WorldWideScience

Sample records for exercise training mode

  1. Modes of exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauret, Gert Jan; Fakhry, Farzin; Fokkenrood, Hugo J P; Hunink, M G Myriam; Teijink, Joep A W; Spronk, Sandra

    2014-07-04

    According to international guidelines and literature, all patients with intermittent claudication should receive an initial treatment of cardiovascular risk modification, lifestyle coaching, and supervised exercise therapy. In most studies, supervised exercise therapy consists of treadmill or track walking. However, alternative modes of exercise therapy have been described and yielded similar results to walking. Therefore, the following question remains: Which exercise mode gives the most beneficial results? To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on the maximum walking distance (MWD) of patients with intermittent claudication. To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on pain-free walking distance (PFWD) and health-related quality of life scores (HR-QoL) of patients with intermittent claudication. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Specialised Register (July 2013); CENTRAL (2013, Issue 6), in The Cochrane Lib rary; and clinical trials databases. The authors searched the MEDLINE (1946 to July 2013) and Embase (1973 to July 2013) databases and reviewed the reference lists of identified articles to detect other relevant citations. Randomised controlled trials of studies comparing alternative modes of exercise training or combinations of exercise modes with a control group of supervised walking exercise in patients with clinically determined intermittent claudication. The supervised walking programme needed to be supervised at least twice a week for a consecutive six weeks of training. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias for each study. Because of different treadmill test protocols to assess the maximum or pain-free walking distance, we converted all distances or walking times to total metabolic equivalents (METs) using the American College of Sports Medicine

  2. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  3. Interpreting Adaptation to Concurrent Compared with Single-Mode Exercise Training: Some Methodological Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Loenneke, Jeremy P

    2018-02-01

    Incorporating both endurance and resistance training into an exercise regime is termed concurrent training. While there is evidence that concurrent training can attenuate resistance training-induced improvements in maximal strength and muscle hypertrophy, research findings are often equivocal, with some suggesting short-term concurrent training may instead further enhance muscle hypertrophy versus resistance training alone. These observations have questioned the validity of the purported 'interference effect' on muscle hypertrophy with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training. This article aims to highlight some methodological considerations when interpreting the concurrent training literature, and, in particular, the degree of changes in strength and muscle hypertrophy observed with concurrent versus single-mode resistance training. Individual training status clearly influences the relative magnitude and specificity of both training adaptation and post-exercise molecular responses in skeletal muscle. The training status of participants is therefore likely a key modulator of the degree of adaptation and interference seen with concurrent training interventions. The divergent magnitudes of strength gain versus muscle hypertrophy induced by resistance training also suggests most concurrent training studies are likely to observe more substantial changes in (and in turn, any potential interference to) strength compared with muscle hypertrophy. Both the specificity and sensitivity of measures used to assess training-induced changes in strength and muscle hypertrophy also likely influence the interpretation of concurrent training outcomes. Finally, the relative importance of any modulation of hypertrophic versus strength adaptation with concurrent training should be considered in context with the relevance of training-induced changes in these variables for enhancing athletic performance and/or functional capacity. Taken together, these observations suggest that

  4. Effectieness of junior form pupils’ training of gymnastic exercises in different modes of their fulfillment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernenko S.O.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: determination of junior pupils’ motor skills’ formation. Material: in the research 172 pupils participated: in every parallel of forms - 48 pupils. Results: effectiveness of 1 st form pupils’ is positively influenced (exercise - forward roll by increase of attempts up to 12 times; quantity of repetitions in one attempt shall be within 1-3. For 2 nd form pupils (exercise - forward roll, 3 rd form (exercise - vault over the width of gymnastic horse and 4 th form pupils (exercise - vault over width of gout with bent legs positive influence was rendered by increase of repetitions in one attempt up to 3 times and quantity of attempts within 6-12 times. Attention shall be accentuated on quantity of exercise’s repetitions in one attempt (2 nd-4 th forms and quantity of attempts (4 th from. Conclusions: Experiment of 2 3 type permitted to study multi-factorial structure of modes of 1-4 forms’ schoolchildren’s training to physical exercises; to specify optimal correlations of quantity of attempts, quantity of repetitions in one attempt and rest interval in period of acrobatic exercises’ and gymnastic vaults’ training at physical culture lessons.

  5. Mode of exercise and sex are not important for oxygen consumption during and in recovery from sprint interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Logan K; Couture, Katie M; Hazell, Tom J

    2014-12-01

    Most sprint interval training (SIT) research involves cycling as the mode of exercise and whether running SIT elicits a similar excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) response to cycling SIT is unknown. As running is a more whole-body-natured exercise, the potential EPOC response could be greater when using a running session compared with a cycling session. The purpose of the current study was to determine the acute effects of a running versus cycling SIT session on EPOC and whether potential sex differences exist. Sixteen healthy recreationally active individuals (8 males and 8 females) had their gas exchange measured over ∼2.5 h under 3 experimental sessions: (i) a cycle SIT session, (ii) a run SIT session, and (iii) a control (CTRL; no exercise) session. Diet was controlled. During exercise, both SIT modes increased oxygen consumption (cycle: male, 1.967 ± 0.343; female, 1.739 ± 0.296 L·min(-1); run: male, 2.169 ± 0.369; female, 1.791 ± 0.481 L·min(-1)) versus CTRL (male, 0.425 ± 0.065 L·min(-1); female, 0.357 ± 0.067; P EPOC was not significantly different between modes of exercise or males and females (P > 0.05). Our data demonstrate that the mode of exercise during SIT (cycling or running) is not important to O2 consumption and that males and females respond similarly.

  6. Effectieness of junior form pupils’ training of gymnastic exercises in different modes of their fulfillment

    OpenAIRE

    Chernenko S.O.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: determination of junior pupils’ motor skills’ formation. Material: in the research 172 pupils participated: in every parallel of forms - 48 pupils. Results: effectiveness of 1 st form pupils’ is positively influenced (exercise - forward roll) by increase of attempts up to 12 times; quantity of repetitions in one attempt shall be within 1-3. For 2 nd form pupils (exercise - forward roll), 3 rd form (exercise - vault over t...

  7. High-Intensity Intermittent Training Positively Affects Aerobic and Anaerobic Performance in Judo Athletes Independently of Exercise Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Emerson; Julio, Ursula F; Panissa, Valéria L G; Lira, Fábio S; Gerosa-Neto, José; Branco, Braulio H M

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) on lower- and upper-body graded exercise and high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE, four Wingate bouts) performance, and on physiological and muscle damage markers responses in judo athletes. Thirty-five subjects were randomly allocated to a control group (n = 8) or to one of the following HIIT groups (n = 9 for each) and tested pre- and post-four weeks (2 training d·wk(-1)): (1) lower-body cycle-ergometer; (2) upper-body cycle-ergometer; (3) uchi-komi (judo technique entrance). All HIIT were constituted by two blocks of 10 sets of 20 s of all out effort interspersed by 10 s set intervals and 5-min between blocks. For the upper-body group there was an increase in maximal aerobic power in graded upper-body exercise test (12.3%). The lower-body group increased power at onset blood lactate in graded upper-body exercise test (22.1%). The uchi-komi group increased peak power in upper- (16.7%) and lower-body (8.5%), while the lower-body group increased lower-body mean power (14.2%) during the HIIE. There was a decrease in the delta blood lactate for the uchi-komi training group and in the third and fourth bouts for the upper-body training group. Training induced testosterone-cortisol ratio increased in the lower-body HIIE for the lower-body (14.9%) and uchi-komi (61.4%) training groups. Thus, short-duration low-volume HIIT added to regular judo training was able to increase upper-body aerobic power, lower- and upper-body HIIE performance.

  8. Influence of exercise mode and osteogenic index on bone biomarker responses during short-term physical training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Mark E; Urso, Maria L; Evans, Rachel K; Pierce, Joseph R; Spiering, Barry A; Maresh, Carl M; Hatfield, Disa L; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C

    2009-10-01

    Prescribing exercise based on intensity, frequency, and duration of loading may maximize osteogenic responses in bone, but a model of the osteogenic potential of exercise has not been established in humans. In rodents, an osteogenic index (OI) has been used to predict the osteogenic potential of exercise. The current study sought to determine whether aerobic, resistance, or combined aerobic and resistance exercise programs conducted over eight weeks and compared to a control group could produce changes in biochemical markers of bone turnover indicative of bone formation. We further sought to determine whether an OI could be calculated for each of these programs that would reflect observed biochemical changes. We collected serum biomarkers [bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP), osteocalcin, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), C-terminal telopeptide fragment of type I collagen (CTx), deoxypyridinoline (DPD), 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D), and parathyroid hormone (PTH)] in 56 women (20.3+/-1.8 years) before, during and after eight weeks of training. We also measured bone mineral density (BMD) at regional areas of interest using DXA and pQCT. Biomarkers of bone formation (BAP and osteocalcin) increased in the Resistance and Combined groups (pbone resorption (TRAP and DPD) decreased and increased, respectively, after training (pbone turnover. The results of the present study demonstrate that participation in an eight week physical training program that incorporates a resistance component by previously inactive young women results in alterations in biomarkers of bone remodeling indicative of increased formation without substantial alterations in markers of resorption.

  9. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  10. Cardiac Parasympathetic Reactivation in Elite Soccer Players During Different Types of Traditional High-Intensity Training Exercise Modes and Specific Tests: Interests and Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellal, Alexandre; Casamichana, David; Castellano, Julen; Haddad, Monoem; Moalla, Wassim; Chamari, Karim

    2015-12-01

    The cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is currently used in soccer with a daily or weekly monitoring. However, previous studies have not investigated how this cardiac parasympathetic reactivation is in elite soccer players along different types of traditional high-intensity training exercise and specific tests. In this context, the present study aim to analyse it and to determine the interests and limits of this type of physiological information. The present study aims to examine how different traditional training exercise modes affect the cardiac parasympathetic reactivation function in elite soccer players. Twenty-two international soccer players participating in UEFA Champion's League took part in this study (age: 24.3 ± 4.2 years; height: 178.1 ± 6.2 cm; body mass: 80.3 ± 5.7 kg). Players performed different training methods including: short-duration intermittent exercises (INT) in-line and with changes of direction (COD) (10 - 10 seconds, 15 - 15 seconds, 30 - 30 seconds, e.g. an alternance of 10 - 10 seconds is 10 seconds of running according to the maximal aerobic speed (MAS) and 10-sec of recovery), INT including agility and technical skills (8 - 24-seconds), small-sided-games (SSGs) with and without goalkeepers (2 vs. 2, 3 vs. 3, 4 vs. 4), and repeated sprint ability (RSA) efforts (10 × 20 m, 10 × 30 m, 15 × 20 m). Heart rate (HR) decline was recorded 3 minutes after each exercise. HR declines were greater after the RSA compared to SSGs (P skills during INT, especially for the 30 - 30-seconds. This study revealed that cardiac parasympathetic reactivation function varied after INT, RSA and SSG, but also according to the rules manipulation. Therefore, this study provides interesting information for the training monitoring and players' recovery profile, with the aim of facilitating a more efficient planning and manipulation of training recovery strategies according to their fitness markers.

  11. A new approach to monitoring exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C; Florhaug, J A; Franklin, J; Gottschall, L; Hrovatin, L A; Parker, S; Doleshal, P; Dodge, C

    2001-02-01

    The ability to monitor training is critical to the process of quantitating training periodization plans. To date, no method has proven successful in monitoring training during multiple types of exercise. High-intensity exercise training is particularly difficult to quantitate. In this study we evaluate the ability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method to quantitate training during non-steady state and prolonged exercise compared with an objective standard based on heart rate (HR). In a 2-part design, subjects performed steady state and interval cycle exercise or practiced basketball. Exercise bouts were quantitated using both the session RPE method and an objective HR method. During cycle exercise, the relationship between the exercise score derived using the session RPE method and the HR method was highly consistent, although the absolute score was significantly greater with the session RPE method. During basketball, there was a consistent relationship between the 2 methods of monitoring exercise, although the absolute score was also significantly greater with the session RPE method. Despite using different subjects in the 2 parts of the study, the regression relationships between the session RPE method and the HR method were nearly overlapping, suggesting the broad applicability of this method. We conclude that the session RPE method is a valid method of quantitating exercise training during a wide variety of types of exercise. As such, this technique may hold promise as a mode and intensity-independent method of quantitating exercise training and may provide a tool to allow the quantitative evaluation of training periodization plans.

  12. Concurrent exercise training: do opposites distract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A

    2017-05-01

    Specificity is a core principle of exercise training to promote the desired adaptations for maximising athletic performance. The principle of specificity of adaptation is underpinned by the volume, intensity, frequency and mode of contractile activity and is most evident when contrasting the divergent phenotypes that result after undertaking either prolonged endurance or resistance training. The molecular profiles that generate the adaptive response to different exercise modes have undergone intense scientific scrutiny. Given divergent exercise induces similar signalling and gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of untrained or recreationally active individuals, what is currently unclear is how the specificity of the molecular response is modified by prior training history. The time course of adaptation and when 'phenotype specificity' occurs has important implications for exercise prescription. This context is essential when attempting to concomitantly develop resistance to fatigue (through endurance-based exercise) and increased muscle mass (through resistance-based exercise), typically termed 'concurrent training'. Chronic training studies provide robust evidence that endurance exercise can attenuate muscle hypertrophy and strength but the mechanistic underpinning of this 'interference' effect with concurrent training is unknown. Moreover, despite the potential for several key regulators of muscle metabolism to explain an incompatibility in adaptation between endurance and resistance exercise, it now seems likely that multiple integrated, rather than isolated, effectors or processes generate the interference effect. Here we review studies of the molecular responses in skeletal muscle and evidence for the interference effect with concurrent training within the context of the specificity of training adaptation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  13. NEW EQUATIONS TO DETERMINE EXERCISE INTENSITY USING DIFFERENT EXERCISE MODES

    OpenAIRE

    Luís B Sardinha; Manuel João Coelho e Silva; Raul A Martins

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine new equations from the relationship of %·VO2max versus %HRmax, based on direct measures of oxygen uptake, in four exercise modes (leg cycling, rowing, stepping and running), in young adult females and males with low risk for cardiovascular disease. Ten adult males and ten females volunteered for the study. The participants performed an incremental test for each exercise mode until exhaustion. Regression analyses were carried out for each participant ...

  14. Exercise training programs and cardiorespiratory adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, M H

    1991-01-01

    Prudent, proper, and progressive aerobic exercise can improve the efficiency of the cardiorespiratory system. Several physiologic mechanisms interact to enhance the body's functional capabilities. Central cardiac adaptations such as improved pump efficiency and peripheral adjustments related to efficient energy transfer are the principle manifestations of proper exercise training. Related benefits of physical activity include reduction in risk from life style-related diseases, increased energy reserves for the activities of everyday living, and an improved quality of life. Functional exercise testing when administered properly can be used to establish safe exercise prescriptions, evaluate patients at risk, and determine program efficacy. The method of choice is a maximal exercise stress test with direct determination of oxygen uptake. Results from such evaluations help to accurately and safely determine the appropriate exercise prescriptions and establish a patient's physiologic profile. The exercise prescription should encompass an approach that denotes the proper application of frequency, intensity, duration, and mode of exercise. For the noncompetitive athlete, training programs should begin with a gentle progression of low-level intensity activities that encourages compliance and reduces risk. Short-term reachable goals documenting gradual increases in activity have been shown to be successful in terms of compliance and desired benefits. Although intense exercise training may be an ambitious goal for many persons, moderate levels of habitual physical activity are a more realistic goal. The clinician should realize that habitual physical activity is an integral part of a healthy life style. Lack of fitness has been strongly associated with all-cause morbidity and mortality. Obviously, the health potential of exercise cannot be realized if a society remains inactive. It is estimated that 40% of Americans are completely sedentary and another 40% are active at

  15. Effects of Different Modes of Exercise Training on Body Composition and Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease in Middle-aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Hamid Reza; Khoshnam, Mohammad Sadegh; Khoshnam, Ebrahim

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have indicated that exercise training improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, strength and combined training on body composition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP) in sedentary middle-aged men. Forty-seven male aged 40-60 years voluntarily participated in this study and were divided in four groups: aerobic ( n = 12), strength ( n = 12), combined ( n = 11), and control ( n = 12) groups randomly. Body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP were measured before and after 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t -test and analysis of variance statistical methods. There were significant differences in body weight between aerobic and strength training ( P = 0.004) and aerobic and control groups ( P = 0.018), body mass index between combined and strength training ( P = 0.004) and combined and control groups ( P = 0.001), fat percentage between aerobic training and control group ( P = 0.017) and combined training and control groups ( P = 0.004), and finally, fat-free mass between aerobic and strength training ( P = 0.024), aerobic and combined training ( P = 0.0001), strength and control groups ( P = 0.035), and combined and control groups ( P = 0.0001). The results indicated that 12-week workout, 20-60 min/session, 3 days a week of moderate intensity exercise improved body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP compared to those who did not participate in any training. However, all three types of exercises had small benefits on body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP in sedentary middle-aged men, and the importance of combined training required further investigations.

  16. Exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an overview of evidence regarding exercise therapies for patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). This manuscript summarizes the content of a lecture delivered as part of the 2016 Crawford Critical Issues Symposium. Multiple randomized clinical trials demonstrate that supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD and intermittent claudication symptoms. A meta-analysis of 25 randomized trials demonstrated a 180-meter increase in treadmill walking distance in response to supervised exercise interventions compared with a nonexercising control group. Supervised treadmill exercise has been inaccessible to many patients with PAD because of lack of medical insurance coverage. However, in 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a decision memorandum to support health insurance coverage of 12 weeks of supervised treadmill exercise for patients with walking impairment due to PAD. Recent evidence also supports home-based walking exercise to improve walking performance in people with PAD. Effective home-exercise programs incorporate behavioral change interventions such as a remote coach, goal setting, and self-monitoring. Supervised treadmill exercise programs preferentially improve treadmill walking performance, whereas home-based walking exercise programs preferentially improve corridor walking, such as the 6-minute walk test. Clinical trial evidence also supports arm or leg ergometry exercise to improve walking endurance in people with PAD. Treadmill walking exercise appears superior to resistance training alone for improving walking endurance. Supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD by approximately 180 meters compared with no exercise. Recent evidence suggests that home-based exercise is also effective and preferentially improves over-ground walking performance, such as

  17. Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bahr, Roald

    2003-01-01

    In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in oxygen uptake termed the 'excess post-exercise oxygen consumption' (EPOC), consisting of a rapid and a prolonged component. While some studies have shown that EPOC may last for several hours after exercise, others have concluded that EPOC is transient and minimal. The conflicting results may be resolved if differences in exercise intensity and duration are considered, since this may affect the metabolic processes underlying EPOC. Accordingly, the absence of a sustained EPOC after exercise seems to be a consistent finding in studies with low exercise intensity and/or duration. The magnitude of EPOC after aerobic exercise clearly depends on both the duration and intensity of exercise. A curvilinear relationship between the magnitude of EPOC and the intensity of the exercise bout has been found, whereas the relationship between exercise duration and EPOC magnitude appears to be more linear, especially at higher intensities. Differences in exercise mode may potentially contribute to the discrepant findings of EPOC magnitude and duration. Studies with sufficient exercise challenges are needed to determine whether various aerobic exercise modes affect EPOC differently. The relationships between the intensity and duration of resistance exercise and the magnitude and duration of EPOC have not been determined, but a more prolonged and substantial EPOC has been found after hard- versus moderate-resistance exercise. Thus, the intensity of resistance exercise seems to be of importance for EPOC. Lastly, training status and sex may also potentially influence EPOC magnitude, but this may be problematic to determine. Still, it appears that trained individuals have a more rapid return of post-exercise metabolism to resting levels after exercising at either the same relative or absolute work rate; however, studies after more strenuous exercise bouts are needed. It is not determined if there is a sex effect on EPOC

  18. Eccentric exercise training: modalities, applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve; Dufour, Stéphane Pascal; Vautravers, Philippe; Geny, Bernard; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Richard, Ruddy

    2013-06-01

    Eccentric (ECC) exercise is classically used to improve muscle strength and power in healthy subjects and athletes. Due to its specific physiological and mechanical properties, there is an increasing interest in employing ECC muscle work for rehabilitation and clinical purposes. Nowadays, ECC muscle actions can be generated using various exercise modalities that target small or large muscle masses with minimal or no muscle damage or pain. The most interesting feature of ECC muscle actions is to combine high muscle force with a low energy cost (typically 4- to 5-times lower than concentric muscle work) when measured during leg cycle ergometry at a similar mechanical power output. Therefore, if caution is taken to minimize the occurrence of muscle damage, ECC muscle exercise can be proposed not only to athletes and healthy subjects, but also to individuals with moderately to severely limited exercise capacity, with the ultimate goal being to improve their functional capacity and quality of life. The first part of this review article describes the available exercise modalities to generate ECC muscle work, including strength and conditioning exercises using the body's weight and/or additional external loads, classical isotonic or isokinetic exercises and, in addition, the oldest and newest specifically designed ECC ergometers. The second part highlights the physiological and mechanical properties of ECC muscle actions, such as the well-known higher muscle force-generating capacity and also the often overlooked specific cardiovascular and metabolic responses. This point is particularly emphasized by comparing ECC and concentric muscle work performed at similar mechanical (i.e., cycling mechanical power) or metabolic power (i.e., oxygen uptake, VO2). In particular, at a similar mechanical power, ECC muscle work induces lower metabolic and cardiovascular responses than concentric muscle work. However, when both exercise modes are performed at a similar level of VO2, a

  19. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  20. Hydration during intense exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L

    2013-01-01

    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  2. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  3. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  4. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1 for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  5. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  6. Exercise training for tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, T J

    1995-01-01

    Tennis is a physically demanding sport. A complete conditioning program designed to address both the demands of the sport and the individual player's musculoskeletal base is important in tennis, particularly at the competitive junior and professional levels. Recreational players can certainly use conditioning to improve their level of performance, but the primary concern in this group is general fitness development and injury prevention. In the junior player, physical development should begin with a sound program for physical fitness, including flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, general strength, and muscular endurance. Once a sound fitness base has been developed, the competitive junior players should progress to conditioning for sport specific movements and for injury prevention. At the elite level, tennis players should have previously developed a sound general physical fitness base. These players can then spend a greater percentage of their conditioning time on athletic fitness and sport specific movement training, as well as injury prevention. By addressing all of the components of a total body conditioning program, the possibility of peak performance of the individual tennis player is enhanced.

  7. NEW EQUATIONS TO DETERMINE EXERCISE INTENSITY USING DIFFERENT EXERCISE MODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís B Sardinha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine new equations from the relationship of %·VO2max versus %HRmax, based on direct measures of oxygen uptake, in four exercise modes (leg cycling, rowing, stepping and running, in young adult females and males with low risk for cardiovascular disease. Ten adult males and ten females volunteered for the study. The participants performed an incremental test for each exercise mode until exhaustion. Regression analyses were carried out for each participant at a target % of VO2max and %HRmax was computed. At 40-90%·VO2max, the regression equations predicted similar values of %HRmax for males and females in the four exercise modes. In contrast, estimated %HRmax for cycling was higher at 40-70%·VO2max, when compared with stepping and running. The results support the notion that a single equation to predict target heart rate values for both males and females can be applied. Furthermore, at light and moderate intensities, leg cycling produces different %·VO2max-%HRmax regression equations than stepping and running.

  8. Exercise training in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepoli, Massimo F

    2005-05-01

    The reduction of exercise capacity with early occurrence of fatigue and dyspnea is a hallmark of heart failure syndrome. There are objective similarities between heart failure and muscular deconditioning. Deficiencies in peripheral blood flow and skeletal muscle function, morphology, metabolism, and function are present. The protective effects of physical activity have been elucidated in many recent studies: training improves ventilatory control, skeletal muscle metabolism, autonomic nervous system, central and peripheral circulation, and heart function. These provide the physiologic basis to explain the benefits in terms of survival and freedom from hospitalization demonstrated by physical training also in heart failure.

  9. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  10. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  11. Exercise training in adverse cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; van Deel, Elza D; de Waard, Monique C; de Boer, Martine; Merkus, Daphne; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction or chronic pressure-overload is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. In contrast, cardiac remodeling produced by regular physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk for heart failure. There is evidence that exercise training has a beneficial effect on disease progression and survival in patients with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, but concern has also been expressed that exercise training may aggravate pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Here we present studies from our laboratory into the effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. The results indicate that even in the presence of a large infarct, exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the heart. These effects were mimicked in part by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) overexpression and abrogated by eNOS deficiency, demonstrating the importance of nitric oxide signaling in mediating the cardiac effects of exercise. Exercise prior to a myocardial infarction was also cardioprotective. In contrast, exercise tended to aggravate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the setting of pressure-overload produced by an aortic stenosis. These observations emphasize the critical importance of the underlying pathological stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, in determining the effects of exercise training. Future studies are needed to define the influence of exercise type, intensity and duration in different models and severities of pathological cardiac remodeling. Together such studies will aid in optimizing the therapy of exercise training in the setting of cardiovascular disease.

  12. Effort regulation in rowing races depends on performance level and exercise mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Morgan R; Delau, Simon; Desgorces, François D

    2010-11-01

    This study investigated the influence of performance level and exercise mode on the rowers' pacing strategies. On-water and indoor split times and placements (every 500-m) were obtained from individual 2000-m performances set at the elite, national and sub-elite competitive levels. The data was sorted into indoor (n=580) and on-water exercises (n=507). Indoor and on-water strategies statistically differed, whatever the competition level (prowing. Training exercise may account for these paces differences, according to the athletes' competitive level and to exercise mode. Copyright © 2010 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  14. Exercise training for performance and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, C.; Porcari, J.P.; de Koning, J.J.; Bannwarth, E.; Casolino, E.; Condello, G.; Gamalback, K; Gibson, M.; Lueck, J.; Rodriguez-Marroyo, J.; Walraven, L.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training is an important positive activity for both health and performance. A rich literature demonstrates, in a semi-quantitative way, the value of exercise. However, knowledge about how to improve the process of giving exercise advice is always important. This paper reviews recent studies

  15. Nonlinear exercise training in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is superior to traditional exercise training. A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Peter; van Keimpema, Anton; Legemaat, Monique; Gosselink, Rik; van Stel, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The optimal exercise training intensity and strategy for individualized exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not clear. Objectives: This study compares the effects of nonlinear periodized exercise (NLPE) training used in athletes to traditional endurance

  16. Influence of exercise mode on pregnancy outcomes: ENHANCED by Mom project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moyer, Carmen; Livingston, Jeffrey; Fang, Xiangming; May, Linda E

    2015-06-09

    The extent of the benefits of exercise training during pregnancy on maternal, fetal, and neonatal health outcomes has not been sufficiently addressed. While aerobic exercise training has been determined as safe and efficacious throughout pregnancy, the effects of other training modes on fetal health and development as well as any continued benefits for the neonate, especially with regards to cardiovascular development and function, is largely unknown. In the ENHANCED by Mom study we aim to determine the effects of different modes of exercise training (aerobic, circuit, and resistance) throughout pregnancy on childhood health by controlling individual exercise programs and assessing the effects of each on fetal and neonatal health adaptations. ENHANCED by mom is a cross sectional comparison study utilizing 3 intervention groups in comparison to a control group. Participants will complete three 5 min warmup + 45 min sessions weekly from 16 weeks to 36 weeks gestation of aerobic, resistance, or circuit training, in comparison to non-exercising controls. Maternal physical measurements will occur every 4 weeks throughout the intervention period. Fetal morphometric and heart measurements will occur at 34 weeks gestation. Neonatal measurements will be acquired at birth and at 1 month, 6 months, and 12 months. A better understanding on the effects of exercise training during pregnancy on fetal and neonatal health could have a profound impact on the prevention and development of chronic diseases such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes.

  17. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  18. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, ext...

  19. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  20. Concurrent training with different aerobic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R F; Cadore, E L; Kothe, G; Guedes, M; Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Pinto, R S; Trindade, G; Kruel, L F M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of using different intensities and types of aerobic exercise (i. e., cycle ergometer or running) during concurrent training on neuromuscular adaptations. A total of 44 young women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: concurrent strength and continuous running training (SCR, n=10), concurrent strength and interval running training (SIR, n=11), concurrent strength and continuous cycle ergometer training (SCE, n=11), or strength training only (STO, n=12). Each group trained twice a week during 11 weeks. The following strength measurements were made on all subjects before and after training period: maximal strength (1RM) in knee extension, bench press and leg press exercises; local muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 70% of 1 RM) in knee extension and bench press exercises; and isometric and isokinetic peak torque of knee extension. There were significant increases in the upper and lower-body 1 RM, isometric and isokinetic peak torque in all training groups (pconcurrent training performed twice a week promotes similar neuromuscular adaptations to strength training alone, regardless of the type and the intensity in which the aerobic training is performed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  1. Endurance Exercise Training in Young Adults with Barth Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W Todd; Reeds, Dominic N; Peterson, Linda R; Bohnert, Kathryn L; Tinius, Rachel A; Benni, Paul B; Byrne, Barry J; Taylor, Carolyn L

    2017-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked disorder that is characterized by mitochondrial abnormalities, cardio-skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and premature mortality. The effect on endurance exercise training on exercise tolerance, cardio-skeletal function, and quality of life in BTHS is unknown. Four young adults (23 ± 5 years, n = 4) with BTHS participated in a 12-week, supervised, individualized endurance exercise training program. Exercise training was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30-45' three times per week at a moderate intensity level. Exercise tolerance was measured by graded exercise testing and peak oxygen consumption, heart function via two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, skeletal muscle function by near-infrared spectroscopy, and quality of life through the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. There were no adverse events during exercise testing or training for any participant. Peak oxygen consumption modestly (~5%) improved in three or four participants. Mean quality of life questions regarding dyspnea and side effects from medications significantly improved following exercise training. Mean resting heart function or skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during exercise did not improve after exercise training. Endurance exercise training is safe and appears to modestly improve peak exercise tolerance and certain measures of quality of life in young adults with BTHS. However, compared to improvements resulting from endurance exercise training seen in other non-BTHS mitochondrial myopathies and heart failure, these improvements appear blunted. Further research into the most beneficial mode, intensity and frequency of exercise training in BTHS is warranted.

  2. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...... can increase 50-100-fold in contracting, healthy muscle from rest to exercise, and testing patients with exercise is therefore an appropriate approach to disclose limitations in work capacity and endurance in metabolic myopathies. Muscles rely almost exclusively on muscle glycogen in the initial...

  3. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  4. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nolan, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2015-06-28

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of previously published reviews. To determine the effects of physical exercise training compared to no training on aerobic exercise capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and other patient-relevant (secondary) outcomes in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 10 March 2015. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and duration with conventional care in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Of the 48 studies identified, 13 studies which included 402 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; one study was in adults, six were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and nine studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows limited evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people with cystic fibrosis aerobic or anaerobic physical exercise training or a combination of both has a positive effect on aerobic exercise capacity, pulmonary function and health-related quality of life. Although improvements are not consistent between studies and ranged

  5. Interference between concurrent resistance and endurance exercise: molecular bases and the role of individual training variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bishop, David J; Stepto, Nigel K

    2014-06-01

    Concurrent training is defined as simultaneously incorporating both resistance and endurance exercise within a periodized training regime. Despite the potential additive benefits of combining these divergent exercise modes with regards to disease prevention and athletic performance, current evidence suggests that this approach may attenuate gains in muscle mass, strength, and power compared with undertaking resistance training alone. This has been variously described as the interference effect or concurrent training effect. In recent years, understanding of the molecular mechanisms mediating training adaptation in skeletal muscle has emerged and provided potential mechanistic insight into the concurrent training effect. Although it appears that various molecular signaling responses induced in skeletal muscle by endurance exercise can inhibit pathways regulating protein synthesis and stimulate protein breakdown, human studies to date have not observed such molecular 'interference' following acute concurrent exercise that might explain compromised muscle hypertrophy following concurrent training. However, given the multitude of potential concurrent training variables and the limitations of existing evidence, the potential roles of individual training variables in acute and chronic interference are not fully elucidated. The present review explores current evidence for the molecular basis of the specificity of training adaptation and the concurrent interference phenomenon. Additionally, insights provided by molecular and performance-based concurrent training studies regarding the role of individual training variables (i.e., within-session exercise order, between-mode recovery, endurance training volume, intensity, and modality) in the concurrent interference effect are discussed, along with the limitations of our current understanding of this complex paradigm.

  6. Arm exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKeough, Zoe J; Bye, Peter T P; Alison, Jennifer A

    2012-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of arm endurance training, arm strength training, a combination of arm endurance and strength training, and no arm training on endurance arm exercise capacity. A randomised controlled trial was undertaken with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease subjects randomised into one of four groups to complete 8 weeks of training: (a) arm endurance training (endurance group) consisting of supported and unsupported arm exercises, (b) arm strength training (strength group) using weight machines, (c) a combination of arm endurance and arm strength training (combined group), or (d) no arm training (control group). The primary outcome measurement was endurance arm exercise capacity measured by an endurance arm crank test. Secondary outcomes included functional arm exercise capacity measured by the incremental unsupported arm exercise test and health-related quality of life. A total of 52 subjects were recruited and 38 (73%) completed the study. When comparing the arm endurance group to the control group, there was a significant increase in endurance time of 6 min (95% CI 2-10, p exercise test for the combined group following the interventions. The mode of training to be favoured to increase endurance arm exercise capacity is arm endurance training. However, combined arm endurance and strength training may also be very useful to reduce the symptoms during everyday arm tasks.

  7. Endurance Exercise Training and Male Sexual Libido.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R; Register-Mihalik, Johna; Oʼleary, Colin B

    2017-07-01

    This article aimed to study the associations between aspects of endurance exercise training and sexual libido in healthy men using a cross-sectional online survey study design. A developed online survey questionnaire was used. The questionnaire was based on preexisting validated questionnaires and was used to assess elements of physical characteristics, exercise training habits, and libido of participants (n = 1077). Three evidence-based categories were created for the primary outcome of total libido score and low, normal, and high-response category sets. The high and normal categories were combined to form a high/normal score group, and the low category formed a low score group. Odds ratio (OR) values were calculated to examine group categorization. Age, training intensity, and training duration of participants had significant (P training intensity (P training intensities (OR = 2.8, 95% CI = 1.4-5.3) had greater odds of high/normal libido state than those with the highest training intensity. Participants with the shorter (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.6-10.0) and mid-range training durations (OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3-4.8) at their current intensity also had greater odds of high/normal libido score than those with a greatest duration. Exposure to higher levels of chronic intense and greater durations of endurance training on a regular basis is significantly associated with a decreased libido scores in men. Clinicians who treat male patients for sexual disorders and/or council couples on infertility issues should consider the degree of endurance exercise training a man is performing as a potential complicating factor.

  8. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  9. Intense exercise training and immune function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gleeson, Michael; Williams, Clyde

    2013-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise reduces the risk of infection compared with a sedentary lifestyle, but very prolonged bouts of exercise and periods of intensified training are associated with increased infection risk. In athletes, a common observation is that symptoms of respiratory infection cluster around competitions, and even minor illnesses such as colds can impair exercise performance. There are several behavioral, nutritional and training strategies that can be adopted to limit exercise-induced immunodepression and minimize the risk of infection. Athletes and support staff can avoid transmitting infections by avoiding close contact with those showing symptoms of infection, by practicing good hand, oral and food hygiene and by avoiding sharing drinks bottles and cutlery. Medical staff should consider appropriate immunization for their athletes particularly when travelling to international competitions. The impact of intensive training stress on immune function can be minimized by getting adequate sleep, minimizing psychological stress, avoiding periods of dietary energy restriction, consuming a well-balanced diet that meets energy and protein needs, avoiding deficiencies of micronutrients (particularly iron, zinc, and vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12), ingesting carbohydrate during prolonged training sessions, and consuming - on a daily basis - plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs and Lactobacillus probiotics. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Exercise-induced hypoalgesia - interval versus continuous mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodesh, Einat; Weissman-Fogel, Irit

    2014-07-01

    Aerobic exercise at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity moderately reduces pain sensitivity and attenuates pain, even after a single session. If the analgesic effects depend on exercise intensity, then high-intensity interval exercise at 85% of maximal aerobic capacity should further reduce pain. The aim of this study was to explore the exercise-induced analgesic effects of high-intensity interval aerobic exercise and to compare them with the analgesic effects of moderate continuous aerobic exercise. Twenty-nine young untrained healthy males were randomly assigned to aerobic-continuous (70% heart rate reserve (HRR)) and interval (4 × 4 min at 85% HRR and 2 min at 60% HRR between cycles) exercise modes, each lasting 30 min. Psychophysical pain tests, pressure and heat pain thresholds (HPT), and tonic heat pain (THP) were conducted before and after exercise sessions. Repeated measures ANOVA was used for data analysis. HPT increased (p = 0.056) and THP decreased (p = 0.013) following exercise unrelated to exercise type. However, the main time effect (pre-/postexercise) was a trend of increased HPT (45.6 ± 1.9 °C to 46.2 ± 1.8 °C; p = 0.082) and a significant reduction in THP (from 50.7 ± 25 to 45.9 ± 25.4 numeric pain scale; p = 0.043) following interval exercise. No significant change was found for the pressure pain threshold following either exercise type. In conclusion, interval exercise (85% HRR) has analgesic effects on experimental pain perception. This, in addition to its cardiovascular, muscular, and metabolic advantages may promote its inclusion in pain management programs.

  11. Exercise training for patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, J M; Gremeaux, V; Damak, S; Feki, A; Pérennou, D

    2007-07-01

    This review surveys effort training, a validated and recommended therapy, in patients with atheromatous cardiovascular disease. This true therapy reduces mortality by 25-35%, reduces clinical manifestations and complications (rhythm problems, thrombosis) and improves physical capacity, reintegration and quality of life. The effects are essentially linked to improved metabolic performance of muscles and reduced endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and neurohormonal abnormalities. Training also has an impact on the evolution of major risk factors, especially diabetes and arterial hypertension. The risks are limited as long as the contraindications are respected and the programmes supervised. The indications (stable angina, chronic heart failure, peripheral arterial disease) should be described more precisely by taking into account functional criteria: physical deconditioning, exclusion, compliance, mood swings, and seriousness of risk factors. The training programme should be tailor made and based on evaluation of the patient's adaptation to effort, in terms of frequency, intensity and duration of the exercises. Various types of exercise include overall or segmental physical training; concentric, eccentric, even isokinetic muscle contraction exercises; and proprioceptive rehabilitation. However, knowledge is lacking about the molecular mechanisms of the effects of training, the most effective intensity of effort, and strategies to develop physical activity in this ever-growing population for both primary and secondary prevention.

  12. ENERGY SAVING MODES DEFINITION OF TRAINS HANDLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Kyslyi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Traction calculations with the definition of energy-efficient trajectories provide search for rational energy consumption depending on the time course of the train. When selecting energy-efficient trajectory of the train and the development of regime charts conducting trains must take into account variables such as: the profile of the site, weight train, locomotive series, etc. When increasing the speed of the growth it occurs the resistance movement, which is proportional to the square of the speed, which leads to higher costs of fuel and energy resources. In contrast, the reduction of costs due to the decrease in speed leads to an increase in travel time of the train, which should be consistent with the timetable and other technical and economic parameters, depending on the speed. The article describes one way to reduce the cost of energy for traction. The aim of the article is to reduce energy consumption by identifying energy-saving control modes. It occurs with the locomotive optimization function of control actions on the running time of the train and the flow of energy in the management of the train from the end of the acceleration to go to the coasts. Methodology. The technique of choice of energy saving path of the train and power control and electric locomotives with electric transmission provides the calculation of multiple paths with variable input data and parameters of the composition of the train situation. The methodology takes into account the uniform mathematical methods of search and parametric optimization. For uniformity of motion needed to slow down the accelerating forces are balanced. Findings. On the basis of calculations of multiple advanced algorithms determine the trajectories of energy-saving trains, built multiparametric locomotive power control function, which can reduce energy consumption by 11 to 13% depending on the weight of the train and the train situation. Originality. The author obtained the energy

  13. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    could also regulate muscle metabolism during exercise and long-term adaptations to exercise training. However, responses to exercise and exercise training are largely normal in AMPK KO/KD mice. At first hand this could mean that AMPK is not important to exercise/exercise training metabolic regulation......-regulated metabolism and exercise training-induced adaptations are abnormal. This could be due to a more complete ablation of AMPK function and perhaps related to the catalytic properires of the α-subunits. In study 1 we show that deletion of both AMPKα subunits in skeletal muscle of mice decreases exerciseinduced......-subunit. It is proposed to be involved in acute exercise-induced regulation of substrate metabolism as well as the adaptations in muscle protein expression that arise from repeated bouts of exercise, i.e. exercise training. Exercise regulates a plethora of signaling pathways in muscle which includes the activation...

