodynamicsgram (CDG) for monitoring the cardiac functions of athletes and exercisers. CDG could provide an effective, simple, and economical tool for exercise training. Seventeen middle-distance race athletes aged 14-28 years old were recruited. CDG tests and blood test including creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme, and high-sensitivity troponin I (hsTnI) were performed before a high-intensity prolonged training, as well as 2 and 14 h after training, respectively. The CDG test result was unsatisfactory when the CK test result was used as standard. However, the accuracy of CDG test was about 80% when CK-MB and hsTnI were used as standards. Thus, CDG offers a noninvasive, simple, and economical approach for monitoring the cardiac function of athletes and exercisers during exercise training. Nonetheless, the applicability of CDG needs further investigation.

  5. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  6. 77 FR 33718 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals: Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Navy Training Exercises...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... (LOA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting training exercises within the... issue an LOA to the Navy that includes the use of time delayed firing devices (TDFDs), which have not been explicitly addressed previously, to [[Page 33719

  7. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  8. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  9. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  10. Insulin-like growth factors and leucine kinetics during exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gulmans, [No Value; van der Laag, J; Wattimena, D; van Doorn, J; Oostveen, D; Berger, R; van de Meer, K

    Background: Little is known about the metabolic effects of exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis. The hypothesis for the current study was that in patients with declining clinical status, exercise increases circulating insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and improves protein kinetics.

  11. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Bala

    2014-12-01

    The results showed that the children’s computation performance was enhanced significantly in the groups with 30, or 45, or 60 min of physical exercise, but not in the groups without physical exercise. This means that even acute intensive physical training can yield positive effects on children's mathematical abilities.

  12. Monitoring training response in young Friesian dressage horses using two different standardised exercise tests (SETs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruijn, Cornelis Marinus; Houterman, Willem; Ploeg, Margreet; Ducro, Bart; Boshuizen, Berit; Goethals, Klaartje; Verdegaal, Elisabeth-Lidwien; Delesalle, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most Friesian horses reach their anaerobic threshold during a standardized exercise test (SET) which requires lower intensity exercise than daily routine training. AIM: to study strengths and weaknesses of an alternative SET-protocol. Two different SETs (SETA and SETB) were applied

  13. Monitoring training response in young Friesian dressage horses using two different standardised exercise tests (SETs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, de Cornelis Marinus; Houterman, Willem; Ploeg, Margreet; Ducro, Bart; Boshuizen, Berit; Goethals, Klaartje; Verdegaal, Elisabeth Lidwien; Delesalle, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most Friesian horses reach their anaerobic threshold during a standardized exercise test (SET) which requires lower intensity exercise than daily routine training. Aim: to study strengths and weaknesses of an alternative SET-protocol. Two different SETs (SETA and SETB) were applied

  14. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  15. Effect of metformin on substrate utilization after exercise training in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Braun, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Metformin attenuates the higher insulin sensitivity that occurs with exercise training. Sixteen people with prediabetes trained for 10 weeks while taking metformin (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8). Substrate utilization was assessed using glucose kinetics and indirect calorimetry. After training, exercise whole-body fat oxidation was higher and glycogen use lower (p use was unchanged. Training-induced enhancement of insulin sensitivity (clamp) correlated with higher peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.70; p < 0.05), but was independent of glucose kinetic and substrate metabolism.

  16. Exercise training normalizes skeletal muscle vascular endothelial growth factor levels in patients with essential hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ane Håkansson; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Saltin, Bengt

    2010-01-01

    METHODS: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) protein and capillarization were determined in muscle vastus lateralis biopsy samples in individuals with essential hypertension (n = 10) and normotensive controls (n = 10). The hypertensive individuals performed exercise training for 16 weeks....... Muscle samples as well as muscle microdialysis fluid samples were obtained at rest, during and after an acute exercise bout, performed prior to and after the training period, for the determination of muscle VEGF levels, VEGF release, endothelial cell proliferative effect and capillarization. RESULTS......: Prior to training, the hypertensive individuals had 36% lower levels of VEGF protein and 22% lower capillary density in the muscle compared to controls. Training in the hypertensive group reduced (P

  17. Exercise training modulates functional sympatholysis and alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    were measured before and after 8 weeks of aerobic training (3-4 times/week) in 8 hypertensive (47 ± 2 years) and 8 normotensive untrained individuals (46 ± 1 years) during arterial tyramine infusion, arterial ATP infusion and/or one-legged knee extensions. Before training, exercise hypaeremia and leg......Essential hypertension is linked to an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and reduced tissue perfusion. We investigated the role of exercise training on functional sympatholysis and postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in individuals with essential hypertension. Leg haemodynamics...... vascular conductance (LVC) were lower in the hypertensive individuals (P Training lowered blood pressure in the hypertensive individuals (P

  18. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  19. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  20. Pelvic floor exercises during and after pregnancy: a systematic review of their role in preventing pelvic floor dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Marie-Andrée

    2003-06-01

    INTEGRATION: Data were extracted using a standardized collection form. Quality of the data was evaluated using the Jadad scale. Where possible, a meta-analysis was conducted using a random effect model. Heterogeneity between trials was assessed and sensitivity analyses were performed. Antepartum PFEs, when used with biofeedback and taught by trained health care personnel, using a conservative model, does not result in significant short-term (3 months) decrease in postpartum urinary incontinence, or pelvic floor strength. Postpartum PFEs, when performed with a vaginal device providing resistance or feedback, appear to decrease postpartum urinary incontinence and to increase strength. Reminder and motivational systems to perform "Kegel" exercises are ineffective in preventing postpartum urinary incontinence. Postpartum PFEs do not consistently reduce the incidence of anal incontinence. Postpartum PFEs appear to be effective in decreasing postpartum urinary incontinence. Data regarding the effect of PFEs on prevention of anal incontinence are lacking, and also on its prevention of prolapse.

  1. High and Low Impact Aerobic Exercise as a Method of Early Prevention of Hypercholesterolaemia Development among Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Robert

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hypercholesterolaemia is a highly prevalent condition that has major health- and cost-related implications for the society. Aerobic-type exercise improves lipoprotein-lipid profiles, cardiorespiratory fitness and body composition in healthy young women. Thus, the aim of the study was to assess the impact of 9 weeks of low-high aerobic-type exercise on the lipid profile among young women. Methods. On the basis of the lipid profile, 64 women (median age, 21.8 years; range, 19.0-24.7 years were divided into two groups: with low (LRH and intermediate (IRH risk of developing hypercholesterolaemia. The participants completed a 9-week-long low-high aerobic exercise programme. Before and after the training programme, we determined the lipid profile: triglycerides (TG, total cholesterol (TC, lipoprotein cholesterol: HDL-C and LDL-C, and glucose levels. Selected cardiorespiratory fitness variables and body composition were also determined. Results. It was found that aerobic-type fitness exercise in the IRH group caused statistically significant decreases in TC and TG levels in comparison with baseline values. Significant increase in maximum oxygen uptake and decrease in HDL-C in the LRH group were also observed. Conclusions. Aerobic fitness exercises, a combination of two alternating styles, could influence the blood lipid profile by decreasing plasma TC and TG levels. In non-athlete women, physical activity may be a good tool to prevent cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  3. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  4. Improved arterial-ventricular coupling in metabolic syndrome after exercise training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B; Donley, David A; Bonner, Daniel E; Devallance, Evan; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with threefold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is partly due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular (LV) contractility and aerobic capacity and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse peak exercise CV dysfunction. Furthermore, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS before the development of diabetes and/or overt CV disease can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological CV changes can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 wk of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Twenty participants with MetS underwent either 8 wk of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT, n = 10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT, n = 10) during this period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Exercise training did not alter resting LV diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise, an increase in LV contractility (40%, P < 0.01), cardiac output (28%, P < 0.05), and aerobic capacity (20%, P < 0.01), but a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, P < 0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, P < 0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not in the MetS-NonT group. Furthermore, an improvement in lifetime risk score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. These findings have clinical importance because they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and can lower the risk of CV disease.