  14. Sports drinks, exercise training, and competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Duvillard, Serge P; Arciero, Paul J; Tietjen-Smith, Tara; Alford, Ken

    2008-01-01

    A plethora of investigations examining fluid intake before, during, and after training and competition have suggested that a lack of adequate fluid intake will impair or decrease physical performance. Depending upon the type of training or competition, individuals training for prolonged endurance events should drink fluids containing carbohydrates and electrolytes during and after training or competition. Inadequate hydration will cause significant decrements in performance, increase thermal stress, reduce plasma volume, accelerate fatigue, and possibly cause injuries associated with fluid and sweat loss. However, overdrinking may cause Na+ depletion and in some cases lead to hyponatremia. Maintaining proper hydration before, during, and after training and competition will help reduce fluid loss, maintain performance, lower submaximal exercise heart rate, maintain plasma volume, and reduce heat stress, heat exhaustion, and possibly heat stroke.

  15. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  16. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  17. Exercise training in COPD: What is it about intensity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Norman R; Walsh, James; Adams, Lewis; Alision, Jennifer

    2016-10-01

    Most of the current guidelines for pulmonary rehabilitation recommend higher, over lower, intensity exercise training for COPD. Typically, we consider intensity of exercise training to be a key component of any exercise training programme. Whilst studies of young individuals have demonstrated that higher exercise training intensity results in greater improvements in exercise capacity, the evidence for older patients is not so clear cut. In COPD, there is limited evidence regarding the optimal intensity of exercise training. Using both physiological (peak exercise capacity) and patient-centred (e.g. quality of life) outcomes, it remains inconclusive if higher intensity exercise training bestows any greater benefit than low-intensity exercise. If we examine the data from interval training studies, which used both high- and low-intensity interval and continuous exercise, we are able to generate more data for comparison. Unfortunately, these data are challenging to interpret due to heterogeneity in how interval training was prescribed. However, when we normalize the interval training data for training volume and examine the change in peak cycling power, there is a relationship between training intensity and increase in peak power (Wpeak , r = 0.68, P intensity continuous exercise, the additional data from interval training studies would suggest that higher intensity may be superior in terms of increases in Wpeak . Future studies should focus on establishing a threshold and an optimal training intensity for COPD. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Cheema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans.

  19. Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red versus Blue Team Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carbajal, Armida J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Human Factors and Statistics; Stevens-Adams, Susan Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Risk and Reliability Analysis; Silva, Austin Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling; Nauer, Kevin S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cyber Security Technologies; Anderson, Benjamin Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Assurance Technologies and Assessment; Forsythe, James Chris [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cognitive Modeling

    2012-09-01

    This report summarizes research conducted through the Sandia National Laboratories Enhanced Training for Cyber Situational Awareness in Red Versus Blue Team Exercises Laboratory Directed Research and Development project. The objective of this project was to advance scientific understanding concerning how to best structure training for cyber defenders. Two modes of training were considered. The baseline training condition (Tool-Based training) was based on current practices where classroom instruction focuses on the functions of a software tool with various exercises in which students apply those functions. In the second training condition (Narrative-Based training), classroom instruction addressed software functions, but in the context of adversary tactics and techniques. It was hypothesized that students receiving narrative-based training would gain a deeper conceptual understanding of the software tools and this would be reflected in better performance within a red versus blue team exercise.

  20. Acute effect of two aerobic exercise modes on maximum strength and strength endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza, Eduardo Oliveira; Tricoli, Valmor; Franchini, Emerson; Paulo, Anderson Caetano; Regazzini, Marcelo; Ugrinowitsch, Carlos

    2007-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of 2 modes of aerobic exercise (continuous or intermittent) on maximum strength (1 repetition maximum, 1RM) and strength endurance (maximum repetitions at 80% of 1RM) for lower- and upper-body exercises to test the acute hypothesis in concurrent training (CT) interference. Eight physically active men (age: 26.9 +/- 4.2 years; body mass: 82.1 +/- 7.5 kg; height: 178.9 +/- 6.0 cm) were submitted to: (a) a graded exercise test to determine V(.-)O2max (39.26 +/- 6.95 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and anaerobic threshold velocity (3.5 mmol x L(-1)) (9.3 +/- 1.27 km x h(-1)); (b) strength tests in a rested state (control); and (c) 4 experimental sessions, at least 7 days apart. The experimental sessions consisted of a 5-kilometer run on a treadmill continuously (90% of the anaerobic threshold velocity) or intermittently (1:1 minute at V(.-)O2max). Ten minutes after the aerobic exercise, either a maximum strength or a strength endurance test was performed (leg press and bench press exercises). The order of aerobic and strength exercises followed a William's square distribution to avoid carryover effects. Results showed that only the intermittent aerobic exercise produced an acute interference effect on leg strength endurance, decreasing significantly (p exercise mode. In conclusion, the acute interference hypothesis in concurrent training seems to occur when both aerobic and strength exercises produce significant peripheral fatigue in the same muscle group.

  1. Mood alterations in mindful versus aerobic exercise modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netz, Yael; Lidor, Ronnie

    2003-09-01

    The results of most recent studies have generally indicated an improvement in mood after participation in aerobic exercise. However, only a few researchers have compared mindful modes of exercise with aerobic exercise to examine the effect of 1 single session of exercise on mood. In the present study, the authors assessed state anxiety, depressive mood, and subjective well-being prior to and following 1 class of 1 of 4 exercise modes: yoga, Feldenkrais (awareness through movement), aerobic dance, and swimming; a computer class served as a control. Participants were 147 female general curriculum and physical education teachers (mean age = 40.15, SD = 0.2) voluntarily enrolled in a 1-year enrichment program at a physical education college. Analyses of variance for repeated measures revealed mood improvement following Feldenkrais, swimming, and yoga but not following aerobic dance and computer lessons. Mindful low-exertion activities as well as aerobic activities enhanced mood in 1 single session of exercise. The authors suggest that more studies assessing the mood-enhancing benefits of mindful activities such as Feldenkrais and yoga are needed.

  2. Human Skeletal Muscle Stem Cells in Adaptations to Exercise; Effects of Resistance Exercise Contraction Mode and Protein Supplementation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Human skeletal muscle has a remarkable capability of adapting to a change in demands. The preservation of this adaptability relies partly on a pool of resident myogenic stem cells (satellite cells, SCs). Extrinsic factors such as mechanical load (e.g. resistance exercise) and dietary...... protein constitute key factors in regulation of human skeletal muscle mass; however, the influence of divergent resistance exercise contraction modes and protein supplementation on SC content, is not well described. The overall aim of the present thesis was to investigate whether eccentric versus...... concentric resistance training and ingestion of protein influence myocellular adaptations, with special emphasis on muscle stem cell adaptations, during both acute and prolonged resistance exercise in human skeletal muscle. Paper I. Whey protein supplementation accelerates satellite cell proliferation during...

  3. Effect of resistance exercise contraction mode and protein supplementation on members of the STARS signalling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, Kristian; Rahbek, Stine K; Lamon, Severine; Farup, Jean; Stefanetti, Renae J; Wallace, Marita A; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron

    2013-08-01

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signalling (STARS) pathway is suggested to provide a link between external stress responses and transcriptional regulation in muscle. However, the sensitivity of STARS signalling to different mechanical stresses has not been investigated. In a comparative study, we examined the regulation of the STARS signalling pathway in response to unilateral resistance exercise performed as either eccentric (ECC) or concentric (CONC) contractions as well as prolonged training; with and without whey protein supplementation. Skeletal muscle STARS, myocardian-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) and serum response factor (SRF) mRNA and protein, as well as muscle cross-sectional area and maximal voluntary contraction, were measured. A single-bout of exercise produced increases in STARS and SRF mRNA and decreases in MRTF-A mRNA with both ECC and CONC exercise, but with an enhanced response occurring following ECC exercise. A 31% increase in STARS protein was observed exclusively after CONC exercise (P STARS pathway that is contraction mode dependent. The responses to acute exercise were more pronounced than responses to accumulated training, suggesting that STARS signalling is primarily involved in the initial phase of exercise-induced muscle adaptations.

  4. MUSCLE ACTIVATION PATTERNS DURING SUSPENSION TRAINING EXERCISES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Sean; Ruffin, Elise; Brewer, Wayne; Ortiz, Alexis

    2017-02-01

    Suspension training (ST) has been utilized over exercises performed on a stable surface to train multiple muscle groups simultaneously to increase muscle activation and joint stability. The purpose of this study was to determine whether ST augments muscle activation compared to similar exercises performed on a stable surface. Cross-sectional study. Twenty-five healthy adults (male: 16; women: 9; BMI: 23.50 ± 2.48 kg/m2) had 16 pre-amplified wireless surface EMG electrodes placed bilaterally on: the pectoralis major (PM), middle deltoid (MD), serratus anterior (SA), obliques (OB), rectus abdominis (RA), gluteus maximus (GM), erector spinae (ES), and middle trapezius/rhomboids (MT). Each participant performed reference isometric exercises (Sorensen test, push-up, sit-up, and inverted row) to establish a baseline muscle contraction. Muscle activation was assessed during the following exercises: ST bridge, ST push-up, ST inverted row, ST plank, floor bridge, floor push-up, floor row, and floor plank. The root mean square (RMS) of each side for every muscle was averaged for data analysis. Multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVA) for each exercise with post-hoc comparisons were performed to compare muscle activation between each ST exercise and its stable surface counterpart. MANOVAs for all exercise comparisons showed statistically significant greater muscle activation in at least one muscle group during the ST condition. Post-hoc analyses revealed a statistically significant increase in muscle activation for the following muscles during the plank: OB (p = 0.021); Push-up: PM (p = 0.002), RA (p<0.0001), OB (p = 0.019), MT (p<0.0001), and ES (p = 0.006); Row: MD (p = 0.016), RA (p = 0.059), and OB (p = 0.027); and Bridge: RA (p = 0.013) and ES (p<0.0001). Performing ST exercises increases muscle activation of selected muscles when compared to exercises performed on a stable surface. 1b.

  5. [New strategies for exercise training in osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U

    2015-11-01

    In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models.

  6. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stoedefalke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The following review aims to describe what is known about the effects of exercise training in children and adolescents on the following blood lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Only studies that described mode, frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise were included in the review. The results of the studies reviewed were equivocal. Clearly the effects of exercise training on the blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of normolipidemic children and adolescents are equivocal. Of the 14 studies reviewed, six observed a positive alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile, four of the studies observed no alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and one study observed a negative effect on HDL-C but an overall improvement in the lipid and lipoprotein profile due to the decrease in the TC/HDL ratio. It appears that methodological problems present in the majority of the exercise training studies limits the ability to make a conclusive, evidence based statement regarding the effect exercise training has on blood lipid levels in normolipidemic children. Most of the research design flaws can be linked to one or more of the following: small numbers of subjects in each study, low or no representation of girls, inclusion of both boys and girls in the subject pool, inclusion of boys and girls at different maturational stages in the subject pool, exercise training regimes that do not adequately control for exercise intensity, exercise training regimes that do not last longer than 8 weeks and exercise training studies that do not have an adequate exercise volume to elicit a change. Ideally, future research should focus on longitudinal studies which examine the effects of exercise training from the primary school years through adulthood

  7. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review is one of a series of reviews about exercise training for people with fibromyalgia that will replace the "Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome" review first published in 2002. • To evaluate the benefits and harms of aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia• To assess the following specific comparisons ० Aerobic versus control conditions (eg, treatment as usual, wait list control, physical activity as usual) ० Aerobic versus aerobic interventions (eg, running vs brisk walking) ० Aerobic versus non-exercise interventions (eg, medications, education) We did not assess specific comparisons involving aerobic exercise versus other exercise interventions (eg, resistance exercise, aquatic exercise, flexibility exercise, mixed exercise). Other systematic reviews have examined or will examine these comparisons (Bidonde 2014; Busch 2013). We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, the Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (WHO ICTRP), and the ClinicalTrials.gov registry up to June 2016, unrestricted by language, and we reviewed the reference lists of retrieved trials to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with a diagnosis of fibromyalgia that compared aerobic training interventions (dynamic physical activity that increases breathing and heart rate to submaximal levels for a prolonged period) versus no exercise or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted

  8. Is balance exercise training as effective as aerobic exercise training in fibromyalgia syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tuzun, Emine Handan; Culhaoglu, Belde

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of aerobic and balance exercises on pain severity, myalgic score, quality of life, exercise capacity and balance in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 33 females diagnosed with FMS by the American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited in this randomised controlled study and allocated to aerobic exercise (AE) or balance exercise (BE) groups. Exercises were performed three times a week, for 6 weeks on a treadmill or with a Tetrax interactive balance system (TIBS). Outcome measures were characterised by myalgic score, visual analogue scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), exercise testing, Timed Up-Go (TUG) and TIBS measurements. Comparisons from baseline to 6 weeks were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences between groups. Effect sizes were also calculated. Improvements in pain, myalgic score and FIQ were found in both groups (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, myalgic score was significant (p = 0.02, d = -1.77), the value was higher in AE. Exercise duration, Borg scale, resting blood pressures (RBP) and maximal heart rate were significant in AE. In BE, Borg scale, exercise duration was significant (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, diastolic RBP (p = 0.04, d = -0.92), exercise duration (p = 0.00, d = -1.64) were significant, with higher values in AE. TUG significantly changed in groups (p < 0.05, d ≥ -1.22). Stability scores, eyes open while standing on elastic pads (p = 0.00, d = -0.98) and head back (p = 0.03, d = -0.74), were significant, with higher values in BE. This study showed that BE provided some improvements in FMS, but AE training led to greater gains. BE training should be included in comprehensive programs.

  9. Exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Esposito, Mario; Partipilo, Filippo; DI Cicco, Dalila; Filetti, Cristoforo; Pantanella, Laura; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2017-10-27

    To investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in women's soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in male adult and young players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). 15 trained female soccer players (height: 1.65 ± 0.06 m; weight: 59.3 ± 9.0 kg; BMI 21.6 ± 2.7 kg·m-2; age: 23.3±5.9 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, an Index of Fatigue was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Blood lactate concentrations at the end of each set (3') were analyzed. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; p0.05). Significant differences were found in blood lactate concentrations (pRSA in women's soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (IF% < ⊕7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  10. Ergometric performance during exercise training in men with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figoni, Stephen F; Kunkel, Charles F; Scremin, A M Erika; Scremin, Oscar U; Cohen, Babak

    2010-06-01

    To determine and describe changes in weekly work, power, exercise times, and recovery times during an exercise training intervention in men with peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and intermittent calf claudication. Tracking of weekly exercise training parameters involved repeated measures over time in one group of participants. Other outcomes of this pilot study used a one-group, pretest-posttest design. Tertiary-care medical center. Fifteen male veterans (mean age, 69 years) with Fontaine stage IIa PAD and classic intermittent calf claudication. Participants completed graded treadmill exercise tests before and after intervention from which maximal walking power was calculated. Work, power, and exercise and recovery times for each exercise training session were computed and averaged for each week. The intervention consisted of an intensive 3-month exercise training program involving walking and calf muscle exercises: 3 sessions per week at the clinic (treadmill walking and calf ergometry) and 2 sessions per week at home (free walking and standing heel raises). After training, participants increased treadmill maximal walking power from 220 to 414 W (by 87%). Treadmill and calf exercise work, power, and exercise time per session increased linearly during 13 weeks of training, whereas recovery time per session of treadmill exercise decreased. During the same period, treadmill and calf exercise training power outputs increased by averages of 227% and 92%, respectively. Calculation of work and power during exercise training can be used to track progress quantitatively at short intervals. Weekly linear increases in training work and power per exercise session suggest that optimal intervention duration may be longer than 3 months for men with PAD and intermittent calf claudication. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise training-induced regulation of mitochondrial quality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yan, Zhen; Lira, Vitor A; Greene, Nicholas P

    2012-01-01

    .... The mitochondrial life cycle spans biogenesis, maintenance, and clearance. Exercise training may promote each of these processes, conferring positive impacts on skeletal muscle contractile and metabolic functions...

  12. Evidence based exercise: Clinical benefits of high intensity interval training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-01-01

    ...: This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Discussion...

  13. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  14. Effects of music during exercise in different training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldari, C; Macone, D; Bonavolontà, V; Guidetti, L

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the interaction of exercise and music to establish the impact of these factors on state-anxiety and time to exhaustion comparing trained and active participants. Twenty-six university students (13 trained, 13 active) completed the State-anxiety Inventory questionnaire before and after a submaximal treadmill running until volitional exhaustion in both music and no-music condition. ANOVA showed that both trained and active groups significantly reduced their State-Anxiety scores after exercise tasks (Pmusic. Finding also revealed that active group reported a higher significant reduction of their state anxiety score after exercise in music condition compared to no-music task (Pmusic (Pmusic during exercise may improve this effect in active but not in trained participants. Further, listening to music during exercise may prolong the participants' exercise experience but different training status seems to qualify differently this response.

  15. Exercise training increases size of hippocampus and improves memory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirk I. Erickson; Michelle W. Voss; Ruchika Shaurya Prakash; Chandramallika Basak; Amanda Szabo; Laura Chaddock; Jennifer S. Kim; Susie Heo; Heloisa Alves; Siobhan M. White; Thomas R. Wojcicki; Emily Mailey; Victoria J. Vieira; Stephen A. Martin; Brandt D. Pence; Jeffrey A. Woods; Edward McAuley; Arthur F. Kramer; Fred Gage

    2011-01-01

    .... Hippocampal and medial temporal lobe volumes are larger in higher-fit adults, and physical activity training increases hippocampal perf usion, but the extent to which aerobic exercise training...

  16. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, includ...

  17. A comparison of assisted, resisted, and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaei, Kazem; Mohammadi, Abbas; Badri, Neda

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of assisted, resisted and common plyometric training modes to enhance sprint and agility performance. Thirty active young males (age 20.67±1.12, height 174.83±4.69, weight 63.45±7.51) volunteered to participate in this study that 24 completed testing. The participants were randomly assigned into different groups: assisted, resisted and common plyometric exercises groups. Plyometric training involved three sessions per week for 4 weeks. The volume load of plyometric training modes was equated between the groups. The posttest was performed after 48 hours of the last training session. Between-group differences were analyzed with the ANCOVA and LSD post-hoc tests, and within-group differences were analyzed by a paired t-test. The findings of the present study indicated that 0-10-m, 20-30-m sprint time and the Illinois Agility Test time significantly decreased in the assisted and resisted plyometrics modes compared to the common plyometric training mode (P≤0.05). Also, the 0-10-m, 0-30-m sprint time and agility T-test time was significantly reduced with resisted plyometrics modes compared to the assisted and common plyometric modes (P≤0.05). There was no significant difference in the 10-20-m sprint time among the three plyometric training modes. The results of this study demonstrated that assisted and resisted plyometrics modes with elastic bands were effective methods to improve sprint and agility performance than common plyometric training in active males. Also, the resisted plyometrics mode was superior than the assisted plyometrics mode to improving sprint and agility tasks.

  18. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    (PGC)-1α is required for exercise-, exercise training- and fasting-induced mRNA and protein responses, respectively, of metabolic, angiogenic and gluconeogenic proteins in liver and adipose tissue in mice, 3) PGC-1α is required for both exercise training and resveratrol mediated prevention of age...... and interferes with the exercise-induced adaptive response in human skeletal muscle. Study II demonstrates that mouse liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA content increased in recovery from acute exercise in both wildtype (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) mice, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK......) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise...

  19. Monitoring Training Progress During Exercise Training in Cancer Survivors : A Submaximal Exercise Test as an Alternative for a Maximal Exercise Test?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    May, Anne M.; van Weert, Ellen; Korstjens, Irene; Hoekstra-Weebers, Josette E.; van der Schans, Cees P.; Zonderland, Maria L.; Mesters, Ilse; van den Borne, Bart; Ros, Wynand J.

    May AM, van Weert E, Korstjens 1, Hoekstra-Weebers JE, van der Schans CP, Zonderland ML, Mesters 1, van den Borne B, Ros WJ. Monitoring training progress during exercise training in cancer survivors: a submaximal exercise test as an alternative for a maximal exercise test? Arch Phys Med Rehabil

  20. Effect of recovery mode on exercise time to exhaustion, cardiorespiratory responses, and blood lactate after prior, intermittent supramaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miladi, Imed; Temfemo, Abdou; Mandengué, Samuel H; Ahmaidi, Said

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of 3 different recovery modes (passive [PR], active [AR], and dynamic stretching [SR]) on exercise time to exhaustion (Tlim) and cardiorespiratory and blood lactate responses during supramaximal exercise. Exercise sessions consisted of 2 series of 4 repeated, intermittent supramaximal cycling exercise interspersed in random order with PR, AR, or SR before the supramaximal continuous cycling time limit (Tlim) exercise test performed at 120% of maximal aerobic power. Ten healthy volunteer soccer athletes aged 25.7 ± 2.4 years participated in this study. During each exercise session, heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption V(O2)), blood lactate concentration, and Tlim exercise performance were recorded. Higher values were obtained in HR (p exercise duration was obtained for SR compared with AR (p best recovery mode to enhance performance and cardiorespiratory and lactate responses during intermittent supramaximal cycling exercise.

  1. Construction on Practical Talents Training Mode in Environmental Monitoring Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing-Ping; Wang, Xin-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Monitoring is a basic and comprehensive course for students majoring in environmental sciences and engineering. Based on the characteristics of this course, a new teaching mode in application of practical talents training in Environmental Monitoring Curriculum teaching mode is proposed including the new scheme of training applied…

  2. Postprandial Oxidative Stress in Exercise Trained and Sedentary Cigarette Smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smokers experience an exaggerated triglyceride (TAG and oxidative stress response to high fat feeding. Exercise training may serve to attenuate the rise in these variables, by improving TAG clearance and antioxidant defense. We compared blood TAG, antioxidant capacity, and oxidative stress biomarkers in exercise trained (>2 hrs per wk and untrained smokers matched for age, in response to a high fat test meal. We report here that low volume exercise training can attenuate postprandial lipid peroxidation, but has little impact on blood TAG and other markers of oxidative stress. Higher volumes of exercise may be needed to allow for clinically meaningful adaptations in postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress.

  3. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) suffer from the symptom of intermittent claudication and are therefore intolerant to walking. Exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for patients with PVD. Therefore studies have aimed to assess the efficacy of exercise training programmes. This review ...

  4. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF.......Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF....

  5. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although much research exists on individuals with CP, there is conflicting evidence for the benefits of exercise training in these individuals. This is due to the use of sedentary, paediatric populations and varied methodologies. Investigating individuals who have undergone high-volume exercise training from a young age ...

  6. The effects of exercise training programs on plasma concentrations of proenkephalin Peptide F and catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Gordon, Scott E; Fragala, Maren S; Bush, Jill A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Hooper, David R; Looney, David P; Triplett, N Travis; DuPont, William H; Dziados, Joseph E; Marchitelli, Louis J; Patton, John F

    2015-02-01

    To determine if exercise training alters the pattern and magnitude of plasma concentrations of proenkephalin Peptide F and epinephrine, plasma proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F(ir) and catecholamines were examined pre-training (T-1), and after 4- (T-2), 8- (T-3), and 12-weeks (T-4) of training. 26 healthy men were matched and randomly assigned to one of three groups: heavy resistance strength training (Strength, n=9), high intensity endurance training (Endurance, n=8), or both training modalities combined (Combined, n=9). Blood was collected using a syringe with a cannula inserted into a superficial arm vein with samples collected at rest, after each 7 min stage and 5 and 15 min into recovery. With training, all groups observed shifted plasma Peptide F responses to graded exercise, where significant increases were observed at lower exercise intensities. Increases in plasma epinephrine with exercise were observed in all groups. The Combined group saw increases at 25% at T-3 and for 50% at T-2, T-3, and T-4 which was higher than T-1. The Endurance group demonstrated increases for 50% at T-1, T-2, T-3 but not at T-4. The plasma epinephrine response to graded exercise was reduced in the Strength group. Increases in plasma norepinephrine above rest were observed starting at 50% . The Strength group demonstrated a significant reduction in norepinephrine observed at 100% at T-3 and T-4. Peptide F and catecholamines responses to graded exercise can be altered by different types of physical exercise training. Simultaneous high intensity training may produce adrenal medulla exhaustion when compared to single mode training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  8. The benefits and risks of exercise training: the exercise prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, G N; Balady, G J

    1993-01-01

    The physiologic responses to exercise are mediated by a complex interaction of central, peripheral, and neurohumoral stimuli designed to increase cardiopulmonary function. With repetitive exercise, significant cardiovascular and muscular adaptations occur that facilitate and enhance the response to exercise. Exercise is beneficial not only to younger healthy individuals, but to patients with many chronic medical conditions and to elderly individuals as well. Physical activity has a role in the reduction of major cardiac risk factors and in both the primary and secondary prevention of cardiac events. With proper evaluation and counseling, exercise can be performed safely, even among patients with cardiovascular and other chronic diseases. Given the high percentage of the U.S. population whose sedentary lifestyle predisposes them to the development of cardiovascular disease and the numerous beneficial effects of exercise, it is prudent to prescribe exercise as a means of improving individual and general public health.

  9. Exposing college students to exercise: the training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age ...

  10. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  11. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  12. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability: systemic training adaptations versus acute exercise responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie; Andersen, Christina; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-10-01

    Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p exercise reduced viability by -9.2 % in MCF-7 (p = 0.04) and -9.4 % in MDA-MB-231 (p exercise session reduced breast cancer viability, while adaptations to 6 months of training had no impact. Our data question the prevailing dogma that training-dependent baseline reductions in risk factors mediate the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer. Instead, we propose that the cancer protection is driven by accumulative effects of repeated acute exercise responses.

  13. Oxygen-assisted exercise training in adult cystic fibrosis patients with pulmonary limitation to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijerman, H. G.; Bakker, W.; Sterk, P. J.; Dijkman, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Exercise training has been considered suitable only in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients with mild to moderate pulmonary dysfunction without progressive hypoxaemia during exercise. We trained 16 CF patients, all with advanced lung disease (mean standardized forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), 30%

  14. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J.; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2008-01-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moder...

  15. Exercise training, creatine supplementation, and bone health in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, I H; Roschel, H; Pabis, L V S; Takayama, L; de Oliveira, R B; Dos Santos Pereira, R T; Dantas, W S; Pereira, R M R; Jorgetti, V; Ballester, R Y; Gualano, B

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that creatine may have some beneficial effects on bone. The study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise alone or combined with creatine on bone health in ovariectomized rats. Findings show that exercise, but not creatine, has an important role in improving bone health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training alone or combined with creatine supplementation on bone health parameters in ovariectomized rats. Wistar rats were randomly allocated into one of five groups: (i) sham-operated, (ii) ovariectomized non-trained placebo-supplemented, (iii) ovariectomized non-trained creatine-supplemented, (iv) ovariectomized exercise-trained placebo-supplemented, and (v) ovariectomized exercise-trained creatine-supplemented. Downhill running training and/or creatine supplementation (300 mg/kg body weight) were administered for 12 weeks. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical and histomorphometric parameters were assessed. No interaction effects were observed for BMC and BMD at whole body, femur, and lumbar spine (p > 0.05). Importantly, a main effect of training was detected for whole body BMC and BMD (p = 0.003 and p creatine supplementation. Main effects of training were also observed for maximal load (p  0.05). No main or interaction effects were observed for any of the histomorphometric parameters evaluated (p > 0.05). Exercise training, but not creatine supplementation, attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss in this rat model.

  16. MUSCLE STRENGTH AND DAMAGE FOLLOWING TWO MODES OF VARIABLE RESISTANCE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saied Jalal Aboodarda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Nautilus Machine (NM and Elastic Resistance (ER have gained considerable popularity among athletes and recreational lifters seeking to increase muscle strength. However, there is controversy concerning the use of ER for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength among healthy-trained individuals. The aim of the study was to compare the effect of repeated near maximal contractions by ER/NM on indicators of muscle damage including: maximal strength decrement (MVIC, rate of muscle soreness (DOMS, concentration of plasma creatine kinase (CK and increased high muscle signal on T2 weighted images using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. Nine healthy male subjects completed two modalities of exercise (5 sets × 10RM ER/NM in a counterbalance cross-over study design with three weeks "wash-out" period between experiments. The MVIC was measured and DOMS rated and recorded for 4 consecutive days while blood samples were collected on day 1, 3, 5 and 7. Prior to and forty eight hours after completion of each mode of exercise, subjects underwent MRI scanning. The average of applied forces demonstrated significantly higher value for NM compared with ER (362 ± 34.2 N vs 266.73 ± 44.6 N respectively throughout the 5 sets of dynamic exercise (all p < 0.05. However, the indicators of muscle damage (T2 relaxation time, DOMS, MVIC and serum CK exhibited a very similar response across both modes of training. Plasma CK increased significantly following both modes of training with the peak value on Day 3 (p < 0.05. The time course of muscle soreness reached a significant level after both modes of exercise and showed a peak value on the 2nd day (p < 0.05. The T2 relaxation time demonstrated a statistically significant increase following ER and NM compared with the pre-test value (p < 0.05. The similarity of these responses following both the ER and NM exercise training session suggests that both modes of training provide a similar training stress; despite a considerably

  17. Mitochondrial Plasticity With Exercise Training and Extreme Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert; Lundby, Carsten; Qvortrup, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria form a reticulum in skeletal muscle. Exercise training stimulates mitochondrial biogenesis, yet an emerging hypothesis is that training also induces qualitative regulatory changes. Substrate oxidation, oxygen affinity and biochemical coupling efficiency may be differentially regulated...... with training and exposure to extreme environments. Threshold training doses inducing mitochondrial up-regulation remain to be elucidated considering fitness level. SUMMARY: Muscle mitochondrial are responsive to training and environment, yet thresholds for volume vs. regulatory changes and their physiological...

  18. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an increment...

  19. Exercise training and the progression of chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Haaber, A B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    The possible beneficial effect of regular exercise training on the progression of chronic renal failure was studied in a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/(min.1.73 m2) (range 10-43) were randomized to physical training...... the rate of progression judged by the slope of GFR versus time plot was equal in the two groups. Hence, the beneficial effect of exercise training, earlier observed in rat studies, could not be reproduced in our patients. Physical exercise had no untoward effect on progression of renal disease....

  20. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R.; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H.; Carter, Stephen J.; Plaisance, Eric P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity related energy expenditure (AEE, kcal/d) and physical activity index (ARTE) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by a decrease in AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free living energy expenditure. Methods 140 pre-menopausal women underwent an average of 25 pound weight loss during an 800 kcal/day diet of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times/wk (40 min/d), another resistance trained 3 times/wk (10 exercises/2 sets x10 repetitions) and the third group did not exercise. DXA was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry to measure resting (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and non-training physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. Results TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no exercise group, but not for the aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. The resistance trainers increased ARTE. Heart rate and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Conclusion Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free living energy expenditure separate from the exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increased physical activity, while ease and economy in walking associates with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. PMID:25606816

  1. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20-30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior cruciate

  2. Moderate load eccentric exercise; a distinct novel training modality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Hoppeler

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial three weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400-500W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out 3 times per week for durations of 20-30 minutes. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al. 2014 (LaStayo et al., 2014. It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e. drop jumps that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically four fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2 and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular

  3. Study on the joint training mode of optical engineering master

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jicheng; Hu, Zheng-Da; Sang, Tian; Gao, Shumei; Chen, Guoqing

    2017-08-01

    We study on the joint training mode of optical engineering (OE) master in the ways of teaching, scientific research and practice cooperation. Our goal is to enhance the abilities and research level of OE graduate students by establishing the joint training cooperation with the domestic or foreign high level universities, the top research institutes and the famous enterprises, and to let more and more graduate students enter the high level universities and companies. In addition, we want to create the training quality evaluation index and evaluation system of the OE master students to evaluate this joint training mode.

  4. Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following exercise: implications for training prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, Jamie; Peake, Jonathan M; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-12-01

    The objective of exercise training is to initiate desirable physiological adaptations that ultimately enhance physical work capacity. Optimal training prescription requires an individualized approach, with an appropriate balance of training stimulus and recovery and optimal periodization. Recovery from exercise involves integrated physiological responses. The cardiovascular system plays a fundamental role in facilitating many of these responses, including thermoregulation and delivery/removal of nutrients and waste products. As a marker of cardiovascular recovery, cardiac parasympathetic reactivation following a training session is highly individualized. It appears to parallel the acute/intermediate recovery of the thermoregulatory and vascular systems, as described by the supercompensation theory. The physiological mechanisms underlying cardiac parasympathetic reactivation are not completely understood. However, changes in cardiac autonomic activity may provide a proxy measure of the changes in autonomic input into organs and (by default) the blood flow requirements to restore homeostasis. Metaboreflex stimulation (e.g. muscle and blood acidosis) is likely a key determinant of parasympathetic reactivation in the short term (0-90 min post-exercise), whereas baroreflex stimulation (e.g. exercise-induced changes in plasma volume) probably mediates parasympathetic reactivation in the intermediate term (1-48 h post-exercise). Cardiac parasympathetic reactivation does not appear to coincide with the recovery of all physiological systems (e.g. energy stores or the neuromuscular system). However, this may reflect the limited data currently available on parasympathetic reactivation following strength/resistance-based exercise of variable intensity. In this review, we quantitatively analyse post-exercise cardiac parasympathetic reactivation in athletes and healthy individuals following aerobic exercise, with respect to exercise intensity and duration, and fitness/training

  5. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training......-Yo intermittent endurance test 1 (YYIET-1) performance was better (P training period. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide was higher (P training period. In PM40, total......: Twelve weeks of intermittent exercise training increased BMD, intermittent exercise capacity, and V˙O2max in PM and PRM, with PM also having positive changes in body composition. Additional 40 wk of training with a reduced frequency was sufficient to preserve these physiological adaptations and also...

  6. Nutrition for post-exercise recovery and training adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Alghannam, Abdullah

    2016-01-01

    The importance of post-exercise recovery nutrition has been well described in recent years leading to its incorporation as an integral part of training regimes in both athletes and active individuals. Muscle glycogen depletion during an initial prolonged exercise bout is a main factor in the onset of fatigue and thus the replenishment of glycogen stores is central for post-exercise recovery. Nevertheless, nutritional recommendations, particularly related to the precise nutrient amount/type to...

  7. Resistance Training: Exercise Prescription (Part 4 of 4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J.; Fleck, Steven J.

    1988-01-01

    Resistance training as an exercise prescription is discussed and a program design process is outlined. The importance of preliminary assessments; defining goals and expectations; and evaluating individual needs and goals are discussed. (Author/JL)

  8. Exercise training in mitochondrial myopathy: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejudo, Pilar; Bautista, Juan; Montemayor, Teodoro; Villagómez, Rafael; Jiménez, Luis; Ortega, Francisco; Campos, Yolanda; Sánchez, Hildegard; Arenas, Joaquín

    2005-09-01

    Patients with mitochondrial myopathies (MM) usually suffer from exercise intolerance due to their impaired oxidative capacity and physical deconditioning. We evaluated the effects of a 12-week supervised randomized rehabilitation program involving endurance training in patients with MM. Twenty MM patients were assigned to a training or control group. For three nonconsecutive days each week, patients combined cycle exercise at 70% of their peak work rate with three upper-body weight-lifting exercises performed at 50% of maximum capacity. Training increased maximal oxygen uptake (28.5%), work output (15.5%), and minute ventilation (40%), endurance performance (62%), walking distance in shuttle walking test (+95 m), and peripheral muscle strength (32%-62%), and improved Nottingham Health Profile scores (21.47%) and clinical symptoms. Control MM patients did not change from baseline. Results show that our exercise program is an adequate training strategy for patients with mitochondrial myopathy.

  9. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  10. Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K E; Chandler, R M; Castle, A L; Ivy, J L

    1997-08-01

    Chromium supplementation may affect various risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), including body weight and composition, basal plasma hormone and substrate levels, and response to an oral glucose load. This study examined the effects of chromium supplementation (400 micrograms.d-1), with or without exercise training, on these risk factors in young, obese women. Chromium picolinate supplementation resulted in significant weight gain in this population, while exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation resulted in significant weight loss and lowered the insulin response to an oral glucose load. We conclude that high levels of chromium picolinate supplementation are contraindicated for weight loss in young, obese women. Moreover, our results suggest that exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation may be more beneficial than exercise training alone for modification of certain CAD and NIDDM risk factors.

  11. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell count of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

  12. Exercise Training and Parkinson's Disease: Placebo or Essential Treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Iris; Engelhardt, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Exercise training is often recommended for people with Parkinson's disease, though there is debate about the pathophysiologic cause of impaired movement in Parkinsonism which makes it difficult to develop a specific exercise treatment for symptoms that include hypokinesia, tremor, and muscular rigidity. Most published studies show a benefit of…

  13. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    Qmax may increase within a few weeks of exercise and the underlying mechanisms leading to this are likely to be multi-factorial. Plasma volume is generally thought to rapidly increase in response to exercise training driving an increase in Qmax and hence VO2max. Structural and functional changes ...

  14. Exercise training programs in Dutch cardiac rehabilitation centres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Spee, R. F.; Kraal, J. J.; Peek, N.; van Engen-Verheul, M. M.; Kraaijenhagen, R. A.; Gijsbers, H. J. H.; Kemps, H. M. C.

    2013-01-01

    To assess methods for determination of exercise intensity, and to investigate practice variation with respect to the contents, volume and intensity of exercise training programs in Dutch cardiac rehabilitation (CR) centres. A paper questionnaire was sent to all Dutch CR centres, consisting of 85

  15. Exercise Training and Energy Expenditure following Weight Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R; Fisher, Gordon; Neumeier, William H; Carter, Stephen J; Plaisance, Eric P

    2015-09-01

    This study aims to determine the effects of aerobic or resistance training on activity-related energy expenditure (AEE; kcal·d(-1)) and physical activity index (activity-related time equivalent (ARTE)) following weight loss. It was hypothesized that weight loss without exercise training would be accompanied by decreases in AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT)) and that exercise training would prevent decreases in free-living energy expenditure. One hundred forty premenopausal women had an average weight loss of 25 lb during a diet (800 kcal·d(-1)) of furnished food. One group aerobically trained 3 times per week (40 min·d(-1)), another group resistance-trained 3 times per week (10 exercises/2 sets × 10 repetitions), and the third group did not exercise. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to measure body composition, indirect calorimetry was used to measure resting energy expenditure (REE) and walking energy expenditure, and doubly labeled water was used to measure total energy expenditure (TEE). AEE, ARTE, and nontraining physical activity energy expenditure (NEAT) were calculated. TEE, REE, and NEAT all decreased following weight loss for the no-exercise group, but not for aerobic and resistance trainers. Only REE decreased in the two exercise groups. Resistance trainers increased ARTE. HR and oxygen uptake while walking on the flat and up a grade were consistently related to TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE. Exercise training prevents a decrease in energy expenditure, including free-living energy expenditure separate from exercise training, following weight loss. Resistance training increases physical activity, whereas economy/ease of walking is associated with increased TEE, AEE, NEAT, and ARTE.

  16. Comparison of Two Different Modes of Active Recovery on Muscles Performance after Fatiguing Exercise in Mountain Canoeist and Football Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Anna; Oleksy, Łukasz; Kielnar, Renata; Wodka-Natkaniec, Ewa; Twardowska, Magdalena; Kamiński, Kamil; Małek, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess if the application of different methods of active recovery (working the same or different muscle groups from those which were active during fatiguing exercise) results in significant differences in muscle performance and if the efficiency of the active recovery method is dependent upon the specific sport activity (training loads). A parallel group non-blinded trial with repeated measurements. Thirteen mountain canoeists and twelve football players participated in this study. Measurements of the bioelectrical activity, torque, work and power of the vastus lateralis oblique, vastus medialis oblique, and rectus femoris muscles were performed during isokinetic tests at a velocity of 90°/s. Active legs recovery in both groups was effective in reducing fatigue from evaluated muscles, where a significant decrease in fatigue index was observed. The muscles peak torque, work and power parameters did not change significantly after both modes of active recovery, but in both groups significant decrease was seen after passive recovery. We suggest that 20 minutes of post-exercise active recovery involving the same muscles that were active during the fatiguing exercise is more effective in fatigue recovery than active exercise using the muscles that were not involved in the exercise. Active arm exercises were less effective in both groups which indicates a lack of a relationship between the different training regimens and the part of the body which is principally used during training.

  17. The coronary circulation in exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M Harold; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, α- and β-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest

  18. The coronary circulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowles, Douglas K.; Duncker, Dirk J.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training (EX) induces increases in coronary transport capacity through adaptations in the coronary microcirculation including increased arteriolar diameters and/or densities and changes in the vasomotor reactivity of coronary resistance arteries. In large animals, EX increases capillary exchange capacity through angiogenesis of new capillaries at a rate matched to EX-induced cardiac hypertrophy so that capillary density remains normal. However, after EX coronary capillary exchange area is greater (i.e., capillary permeability surface area product is greater) at any given blood flow because of altered coronary vascular resistance and matching of exchange surface area and blood flow distribution. The improved coronary capillary blood flow distribution appears to be the result of structural changes in the coronary tree and alterations in vasoreactivity of coronary resistance arteries. EX also alters vasomotor reactivity of conduit coronary arteries in that after EX, α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness is blunted. Of interest, α- and β-adrenergic tone appears to be maintained in the coronary microcirculation in the presence of lower circulating catecholamine levels because of increased receptor responsiveness to adrenergic stimulation. EX also alters other vasomotor control processes of coronary resistance vessels. For example, coronary arterioles exhibit increased myogenic tone after EX, likely because of a calcium-dependent PKC signaling-mediated alteration in voltage-gated calcium channel activity in response to stretch. Conversely, EX augments endothelium-dependent vasodilation throughout the coronary arteriolar network and in the conduit arteries in coronary artery disease (CAD). The enhanced endothelium-dependent dilation appears to result from increased nitric oxide bioavailability because of changes in nitric oxide synthase expression/activity and decreased oxidant stress. EX also decreases extravascular compressive forces in the myocardium at rest

  19. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  20. Oxygen therapy during exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonoyama, M L; Brooks, D; Lacasse, Y; Guyatt, G H; Goldstein, R S

    2007-04-18

    Exercise training within the context of pulmonary rehabilitation improves outcomes of exercise capacity, dyspnea and health-related quality of life in individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Supplemental oxygen in comparison to placebo increases exercise capacity in patients performing single-assessment exercise tests. The addition of supplemental oxygen during exercise training may enable individuals with COPD to tolerate higher levels of activity with less exertional symptoms, ultimately improving quality of life. To determine how supplemental oxygen in comparison to control (compressed air or room air) during the exercise-training component of a pulmonary rehabilitation program affects exercise capacity, dyspnea and health-related quality of life in individuals with COPD. All records in the Cochrane Airways Group Specialized Register of trials coded as 'COPD' were searched using the following terms: (oxygen* or O2*) AND (exercis* or train* or rehabilitat* or fitness* or physical* or activ* or endur* or exert* or walk* or cycle*). Searching the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL databases identified studies. The last search was carried out in June 2006. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oxygen-supplemented exercise training to non-supplemented exercise training (control group) were considered for inclusion. Participants were 18 years or older, diagnosed with COPD and did not meet criteria for long-term oxygen therapy. No studies with mixed populations (pulmonary fibrosis, cystic fibrosis, etc) were included. Exercise training was greater than or equal to three weeks in duration and included a minimum of two sessions a week. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion in the review and extracted data. Weighted mean differences (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random-effects model. Missing data were

  1. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    increased after altitude training by 6.2 ± 3.9% (P VO2max was similar before and after training camps in both groups (LHTH: n = 7, SL: n = 6). Maximal 200 m speed reached in an incremental swimming step-test (P......Qmax may increase within a few weeks of exercise and the underlying mechanisms leading to this are likely to be multi-factorial. Plasma volume is generally thought to rapidly increase in response to exercise training driving an increase in Qmax and hence VO2max. Structural and functional changes...... they can be a challenge in an anti-doping context. In study I nine individuals performed six weeks of endurance exercise. Intravascular volumes, Qmax and VO2max were measured before and after the training intervention. Any increases in BV were then restored by phlebotomy. After the training period, PV, RCV...

  2. Localised cutaneous microvascular adaptation to exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ceri L; Carter, Howard H; Thijssen, Dick H J; Birk, Gurpreet K; Cable, N Timothy; Low, David A; Kerstens, Floortje; Meeuwis, Iris; Dawson, Ellen A; Green, Daniel J

    2018-02-07

    Exercise training induces adaptation in conduit and resistance arteries in humans, partly as a consequence of repeated elevation in blood flow and shear stress. The stimuli associated with intrinsic cutaneous microvascular adaptation to exercise training have been less comprehensively studied. We studied 14 subjects who completed 8-weeks cycle ergometer training, with partial cuff inflation on one forearm to unilaterally attenuate cutaneous blood flow responses during each exercise-training bout. Before and after training, bilateral forearm skin microvascular dilation was determined using cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC: skin flux/blood pressure) responses to gradual localised heater disk stimulation performed at rest (33, 40, 42 and 44 °C). Cycle exercise induced significant increases in forearm cutaneous flux and temperature, which were attenuated in the cuffed arm (2-way ANOVA interaction-effect; P < 0.01). We found that forearm CVC at 42 and 44 °C was significantly lower in the uncuffed arm following 8-weeks of cycle training (P < 0.01), whereas no changes were apparent in the contralateral cuffed arm (P = 0.77, interaction-effect P = 0.01). Lower limb exercise training in healthy young men leads to lower CVC-responses to a local heating stimulus, an adaptation mediated, at least partly, by a mechanism related to episodic increases in skin blood flow and/or skin temperature.

  3. The endocrine response to exercise and training in young athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan

    2013-11-01

    The manuscript "Plasma Somatomedin-C in 8- to 10-Year-Old Swimmers" by Denison and Ben-Ezra published in the first issue of Pediatric Exercise Science in 1989 was among the first to address the relationship between growth, the growth hormone (GH)/Insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, and exercise. Since their pioneering article, this topic has become of great interest to pediatricians and pediatric exercise researchers, and today our understanding of the effects of exercise training on the growth axis during childhood and puberty, on differences between systemic and local (i.e., muscle) responses to exercise, and our ability to use these responses to assist the adolescent competitive athlete in the evaluation of the training load have markedly improved. The aim of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge on this topic.

  4. Shear stress mediates endothelial adaptations to exercise training in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinken, Toni M; Thijssen, Dick H J; Hopkins, Nicola; Dawson, Ellen A; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2010-02-01

    Although episodic changes in shear stress have been proposed as the mechanism responsible for the effects of exercise training on the vasculature, this hypothesis has not been directly addressed in humans. We examined brachial artery flow-mediated dilation, an index of NO-mediated endothelial function, in healthy men in response to an acute bout of handgrip exercise and across an 8-week period of bilateral handgrip training. Shear stress responses were attenuated in one arm by cuff inflation to 60 mm Hg. Similar increases were observed in grip strength and forearm volume and girth in both limbs. Acute bouts of handgrip exercise increased shear rate (P<0.005) and flow-mediated dilation percentage (P<0.05) in the uncuffed limb, whereas no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Handgrip training increased flow-mediated dilation percentage in the noncuffed limb at weeks 2, 4, and 6 (P<0.001), whereas no changes were observed in the cuffed arm. Brachial artery peak reactive hyperemia, an index of resistance artery remodeling, progressively increased with training in the noncuffed limb (P<0.001 and 0.004); no changes were evident in the cuffed arm. Neither acute nor chronic shear manipulation during exercise influenced endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate responses. These results demonstrate that exercise-induced changes in shear provide the principal physiological stimulus to adaptation in flow-mediated endothelial function and vascular remodeling in response to exercise training in healthy humans.

  5. Evidence based exercise - clinical benefits of high intensity interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraev, Tim; Barclay, Gabriella

    2012-12-01

    Aerobic exercise has a marked impact on cardiovascular disease risk. Benefits include improved serum lipid profiles, blood pressure and inflammatory markers as well as reduced risk of stroke, acute coronary syndrome and overall cardiovascular mortality. Most exercise programs prescribed for fat reduction involve continuous, moderate aerobic exercise, as per Australian Heart Foundation clinical guidelines. This article describes the benefits of exercise for patients with cardiovascular and metabolic disease and details the numerous benefits of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in particular. Aerobic exercise has numerous benefits for high-risk populations and such benefits, especially weight loss, are amplified with HIIT. High intensity interval training involves repeatedly exercising at a high intensity for 30 seconds to several minutes, separated by 1-5 minutes of recovery (either no or low intensity exercise). HIT is associated with increased patient compliance and improved cardiovascular and metabolic outcomes and is suitable for implementation in both healthy and 'at risk' populations. Importantly, as some types of exercise are contraindicated in certain patient populations and HIIT is a complex concept for those unfamiliar to exercise, some patients may require specific assessment or instruction before commencing a HIIT program.

  6. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    barriers and risks to high-intensity exercise are also discussed. The evidence presented suggests that individually prescribed and supervised high-intensity interval training programmes, encompassing a variety of exercise modes represent an effective and safe means of exercise therapy prior to surgery.

  7. Use of Martial Art Exercises in Performance Enhancement Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClellan, Tim; Anderson, Warren

    2002-01-01

    Details some of the many martial arts training techniques and their potential applications for inclusion in performance enhancement programs, focusing on the benefits of martial training, the arts continuum, and martial arts training modes. The article concludes that the various martial arts techniques provide a stimulating and intuitively…

  8. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M; Madsen, Agnete B; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T; Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Thomas E; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente; Frøsig, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle. An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content. An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction-induced mechanism. Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle. AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy-inhibiting effect of insulin. Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non-exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser-757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one-legged exercise training, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise training may increase the capacity for formation of autophagosomes

  9. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  10. Muscle reflex in heart failure: the role of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Han-Jun; Zucker, Irving H; Wang, Wei

    2012-01-01

    Exercise evokes sympathetic activation and increases blood pressure and heart rate (HR). Two neural mechanisms that cause the exercise-induced increase in sympathetic discharge are central command and the exercise pressor reflex (EPR). The former suggests that a volitional signal emanating from central motor areas leads to increased sympathetic activation during exercise. The latter is a reflex originating in skeletal muscle which contributes significantly to the regulation of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems during exercise. The afferent arm of this reflex is composed of metabolically sensitive (predominantly group IV, C-fibers) and mechanically sensitive (predominately group III, A-delta fibers) afferent fibers. Activation of these receptors and their associated afferent fibers reflexively adjusts sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve activity during exercise. In heart failure, the sympathetic activation during exercise is exaggerated, which potentially increases cardiovascular risk and contributes to exercise intolerance during physical activity in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. A therapeutic strategy for preventing or slowing the progression of the exaggerated EPR may be of benefit in CHF patients. Long-term exercise training (ExT), as a non-pharmacological treatment for CHF increases exercise capacity, reduces sympatho-excitation and improves cardiovascular function in CHF animals and patients. In this review, we will discuss the effects of ExT and the mechanisms that contribute to the exaggerated EPR in the CHF state.

  11. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one...... increase the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in muscle. Moreover, AMPK activation during exercise may not be sufficient to regulate autophagy in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 likely mediates the autophagy-inhibiting effect of insulin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...

  12. Resistance strength training exercise in children with spinal muscular atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewelt, Aga; Krosschell, Kristin J; Stoddard, Gregory J; Weng, Cindy; Xue, Mei; Marcus, Robin L; Gappmaier, Eduard; Viollet, Louis; Johnson, Barbara A; White, Andrea T; Viazzo-Trussell, Donata; Lopes, Philippe; Lane, Robert H; Carey, John C; Swoboda, Kathryn J

    2015-10-01

    Preliminary evidence in adults with spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and in SMA animal models suggests exercise has potential benefits in improving or stabilizing muscle strength and motor function. We evaluated feasibility, safety, and effects on strength and motor function of a home-based, supervised progressive resistance strength training exercise program in children with SMA types II and III. Up to 14 bilateral proximal muscles were exercised 3 times weekly for 12 weeks. Nine children with SMA, aged 10.4 ± 3.8 years, completed the resistance training exercise program. Ninety percent of visits occurred per protocol. Training sessions were pain-free (99.8%), and no study-related adverse events occurred. Trends in improved strength and motor function were observed. A 12-week supervised, home-based, 3-day/week progressive resistance training exercise program is feasible, safe, and well tolerated in children with SMA. These findings can inform future studies of exercise in SMA. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Training for intense exercise performance: high-intensity or high-volume training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laursen, P B

    2010-10-01

    Performance in intense exercise events, such as Olympic rowing, swimming, kayak, track running and track cycling events, involves energy contribution from aerobic and anaerobic sources. As aerobic energy supply dominates the total energy requirements after ∼75s of near maximal effort, and has the greatest potential for improvement with training, the majority of training for these events is generally aimed at increasing aerobic metabolic capacity. A short-term period (six to eight sessions over 2-4 weeks) of high-intensity interval training (consisting of repeated exercise bouts performed close to or well above the maximal oxygen uptake intensity, interspersed with low-intensity exercise or complete rest) can elicit increases in intense exercise performance of 2-4% in well-trained athletes. The influence of high-volume training is less discussed, but its importance should not be downplayed, as high-volume training also induces important metabolic adaptations. While the metabolic adaptations that occur with high-volume training and high-intensity training show considerable overlap, the molecular events that signal for these adaptations may be different. A polarized approach to training, whereby ∼75% of total training volume is performed at low intensities, and 10-15% is performed at very high intensities, has been suggested as an optimal training intensity distribution for elite athletes who perform intense exercise events. © 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    The aim of the present thesis was to investigate the hypotheses that 1) bed rest reduces metabolic and angiogenic proteins and changes microRNA (miRNA) content as well as alters exercise-induced mRNA responses in human skeletal muscle, 2) Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator...... (PGC)-1α is required for exercise-, exercise training- and fasting-induced mRNA and protein responses, respectively, of metabolic, angiogenic and gluconeogenic proteins in liver and adipose tissue in mice, 3) PGC-1α is required for both exercise training and resveratrol mediated prevention of age....... Furthermore the physical inactivity abolished the exercise-induced mRNA response of PGC-1α and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in skeletal muscle that was present before bed rest. This indicates that just 7 days of physical inactivity reduces the metabolic capacity of human skeletal muscle...

  15. Aquatic Exercise Training is Effective in Maintaining Exercise Performance in Trained Heart Failure Patients: A Randomised Crossover Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsett, Julie; Morris, Norman; Kuys, Suzanne; Hwang, Rita; Mullins, Robert; Khatun, Mohsina; Paratz, Jennifer; Mudge, Alison

    2017-06-01

    Providing flexible models and a variety of exercise options are fundamental to supporting long-term exercise participation for patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of aquatic exercise training during a maintenance phase for a clinical heart failure population. In this 2 x 2 crossover design trial, individuals who had previously completed HF rehabilitation were randomised into either a land-based or aquatic training program once per week for six weeks, after which time they changed to the alternate exercise training protocol for an additional six weeks. Six-minute walk test (6MWT), grip strength, walk speed, and measures of balance were compared for the two training protocols. Fifty-one participants (43 males, mean age 69.2 yrs) contributed data for the analysis. Both groups maintained function during the follow-up period, however improvements in 6MWT were greater in the land-based training group (95% CI: 0.7, 22.5; p=0.038), by a mean difference of 10.8 metres. No significant difference was observed for other parameters when the two training protocols were compared. Attending an aquatic exercise program once per week is feasible for patients with stable HF and may provide a suitable option to maintain functional performance in select patients. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE training (PRISE in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15 or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15 for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs, power (bench throws, BTs, blood pressure (BP, augmentation index, (AIx, and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre and 13 (post. At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05 in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively, BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts, AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%, and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg. These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day diet and multi-component exercise (RISE training (PRISE enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women.

  17. [Adaptive changes of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ming-jing; Wang, Zhi-jian

    2013-06-01

    To explore adaptive changes of the Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to anaerobic exercise training as well as to collect basic data of molecular mechanisms of adaption to anaerobic exercise training among this fish, we investigated the influences of 4 weeks of anaerobic exercise training on the behavior, morphology, growth, muscle biochemical components and metabolic enzyme activities of the Zebrafish. Our results indicated that individual's daily activity level declined after 4 weeks training and they preferred to swim together more frequently. Both body length and weight gain decreased, allowing the fish to adapt to the increased locomotion. Similarly, glycogen in muscles increased and exercise endurance also strengthened due to the enhancement of energy storage. Moreover, although the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in muscle has increased, the activity of citrate synthase (CS) decreased. Taken together, these results suggest that both the ability of anaerobic exercise and anaerobic metabolism of Zebrafish can in fact be enhanced by training, and the tangible changes that we could measure were retained, but only for a limited time.

  18. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2008-09-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moderate submaximal exercise. Sixty-four sedentary older (67 +/- 0.5 yr) overweight to obese (30.7 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) volunteers completed 4 mo of either diet-induced weight loss (WL; n = 11), exercise training (EX; n = 36), or the combination of both interventions (WLEX; n = 17). Energy expenditure, gross efficiency (GE), EC, and proportion of energy expended from fat (EF) were determined during a 1-h submaximal (50% of peak aerobic capacity) cycle ergometry exercise before the intervention and at the same absolute work rate after the intervention. We found that EX increased GE by 4.7 +/- 2.2%. EC was similarly increased by 4.2 +/- 2.1% by EX. The addition of concomitant WL to EX (WLEX) resulted in greater increases in GE (9.0 +/- 3.3%) compared with WL alone but not compared with EX alone. These effects remained after adjusting for changes in lean body mass. The proportion of energy derived from fat during the bout of moderate exercise increased with EX and WLEX but not with WL. From these findings, we conclude that exercise training, either alone or in combination with weight loss, increases both exercise efficiency and the utilization of fat during moderate physical activity in previously sedentary, obese older adults. Weight loss alone, however, significantly improves neither efficiency nor utilization of fat during exercise.

  19. Exercise testing and training in people with Huntington's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, H; Collett, J; Debono, K; Quinn, L; Jones, K; Kelson, M J; Simpson, S A; Playle, R; Backx, K; Wasley, D; Nemeth, A H; Rosser, A; Izardi, H; Busse, M

    2015-02-01

    To explore exercise response in people with Huntington's disease (HD). Experimental observational study with a randomly allocated subgroup before/after interventional study. Community. People with HD (n=30) and a healthy comparator group (n=20). Thirteen people from the HD group were randomly allocated to an exercise training program. Heart rate (HR) and perceived exertion on the Borg-CR10 scale (RPE) during a submaximal cycle ergometer exercise test (three minute unloaded and nine minute 65%-75%HRmaximum phase). Expired air and lactate measures were available for 8 people with HD during the exercise. A 12 week gym and home walking exercise programme (n=13). People with HD achieved a lower work rate at nine minutes (82±42(0-195) v 107±35(50 -185) Watts (phealthy group and did not achieve a steady state HR during unloaded cycling. People with HD also demonstrated higher than expected lactate at three 2.5±2.5(1.1-8)mmo.L-1 and nine 3.8±1.9(1.2-6.6)mmo.L-1 minutes and respiratory exchange ratio at three 0.78±0.03 (0.74-0.81) and nine minutes 0.94±0.11(0.81-1.15). After exercise training there were no changes observed in HR or RPE responses during the exercise test. There was a large variability in the observed metabolic and physiological responses to exercise in people with HD. The observed exercise responses suggest that altered exercise prescription parameters may be required for people with HD and that exercise response and factors' affecting this requires further investigation. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Adaptations with Intermittent Exercise Training in Post- and Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael; Piil, Peter; Jørgensen, Niklas Rye; Hellsten, Ylva; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training frequency. Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency of approximately one training session per week. In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P < 0.05) and the total lean leg mass increased (P < 0.05) during the 12-wk training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test 1 (YYIET-1) performance was better (P < 0.05) after the 12-wk training period. Procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide was higher (P < 0.05) in PM, and total leg bone mineral density (BMD) was higher (P < 0.05) in both PM and PRM after the 12-wk training period. In PM40, total lean leg mass, V˙O2max, YYIET-1 performance, level of procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide, and total leg BMD were maintained, whereas whole-body BMD and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) were reduced (P < 0.05) and the expression of muscle glucose transporter type 4 was higher (P < 0.05). Twelve weeks of intermittent exercise training increased BMD, intermittent exercise capacity, and V˙O2max in PM and PRM, with PM also having positive changes in body composition. Additional 40 wk of training with a reduced frequency was sufficient to preserve these physiological adaptations and also improve blood glucose regulation in PM.

  1. Exercise Training and Peripheral Arterial Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Tara L.; Lloyd, Pamela G.; Yang, Hsiao-Tung; Terjung, Ronald L.

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is a common vascular disease that reduces blood flow capacity to the legs of patients. PAD leads to exercise intolerance that can progress in severity to greatly limit mobility, and in advanced cases leads to frank ischemia with pain at rest. It is estimated that 12–15 million people in the United States are diagnosed with PAD, with a much larger population that is undiagnosed. The presence of PAD predicts a 50–1500% increase in morbidity and mortality, depending on severity. Treatment of patients with PAD is limited to modification of cardiovascular disease risk factors, pharmacological intervention, surgery, and exercise therapy. Extended exercise programs that involve walking ~5 times/wk, at a significant intensity that requires frequent rest periods, are most significant. Pre-clinical studies and virtually all clinical trials demonstrate the benefits of exercise therapy, including: improved walking tolerance, modified inflammatory/hemostatic markers, enhanced vasoresponsiveness, adaptations within the limb (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis, mitochondrial synthesis) that enhance oxygen delivery and metabolic responses, potentially delayed progression of the disease, enhanced quality of life indices, and extended longevity. A synthesis is provided as to how these adaptations can develop in the context of our current state of knowledge and events known to be orchestrated by exercise. The benefits are so compelling that exercise prescription should be an essential option presented to patients with PAD in the absence of contraindications. Obviously, selecting for a life style pattern, that includes enhanced physical activity prior to the advance of PAD limitations, is the most desirable and beneficial. PMID:23720270

  2. Impact of exercise training on arterial wall thickness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H J; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J

    2012-04-01

    Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been consistently reported in asymptomatic subjects and those with cardiovascular risk factors and diseases. In the present review, we summarize evidence pertaining to the impact of exercise and physical activity on arterial wall remodelling of the carotid artery and peripheral arteries in the upper and lower limbs. We consider the potential role of exercise intensity, duration and modality in the context of putative mechanisms involved in wall remodelling, including haemodynamic forces. Finally, we discuss the impact of exercise training in terms of primary prevention of wall thickening in healthy subjects and remodelling of arteries in subjects with existing cardiovascular disease and risk factors.

  3. Double-leg isometric exercise training in older men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baross AW

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthony W Baross,1 Jonathan D Wiles,2 Ian L Swaine21Sport and Exercise Science, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK; 2Sport and Exercise Science, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UKAbstract: Double-leg isometric training has been demonstrated to reduce resting blood pressure in young men when using electromyographic activity (EMG to regulate exercise intensity. This study assessed this training method in healthy older (45–60 years. men. Initially, 35 older men performed an incremental isometric exercise test to determine the linearity of the heart rate versus percentage peak EMG (%EMGpeak and systolic blood pressure versus %EMGpeak relationship. Thereafter, 20 participants were allocated to a training or control group. The training group performed three double-leg isometric sessions per week for 8 weeks, at 85% of peak heart rate. The training resulted in a significant reduction in resting systolic (11 ± 8 mmHg, P < 0.05 and mean arterial (5 ± 7 mmHg, P < 0.05 blood pressure. There was no significant change in resting systolic blood pressure for the control group or diastolic blood pressure in either group (all P > 0.05. These findings show that this training method, used previously in young men, is also effective in reducing resting systolic and mean arterial blood pressure in older men.Keywords: electromyography, resting blood pressure, heart rate

  4. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.

  5. Using exercise training to understand control of skeletal muscle metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibala, Martin J

    2017-01-01

    Bengt Saltin believed that exercise was the unsurpassed tool to study human integrative physiology. He demonstrated this over the course of his career by employing physical training as a model to advance our understanding of skeletal muscle metabolic control and the impact of physical activity on performance and health. Bengt was also a pioneer in advocating the concept of exercise is medicine. His scientific curiosity was perhaps exceeded only by his generosity.

  6. Heart Rate and Lactate Levels during Weight-Training Exercise in Trained and Untrained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Michael H.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    A study of effects of squatting exercise on heart rate and blood lactate levels in trained and untrained males indicated that trained subjects performed more work and had higher heart rates and lactate levels at exhaustion untrained subjects, though heart rate and lactate levels were lower for trained subjects at a given bar mass or submaximal…

  7. Influence of Regular Exercise Training on Post-exercise Hemodynamic Regulation to Orthostatic Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun eSugawara

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available To prevent orthostatic hypotension, arterial blood pressure (BP is neurally and hormonally regulated via increases in heart rate (HR and peripheral vascular tone. After dynamic exercise, however, the latter arm is blunted because of the increased vasodilators in exercised muscles. Orthostatic tachycardia is likely a more important compensatory mechanism for post-exercise orthostatic intolerance in individuals who have higher leg vasodilator capacity, such as endurance-trained athletes. To test the hypothesis that regular endurance training was associated with the greater augmentation of tachycardia response to post-exercise orthostasis, we compared hemodynamic responses to 5-min 60-degree head-up tilt (HUT before and after 60 min of cycling at 70% of HR reserve in the endurance-trained (n=8 and sedentary men (n=9. Calf peak vascular conductance was 62% greater in the endurance-trained than the sedentary (P<0.001. After the exercise, the HUT-induced reduction of SV was significantly augmented in the endurance-trained (from -27.7±6.9 to -33.7±7.7 ml, P=0.03 but not in their sedentary peers. Nevertheless, MAP was well maintained during post-exercise HUT even in the endurance-trained (from 81±10 to 80±8 mmHg. Tachycardia responses during sustained orthostasis were significantly increased in the sedentary (1.3-fold vs. pre-exercise and more in the endurance-trained (2.0-fold. The augmented response of HUT-induced tachycardia was greater in the endurance-trained than the sedentary (P=0.04. Additionally, cardiovagal baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, evaluated by the HR response to the hypotensive perturbation, was improved after the exercise in the endurance-trained (from -0.56±0.32 to -1.03±0.26 bpm/mmHg, P=0.007 but not in the sedentary. These results suggest that in the endurance-trained men the increased orthostatic tachycardia and augmented cardiovagal BRS may favorably mitigate accumulated risks for orthostatic intolerance in the early phase of

  8. Exercise training improves liver steatosis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alex, S.; Boss, A.; Heerschap, A.; Kersten, S.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly turning into the most common liver disorder worldwide. One of the strategies that has been shown to effectively improve NAFLD is regular exercise, which seems to lower steatosis partly independent of weight loss. However, limited data

  9. Exercise training improves liver steatosis in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alex, Sheril; Boss, Andreas; Heerschap, Arend; Kersten, Sander

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is rapidly turning into the most common liver disorder worldwide. One of the strategies that has been shown to effectively improve NAFLD is regular exercise, which seems to lower steatosis partly independent of weight loss. However,

  10. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saif, Amer; Alsenany, Samira

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] Obesity is a global health problem and is associated with a multitude of complications. This study was designed to determine changes in cardiopulmonary functions after aerobic and anaerobic exercise training in obese subjects. [Subjects and Methods] Forty obese subjects, whose ages ranged between 18 and 25 years, were divided into 2 equal groups: group A received aerobic exercise training in addition to dietary measures, and group B received anaerobic exercise training for 3 months in addition to dietary measures. Measurements of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, maximum voluntary ventilation, maximal oxygen consumption, and body mass index were obtained for both groups before and after the exercise program. [Results] The mean body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and maximal oxygen consumption decreased significantly, whereas the mean maximum voluntary ventilation increased significantly after treatment in group A. The mean maximum voluntary ventilation also increased significantly after treatment in group B. There were significant differences between the mean levels of the investigated parameters in groups A and B after treatment. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise reduces weight and improves cardiopulmonary fitness in obese subjects better than anaerobic exercise.

  11. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an incremental exercise test to assess their MAS, and a 30- second supra-maximal exercise followed by 30 minutes of active recovery to determine the individual blood lactate recovery curve. It was found that exercise training has significantly increased MAS (p < 0.001), the lactate exchange and removal abilities as well as the lactate concentrations at the beginning of the recovery ([La]-(0)); for both CT and IT groups; this was accompanied by a significant reduction of the time to lactate-peak. Nevertheless, the improvement in MAS was significantly higher (p < 0.001) post-intermittent (15.1 % ± 2.4) than post-continuous (10.3 % ± 3.2) training. The lactate-exchange and removal abilities were also significantly higher for IT than for CT-group (P<0.05). Moreover, IT-group showed a significantly shorter half-time of the blood lactate (t-½-[La]) than CT-group (7.2 ± 0.5 min vs 7.7 ± 0.3 min, respectively) (p < 0.05). However, no significant differences were observed in peak blood lactate concentration ([La]peak), time to reach [La]peak (t-[La]peak), and [La]-(0) between the two physically-trained groups. We conclude that both continuous and intermittent training exercises were equally effective in improving t-[La]peak and [La]peak, although intermittent training was more beneficial in elevating MAS and in raising the lactate exchange (γ1) and removal (γ2) indexes. Key points Coaches and athletes need to be aware of the potentiality positive effects of exercise intensity. Improvements

  12. Exercise training and beta-alanine-induced muscle carnosine loading.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tine eBex

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Beta-alanine (BA supplementation has been shown to augment muscle carnosine concentration, thereby promoting high-intensity exercise performance. Trained muscles of athletes have a higher increase in carnosine concentration after BA supplementation compared to untrained muscles, but it remains to be determined whether this is due to an accumulation of acute exercise effects or to chronic adaptations from prior training. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether high-volume (HV and/or high-intensity (HI exercise can improve BA-induced carnosine loading in untrained subjects.Methods. All participants (n=28 were supplemented with 6.4 g/day of BA for 23 days. The subjects were allocated to a control group, HV or HI training group. During the BA supplementation period, the training groups performed 9 exercise sessions consisting of either 75–90 min continuous cycling at 35–45% Wmax (HV or 3 to 5 repeats of 30s cycling at 165% Wmax with 4 min recovery (HI. Carnosine content was measured in soleus and gastrocnemius medialis by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.Results. There was no difference in absolute increase in carnosine content between the groups in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle. For the average muscle carnosine content, a higher absolute increase was found in HV (+ 2.95 mM; P = 0.046 and HI (+ 3.26 mM; P = 0.028 group compared to the control group (+ 1.91 mM. However, there was no additional difference between the HV and HI training group.Conclusions. HV and HI exercise training showed no significant difference on BA-induced muscle carnosine loading in soleus and gastrocnemius muscle. It can be suggested that there can be a small cumulative effect of exercise on BA supplementation efficiency, although differences did not reach significance on individual muscle level.

  13. Instability resistance training across the exercise continuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Colado, Juan C; Colado, Juan C

    2013-11-01

    Instability resistance training (IRT; unstable surfaces and devices to strengthen the core or trunk muscles) is popular in fitness training facilities. To examine contradictory IRT recommendations for health enthusiasts and rehabilitation. A literature search was performed using MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, and Google Scholar databases from 1990 to 2012. Databases were searched using key terms, including "balance," "stability," "instability," "resistance training," "core," "trunk," and "functional performance." Additionally, relevant articles were extracted from reference lists. To be included, research questions addressed the effect of balance or IRT on performance, healthy and active participants, and physiologic or performance outcome measures and had to be published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. There is a dichotomy of opinions on the effectiveness and application of instability devices and conditions for health and performance training. Balance training without resistance has been shown to improve not only balance but functional performance as well. IRT studies document similar training adaptations as stable resistance training programs with recreationally active individuals. Similar progressions with lower resistance may improve balance and stability, increase core activation, and improve motor control. IRT is highly recommended for youth, elderly, recreationally active individuals, and highly trained enthusiasts.

  14. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  15. Methodological aspects of practical training for students based on complexes of exercise rehabilitation orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaytsev Vjacheslav Petrovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The structure and content of practical training for students of specialty "Physical rehabilitation". It is proposed program of theoretical studies section. It is shown the following areas of special choice of exercise facilities for practical training section. The laid motor activity of patients after acute myocardial infarction in stationary conditions. Submitted physical rehabilitation patients in a hospital depending on the intended motor mode: strict bed, bed, ward and free. Shown approximate three week and five week program of physical rehabilitation patients in accordance with the recommendations of the World Health Organization. For each mode of the motor circuit is composed of physical rehabilitation patients: tasks, means of therapeutic physical culture, its forms and methods of training.

  16. Adaptation of macrophages to exercise training improves innate immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizaki, Takako; Takemasa, Tohru; Sakurai, Takuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Hanawa, Tomoko; Kamiya, Shigeru; Haga, Shukoh; Imaizumi, Kazuhiko; Ohno, Hideki

    2008-07-18

    The effects of 3-week exercise training on the functions of peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice were investigated. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated nitric oxide (NO) and proinflammatory cytokine production in macrophages from trained mice was markedly higher than those from control mice. Meanwhile, exercise training decreased the steady state level of beta(2)-adrenergic receptor (beta(2)AR) mRNA in macrophages. Overexpression of beta(2)AR in the macrophage cell line RAW264 by transfecting with beta(2)AR cDNA suppressed NO synthase (NOS) II expression but dose not influenced proinflammatory cytokine expression. When expression of transfected beta(2)AR in RAWar cells was downregulated by a tetracycline repressor-regulated mammalian expression system, NOS II mRNA expression was significantly increased; this suggested that the changes in the beta(2)AR expression level in macrophages associated with exercise training play a role in the regulation of NO production following LPS stimulation. These findings indicate that exercise training improves macrophage innate immune function in a beta(2)AR-dependent and -independent manner.

  17. Inspiratory muscle training improves exercise capacity with thoracic load carriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shei, Ren-Jay; Chapman, Robert F; Gruber, Allison H; Mickleborough, Timothy D

    2018-02-01

    Thoracic load carriage (LC) exercise impairs exercise performance compared to unloaded exercise, partially due to impaired respiratory mechanics. We investigated the effects of LC on exercise and diaphragmatic fatigue in a constant-load exercise task; and whether inspiratory muscle training (IMT) improved exercise capacity and diaphragmatic fatigue with LC. Twelve recreationally active males completed three separate running trials to exhaustion (T lim ) at a fixed speed eliciting 70% of their V˙O 2max . The first two trials were completed either unloaded (UL) or while carrying a 10 kg backpack (LC). Subjects then completed 6 weeks of either true IMT or placebo-IMT. Posttraining, subjects completed an additional LC trial identical to the pretraining LC trial. Exercise metabolic and ventilatory measures were recorded. Diaphragm fatigue was assessed as the difference between preexercise and postexercise twitch diaphragmatic pressure (P di, tw ), assessed by bilateral stimulation of the phrenic nerve with esophageal balloon-tipped catheters measuring intrathoracic pressures. T lim was significantly shorter (P  0.05). Minute ventilation and breathing mechanics were unchanged post-IMT (P > 0.05). Six weeks of flow-resistive IMT improved exercise capacity, but did not mitigate diaphragmatic fatigue following submaximal, constant-load running to volitional exhaustion with LC. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  18. Exercise training modalities in chronic heart failure: does high intensity aerobic interval training make the difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giallauria, Francesco; Smart, Neil Andrew; Cittadini, Antonio; Vigorito, Carlo

    2016-10-14

    Exercise training (ET) is strongly recommended in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF). Moderate-intensity aerobic continuous ET is the best established training modality in CHF patients. In the last decade, however, high-intensity interval exercise training (HIIT) has aroused considerable interest in cardiac rehabilitation community. Basically, HIIT consists of repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise alternated with recovery periods. In CHF patients, HIIT exerts larger improvements in exercise capacity compared to moderate-continuous ET. These results are intriguing, mostly considering that better functional capacity translates into an improvement of symptoms and quality of life. Notably, HIIT did not reveal major safety issues; although CHF patients should be clinically stable, have had recent exposure to at least regular moderate-intensity exercise, and appropriate supervision and monitoring during and after the exercise session are mandatory. The impact of HIIT on cardiac dimensions and function and on endothelial function remains uncertain. HIIT should not replace other training modalities in heart failure but should rather complement them. Combining and tailoring different ET modalities according to each patient's baseline clinical characteristics (i.e. exercise capacity, personal needs, preferences and goals) seem the most astute approach to exercise prescription.

  19. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    /or curcumin on lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity in the rat hippocampus. Forty rats were randomly divided into five groups: 1) lead acetate, 2) curcumin, 3) endurance training, 4) training+curcumin, and 5) sham. The rats in the training groups performed treadmill running consisting of 15 to 22 m/min for 25...... to 64 min, 5 times a week for 8 weeks. All groups except sham received lead acetate (20 mg/kg), whereas the sham group received curcumin solvent. In addition, the curcumin and training+curcumin groups received curcumin solution (30mg/kg) intra peritoneally. Chronically administration of lead acetate...... resulted in a significantly increase in the malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma, but not in hippocampus. In addition, it led to significantly decreased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels, as compared to sham group. Treadmill running, curcumin...

  20. Resistance Exercise Training Alters Mitochondrial Function in Human Skeletal Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Craig; Reidy, Paul T; Bhattarai, Nisha; Sidossis, Labros S; Rasmussen, Blake B

    2015-09-01

    Loss of mitochondrial competency is associated with several chronic illnesses. Therefore, strategies that maintain or increase mitochondrial function will likely be of benefit in numerous clinical settings. Endurance exercise has long been known to increase mitochondrial function in the skeletal muscle. Comparatively little is known regarding the effect of resistance exercise training (RET) on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory function. The purpose of the current study was to determine the effect of chronic resistance training on skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity and function. Here, we studied the effect of a 12-wk RET program on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in 11 young healthy men. Muscle biopsies were collected before and after the 12-wk training program, and mitochondrial respiratory capacity was determined in permeabilized myofibers by high-resolution respirometry. RET increased lean body mass and quadriceps muscle strength by 4% and 15%, respectively (P training (P function of skeletal muscle mitochondria.

  1. Exercise training as treatment of neck pain among fighter pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke

    Introduction Neck and shoulder pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots and a growing aero-medical concern. Unfortunately, previous intervention studies have been unsuccessful in relieving such pain within this occupational group. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise......” and 10 to “pain at worst”). Compliance was evaluated by training diary as mean training sessions completed per week, and by questionnaire on a six-step scale, 1) regular, 2-3 times a week, 2) less regular, 1-2 times a week, 3) irregular, but > 4 times a month, 4) very irregular, 2-3 times a month, 5...... intervention could reduce the high prevalence of neck pain among fighter pilots. Methods F-16 pilots were randomized in a controlled intervention trial, to either an exercise-training-group (ET, n=27) or reference-group (REF, n=28). ET underwent 24 weeks of strength, endurance, and coordination training, 3...

  2. Adherence of older women with strength training and aerobic exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Picorelli AMA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Alexandra Miranda Assumpção Picorelli, Daniele Sirineu Pereira, Diogo Carvalho Felício, Daniela Maria Dos Anjos, Danielle Aparecida Gomes Pereira, Rosângela Corrêa Dias, Marcella Guimarães Assis, Leani Souza Máximo Pereira Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences, Department of Physical Therapy, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil Background: Participation of older people in a program of regular exercise is an effective strategy to minimize the physical decline associated with age. The purpose of this study was to assess adherence rates in older women enrolled in two different exercise programs (one aerobic exercise and one strength training and identify any associated clinical or functional factors. Methods: This was an exploratory observational study in a sample of 231 elderly women of mean age 70.5 years. We used a structured questionnaire with standardized tests to evaluate the relevant clinical and functional measures. A specific adherence questionnaire was developed by the researchers to determine motivators and barriers to exercise adherence. Results: The adherence rate was 49.70% in the aerobic exercise group and 56.20% in the strength training group. Multiple logistic regression models for motivation were significant (P=0.003 for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.310 and also significant (P=0.008 for the aerobic exercise group (R2=0.154. A third regression model for barriers to exercise was significant (P=0.003 only for the muscle strengthening group (R2=0.236. The present study shows no direct relationship between worsening health status and poor adherence. Conclusion: Factors related to adherence with exercise in the elderly are multifactorial. Keywords: older women, adherence, therapeutic exercises

  3. Chronic training with static and dynamic exercise: cardiovascular adaptation, and response to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longhurst, J C; Kelly, A R; Gonyea, W J; Mitchell, J H

    1981-06-01

    To determine the acute and chronic effects of static and dynamic exercise upon the cardiovascular system, two groups of athletes were studied and compared to untrained control individuals. Thus, 12 long distance runners (LDR) and 17 competitive weight lifters (CWL) were compared to 10 light controls (LC) and 14 heavy controls (HC). The echocardiographically measured left ventricular mass (LVM) was shown to be increased in both groups of athletes. When this mass was related to lean body mass, the LDR demonstrated a significantly increased LVM, whereas the CWL had a LVM similar to that of the HC. During static handgrip exercise, the LDR maintained a relative bradycardia and, consequently, a lower calculated double product when compared to the LC, whereas the CWL reacted similarly to the HC. Further, the LDR demonstrated higher end-diastolic and higher end-systolic volume indices than the LC during static exercise. The exercising stroke volume index and the cardiac index were, however, not significantly different in the LDR compared to the LC. In contrast to the LDR, the cardiovascular dynamics of the CWL changed in a manner very similar to that of the HC during static exercise. This information suggests, therefore, that endurance training alters both the absolute and relative left ventricular mass and the response of the cardiovascular system to static exercise. On the other hand, static exercise training increases the absolute but not the relative left ventricular mass. Also, the immediate hemodynamic response to static exercise is similar in athletes who train with this form of exercise compared to untrained control subjects.