  5. Risks and Benefits of Exercise Training in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Marie-A; Marcotte, François; Dore, Annie; Mongeon, François-Pierre; Mondésert, Blandine; Mercier, Lise-Andrée; Khairy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Exercise capacity in adults with various forms of congenital heart disease is substantially lower than that of the general population. Although the underlying congenital heart defect, and its sequelae, certainly contribute to observed exercise limitations, there is evidence suggesting that deconditioning and a sedentary lifestyle are important implicated factors. The prevalence of acquired cardiovascular comorbidities is on the increase in the aging population with congenital heart disease, such that obesity and a sedentary lifestyle confer increased risk. Health fears and misconceptions are common barriers to regular physical activity in adults with congenital heart disease, despite evidence linking lower functional capacity to poor outcomes, and data supporting the safety and efficacy of exercise in bestowing numerous physical and psychosocial rewards. With few exceptions, adults with congenital heart disease should be counselled to exercise regularly. In this contemporary review, we provide a practical approach to assessing adults with congenital heart disease before exercise training. We examine available evidence supporting the safety and benefits of exercise training. Risks associated with exercise training in adults with congenital heart disease are discussed, particularly with regard to sudden cardiac death. Finally, recommendations for exercise training are provided, with consideration for the type of congenital heart disease, the nature (ie, static vs dynamic) and intensity (ie, low, medium, high) of the physical activity, and associated factors such as systemic ventricular dysfunction and residual defects. Further research is required to determine optimal exercise regimens and to identify effective strategies to implement exercise training as a key determinant of healthy living. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  7. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  8. Weight-training injuries. Common injuries and preventative methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, L J; Yetman, R J; Risser, W L

    1993-07-01

    The use of weights is an increasingly popular conditioning technique, competitive sport and recreational activity among children, adolescents and young adults. Weight-training can cause significant musculoskeletal injuries such as fractures, dislocations, spondylolysis, spondylolisthesis, intervertebral disk herniation, and meniscal injuries of the knee. Although injuries can occur during the use of weight machines, most apparently happen during the aggressive use of free weights. Prepubescent and older athletes who are well trained and supervised appear to have low injury rates in strength training programmes. Good coaching and proper weightlifting techniques and other injury prevention methods are likely to minimise the number of musculoskeletal problems caused by weight-training.

  9. Exercise Prevents Diaphragm Wasting Induced by Cigarette Smoke through Modulation of Antioxidant Genes and Metalloproteinases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gracielle Vieira Ramos

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The present study aimed to analyze the effects of physical training on an antioxidant canonical pathway and metalloproteinases activity in diaphragm muscle in a model of cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Methods. Male mice were randomized into control, smoke, exercise, and exercise + smoke groups, which were maintained in trial period of 24 weeks. Gene expression of kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1; nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2; and heme-oxygenase1 by polymerase chain reaction was performed. Metalloproteinases 2 and 9 activities were analyzed by zymography. Exercise capacity was evaluated by treadmill exercise test before and after the protocol. Results. Aerobic training inhibited diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure. This inhibition was associated with improved aerobic capacity in those animals that were submitted to 24 weeks of aerobic training, when compared to the control and smoke groups, which were not submitted to training. The aerobic training also downregulated the increase of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9 and upregulated antioxidant genes, such as nuclear factor erythroid-2 like 2 (NRF2 and heme-oxygenase1 (HMOX1, in exercise + smoke group compared to smoke group. Conclusions. Treadmill aerobic training protects diaphragm muscle wasting induced by cigarette smoke exposure involving upregulation of antioxidant genes and downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases.

  10. Short-term intense exercise training reduces stress markers and alters the transcriptional response to exercise in skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, J Matthew; Konopka, Adam R; Suer, Miranda K; Harber, Matthew P

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the influence of short-term intense endurance training on cycling performance, along with the acute and chronic signaling responses of skeletal muscle stress and stability markers. Ten recreationally active subjects (25 ± 2 yr, 79 ± 3 kg, 47 ± 2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) were studied before and after a 12-day cycling protocol to examine the effects of short-term intense (70-100% V̇o 2max ) exercise training on resting and exercise-induced regulation of molecular factors related to skeletal muscle cellular stress and protein stability. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at rest and 3 h following a 20-km cycle time trial on days 1 and 12 to measure mRNA expression and protein content. Training improved ( P stress. The maintenance in the myocellular environment may be due to synthesis of cytoprotective markers, along with enhanced degradation of damage proteins, as training tended ( P short-term intense training enhances protein stability, creating a cellular environment capable of resistance to exercise-induced stress, which may be favorable for adaptation. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  12. Exercise training characteristics in cardiac rehabilitation programmes: a cross-sectional survey of Australian practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abell, Bridget; Glasziou, Paul; Briffa, Tom; Hoffmann, Tammy

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is a core component of cardiac rehabilitation (CR), however, little information exists regarding the specific exercise interventions currently provided for coronary heart disease in Australian practice. We aimed to analyse the current status of exercise-based CR services across Australia. Cross-sectional survey. Australian sites offering exercise-based CR were identified from publically available directories. All sites were invited by email to participate in an online Survey Monkey questionnaire between October 2014 and March 2015, with reminders via email and phone follow-up. Questions investigated the demographics and format of individual programmes, as well as specific exercise training characteristics. 297 eligible programmes were identified, with an 82% response rate. Most sites (82%) were based at hospital or outpatient centres, with home (15%), community (18%) or gym-based options (5%) less common. While CR was most often offered in a comprehensive format (72% of sites), the level of exercise intervention varied greatly among programmes. Most frequently, exercise was prescribed 1-2 times per week for 60 min over 7 weeks. Almost one-quarter (24%) had a sole practitioner supervising exercise, although the majority used a nurse/physiotherapist combination. Low to moderate exercise intensities were used in 60% of programmes, however, higher intensity prescriptions were not uncommon. Few sites (technology, such as mobile phones or the internet, to deliver or support exercise training. While advances have been made towards providing flexible and accessible exercise-based CR, much of Australia's service remains within traditional models of care. A continuing focus on service improvement and evidence-based care should, therefore, be considered a core aim of those providing exercise for CR in order to improve health service delivery and optimise outcomes for patients.

  13. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  14. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  15. Loading intensity of jumping exercises in post-menopausal women: Implications for osteogenic training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smale, K B; Hansen, L H; Kristensen, J K

    2018-01-01

    Post‐menopausal women frequently exhibit low bone mineral density, and therefore, evidence‐based exercises that induce osteogenic loading and prevent osteoporosis are often essential. The purpose of this study was to investigate the loading intensity of 3 different jumping exercises in post‐menop...

  16. Exercise training improves glycemic control in long-standing insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feyter, de H.M.M.L.; Praet, S.F.E.; Broek, van den N.M.A.; Kuipers, H.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Nicolay, K.; Prompers, J.J.; Loon, van L.J.C.

    2007-01-01

    Regular exercise represents an effective strategy to prevent and/or treat type 2 diabetes ( 1 , 2 ). However, the clinical benefits of exercise intervention in a vastly expanding group of long-standing insulin-treated type 2 diabetic patients with comorbidities are less evident. As these patients

  17. Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity by Exercise Training as a Basis for Ischemic Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke draws more and more attention in the world, and has been linked to changes of synaptic plasticity. Exercise training improves motor function of ischemia as well as cognition which is associated with formation of learning and memory. The molecular basis of learning and memory might be synaptic plasticity. Research has therefore been conducted in an attempt to relate effects of exercise training to neuroprotection and neurogenesis adjacent to the ischemic injury brain. The present paper reviews the current literature addressing this question and discusses the possible mechanisms involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity by exercise training. This review shows the pathological process of synaptic dysfunction in ischemic roughly and then discusses the effects of exercise training on scaffold proteins and regulatory protein expression. The expression of scaffold proteins generally increased after training, but the effects on regulatory proteins were mixed. Moreover, the compositions of postsynaptic receptors were changed and the strength of synaptic transmission was enhanced after training. Finally, the recovery of cognition is critically associated with synaptic remodeling in an injured brain, and the remodeling occurs through a number of local regulations including mRNA translation, remodeling of cytoskeleton, and receptor trafficking into and out of the synapse. We do provide a comprehensive knowledge of synaptic plasticity enhancement obtained by exercise training in this review.