  4. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  5. Evidence for aerobic exercise training on the autonomic function in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Jibril; Derom, Eric; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica; Da Silva, Hellen; Calders, Patrick

    2017-07-22

    To assess evidence for the effectiveness of aerobic exercise training (AET) on the autonomic function (AF) outcomes in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Online databases of PubMed, CINAHL and Web of Science were systematically searched for all years till 26th of January, 2017. Clinical studies assessing any measure of AF following exercise training in patients with COPD were included. Data were extracted from studies with high methodological quality for evidence synthesis. Rating of evidence quality was determined using the GRADE guidelines. The Majority of the included studies utilized continuous exercise training mode with a vigorous level of intensity. Each exercise training session lasted between 30 to 40minutes, and the frequency of intervention was ≥3 times/week. Evidence synthesis of studies with high methodological quality revealed that a high quality evidence level supported a significant increase for time-domain heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and the heart rate recovery (HRR) following AET. The review also found that frequency domain HRV analyses were not significantly affected by AET. The evidence to support the effect of exercise training on baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) in patients with COPD is very low. Aerobic exercise training demonstrated beneficial but limited effects on the AF in COPD. Presently, it is not clear whether these effects are sustained in the long term. Only a limited number of RCTs were available indicating a significant gap in the literature. Copyright © 2017 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Training effects on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise: comparison between continuous and interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisho, Kei; Hirakawa, Kazufumi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different training regimens, continuous (CT) and interval (IT), on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. Eighteen lacrosse players were divided into CT (n = 6), IT (n = 6), and nontraining (n = 6) groups. Both training groups trained for 3 days per week for 15 weeks using bicycle ergometers. Continuous training performed continuous aerobic training for 20-25 minutes, and IT performed high-intensity pedaling comprising 10 sets of 10-second maximal pedaling with 20-second recovery periods. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max)), and intermittent power output were measured before and after the training period. The intermittent exercise test consisted of a set of ten 10-second maximal sprints with 40-second intervals. Maximal anaerobic power significantly increased in IT (p training groups (p intermittent exercise test, the average of the total mean power output (1-10 sets) increased in both training groups (p training reduced lactate production and increased the mean power output, but there was little effect on high-power endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. In contrast, although lactate production did not decrease, IT improved fatigability and mean power output in the last stage. These results indicated that the endurance capacities for maximal intermittent and continuous exercises were not identical. Ball game players should therefore improve their endurance capacity with high-intensity intermittent exercise, and it is insufficient to assess their capacity with only V(O2max) or continuous exercise tests.

  7. Non-invasive ventilation during exercise training for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Menadue, C.; Piper, A.J.; Hul, A.J. van 't; Wong, K.K.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise training as a component of pulmonary rehabilitation improves health-related quality of life (HRQL) and exercise capacity in people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, some individuals may have difficulty performing exercise at an adequate intensity.

  8. The order of exercise during concurrent training for rehabilitation does not alter acute genetic expression, mitochondrial enzyme activity or improvements in muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Lauren G; Glover, Elisa; Bergstra, T Graham; Safdar, Adeel; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2014-01-01

    Concurrent exercise combines different modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance) into one training protocol, providing stimuli meant to increase muscle strength, aerobic capacity and mass. As disuse is associated with decrements in strength, aerobic capacity and muscle size concurrent training is an attractive modality for rehabilitation. However, interference between the signaling pathways may result in preferential improvements for one of the exercise modes. We recruited 18 young adults (10 ♂, 8 ♀) to determine if order of exercise mode during concurrent training would differentially affect gene expression, protein content and measures of strength and aerobic capacity after 2 weeks of knee-brace induced disuse. Concurrent exercise sessions were performed 3x/week for 6 weeks at gradually increasing intensities either with endurance exercise preceding (END>RES) or following (RES>END) resistance exercise. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 3 h after the first exercise bout and 48 h after the end of training. Concurrent exercise altered the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC, PPARγ), hypertrophy (PGC-1α4, REDD2, Rheb) and atrophy (MuRF-1, Runx1), increased electron transport chain complex protein content, citrate synthase and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, muscle mass, maximum isometric strength and VO 2peak. However, the order in which exercise was completed (END>RES or RES>END) only affected the protein content of mitochondrial complex II subunit. In conclusion, concurrent exercise training is an effective modality for the rehabilitation of the loss of skeletal muscle mass, maximum strength, and peak aerobic capacity resulting from disuse, regardless of the order in which the modes of exercise are performed.

  9. The order of exercise during concurrent training for rehabilitation does not alter acute genetic expression, mitochondrial enzyme activity or improvements in muscle function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren G MacNeil

    Full Text Available Concurrent exercise combines different modes of exercise (e.g., aerobic and resistance into one training protocol, providing stimuli meant to increase muscle strength, aerobic capacity and mass. As disuse is associated with decrements in strength, aerobic capacity and muscle size concurrent training is an attractive modality for rehabilitation. However, interference between the signaling pathways may result in preferential improvements for one of the exercise modes. We recruited 18 young adults (10 ♂, 8 ♀ to determine if order of exercise mode during concurrent training would differentially affect gene expression, protein content and measures of strength and aerobic capacity after 2 weeks of knee-brace induced disuse. Concurrent exercise sessions were performed 3x/week for 6 weeks at gradually increasing intensities either with endurance exercise preceding (END>RES or following (RES>END resistance exercise. Biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before, 3 h after the first exercise bout and 48 h after the end of training. Concurrent exercise altered the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1α, PRC, PPARγ, hypertrophy (PGC-1α4, REDD2, Rheb and atrophy (MuRF-1, Runx1, increased electron transport chain complex protein content, citrate synthase and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase enzyme activity, muscle mass, maximum isometric strength and VO 2peak. However, the order in which exercise was completed (END>RES or RES>END only affected the protein content of mitochondrial complex II subunit. In conclusion, concurrent exercise training is an effective modality for the rehabilitation of the loss of skeletal muscle mass, maximum strength, and peak aerobic capacity resulting from disuse, regardless of the order in which the modes of exercise are performed.

  10. Biochemical characterization of exercise-trained porcine myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M H; Hale, C C; Novela, L; Gute, D; Hamilton, N; Ianuzzo, C D

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether cardiac biochemical adaptations are induced by chronic exercise training (ET) of miniature swine. Female Yucatan miniature swine were trained on a treadmill or were cage confined (C) for 16-22 wk. After training, the ET pigs had increased exercise tolerance, lower heart rates during exercise at submaximal intensities, moderate cardiac hypertrophy, increased coronary blood flow capacity, and increased oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle. Myosin from both the C and ET hearts was 100% of the V3 isozyme, and there were no differences between the myosin adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase) or myofibrillar ATPase activities of C and ET hearts. Also, the sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase activity and Na(+)-Ca2+ exchange activity of sarcolemmal vesicles were the same in cardiac muscle of C and ET hearts. Finally, the glycolytic and oxidative capacity of ET cardiac muscle was not different from control, since phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase, and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase activities were the same in cardiac tissue from ET and C pigs. We conclude that endurance exercise training does not provide sufficient stress on the heart of a large mammal to induce changes in any of the three major cardiac biochemical systems of the porcine myocardium: the contractile system, the Ca2+ regulatory systems, or the metabolic system.

  11. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING. PROGRAM ON SERUM CREATININE CONCENTRATION IN MEN. WITH HYPERTENSION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. L. SIKIRU1and G. C. OKOYE2. 1Biomedical Technology Dept., School of Health Technology, Federal ...

  12. Therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Creatinine (Cr) has been implicated as an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as adjunct therapy for hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous training programme on blood pressure and serum creatinine concentration in black ...

  13. Impact of exercise training on arterial wall thickness in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been

  14. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Abstract. Background: Recently some plasma biomarkers of inflammation have been recognized as important cardiovascular risk factors. There is little information about the effects of aerobic exercise training on these biomarkers and the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: To ...

  15. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    Objective: To compare the impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on the ... Results: The mean values of leptin, TNF- alpha, IL2, IL4, IL6, HOMA-IR and HBA1c were significantly decreased in ..... Br J Sports Med 2000;.

  16. Diminished hormonal responses to exercise in trained rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galbo, H; Richter, Erik; Holst, J J

    1977-01-01

    . In trained rats the hormonal response to exercise is blunted partly due to higher glucose concentrations. In these rats adipose tissue sensitivity to catecholamines is increased, and changes in glucagon and insulin concentrations are not necessary for increased lipolysis and hepatic glycogen depletion during...

  17. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inclusion criteria. Only those who volunteered to participate in the study were recruited. Subjects between the age range of 50 and 70 years with chronic mild to moderate and stable (>1 year duration) ... automated digital electronic BP monitor (Omron digital BP ..... The cardiovascular effects of exercise training in elderly.

  18. Telomere Length and Long-Term Endurance Exercise: Does Exercise Training Affect Biological Age? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Østhus, Ida Beate Øyen; Sgura, Antonella; Berardinelli, Francesco; Alsnes, Ingvild Vatten; Brønstad, Eivind; Rehn, Tommy Aune; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Hatle, Håvard; Wisløff, Ulrik; Nauman, Javaid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max) are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise trainin...

  19. Effects of exercise training on maternal hormonal changes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sarah A; Baldi, James C; Cutfield, Wayne S; McCowan, Lesley; Hofman, Paul L

    2011-04-01

    A recent paper by our group reported that regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy led to lower foetal IGF-I and IGF-II concentrations and a modest reduction in offspring birth weight when compared with the offspring of nontraining control participants. Maternal hormonal alterations in response to exercise training may be associated with the regulation of nutrient availability for foetal growth through placental regulation of maternal metabolism. To determine whether the reduction in offspring size was associated with changes in the maternal IGF axis [including placental growth hormone (PGH)], leptin and/or free fatty acids (FFA) in response to aerobic exercise training in the second half of pregnancy. A randomized, controlled trial of exercise in pregnancy. Eighty-four healthy nulliparous women (mean±SD age 30±4 year, BMI 25·5±4 kg/m(2) ). Serum samples were drawn at 19 and 35 weeks gestation to determine serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-1, IGF-binding protein-3, PGH, leptin and FFA. Exercise training in pregnancy had no impact on the pregnancy-related changes in the maternal IGF axis. Women in the exercise group experienced a 29% increase in leptin in late gestation (P=0·026 vs control) and a trend towards lower FFA (P=0·07 vs control). Late pregnancy changes in maternal leptin were inversely related to offspring birth weight (r= -0·24, Pchanges within the placenta in response to regular exercise and may contribute to the reduction in offspring size previously reported in this cohort. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Features of influence of different modes of training on the dynamics of power performance bodybuilders on stage-specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavityak O.S.

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : study the effect of various features on the structure and orientation of exercise routines on the level of development of force capabilities bodybuilders on stage specialized basic training. Material : studies participated 60 athletes (age 18-19 years, the experience of training - 5 years. The study used a method of determining the index of the training load for the power sports. Level security features athletes determined by control testing. Control of the studied parameters was carried out for 4 months training at intervals of 1 month. Results : it was found that under conditions similar level of fitness athletes and structure your workout performance power load and the nature of their changes depend on the particular mode of training (in this study - from the application of the basic sequence variative and isolation exercises. Conclusions : the use of pilot training in integrated mode with alternating motor activity using the basic priority and isolation exercises for no more than 2 microcycles have the most significant positive impact on the increase in power performance parameters of athletes (on average by 26.5% p <0.05

  1. Exercise manual for the Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT) software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobranich, P.R.; Widney, T.W.; Goolsby, P.T. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Cooperative Monitoring Center and Regional Security; Nelson, J.D.; Evanko, D.A. [Ogden Environmental and Energy Services, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1997-09-01

    The on-site inspection provisions in many current and proposed arms control agreements require extensive preparation and training on the part of both the Inspected Party and the Inspection Team. Current training techniques include table-top inspections and practice inspections. The Augmented Computer Exercise for Inspection Training (ACE-IT), an interactive computer training tool, increases the utility of table-top inspections. ACE-IT has been designed to provide training for a hypothetical challenge inspection under the Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC); however, this training tool can be modified for other inspection regimes. Although ACE-IT provides training from notification of an inspection through post-inspection activities, the primary emphasis of ACE-IT is in the inspection itself--particularly with the concept of managed access. ACE-IT also demonstrates how inspection provisions impact compliance determination and the protection of sensitive information. The Exercise Manual supplements the ACE-IT software by providing general information on on-site inspections and detailed information for the CWC challenge inspection exercise. The detailed information includes the pre-inspection briefing, maps, list of sensitive items, medical records, and shipping records.

  2. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  3. Exercising 'Race' Through the Coronation Physical Training ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... through their concern with race. The Coronation Physical Training Competition fitted into this agenda. Despite betrayal by the English during the post South African War negotiations, Black political movements and individuals continued seeking means to prove themselves loyal subjects of the King. Black schools therefore ...

  4. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  5. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  6. Training mode's influences on the relationships between training-load models during basketball conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlan, Aaron T; Wen, Neal; Tucker, Patrick S; Borges, Nattai R; Dalbo, Vincent J

    2014-09-01

    To compare perceptual and physiological training-load responses during various basketball training modes. Eight semiprofessional male basketball players (age 26.3 ± 6.7 y, height 188.1 ± 6.2 cm, body mass 92.0 ± 13.8 kg) were monitored across a 10-wk period in the preparatory phase of their training plan. Player session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE) and heart-rate (HR) responses were gathered across base, specific, and tactical/game-play training modes. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationships between the sRPE model and 2 HR-based models: the training impulse (TRIMP) and summated HR zones (SHRZ). One-way ANOVAs were used to compare training loads between training modes for each model. Stronger relationships between perceptual and physiological models were evident during base (sRPE-TRIMP r = .53, P intermittent, multidirectional drills. The practical benefits and sensitivity of the sRPE model support its use across different basketball training modes.

  7. The role of cardiopulmonary exercise test for individualized exercise training recommendation in young obese subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian Hoble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is affecting a growing segment of the population and should be considered a serious health problem which will lead to medical complications and decreased life span. Lifestyle changes by adopting healthy food and increase energy consumption through physical activity is the most important treatment for obesity. Cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET is considered the gold standard for exercise capacity assessment. Purpose: This study is aiming to demonstrate that individualized exercise training programs, designed using CPET results, leads to increase of physical fitness, aerobic capacity, ventilatory and cardiac exercise performance in young obese subjects.Material and method:We performed a prospective research study of 6 months. 43 sedentary subjects without contraindications to exercise, 21.3±3.1 years old, 93% female were included in the study. Assessments were made at baseline and after six months of intervention and consists of cardiopulmonary exercise test on bicycle ergometer. After we recorded oxygen uptake at aerobic threshold (AT, anaerobic threshold (in the range of respiratory compensation point – RCP and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max we designed the training program according to these parameters and individualized heart rate training zones of each subject. Exercise training (60 minutes/session, 3 sessions/week was performed taking in consideration the training zones and using a circuit on cardio devices. Each subject was supervised by a physiotherapist and using heart rate monitors. The number of subjects evaluated at the end of the study was 27 (dropout rate 37%.Results:After six months of intervention we noticed an improvement of maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max (from 22.7±3.69 to 27.44±5.55, aerobic threshold (VO2_AT (from 15.48±2.66 to 20.07±4.64 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001 and anaerobic threshold (VO2_RCP (from 20.3±3.66 to 25.11±5.84 ml/min/kg, p<0.0001, cardiac performance during exercise evaluated trough maximal oxygen

  8. LACTATE KINETICS AFTER INTERMITTENT AND CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnene Gharbi

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT and intermittent (IT physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG. The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an incremental exercise test to assess their MAS, and a 30- second supra-maximal exercise followed by 30 minutes of active recovery to determine the individual blood lactate recovery curve. It was found that exercise training has significantly increased MAS (p < 0.001, the lactate exchange and removal abilities as well as the lactate concentrations at the beginning of the recovery ([La]-(0; for both CT and IT groups; this was accompanied by a significant reduction of the time to lactate-peak. Nevertheless, the improvement in MAS was significantly higher (p < 0.001 post-intermittent (15.1 % ± 2.4 than post-continuous (10.3 % ± 3.2 training. The lactate-exchange and removal abilities were also significantly higher for IT than for CT-group (P<0.05. Moreover, IT-group showed a significantly shorter half-time of the blood lactate (t-½-[La] than CT-group (7.2 ± 0.5 min vs 7.7 ± 0.3 min, respectively (p < 0.05. However, no significant differences were observed in peak blood lactate concentration ([La]peak, time to reach [La]peak (t-[La]peak, and [La]-(0 between the two physically-trained groups. We conclude that both continuous and intermittent training exercises were equally effective in improving t-[La]peak and [La]peak, although intermittent training was more beneficial in elevating MAS and in raising the lactate exchange (γ1 and removal (γ2 indexes

  9. Graded Exercise Testing Versus Simulated Competition Exercise in Trained Older Males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; Rougoor, Guus; van Kasteel, Paul Y; Greany, John; de Koning, Jos J; Hill, Ethan; Porcari, John P; Allen, Brian; Foster, Carl

    2015-01-01

    Exercise-based rehabilitation is a standard therapy for patients with heart disease. Despite examples of patients who have extended normal rehabilitation exercise into competitive participation, there are no clear-cut guidelines for patients whether they should participate in competitive-level exercise. This study investigated the occurrence of complications, physiologic responses, and exercise patterns during simulated competitive exercise in active, older nonathletes (most with a history of cardiovascular disease) and compared these with responses during maximal incremental exercise. Fourteen trained older males, 7 with stable cardiovascular disease, performed an incremental exercise test and time trial of 55 kJ (equivalent to running ∼1 mile) on a semirecumbent stepping ergometer. Variables of gas exchange, hemodynamics, perception, and power output were measured in both tests. Subjects attained a remarkably high physiologic and psychologic strain (respiratory exchange ratio >1.0; average peak rating of perceived exertion >8) in both tests, with no evidence of symptomatic, hemodynamic, or electrocardiographic abnormalities. Peak physiologic responses were not significantly different between simulated competition and incremental exercise. The fixed-work time trial was finished in 8.97 ± 1.85 minutes, mean power output of 100 ± 26 W. Results showed a distinct pacing pattern in the relative power output, consisting of a conservative start, an even-paced middle portion, and an end spurt. Results suggest that in trained individuals with normal incremental exercise test results, competitive-level efforts may be undertaken with no apparent side effects. This may provide a strategy whereby physicians can advise patients concerning their decision to perform in competitive events.

  10. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  11. The Interacting-Reflecting Training Exercise: Addressing the Therapist's Inner Conversation in Family Therapy Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rober, Peter

    2010-01-01

    In recent years several authors have made a beginning in describing therapeutic conversations from a dialogical perspective. Training and supervision, however, have not yet been addressed from a dialogical perspective. In this article, an experiential training exercise is described that is focused on the basic dialogical skills of the trainee:…

  12. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  13. Immune parameters of untrained or exercise-trained rats after exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, M P; Young, M R

    1989-01-01

    The effect of a single exhaustive swimming exercise bout on immune competence of untrained or exercise-trained female Wistar rats was compared with the competence of control sedentary rats. After the exhaustive exercise bout, the blastogenic response to concanavalin A by spleen cells of untrained rats was extensively suppressed, whereas the response of the trained rats was only marginally suppressed. The suppressed immune competence of the untrained rats after the exhaustive exercise was associated with an increase in immune-suppressive activity of splenic lymphocytes. The macrophages of the untrained rats and of the control sedentary rats were slightly immune suppressive to normal spleen cells through a prostaglandin-dependent mechanism. The addition of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) to the blastogenesis cultures revealed that the spleen cells of untrained rats were unusually sensitive to the suppressive effects of PGE2. In contrast to the untrained rats, the marginal level of immune suppression in trained rats after the exhaustive exercise was associated with a lesser degree of lymphocyte-suppressive activity, an immune stimulatory activity by the splenic macrophages, and an insensitivity of the splenic lymphocytes to the suppressive effects of PGE2.

  14. The optimal exercise to rest ratios in repeated sprint ability training in youth soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscello, Bruno; Partipilo, Filippo; Pantanella, Laura; Esposito, Mario; D'Ottavio, Stefano

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of three different exercise to rest ratios in RSA training in youth soccer players, applying those ones already adopted in adult players, when performing three different sprinting modes (straight, shuttle and sprinting with changing of direction). Eighteen young trained male soccer players (Height: 1.66±0.07 m; weight: 58.22±7.64 kg; BMI 19.37±3.42 kg·m-2; age:14 years) participated to the study. In order to compare the different values of the time recorded, a Fatigue Index (FI) was used. Recovery times among trials in the sets were administered according to the 1:5, 1:3; 1:2 exercise to rest ratio, respectively. Significant differences among trials within each set (Repeated Measures Anova; P0.05). The results of this study confirm that the exercise to rest ratios considered in this study might be suitable to design effective testing protocols and training sessions aimed at the development of the RSA in youth soccer players, keeping the performances in the speed domain (FI%< ≈7-8%) but inducing the fatigue processes sought with this kind of training method.

  15. Equine sweat composition: effects of adrenaline infusion, exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, F F; Hodgson, D R; Evans, D L; Rose, R J

    1995-11-01

    Significant alterations in plasma electrolyte concentrations have been reported in horses following prolonged exercise, resulting from loss of hypertonic sweat. Sweat was collected from 10 horses undergoing a 10 week training programme; 5 at moderate intensity, to speeds of 10 m/s and 5 at low intensity, to speeds of 5 m/s. Sweat was collected from 2 sites in response to a submaximal exercise test (30 min at 50% VO2max and during an adrenaline infusion (dose mean +/- s.d.; 0.3 +/- 0.05 g/kg over 30 min). Sweat samples were analysed for sodium, chloride, potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and urea concentrations. Sweat produced in response to exercise and adrenaline infusion was hypertonic and showed no significant differences in composition following training. However, the [NaCl] of sweat rose with increased duration of sweating. Sweat produced in response to adrenaline infusion was more dilute than that produced in response to exercise, which may be related to sympathetic outflow during exercise.

  16. Optimal sampling frequency in recording of resistance training exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardella, Paolo; Carrasquilla García, Irene; Pozzo, Marco; Tous-Fajardo, Julio; Saez de Villareal, Eduardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luis

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the raw lifting speed collected during four different resistance training exercises to assess the optimal sampling frequency. Eight physically active participants performed sets of Squat Jumps, Countermovement Jumps, Squats and Bench Presses at a maximal lifting speed. A linear encoder was used to measure the instantaneous speed at a 200 Hz sampling rate. Subsequently, the power spectrum of the signal was computed by evaluating its Discrete Fourier Transform. The sampling frequency needed to reconstruct the signals with an error of less than 0.1% was f99.9 = 11.615 ± 2.680 Hz for the exercise exhibiting the largest bandwidth, with the absolute highest individual value being 17.467 Hz. There was no difference between sets in any of the exercises. Using the closest integer sampling frequency value (25 Hz) yielded a reconstruction of the signal up to 99.975 ± 0.025% of its total in the worst case. In conclusion, a sampling rate of 25 Hz or above is more than adequate to record raw speed data and compute power during resistance training exercises, even under the most extreme circumstances during explosive exercises. Higher sampling frequencies provide no increase in the recording precision and may instead have adverse effects on the overall data quality.

  17. Effects of weight management by exercise modes on markers of subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiometabolic profile among women with abdominal obesity: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Jina; Lee, Juneyoung; Cho, Jeong-Hyun; Burke, Lora E; Sekikawa, Akira; Jae, Sae Young

    2014-07-10

    Few studies have examined the differential effects of weight management by exercise mode on subclinical atherosclerosis. We hypothesized that 3 modes of aerobic, resistance, and combination exercises have differential effects on the flow-mediated dilation (FMD), carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) as well as cardiometabolic profile in weight management. A randomized, single-blind trial (ISRCTN46069848) was conducted in Seoul, South Korea between November 2011 and December 2012. Randomized participants were 110 women with abdominal obesity (aerobic group n = 50; resistance group n = 30; combination exercise group n = 30). The treatment period was 12 months with 3-month follow up: A diet-alone intervention for the first 3 months and a diet-plus-exercise intervention for the next 9 months according to exercise modes. The exercise training was designed with an intensity of 50-70% heart rate reserve for 3 days a week in 60-minute-long sessions for 9 months, consisting of 30-minute treadmill and 30-minute bike exercises for aerobic group; upper and lower body exercises with an intensity target of 2 sets and 8-12 repetitions for resistance group; 30-minute resistance and consecutive 30-minute aerobic exercises for combination group. Ninety-two and 49 participants were analyzed for modified intention-to-treat analysis and per-protocol (PP) analysis, respectively. The 3 exercise modes had no significant differential effects on FMD, PWV, and IMT over time; however, the combination group was found to have significantly lower levels of fasting glucose than the aerobic group (p = .034) in the PP analysis. Nevertheless, we observed significant time effects such as reductions in PWV (p = .048) and IMT (p = .018) in cubic and quadratic trends, respectively, and improvements in body weight, waist circumference, low-density and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, fasting glucose levels, and cardiorespiratory fitness in linear

  18. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  19. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  20. Influence of aquatic exercise training on balance in young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Mann

    Full Text Available Introduction Physical exercise programs have been suggested to soften or reverse balance deficits and postural deviation. Objective This study investigated the influence of a systematic aquatic exercise program on body balance. Method Healthy young adult volunteers of both genders, aged 18–30 years were assessed. The experimental group (EG, n = 20 was subjected to 24 sessions of aquatic exercises of 50 minutes long, performed three times a week, and the control group (CG, n = 25 suffered no intervention. A 3-D force platform was used to calculate the center of pressure displacement (COP in anteroposterior and mid-lateral directions with or without visual information. The individuals were assessed in pre or post-training. Results The results demonstrated a decrease in body oscillation in both visual conditions, with post-training values lower than pre-training ones. Visual information was not expressive for EG post-training. Conclusion It was concluded that the program was effective for body balance improvement.

  1. Twenty-five years of research on the effects of exercise training in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Claudio L; Mills, Robert C; Phillips, Brett L; Lee, Jordan T; Story, Christina E; Nascimento, Marcelo Gb; Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2014-05-10

    To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise.

  2. Exercise Prescriptions for Training and Rehabilitation in Patients with Heart and Lung Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palermo, Pietro; Corrà, Ugo

    2017-07-01

    Rehabilitation in patients with advanced cardiac and pulmonary disease has been shown to increase survival and improve quality of life, among many other benefits. Exercise training is the fundamental ingredient in these rehabilitation programs. However, determining the amount of exercise is not straightforward or uniform. Most rehabilitation and training programs fix the time of exercise and set the exercise intensity to the goals of the rehabilitation program and the exercise-related hurdles of the individual. The exercise training intensity prescription must balance the desired gain in conditioning with safety. Symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing is the fundamental tool to identify the exercise intensity and define the appropriate training. In addition, cardiopulmonary exercise testing provides an understanding of the systems involved in oxygen transport and utilization, making it possible to identify the factors limiting exercise capacity in individual patients.

  3. The peculiarities of acrobat exercises usage in the handballers training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk Dmitrii Georgievich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Special complexes of acrobatic exercises for training handballers are developed. The level of efficiency of effect of exercises on development of coordination abilities is determined. During application of exercises of the given type it is necessary to take into account a period and a cycle of preparation, personalities of handballers, a general orientation of training process. It allows avoidance of negative effect of acrobatic exercises on special exercises of competitive character.

  4. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed...

  5. PLASMA NITRITE FLUX PREDICTS EXERCISE PERFORMANCE IN PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE FOLLOWING 3 MONTHS OF EXERCISE TRAINING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Jason D; Stabler, Thomas; Kenjale, Aarti; Ham, Katherine L.; Robbins, Jennifer.L.; Duscha, Brian D; Dobrosielski, Devon A; Annex, Brian H

    2010-01-01

    Plasma nitrite is a major oxidation product of nitric oxide. It has also recently been suggested to perform an endocrine-like function as a nitric oxide donor in hypoxic tissues, allowing vasodilation. Exercise performance is limited in peripheral arterial disease due to an inadequate blood supply to working tissues. We hypothesized that exercise training in peripheral arterial disease subjects will demonstrate improved “plasma nitrite flux” and endothelial function, to accompany increased exercise performance. Peripheral arterial disease subjects were tested at baseline and following 3 months supervised or home exercise training. Venous blood (arm) was drawn at rest and 10min following a maximal graded treadmill test. Samples were added to heparin, centrifuged and plasma snap frozen for analysis by reductive chemiluminescence. Brachial artery endothelial function was measured in response to a hyperemic stimulus (flow-mediated dilation). At 3 months the peripheral arterial disease-supervised exercise group showed increases in claudication onset pain time (+138sec, p≤0.05) peak walking time (+260sec, p≤0.01), VO2peak (1.3ml/kg/min, p≤0.05), brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (+2%, p≤0.05) and plasma nitrite flux (+33% p≤0.05). There were no changes in the peripheral arterial disease-home exercise group. The change in plasma nitrite flux predicted the change in claudication onset pain (r2=0.59, p≤0.01). These findings suggest changes in plasma nitrite are related to endothelial function and predict exercise performance in peripheral arterial disease. PMID:20620208

  6. Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology position stand: The use of instability to train the core in athletic and nonathletic conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behm, David G; Drinkwater, Eric J; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Cowley, Patrick M

    2010-02-01

    The use of instability devices and exercises to train the core musculature is an essential feature of many training centres and programs. It was the intent of this position stand to provide recommendations regarding the role of instability in resistance training programs designed to train the core musculature. The core is defined as the axial skeleton and all soft tissues with a proximal attachment originating on the axial skeleton, regardless of whether the soft tissue terminates on the axial or appendicular skeleton. Core stability can be achieved with a combination of muscle activation and intra-abdominal pressure. Abdominal bracing has been shown to be more effective than abdominal hollowing in optimizing spinal stability. When similar exercises are performed, core and limb muscle activation are reported to be higher under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. However, core muscle activation that is similar to or higher than that achieved in unstable conditions can also be achieved with ground-based free-weight exercises, such as Olympic lifts, squats, and dead lifts. Since the addition of unstable bases to resistance exercises can decrease force, power, velocity, and range of motion, they are not recommended as the primary training mode for athletic conditioning. However, the high muscle activation with the use of lower loads associated with instability resistance training suggests they can play an important role within a periodized training schedule, in rehabilitation programs, and for nonathletic individuals who prefer not to use ground-based free weights to achieve musculoskeletal health benefits.

  7. Training effects of combined resistance and proprioceptive neck muscle exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael; Hohl, Kathrin; Bockholt, Ulrich; Schneider, Florian; Dehner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To investigate training effects of two different resistance and proprioceptive exercising concepts of neck muscles. Twenty-six healthy women participated in a randomized pilot trial. The test persons were randomized to two different neck-training programs (resistance training (RT) and proprioceptive resistance training (PRT)). They performed a standardized training program for the duration of ten weeks two times weekly. The neck strength, the cross-sectional area of three neck muscle groups (1. sternocleidomastoid muscles; 2. multifidus and semispinalis cervicis muscles; 3. semispinalis capitis and splenius muscles) and the proprioceptive capability evaluated by the dynamic joint repositioning error (DJRE) of the head were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Strength gain did not differ significantly between the two resistance training groups (PRT group: 8.2% to 29.3%; RT group: 1.4% to 19.8%). Change of hypertrophy of all neck muscle groups was significantly (ptraining, proprioceptive training led to a significantly higher muscle hypertrophy and didn't effect a significant deterioration of the proprioceptive capability compared to isolated resistance training.

  8. Exercise training improves mean arterial pressure in breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert C. Mills

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Currently, many breast cancer survivors worldwide live with treatment-related side effects, including cardiovascular health problems. This study examined effects of a 5-month exercise intervention on non-invasive markers of cardiovascular health in breast cancer survivors. Relationships between these markers and commonly used markers of overall health were also explored. Fifty-two survivors completed the exercise training at a rehabilitation center at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill between 2008-2011. A combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention (3 times/week for 1h at intensities progressing from low (40% to moderate (65-70% of VO2max for aerobic and 8-12 repetitions max for the resistance exercise were implemented. Significant reduction in mean arterial pressure (MAP was observed from baseline to final assessment. A significant correlation was found between MAP and Body Mass Index (BMI. In conclusion, 5-months combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention positively improved MAP which was, in part, attributed to changes in BMI.

  9. Effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on chronic primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; D'Aurea, Carolina Vicaria Rodrigues; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term moderate aerobic exercise on sleep, quality of life, and mood of individuals with chronic primary insomnia, and to examine whether these effects differed between exercise in the morning and exercise in the late afternoon. Nineteen sedentary individuals with chronic primary insomnia, mean age 45.0 (standard error [SE] 1.9) years, completed a 6-month exercise training protocol, randomized to morning and late-afternoon exercise groups. Combining polysomnographic data across both time points, this study found a significant decrease in sleep onset latency (from 17.1 [SE 2.6] min to 8.7 [SE 1.4] min; Psleep onset (from 63.2 [SE 12.8] min to 40.1 [SE 6.0] min), and a significant increase in sleep efficiency (from 79.8 [SE 3.0]% to 87.2 [SE 1.6]%) following exercise. Data from sleep diaries revealed significant improvement in sleep onset latency (from 76.2 [SE 21.5] min to 80.3 [SE 7.4] min) sleep quality (from 41.5 [SE 5.2]% to 59.4 [SE 6.6]%) and feeling rested in the morning (from 50.8 [SE 5.3] to 65.1 [SE 5.0]). There were generally no significant differences in response between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Following exercise, some quality-of-life measures improved significantly, and a significant decrease was seen in the following Profile of Mood State measures: tension-anxiety (from 7.2 [SE 1.0] to 3.5 [SE 1.0]), depression (from 5.9 [SE 1.2] to 3.3 [SE 1.1]) and total mood disturbance (from 9.2 [SE 4.8] to -1.7 [SE 4.8]). These effects did not vary between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Long-term moderate aerobic exercise elicited significant improvements in sleep, quality of life and mood in individuals with chronic primary insomnia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of a 12weeks supervised exercise training program on pulmonary functions of patients with exercise induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Heba, Helmy A.; Ashraf, Kotb A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Exercise induced bronchoconstriction typically develops within 5–15 min after completing exercise. Patients develop typical asthma symptoms or sometimes troublesome cough, which usually resolve spontaneously within 30–45 min. Previous studies tried to find the best way for these subjects aiming to improve exercise performance, respiratory symptoms and quality of life without provoking this type of asthma. Objective: To investigate the effect of supervised exercise training on s...

  11. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on Arterial Stiffness and Nitric Oxide Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Horii, Naoki; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Tsuji, Katsunori; Uchida, Masataka; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2018-01-30

    Aerobic training (AT) and high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) reduce arterial stiffness, whereas resistance training (RT) induces deterioration of or no change in arterial stiffness. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects of different exercise modes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify the difference of different exercise effects on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) signaling pathway and arterial stiffness in rats and humans. In the animal study, forty 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4groups: sedentary control (CON), AT (treadmill running, 60min at 30m/min, 5days/wk for 8weeks), RT (ladder-climbing, 8-10sets/day, 3days/wk for 8weeks), and HIIT (14repeats of 20-sec swimming session with 10-sec pause between sessions, 4days/wk for 6weeks from 12-week-old) groups (n=10 in each group). In the human study, we confirmed the effects of 6-week HIIT and 8-week AT interventions on central arterial stiffness and plasma nitrite/nitrate (NOx) level in untrained healthy young men in randomized controlled trial (HIIT, AT, and CON; n=7 in each group). In the animal study, the effect on aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV), as an index of central arterial stiffness, following HIIT was the same as the decrease in aortic PWV and increase in arterial eNOS/Akt phosphorylation following AT, which was not changed by RT. Negative correlation between aortic PWV and eNOS phosphorylation was observed (r=-0.38, pHIIT- and AT-induced changes in carotid-femoral PWV (HIIT -115.3±63.4 and AT -157.7±45.7 vs. CON 71.3±61.1 m/sec, each pHIIT may reduce central arterial stiffness via the increase in aortic NO bioavailability despite short time and short term and has the same effects as AT.

  12. Velocity-specific and time-dependent adaptations following a standardized Nordic Hamstring Exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alt, T; Nodler, Y T; Severin, J; Knicker, A J; Strüder, H K

    2017-03-01

    The Nordic Hamstring Exercise (NHE) is effective for selective hamstring strengthening to improve muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. The purpose of this study (within subject design of repeated measures) was to determine the effects of a standardized 4-week NHE training on thigh strength and muscle balance with concomitant kinetic and kinematic monitoring. Sixteen male sprinters (22 years, 181 cm, 76 kg) performed a standardized 4-week NHE training consisting of three sessions per week (each 3×3 repetitions). Six rope-assisted and six unassisted sessions were performed targeting at a constant knee extension angular velocity of ~15°/s across a ~90-100° knee joint range of motion. Kinetic (peak and mean moment, impulse) and kinematic parameters (eg, ROM to downward acceleration, ROMDWA ) were recorded during selected sessions. Unilateral isokinetic tests of concentric and eccentric knee flexors and extensors quantified muscle group-, contraction mode-, and velocity-specific training adaptations. Peak moments and contractional work demonstrated strong interactions of time with muscle group, contraction modes, and angular velocities (η²>.150). NHE training increased eccentric hamstring strength by 6%-14% as well as thigh muscle balance with biggest adaptations at 150°/s 2 weeks after NHE training. Throughout the training period significant increases (P.05). A 4-week NHE training significantly strengthened the hamstrings and improved muscle balance between knee flexors and extensors. Despite the slow training velocity, biggest adaptations emerged at the highest velocity 2 weeks after training ended. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Concurrent Exercise Training: Contrary Evidence for an Interference Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training. However, a close examination of the literature reveals that the interference effect of concurrent exercise training on muscle growth in humans is not as compelling as previously thought. Moreover, recent studies show that, under certain conditions, concurrent exercise may augment resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in healthy human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this article is to outline the contrary evidence for an acute and chronic interference effect of concurrent exercise on skeletal muscle growth in humans and provide practical literature-based recommendations for maximizing hypertrophy when training concurrently.

  14. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  15. Regulation of PGC-1α and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations in skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina

    -induced improvements in skeletal muscle metabolic capacity, but may contribute to the exercise training-induced maintenance of skeletal muscle mass. In addition, the results indicate an exercise intensity dependent regulation of autophagy in skeletal muscle and suggest that PGC-1 α regulates both acute and exercise...... and intracellular signalling in human skeletal muscle depend on adrenaline levels or metabolic stress. 2) PGC-1α mediated exercise and exercise training-induced adaptive metabolic responses in mouse skeletal muscle depend on exercise intensity. 3) β-adrenergic signalling contributes to exercise training......-induced metabolic adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle through PGC-1α . Paper I demonstrated that di erences in plasma adrenaline and muscle metabolic stress during exercise do not reinforce exercise-induced PGC-1 α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle. In addition, di erences in exercise-induced AMPK and p38...