  18. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  19. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwinkels, Maremka; Verschuren, Olaf; Janssen, Thomas Wj; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Takken, Tim

    2014-09-01

    An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched from their respective inceptions in October 2013. Exercise training studies with at least one outcome measure regarding wheelchair propulsion capacity were included. In this study wheelchair propulsion capacity includes four parameters to reflect functional wheelchair propulsion: cardio-respiratory fitness (aerobic capacity), anaerobic capacity, muscular fitness and mechanical efficiency. Articles were not selected on diagnosis, training type or mode. Studies were divided into four training types: interval, endurance, strength, and mixed training. Methodological quality was rated with the PEDro scale, and the level of evidence was determined. The 21 included studies represented 249 individuals with spinal-cord injury (50%), various diagnoses like spina bifida (4%), cerebral palsy (2%), traumatic injury, (3%) and able-bodied participants (38%). All interval training studies found a significant improvement of 18-64% in wheelchair propulsion capacity. Three out of five endurance training studies reported significant effectiveness. Methodological quality was generally poor and there were only two randomised controlled trials. Exercise training programs seem to be effective in improving wheelchair propulsion capacity. However, there is remarkably little research, particularly for individuals who do not have spinal-cord injury. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Telomere length and long-term endurance exercise: does exercise training affect biological age? A pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Beate Ø Østhus

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO(2max are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO(2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise training and VO(2max in younger and older people. METHODS: Twenty men; 10 young (22-27 years and 10 old (66-77 years, were studied in this cross-sectional study. Five out of 10 young adults and 5 out of 10 older were endurance athletes, while other halves were exercising at a medium level of activity. Mean telomere length was measured as telomere/single copy gene-ratio (T/S-ratio using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction. VO(2max was measured directly running on a treadmill. RESULTS: Older endurance trained athletes had longer telomere length compared with older people with medium activity levels (T/S ratio 1.12±0.1 vs. 0.92±0.2, p = 0.04. Telomere length of young endurance trained athletes was not different than young non-athletes (1.47±0.2 vs. 1.33±0.1, p = 0.12. Overall, there was a positive association between T/S ratio and VO(2max (r = 0.70, p = 0.001. Among endurance trained athletes, we found a strong correlation between VO(2max and T/S ratio (r = 0.78, p = 0.02. However, corresponding association among non-athlete participants was relatively weak (r = 0.58, p = 0.09. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that VO(2max is positively associated with telomere length, and we found that long-term endurance exercise training may provide a protective effect on muscle telomere length in older people.

  1. Exercise Training in Progressive Multiple Sclerosis: A Comparison of Recumbent Stepping and Body Weight-Supported Treadmill Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilutti, Lara A; Paulseth, John E; Dove, Carin; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Hicks, Audrey L

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is evidence of the benefits of exercise training in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, few studies have been conducted in individuals with progressive MS and severe mobility impairment. A potential exercise rehabilitation approach is total-body recumbent stepper training (TBRST). We evaluated the safety and participant-reported experience of TBRST in people with progressive MS and compared the efficacy of TBRST with that of body weight-supported treadmill training (BWSTT) on outcomes of function, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Methods: Twelve participants with progressive MS (Expanded Disability Status Scale scores, 6.0-8.0) were randomized to receive TBRST or BWSTT. Participants completed three weekly sessions (30 minutes) of exercise training for 12 weeks. Primary outcomes included safety assessed as adverse events and patient-reported exercise experience assessed as postexercise response and evaluation of exercise equipment. Secondary outcomes included the Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite, the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale, and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire scores. Assessments were conducted at baseline and after 12 weeks. Results: Safety was confirmed in both exercise groups. Participants reported enjoying both exercise modalities; however, TBRST was reviewed more favorably. Both interventions reduced fatigue and improved HRQOL (P ≤ .05); there were no changes in function. Conclusions: Both TBRST and BWSTT seem to be safe, well tolerated, and enjoyable for participants with progressive MS with severe disability. Both interventions may also be efficacious for reducing fatigue and improving HRQOL. TBRST should be further explored as an exercise rehabilitation tool for patients with progressive MS.

  2. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  3. Exercise Training positively modulates the Ectonucleotidase Enzymes in Lymphocytes of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Bagatini, M D; Cardoso, A M; Zanini, D; Abdalla, F H; Baldissarelli, J; Dalenogare, D P; Dos Santos, D L; Schetinger, M R C; Morsch, V M M

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular risk factors as well as ectonucleotidase activities in lymphocytes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients before and after an exercise intervention. 20 MetS patients, who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks, 3 times/week, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and hepatic parameters and hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and nucleoside in lymphocytes were collected from patients before and after 15 and 30 weeks of the exercise intervention as well as from participants of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP, and a decrease in adenosine deamination in lymphocytes of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training after 30 weeks of intervention. Additionally, exercise training reduced the inflammatory and hepatic markers to baseline levels after 30 weeks of exercise. Our results clearly indicated alteration in ectonucleotidase enzymes in lymphocytes in the MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on the enzymatic alterations and on inflammatory and hepatic parameters, especially if it is performed regularly and for a long period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Swimming Exercise Prevents Fibrogenesis in Chronic Kidney Disease by Inhibiting the Myofibroblast Transdifferentiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chiung-Chi; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Hsieh, Chiu-Lan; Peng, Robert Y.

    2012-01-01

    Background The renal function of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients may be improved by a number of rehabilitative mechanisms. Swimming exercise training was supposed to be beneficial to its recovery. Methodology/Principal Findings Doxorubicin-induced CKD (DRCKD) rat model was performed. Swimming training was programmed three days per week, 30 or 60 min per day for a total period of 11 weeks. Serum biochemical and pathological parameters were examined. In DRCKD, hyperlipidemia was observed. Active mesangial cell activation was evidenced by overexpression of PDGFR, P-PDGFR, MMP-2, MMP-9, α-SMA, and CD34 with a huge amount collagen deposition. Apparent myofibroblast transdifferentiation implicating fibrogenesis in the glomerular mesangium, glomerulonephritis and glomeruloscelorosis was observed with highly elevated proteinuria and urinary BUN excretion. The 60-min swimming exercise but not the 30 min equivalent rescued most of the symptoms. To quantify the effectiveness of exercise training, a physical parameter, i.e. “the strenuosity coefficient” or “the myokine releasing coefficient”, was estimated to be 7.154×10−3 pg/mL-J. Conclusions The 60-min swimming exercise may ameliorate DRCKD by inhibiting the transdifferentiation of myofibroblasts in the glomerular mesangium. Moreover, rehabilitative exercise training to rescue CKD is a personalized remedy. Benefits depend on the duration and strength of exercise, and more importantly, on the individual physiological condition. PMID:22761655

  5. A comparison between stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with pelvic organ prolapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuriye Özengin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of stabilization exercises and pelvic floor muscle training in women with stage 1 and 2 pelvic organ prolapse. Materials and Methods: In a total 38 women with pelvic organ prolapse whose average age was 45.60 years, pelvic floor muscles were evaluated with electromyography, and prolapse with pelvic organ prolapse quantification system, and the quality of life with prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Afterwards, the subjects were divided into two groups; stabilization exercise group (n=19 and pelvic floor muscle training group (n=19. Stabilization exercise group were given training for 8 weeks, 3 times a week. Pelvic floor muscle training group were given eight-week home exercises. Each group was assessed before training and after eight weeks. Results: An increase was found in the pelvic muscle activation response in the 2 groups (p≤0.05. There was no difference in EMG activity values between the groups (p>0.05. A difference was found in the values Aa, Ba and C in subjects of each group (p≤0.05, and the TVL, Ap, Bp and D values of subjects in pelvic floor muscle training group (p≤0.05 in the before and after pelvic organ prolapse quantification system assessment, however, no difference was found between the groups (p≤0.05. A positive difference was found in the effect of prolapse sub parameter in each of the two groups, and in general health perception sub parameter in subjects of stabilization exercise group (p<0.05 in the prolapse quality of life questionnaire. Conclusions: It was concluded that both training programs increased the pelvic floor muscle strength, provided a decline in prolapse stages. Stabilization exercise has increased general health perception unlike home training, thus, these exercises can be added to the treatment of women with prolapse.

  6. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Effect of endurance exercise training on left ventricular size and remodeling in older adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Ehsani, A A

    2000-04-01

    It is not known whether exercise training can induce a reduction of blood pressure (BP) and a regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in older hypertensive subjects. This study was designed to determine whether endurance exercise training, by lowering BP, can induce regression of LVH and left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling in older hypertensive adults. We studied 11 older adults with mild to moderate hypertension (BP 152.0 +/- 2.5/91.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg, mean +/- SE), 65.5 +/- 1.2 years old, who exercised for 6.8 +/- 3.8 months. Seven sedentary hypertensive (BP 153 +/- 3/89 +/- 2 mm Hg) subjects, 68.5 +/- 1 years old, served as controls. LV size and geometry and function were assessed with the use of two-dimensional echocardiography. Exercise training increased aerobic power by 16% (p hypertension.

  8. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  9. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  10. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  11. Progressive strength training to prevent LYmphoedema in the first year after breast CAncer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Lanng, Charlotte; Kroman, Niels

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Lymphoedema is a common late effect after breast cancer (BC) that has no effective cure once chronic. Accumulating evidence supports progressive strength training (PRT) as a safe exercise modality in relation to the onset and exacerbation of lymphoedema. In the 'preventive intervention...... against LYmphoedema after breast CAncer' (LYCA) feasibility study we examined the feasibility of a program of PRT in the first year after BC to inform a planned randomised controlled trial (RCT). MATERIAL AND METHODS: LYCA was a one-group prospective pilot trial inviting women operated with axillary lymph...