  16. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption after aerobic exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlock, Darlene A; Lee, Man-Gyoon; Flynn, Michael G; Park, Kyung-Shin; Kamimori, Gary H

    2010-08-01

    Literature examining the effects of aerobic exercise training on excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) is sparse. In this study, 9 male participants (19-32 yr) trained (EX) for 12 wk, and 10 in a control group (CON) maintained normal activity. VO(2max), rectal temperature (T(re)), epinephrine, norepinephrine, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, glucose, blood lactate (BLA), and EPOC were measured before (PRE) and after (POST) the intervention. EPOC at PRE was measured for 120 min after 30 min of treadmill running at 70% VO(2max). EX completed 2 EPOC trials at POST, i.e., at the same absolute (ABS) and relative (REL) intensity; 1 EPOC test for CON served as both the ABS and REL trial because no significant change in VO(2max) was noted. During the ABS trial, total EPOC decreased significantly (p EPOC during the REL trial; however, epinephrine was significantly lower, and norepinephrine and FFA, significantly higher, at endexercise after training. Results indicate that EPOC varies as a function of relative rather than absolute metabolic stress and that training improves the efficiency of metabolic regulation during recovery from exercise. Mechanisms for the decreased magnitude of EPOC in the ABS trial include decreases in BLA, T(re), and perhaps epinephrine-mediated hepatic glucose production and insulin-mediated glucose uptake.

  17. Exercise and Academic Achievement in Children: Effects of Acute Class-Based Circuit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Ben D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.

  18. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    ) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise......-associated decreases in oxidative and angiogenic proteins in mouse skeletal muscle. Study I demonstrates that only 7 days of bed rest reduced leg muscle mass, mitochondrial enzyme activities, mitochondrial (mt)DNA/nuclear (n)DNA content, protein content of oxidative proteins and miRNA content in human skeletal muscle...... that citrate synthase (CS) activity and mtDNA/nDNA content decreased with age in skeletal muscle of WT mice. CS activity, mtDNA/nDNA content, pyruvate dehydrogenase-E1α and VEGF protein content increased with lifelong exercise training in WT mice but not in PGC-1α KO mice. In contrast, lifelong resveratrol...

  19. Maximum rate of sweat ions reabsorption during exercise with regional differences, sex, and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amano, Tatsuro; Hirose, Megumi; Konishi, Kana; Gerrett, Nicola; Ueda, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Narihiko; Inoue, Yoshimitsu

    2017-07-01

    It is recently reported that determining sweat rate (SR) threshold for increasing galvanic skin conductance (GSC) would represent a maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption in sweat glands. We evaluate the maximum rate of sweat ion reabsorption over skin regions, sex, and long-term exercise training by using the threshold analysis in the present study. Ten males (2 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 4 distance runners) and 12 females (5 untrained, 4 sprinters, and 3 distance runners) conducted graded cycling exercise for 45 min at low, middle, and high exercise intensities (heart rate 100-110, 120-130, and 140-150 beats/min, respectively) for 10, 15, and 20 min, respectively, at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. Comparisons were made between males and females and among untrained individuals, distance runners, and sprinters on the back and forearm. SR threshold for increasing GSC on back was significantly higher than that of forearm (P sprinters showed higher SR threshold for increasing GSC than that of untrained subjects on back (P sprinters, respectively). These results suggest that the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back is higher than that of forearm without sex differences. Furthermore, exercise training in distance runners and sprinters improves the maximum sweat ion reabsorption rate on the back.

  20. Oral quercetin supplementation hampers skeletal muscle adaptations in response to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casuso, R A; Martínez-López, E J; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to test exercise-induced adaptations on skeletal muscle when quercetin is supplemented. Four groups of rats were tested: quercetin sedentary, quercetin exercised, placebo sedentary, and placebo exercised. Treadmill exercise training took place 5 days a week for 6 weeks. Quercetin groups ...

  1. Cardioprotection conferred by exercise training is blunted by blockade of the opioid system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana F. G Galvão

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of opioid receptor blockade on the myocardial protection conferred by chronic exercise and to compare exercise training with different strategies of myocardial protection (opioid infusion and brief periods of ischemia-reperfusion preceding irreversible left anterior descending coronary ligation. INTRODUCTION: The acute cardioprotective effects of exercise training are at least partly mediated through opioid receptor-dependent mechanisms in ischemia-reperfusion models. METHODS: Male Wistar rats (n = 76 were randomly assigned to 7 groups: (1 control; (2 exercise training; (3 morphine; (4 intermittent ischemia-reperfusion (three alternating periods of left anterior descending coronary occlusion and reperfusion; (5 exercise training+morphine; (6 naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor blocker plus morphine; (7 naloxone before each exercise-training session. Myocardial infarction was established in all groups by left anterior descending coronary ligation. Exercise training was performed on a treadmill for 60 minutes, 5 times/week, for 12 weeks, at 60% peak oxygen (peak VO2. Infarct size was histologically evaluated. RESULTS: Exercise training significantly increased exercise capacity and ΔVO2 (VO2 peak - VO2 rest (p<0.01 vs. sedentary groups. Compared with control, all treatment groups except morphine plus naloxone and exercise training plus naloxone showed a smaller infarcted area (p<0.05. No additional decrease in infarct size occurred in the exercise training plus morphine group. No difference in myocardial capillary density (p = 0.88 was observed in any group. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise training, morphine, exercise training plus morphine and ischemia-reperfusion groups had a smaller infarcted area than the control group. The effect of chronic exercise training in decreasing infarct size seems to occur, at least in part, through the opioid receptor stimulus and not by increasing myocardial perfusion

  2. Telemonitoring of home exercise cycle training in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franke KJ

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Karl-Josef Franke,1,2 Ulrike Domanski,1 Maik Schroeder,1 Volker Jansen,3 Frank Artmann,4 Uwe Weber,5 Rainer Ettler,6 Georg Nilius1,2 1Department of Pneumology and Critical Care Medicine, Helios Klinik Ambrock, Hagen, 2Witten/Herdecke University, Witten, 3Lung Practice Jansen, Menden, 4Aeroprax Wuppertal, Wuppertal, 5Lung Practice Witten, Witten, 6Lung Practice Ettler, Hagen, Germany Background: Regular physical activity is associated with reduced mortality in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interventions to reduce time spent in sedentary behavior could improve outcomes. The primary purpose was to investigate the impact of telemonitoring with supportive phone calls on daily exercise times with newly established home exercise bicycle training. The secondary aim was to examine the potential improvement in health-related quality of life and physical activity compared to baseline. Methods: This prospective crossover-randomized study was performed over 6 months in stable COPD patients. The intervention phase (domiciliary training with supporting telephone calls and the control phase (training without phone calls were randomly assigned to the first or the last 3 months. In the intervention phase, patients were called once a week if they did not achieve a real-time monitored daily cycle time of 20 minutes. Secondary aims were evaluated at baseline and after 3 and 6 months. Health-related quality of life was measured by the COPD Assessment Test (CAT, physical activity by the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire (GLTEQ. Results: Of the 53 included patients, 44 patients completed the study (forced expiratory volume in 1 second 47.5%±15.8% predicted. In the intervention phase, daily exercise time was significantly higher compared to the control phase (24.2±9.4 versus 19.6±10.3 minutes. Compared to baseline (17.6±6.1, the CAT-score improved in the intervention phase to 15.3±7.6 and in the control phase to 15.7±7.3

  3. Effects of Exercise Training on Exercise Capacity in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Padmakumar, Ramachandran; Maiya, Arun G; Mohapatra, Aswini Kumar; Kamath, R L

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes profound functional limitations and poor quality of life. Yet, there is only a limited literature available on the role of exercise training. This paper systematically reviews the effects of exercise training on exercise capacity in PAH. A systematic search of databases (PubMed, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science and PEDRo) was undertaken for English language articles published between 1(st) January 1980 and 31(st) March 2015. Quality rating for all articles was done using the Downs and Black scoring system. Fifteen articles of good (n=4), moderate (n=6) and poor (n=5) quality were included in the review. Exercise interventions included aerobic, resistance, inspiratory muscle training or a combination, for 6-18 weeks. Improvements were seen in exercise capacity (six minute walk distance (6MWD) and peak VO2) by 17-96m and 1.1-2.1ml/Kg/min, functional class by one class and quality of life, with minimal adverse events. There is evidence to recommend the use of exercise training as an adjunct to medical treatment in PAH. More clinical trials and research are required to assess the effects of different types of exercise programs in patients with PAH, while focussing on strong exercise endpoints to quantify the improvements seen with exercise training. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lawrence D Hayes

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG, free testosterone (free-T and cortisol (all in serum were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A, following conditioning exercise (phase B and post-HIIT (phase C. Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P < 0.001 with most increase occurring during preconditioning (~10%; P = 0.007. Free-T was unaffected by conditioning exercise (P = 0.102 but was significantly higher following HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P = 0.023. Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C (P = 0.138. The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men.

  5. Exercise training and metformin, but not exercise training alone, decreases insulin production and increases insulin clearance in adults with prediabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viskochil, Richard; Malin, Steven K; Blankenship, Jennifer M; Braun, Barry

    2017-07-01

    Adding metformin to exercise does not augment the effect of training alone to boost whole body insulin sensitivity and lower circulating insulin concentrations. Although lower insulin concentrations (lower supply) following lifestyle and/or pharmacological interventions are primarily attributed to reductions in insulin secretion that match increases in peripheral insulin sensitivity (lower demand), it is unclear whether exercise and/or metformin exert direct effects on insulin production, extraction, or clearance. Thirty-six middle-aged, obese, sedentary adults with prediabetes were randomized to placebo (P), metformin (M), exercise and placebo (E+P), or exercise and metformin (E+M) for 12 wk. Fasting plasma proinsulin (an indicator of insulin production), C-peptide, insulin, and glucose were collected before and after the intervention. Peripheral insulin sensitivity (euglycemic clamp), hepatic insulin extraction, insulin clearance, body weight, and cardiorespiratory fitness were also measured. Fasting proinsulin was unchanged following P (19.4 ± 10.1 vs. 22.6 ± 15.0 pmol/l), E+P (15.1 ± 7.4 vs. 15.5 ± 7.4 pmol/l), or M (24.8 ± 18.9 vs. 16.7 ± 20.3 pmol/l) but was significantly reduced after E+M (18.6 ± 11.9 vs. 13.9 ± 6.7 pmol/l; P = 0.04). Insulin clearance was significantly greater following M (384.6 ± 19.4 vs. 477.4 ± 49.9; P = 0.03) and E+M (400.1 ± 32.0 vs. 482.9 ± 33.9; P = 0.02) but was unchanged in P or E+P. In this study, metformin combined with exercise training reduced circulating proinsulin, and both groups taking metformin increased insulin clearance. This suggests that adding metformin to exercise may augment or attenuate training effects depending on the outcome or organ system being assessed.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise is increasingly viewed as medication, creating a need to understand its interactions with other common medications. Research suggests metformin, a widely prescribed diabetes

  6. Whey protein hydrolysate augments tendon and muscle hypertrophy independent of resistance exercise contraction mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farup, Jean; Rahbek, S K; Vendelbo, M H

    2014-01-01

    In a comparative study, we investigated the effects of maximal eccentric or concentric resistance training combined with whey protein or placebo on muscle and tendon hypertrophy. 22 subjects were allocated into either a high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate + carbohydrate group (WHD...... or contraction mode effects. In conclusion, high-leucine whey protein hydrolysate augments muscle and tendon hypertrophy following 12 weeks of resistance training – irrespective of contraction mode....

  7. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  8. Variation in heart rate during submaximal exercise: Implications for monitoring training : Implications for monitoring training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamberts, R.P.; Lemmink, K.A.P.M.; Durandt, J.J.; Lambert, M.I.

    2004-01-01

    A change in heart rate at a controlled submaximal exercise intensity is used as a marker of training status. However, the standard error of measurement has not been studied systematically, and therefore a change in heart rate, which can be considered relevant, has not been determined. Forty-four

  9. Specificity of "Live High-Train Low" altitude training on exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bejder, Jacob; Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup

    2018-01-01

    The novel hypothesis that "Live High-Train Low" (LHTL) does not improve sport-specific exercise performance (e.g., time trial) is discussed. Indeed, many studies demonstrate improved performance after LHTL but unfortunately control groups are often lacking, leaving open the possibility of trainin...

  10. Acceptability of the aquatic environment for exercise training by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with physical comorbidities: Additional results from a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Renae J; McKeough, Zoe J; McKenzie, David K; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-06-01

    Water-based exercise training is a relatively new concept in the management of people with COPD. This study aimed to examine the acceptability of the aquatic environment as a medium for exercise training in people with COPD with physical comorbidities. Following a supervised eight week, three times a week, water-based exercise training programme conducted in a hospital hydrotherapy pool as part of a randomised controlled trial, participants completed a questionnaire about their experience with exercise training in the pool including adverse events, barriers and factors enabling exercise programme completion, satisfaction with the aquatic environment and their preference for an exercise training environment. All 18 participants (mean (SD) age 72 (10) years; FEV1% predicted 60 (10) %) who commenced the water-based exercise training programme completed the questionnaire. Three participants withdrew from training. High acceptability of the water and air temperature, shower and change-room facilities, staff assistance and modes of pool entry was reported (94% to 100%). Six factors were highly rated as enabling exercise programme adherence and completion: staff support (chosen by 93% of participants), enjoyment (80%), sense of achievement (80%), noticeable improvements (73%), personal motivation (73%) and participant support (53%). Eighty-nine percent of the participants indicated they would continue with water-based exercise. This study provides the first insight into the acceptability of the aquatic environment for exercise training in people with COPD and indicates water-based exercise and the aquatic environment is well accepted. Copyright © 2014 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Exercise training does not enhance hypothalamic responsiveness to leptin or ghrelin in male mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, M L; Andrews, Z B; Watt, M J

    2014-02-01

    The detection of hormone and nutrient signals by the hypothalamus is blunted in obesity and contributes to dysregulated energy homeostasis. We investigated whether aerobic exercise training would improve long-term hypothalamic sensitivity to both leptin and ghrelin, independent of acute exercise-induced signalling. Male C57Bl/6J mice were fed either a chow or high-fat diet for 6 weeks, then remained sedentary on their respective diet, or completed 6 weeks of treadmill exercise training with a progressive increase in exercise volume and intensity. Food intake and hypothalamic signalling were assessed in mice injected with leptin or ghrelin at least 24 h after the last exercise bout. Exercise training reduced body mass, increased daily food intake and improved glucose tolerance. Intraperitoneal leptin administration reduced food intake in lean and obese mice, and this was not enhanced after exercise training. Leptin-mediated activation of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 in the arcuate nucleus and ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus was not enhanced with exercise training. Ghrelin increased food intake and c-Fos positive neurones in the hypothalamus in lean and obese mice, and these physiological and molecular responses were not enhanced with exercise training. This suggests that the previously reported exercise effects on sensitising hypothalamic signalling and food intake responses may be limited to the period immediately after an exercise bout, and are not a result of stable structural or molecular changes that occur with exercise training. © 2014 British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  12. Aquatic exercise training and stable heart failure: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsett, Julie A; Mudge, Alison M; Morris, Norman; Kuys, Suzanne; Paratz, Jennifer D

    2015-01-01

    A meta-analysis and review of the evidence was conducted to determine the efficacy of aquatic exercise training for individuals with heart failure compared to traditional land-based programmes. A systematic search was conducted for studies published prior to March 2014, using MEDLINE, PUBMED, Cochrane Library, CINAHL and PEDro databases. Key words and synonyms relating to aquatic exercise and heart failure comprised the search strategy. Interventions included aquatic exercise or a combination of aquatic plus land-based training, whilst comparator protocols included usual care, no exercise or land-based training alone. The primary outcome of interest was exercise performance. Studies reporting on muscle strength, quality of life and a range of haemodynamic and physiological parameters were also reviewed. Eight studies met criteria, accounting for 156 participants. Meta-analysis identified studies including aquatic exercise to be superior to comparator protocols for 6 minute walk test (p aquatic exercise training provided similar benefits for VO(2peak), muscle strength and quality of life, though was not superior. Cardiac dimensions, left ventricular ejection fraction, cardiac output and BNP were not influenced by aquatic exercise training. For those with stable heart failure, aquatic exercise training can improve exercise capacity, muscle strength and quality of life similar to land-based training programmes. This form of exercise may provide a safe and effective alternative for those unable to participate in traditional exercise programmes. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Acute post-exercise change in blood pressure and exercise training response in patients with coronary artery disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antti M Kiviniemi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that acute post-exercise change in blood pressure (BP may predict exercise training responses in BP in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. Patients with CAD (n=116, age 62±5 years, 85 men underwent BP assessments at rest and during 10-min recovery following a symptom-limited exercise test before and after the 6-month training intervention (one strength and 3-4 aerobic moderate-intensity exercises weekly. Post-exercise change in systolic BP (SBP was calculated by subtracting resting SBP from lowest post-exercise SBP. The training-induced change in resting SBP was -2±13 mmHg (p=0.064, ranging from -42 to 35 mmHg. Larger post-exercise decrease in SBP and baseline resting SBP predicted a larger training-induced decrement in SBP (β=0.46 and β=-0.44, respectively, p<0.001 for both. Acute post-exercise decrease in SBP provided additive value to baseline resting SBP in the prediction of training-induced change in resting SBP (R squared from 0.20 to 0.26, p=0.002. After further adjustments for other potential confounders (sex, age, baseline body mass index, realized training load, post-exercise decrease in SBP still predicted the training response in resting SBP (β=0.26, p=0.015. Acute post-exercise change in SBP was associated with training-induced change in resting SBP in patients with CAD, providing significant predictive information beyond baseline resting SBP.

  14. Feasibility and effect of in-home physical exercise training delivered via telehealth before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Boissy, Patrick; Tousignant, Michel; Langlois, Marie-France

    2017-06-01

    Optimal physical activity (PA) interventions are needed to increase PA in individuals with severe obesity, and optimize the results of bariatric surgery (BS). The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effect of Pre-Surgical Exercise Training (PreSET) delivered in-home via telehealth (TelePreSET) in subjects awaiting BS. Six women following the TelePreSET were compared to the women from a previous study (12 performing the PreSET in a gymnasium and 11 receiving usual care). In-home TelePreSET (12-weeks of endurance and strength training) was supervised twice weekly using videoconferencing. Physical fitness, quality of life, exercise beliefs, anthropometric measures and telehealth perception were assessed before and after 12-weeks. Satisfaction was evaluated with questionnaires at the end of the intervention. The TelePreSET participants attended 96% of the exercise sessions, and were very satisfied by the TelePreSET. The baseline telehealth perception score was high, and increased significantly after the intervention. The TelePreSET group significantly increased their physical fitness compared to the usual care group. No significant change was noted in other outcomes. The TelePreSET is feasible and seems effective to improve the physical fitness of women awaiting BS. Further studies are needed to confirm beneficial effects of this innovative mode of delivery.

  15. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  16. Balance training in individuals with Parkinson's disease: Therapist-supervised vs. home-based exercise programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atterbury, Elizabeth Maria; Welman, Karen Estelle

    2017-06-01

    Poor locomotion and balance in Parkinson's disease (PD) often diminishes independence. Accordingly, gait is considered one of the most relevant rehabilitation outcomes, and home-based balance exercises might be a viable mode of exercise delivery for individuals with PD. However, research on PD interventions rarely indicate best practices to deliver exercises. Therefore, this study endeavoured to compare the efficacy of a home-based and therapist-supervised balance programme on gait parameters, dynamic balance, balance confidence and motivation in individuals diagnosed with PD. An experimental study design, including a cluster randomized convenience sample, of 40 participants with idiopathic PD (Hoehn and Yahr stage I-III; age: 65.0±7.7years). Participants were divided into a therapist-supervised (n=24) and home-based group (n=16). Groups received either eight weeks of balance training with an exercise therapist or a DVD. Outcome measures include the instrumented Timed-Up-and-Go, Functional Gait Analysis (FGA), Activity-specific Balance confidence (ABC) scale and Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). Both groups improved in stride length (pexercise therapist included somewhat more benefits after the intervention i.e. stride velocity and cadence in individuals with mild to moderate PD. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Exercise training intervention after coronary angioplasty: the ETICA trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belardinelli, R; Paolini, I; Cianci, G; Piva, R; Georgiou, D; Purcaro, A

    2001-06-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training (ET) on functional capacity and quality of life (QOL) in patients who received percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) or coronary stenting (CS), the effects on the restenosis rate and the outcome. It is unknown whether ET induces beneficial effects after coronary angioplasty. We studied 118 consecutive patients with coronary artery disease (mean age 57+/-10 years) who underwent PTCA or CS on one (69%) or two (31%) native epicardial coronary arteries. Patients were randomized into two matched groups. Group T (n = 59) was exercised three times a week for six months at 60% of peak VO2. Group C (n = 59) was the control group. Only trained patients had significant improvements in peak VO2 (26%, p < 0.001) and quality of life (26.8%, p = 0.001 vs. C). The angiographic restenosis rate was unaffected by ET (T: 29%; C: 33%, P = NS) and was not significantly different after PTCA or CS. However, residual diameter stenosis was lower in trained patients (-29.7%, p = 0.045). In patients with angiographic restenosis, thallium uptake improved only in group T (19%; p < 0.001). During the follow-up (33+/-7 months) trained patients had a significantly lower event rate than controls (11.9 vs. 32.2%, RR: 0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.60 to 0.91, p = 0.008) and a lower rate of hospital readmission (18.6 vs. 46%, RR: 0.69, 95% CI: 0.55 to 0.93, p < 0.001). Moderate ET improves functional capacity and QOL after PTCA or CS. During the follow-up, trained patients had fewer events and a lower hospital readmission rate than controls, despite an unchanged restenosis rate.

  18. Differences in Acceleration Training and Exercise Training on Resting Cardiovascular Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, J. M.; Simonson, S. R.; Knapp, C. F.; Stocks, J. M.; Biagini, H. W.; Cowell, S. A.; Bailey, Kn. N.; Vener, J. M.; Evetts, S. N.; Dalton, Bonnie P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The relative effects of alternating exercise vs. acclamation training an mean blood pressure (BP, Finapres), cardiac output (CO, BoMed) and peripheral resistance (PR, calculated) were evaluated. Six healthy men (33$\\pm$(SD)6 yr. 178$\\pm$4 cm, 86$\\pm$6 kg) underwent exercise training (ET, n=3): supine on a cycle ergometer (40 to 90\\% Vo$_{2}$ max) during exposure to constant+1G$_{z}$ for $\\sim$30 min/day for 14 days on NASA's 1.9m Human Powered Centrifuge (HPC). They also underwent oscillatory (between +1 G$ {z}$and$\\sim$2.5G$_{z}$) acceleration training (AT, n=3) for $\\sim$30 min/day for 14 days on the HPC. After four weeks of ambulatory deconditioning, training protocols were switched. AT increased resting CO by 9.MpmS(SE)3.2\\% (p$less than$0.05) with no effect on BF, and ET decreased BP by 9.2$\\pm$4.6\\% (p$less than$0.08) as well as spectral power of PR by 41$\\pm$9\\% (p$less than$0.05). The major effect of acceleration training was to increase resting cardiac output while that of exercise mining was to decrease resting blood pressure.

  19. EFFECT OF A HOME EXERCISE TRAINING-PROGRAM IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC-FIBROSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, W; GREVINK, RG; ROORDA, RJ; KAPTEIN, AA; VANDERSCHANS, CP

    Physical training in patients with pulmonary diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF), may improve exercise tolerance in these patients. Most training programs are performed in a clinical setting. Little information is available concerning the effect of home exercise training programs in CF

  20. Effects of combined exercise training and electromyostimulation treatments in chronic heart failure: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Marie C; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Pavy, Bruno; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Monpère, Catherine; Richard, Rudy; Verdier, Jean C

    2017-08-01

    Background Exercise training as part of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients with cardiac heart failure. It is a valuable method for the improvement of exercise tolerance. Some studies reported a similar improvement with quadricipital electrical myostimulation, but the effect of combined exercise training and electrical myostimulation in cardiac heart failure has not been yet evaluated in a large prospective multicentre study. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low frequency electrical myostimulation to exercise training may improve exercise capacity and/or muscular strength in cardiac heart failure patients. Methods Ninety-one patients were included (mean age: 58 ± 9 years; New York Heart Association II/III: 52/48%, left ventricular ejection fraction: 30 ± 7%) in a prospective French study. The patients were randomised into two groups: 41 patients in exercise training and 50 in exercise training + electrical myostimulation. All patients underwent 20 exercise training sessions. In addition, in the exercise training + electrical myostimulation group, patients underwent 20 low frequency (10 Hz) quadricipital electrical myostimulation sessions. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a six-minute walk test, a muscular function evaluation and a quality of life questionnaire, before and at the end of the study. Results A significant improvement of exercise capacity (Δ peak oxygen uptake+15% in exercise training group and +14% in exercise training + electrical myostimulation group) and of quality of life was observed in both groups without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Mean creatine kinase level increased in the exercise training group whereas it remained stable in the combined group. Conclusions This prospective multicentre study shows that electrical myostimulation on top of exercise training does not demonstrate any significant

  1. The effect of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juvenile darkbarbel catfish (Peltebagrus vachelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-05-01

    To examine the effects of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juvenile darkbarbel catfish (Peltebagrus vachelli) (5.58+/-0.04 g), the postprandial metabolic response, critical swimming speeds (U(crit)) and oxygen consumption rates (VO(2)) during swimming were measured on fish held at a constant temperature (25 degrees C). Fish were fed a diet of cutlets of freshly killed loach. Fish in the trained group were forced to swim at 60% U(crit) for 50 min followed by an exhaustive 10-min chase once daily for 21 days. Exercise training did not produce significant differences in resting VO(2) (VO(2rest)) and postprandial peak VO(2) (VO(2peak)) compared to the non-trained groups. However, exercise training elicited a significant decrease in both the duration and energy expenditure of digestion when fed with similar food (PFeeding had no significant effect on U(crit) of non-trained fish, while it caused a significantly lower U(crit) (compared to fasting fish) in trained fish (Pfeeding fish. Our results suggest that: (1) the central cardio-respiratory systems of non-trained darkbarbel catfish can support the oxygen demands of both digestion and the locomotion simultaneously; (2) the metabolic mode of competition in darkbarbel catfish is flexible; it changed from an additive model to a digestion-priority model after exercise training; (3) training may be accounted for cardio-respiratory capacity increase and following improvement of swimming performance during fasting in darkbarbel catfish, although, the swimming capacity was sacrificed to digestion in the situation of postprandial locomotion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Fit to Forgive: Effect of Mode of Exercise on Capacity to Override Grudges and Forgiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ward Struthers

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness is important for repairing relationships that have been damaged by transgressions. In this research we explored the notion that the mode of physical exercise that victims of transgressions engage in and their capacity to override grudges are important in the process of forgiveness. Two exploratory studies that varied in samples (community non-student adults, undergraduate students and research methods (non-experimental, experimental were used to test these predictions. Findings showed that, compared to anaerobic or no exercise, aerobic and flexibility exercise facilitated self-control over grudges and forgiveness (Studies 1 and 2, and self-control over grudges explained the relation between exercise and forgiveness (Study 2. Possible mechanisms for future research are discussed.

  3. Fit to Forgive: Effect of Mode of Exercise on Capacity to Override Grudges and Forgiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, C. Ward; van Monsjou, Elizabeth; Ayoub, Mariam; Guilfoyle, Joshua R.

    2017-01-01

    Forgiveness is important for repairing relationships that have been damaged by transgressions. In this research we explored the notion that the mode of physical exercise that victims of transgressions engage in and their capacity to override grudges are important in the process of forgiveness. Two exploratory studies that varied in samples (community non-student adults, undergraduate students) and research methods (non-experimental, experimental) were used to test these predictions. Findings showed that, compared to anaerobic or no exercise, aerobic and flexibility exercise facilitated self-control over grudges and forgiveness (Studies 1 and 2), and self-control over grudges explained the relation between exercise and forgiveness (Study 2). Possible mechanisms for future research are discussed. PMID:28533758

  4. Context Dependent Stated Choice Experiments : The Case of Train Egress Mode Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Molin, E.J.E.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    Based on the contention that the influence of context on mode choices made in multi-modal trip chains is under-researched, this paper discusses the design and results of a stated choice experiment to estimate the effects of context variables on train egress mode choice: the mode chosen after a train

  5. Prescribing exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation: A clinical experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bernard

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Built around exercise training, pulmonary rehabilitation (PR is a multidisciplinary, evidence‐based, comprehensive approach to working with the patient as a whole and not just the pulmonary component of the disease. Integrated into the individualized treatment, this intervention aims to reduce symptoms, optimize functional status, increase participation in daily life, and reduce health care costs through stabilizing or reversing systemic manifestations of the disease. Although there are many other components that should be considered to manage the impairment and symptom burden, supervised exercise training is considered the cornerstone of effective pulmonary rehabilitation. This paper addresses our clinical experience at Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec to assess and manage exercise training in line with the current recommendations and guidelines surrounding PR. Resumo: Construída com base no exercício físico, a reabilitação pulmonar (RP é uma abordagem multidisciplinar, fundamentada e abrangente para trabalhar com o doente como um todo, e não apenas com a componente pulmonar da doença. Integrado no tratamento individual, esta intervenção visa reduzir os sintomas, optimizar o estado funcional, aumentar a participação na vida diária e reduzir os custos do tratamento de saúde, através da estabilização ou inversão das manifestações sistémicas da doença. Embora existam muitos outros componentes que devem ser tidos em consideração para gerir o peso da incapacidade e dos sintomas, o exercício físico supervisionado é considerado o fundamento da reabilitação pulmonar eficiente. Este documento trata da nossa experiência clínica no Institut universitaire de cardiologie et de pneumologie de Québec para avaliar e gerir o exercício físico em linha com as recomendações e orientações actuais envolvendo a RP

  6. Exercise training reverses endothelial dysfunction in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Christopher J A; Spring, Victoria S; Kemp, Graham J; Richardson, Paul; Shojaee-Moradie, Fariba; Umpleby, A Margot; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy; Jones, Helen; Cuthbertson, Daniel J

    2014-11-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Endothelial dysfunction is an early manifestation of atherosclerosis and an important prognostic marker for future cardiovascular events. The aim of this study was twofold: to examine 1) the association between liver fat, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), and endothelial dysfunction in obese NAFLD patients and 2) the impact of supervised exercise training on this vascular defect. Brachial artery endothelial function was assessed by flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) in 34 obese NAFLD patients and 20 obese controls of similar age and cardiorespiratory fitness [peak oxygen uptake (V̇o2 peak)] (48 ± 2 vs. 47 ± 2 yr; 27 ± 1 vs. 26 ± 2 ml·kg−1·min−1−1). Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy quantified abdominal and liver fat, respectively. Twenty-one NAFLD patients completed either 16 wk of supervised moderate-intensity exercise training (n = 13) or conventional care (n = 8). Differences between NAFLD and controls were compared using independent t-tests and effects of interventions by analysis of covariance. NAFLD patients had higher liver fat [11.6% (95% CI = 7.4, 18.1), P < 0.0005] and VAT [1.6 liters (95% CI = 1.2, 2.0), P < 0.0001] than controls and exhibited impaired FMD compared with controls [−3.6% (95% CI = −4.9, −2.2), P < 0.0001]. FMD was inversely correlated with VAT (r = −0.54, P = 0.001) in NAFLD, although the impairment in FMD remained following covariate adjustment for VAT [3.1% (95% CI = 1.8, 4.5), P < 0.001]. Exercise training, but not conventional care, significantly improved V̇o2 peak [9.1 ml·kg−1·min−1 (95% CI = 4.1, 14.1); P = 0.001] and FMD [3.6% (95% CI = 1.6, 5.7), P = 0.002]. Endothelial dysfunction in NAFLD cannot be fully explained by excess VAT but can be reversed with exercise training; this has potential implications for the primary prevention of CVD in NAFLD.

  7. Impact of exercise training on redox signaling in cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Juliane C; Gomes, Kátia M S; Ferreira, Julio C B

    2013-12-01

    Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species regulate a wide array of signaling pathways that governs cardiovascular physiology. However, oxidant stress resulting from disrupted redox signaling has an adverse impact on the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we address how redox signaling and oxidant stress affect the pathophysiology of cardiovascular diseases such as ischemia-reperfusion injury, hypertension and heart failure. We also summarize the benefits of exercise training in tackling the hyperactivation of cellular oxidases and mitochondrial dysfunction seen in cardiovascular diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The efficacy of unsupervised home-based exercise regimens in comparison to supervised laboratory-based exercise training upon cardio-respiratory health facets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackwell, James; Atherton, Philip J; Smith, Kenneth; Doleman, Brett; Williams, John P; Lund, Jonathan N; Phillips, Bethan E

    2017-09-01

    Supervised high-intensity interval training (HIIT) can rapidly improve cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). However, the effectiveness of time-efficient unsupervised home-based interventions is unknown. Eighteen volunteers completed either: laboratory-HIIT (L-HIIT); home-HIIT (H-HIIT) or home-isometric hand-grip training (H-IHGT). CRF improved significantly in L-HIIT and H-HIIT groups, with blood pressure improvements in the H-IHGT group only. H-HIIT offers a practical, time-efficient exercise mode to improve CRF, away from the laboratory environment. H-IHGT potentially provides a viable alternative to modify blood pressure in those unable to participate in whole-body exercise. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  9. Training with a balance exercise assist robot is more effective than conventional training for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kenichi; Kondo, Izumi; Hirano, Satoshi; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Osawa, Aiko; Fujinori, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of postural strategy training using a balance exercise assist robot (BEAR) as compared with conventional balance training for frail older adults. The present study was designed as a cross-over trial without a washout term. A total of 27 community-dwelling frail or prefrail elderly residents (7 men, 20 women; age range 65-85 years) were selected from a volunteer sample. Two exercises were prepared for interventions: robotic exercise moving the center of gravity by the balance exercise assist robot system; and conventional balance training combining muscle-strengthening exercise, postural strategy training and applied motion exercise. Each exercise was carried out twice a week for 6 weeks. Participants were allocated randomly to either the robotic exercise first group or the conventional balance exercise first group. preferred and maximal gait speeds, tandem gait speeds, timed up-and-go test, functional reach test, functional base of support, center of pressure, and muscle strength of the lower extremities were assessed before and after completion of each exercise program. Robotic exercise achieved significant improvements for tandem gait speed (P = 0.012), functional reach test (P = 0.002), timed up-and-go test (P = 0.023) and muscle strength of the lower extremities (P = 0.001-0.030) compared with conventional exercise. In frail or prefrail older adults, robotic exercise was more effective for improving dynamic balance and lower extremity muscle strength than conventional exercise. These findings suggest that postural strategy training with the balance exercise assist robot is effective to improve the gait instability and muscle weakness often seen in frail older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1982-1990. © 2017 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  10. Combined Interval Training and Post-exercise Nutrition in Type 2 Diabetes: A Randomized Control Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Francois, Monique E.; Cody Durrer; Pistawka, Kevin J.; Halperin, Frank A.; Courtney Chang; Little, Jonathan P.

    2017-01-01

    Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) can improve several aspects of cardiometabolic health. Previous studies have suggested that adaptations to exercise training can be augmented with post-exercise milk or protein consumption, but whether this nutritional strategy can impact the cardiometabolic adaptations to HIIT in type 2 diabetes is unknown. Objective: To determine if the addition of a post-exercise milk or protein beverage to a high-intensity interval training (HIIT) interv...

  11. Intermittent versus continuous exercise training in chronic heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smart, Neil A; Dieberg, Gudrun; Giallauria, Francesco

    2013-06-20

    We conducted a meta-analysis of randomized, controlled trials of combined strength and intermittent aerobic training, intermittent aerobic training only and continuous exercise training in heart failure patients. A systematic search was conducted of Medline (Ovid) (1950-September 2011), Embase.com (1974-September 2011), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials and CINAHL (1981-September 19 2011). The search strategy included a mix of MeSH and free text terms for the key concepts heart failure, exercise training, interval training and intermittent exercise training. The included studies contained an aggregate of 446 patients, 212 completed intermittent exercise training, 66 only continuous exercise training, 59 completed combined intermittent and strength training and 109 sedentary controls. Weighted mean difference (MD) in Peak VO2 was 1.04mlkg(-1)min(-1) and (95% C.I.) was 0.42-1.66 (p=0.0009) in intermittent versus continuous exercise training respectively. Weighted mean difference in Peak VO2 was -1.10mlkg(-1)min(-1) (95% C.I.) was -1.83-0.37 p=0.003 for intermittent only versus intermittent and strength (combined) training respectively. In studies reporting VE/VCO2 for intermittent versus control groups, MD was -1.50 [(95% C.I. -2.64, -0.37), p=0.01] and for intermittent versus continuous exercise training MD was -1.35 [(95% C.I. -2.15, -0.55), p=0.001]. Change in peak VO2 was positively correlated with weekly exercise energy expenditure for intermittent exercise groups (r=0.48, p=0.05). Combined strength and intermittent exercise appears superior for peak VO2 changes when compared to intermittent exercise of similar exercise energy expenditure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Implementing intelligent physical exercise training at the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim was to assess 1-year cardiovascular health effects of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training, IPET. METHODS: Office workers from six companies were randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N = 194) or a control group, CG (N = 195). TG received 1-h supervised high intensity IPET......, and musculoskeletal health. RESULTS: There were no baseline differences between groups. CRF assessed as VO2max in absolute values and relative to body weight was (mean ± SD): 3.0 ± 0.8 l/min and 35.4 ± 10.9 ml/min/kg for females, 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min and 37.9 ± 11.79 ml/min/kg for males. Intention to treat analysis...

  13. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions.

  15. Influence of the type of training sport practised on psychological and physiological parameters during exhausting endurance exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, M; Mille-Hamard, L; Devillers, S; Delattre, E; Dufour, S; Billat, V

    2003-12-01

    The present purpose was to study the influence of the type of training sport practised (long distance running, sprinting, handball) on ratings of perceived exertion (RPE), estimation of time limit (ETL), and heart rate (HR) on running tests. It was hypothesised that these parameters would be related to the type of training sport practised. 31 trained women (10 endurance-trained runners, 10 sprinters, and 11 handball players) performed two exercises to exhaustion on an outdoor track. The first test was a graded run to estimate maximal aerobic speed (SMA), i.e., the minimal speed which elicited maximal oxygen uptake. The second test was a constant all-out run at speed delta 50 (Sdelta50), which corresponded to the speed halfway between SMA and the speed at lactate threshold (SLT), to specify time to exhaustion at this intensity (TLIM). Sensations regarding RPE, ETL, and HR were recorded during these tests. SMA, Sdelta50, and SLT, expressed in absolute values (km x hr.(-1)) were statistically significantly different between groups (p trained runners perceived the exercise as lighter and presented lower HR than handball players and sprinters for a same running %SMA (p trained runners felt that they could endure more than the other groups at a given %SMA or relative exhaustion time (%TLIM). These results mean that the type of training sport which has been performed may mediate perceptual responses and influence physiological parameters during exhausting exercises. These results are likely in part related to sport-specificity of the exercise mode used in tests. This point must be taken into consideration by physical trainers who have to prescribe exercise intensities during athletic seasons for different groups of athletes.

  16. Acute Exercise-Associated Skin Surface Temperature Changes after Resistance Training with Different Exercise Intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Weigert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies showed, that changes in muscular metabolic-associated heat production and blood circulation during and after muscular work affect skin temperature (T but the results are inconsistent and the effect of exercise intensity is unclear. Objective: This study investigated the intensity-dependent reaction of T on resistance training. Methods: Ten male students participated. After acclimatization (15 min, the participants completed 3x10 repetitions of unilateral biceps curl with 30, 50 or 70% of their one-repetition-maximum (1RM in a randomized order. Skin temperature of the loaded and unloaded biceps was measured at rest (Trest, immediately following set 1, 2 and 3 (TS1,TS2,TS3 and 30 minutes post exercise (T1 - T30 with an infrared camera. Results: Two-way ANOVA detected a significant effect of the measuring time point on T (Trest to T30 of the loaded arm for 30% (Eta²=0.85, 50% (Eta²=0.88 and 70% 1RM (Eta²=0.85 and of the unloaded arm only for 30% 1RM (Eta²=0.41 (p0.05. The T values at the different measuring time points (Trest - T30 did not differ between the intensities at any time point. The loaded arm showed a mean maximum T rise to Trest of 1.8°C and on average, maximum T was reached approximately 5 minutes after the third set.  Conclusion: This study indicate a rise of T, which could be independent of the exercise intensity. Infrared thermography seems to be applicable to identify the primary used functional muscles in resistance training but this method seems not suitable to differentiate between exercise intensity from 30 to 70% 1RM.