  12. Blood flow restriction training and the exercise pressor reflex: a call for concern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spranger, Marty D; Krishnan, Abhinav C; Levy, Phillip D; O'Leary, Donal S; Smith, Scott A

    2015-11-01

    Blood flow restriction (BFR) training (also known as Kaatsu training) is an increasingly common practice employed during resistance exercise by athletes attempting to enhance skeletal muscle mass and strength. During BFR training, blood flow to the exercising muscle is mechanically restricted by placing flexible pressurizing cuffs around the active limb proximal to the working muscle. This maneuver results in the accumulation of metabolites (e.g., protons and lactic acid) in the muscle interstitium that increase muscle force and promote muscle growth. Therefore, the premise of BFR training is to simulate and receive the benefits of high-intensity resistance exercise while merely performing low-intensity resistance exercise. This technique has also been purported to provide health benefits to the elderly, individuals recovering from joint injuries, and patients undergoing cardiac rehabilitation. Since the seminal work of Alam and Smirk in the 1930s, it has been well established that reductions in blood flow to exercising muscle engage the exercise pressor reflex (EPR), a reflex that significantly contributes to the autonomic cardiovascular response to exercise. However, the EPR and its likely contribution to the BFR-mediated cardiovascular response to exercise is glaringly missing from the scientific literature. Inasmuch as the EPR has been shown to generate exaggerated increases in sympathetic nerve activity in disease states such as hypertension (HTN), heart failure (HF), and peripheral artery disease (PAD), concerns are raised that BFR training can be used safely for the rehabilitation of patients with cardiovascular disease, as has been suggested. Abnormal BFR-induced and EPR-mediated cardiovascular complications generated during exercise could precipitate adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (e.g., cardiac arrhythmia, myocardial infarction, stroke and sudden cardiac death). Moreover, although altered EPR function in HTN, HF, and PAD underlies our

  13. Skeletal Muscle Sorbitol Levels in Diabetic Rats with and without Insulin Therapy and Endurance Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, O. A.; Walseth, T. F.; Snow, L. M.; Serfass, R. C.; Thompson, L. V.

    2009-01-01

    Sorbitol accumulation is postulated to play a role in skeletal muscle dysfunction associated with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of insulin and of endurance exercise on skeletal muscle sorbitol levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Rats were assigned to one experimental group (control sedentary, control exercise, diabetic sedentary, diabetic exercise, diabetic sedentary no-insulin). Diabetic rats received daily subcutaneous insulin. The exercise-trained rats ran on a treadmill (1 hour, 5X/wk, for 12 weeks). Skeletal muscle sorbitol levels were the highest in the diabetic sedentary no-insulin group. Diabetic sedentary rats receiving insulin had similar sorbitol levels to control sedentary rats. Endurance exercise did not significantly affect sorbitol levels. These results indicate that insulin treatment lowers sorbitol in skeletal muscle; therefore sorbitol accumulation is probably not related to muscle dysfunction in insulin-treated diabetic individuals. Endurance exercise did not influence intramuscular sorbitol values as strongly as insulin. PMID:20016800

  14. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics and functional status in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Chou, Lan-Ti; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2012-05-01

    The functional status and outcomes in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are often limited by poor endurance and pulmonary mechanics, which result from the primary diseases or prolonged time bedridden. We evaluate the impact of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics, physical functional status, and hospitalization outcomes in PMV patients. Twenty-seven subjects with PMV in our respiratory care center (RCC) were divided randomly into an exercise training group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 15). The exercise program comprised 10 sessions of exercise training. The measurement of pulmonary mechanics and physical functional status (Functional Independence Measurement and Barthel index) were performed pre-study and post-study. The hospitalization outcomes included: days of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization days, and weaning and mortality rates during RCC stay. The training group had significant improvement in tidal volume (143.6 mL vs 192.5 mL, P = .02) and rapid shallow breathing index after training (162.2 vs 110.6, P = .009). No significant change was found in the control group except respiratory rate. Both groups had significant improvement in functional status during the study. However, the training group had greater changes in FIM score than the control group (44.6 vs 34.2, P = .024). The training group also had shorter RCC stay and higher weaning and survival rates than the control group, although no statistical difference was found. Subjects with PMV in our RCC demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics and functional status after exercise training. The application of exercise training may be helpful for PMV patients to improve hospitalization outcomes.

  15. Exercise Training Improves Exercise Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients with Inoperable or Residual Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herb, Jochen; Ehlken, Nicola; Fischer, Christine; Reichenberger, Frank; Rosenkranz, Stephan; Seyfarth, Hans-Juergen; Mayer, Eckhard

    2012-01-01

    Background Aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training in patients with inoperable or residual chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Methods Thirty-five consecutive patients with invasively confirmed inoperable or residual CTEPH (16 women;19 men; mean age 61±15 years, mean pulmonary artery pressure, 63±20 mmHg; primary inoperable n = 33, persisting pulmonary hypertension after pulmonary endarterectomy n = 2) on stable disease-targeted medication received exercise training in-hospital for 3 weeks and continued at home for 15 weeks. Medication remained unchanged during the study period. Efficacy parameters have been evaluated at baseline, after 3 and 15 weeks by blinded-observers. Survival rate has been evaluated in a follow-up period of median 36.4 months (interquartile range 26.6–46.6 months). Results All patients tolerated exercise training without severe adverse events. Patients significantly improved the mean distance walked in 6 minutes compared to baseline by 61±54 meters after 3 weeks (p<0.001) and by 71±70 meters after 15 weeks (p = 0.001), as well as scores of quality-of-life questionnaire, peak oxygen consumption and maximal workload. NT-proBNP improved significantly after 3 weeks of exercise training (p = 0.046). The 1-year survival rate was 97%, 2-year survival rate was 94% and the 3-year-survival 86% respectively. Conclusion Training as add-on to medical therapy may be effective in patients with CTEPH to improve work capacity, quality of life and further prognostic relevant parameters and possibly improves the 1-, 2- and 3-year survival rate. Further multicentric randomized controlled studies are needed to confirm these promising results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398345 PMID:22848542

  16. Arthritis patients show long-term benefits from 3 weeks intensive exercise training directly following hospital discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulthuis, Y.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Drossaers-Bakker, K.W.; Taal, Erik; Rasker, Johannes J.; Oostveen, J.; van 't Pad Bosch, P.; Oosterveld, F.; van de Laar, Mart A F J

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To examine the efficacy of short-term intensive exercise training (IET) directly following hospital discharge. - Methods: In the Disabled Arthritis Patients Post-hospitalization Intensive Exercise Rehabilitation (DAPPER) study, patients with rheumatoid arthritis or osteoarthritis were

  17. On-the-job training and practical emergency exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reuhl, R.

    1996-01-01

    It is described in detail how OJT during initial and retraining of licensed shift personnel is performed. Furthermore it is explained how an emergency exercise, which is OJT of highest value, is prepared, conducted and evaluated. 9 figs

  18. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as .... assess subject's aerobic power (VO2max) as described by ACSM.20 .... improving the cardiovascular endurance by slowing the burning of ...

  19. The effect of training on cardiovascular responses to arm exercise in individuals with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M T; Dallmeijer, A J; Snoek, G; van der Woude, L H

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to maximal and submaximal arm-cranking exercise in 21 individuals with tetraplegia (TP) and to evaluate the effect of a 3 and 6-month training period (mean frequency of 1.5 h.week-1, mean intensity at 35% of the training time above

  20. Effects of two aerobic exercise training protocols on parameters of oxidative stress in the blood and liver of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Ulbricht, Ariene Sampaio Souza Farias; Werlang-Coelho, Carla; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Joaquim, Victor Hugo Antonio; Salamaia, Eloise Mariani; de Quevedo, Silvana Rodrigues; Desordi, Larissa

    2017-12-08

    We evaluated the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on the alterations in oxidative stress parameters caused by a high-fat diet (HFD), in the blood and liver of rats. The HFD enhanced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS) and protein carbonyl content, while reducing total sulfhydryl content and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood. Both training protocols prevented an increase in TBA-RS and protein carbonyl content, and prevented a reduction in CAT. HIIT protocol enhanced SOD activity. In the liver, HFD didn't alter TBA-RS, total sulfhydryl content or SOD, but increased protein carbonyl content and CAT and decreased GSH-Px. The exercise protocols prevented the increase in protein carbonyl content and the MICT protocol prevented an alteration in CAT. In conclusion, HFD elicits oxidative stress in the blood and liver and both protocols prevented most of the alterations in the oxidative stress parameters.

  1. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  2. Exercise Prevents Diet-Induced Cellular Senescence in Adipose Tissue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schafer, M.J.; White, T.A.; Evans, G.; Tonne, J.M.; Verzosa, G.C.; Stout, M.B.; Mazula, D.L.; Palmer, A.K.; Baker, D.J.; Jensen, M.D.; Torbenson, M.S.; Miller, J.D.; Ikeda, Y.; Tchkonia, T.; Deursen, J.M.A. van; Kirkland, J.L.; LeBrasseur, N.K.