  17. Exercise training improves free testosterone in lifelong sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Herbert, Peter; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F; Grace, Fergal M

    2017-07-01

    As the impact of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on systemic hormones in aging men is unstudied to date, we investigated whether total testosterone (TT), sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), free testosterone (free-T) and cortisol (all in serum) were altered following HIIT in a cohort of 22 lifelong sedentary (62 ± 2 years) older men. As HIIT requires preconditioning exercise in sedentary cohorts, participants were tested at three phases, each separated by six-week training; baseline (phase A), following conditioning exercise (phase B) and post-HIIT (phase C). Each measurement phase used identical methods. TT was significantly increased following HIIT (~17%; P  HIIT compared to baseline (~4.5%; P  = 0.023). Cortisol remained unchanged from A to C ( P  = 0.138). The present data indicate a combination of preconditioning, and HIIT increases TT and SHBG in sedentary older males, with the HIIT stimulus accounting for a small but statistically significant increase in free-T. Further study is required to determine the biological importance of small improvements in free-T in aging men. © 2017 The authors.

  18. Aerobic training improves exercise-induced lipolysis in SCAT and lipid utilization in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Glisezinski, I; Moro, C; Pillard, F; Marion-Latard, F; Harant, I; Meste, M; Berlan, M; Crampes, F; Rivière, D

    2003-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether endurance training improves lipid mobilization and oxidation in overweight subjects. Eleven young men (25.6 +/- 1.4 yr and body mass index 27.7 +/- 0.2) performed a 4-mo training program consisting of practicing aerobic exercise 5 days/wk. Before and after the training period, lipid oxidation was explored during a 60-min exercise at 50% of peak O2 consumption by use of indirect calorimetry. Lipid mobilization and antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect were also studied using the microdialysis method in abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT). After training, plasma nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) levels, at rest and during exercise, were significantly lower than before (P < 0.001). Lipolysis in SCAT was significantly higher after than before training. An antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT was underlined during exercise before training and disappeared after. The respiratory exchange ratio was lower after training, i.e., the percentage of lipid oxidation was higher only at rest. The amount of lipid oxidized was higher after training, at rest, and during exercise. Although exercise power was higher after training, the relative intensity was equivalent, as suggested by a similar increase in plasma catecholamine concentrations before and after training. In conclusion, 4-mo training in overweight men improved lipid mobilization through a decrease of antilipolytic alpha2-adrenoceptor effect in SCAT and lipid oxidation during moderate exercise. Training induced a decrease of blood NEFA, predicting better prevention of obesity.

  19. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation and Exercise Training on Exercise Performance in Middle-Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wen Kan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RES has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antalgic, and anti-fatigue activities. Exercise training (ET improves frailty resulting from aging. This study evaluated the effects of a combination of RES supplementation and ET on the exercise performance of aged mice. C57BL/6J mice (16 months old were randomly divided into four groups: an older control group (OC group, supplementation with RES group (RES group, ET group (ET group, and a combination of ET and RES supplementation group (ET+RES group. Other 10-week-old mice were used as a young control group (Y-Ctrl group. In this study, exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. Our results showed that the forelimb grip strength of mice in the ET+RES group was significantly higher than those in the OC, RES, and ET groups (by 1.3-, 1.2-, and 1.1-fold, respectively, p < 0.05, and exhibited no difference with the Y-Ctrl group. The endurance swimming test showed that swimming times of the ET and ET+RES groups were significantly longer than those of the OC and RES groups. Moreover, plasma lactate and ammonia levels of the ET + RES group after acute swimming exercise were significantly lower compared to the OC group (p < 0.05. Thus, it was suggested that by combining RES supplementation with ET for 4 weeks, the muscle strength and endurance performance of aged mice were significantly improved compared to the single intervention with either RES or ET alone. This combination might help shorten the extent of deterioration accompanying the aging process.

  20. The value of electrical stimulation as an exercise training modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currier, Dean P.; Ray, J. Michael; Nyland, John; Noteboom, Tim

    1994-01-01

    capability of muscle. NMES in exercise training is our major concern.

  1. Treadmill training combined with water and land-based exercise programs: Effects on Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Vila, M Helena; Seijo-Martinez, Manuel; Cancela, José M

    2016-06-30

    There is a need for studies about the effects of treadmill training (TT) on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients when combined with other exercise training modalities. To identify the effects of a multicomponent rehabilitation program on the illness impact, quality of life and fitness level in Parkinson's disease. Participants were assigned to two exercise groups: water and land-based exercise (WL) or water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training (TWL). The water and land-based exercise group performed one water-based exercise and one land-based exercise session per week for 15 weeks. Participants in the water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training added two sessions of treadmill training to this schedule. The Senior Fitness Test (SFT) was used to assess the sample's fitness level. Participants in the water and land-based exercise Group experienced significant benefits in the disease impact (UPDRS t = 3.083; p = 0.029) and quality of life (PDQ-39 t = 2.942; p = 0.036). The addition of treadmill training did not have any significant effect on these variables. Both programs showed similar effects on the fitness components evaluated. Adding treadmill training to a combination of water and land-based exercise programs may have limited effects on quality of life and the impact on the disease.

  2. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  3. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  4. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shames, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  5. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p endurance exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  6. Graduated exercise training and progressive resistance training in adolescents with chronic fatigue syndrome: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Brett A; Knapman, Leona M; Lubitz, Lionel

    2010-12-01

    to investigate the differential effects of aerobic graded exercise and progressive resistance training on exercise tolerance, fatigue and quality of life in adolescent patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). single-blind, randomized controlled pilot trial. a major metropolitan hospital in Melbourne, Australia. twenty-two adolescents aged 13-18 years diagnosed with CFS and admitted to the inpatient chronic fatigue rehabilitation programme. patients were randomized to either graded aerobic exercise training or a progressive resistance training programme, for five days/week for four weeks. The graded aerobic training consisted of 20-40 minutes of stationary cycling and treadmill exercise. The progressive resistance training involved 16 exercises performed with single set, moderate load and high repetitions. exercise tolerance (time to fatigue) measured on a graded sub-maximal treadmill test, metabolic equivalents and quality of life, along with muscular strength (maximium push-ups) and endurance (sit-to-stand) and questionnaires evaluating depressive symptoms and fatigue severity. no intervention was significantly better than the other for any outcome. However, physical capacity and quality of life significantly improved in both groups, while fatigue severity and symptoms of depression improved only with aerobic training. resistance and aerobic training resulted in similar changes to physical capacity, quality of life and fatigue severity. Generally, patients who completed resistance training or aerobic training experienced significant improvements in outcomes from baseline when they entered the programme. Whether these improvements can be attributed to the treatment is unknown.

  7. Postexercise oxygen consumption in trained females: effect of exercise duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T J; Vroman, N B; Kertzer, R

    1994-07-01

    Many research studies report the long-lasting elevation of metabolism following exercise. However, little is known regarding the impact of duration and intensity on this phenomenon, particularly in trained women in whom the time of the menstrual cycle has been controlled. This study examined the effects of a constant walking intensity (70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)) on the treadmill at various levels of duration (20, 40, and 60 min) on 3-h recovery of oxygen uptake (VO2). Eight trained (mean +/- SD) (VO2max = 47.6 +/- 3.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) females (mean age = 30.2 +/- 5.0 yr, mean weight = 58.7 +/- 7.6 kg, mean height = 165.6 +/- 7.0 cm) participated in the study. Subjects reported to the lab for a maximal oxygen consumption test and returned on four additional occasions (control, 20, 40, 60 min) in random fashion. Treadmill speed and grade were established to yield the appropriate intensity for each subject. Following each exercise bout subjects sat quietly for a 3-h time period. Variables measured included VO2, minute ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and core (rectal) temperature (Tc). Variables were measured each 15 min of recovery. An ANOVA was used to assess differences due to duration. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated by subtracting the resting VO2 from the absolute VO2 and summing the individual EPOCs during each 3-h postexercise session and comparing these individual values to the preexercise VO2 values. The EPOC was significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in each of the three durations as compared with the control (sitting) and preexercise periods. The total EPOC was significantly higher for the 60-min duration (15.2 l) as compared with either 20-min (8.b l) or 40-min (9.8 l) duration (P < 0.05). This was observed without significant changes in VE, RER, HR, SBP, DBP, or Tc. Additionally, there were no differences during exercise

  8. Effect of chronic clenbuterol administration and exercise training on immune function in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, K; Kearns, C F; Guirnalda, P D; Roegner, V; McKeever, K H

    2004-12-01

    Effects of longitudinal exercise training and acute intensive exercise (simulated race test) on immune function have not been reported in horses. Clenbuterol, a beta2-adrenergic agonist, is used to manage inflammatory airway disease in horses. This study investigated the interaction of 8 wk of exercise training with or without 12 wk of clenbuterol administration in horses. Twenty-three untrained standardbred mares (10 +/- 3 yr, Mean +/- SE) were used and divided into four experimental groups. Horses given clenbuterol plus exercise (CLENEX; n = 6) and clenbuterol alone (CLEN; n = 6) received 2.4 microg/kg BW of clenbuterol twice daily (in an average volume of 20 mL) on a schedule of 5 d on and 2 d off for 12 wk. The CLENEX group was also aerobically trained 3 d/wk. Mares given exercise alone (EX; n = 5) were aerobically trained for 3 d/wk, and the control group (CON; n = 6) remained sedentary. Both EX and CON horses were administered similar volumes (approximately 20 mL) of molasses twice daily. A simulated race test (SRT) resulted in an elevation in lymphocyte number postexercise (P Clenbuterol and exercise training did not significantly affect post-SRT changes in leukocyte numbers. Exercise training resulted in a decrease (P clenbuterol or exercise conditioning. Lymphocyte proliferative response was not affected by clenbuterol or exercise treatment. Horses demonstrated responses to bouts of acute exercise as noted with other species, namely humans and rodents.

  9. Exercise training in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis: comparison of three rehabilitation programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Erasmia; Koukouvou, Georgia; Kouidi, Evangelia; Deligiannis, Asterios; Tourkantonis, Achilleas

    2002-01-01

    Functional capacity of end-stage renal disease patients is dramatically impaired. Although exercise training programs appear to have beneficial morphological, functional and psychosocial effects in end-stage renal disease patients on hemodialysis (HD), the adherence rate is high. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three modes of exercise training on aerobic capacity and to identify the most favourable, efficient and preferable to patients on HD with regard to functional improvements and participation rate in the programs. Fifty-eight volunteer patients were screened for low-risk status and selected from the dialysis population. The 48 patients who completed the study protocol were randomly assigned either to one of the three training groups or to a control group. Sixteen of them (Group A - mean age 46.4+/-13.9 years) completed a 6-month supervised outpatient exercise renal rehabilitation program consisting of three weekly sessions of aerobic and strengthening training on the non-dialysis days; 10 (Group B - mean age 48.3+/-12.1 years) completed a 6-month exercise program during HD; 10 (Group C - mean age 51.4+/-12.5 years) followed an unsupervised moderate exercise program at home, and 12 patients (Group D-mean age 50.2+/-7.9 years) were used as patient controls. The level of anemia, the medications and the HD prescription remained stable during the study. Fifteen sex- and age-matched sedentary individuals (Group E - mean age 46.9+/-6.4 years) comprised a healthy control group for baseline data. All subjects at the beginning and end of the study underwent clinical examination, laboratory tests and a treadmill exercise test to fatigue endpoints with direct measurement of aerobic capacity. Group A had a higher dropout rate (24%) compared to groups B (17%) and C (17%). Peak oxygen consumption (VO2 peak) increased by 43% (p exercise time by 33% (p exercise training on non-dialysis days is the most effective way of training, whereas exercise during

  10. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling....... We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status...

  11. Is glucose/amino acid supplementation after exercise an aid to strength training?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, A. G.; van den Oord, M.; Sharma, A.; Jones, D. A.

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The precise timing of carbohydrate and amino acid ingestion relative to a bout of resistance exercise may modulate the training effect of the resistance exercise. OBJECTIVE: To assess whether regular glucose/amino acid supplementation immediately after resistance exercise could enhance

  12. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  13. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  14. Exercise testing, limitation and training in patients with cystic fibrosis. A personalized approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werkman, M.S.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise testing and training are cornerstones in regular CF care. However, no consensus exists in literature about which exercise test protocol should be used for individual patients. Furthermore, divergence exists in insights about both the dominant exercise limiting mechanisms and the

  15. Cardiac Arrest During Medically-Supervised Exercise Training: A Report of Fifteen Successful Defibrillations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyfer, Howard R.; And Others

    The Cardio-Pulmonary Research Institute conducted an exercise program for men with a history of coronary heart disease. Over 7 years, there were 15 cases of cardiac arrest during exercise (one for every 6,000 man-hours of exercise). Trained medical personnel were present in all cases, and all were resuscitated by electrical defibrillation with no…

  16. Short-term exercise training improves the cardiovascular response to exercise in the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shigeki; Fu, Qi; Bivens, Tiffany B; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Wang, Wade; Levine, Benjamin D

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested the presence of cardiac atrophy as a key component of the pathogenesis of the postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), similar to physical deconditioning. It has also been shown that exercise intolerance is associated with a reduced stroke volume (SV) in POTS, and that the high heart rate (HR) observed at rest and during exercise in these patients is due to this low SV. We tested the hypotheses that (a) circulatory control during exercise is normal in POTS; and (b) that physical ‘reconditioning’ with exercise training improves exercise performance in patients with POTS. Nineteen (18 women) POTS patients completed a 3 month training programme. Cardiovascular responses during maximal exercise testing were assessed in the upright position before and after training. Resting left ventricular diastolic function was evaluated by Doppler echocardiography. Results were compared with those of 10 well-matched healthy sedentary controls. A lower SV resulted in a higher HR in POTS at any given oxygen uptake () during exercise while the cardiac output ()– relationship was normal. was lower in POTS than controls (26.1 ± 1.0 (SEM) vs. 36.3 ± 0.9 ml kg−1 min−1; P physical fitness and cardiovascular responses during exercise in patients with POTS. PMID:22641777

  17. Exercise Training Reduces Intrathoracic Fat Regardless of Defective Glucose Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkala, Sanna M; Motiani, Kumail K; Eskelinen, Jari-Joonas; Savolainen, Anna; Saunavaara, Virva; Virtanen, Kirsi A; Löyttyniemi, Eliisa; Kapanen, Jukka; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K; Hannukainen, Jarna C

    2017-07-01

    Epicardial (EAT) and pericardial (PAT) fat masses and myocardial triglyceride content (MTC) are enlarged in obesity and insulin resistance. We studied whether the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) similarly decrease ectopic fat in and around the heart and whether the decrease is similar in healthy subjects and subjects with defective glucose tolerance (DGT). A total of 28 healthy men (body mass index = 20.7-30.0 kg·m, age = 40-55 yr) and 16 men with DGT (body mass index = 23.8-33.5 kg·m, age = 43-53 yr) were randomized into HIIT and MICT interventions for 2 wk. EAT and PAT were determined by computed tomography and MTC by H-MRS. At baseline, DGT subjects had impaired aerobic capacity and insulin sensitivity and higher levels of whole body fat, visceral fat, PAT, and EAT (P HIIT increased aerobic capacity (HIIT = 6%, MICT = 0.3%; time × training P = 0.007) and tended to improve insulin sensitivity (HIIT = 24%, MICT = 8%) as well as reduce MTC (HIIT = -42%, MICT = +23%) (time × training P = 0.06, both) more efficiently compared with MICT, and without differences in the training response between the healthy and the DGT subjects. However, both training modes decreased EAT (-5%) and PAT (-6%) fat (time P HIIT and MICT effectively reduce EAT and PAT in healthy and DGT subjects, whereas HIIT seems to be superior as regards improving aerobic capacity, whole-body insulin sensitivity, and MTC.

  18. Affect-regulated exercise intensity: does training at an intensity that feels 'good' improve physical health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parfitt, Gaynor; Alrumh, Amnah; Rowlands, Alex V

    2012-11-01

    Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used to control exercise intensity amongst both active and sedentary individuals and should support exercise adherence. It is not known, however, whether affect-regulated exercise training can lead to physical health gains. The aim of this study was to examine if affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' leads to improved fitness over the course of an 8-week training programme. A repeated measures design (pretest-posttest) with independent groups (training and control). 20 sedentary females completed a submaximal graded exercise test and were then allocated to either a training group or control group. The training group completed two supervised sessions and one unsupervised session per week for 8 weeks. Exercise intensity was affect-regulated to feel 'good'. Following the 8 weeks of training, both groups completed a second submaximal graded exercise test. Repeated measures analyses of variance indicated a significant increase in the time to reach ventilatory threshold in the training group (318 ± 23.7s) compared to control (248 ± 16.9s). Overall compliance to training was high (>92%). Participants in the training group exercised at intensities that would be classified as being in the lower range of the recommended guidelines (≈ 50% V˙O(2) max) for cardiovascular health. Affect-regulated exercise to feel 'good' can be used in a training programme to regulate exercise intensity. This approach led to a 19% increase in time to reach ventilatory threshold, which is indicative of improved fitness. Copyright © 2012 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  20. [Transdisciplinary Approach for Sarcopenia. Physical activity and exercise training for prevention and treatment of sarcopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okura, Tomohiro

    2014-10-01

    The general outline of an exercise prescription for older adults with sarcopenia is aimed at improving their muscle strength and walking ability and increasing their muscle mass. Various types of resistance training (RT) can effectively increase muscle mass and strength even when the older individual's body weight is the only load and no special instruments such as expensive machines or heavy dumbbells are used. To effectively increase muscle mass and strength, individuals must perform at least one to two RT exercises on both the upper and lower extremities and the trunk two to three times per week for more than three months. Gait training is essential for improving walking ability. Although aerobic exercises typically contain gait training, they require an exercise intensity of greater than 60% of maximum oxygen uptake to effectively improve walking ability. In addition, we should remember that the effect of exercise training is maintained only by continuing the exercise program regularly over the long-term.

  1. Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure and sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Linda M; Drager, Luciano F; Rodrigues, Ana C T; Rondon, Maria U P B; Braga, Ana M F W; Mathias, Wilson; Krieger, Eduardo M; Barretto, Antonio C P; Middlekauff, Holly R; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E

    2009-05-01

    To test the effects of exercise training on sleep and neurovascular control in patients with systolic heart failure with and without sleep disordered breathing. Prospective interventional study. Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise physiology unit and sleep laboratory. Twenty-five patients with heart failure, aged 42 to 70 years, and New York Heart Association Functional Class I-III were divided into 1 of 3 groups: obstructive sleep apnea (n=8), central sleep apnea (n=9) and no sleep apnea (n=7). INTERVENTIONS Four months of no-training (control) followed by 4 months of an exercise training program (three 60-minute, supervised, exercise sessions per week). Sleep (polysomnography), microneurography, forearm blood flow (plethysmography), peak VO2, and quality of life were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the control and trained periods. No significant changes occurred in the control period. Exercise training reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P sleep apnea. Exercise training improved the apnea-hypopnea index, minimum 0O saturation, and amount stage 3-4 sleep (P sleep apnea but had no significant effects in patients with central sleep apnea. The beneficial effects of exercise training on neurovascular function, functional capacity, and quality of life in patients with systolic dysfunction and heart failure occurs independently of sleep disordered breathing. Exercise training lessens the severity of obstructive sleep apnea but does not affect central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure and sleep disordered breathing.

  2. Exercise training in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, Danilo M; Benatti, Fabiana B; de Sá-Pinto, Ana L; Hayashi, Ana P; Gualano, Bruno; Pereira, Rosa M; Sallum, Adriana M; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A; Roschel, Hamilton

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Exercise training has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy to counteract physical dysfunction in adult systemic lupus erythematosus. However, no longitudinal studies have evaluated the effects of an exercise training program in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) patients. The objective was to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of a super...

  3. Heritability of HR and BP Response To Exercise Training in the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Treva; Gagnon, Jacques; Leon, Arthur S.; Skinner, James S.; Wilmore, Jack H.; Bouchard, Claude; Rao, D. C.

    2002-01-01

    Assessed the heritability of response to exercise training in resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) among sedentary Caucasians comprising 98 families who completed an exercise training program. Results indicated that the trainability of systolic BP and HR in families with elevated BP was partially determined by genetic factors. Diastolic…

  4. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Tinken, T.M.; Hopkins, N.; Dawson, E.A.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    AIM: Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is

  5. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  6. Effect of continuous and interval exercise training on the PETCO2 response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Enéas A. Rocco; Prado, Danilo M L; Silva, Alexandre G.; Lazzari, Jaqueline M. A.; Bortz, Pedro C; Rocco,Débora F. M.; Carla G. Rosa; Valter Furlan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the following: 1) the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2) response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease; and 2) the effects of exercise training modalities on the association between PETCO2 at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and indicators of ventilatory efficiency and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with co...

  7. Exercise training can attenuate the inflammatory milieu in women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perandini, Luiz A; Sales-de-Oliveira, Diego; Mello, Suzana B V; Camara, Niels O; Benatti, Fabiana B; Lima, Fernanda R; Borba, Eduardo; Bonfa, Eloisa; Sá-Pinto, Ana L; Roschel, Hamilton; Gualano, Bruno

    2014-09-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation. This study sought to assess the effects of an exercise training program on cytokines and soluble TNF receptors (sTNFRs) in response to acute exercise in SLE women. Eight SLE women and 10 sex-, age-, and body mass index-comparable healthy controls (HC) participated in this study. Before and after a 12-wk aerobic exercise training program, cytokines and sTNFRs were assessed at rest and in response to single bouts of acute moderate/intense exercise. HC performed the acute exercise bouts only at baseline. After the exercise training program, there was a decrease in resting TNFR2 levels (P = 0.025) and a tend to reduction interleukin (IL)-10 levels (P = 0.093) in SLE. The resting levels of IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-α after the exercise training in SLE reached HC levels (P > 0.05). In response to a single bout of acute moderate exercise, the area under the curve (AUC) of IL-10 was significantly reduced after the exercise training program in SLE (P = 0.043), and the AUC of IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, and sTNFR1 of SLE approached control values (P > 0.05). In response to a single bout of acute intense exercise, the AUC of IL-10 was significantly reduced in SLE (P = 0.015). Furthermore, the AUC of sTNFR2 tended to decrease after exercise training program in SLE (P = 0.084), but it did not reach control values (P = 0.001). An aerobic exercise training program attenuated the inflammatory milieu in SLE women, revealing a novel homeostatic immunomodulatory role of exercise in an autoimmunity condition. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  8. High-intensity training reduces CD8+ T-cell redistribution in response to exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witard, O.C.; Turner, J.E.; Jackman, S.R.; Tipton, K.D.; Jeukendrup, A.E.; Kies, A.K.; Bosch, J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: We examined whether exercise-induced lymphocytosis and lymphocytopenia are impaired with high-intensity training. Methods: Eight trained cyclists (V·O2max = 64.2 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1) undertook 1 wk of normal-intensity training and a second week of high-intensity training. On day 7 of each

  9. A simulator-based nuclear reactor emergency response training exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waller, Edward; Bereznai, George; Shaw, John; Chaput, Joseph; Lafortune, Jean-Francois

    Training offsite emergency response personnel basic awareness of onsite control room operations during nuclear power plant emergency conditions was the primary objective of a week-long workshop conducted on a CANDU® virtual nuclear reactor simulator available at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, Canada. The workshop was designed to examine both normal and abnormal reactor operating conditions, and to observe the conditions in the control room that may have impact on the subsequent offsite emergency response. The workshop was attended by participants from a number of countries encompassing diverse job functions related to nuclear emergency response. Objectives of the workshop were to provide opportunities for participants to act in the roles of control room personnel under different reactor operating scenarios, providing a unique experience for participants to interact with the simulator in real-time, and providing increased awareness of control room operations during accident conditions. The ability to "pause" the simulator during exercises allowed the instructors to evaluate and critique the performance of participants, and to provide context with respect to potential offsite emergency actions. Feedback from the participants highlighted (i) advantages of observing and participating "hands-on" with operational exercises, (ii) their general unfamiliarity with control room operational procedures and arrangements prior to the workshop, (iii) awareness of the vast quantity of detailed control room procedures for both normal and transient conditions, and (iv) appreciation of the increased workload for the operators in the control room during a transient from normal operations. Based upon participant feedback, it was determined that the objectives of the training had been met, and that future workshops should be conducted.

  10. Exercise training and impaired glucose tolerance in obese humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Andrea Margaret; McClean, Conor; Murphy, Marie; McEneny, Jane; Trinick, Tom; Burke, George; Duly, Ellie; McLaughlin, James; Davison, Gareth

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are at greater risk of developing diabetes than in normoglycaemia. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 12-weeks exercise training in obese humans with IGT. Eleven participants (6 males and 5 females; 49±9 years; mean Body Mass Index (BMI) 32.4 kg · m(-2)), completed a 12-week brisk walking intervention (30 min per day, five days a week (d · wk(-1)), at 65% of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR(max)). Anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, pulse wave velocity (PWV, to determine arterial stiffness) and blood pressure (BP) were examined at baseline and post intervention. Fasting blood glucose, glycosylated haemoglobin, insulin, blood lipids, indices of oxidative stress and inflammation (lipid hydroperoxides; superoxide dismutase; multimeric adiponectin concentration and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein) were also determined. Post intervention, PWV (9.08±1.27 m · s(-1) vs. 8.39±1.21 m · s(-1)), systolic BP (145.4±14.5 vs. 135.8±14.9 mmHg), triglycerides (1.52±0.53 mmol · L(-1) vs. 1.31±0.54 mmol · L(-1)), lipid hydroperoxides (1.20±0.47 μM · L(-1) vs. 0.79±0.32 μM · L(-1)) and anthropometric measures decreased significantly (P Moderate intensity exercise training improves upper limb vascular function in obese humans with IGT, possibly by improving triglyceride metabolism, which may subsequently reduce oxidative stress. These changes were independent of multimeric adiponectin modification and alterations in other blood biomarkers.

  11. Power outputs in the concentric phase of resistance exercises performed in the interval mode on stable and unstable surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zemková, Erika; Jeleň, Michal; Kováčiková, Zuzana; Ollé, Gábor; Vilman, Tomáš; Hamar, Dušan

    2012-12-01

    The study compares power outputs in the concentric phase of chest presses and squats performed in the interval mode on stable and unstable surface, respectively. A group of 16 physical education students performed randomly on different days 6 sets of 8 repetitions of (a) chest presses on the bench and Swiss ball, respectively, and (b) squats on stable support base and Bosu ball, respectively, with 2 minutes of rest period between sets. The exercises were performed with previously established 70% of 1 repetition maximum under stable conditions. A PC-based system FiTRO Dyne Premium was used to monitor force and velocity and to calculate power. The results showed significantly lower power outputs when resistance exercises were performed on an unstable than a stable support base. In the initial set, mean power in concentric phase of lifting decreased more profoundly under unstable than under stable conditions during both chest presses (13.2 and 7.7%, respectively) and squats (10.3 and 7.2%, respectively). In the final set, the reduction rates of mean power in the concentric phase of chest presses were significantly (p Swiss ball than on the bench (19.9 and 11.8%, respectively). On the other hand, there were no significant differences in decline of mean power in the concentric phase of squats on the Bosu ball and on stable support base (11.4 and 9.6%, respectively). It may be concluded that power outputs during resistance exercises is more profoundly compromised under unstable than under stable conditions, and this effect is more evident for barbell chest presses on the Swiss ball than for barbell squats on the Bosu ball. These findings have to be taken into account when instability resistance exercises are implemented into the training program, namely, for sports that require production of maximal force in short time.

  12. Comparative effectiveness of videotape and handout mode of instructions for teaching exercises: skill retention in normal children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Garima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Teaching of motor skills is fundamental to physical therapy practice. In order to optimize the benefits of these teaching and training efforts, various forms of patient education material are developed and handed out to patients. One very important fact has been overlooked. While comparative effectiveness of various modes of instruction has been studied in adults, attention has not been paid to the fact that learning capabilities of children are different from that of adults. The intent of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of video and handout mode of instructions specifically on children. Methods A total of 115 normal elementary-age children aged 10 to 12 years of age were studied. The children were randomized into two groups: A the video group, and B the handout group. The video group viewed the video for physical therapy exercises while the handout group was provided with paper handouts especially designed according to the readability of their age group. Results Statistical analysis using the student's't' test showed that subjects of both the video and handout groups exhibited equal overall performance accuracy. There was no significant difference between the groups both in acquisition and retention accuracy tests. Conclusion The findings of the present study suggest that if the readability and instructional principles applicable to different target age groups are strictly adhered to, then both video as well as handout modes of instructions result in similar feedback and memory recall in ten to twelve year-old children. Principles of readability related to the patient age are of utmost importance when designing the patient education material. These findings suggest that the less expensive handouts can be an effective instructional aid for teaching exercises to children with various neuromuscular, rheumatic, and orthopedics conditions and the most costly videotape techniques are not necessarily better.

  13. Comparative effectiveness of videotape and handout mode of instructions for teaching exercises: skill retention in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Garima; Sehgal, Stuti

    2012-01-30

    Teaching of motor skills is fundamental to physical therapy practice. In order to optimize the benefits of these teaching and training efforts, various forms of patient education material are developed and handed out to patients. One very important fact has been overlooked. While comparative effectiveness of various modes of instruction has been studied in adults, attention has not been paid to the fact that learning capabilities of children are different from that of adults. The intent of the present study is to compare the effectiveness of video and handout mode of instructions specifically on children. A total of 115 normal elementary-age children aged 10 to 12 years of age were studied. The children were randomized into two groups: A) the video group, and B) the handout group. The video group viewed the video for physical therapy exercises while the handout group was provided with paper handouts especially designed according to the readability of their age group. Statistical analysis using the student's't' test showed that subjects of both the video and handout groups exhibited equal overall performance accuracy. There was no significant difference between the groups both in acquisition and retention accuracy tests. The findings of the present study suggest that if the readability and instructional principles applicable to different target age groups are strictly adhered to, then both video as well as handout modes of instructions result in similar feedback and memory recall in ten to twelve year-old children. Principles of readability related to the patient age are of utmost importance when designing the patient education material. These findings suggest that the less expensive handouts can be an effective instructional aid for teaching exercises to children with various neuromuscular, rheumatic, and orthopedics conditions and the most costly videotape techniques are not necessarily better.

  14. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  15. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F. Özdemir; Çolak, R.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  16. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses.

  17. Twenty-five years of research on the effects of exercise training in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Claudio L; Mills, Robert C; Phillips, Brett L; Lee, Jordan T; Story, Christina E; Nascimento, Marcelo GB; Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. METHODS: PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. RESULTS: Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. CONCLUSION: Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise. PMID:24829866

  18. How much will older adults exercise? A feasibility study of aerobic training combined with resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falck, Ryan S; Davis, Jennifer C; Milosevic, Elizabeth; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Both aerobic training (AT) and resistance training (RT) have multidimensional health benefits for older adults including increased life expectancy and decreased risk of chronic diseases. However, the volume (i.e., frequency*time) of AT combined with RT in which untrained older adults can feasibly and safely participate remains unclear. Thus, our primary objective was to investigate the feasibility and safety of a high-volume exercise program consisting of twice weekly AT combined with twice weekly RT (i.e., four times weekly exercise) on a group of untrained older adults. In addition, we investigated the effects of the program on physical function, aerobic capacity, muscular strength, and explored factors related to participant adherence. We recruited eight inactive older adults (65+ years) to participate in a 6-week, single-group pre-post exercise intervention, consisting of 2 days/week of AT plus 2 days/week of progressive RT for 6 weeks. We recorded program attendance and monitored for adverse events during the course of the program. Participants were tested at both baseline and follow-up on the following: (1) physical function (i.e., timed-up-and-go test (TUG) and short physical performance battery (SPPB)), (2) aerobic capacity (VO2max) using the modified Bruce protocol; and (3) muscular strength on the leg press and lat pull-down. Post intervention, we performed qualitative semi-structured interviews of all participants regarding their experiences in the exercise program. We used these responses to examine themes that may affect continued program adherence to a high-volume exercise program. We recorded an average attendance rate of 83.3% with the lowest attendance for one session being five out of eight participants; no significant adverse events occurred. Significant improvements were observed for SPPB score (1.6; 95% CI: [0.3, 2.9]), VO2max (8.8 ml/kg/min; 95% CI: [2.8, 14.8]), and lat pull-down strength (11.8 lbs; 95% CI: [3.3, 20.2]). Qualitative

  19. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  20. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  1. Muscular Contraction Mode Differently Affects Autonomic Control During Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWeippert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. Aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN and isometric contractions (ISO at a similar, low heart rate (HR level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively, rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a nonlinear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  2. Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent training in the elderly: effects of intrasession exercise sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Radaelli, Régis; González-Izal, Miriam; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the effects of different intrasession exercise orders in the neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7 ± 4.1 years), were placed into two concurrent training groups: strength prior to (SE, n = 13) or after (ES, n = 13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training during 12 weeks, three times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper an...

  3. Effects of exercise during pregnancy on mode of delivery: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyatos-León, Raquel; García-Hermoso, Antonio; Sanabria-Martínez, Gema; Álvarez-Bueno, Celia; Sánchez-López, Mairena; Martínez-Vizcaíno, Vicente

    2015-10-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the influence of physical exercise interventions on the mode of delivery of healthy pregnant women with low to moderate levels of physical activity. Key words were used to conduct a computerized search for articles on the topic in six databases: Cochrane Library Plus, Science Direct, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science and ClinicalTrials.gov. Ten randomized controlled trials were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Main outcome measures were mode of delivery (normal, instrumental vaginal, or cesarean delivery) and physical activity. Relative risk reductions and their 95% confidence interval were calculated for each study, and the heterogeneity of the studies was estimated using Cochran's Q statistic. The evidence suggests that physical exercise during pregnancy may increase the likelihood of normal delivery (relative risk = 1.12, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.24; p = 0.041), in particular when exercise takes place during the second and third trimesters (relative risk = 1.14, 95% confidence interval 1.01-1.32; p = 0.048), even reducing the risk of cesarean delivery (relative risk = 0.66, 95% confidence interval 0.46-0.96; p = 0.028). Regular exercise during pregnancy appears to modestly increase the chance for normal delivery among healthy pregnant women. This applies to women with low to moderate levels of physical activity, but studies are needed to understand better the effect of physical exercise of moderate to vigorous intensity in the different trimesters. © 2015 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  4. Do acute effects of exercise on vascular function predict adaptation to training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ellen A; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2018-03-01

    No previous study has explored the importance of exercise-induced changes in vascular function to prolonged adaptations. Therefore, the purpose was to explore the within-subject relationship between the acute post-exercise change in brachial artery endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and the change in resting FMD after a 2-week exercise training in healthy volunteers. Twenty one healthy, young men (24 ± 5 years) underwent assessment of brachial artery FMD using high-resolution ultrasound before and after 30-min of moderate-intensity cycle exercise (80% maximal heart rate). Subsequently, subjects performed five 30-min cycle exercise bouts at 80% maximal heart rate across a 2-week period, followed by repeat assessment of resting brachial FMD post-training. Correcting for changes in diameter and shear, FMD did not change after the initial exercise bout (P = 0.26). However, a significant correlation was found between post-exercise changes in FMD and adaptation in resting FMD after training (r = 0.634, P = 0.002), where an acute decrease in post-exercise FMD resulted in a decrease in baseline FMD after 2 weeks and vice versa. We also found a positive correlation between antegrade shear rate during exercise and change in FMD% after acute exercise and after exercise training (r = 0.529 and 0.475, both P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that acute post-exercise changes in vascular function are related to changes in resting FMD after a 2-week endurance exercise training period in healthy men, an effect that may be related to exercise-induced increases in antegrade shear rate. This provides further insight into the relevance of acute changes in shear and FMD for subsequent adaptation.

  5. Exercise training modalities and strategies to improve exercise performance in patients with respiratory disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulmonary rehabilitation is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary, comprehensive intervention for patients with chronic respiratory diseases who are symptomatic and whose daily living activities are often restricted.Pulmonary rehabilitation programs are designed to improve the physical and emotional condition of people with chronic respiratory disease and to promote long-term adherence to health-enhancing behavior.Exercise training is at the core of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR programs. The benefits of exercise training include decreased dyspnea, improved health-related quality of life, fewer days of hospitalization, and decreased health-care utilization.To gain PR benefits, patients should be able to complete an exercise training program, preferably with high intensity exercise, and it is likely that these benefits will translate into a change from a pattern of a sedentary lifestyle to a physically active lifestyle.Chronic respiratory patients, namely COPD patients, have a low exercise tolerance due to multiple factors, such as dynamic hyperinflation and peripheral muscle dysfunction.In this article, the authors describe a variety of modalities and strategies to overcome exercise limitations and improve the effects of exercise training. Resumo: A reabilitação pulmonar é uma intervenção abrangente, multidisciplinar e baseada em evidências, para doentes com doenças respiratórias crónicas que são sintomáticas e cujas actividades da vida diária são frequentemente limitadas.Os programas de reabilitação pulmonar estão concebidos para melhorar a condição física e emocional de pessoas com doenças respiratórias crónicas e promover a adesão a longo prazo a comportamentos benéficos para a saúde.O exercício físico está no cerne dos programas de reabilitação pulmonar (RP. Os benefícios do exercício físico incluem redução da dispneia, melhor qualidade de

  6. Human skeletal muscle HSP70 response to physical training depends on exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Lormes, W; Baur, C; Opitz-Gress, A; Altenburg, D; Lehmann, M; Steinacker, J M

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported that HSP70 in human skeletal muscle could be induced by training. However, whether HSP70 induction is dependent upon exercise volume or exercise intensity remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between HSP70 and training intensity in rowers. Fourteen well-trained male rowers were divided into two groups (group A, n = 6; group B, n = 8). Group A performed higher intensity exercise during 1st phase, whereas group B performed higher intensity exercise during 2nd training phase. Training volume in 2nd phase increased in both groups. Both training intensity and volume were reduced in 3rd phase. Muscle samples were taken from m. vastus lateralis by fine needle biopsy before training, at the end of the 1st, 2nd and 3rd training phases. HSP70 was quantitatively determined using SDS-PAGE with silver stain. In group A, HSP70 increased significantly from 38 +/- 12 etag before training to 59 +/- 16 etag at the end of the lst training phase (loaded total protein 2.5microg), and decreased afterwards. In group B, HSP70 increase (from 36 +/- 11 etag to 50 +/- 13 etag) in the 1st phase was significantly smaller, there was a further increase of HSP70 in the 2nd phase (60 +/- 14 etag). At the end of the training, HSP70 decreased in both groups. Thus, HSP70 response to training seems to be dependent upon exercise intensity.

  7. Exercise training increases oxygen uptake efficiency slope in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gademan, Maaike G J; Swenne, Cees A; Verwey, Harriette F; van de Vooren, Hedde; Haest, Joris C W; van Exel, Henk J; Lucas, Caroline M H B; Cleuren, Ger V J; Schalij, Martin J; van der Wall, Ernst E

    2008-04-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a novel measure of cardiopulmonary reserve. OUES is measured during an exercise test, but it is independent of the maximally achieved exercise intensity. It has a higher prognostic value in chronic heart failure (CHF) than other exercise test-derived variables such as(Equation is included in full-text article.)or(Equation is included in full-text article.)slope. Exercise training improves(Equation is included in full-text article.)and(Equation is included in full-text article.)in CHF patients. We hypothesized that exercise training also improves OUES. We studied 34 New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II-III CHF patients who constituted an exercise training group T (N=20; 19 men/1 woman; age 60+/-9 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 34+/-5%) and a control group C (N=14; 13 men/one woman; age 63+/-10 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 34+/-7%). A symptom-limited exercise test was performed at baseline and repeated after 4 weeks (C) or after completion of the training program (T). Exercise training increased NYHA class from 2.6 to 2.0 (P<0.05),(Equation is included in full-text article.)by 14% [P(TvsC)<0.01], and OUES by 19% [P(TvsC)<0.01]. Exercise training decreased(Equation is included in full-text article.)by 14% [P(TvsC)<0.05]. Exercise training improved NYHA class,(Equation is included in full-text article.)and also OUES. This finding is of great potential interest as OUES is insensitive for peak load. Follow-up studies are needed to demonstrate whether OUES improvements induced by exercise training are associated with improved prognosis.

  8. Concluding remarks: nutritional strategies to support the adaptive response to prolonged exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Luc J C; Tipton, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Nutrition plays a key role in allowing the numerous training hours to be translated into useful adaptive responses of various tissues in the individual athlete. Research over the last decade has shown many examples of the impact of dietary interventions to modulate the skeletal muscle adaptive response to prolonged exercise training. Proper nutritional coaching should be applied throughout both training and competition, each with their specific requirements regarding nutrient provision. Such dietary support will improve exercise training efficiency and, as such, further increase performance capacity. Here, we provide an overview on the properties of various nutritional interventions that may be useful to support the adaptive response to exercise training and competition and, as such, to augment exercise training efficiency. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Acute and Post-Exercise Physiological Responses to High-Intensity Interval Training in Endurance and Sprint Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Cipryan, Gerhard Tschakert, Peter Hofmann

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the presented study was to compare acute and post-exercise differences in cardiorespiratory, metabolic, cardiac autonomic, inflammatory and muscle damage responses to high-intensity interval exercise (HIIT between endurance and sprint athletes. The study group consisted of sixteen highly-trained males (age 22.1 ± 2.5 years participating in endurance (n = 8 or sprint (n = 8 sporting events. All the participants underwent three exercise sessions: short HIIT (work interval duration 30s, long HIIT (3min and constant load exercise (CE. The exercise interventions were matched for mean power, total time and in case of HIIT interventions also for work-to-relief ratio. The acute cardiorespiratory (HR, V̇O2, RER and metabolic (lactate variables as well as the post-exercise changes (up to 3 h in the heart rate variability, inflammation (interleukin-6, leucocytes and muscle damage (creatine kinase, myoglobin were monitored. Endurance athletes performed exercise interventions with moderately (CE or largely (both HIIT modes higher mean V̇O2. These differences were trivial/small when V̇O2 was expressed as a percentage of V̇O2max. Moderately to largely lower RER and lactate values were found in endurance athletes. Markers of cardiac autonomic regulation, inflammation and muscle damage did not reveal any considerable differences between endurance and sprint athletes. In conclusions, endurance athletes were able to perform both HIIT formats with increased reliance on aerobic metabolic pathways although exercise intensity was identical in relative terms for all the participants. However, other markers of the acute and early post-exercise physiological response to these HIIT interventions indicated similarities between endurance and sprint athletes.

  10. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition

  11. Athletes' use of exercise imagery during weight training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silbernagel, Michael S; Short, Sandra E; Ross-Stewart, Lindsay C

    2007-11-01

    Imagery is a cognitive process during which people use their minds to create (or recreate) experiences that are similar to real-life situations. This study examined how college athletes used imagery during weight training. Subjects were 295 Division I (n = 163) and Division II (n = 132) college student athletes (men: n = 138, women: n = 157) who participated in a weight training program as a requirement of their sport. They completed a slightly modified version of the "Weight Lifting Imagery Questionnaire." Results showed that appearance imagery (i.e., images related to the attainment of a fit-looking body) was used and considered the most effective followed by technique imagery (i.e., images related to performing the skill and techniques correctly with good form) and energy imagery (i.e., images related to getting "psyched up" or feeling energized). Other variables that effected imagery use were gender, age, time of season, and levels of motivation. In addition, gender, previous imagery training, and level of motivation had an effect on the perceptions of imagery effectiveness. Confidence in the ability to image was associated with both imagery use and effectiveness, and imagery use and effectiveness were associated with confidence in the weight room. The findings support previous research in exercise imagery that appearance imagery is most used followed by technique and energy imagery and extend them in such a way that strength coaches have practical advice on how to use imagery in a positive way with their athletes. Suggestions about how strength coaches can use imagery with their clients are provided.

  12. Aerobic exercise training for depressive symptom management in adults living with HIV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neidig, Judith L; Smith, Barbara A; Brashers, Dale E

    2003-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training may help prevent or reduce depressive symptoms experienced by persons living with HIV infection. However, the psychological effects of aerobic exercise have not been studied extensively. This study evaluated the effects of an aerobic exercise training program on self-reported symptoms of depression in HIV-infected adults and examined the convergent validity of two widely used depressive symptom scales. Sixty HIV-infected adults participated in a randomized, controlled trial of a supervised 12-week aerobic exercise training program. As compared to study controls, exercise participants showed reductions in depressive symptoms on all indices, and total depressive symptoms scores were highly correlated. Additional study of the psychological effects of aerobic exercise programs in the target population is recommended.

  13. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  14. Effects of training status on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Bertholdt, Lærke; Stankiewicz, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the impact of training state on post-translational regulation of PDHa activity during submaximal and exhaustive exercise. Eight untrained and nine endurance exercise-trained healthy male subjects performed incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer: 40 min at 50% incremental peak...... power output (IPPO), 10 min at 65% (IPPO), followed by 80% (IPPO) until exhaustion. Trained subjects had higher (P muscle PDH......Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the gateway enzyme for carbohydrate-derived pyruvate feeding into the TCA cycle. PDH may play a central role in regulating substrate shifts during exercise, but the influence of training state on PDH regulation during exercise is not fully elucidated. The purpose...

  15. Recommendations for Recruiting and Retaining Adolescent Girls in Chronic Exercise (Training Research Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Massie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive challenges are often encountered when recruiting participants to chronic exercise (training studies. High participant burden during chronic exercise training programmes can result in low uptake to and/or poor compliance with the study. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify factors affecting adolescent girls’ recruitment and adherence to chronic exercise training research studies. Twenty-six adolescent girls (aged 12 to 15 years participated in one of five focus groups discussing recruitment and retention to exercise physiology research involving a chronic exercise training programme. A thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and eight final themes were inductively identified. Seven evidence-based practical recommendations are suggested to improve the recruitment and retention of participants for prospective, chronic exercise training studies. Successful recruitment requires: (i the defining of exercise-related terms; (ii appropriate choice of recruitment material; and (iii an understanding of participant motivations. Retention strategies include: (iv regular monitoring of participant motives; and (v small groups which foster peer and researcher support. Finally, (vi friendship and ability groups were favoured in addition to (vii a variety of activities to promote adherence to an exercise training programme.

  16. ORDER EFFECTS OF CONCURRENT ENDURANCE AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON POST-EXERCISE RESPONSE OF NON-TRAINED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Blasio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67 years, Mean (SD] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE, oxygen consumption (VO2, ventilation (Ve, respiratory frequency (RF, proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2 and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT, resistance-endurance training (RET and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT. AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses

  17. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  18. Interval training elicits higher enjoyment versus moderate exercise in persons with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astorino, Todd A; Thum, Jacob S

    2018-01-01

    High intensity interval training (HIIT) is a robust and time-efficient approach to improve multiple health indices including maximal oxygen uptake (VO 2 max). Despite the intense nature of HIIT, data in untrained adults report greater enjoyment of HIIT versus continuous exercise (CEX). However, this has yet to be investigated in persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). To examine differences in enjoyment in response to CEX and HIIT in persons with SCI. Repeated measures, within-subjects design. University laboratory in San Diego, CA. Nine habitually active men and women (age = 33.3 ± 10.5 years) with chronic SCI. Participants performed progressive arm ergometry to volitional exhaustion to determine VO 2 peak. During subsequent sessions, they completed CEX, sprint interval training (SIT), or HIIT in randomized order. Physical activity enjoyment (PACES), affect, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), VO 2 , and blood lactate concentration (BLa) were measured. Despite a higher VO 2 , RPE, and BLa consequent with HIIT and SIT (P HIIT (107.4 ± 13.4) and SIT (103.7 ± 12.5) compared to CEX (81.6 ± 25.4). Fifty-five percent of participants preferred HIIT and 45% preferred SIT, with none identifying CEX as their preferred exercise mode. Compared to CEX, brief sessions of submaximal or supramaximal interval training elicit higher enjoyment despite higher metabolic strain. The long-term efficacy and feasibility of HIIT in this population should be explored considering that it is not viewed as more aversive than CEX.

  19. Exercise training reverses the negative effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2017-12-15

    L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity. We, therefore, treated Wistar rats for 4weeks with arginine, associated or not with exercise training (treadmill). We assessed the somatotropic activation, by evaluating growth hormone (GH) gene expression and protein content in the pituitary, as well is GH concentration in the serum. Additionally, we evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, by performing an insulin tolerance test. Skeletal muscle morpho-physiological parameters were also assessed. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in the arginine-treated rats. However, exercise training reversed the negative effects of arginine. Arginine and exercise training increased somatotropic axis function, muscle mass and body weight gain. The combination arginine and exercise training further decreased total fat mass. Our results confirm that chronic arginine supplementation leads to insulin resistance, which can be reversed in the association with exercise training. We provide further evidence that exercise training is an important tool to improve whole-body metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Maldonado, Izabel Regina dos Santos Costa; Baldo, Marcelo Perim; Silva, Márcia Ferreira da; Moreira, José Bianco Nascimento; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; Ramos, Regiane Maria Soares; Mill, José Geraldo; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Felix, Leonardo Bonato; Gomes, Thales Nicolau Prímola; Natali, Antônio José

    2013-04-01

    The present study was performed to investigate 1) whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2) whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM), sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (pmyocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  1. A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, James; Fisher, James; Skivington, Martin; Dunn, Chris; Arnold, Josh; Tew, Garry; Batterham, Alan M; Nunan, David; O'Driscoll, Jamie M; Mann, Steven; Beedie, Chris; Jobson, Simon; Smith, Dave; Vigotsky, Andrew; Phillips, Stuart; Estabrooks, Paul; Winett, Richard

    2017-04-05

    It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence linking physical fitness and performance outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and muscle mass) also to morbidity and mortality risk. Current guidelines about the performance of moderate/vigorous physical activity using aerobic exercise modes focuses upon the accumulation of a minimum volume of physical activity and/or exercise, and have thus far produced disappointing outcomes. As such there has been increased interest in the use of higher effort physical activity and exercise as being potentially more efficacious. Though there is currently debate as to the effectiveness of public health prescription based around higher effort physical activity and exercise, most discussion around this has focused upon modes considered to be traditionally 'aerobic' (e.g. running, cycling, rowing, swimming etc.). A mode customarily performed to a relatively high intensity of effort that we believe has been overlooked is resistance training. Current guidelines do include recommendations to engage in 'muscle strengthening activities' though there has been very little emphasis upon these modes in either research or public health effort. As such the purpose of this debate article is to discuss the emerging higher effort paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health and to make a case for why there should be a greater emphasis placed upon resistance training as a mode in this paradigm shift.

  2. A higher effort-based paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health: making the case for a greater emphasis on resistance training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Steele

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract It is well known that physical activity and exercise is associated with a lower risk of a range of morbidities and all-cause mortality. Further, it appears that risk reductions are greater when physical activity and/or exercise is performed at a higher intensity of effort. Why this may be the case is perhaps explained by the accumulating evidence linking physical fitness and performance outcomes (e.g. cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, and muscle mass also to morbidity and mortality risk. Current guidelines about the performance of moderate/vigorous physical activity using aerobic exercise modes focuses upon the accumulation of a minimum volume of physical activity and/or exercise, and have thus far produced disappointing outcomes. As such there has been increased interest in the use of higher effort physical activity and exercise as being potentially more efficacious. Though there is currently debate as to the effectiveness of public health prescription based around higher effort physical activity and exercise, most discussion around this has focused upon modes considered to be traditionally ‘aerobic’ (e.g. running, cycling, rowing, swimming etc.. A mode customarily performed to a relatively high intensity of effort that we believe has been overlooked is resistance training. Current guidelines do include recommendations to engage in ‘muscle strengthening activities’ though there has been very little emphasis upon these modes in either research or public health effort. As such the purpose of this debate article is to discuss the emerging higher effort paradigm in physical activity and exercise for public health and to make a case for why there should be a greater emphasis placed upon resistance training as a mode in this paradigm shift.

  3. Strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise therapy with passive manual mobilisation each reduce pain and disability in people with knee osteoarthritis: a systematic review

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jansen, Mariette J; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Lenssen, Antoine F; Hendriks, Erik J.M; de Bie, Rob A

    2011-01-01

    What are the effects of strength training alone, exercise therapy alone, and exercise with additional passive manual mobilisation on pain and function in people with knee osteoarthritis compared to control...

  4. Assessment of protein synthesis in highly aerobic canine species at the onset and during exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Benjamin F; Ehrlicher, Sarah E; Drake, Joshua C; Peelor, Frederick F; Biela, Laurie M; Pratt-Phillips, Shannon; Davis, Michael; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2015-04-01

    Canis lupus familiaris, the domesticated dog, is capable of extreme endurance performance. The ability to perform sustained aerobic exercise is dependent on a well-developed mitochondrial reticulum. In this study we examined the cumulative muscle protein and DNA synthesis in groups of athletic dogs at the onset of an exercise training program and following a strenuous exercise training program. We hypothesized that both at the onset and during an exercise training program there would be greater mitochondrial protein synthesis rates compared with sedentary control with no difference in mixed or cytoplasmic protein synthesis rates. Protein synthetic rates of three protein fractions and DNA synthesis were determined over 1 wk using (2)H2O in competitive Alaskan Huskies and Labrador Retrievers trained for explosive device detection. Both groups of dogs had very high rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis in the sedentary state [Alaskan Huskies: Mixed = 2.28 ± 0.12, cytoplasmic (Cyto) = 2.91 ± 0.10, and mitochondrial (Mito) = 2.62 ± 0.07; Labrador Retrievers: Mixed = 3.88 ± 0.37, Cyto = 3.85 ± 0.06, and Mito = 2.92 ± 0.20%/day]. Mitochondrial (Mito) protein synthesis rates did not increase at the onset of an exercise training program. Exercise-trained dogs maintained Mito protein synthesis during exercise training when mixed (Mixed) and cytosolic (Cyto) fractions decreased, and this coincided with a decrease in p-RpS6 but also a decrease in p-ACC signaling. Contrary to our hypothesis, canines did not have large increases in mitochondrial protein synthesis at the onset or during an exercise training program. However, dogs have a high rate of protein synthesis compared with humans that perhaps does not necessitate an extra increase in protein synthesis at the onset of aerobic exercise training. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. A Comparison of Different Modes of Morning Priming Exercise on Afternoon Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Mark; King, Aden; Bracken, Richard M; Cook, Christian J; Giroud, Thibault; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-09-01

    To assess the effects of different modes of morning (AM) exercise on afternoon (PM) performance and salivary hormone responses in professional rugby union players. On 4 occasions (randomized, crossover design), 15 professional rugby players provided AM (~8 AM) and PM (~2 PM) saliva samples before PM assessments of countermovement-jump height, reaction time, and repeated-sprint ability. Control (passive rest), weights (bench press: 5 × 10 repetitions, 75% 1-repetition maximum, 90-s intraset recovery), cycling (6 × 6-s maximal sprint cycling, 7.5% body mass load, 54-s intraset recovery), and running (6 × 40-m maximal sprints, 20-s intraset recovery) interventions preceded (~5 h) PM testing. PM sprint performance improved (P 0.15 ± 0.19 s, >2.04% ± 2.46%) and running (>0.15 ± 0.17 s, >2.12% ± 2.22%) but not cycling (P > .05). PM jump height increased after cycling (0.012 ± 0.009 m, 2.31% ± 1.76%, P < .001) and running (0.020 ± 0.009 m, 3.90% ± 1.79%, P < .001) but not weights (P = .936). Reaction time remained unchanged between trials (P = .379). Relative to control (131 ± 21 pg/mL), PM testosterone was greater in weights (21 ± 23 pg/mL, 17% ± 18%, P = .002) and running (28 ± 26 pg/mL, 22% ± 20%, P = .001) but not cycling (P = .072). Salivary cortisol was unaffected by AM exercise (P = .540). All modes of AM exercise improved at least 1 marker of PM performance, but running appeared the most beneficial to professional rugby union players. A rationale therefore exists for preceding PM competition with AM exercise.

  6. Aerobicvsanaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  7. Quantifying The External And Internal Loads Of Professional Rugby League Training Modes: Consideration For Concurrent Field-Based Training Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaving, Dan; Jones, Ben; Till, Kevin; Marshall, Phil; Earle, Keith; Abt, Grant

    2017-09-11

    Practitioners prescribe numerous training modes to develop the varied physical qualities professional rugby league players must express during competition. The aim of the current study was to determine how the magnitude of external and internal training load per minute of time differs between modes in professional rugby league players. This data were collected from 17 players across 716 individual sessions (mean (SD) sessions: 42 (13) per player) which were categorised by mode (conditioning, small sided games, skills and sprint training). Derived from global positioning systems (5Hz with 15Hz interpolation), the distances covered within arbitrary speed- and metabolic-power-thresholds were determined to represent the external load. Session rating of perceived exertion (sRPE) and individualised training impulse (iTRIMP) represented the internal load. All data were made relative to session duration. The differences in time-relative load methods between each mode were assessed using magnitude based inferences. Small-sided-games and conditioning very likely to almost certainly produced the greatest relative internal and external loads. Sprint training provided players with the greatest sprinting and maximal-power distances without a concomitant increase in internal load. The metabolic-power method complements speed-based quantification of the external load, particularly during smallsided-games and skills training. In practice, establishing normative loads per minute of time for each mode can be useful to plan future training by multiplying this value by the planned session duration.

  8. Supervised and home-based exercise training for patients with intermittent claudication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianxiong; Zhou, Shi; Bronks, Roger; Graham, John; Myers, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Home-based exercise training, applied as the primary treatment in patients with intermittent claudication, has produced inconsistent effects on walking capacity in previous published studies. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether a home-based exercise training program could maintain improved walking capacity and other functional variables achieved through a supervised exercise training program. The present design was a 48-week self-controlled study. The first 12-week period was a control stage in which no prescribed exercise program was provided, the second 12-week period was a supervised treadmill-walking training program and the following 24-week period was a home-based exercise program. Twenty-two subjects with intermittent claudication were recruited initially; 15 of them (14 men and one woman) completed the whole program. Walking capacity, peak oxygen uptake, walking economy and ankle-brachial index were measured at baseline and at 12, 24 and 48 weeks. There was no significant change in the measured variables after the control stage. The 12-week supervised treadmill-walking training program significantly increased pain-free walking time, maximal walking time and peak oxygen uptake. Walking economy was also significantly improved. These improvements were successfully maintained after 24 weeks of home-based training. The results indicated that 12 weeks of supervised treadmill-walking training followed by a home-based training program is an effective model of exercise rehabilitation for patients with intermittent claudication. PMID:22477417

  9. IL-6 regulates exercise and training-induced adaptations in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Claus; Jakobsen, Anne Hviid; Hassing, Helle Adser

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that IL-6 regulates exercise-induced gene responses in subcutaneous adipose tissue in mice. Methods: Four months old male IL-6 whole body knockout (KO) mice and C57B wild-type (WT) mice performed 1h of treadmill exercise, where subcutaneous...... adipose tissue (AT) was removed either immediately after, 4h or 10h after exercise as well as from mice not running acutely. Moreover, AT was sampled at resting conditions after 5 weeks of exercise training. Results: AT leptin mRNA decreased immediately after a single running exercise bout in both...

  10. Strength-training exercise in dysphagia rehabilitation: principles, procedures, and directions for future research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkhead, Lori M; Sapienza, Christine M; Rosenbek, John C

    2007-07-01

    Dysphagia rehabilitation, historically, has focused a great deal on various compensations during swallowing to prevent aspiration and/or improve safety and efficiency. Exercise, in general, has been a part of the dysphagia rehabilitation landscape. However, heightened discussions in the field regarding best practices for exercise training, particularly strengthening, raise more questions than answers. The intent of this paper is to (1) explore the overriding principles of neuromuscular plasticity with regard to strength training, (2) evaluate how current exercise-training interventions in dysphagia rehabilitation correspond to these principles, and (3) postulate directions for future study of normal and disordered swallowing and determine how to incorporate these principles into dysphagia rehabilitation.

  11. Energy harvesting from an exercise bike using a switch-mode converter controlled generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Arnold; Lindberg-Poulsen, Kristian; Andersen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the feasibility of using an alternator as means of harvesting energy from a stationary exercise bicycle. A switch mode converter was designed to regulate the current in the alternator rotor winding, thus regulating the power required to pedal, and consequently the power...... output of the bike. The complete controller design consists of this power stage, a control circuit, a startup circuit and an overvoltage protection circuit. A functional overview of the entire controller is presented in the paper, along with in-depth descriptions of the specific subcircuits designed...

  12. Can proportional ventilation modes facilitate exercise in critically ill patients? A physiological cross-over study : Pressure support versus proportional ventilation during lower limb exercise in ventilated critically ill patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akoumianaki, Evangelia; Dousse, Nicolas; Lyazidi, Aissam; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude; Graf, Severine; Cordioli, Ricardo Luiz; Rey, Nathalie; Richard, Jean-Christophe Marie; Brochard, Laurent

    2017-12-01

    Early exercise of critically ill patients may have beneficial effects on muscle strength, mass and systemic inflammation. During pressure support ventilation (PSV), a mismatch between demand and assist could increase work of breathing and limit exercise. A better exercise tolerance is possible with a proportional mode of ventilation (Proportional Assist Ventilation, PAV+ and Neurally Adjusted Ventilatory Assist, NAVA). We examined whether, in critically ill patients, PSV and proportional ventilation have different effects on respiratory muscles unloading and work efficiency during exercise. Prospective pilot randomized cross-over study performed in a medico-surgical ICU. Patients requiring mechanical ventilation >48 h were enrolled. At initiation, the patients underwent an incremental workload test on a cycloergometer to determine the maximum level capacity. The next day, 2 15-min exercise, at 60% of the maximum capacity, were performed while patients were randomly ventilated with PSV and PAV+ or NAVA. The change in oxygen consumption (ΔVO2, indirect calorimetry) and the work efficiency (ratio of ΔVO2 per mean power) were computed. Ten patients were examined, 6 ventilated with PSV/PAV+ and 4 with PSV/NAVA. Despite the same mean inspiratory pressure at baseline between the modes, baseline VO2 (median, IQR) was higher during proportional ventilation (301 ml/min, 270-342) compared to PSV (249 ml/min, 206-353). Exercise with PSV was associated with a significant increase in VO2 (ΔVO2, median, IQR) (77.6 ml/min, 59.9-96.5), while VO2 did not significantly change during exercise with proportional modes (46.3 ml/min, 5.7-63.7, p PSV. The ventilator modes did not affect patient's dyspnea, limb fatigue, distance, hemodynamics and breathing pattern. Proportional ventilation during exercise results in higher work efficiency and less increase in VO2 compared to ventilation with PSV. These preliminary findings suggest that proportional ventilation could enhance the

  13. Exercise Training in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure and Atrial Fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Nancy; Merrill, Peter; Parikh, Kishan S; Whellan, David J; Piña, Ileana L; Fiuzat, Mona; Kraus, William E; Kitzman, Dalane W; Keteyian, Steven J; O'Connor, Christopher M; Mentz, Robert J

    2017-04-04

    The safety and efficacy of aerobic exercise in heart failure (HF) patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) has not been well evaluated. This study examined whether outcomes with exercise training in HF vary according to AF status. HF-ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training) randomized 2,331 ambulatory HF patients with ejection fraction ≤35% to exercise training or usual care. We examined clinical characteristics and outcomes (mortality/hospitalization) by baseline AF status (past history of AF or AF on baseline electrocardiogram vs. no AF) using adjusted Cox models and explored an interaction with exercise training. We assessed post-randomization AF events diagnosed via hospitalizations for AF and reports of serious arrhythmia caused by AF. Of 2,292 patients with baseline rhythm data, 382 (17%) had AF, 1,602 (70%) had sinus rhythm, and 308 (13%) had "other" rhythm. Patients with AF were older and had lower peak Vo2. Over a median follow-up of 2.6 years, AF was associated with a 24% per year higher rate of mortality/hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.34 to 1.74; p  0.10). There was no interaction between AF and exercise training on measures of functional status or clinical outcomes (all p > 0.10). AF in patients with chronic HF was associated with older age, reduced exercise capacity at baseline, and a higher overall rate of clinical events, but not a differential response to exercise training for clinical outcomes or changes in exercise capacity. (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training [HF-ACTION]; NCT00047437). Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Paul A; Garnham, Andrew P; Peake, Jonathan M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Aging is associated with increased circulating pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exercise training, in addition to improving muscle function, reduces these circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, few studies have evaluated changes in the expression of cytokines within skeletal muscle after exercise training. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression of cytokines both at rest and following a bout of isokinetic exercise performed before and after 12weeks of resistance exercise training in young (n=8, 20.3±0.8yr) and elderly men (n=8, 66.9±1.6yr). Protein expression of various cytokines was determined in muscle homogenates. The expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 (which are traditionally classified as 'pro-inflammatory') increased substantially after acute exercise. By contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 increased only slightly (or not at all) after acute exercise. These responses were not significantly different between young and elderly men, either before or after 12weeks of exercise training. However, compared with the young men, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines 2h post exercise tended to be greater in the elderly men prior to training. Training attenuated this difference. These data suggest that the inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise increases with age. Furthermore, regular exercise training may help to normalize this inflammatory response, which could have important implications for muscle regeneration and adaptation in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. High-intensity intermittent exercise training with chlorella intake accelerates exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative capacity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Naoki; Hasegawa, Natsuki; Fujie, Shumpei; Uchida, Masataka; Miyamoto-Mikami, Eri; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tabata, Izumi; Iemitsu, Motoyuki

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of chronic chlorella intake alone or in combination with high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) training on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism in rats. Forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the four groups: sedentary control, chlorella intake (0.5% chlorella powder in normal feed), HIIE training, and combination of HIIE training and chlorella intake for 6 wk ( n = 10 each group). HIIE training comprised 14 repeats of a 20-s swimming session with a 10-s pause between sessions, while bearing a weight equivalent to 16% of body weight, 4 days/week. Exercise performance was tested after the interventions by measuring the maximal number of HIIE sessions that could be completed. Chlorella intake and HIIE training significantly increased the maximal number of HIIE sessions and enhanced the expression of monocarboxylate transporter (MCT)1, MCT4, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α concomitantly with the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), phosphofructokinase, citrate synthase (CS), and cytochrome- c oxidase (COX) in the red region of the gastrocnemius muscle. Furthermore, the combination further augmented the increased exercise performance and the enhanced expressions and activities. By contrast, in the white region of the muscle, MCT1 expression and LDH, CS, and COX activities did not change. These results showed that compared with only chlorella intake and only HIIE training, chlorella intake combined with HIIE training has a more pronounced effect on exercise performance and muscle glycolytic and oxidative metabolism, in particular, lactate metabolism. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation to exercise training in a novel model of physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asoom, L I; Al-Shaikh, B A; Bamosa, A O; El-Bahai, M N

    2014-09-01

    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapy to patients with heart failure due to its multiple beneficial cardiac effects including physiological remodeling of the heart. However, precautions might be taken for the concomitant high oxidant release. Nigella sativa (NS) has been found to induce cardiac hypertrophy and enhance cardiac function. Combination of NS supplementation and exercise training might induce a safer model of cardiac hypertrophy. Our aim was to study biomarkers associated with cardiac hypertrophy induced by NS supplementation of exercise-trained rats. Forty-five adult male Wistar rats (body weight 150-220 g) were divided equally into three groups: control, exercise-trained (ET) and NS-treated-exercise-trained (NSET) groups. Daily 800 mg/kg NS was administered orally to NSET group for 8 weeks. Rats of the ET and NSET groups were subjected to treadmill running sessions for 2 h/day for 8 weeks. By the end of the experiment, the following were recorded: body, heart and left ventricular weights (BW, HW, LVW), cardiomyocyte diameter, serum growth hormone, insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid hormones, catecholamines, total nitrate, ICAM and antioxidant capacity. A homogenous cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced by increased HW/BW, LVW/BW ratios and cardiomyocyte diameter in the two groups of exercise-trained compared with control rats. Rats of ET group had higher growth hormone. Those of NSET group developed higher IGF-I and total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower serum thyroxin level. Simultaneous NS supplementation to an exercise training program preserves and augments exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy with step-forward adaptive signs of increased IGF-I and reduced thyroxin level, and with an added advantage of elevation of total serum antioxidant capacity. Thus, the novel model of NSET-induced cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heart failure with superior

  17. Comparison of Different Forms of Exercise Training in Patients With Cardiac Disease: Where Does High-Intensity Interval Training Fit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayda, Mathieu; Ribeiro, Paula A B; Juneau, Martin; Nigam, Anil

    2016-04-01

    In this review, we discuss the most recent forms of exercise training available to patients with cardiac disease and their comparison or their combination (or both) during short- and long-term (phase II and III) cardiac rehabilitation programs. Exercise training modalities to be discussed include inspiratory muscle training (IMT), resistance training (RT), continuous aerobic exercise training (CAET), and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). Particular emphasis is placed on HIIT compared or combined (or both) with other forms such as CAET or RT. For example, IMT combined with CAET was shown to be superior to CAET alone for improving functional capacity, ventilatory function, and quality of life in patients with chronic heart failure. Similarly, RT combined with CAET was shown to optimize benefits with respect to functional capacity, muscle function, and quality of life. Furthermore, in recent years, HIIT has emerged as an alternative or complementary (or both) exercise modality to CAET, providing equivalent if not superior benefits to conventional continuous aerobic training with respect to aerobic fitness, cardiovascular function, quality of life, efficiency, safety, tolerance, and exercise adherence in both short- and long-term training studies. Finally, short-interval HIIT was shown to be useful in the initiation and improvement phases of cardiac rehabilitation, whereas moderate- or longer-interval (or both) HIIT protocols appear to be more appropriate for the improvement and maintenance phases because of their high physiological stimulus. We now propose progressive models of exercise training (phases II-III) for patients with cardiac disease, including a more appropriate application of HIIT based on the scientific literature in the context of a multimodal cardiac rehabilitation program. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Concentrically trained cyclists are not more susceptible to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are stretch-shortening exercise-trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snieckus, Audrius; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckūnas, Tomas; Brazaitis, Marius; Volungevičius, Gintautas; Skurvydas, Albertas

    2013-03-01

    Here, we test the hypothesis that continuous concentric exercise training renders skeletal muscles more susceptible to damage in response to eccentric exercise. Elite road cyclists (CYC; n = 10, training experience 8.1 ± 2.0 years, age 22.9 ± 3.7 years), long-distance runners (LDR; n = 10, 9.9 ± 2.3 years, 24.4 ± 2.5 years), and healthy untrained (UT) men (n = 10; 22.4 ± 1.7 years) performed 100 submaximal eccentric contractions at constant angular velocity of 60° s(-1). Concentric isokinetic peak torque, isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and electrically induced knee extension torque were measured at baseline and immediately and 48 h after an eccentric exercise bout. Muscle soreness was assessed and plasma creatine kinase (CK) activity was measured at baseline and 48 h after exercise. Voluntary and electrically stimulated knee extension torque reduction were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in UT than in LDR and CYC. Immediately and 48 h after exercise, MVC decreased by 32 % and 20 % in UT, 20 % and 5 % in LDR, and 25 % and 6 % in CYC. Electrically induced 20 Hz torque decreased at the same times by 61 and 29 % in UT, 40 and 17 % in LDR, and 26 and 14 % in CYC. Muscle soreness and plasma CK activity 48 h after exercise did not differ significantly between athletes and UT subjects. In conclusion, even though elite endurance athletes are more resistant to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage than are UT people, stretch-shortening exercise-trained LDR have no advantage over concentrically trained CYC.

  19. Effects of Electrical Stimulation, Exercise Training and Motor Skills Training on Strength of Children with Meningomyelocele: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Liese M.; Lahay, Erin R.; Stueck, Kailey A.; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant…

  20. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation--a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Annemarie L; Holland, Anne E

    2014-01-01

    Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features characteristic of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients with a primary diagnosis of COPD often report comorbidities and other secondary manifestations, which diversifies the clinical presentation. Pulmonary rehabilitation that includes whole body exercise training is a critical part of management, and core programs involve endurance and resistance training for the upper and lower limbs. Improvement in maximal and submaximal exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, health-related quality of life, and psychological symptoms are outcomes associated with exercise training in pulmonary rehabilitation, irrespective of the clinical state in which it is commenced. There may be benefits for the health care system as well as the individual patient, with fewer exacerbations and subsequent hospitalization reported with exercise training. The varying clinical profile of COPD may direct the need for modification to traditional training strategies for some patients. Interval training, one-legged cycling (partitioning) and non-linear periodized training appear to be equally or more effective than continuous training. Inspiratory muscle training may have a role as an adjunct to whole body training in selected patients. The benefits of balance training are also emerging. Strategies to ensure that health enhancing behaviors are adopted and maintained are essential. These may include training for an extended duration, alternative environments to undertake the initial program, maintenance programs following initial exercise training, program repetition, and incorporation of approaches to address behavioral change. This may be complemented by methods designed to maximize uptake and completion of a pulmonary rehabilitation program.

  1. Resistance-training exercises with different stability requirements: time course of task specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeterbakken, Atle Hole; Andersen, Vidar; Behm, David G; Krohn-Hansen, Espen Krogseth; Smaamo, Mats; Fimland, Marius Steiro

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the task-specificity (greater improvements in trained compared to non-trained tasks), transferability and time-course adaptations of resistance-training programs with varying instability requirements. Thirty-six resistance-trained men were randomized to train chest press 2 days week(-1) for 10 week (6 repetitions × 4 series) using a Swiss ball, Smith machine or dumbbells. A six-repetition maximum-strength test with the aforementioned exercises and traditional barbell chest press were performed by all participants at the first, 7th, 14th and final training session in addition to electromyographic activities of the prime movers measured during isometric bench press. The groups training with the unstable Swiss-ball and dumbbells, but not the stable Smith-machine, demonstrated task-specificity, which became apparent in the early phase and remained throughout the study. The improvements in the trained exercise tended to increase more with instability (dumbbells vs. Smith machine, p = 0.061). The group training with Smith machine had similar improvements in the non-trained exercises. Greater improvements were observed in the early phase of the strength-training program (first-7th session) for all groups in all three exercises, but most notably for the unstable exercises. No differences were observed between the groups or testing times for EMG activity. These findings suggest that among resistance-trained individuals, the concept of task-specificity could be most relevant in resistance training with greater stability requirements, particularly due to rapid strength improvements for unstable resistance exercises.

  2. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  3. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...... improvement in one-leg hop (change 8 vs 2 cm; P=0.040), hamstrings strength 60 degrees /s (P=0.033), and quadriceps endurance 180 degrees /s (P=0.001). Functional exercise training was well tolerated and improved functional performance and thigh muscle strength in this group of middle-aged subjects...

  4. Skeletal Muscle myomiR Are Differentially Expressed by Endurance Exercise Mode and Combined Essential Amino Acid and Carbohydrate Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margolis, Lee M; McClung, Holly L; Murphy, Nancy E; Carrigan, Christopher T; Pasiakos, Stefan M

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle microRNAs (myomiR) expression is modulated by exercise, however, the influence of endurance exercise mode, combined with essential amino acid and carbohydrate (EAA+CHO) supplementation are not well defined. This study determined the effects of weighted versus non-weighted endurance exercise, with or without EAA+CHO ingestion on myomiR expression and their association with muscle protein synthesis (MPS). Twenty five adults performed 90 min of metabolically-matched (2.2 VO2 L·m-1) load carriage (LC; performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass) or cycle ergometry (CE) exercise, during which EAA+CHO (10 g EAA and 46 g CHO) or non-nutritive control (CON) drinks were consumed. Expression of myomiR (RT-qPCR) were determined at rest (PRE), immediately post-exercise (POST), and 3 h into recovery (REC). Muscle protein synthesis (2H5-phenylalanine) was measured during exercise and recovery. Relative to PRE, POST, and REC expression of miR-1-3p, miR-206, miR-208a-5, and miR-499 was lower (P post-exercise. These findings suggest the alterations in myomiR expression between exercise mode and EAA+CHO intake may in part be due to differing MPS modulation immediately post-exercise.

  5. Exercise training prevents regain of visceral fat for 1-year following weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary R.; Brock, David W.; Byrne, Nuala M; Chandler-Laney, Paula; Coral, Pedro Del; Gower, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine what effect aerobic and resistance exercise training has on gain of visceral fat during the year following weight loss. After being randomly assigned to aerobic training, resistance training, or no exercise training, 45 European-American and 52 African-American women lost 12.3±2.5 kg on a 800 kcal/day diet. Computed tomography was used to measure abdominal subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue while total fat and regional fat (leg, arm, and trunk) were measured by Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry after weight loss and one year following the weight loss. Since not all the subjects adhered to the 2 time/week 40 minutes/day exercise training during the one year follow-up, subjects were divided into five groups for analysis; aerobic adherers, aerobic non-adherers, resistance adherers, resistance non-adherers and no exercise. No significant differences were observed between the aerobic training and resistance training adherers for any variable. However, the aerobic (3.1 kg) and resistance (3.9 kg) exercise adherers gained less weight than any of the other 3 groups (all more than 6.2 kg). In addition, the two exercise adherence groups did not significantly increase visceral fat (exercise groups and the 25% for the non-exercise group. In conclusion, as little as 80 minutes/week aerobic or resistance training had modest positive effects on preventing weight regain following a diet induced weight loss. More importantly, both aerobic and resistance training prevented regain of potentially harmful visceral fat. PMID:19816413

  6. Exercise training in intermittent claudication: effects on antioxidant genes, inflammatory mediators and proangiogenic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Witold N; Mika, Piotr; Nowobilski, Roman; Kusinska, Katarzyna; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Nizankowski, Rafal; Józkowicz, Alicja; Szczeklik, Andrzej; Dulak, Jozef

    2012-11-01

    Exercise training remains a therapy of choice in intermittent claudication (IC). However, too exhaustive exercise may cause ischaemic injury and inflammatory response. We tested the impact of three-month treadmill training and single treadmill exercise on antioxidant gene expressions, cytokine concentrations and number of marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells (PPC) in the blood of IC patients. Blood samples of 12 patients were collected before and after training, before and 1, 3 and 6 hours after the single exercise. PPCs were analysed with flow cytometry, cytokine concentrations were checked with Milliplex MAP, while expression of mRNAs and miRNAs was evaluated with qRT-PCR. Treadmill training improved pain-free walking time (from 144 ± 44 seconds [s] to 311 ± 134 s, p=0.02) and maximum walking time (from 578 ± 293 s to 859 ± 423 s, p=0.01) in IC patients. Before, but not after training, the single treadmill exercise increased the number of circulating CD45dimCD34+CD133-KDR+ PPCs (p=0.048), decreased expression of HMOX1 (p=0.04) in circulating leukocytes, reduced tumour necrosis factor-α (p=0.03) and tended to elevate myeloperoxidase (p=0.06) concentrations in plasma. In contrast, total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was decreased by single exercise only after, but not before training (p=0.02). Both before and after training the single exercise decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (p=0.006 and p=0.03) concentration and increased SOD1 (p=0.001 and p=0.01) expression. Patients after training had also less interleukin-6 (p=0.03), but more MCP-1 (p=0.04) in the blood. In conclusion, treadmill training improves walking performance of IC patients, attenuates the single exercise-induced changes in gene expressions or PPC mobilisation, but may also lead to higher production of some proinflammatory cytokines.

  7. Downhill exercise training in monocrotaline-injected rats: Effects on echocardiographic and haemodynamic variables and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Irina; Favret, Fabrice; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Goette Di Marco, Paola; Charles, Anne-Laure; Geny, Bernard; Charloux, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Eccentric exercise training has been shown to improve muscle force strength without excessive cardiovascular stress. Such an exercise modality deserves to be tested in pulmonary arterial hypertension. We aimed to assess the effects of an eccentric training modality on cardiac function and survival in an experimental monocrotaline-induced model of pulmonary arterial hypertension with right ventricular dysfunction. Forty rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 40mg/kg monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats; 40mg/kg monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats; sedentary control rats; or eccentric-trained control rats. Eccentric exercise training consisted of downhill running on a treadmill with a -15° slope for 30minutes, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Training tolerance was assessed by echocardiography, right ventricle catheterization and the rats' maximal eccentric speed. Survival in monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats was not different from that in monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats. Monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats tolerated this training modality well, and haemodynamic status did not deteriorate further compared with monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats. The eccentric maximal speed decline was less pronounced in trained compared with sedentary pulmonary arterial hypertension rats. Eccentric exercise training had no detrimental effects on right heart pressure, cardiac function and survival in rats with stable monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  8. PENGARUH KOMBINASI BLADDER TRAINING DAN KEGEL EXERCISE TERHADAP PEMULIHAN INKONTINENSIA PADA PADA PASIEN STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Ernawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Stroke adalah suatu gangguan fungsi saraf akut yang disebabkan oleh adanya gangguan peredaran darah otak secara mendadak (dalam beberapa detik atau secara cepat (dalam beberapa jam timbul gejala dan tanda sesuai dengan daerah fokal di otak yang terganggu. Komplikasi akibat stroke diantaranya adalah lemahnya otot spingter uretra yang mengendalikan kemampuan berkemihpasien. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisa pengaruh kombinasi bladder training dan kegel exercise terhadap pemulihanin kontinensia urine pada pasien stroke di Ruang Tulip Rumah Sakit Dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara Serang. Metode penelitian ini adalah kuasi eksperimen pre test and post test one group design. Populasi adalah semua pasien stroke di RS dr. Dradjat Prawiranegara berjumlah 112 orang. Sampel yang diambil adalah 36 respondendengan intervenesibladder training selama 3 haridilanjutkankegel exercise selama 7 hari.Pengukuran inkontinen dengan menggunakan Sandvik Severity Scale, sedangkan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise menggunakan SOP yang telah dibakukan. Hasil didapatkan rata-rata scor inkontinensia urine mengalami penurunan dengan intervensi bladder training sebesar 0,92. Umur secara bersama-sama mempengaruhi bladder training dan kegel exercise dan mempengaruhi pemulihan inkontinensia urine sebesar 0,002 . Adapengaruh yang bermakna intervensibladder training dankegel exercise terhadap pemulihan inkontinensia urine dengan p-value 0,000 dan r: 1,16. Pemulihan inkontinensia urine dapat dilakukan dengan memberikan intervensi bladder training dan kegel exercise.