    2016-01-01

    Considerable evidence implicates cellular senescence in the biology of aging and chronic disease. Diet and exercise are determinants of healthy aging; however, the extent to which they affect the behavior and accretion of senescent cells within distinct tissues is not clear. Here we tested the

  3. Evidence for β-adrenergic modulation of sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Shitara, Yosuke; Fujii, Naoto; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Kondo, Narihiko

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the β-adrenergic contribution to sweating during incremental exercise in habitually trained males. Nine habitually trained and 11 untrained males performed incremental cycling until exhaustion (20 W/min). Bilateral forearm sweat rates (ventilated capsule) were measured at two skin sites that were transdermally administered via iontophoresis with either 1% propranolol (Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor antagonist) or saline (Control). The sweat rate was evaluated as a function of both relative (percentage of maximum workload) and absolute exercise intensities. The sweat rate at the Propranolol site was lower than the control during exercise at 80 (0.57 ± 0.21 and 0.45 ± 0.19 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for Control and Propranolol, respectively) and 90% (0.74 ± 0.22 and 0.65 ± 0.17 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) of maximum workload in trained males (all P 0.05). At the same absolute intensity, higher sweat rates on the control site were observed in trained males relative to the untrained during exercise at 160 (0.23 ± 0.20 and 0.04 ± 0.05 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 for trained and untrained, respectively) and 180 W (0.40 ± 0.20 and 0.13 ± 0.13 mg·cm -2 ·min -1 , respectively) (all P 0.05). We show that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity in habitually trained males. The β-adrenergic mechanism may in part contribute to the greater sweat production in habitually trained males than in untrained counterparts during exercise. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We demonstrated for the first time that the β-adrenergic mechanism does modulate sweating (i.e., β-adrenergic sweating) during exercise using a localized β-adrenoceptor blockade in humans in vivo. β-Adrenergic sweating was evident in habitually trained individuals during exercise at a submaximal high relative intensity (80-90% maximal work). This observation advances

  4. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  5. Imbalance in SOD/CAT activities in rat skeletal muscles submitted to treadmill training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Ricardo A; Andrades, Michael E; Oliveira, Marcos R; Pirola, Aline C; Zago, Morgana S; Silveira, Paulo C L; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Moreira, José Cláudio F

    2006-10-01

    The association between physical exercise and oxidative damage in the skeletal musculature has been the focus of many studies in literature, but the balance between superoxide dismutase and catalase activities and its relation to oxidative damage is not well established. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between regular treadmill physical exercise, oxidative damage and antioxidant defenses in skeletal muscle of rats. Fifteen male Wistar rats (8-12 months) were randomly separated into two groups (trained n=9 and untrained n=6). Trained rats were treadmill-trained for 12 weeks in progressive exercise (velocity, time, and inclination). Training program consisted in a progressive exercise (10 m/min without inclination for 10 min/day). After 1 week the speed, time and inclination were gradually increased until 17 m/min at 10% for 50 min/day. After the training period animals were killed, and gastrocnemius and quadriceps were surgically removed to the determination of biochemical parameters. Lipid peroxidation, protein oxidative damage, catalase, superoxide dismutase and citrate synthase activities, and muscular glycogen content were measured in the isolated muscles. We demonstrated that there is a different modulation of CAT and SOD in skeletal muscle in trained rats when compared to untrained rats (increased SOD/CAT ratio). TBARS levels were significantly decreased and, in contrast, a significant increase in protein carbonylation was observed. These results suggest a non-described adaptation of skeletal muscle against exercise-induced oxidative stress.

  6. Training in radiological protection - a pool of practical exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, J.R.; Hudson, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    Courses in Radiological Protection have been organised at Leeds by the NRPB since its formation, and prior to that by the Leeds Centre of the Radiological Protection Service. From the outset it seemed essential that such courses should contain a practical element, and accordingly a number of exercises were drawn up. Since that time further exercises have been added, often in response to a specific requirement from a customer or group of customers. Most of the exercises have involved the design and construction of 'one-off' items of equipment, a number of which can be considered to represent interesting approaches towards radiological protection teaching. The construction of a 'second generation' of hardware has focused attention on the objectives and design features of the exercises, which in turn has prompted a desire to publish a series of short papers describing the pool of exercises that is currently available for inclusion in the various courses run by the NRPB Centres. The first of these papers puts the series into context and provides a background to the descriptions of specific exercises. (author)

  7. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  8. Noninvasive assessment of changes in myocardial perfusion and ventricular performance following exercise training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubau, J.; Witztum, K.; Froelicher, V.; Jensen, D.; Atwood, E.; McKirnan, M.D.; Reynolds, J.; Ashburn, W.

    1982-01-01

    Seventeen coronary patients (CAD) underwent 201 Tl treadmill and radionuclide (RNV) ejection fraction supine bicycle testing before and after 5.6 +/- 1.6 (mean +/- SD) months of an exercise program. Thallium data were assessed both using analog images and a computerized circumferential profile technique. Patients exercised on the treadmill to a higher workload after the exercise program, but achieved a similar pressure-rate product. When interpreting the analog thallium images, only 50% agreement was obtained for the assessment of changes in myocardial perfusion (pre/post-training). The computer technique, however, had low inter-intraobserver variability (6%) and better agreement (90.5%). Using the circumferential profile method, five patients improved (a total of 11 regions) and one patient worsened (with two regions). Before the exercise program, the ejection fraction (EF) response to supine bike exercise was normal (an increase greater than 11%) in four, flat in seven, and severely abnormal (a decrease of more than 4%) in six patients. After the exercise program, even though achieving similar or higher pressure-rate products, six patients improved their EF response, nine did not change, and two worsened. Of the five patients who improved their thallium images, one improved his EF response, two remained normal, and two did not change. One patient worsened both his thallium study and the EF response after the exercise program. Changes in thallium exercise images and the EF response to supine exercise occurred in our patients after an exercise program, but were not always concordant. Indeed, of five patients with exercise-induced ischemic ST changes before and after training, the EF response improved in three whereas myocardial perfusion was unchanged. Reasons for this lack of agreement are discussed, and have been considered in the planning of a randomized trial of the effects of an exercise program on myocardial perfusion and function

  9. Prevalence and correlates of participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activity by older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merom, D.; Pye, V.; Macniven, R.; van der Ploeg, H.; Milat, A.; Sherrington, C.; Lord, S.; Bauman, A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine older people's participation in fall prevention exercise/physical activities. Methods: Participants comprised 5,681 randomly selected older people (≥ 65. years) who took part in the 2009 New South Wales (Australia) Fall Prevention telephone survey (61% response-rate). The

  10. Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Øverland, Simon; Hatch, Stephani L; Wessely, Simon; Mykletun, Arnstein; Hotopf, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association. A "healthy" cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years. Validated measures of exercise, depression, anxiety, and a range of potential confounding and mediating factors were collected. Undertaking regular leisure-time exercise was associated with reduced incidence of future depression but not anxiety. The majority of this protective effect occurred at low levels of exercise and was observed regardless of intensity. After adjustment for confounders, the population attributable fraction suggests that, assuming the relationship is causal, 12% of future cases of depression could have been prevented if all participants had engaged in at least 1 hour of physical activity each week. The social and physical health benefits of exercise explained a small proportion of the protective effect. Previously proposed biological mechanisms, such as alterations in parasympathetic vagal tone, did not appear to have a role in explaining the protection against depression. Regular leisure-time exercise of any intensity provides protection against future depression but not anxiety. Relatively modest changes in population levels of exercise may have important public mental health benefits and prevent a substantial number of new cases of depression.

  11. Induction and prevention of low-T3 syndrome in exercising women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loucks, A B; Callister, R

    1993-05-01

    To investigate the influence of exercise on thyroid metabolism, 46 healthy young regularly menstruating sedentary women were randomly assigned to a 3 x 2 experimental design of aerobic exercise and energy availability treatments. Energy availability was defined as dietary energy intake minus energy expenditure during exercise. After 4 days of treatments, low energy availability (8 vs. 30 kcal.kg body wt-1.day-1) had reduced 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) by 15% and free T3 (fT3) by 18% and had increased thyroxine (T4) by 7% and reverse T3 (rT3) by 24% (all P Exercise quantity (0 vs. 1,300 kcal/day) and intensity (40 vs. 70% of aerobic capacity) did not affect any thyroid hormone (all P > 0.10). That is, low-T3 syndrome was induced by the energy cost of exercise and was prevented in exercising women by increasing dietary energy intake. Selective observation of low-T3 syndrome in amenorrheic and not in regularly menstruating athletes suggests that exercise may compromise the availability of energy for reproductive function in humans. If so, athletic amenorrhea might be prevented or reversed through dietary reform without reducing exercise quantity or intensity.