  9. Impact of Exercise Training on Physiological Measures of Physical Fitness in the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, Goncalo V; Pezarat-Correia, Pedro; Vaz, João R; Silva, Luís; Almeida, Isabel D; Heffernan, Kevin S

    2016-01-01

    Older persons are the fastest growing segment of the population living in the Western hemisphere. Longevity comes at a price, including a higher rate of morbidity, functional and mental disability and the eventual loss of independence. Physical inactivity further aggravates the decline in physiological function along the aging process. Therefore, the promotion of regular exercise may be seen as one of the main non-pharmacological approaches that should be recommended to older adults. We performed a comprehensive review on the interaction between exercise training and improved physical fitness in the elderly. Specifically, 175 papers describing the overall benefits of exercise training on the cardiovascular, neuromuscular and brain function of older adults were included. The effectiveness of training for improving quality of life at an older age was also reviewed. Exercise training can partially reverse the age-related physiological decline and enhance work capacity in the elderly. Numerous studies have shown that maintaining a minimum quantity and quality of physical exercise decreases the risk of cardiovascular mortality, sarcopenia, prevents the onset of osteopenia and even exerts a prophylactic role against neurodegeneration. The systemic physiologic effects are profound and may be directly linked to a favorable feedforward cycle whereby improved physiologic function begets improved physical function and so on. We conclude that structured training programs should be designed to improve the physiological function in this population. Finally, the benefits of exercise training vary as a function of training volume and this relationship is independent of age and sex.

  10. High-intensity training vs. traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE:: to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and evaluate potential benefits with reference to common interventions; i.e. prolonged exercise and strength training. METHODS:: 36 untrained men were divided into groups...... that completed 12 weeks of intense interval running (INT; total training time 40 min a week), prolonged running ( approximately 150 min/week), strength training ( approximately 150 min/week) or continued their habitual life-style without participation in physical training. RESULTS:: The improvement...... in cardiorespiratory fitness was superior in INT (14+/-2% increase in VO2max) compared to the other two exercise interventions (7+/-2% and 3+/-2% increases). The blood glucose concentration 2 hours following oral ingestion of 75 g of glucose was lowered to a similar extent following training in the INT (from 6...

  11. Influence of the Exercise-psychology Adjustment Mode on the Mental Health of Medical Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenxin; Ceng, Mengjuan; Yao, Jiwei; Chen, Longfei

    2017-06-01

    Chinese medical workers suffer from a high incidence of mental health problems, resulting in reduced efficiency, increased medical malpractice, rising medical costs, and other issues. The effective alleviation of mental health problems among medical workers is therefore an important focus of research and social attention. The mental health of 842 medical workers from the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University and the Second Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University in Fuzhou, China was evaluated between February 2016 and March 2016. Sixty-two workers with positive SCL-90 screening results were selected as the subjects to be investigated in the intervention experiment, with 31 in the intervention group and 31 in the control group. The control group did not participate in any regular physical exercise activity for the 4-month duration of the study, whereas the exercise-psychology adjustment mode was applied to the intervention group. Medical workers had a higher total SCL-90 score and number of positive items than the national norm (P psychology adjustment is an effective intervention mode for the mental health of medical workers.

  12. Exercise training with ageing protects against ethanol induced myocardial glutathione homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakarla, Pushpalatha; Kesireddy, Sathyavelureddy; Christiaan, Leeuwenburgh

    2008-05-01

    Glutathione plays a central role in the maintenance of cellular antioxidant defense. The alterations in the glutathione and associated recyclic enzymes caused by both exercise training and ethanol are well documented; however, their interactive effects with age are not well understood. Therefore, the influence of ageing and the interactive effects of exercise training and ethanol on the myocardial glutathione system in 3 months and 18 months old rats were examined. The results showed a significant (pEthanol consumption significantly (pethanol consumption significantly (pethanol significantly (pethanol treated rats in both age groups, indicating the suppression of ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training. In conclusion, there was a compensatory myocardial response lessening ethanol-induced oxidative stress by exercise training, which seemed to result from the higher activity of glutathione recycling and utilizing enzymes, which may be critical for preventing chronic oxidative damage to the myocardium during ageing and even due to ethanol consumption.

  13. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  14. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Caponi, Paula Wesendonck; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado; Pinto, Graziela Hünning; Borges, Júlia; Markoski, Melissa; Machado, Ubiratan F; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome...

  15. Exercise training and artery function in humans: nonresponse and its relationship to cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Daniel J; Eijsvogels, Thijs; Bouts, Yvette M; Maiorana, Andrew J; Naylor, Louise H; Scholten, Ralph R; Spaanderman, Marc E A; Pugh, Christopher J A; Sprung, Victoria S; Schreuder, Tim; Jones, Helen; Cable, Tim; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-08-15

    The objectives of our study were to examine 1) the proportion of responders and nonresponders to exercise training in terms of vascular function; 2) a priori factors related to exercise training-induced changes in conduit artery function, and 3) the contribution of traditional cardiovascular risk factors to exercise-induced changes in artery function. We pooled data from our laboratories involving 182 subjects who underwent supervised, large-muscle group, endurance-type exercise training interventions with pre-/posttraining measures of flow-mediated dilation (FMD%) to assess artery function. All studies adopted an identical FMD protocol (5-min ischemia, distal cuff inflation), contemporary echo-Doppler methodology, and observer-independent automated analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to identify factors contributing to changes in FMD%. We found that cardiopulmonary fitness improved, and weight, body mass index (BMI), cholesterol, and mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased after training, while FMD% increased in 76% of subjects (P Training-induced increase in FMD% was predicted by lower body weight (β = -0.212), lower baseline FMD% (β = -0.469), lower training frequency (β = -0.256), and longer training duration (β = 0.367) (combined: P 0.05). In conclusion, we found that, while some subjects do not demonstrate increases following exercise training, improvement in FMD% is present in those with lower pretraining body weight and endothelial function. Moreover, exercise training-induced change in FMD% did not correlate with changes in traditional cardiovascular risk factors, indicating that some cardioprotective effects of exercise training are independent of improvement in risk factors. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  16. AMPKα is essential for acute exercise-induced gene responses but not for exercise training-induced adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim; Kjøbsted, Rasmus; Maag Kristensen, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    . Maximal running speed was lower in AMPKα mdKO than WT mice, but increased similarly in both genotypes with exercise training. Exercise training increased quadriceps protein content of ubiquinol-cytochrome-C reductase core protein 1 (UQCRC1), cytochrome C, hexokinase II, plasma membrane fatty acid binding......Exercise training increases skeletal muscle expression of metabolic proteins improving the oxidative capacity. Adaptations in skeletal muscle by pharmacologically induced activation of 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are dependent on the AMPKα2 subunit. We hypothesized that exercise training......-induced increases in exercise capacity and expression of metabolic proteins as well as acute exercise-induced gene regulation would be compromised in AMPKα1 and -α2 muscle-specific double knockout (mdKO) mice. An acute bout of exercise increased skeletal muscle mRNA content of cytochrome C oxidase subunit I...

  17. Combined speed endurance and endurance exercise amplify the exercise-induced PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA response in trained human muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen...... trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S...... that in trained subjects, speed endurance exercise provides a stimulus for muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate regulation, and angiogenesis that is not evident with endurance exercise. These responses are reinforced when speed endurance exercise is followed by endurance exercise....

  18. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  19. Training and muscle ammonia and amino acid metabolism in humans during prolonged exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, T E; Turcotte, L P; Kiens, Bente

    1995-01-01

    We studied the responses of NH3 and amino acids (AA) to prolonged exercise (3 h) in trained (Tr; n = 6) and untrained (Utr; n = 6) men. Each subject exercised the knee extensor muscles of one leg at 60% of maximum capacity. Thigh blood flow and femoral arteriovenous differences (0, 30, 60, 120, 1...

  20. Exercise training in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. van Bergen (Monique); T. Takken (Tim); R.H.H. Engelbert (Raoul); J. Groothoff (Jaap); J. Nauta (Jeroen); J. van Hoeck (Koen); P. Helders (Paul); M. Lilien (Marc)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of this study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of an exercise training program to improve exercise capacity and fatigue level in pediatric patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Twenty children on dialysis intended to perform a 12-week graded

  1. Exercise Training in Elderly People Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryota Matsuzawa

    2017-11-01

    Discussion: Our analysis on the effectiveness of exercise training in elderly people undergoing hemodialysis as compared with nonelderly people was somewhat inconclusive. Future studies should be carried out for elderly people to identify the most favorable exercise program for this population.

  2. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, L.M.; Keijer, J.; Mensink, M.R.; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, L.O.; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley; Verschuren, Martie C.M.; Pieters, Raymond; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, R.F.; Wichers, H.J.; Norren, van K.

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals.
    Eleven

  3. Adaptation of exercise-induced stress in well-trained healthy young men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JanssenDuijghuijsen, Lonneke M; Keijer, Jaap; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Ridder, Lars; Nierkens, Stefan; Kartaram, Shirley W; Verschuren, Martie C M; Pieters, Raymond H H; Bas, Richard; Witkamp, Renger F; Wichers, Harry J; van Norren, Klaske

    2017-01-01

    Strenuous exercise induces different stress-related physiological changes, potentially including changes in intestinal barrier function. In the Protégé Study (ISRCTN14236739; www.isrctn.com) we determined the test-retest repeatability in responses to exercise in well-trained individuals. Eleven

  4. Development of the Internet-Enabled System for Exercise Telerehabilitation and Cardiovascular Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dedov, Vadim N; Dedova, Irina V

    2015-07-01

    Sustained exercise training could significantly improve patient rehabilitation and management of noncommunicable diseases in the community. This study aimed to develop a universal telecare system for delivery of exercise rehabilitation and cardiovascular training services at home. An innovative bilateral leg training device was equipped with an electronic system for the ongoing measurement of training activities with the device. A single-item parameter reflecting the intensity of training was monitored using several modern telecommunication technologies. According to the application protocol, eight volunteers first tried the device for 30-60 min to determine their personal training capacity. Then, they were provided with equipment to use at home for 4 weeks. Adherence to daily training was assessed by the number of training days per week, training intensity, and duration of training sessions. The system provided reliable recording of training activities with the device using (1) long-term data logging without an ongoing connection to the computer, (2) wireless monitoring and recording of training activities on a stand-alone computer, and (3) a secure cloud-based monitoring over the Internet connection using electronic devices, including smartphones. Overall analysis of recordings and phone feedbacks to participants took only approximately 5 h for the duration of study. This study, although of a pilot nature, described the comprehensive exercise telerehabilitation system integrating mobile training equipment with personalized training protocols and remote monitoring. A single-item electronic parameter of the system usage facilitated time-effective data management. Wireless connection allowed various locations of device application and several monitoring arrangements ranging from real-time monitoring to long-term recording of exercise activities. A cloud-based software platform enabled management of multiple users at distance. Implementation of this model may

  5. Angelica sinensis Improves Exercise Performance and Protects against Physical Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis (AS is a well-known medicinal herb and food material with antioxidative and multifunctional pharmacological activities. However, we lack evidence of the effect of AS on exercise performance and physical fatigue. We aimed to evaluate the potential beneficial effect of AS on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions after physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; (3 exercise training with AS treatment at 0.41 g/kg/day (Ex-AS1; and (4 2.05 g/kg/day (Ex-AS5; both the vehicle and AS were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. Trend analysis revealed that AS treatments significantly increased endurance swimming time and blood glucose level, and decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels. Liver and muscle glycogen contents were higher for Ex-AS1 and Ex-AS5 groups than the exercise control. Therefore, AS supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue properties in mice and may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  6. Substrate metabolism during different exercise intensities in endurance-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romijn, J A; Coyle, E F; Sidossis, L S; Rosenblatt, J; Wolfe, R R

    2000-05-01

    We have studied eight endurance-trained women at rest and during exercise at 25, 65, and 85% of maximal oxygen uptake. The rate of appearance (R(a)) of free fatty acids (FFA) was determined by infusion of [(2)H(2)]palmitate, and fat oxidation rates were determined by indirect calorimetry. Glucose kinetics were assessed with [6,6-(2)H(2)]glucose. Glucose R(a) increased in relation to exercise intensity. In contrast, whereas FFA R(a) was significantly increased to the same extent in low- and moderate-intensity exercise, during high-intensity exercise, FFA R(a) was reduced compared with the other exercise values. Carbohydrate oxidation increased progressively with exercise intensity, whereas the highest rate of fat oxidation was during exercise at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake. After correction for differences in lean body mass, there were no differences between these results and previously reported data in endurance-trained men studied under the same conditions, except for slight differences in glucose metabolism during low-intensity exercise (Romijn JA, Coyle EF, Sidossis LS, Gastaldelli A, Horowitz JF, Endert E, and Wolfe RR. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 265: E380-E391, 1993). We conclude that the patterns of changes in substrate kinetics during moderate- and high-intensity exercise are similar in trained men and women.

  7. A comparative study of classroom and online distance modes of official vocational education and training

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    López Soblechero, Miguel Vicente; González Gaya, Cristina; Hernández Ramírez, Juan José

    2014-01-01

    .... The second was to establish that both on-site classroom and online distance modes of vocational education and training can be seen as complementary in terms of responding to the majority of modern educational needs...

  8. Effect of exercise training and detraining in autonomic modulation and cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Reis, Andréa; Silva Garcia, João B; Rodrigues Diniz, Renata; Silva-Filho, Antonio C; Dias, Carlos J; Leite, Richard D; Mostarda, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Heart rate variability (HRV) has attracted scientific community attention in different pathologies, becoming thus an ultimate importance tool in both clinical and research setting, being a good predictor of cardiac events and mortality risk and also used in physical exercise and sports in general. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 12 weeks of exercise training and six weeks of detraining in cardiorespiratory capacity, and autonomic modulation in breast cancer patients. The sample was composed of 18 females (9 controls and 9 exercised), (aged 30-60 years). The HRV in the time and frequency domain was performed using an electrocardiogram before, after 12 weeks of the session of exercise training and after six weeks of detraining. Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests were made. No significant changes in time domain were found. In the frequency domain, 12 weeks of exercise training promote a decrease in LF (nu) and decrease in HF (nu) Index. The exercise training period promoted a decrease in LF/HF. The autonomic data returned to baseline levels after the detraining period. However, cardiorespiratory capacity remained increased after the detraining period. These data demonstrated that exercise training can be used to prevent autonomic dysfunction in breast cancer patients, but detraining promotes loss of all autonomic benefits.

  9. Anaerobic threshold employed on exercise training prescription and performance assessment for laboratory rodents: A short review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Phablo; Mendes, Sávio Victor Diogenes; Leal-Cardoso, José Henrique; Ceccatto, Vânia Marilande

    2016-04-15

    Several studies have generated numerous terms in the field of exercise training prescription and performance assessment that often do not match the information previously demonstrated by many other works, generating much debate and resulting in an immense pool of scientific results. Several protocols in exercise training prescription and performance assessment have been proposed for these purposes by many reasons. In the field of exercise science, the protocol must be thoroughly investigated and provide real tools to be reproducible. Many laboratories have been adapting and developing evaluation protocols and testing on physical training of rodents in different experimental conditions. In this context, mice, rats and rabbits are preferentially chosen due to easy manipulation and good response to exercise, and comparable at results obtained with humans in compatible effort intensities. But, the exercise training programs and aerobic-anaerobic transition assessment proposed for animal models vary extensively, depending on the species, gender, age, type of stimulus, type of exercise, type of method and also on the specific objectives of the program. This short review demonstrates the need in offering tools performed by invasive measurement to assess the anaerobic threshold by blood lactate employed on evolution of aerobic-anaerobic parameters of rodents. The objective of this short review was to present and to discuss physical evaluation protocols applications to rodents. The table submitted may give a basis for anaerobic threshold employed on exercise training prescription and performance assessment for laboratory rodents in future research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of aerobic and anaerobic exercise training on oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Song-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub

    2016-04-01

    Exercise mediates an excessive free radical production leading to oxidative stress (OS). The body has natural antioxidant systems that help decrease OS, and these systems may be enhanced with exercise training. However, only a few studies have investigated the differences in resting OS and antioxidant capacity (AOC) between aerobically trained athletes (ET), anaerobically trained athletes (RT), and untrained individuals (UT). Therefore, this study sought to investigate the resting and postexercise OS and AOC in ET, RT, and UT. Sixty healthy young males (26.6±0.8 yr) participated in this study. Subjects were divided into three groups, ET, RT, and UT by distinct training background. Resting plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein carbonyls (PC) were not significantly different in ET, RT, and UT. However, MDA and PC were significantly increased following a graded exercise test (GXT) in UT but not in ET and RT. Resting total antioxidant capacity (TAC) levels and TAC were not different in ET, RT, and UT. Interestingly, TAC levels significantly decreased after the GXT in all groups. Additionally, UT showed lower post-exercise TAC levels compared to ET and RT. These results showed that ET, RT, and UT have similar OS and AOC at rest. However, both ET and RT have greater AOC against exercise mediated OS compared to UT. These findings may explain, at least in part, why both aerobic and anaerobic types of exercise training improve redox balance. However, it appears there is no specific exercise type effect in terms of redox balance.

  11. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  12. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise. PMID:25713678

  13. Exercise Training and Cardiac Rehabilitation in Primary and Secondary Prevention of Coronary Heart Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Lavie, Carl J.; Thomas, Randal J.; Squires, Ray W.; Allison, Thomas G.; Milani, Richard V.

    2009-01-01

    Substantial data have established a sedentary lifestyle as a major modifiable risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD). Increased levels of physical activity, exercise training, and overall cardiorespiratory fitness have provided protection in the primary and secondary prevention of CHD. This review surveys data from observational studies supporting the benefits of physical activity, exercise training, and overall cardiorespiratory fitness in primary prevention. Clearly, cardiac rehabilit...

  14. Exercise training prior to myocardial infarction attenuates cardiac deterioration and cardiomyocyte dysfunction in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Marchesi Bozi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The present study was performed to investigate 1 whether aerobic exercise training prior to myocardial infarction would prevent cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration and 2 whether the potential cardiac benefits of aerobic exercise training would be associated with preserved morphological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes in post-infarct remodeled myocardium. METHODS: Male Wistar rats underwent an aerobic exercise training protocol for eight weeks. The rats were then assigned to sham surgery (SHAM, sedentary lifestyle and myocardial infarction or exercise training and myocardial infarction groups and were evaluated 15 days after the surgery. Left ventricular tissue was analyzed histologically, and the contractile function of isolated myocytes was measured. Student's t-test was used to analyze infarct size and ventricular wall thickness, and the other parameters were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Dunn's test or a one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's test (p<0.05. RESULTS: Myocardial infarctions in exercise-trained animals resulted in a smaller myocardial infarction extension, a thicker infarcted wall and less collagen accumulation as compared to myocardial infarctions in sedentary animals. Myocardial infarction-induced left ventricular dilation and cardiac dysfunction, as evaluated by +dP/dt and -dP/dt, were both prevented by previous aerobic exercise training. Moreover, aerobic exercise training preserved cardiac myocyte shortening, improved the maximum shortening and relengthening velocities in infarcted hearts and enhanced responsiveness to calcium. CONCLUSION: Previous aerobic exercise training attenuated the cardiac dysfunction and structural deterioration promoted by myocardial infarction, and such benefits were associated with preserved cardiomyocyte morphological and contractile properties.

  15. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    R. Delevatti; E. Marson; L. Fernando Kruel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantl...

  16. The relevance of applying exercise training principles when designing therapeutic interventions for patients with inflammatory myopathies: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baschung Pfister, Pierrette; de Bruin, Eling D; Tobler-Ammann, Bernadette C; Maurer, Britta; Knols, Ruud H

    2015-10-01

    Physical exercise seems to be a safe and effective intervention in patients with inflammatory myopathy (IM). However, the optimal training intervention is not clear. To achieve an optimum training effect, physical exercise training principles must be considered and to replicate research findings, FITT components (frequency, intensity, time, and type) of exercise training should be reported. This review aims to evaluate exercise interventions in studies with IM patients in relation to (1) the application of principles of exercise training, (2) the reporting of FITT components, (3) the adherence of participants to the intervention, and (4) to assess the methodological quality of the included studies. The literature was searched for exercise studies in IM patients. Data were extracted to evaluate the application of the training principles, the reporting of and the adherence to the exercise prescription. The Downs and Black checklist was used to assess methodological quality of the included studies. From the 14 included studies, four focused on resistance, two on endurance, and eight on combined training. In terms of principles of exercise training, 93 % reported specificity, 50 % progression and overload, and 79 % initial values. Reversibility and diminishing returns were never reported. Six articles reported all FITT components in the prescription of the training though no study described adherence to all of these components. Incomplete application of the exercise training principles and insufficient reporting of the exercise intervention prescribed and completed hamper the reproducibility of the intervention and the ability to determine the optimal dose of exercise.

  17. Enjoyment for High-Intensity Interval Exercise Increases during the First Six Weeks of Training: Implications for Promoting Exercise Adherence in Sedentary Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Tejada, Mary Grace M; Paolucci, Emily M; Muir, Cameron

    2016-01-01

    This is the first study to show that enjoyment for high-intensity interval exercise increases with chronic training. Prior acute studies typically report high-intensity interval training (HIT) as being more enjoyable than moderate continuous training (MCT) unless the high-intensity intervals are too strenuous or difficult to complete. It follows that exercise competency may be a critical factor contributing to the enjoyment of HIT, and therefore building competency through chronic training may be one way to increase its enjoyment. To test this, we randomly assigned sedentary young adults to six weeks of HIT or MCT, and tracked changes in their enjoyment for the exercise. Enjoyment for HIT increased with training whereas enjoyment for MCT remained constant and lower. Changes in exercise enjoyment were predicted by increases in workload, suggesting that strength adaptions may be important for promoting exercise enjoyment. The results point to HIT as a promising protocol for promoting exercise enjoyment and adherence in sedentary young adults.

  18. Endurance exercise training induces fat depot-specific differences in basal autophagic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Goki; Kato, Hisashi; Izawa, Tetsuya, E-mail: tizawa@mail.doshisha.ac.jp

    2015-10-23

    The purpose of this study was to uncover the effect of exercise training on the expression of autophagy marker proteins in epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), inguinal WAT (iWAT), and the stromal vascular fraction (SVF) collected from eWAT. Male Wistar rats aged 4–5 weeks were randomly divided into two groups, sedentary control (n = 7) and exercise-trained (n = 7). Rats in the exercise-trained group were exercised on a treadmill set at a 5° incline 5 days/week for 9 weeks. We determined that the expression levels of an autophagosome-associating form of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)-II and of p62 were significantly higher in eWAT from exercise-trained than from control rats, while those of adipose-specific deletion of autophagy-related protein (ATG7) and lysosomal-associated membrane protein type 2A (LAMP2a) showed no difference between groups. However, in iWAT, the expression levels of LC3-II and ATG7 were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. The expression of p62 was highly correlated with that of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a master regulator of adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, in both WAT types (eWAT, r = 0.856, P < 0.05; iWAT, r = 0.762, P < 0.05), whereas LC3-II and PPARγ levels were highly correlated in eWAT (r = 0.765, P < 0.05) but not in iWAT (r = −0.306, ns). In SVF, the expression levels of LC3II, ATG7, and LAMP2a were significantly higher in exercise-trained than in control rats. These results suggest that exercise training suppresses basal autophagy activity in eWAT, but that this activity is enhanced in iWAT and SVF collected from eWAT. Thus, the adaptation of basal autophagic activity following exercise training exhibits fat depot-specific differences. - Highlights: • Autophagy has been associated with obesity and associated diseases. • We examined exercise-associated rat white adipose tissue (WAT) autophagy markers. • Exercise increased

  19. Exercise training reverses age-induced diastolic dysfunction and restores coronary microvascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotta, Kazuki; Chen, Bei; Behnke, Bradley J; Ghosh, Payal; Stabley, John N; Bramy, Jeremy A; Sepulveda, Jaime L; Delp, Michael D; Muller-Delp, Judy M

    2017-06-15

    In a rat model of ageing that is free of atherosclerosis or hypertension, E/A, a diagnostic measure of diastolic filling, decreases, and isovolumic relaxation time increases, indicating that both active and passive ventricular relaxation are impaired with advancing age. Resting coronary blood flow and coronary functional hyperaemia are reduced with age, and endothelium-dependent vasodilatation declines with age in coronary resistance arterioles. Exercise training reverses age-induced declines in diastolic and coronary microvascular function. Thus, microvascular dysfunction and inadequate coronary perfusion are likely mechanisms of diastolic dysfunction in aged rats. Exercise training, initiated at an advanced age, reverses age-related diastolic and microvascular dysfunction; these data suggest that late-life exercise training can be implemented to improve coronary perfusion and diastolic function in the elderly. The risk for diastolic dysfunction increases with advancing age. Regular exercise training ameliorates age-related diastolic dysfunction; however, the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. We investigated whether (1) microvascular dysfunction contributes to the development of age-related diastolic dysfunction, and (2) initiation of late-life exercise training reverses age-related diastolic and microvascular dysfunction. Young and old rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training or remained as sedentary, cage-controls. Isovolumic relaxation time (IVRT), early diastolic filling (E/A), myocardial performance index (MPI) and aortic stiffness (pulse wave velocity; PWV) were evaluated before and after exercise training or cage confinement. Coronary blood flow and vasodilatory responses of coronary arterioles were evaluated in all groups at the end of training. In aged sedentary rats, compared to young sedentary rats, a 42% increase in IVRT, a 64% decrease in E/A, and increased aortic stiffness (PWV: 6.36 ± 0.47 vs.4.89 ± 0.41, OSED vs. YSED, P training

  20. Human Muscle Protein Synthetic Responses during Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Exercise: A Comparative Study of Exercise Modes and Recovery Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Pasiakos

    Full Text Available Effects of conventional endurance (CE exercise and essential amino acid (EAA supplementation on protein turnover are well described. Protein turnover responses to weighted endurance exercise (i.e., load carriage, LC and EAA may differ from CE, because the mechanical forces and contractile properties of LC and CE likely differ. This study examined muscle protein synthesis (MPS and whole-body protein turnover in response to LC and CE, with and without EAA supplementation, using stable isotope amino acid tracer infusions. Forty adults (mean ± SD, 22 ± 4 y, 80 ± 10 kg, VO 2peak 4.0 ± 0.5 L ∙ min(-1 were randomly assigned to perform 90 min, absolute intensity-matched (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2 L ∙ m(-1 LC (performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass, mean ± SD load carried 24 ± 3 kg or CE (cycle ergometry performed at the same absolute VO2 as LC exercise, during which EAA (10 g EAA, 3.6 g leucine or control (CON, non-nutritive drinks were consumed. Mixed-muscle and myofibrillar MPS were higher during exercise for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05, independent of dietary treatment. EAA enhanced mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS during exercise, regardless of mode (drink main effect, P < 0.05. Mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS were higher in recovery for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05. No other differences or interactions (mode x drink were observed. However, EAA attenuated whole-body protein breakdown, increased amino acid oxidation, and enhanced net protein balance in recovery compared to CON, regardless of exercise mode (P < 0.05. These data show that, although whole-body protein turnover responses to absolute VO2-matched LC and CE are the same, LC elicited a greater muscle protein synthetic response than CE.

  1. TARDEC FMEA TRAINING: Understanding and Evaluating Failure Mode and Effects Analyses (FMEA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    Unclassified TARDEC FMEA TRAINING: Understanding and Evaluating Failure Mode and Effects Analyses ( FMEA ) TARDEC Systems Engineering Risk...JUN 2012 2. REPORT TYPE Briefing Charts 3. DATES COVERED 01-05-2012 to 31-05-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE TARDEC FMEA TRAINING: Understanding...and Evaluating Failure Mode and Effects Analyses ( FMEA ) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Kadry Rizk

  2. Reorganization of Functional Brain Maps After Exercise Training: Importance of Cerebellar-Thalamic-Cortical Pathway

    OpenAIRE

    Holschneider, DP; Yang, J; Guo, Y.; Maarek, J-M I

    2007-01-01

    Exercise training (ET) causes functional and morphologic changes in normal and injured brain. While studies have examined effects of short-term (same day) training on functional brain activation, less work has evaluated effects of long-term training, in particular treadmill running. An improved understanding is relevant as changes in neural reorganization typically require days to weeks, and treadmill training is a component of many neurorehabilitation programs.

  3. Effects of high-intensity exercise on leptin and testosterone concentrations in well-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert R; Durand, Robert J; Acevedo, Edmund O; Johnson, Lisa G; Synovitz, Linda B; Kraemer, Ginger R; Gimpel, Terry; Castracane, V Daniel

    2003-08-01

    A number of investigations have examined the effect of exercise on leptin concentrations, because leptin is associated with obesity, satiety, and reproductive function. High-intensity exercise is known to increase testosterone, an inhibitor of leptin. The objective of the study was to determine whether the leptin responses to a progressive, intermittent exercise protocol were related to serum testosterone concentrations. Most previous studies have examined leptin responses to low or moderately high exercise intensities. A second objective was to determine whether leptin responses were different than previous experiments using intermittent moderate and high-intensity exercise. Well-trained runners completed strenuous intermittent exercise consisting of treadmill running at 60, 75, 90, and 100% VO(2 max) and a subsequent resting control trial was also conducted. There were significant increases in mean serum levels of leptin and testosterone with both quickly returning to baseline during recovery, but no relationship between the two hormones was found. After examining individual data for both hormones, it was discovered that subjects could be classified as leptin responders or nonresponders, whereas testosterone increased in all subjects. Responders had elevated serum leptin levels at baseline and exhibited increases after high-intensity exercise, whereas nonresponders did not show changes in leptin during exercise. Data suggest testosterone levels do not acutely affect leptin responses to exercise or 1-h of recovery. Moreover, varied leptin responses to intense exercise in comparable well-trained runners was observed and was associated with baseline leptin concentrations.

  4. THE EFFECT OF RESISTANCE AND ENDURANCE EXERCISE TRAINING ON MUSCLE PROTEOME EXPRESSION IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Keun Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of resistance and endurance training on muscle proteome expression, samples of vastus lateralis from 10 physically active young men were analysed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Differential patterns of protein expression were determined after 4 weeks of endurance or resistance exercise training. Following endurance exercise training, carbonic anhydrase III immunoglobulin heavy chain, myosin heavy chain 1, titin, chromosome 12, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 2 were up-regulated while pyruvate kinase 3 isoform, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and phosphoglucomutase were down-regulated. After the 4 weeks of resistance exercise training, five proteins, apolipoprotein A-IV precursor, microtubule-actin cross linking factor 1, myosin light chain, growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein, and an unknown protein were up-regulated and pyruvate kinase 3 isoform, human albumin, and enolase 3 were down-regulated. We conclude that endurance and resistance exercise training differently alter the expression of individual muscle proteins, and that the response of muscle protein expression may be associated with specific myofibre adaptations to exercise training. Proteomic studies represent one of the developing techniques of metabolism which may substantially contribute to new insights into muscle and exercise physiology.

  5. Limb-specific training affects exercise hyperemia but not sympathetic vasoconstriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wimer, Gregory S; Baldi, James C

    2012-11-01

    This study used cross-sectional and longitudinal training research designs to determine if (a) exercise hyperemia is enhanced in exercise-trained forearms and (b) sympathetic vasoconstriction of the trained forearm is attenuated (sympatholysis) during handgrip exercise. In the cross-sectional comparison, 10 rock climbers, 10 runners, 10 controls participated while the longitudinal training study examined vascular responsiveness in six untrained men before and after 6 weeks of handgrip training. Mean blood velocity, brachial artery diameter, heart rate, and systemic blood pressure were measured at rest, during a cold pressor test (CPT), dynamic handgrip exercise at 30% MVC with and without CPT, and during reactive hyperemia. During the resting CPT, forearm blood flow (FBF) decreased less (P runners than in climbers, the decline being -6.30 + 30.05 and -34.3 + 20.54 during the last minute, respectively. During handgrip exercise, FBF and vascular conductance (VC) increased more (P runners and controls, the latter reaching 3.98 + 1.11, 2.22 + 0.88, and 2.75 + 1.06 ml min(-1) mmHg(-1), respectively. When a CPT was added during handgrip exercise, the reduction in FBF and VC was not different between the groups. Handgrip training increased (P untrained subjects.

  6. Duration-controlled swimming exercise training induces cardiac hypertrophy in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, F S; Brum, P C; Krieger, J E

    2003-12-01

    Exercise training associated with robust conditioning can be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A swimming apparatus is described to control training regimens in terms of duration, load, and frequency of exercise. Mice were submitted to 60- vs 90-min session/day, once vs twice a day, with 2 or 4% of the weight of the mouse or no workload attached to the tail, for 4 vs 6 weeks of exercise training. Blood pressure was unchanged in all groups while resting heart rate decreased in the trained groups (8-18%). Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, measured spectrophotometrically, increased (45-58%) only as a result of duration and frequency-controlled exercise training, indicating that endurance conditioning was obtained. In groups which received duration and endurance conditioning, cardiac weight (14-25%) and myocyte dimension (13-20%) increased. The best conditioning protocol to promote physiological hypertrophy, our primary goal in the present study, was 90 min, twice a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks with no overload attached to the body. Thus, duration- and frequency-controlled exercise training in mice induces a significant conditioning response qualitatively similar to that observed in humans.

  7. Duration-controlled swimming exercise training induces cardiac hypertrophy in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.S. Evangelista

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training associated with robust conditioning can be useful for the study of molecular mechanisms underlying exercise-induced cardiac hypertrophy. A swimming apparatus is described to control training regimens in terms of duration, load, and frequency of exercise. Mice were submitted to 60- vs 90-min session/day, once vs twice a day, with 2 or 4% of the weight of the mouse or no workload attached to the tail, for 4 vs 6 weeks of exercise training. Blood pressure was unchanged in all groups while resting heart rate decreased in the trained groups (8-18%. Skeletal muscle citrate synthase activity, measured spectrophotometrically, increased (45-58% only as a result of duration and frequency-controlled exercise training, indicating that endurance conditioning was obtained. In groups which received duration and endurance conditioning, cardiac weight (14-25% and myocyte dimension (13-20% increased. The best conditioning protocol to promote physiological hypertrophy, our primary goal in the present study, was 90 min, twice a day, 5 days a week for 4 weeks with no overload attached to the body. Thus, duration- and frequency-controlled exercise training in mice induces a significant conditioning response qualitatively similar to that observed in humans.

  8. Physiological adaptations to interval training and the role of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacInnis, Martin J; Gibala, Martin J

    2017-05-01

    Interval exercise typically involves repeated bouts of relatively intense exercise interspersed by short periods of recovery. A common classification scheme subdivides this method into high-intensity interval training (HIIT; 'near maximal' efforts) and sprint interval training (SIT; 'supramaximal' efforts). Both forms of interval training induce the classic physiological adaptations characteristic of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) such as increased aerobic capacity (V̇O2 max ) and mitochondrial content. This brief review considers the role of exercise intensity in mediating physiological adaptations to training, with a focus on the capacity for aerobic energy metabolism. With respect to skeletal muscle adaptations, cellular stress and the resultant metabolic signals for mitochondrial biogenesis depend largely on exercise intensity, with limited work suggesting that increases in mitochondrial content are superior after HIIT compared to MICT, at least when matched-work comparisons are made within the same individual. It is well established that SIT increases mitochondrial content to a similar extent to MICT despite a reduced exercise volume. At the whole-body level, V̇O2 max is generally increased more by HIIT than MICT for a given training volume, whereas SIT and MICT similarly improve V̇O2 max despite differences in training volume. There is less evidence available regarding the role of exercise intensity in mediating changes in skeletal muscle capillary density, maximum stroke volume and cardiac output, and blood volume. Furthermore, the interactions between intensity and duration and frequency have not been thoroughly explored. While interval training is clearly a potent stimulus for physiological remodelling in humans, the integrative response to this type of exercise warrants further attention, especially in comparison to traditional endurance training. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  9. Muscle Volume Increases Following 16 Weeks of Resistive Exercise Training with the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) and Free Weights

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, R. E.; Loehr, J. A.; Lee, S. M. C.; English, K. L.; Evans, H.; Smith, S. A.; Hagan, R. D.

    2009-01-01

    Space flight-induced muscle atrophy, particularly in the postural and locomotorymuscles, may impair task performance during long-duration space missions and planetary exploration. High intensity free weight (FW) resistive exercise training has been shown to prevent atrophy during bed rest, a space flight analog. NASA developed the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED) to simulate the characteristics of FW exercise (i.e. constant mass, inertial force) and to be used as a countermeasure during International Space Station (ISS) missions. PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of ARED and FW training to induce hypertrophy in specific muscle groups in ambulatory subjects prior to deploying ARED on the ISS. METHODS: Twenty untrained subjects were assigned to either the ARED (8 males, 3 females) or FW (6 males, 3 females) group and participated in a periodizedtraining protocol consisting of squat (SQ), heel raise (HR), and deadlift(DL) exercises 3 d wk-1 for 16 wks. SQ, HR, and DL muscle strength (1RM) was measured before, after 8 wks, and after 16 wks of training to prescribe exercise and measure strength changes. Muscle volume of the vastigroup (V), hamstring group (H), hip adductor group (ADD), medial gastrocnemius(MG), lateral gastrocnemius(LG), and deep posterior muscles including soleus(DP) was measured using MRI pre-and post-training. Consecutive cross-sectional images (8 mm slices with a 2 mm gap) were analyzed and summed. Anatomical references insured that the same muscle sections were analyzed pre-and post-training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (pvolume between training devices. RESULTS: SQ, HR, and DL 1RM increased in both FW (SQ: 49+/-6%, HR: 12+/-2%, DL: 23+/-4%) and ARED (SQ: 31+/-4%, HR: 18+/-2%, DL: 23+/-3%) groups. Both groups increased muscle volume in the V (FW: 13+/-2%, ARED: 10+/-2%), H (FW: 3+/-1%, ARED: 3+/-1 %), ADD (FW: 15=/-2%, ARED: 10+/-1%), LG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 4+/-1%), MG (FW: 7+/-2%, ARED: 5+/-2%), and DP (FW: 2+/-1%; ARED: 2+/-1%) after

  10. Relationship between train users’ perceptions of walkability with access and egress mode choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syafriharti Romeiza

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to understand whether there is a relationship between train users’ perceptions of walkability in built environment of trip origin with access mode choice and between train users’ perceptions of walkability in built environment of trip destination with egress mode choice. Train users are who ride from Cicalengka station Bandung Regency, West Java, Indonesia. To analyze the relationship is used crosstab method. The perceptual factors about walkability are those perceived by the train users consisting of walking distance, safety, comfort, and secure from crime, both in origin and destination of the built environment. The mode choice consist of walking, paratransit, motorcycle taxi, and own vehicles (or others for egress mode. To better understand the relationship is used several control variables, that are trip purposes, train usage, gender, and age. For access trip there is another control variable, that is vehicle ownership. Train users' perceptions of walkability have a relationship with both the access and the egress mode choice, except for the security aspect. The influence of control variables on the relationship between perceptions of walkability with access/egress mode choice varies for walking distance, safety, and comfort.

  11. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

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    Stephanie M. Howe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  12. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  13. Exercise training decreases body mass index in subjects aged 