  12. Genetic testing for exercise prescription and injury prevention: AIS-Athlome consortium-FIMS joint statement

    OpenAIRE

    Vlahovich, Nicole; Hughes, David C.; Griffiths, Lyn R.; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Pigozzi, Fabio; Bachl, Nobert; Eynon, Nir

    2017-01-01

    Background There has been considerable growth in basic knowledge and understanding of how genes are influencing response to exercise training and predisposition to injuries and chronic diseases. On the basis of this knowledge, clinical genetic tests may in the future allow the personalisation and optimisation of physical activity, thus providing an avenue for increased efficiency of exercise prescription for health and disease. Results This review provides an overview of the current status of...

  13. Associations of exercise-induced hormone profiles and gains in strength and hypertrophy in a large cohort after weight training

    OpenAIRE

    West, Daniel W. D.; Phillips, Stuart M.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate associations between acute exercise-induced hormone responses and adaptations to high intensity resistance training in a large cohort (n = 56) of young men. Acute post-exercise serum growth hormone (GH), free testosterone (fT), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and cortisol responses were determined following an acute intense leg resistance exercise routine at the midpoint of a 12-week resistance exercise training study. Acute hormonal responses w...

  14. Sustaining the Effects of Gatekeeper Suicide Prevention Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtivelband, Annette; Aloise-Young, Patricia A; Chen, Peter Y

    2015-02-23

    Background: Gatekeeper training is a promising suicide prevention strategy that is growing in popularity. Although gatekeeper training programs have been found to improve trainee knowledge, self-efficacy, and perceived skills, researchers have found that the benefit of gatekeeper training may not last over time. Aims: The purpose of this study was to identify strategies for strengthening the long-term effects of suicide prevention gatekeeper training. Method: In-depth interviews and focus groups were conducted with gatekeepers (N = 44) and data were analyzed using a qualitative research approach. Results: The results of this study suggest that posttraining interventions may be more effective if they include the following seven themes: (a) social network - connecting with other gatekeepers; (b) continued learning - further education; (c) community outreach - building awareness; (d) accessibility - convenience; (e) reminders - ongoing communication; (f) program improvement -- enhancing previous training; and (g) certification - accreditation. Conclusion: Posttraining interventions that incorporate the themes from this study offer a promising direction in which to sustain the effects of gatekeeper suicide prevention training.

  15. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Exercise training, menstrual irregularities and bone development in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Beyth, Yoram

    2003-08-01

    Weight bearing physical activity plays an important role in bone development. This is particularly important in children and adolescents since bone mineral density reaches about 90% of its peak by the end of the second decade, and because about one quarter of adult bone is accumulated during the two years surrounding the peak bone growth velocity. Recent studies suggested that the exercise-induced increase in bone mineralization is maturity dependent, and that there is a "window of opportunity" and a critical period for bone response to weight bearing exercise during early puberty and premenarchal years. This supports the idea that increase in physical activity during childhood and adolescence can prevent bone disorders (like osteoporosis) later in life. In contrast, strenuous physical activity may affect the female reproductive system and lead to "athletic amenorrhea". The prevalence of "athletic amenorrhea" is 4-20 times higher than the general population. As a consequence, bone demineralization may develop with increased risk of skeletal fragility, fractures, vertebral instability, and curvature. Menstrual abnormalities in the female athlete result from hypothalamic suppression of the spontaneous pulsatile secretion of gonadotropin releasing hormone. Recent studies suggested that reduced energy availability (increased energy expenditure with inadequate caloric intake) is the main cause of the central suppression of the hypothalamic pituitary-gonadal axis. Therefore, effort should be made to optimize the nutritional state of female athletes, and if not successful, to reduce the training load in order to prevent menstrual abnormalities, and deleterious bone effects in particular during the critical period of rapid bone growth.

  17. Randomized controlled trial using bosentan to enhance the impact of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Duncker, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes patients, endothelin (ET) receptor blockade may enhance blood flow responses to exercise training. The combination of exercise training and ET receptor blockade may represent a more potent stimulus than training alone to improve vascular function, physical fitness and glucose

  18. Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer L; Huber, Korinna; Thompson, Nichola M; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus, despite a predisposition to develop obesity under sedentary conditions, obesity development was prevented in IUGR offspring when exercise was available. These results emphasize the importance of tailored lifestyle changes that activate distinct pathways of metabolic flexibility for obesity prevention.

  19. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reeves Marina M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0, midpoint (week 12 and at the end of the intervention (week 24. Discussion Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma

  20. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winzer, Brooke M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Reeves, Marina M; Whiteman, David C

    2010-01-01

    Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus) and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested. The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week) or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week) for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0), midpoint (week 12) and at the end of the intervention (week 24). Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, interventions effective in

  1. V02 'overshoot' during moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained athletes: the influence of exercise modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilding, Andrew E; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.

  2. Voluntary Exercise Training: Analysis of Mice in Uninjured, Inflammatory, and Nerve-Injured Pain States.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayler D Sheahan

    Full Text Available Both clinical and animal studies suggest that exercise may be an effective way to manage inflammatory and neuropathic pain conditions. However, existing animal studies commonly use forced exercise paradigms that incorporate varying degrees of stress, which itself can elicit analgesia, and thus may complicate the interpretation of the effects of exercise on pain. We investigated the analgesic potential of voluntary wheel running in the formalin model of acute inflammatory pain and the spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in mice. In uninjured, adult C57BL/6J mice, 1 to 4 weeks of exercise training did not alter nociceptive thresholds, lumbar dorsal root ganglia neuronal excitability, or hindpaw intraepidermal innervation. Further, exercise training failed to attenuate formalin-induced spontaneous pain. Lastly, 2 weeks of exercise training was ineffective in reversing spared nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity or in improving muscle wasting or hindpaw denervation. These findings indicate that in contrast to rodent forced exercise paradigms, short durations of voluntary wheel running do not improve pain-like symptoms in mouse models of acute inflammation and peripheral nerve injury.

  3. Effect of exercise order on the number of repeats and training volume in the tri-set training method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p187   Although the tri-set system is widely adopted by athletes and experienced weight training practitioners aimed at optimizing the metabolic overload, there are still few works in literature on the effect of exercise order manipulation on this training system. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of exercise order manipulation on the number of repeats and training volume using the tri-set system for lower limbs. This is a randomized cross-over design study. The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy men (23.53 ± 5.40 years; 24.51 ± 2.96 kg/m2. Subjects were submitted to two experimental sessions at different exercise order for lower limbs: Sequence A: squat on guided bar, leg press 45° and bilateral leg extension; sequence B: bilateral leg extension, leg press 45° and squat on guided bar. Three sets to volitional fatigue in all exercises were performed, with intensity of 75% 1RM. Superiority for sequence B in the total number of repeats (70.14 ± 13 vs 60.93 ± 7.94 repeats, p = 0.004 and total training volume (9129.64 ± 2830.05 vs 8238.29 ± 2354.20 kg, p = 0.014 was observed. Based on the above, the performance of single-joint exercises before multi-joint exercises in the tri-set system adopted for lower limbs induced higher number of repeats and total training volume.

  4. Exercise training attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, G; Liu, J-Y; Zhang, H-X; Li, Q; Zhang, S-W

    2015-01-01

    It is known that excessive sympathetic activity and oxidative stress are enhanced in obesity. This study aimed to clarify whether exercise training (ET) attenuates sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in obesity. The obesity was induced by high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to four groups: regular diet (RD) plus sedentary (RD-S), RD plus ET (RD-ET), HFD plus sedentary (HFD-S), and HFD plus ET (HFD-ET). The rats in RD-ET and HFD-ET groups were trained on a motorized treadmill for 60 min/day, five days/week for 8 weeks. The sympathetic activity was evaluated by the plasma norepinephrine (NE) level. The superoxide anion, malondialdehyde and F2-isoprostanes levels in serum and muscles were measured to evaluate oxidative stress. The ET prevented the increases in the body weight, arterial pressure and white adipose tissue mass in HFD rats. The NE level in plasma and oxidative stress related parameters got lower in HFD-ET group compared with HFD-S group. We have found decreased mRNA and protein levels of toll-like receptor (TLR)-2 and TLR-4 by ET in HFD rats. These findings suggest that ET may be effective for attenuating sympathetic activation and oxidative stress in diet-induced obesity.

  5. Responses of catecholestrogen metabolism to acute graded exercise in normal menstruating women before and after training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Crée, C; Ball, P; Seidlitz, B; Van Kranenburg, G; Geurten, P; Keizer, H A

    1997-10-01

    It has been hypothesized that exercise-related hypo-estrogenemia occurs as a consequence of increased competition of catecholestrogens (CE) for catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT). This may result in higher norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, which could interfere with normal gonadotropin pulsatility. The present study investigates the effects of training on CE responses to acute exercise stress. Nine untrained eumenorrheic women (mean percentage of body fat +/-SD: 24.8 +/- 3.1%) volunteered for an intensive 5-day training program. Resting, submaximal, and maximal (tmax) exercise plasma CE, estrogen, and catecholamine responses were determined pre- and post training in both the follicular (FPh) and luteal phase (LPh). Acute exercise stress increased total primary estrogens (E) but had little effect on total 2-hydroxyestrogens (2-OHE) and 2-hydroxyestrogen-monomethylethers (2-MeOE) (= O-methylated CE after competition for catechol-O-methyltransferase). This pattern was not significantly changed by training. However, posttraining LPh mean (+/-SE) plasma E, 2-OHE, and 2-MeOE concentrations were significantly lower (P Training produced opposite effects on 2-OHE:E ratios (an estimation of CE formation) during acute exercise in the FPh (reduction) and LPh (increase). The 2-MeOE:2-OHE ratio (an estimation of CE activity) showed significantly higher values at tmax in both menstrual phases after training (FPh: +11%; LPh: +23%; P training, NE values were significantly higher (P training lowers absolute concentrations of plasma estrogens and CE; the acute exercise challenge altered plasma estrogens but had little effect on CE; estimation of the formation and activity of CE suggests that formation and O-methylation of CE proportionately increases. These findings may be of importance for NE-mediated effects on gonadotropin release.

  6. Combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training improves cardiovascular function and physical working capacity in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chang-Bin; Zhang, Shu; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Bing; Yao, Yong-Jie; Wang, Yong-Chun; Wu, Yan-Hong; Liang, Wen-Bin; Sun, Xi-Qing

    2010-12-01

    Musculoskeletal and cardiovascular deconditioning occurring in long-term spaceflight gives rise to the needs to develop new strategies to counteract these adverse effects. Short-arm centrifuge combined with ergometer has been proposed as a strategy to counteract adverse effects of microgravity. This study sought to investigate whether the combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training have advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone. One week training was conducted by 24 healthy men. They were randomly divided into 3 groups: (1) short-arm centrifuge training, (2) aerobic exercise training, 40 W, and (3) combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training. Before and after training, the cardiac pump function represented by stroke volume, cardiac output, left ventricular ejection time, and total peripheral resistance was evaluated. Variability of heart rate and systolic blood pressure were determined by spectral analysis. Physical working capacity was surveyed by near maximal physical working capacity test. The 1-week combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training remarkably ameliorated the cardiac pump function and enhanced vasomotor sympathetic nerve modulation and improved physical working capacity by 10.9% (Pcentrifuge nor the aerobic exercise group showed improvements in these functions. These results demonstrate that combined short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise training has advantages over short-arm centrifuge or aerobic exercise training alone in influencing several physiologically important cardiovascular functions in humans. The combination of short-arm centrifuge and aerobic exercise offers a promising countermeasure to microgravity.

  7. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

  8. Active Video Game Exercise Training Improves the Clinical Control of Asthma in Children: Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evelim L F D Gomes

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether aerobic exercise involving an active video game system improved asthma control, airway inflammation and exercise capacity in children with moderate to severe asthma.A randomized, controlled, single-blinded clinical trial was carried out. Thirty-six children with moderate to severe asthma were randomly allocated to either a video game group (VGG; N = 20 or a treadmill group (TG; n = 16. Both groups completed an eight-week supervised program with two weekly 40-minute sessions. Pre-training and post-training evaluations involved the Asthma Control Questionnaire, exhaled nitric oxide levels (FeNO, maximum exercise testing (Bruce protocol and lung function.No differences between the VGG and TG were found at the baseline. Improvements occurred in both groups with regard to asthma control and exercise capacity. Moreover, a significant reduction in FeNO was found in the VGG (p < 0.05. Although the mean energy expenditure at rest and during exercise training was similar for both groups, the maximum energy expenditure was higher in the VGG.The present findings strongly suggest that aerobic training promoted by an active video game had a positive impact on children with asthma in terms of clinical control, improvement in their exercise capacity and a reduction in pulmonary inflammation.Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01438294.

  9. Mobile-phone-based home exercise training program decreases systemic inflammation in COPD: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Hua; Chou, Pai-Chien; Joa, Wen-Ching; Chen, Li-Fei; Sheng, Te-Fang; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Lin, Horng-Chyuan; Huang, Chien-Da; Chung, Fu-Tsai; Chung, Kian Fan; Kuo, Han-Pin

    2014-08-30

    Moderate-intensity exercise training improves skeletal muscle aerobic capacity and increased oxidative enzyme activity, as well as exercise tolerance in COPD patients. To investigate whether the home-based exercise training program can reduce inflammatory biomarkers in patients with COPD, twelve patients using mobile phone assistance and 14 with free walk were assessed by incremental shuttle walk test (ISWT), spirometry, strength of limb muscles, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and inflammatory cytokines. Patients in the mobile phone group improved their ISWT walking distance, with decrease in serum CRP after 2 months, and sustained at 6 months. Patients in the control group had no improvement. Serum IL-8 in the mobile phone group was significantly reduced at 2, 3 and 6 months after doing home exercise training compared to baseline. IL-6 and TNF-α were significantly elevated at 3 and 6 months in control group, while there were no changes in mobile phone group. The strength of limb muscles was significantly greater compared to baseline at 3 and 6 months in the mobile phone group. A mobile-phone-based system can provide an efficient home endurance exercise training program with improved exercise capacity, strength of limb muscles and a decrease in serum CRP and IL-8 in COPD patients. Decreased systemic inflammation may contribute to these clinical benefits. (Clinical trial registration No.: NCT01631019).

  10. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exercise training on skeletal muscle in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of exercise training and chronic ethanol consumption on metabolism, capillarity, and myofibrillar composition in rat limb muscles. Male Wistar rats were treated in separate groups as follows: non exercised-control; ethanol (15%) in animals' drinking water for 12 weeks; exercise training in treadmill and ethanol administration plus exercise for 12 weeks. Ethanol administration decreased capillarity and increased piruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in white gastrocnemius; in plantaris muscle, ethanol increased citrate synthase activity and decreased cross-sectional area of type I, IIa, and IIb fibres. Exercise increased capillarity in all four limb muscles and decreased type I fibre area in plantaris. The decreased capillarity effect induced by ethanol in some muscles, was ameliorated when alcohol was combined with exercise. While alcoholic myopathy affects predominantly type IIb fibres, ethanol administration and aerobic exercise in some cases can affect type I and type IIa fibre areas. The exercise can decrease some harmful effects produced by ethanol in the muscle, including the decrease in the fibre area and capillary density.

  11. Exercise Training for Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review and Meta?analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Cornelissen, Veronique A.; Smart, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    Background We conducted meta?analyses examining the effects of endurance, dynamic resistance, combined endurance and resistance training, and isometric resistance training on resting blood pressure (BP) in adults. The aims were to quantify and compare BP changes for each training modality and identify patient subgroups exhibiting the largest BP changes. Methods and Results Randomized controlled trials lasting ?4 weeks investigating the effects of exercise on BP in healthy adults (age ?18 year...

  12. Operational Applications of Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise as a Treatment for Airsickness in the Military

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebreyesus, Fiyore; Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.

    2012-01-01

    Airsickness is experienced by about 50% of military aviators some time in their career. Aviators who suffer from recurrent episodes of airsickness are typically referred to the Naval Aerospace Medical Institute (NAMI) at Pensacola where they undergo extensive evaluation and 8 weeks of training in the Self-Paced Airsickness Desensitization (SPAD) program. Researchers at NASA Ames have developed an alternative mitigation training program, Autogenic Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) that has demonstrated an 80% success rate for improving motion sickness tolerance.

  13. Resistance Exercise to Prevent and Manage Sarcopenia and Dynapenia

    OpenAIRE

    Law, Timothy D.; Clark, Leatha A.; Clark, Brian C.

    2016-01-01

    For well over twenty centuries the muscle wasting (sarcopenia) and weakness (dynapenia) that occurs with old age has been a predominant concern of mankind. Exercise has long been suggested as a treatment to combat sarcopenia and dynapenia, as it exerts effects on both the nervous and muscular systems that are critical to positive physiological and functional adaptations (e.g., enhanced muscle strength). For more than two decades scientists have recognized the profound role that progressive re...

  14. Is systematic training in opioid overdose prevention effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque-Prous, Marina; Folch, Cinta; Sarasa-Renedo, Ana; Majó, Xavier; Casabona, Jordi; Brugal, M. Teresa

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to analyze the knowledge about overdose prevention, the use of naloxone, and the number of fatal overdoses after the implementation of Systematic Training in Overdose Prevention (STOOP) program. We conducted a quasi-experimental study, and held face-to-face interviews before (n = 725) and after (n = 722) implementation of systematic training in two different samples of people who injected opioids attending harm reduction centers. We asked participants to list the main causes of overdose and the main actions that should be taken when witnessing an overdose. We created two dependent variables, the number of (a) correct and (b) incorrect answers. The main independent variable was Study Group: Intervention Group (IG), Comparison Group (CG), Pre-Intervention Group With Sporadic Training in Overdose Prevention (PREIGS), or Pre-Intervention Group Without Training in Overdose Prevention (PREIGW). The relationship between the dependent and independent variables was assessed using a multivariate Poisson regression analysis. Finally, we conducted an interrupted time series analysis of monthly fatal overdoses before and after the implementation of systematic program during the period 2006–2015. Knowledge of overdose prevention increased after implementing systematic training program. Compared to the PREIGW, the IG gave more correct answers (IRR = 1.40;95%CI:1.33–1.47), and fewer incorrect answers (IRR = 0.33;95%CI:0.25–0.44). Forty percent of people who injected opioids who received a naloxone kit had used the kit in response to an overdose they witnessed. These courses increase knowledge of overdose prevention in people who use opioids, give them the necessary skills to use naloxone, and slightly diminish the number of fatal opioid overdoses in the city of Barcelona. PMID:29088247

  15. Prior exercise training blunts short-term high-fat diet-induced weight gain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snook, Laelie A; MacPherson, Rebecca E K; Monaco, Cynthia M F; Frendo-Cumbo, Scott; Castellani, Laura; Peppler, Willem T; Anderson, Zachary G; Buzelle, Samyra L; LeBlanc, Paul J; Holloway, Graham P; Wright, David C

    2016-08-01

    High-fat diets rapidly cause weight gain and glucose intolerance. We sought to determine whether these changes could be mitigated with prior exercise training. Male C57BL/6J mice were exercise-trained by treadmill running (1 h/day, 5 days/wk) for 4 wk. Twenty-four hours after the final bout of exercise, mice were provided with a high-fat diet (HFD; 60% kcal from lard) for 4 days, with no further exercise. In mice fed the HFD prior to exercise training, the results were blunted weight gain, reduced fat mass, and a slight attenuation in glucose intolerance that was mirrored by greater insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation in skeletal muscle compared with sedentary mice fed the HFD. When ad libitum-fed sedentary mice were compared with sedentary high-fat fed mice that were calorie restricted (-30%) to match the weight gain of the previously trained high-fat fed mice, the same attenuated impairments in glucose tolerance were found. Blunted weight gain was associated with a greater capacity to increase energy expenditure in trained compared with sedentary mice when challenged with a HFD. Although mitochondrial enzymes in white adipose tissue and UCP-1 protein content in brown adipose tissue were increased in previously exercised compared with sedentary mice fed a HFD, ex vivo mitochondrial respiration was not increased in either tissue. Our data suggest that prior exercise training attenuates high-fat diet-induced weight gain and glucose intolerance and is associated with a greater ability to increase energy expenditure in response to a high-fat diet. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. The evidence of benefits of exercise training in interstitial lung disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowman, Leona M; McDonald, Christine F; Hill, Catherine J; Lee, Annemarie L; Barker, Kathryn; Boote, Claire; Glaspole, Ian; Goh, Nicole S L; Southcott, Anne M; Burge, Angela T; Gillies, Rebecca; Martin, Alicia; Holland, Anne E

    2017-07-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding the clinical relevance of exercise training across the range of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs). To establish the impact of exercise training in patients with ILDs of differing aetiology and severity. 142 participants with ILD (61 idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), 22 asbestosis, 23 connective tissue disease-related ILD (CTD-ILD) and 36 with other aetiologies) were randomised to either 8 weeks of supervised exercise training or usual care. Six-minute walk distance (6MWD), Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire (CRDQ), St George Respiratory Questionnaire IPF-specific version (SGRQ-I) and modified Medical Research Council dyspnoea score were measured at baseline, 9 weeks and 6 months. Exercise training significantly increased 6MWD (25 m, 95% CI 2 to 47 m) and health-related quality of life (CRDQ and SGRQ-I) in people with ILD. Larger improvements in 6MWD, CRDQ, SGRQ-I and dyspnoea occurred in asbestosis and IPF compared with CTD-ILD, but with few significant differences between subgroups. Benefits declined at 6 months except in CTD-ILD. Lower baseline 6MWD and worse baseline symptoms were associated with greater benefit in 6MWD and symptoms following training. Greater gains were seen in those whose exercise prescription was successfully progressed according to the protocol. At 6 months, sustained improvements in 6MWD and symptoms were associated with better baseline lung function and less pulmonary hypertension. Exercise training is effective in patients across the range of ILDs, with clinically meaningful benefits in asbestosis and IPF. Successful exercise progression maximises improvements and sustained treatment effects favour those with milder disease. Results, ACTRN12611000416998. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. Exercise interventions to prevent and manage type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dela, Flemming; Prats Gavalda, Clara; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    Physical training is known to markedly increase insulin-mediated glucose uptake. This effect occurs predominantly in skeletal muscle and it has been shown in healthy individuals, people with impaired glucose tolerance and in patients with type 2 diabetes. The mechanism/s behind this adaptation...... training on insulin secretion, which is, however, known to decrease in the trained compared with the untrained state in healthy people. In patients with type 2 diabetes, in whom the β-cells have lost the capacity to secrete sufficient insulin in order to maintain normal glucose tolerance, the response...

  18. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  19. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, F S; Handoko, M L; Groepenhoff, H; van 't Hul, A J; Abbink, J; Koppers, R J H; Grotjohan, H P; Twisk, J W R; Bogaard, H-J; Boonstra, A; Postmus, P E; Westerhof, N; van der Laarse, W J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2009-09-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained. 6-min walk distance and peak exercise capacity did not change after training. However, endurance capacity improved significantly after training, demonstrated by a shift of the anaerobic threshold to a higher workload (from 32+/-5 to 46+/-6 W; p = 0.003) together with an increase in exercise endurance time (pendurance by 34% (p = 0.001). Training enhanced aerobic capacity of the quadriceps, by increasing capillarisation (1.36+/-0.10 to 1.78+/-0.13 capillaries per muscle fibre; pendurance and quadriceps muscle function, which is also reflected by structural changes of the quadriceps.

  20. Irisin Response to Two Types of Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetic Male Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousa Khalafi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Irisin is an exercise-induced myokine that is reduced with type 2 diabetes and improves insulin resistance via the browning of white adipose tissues. However, irisin response to two types of exercise in patients with type 2 diabetes is unknown. Materials and Methods: In this study, 22 diabetic Wistar rats (Induced by high-fat diet and injections Stz were randomly assigned to 3 groups: high intensity interval exercise (HIIT, low intensity continuous training (LICT and control (C. Both HIIT and LICT groups trained on the treadmill 5 sessions per week for 8 weeks. Blood samples were taken 24 hours after the last training session and plasma irisin, insulin and glucose levels were measured. ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used to analyze data and the level of significance has been considered at p≤0.05. Results: Data analysis showed that plasma irisin levels in the HIIT group were significantly increased compared to the control group (p0.05. Plasma glucose in both HIIT and LICT groups was significantly decreased compared to the control group (p0.05. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that exercise training can increase plasma irisin in rats with type 2 diabetes. However, these changes are partially dependent on the type of exercise training.

  1. Evaluation of Exercise Tolerance in Dialysis Patients Performing Tai Chi Training: Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wioletta Dziubek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD have poor physical performance and exercise capacity due to frequent dialysis treatments. Tai Chi exercises can be very useful in the area of rehabilitation of people with ESRD. Objectives. The aim of the study was to assess exercise capacity in ESRD patients participating in 6-month Tai Chi training. Patients and Methods. Twenty dialysis patients from Wroclaw took part in the training; at the end of the project, 14 patients remained (age 69.2±8.6 years. A 6-minute walk test (6MWT and spiroergometry were performed at the beginning and after 6 months of training. Results. After 6 months of Tai Chi, significant improvements were recorded in mean distance in the 6MWT (387.89 versus 436.36 m, rate of perceived exertion (7.4 versus 4.7, and spiroergometry (8.71 versus 10.08 min. Conclusions. In the ESRD patients taking part in Tai Chi training, a definite improvement in exercise tolerance was recorded after the 6-month training. Tai Chi exercises conducted on days without dialysis can be an effective and interesting form of rehabilitation for patients, offering them a chance for a better quality of life and fewer falls and hospitalisations that are the result of it.

  2. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart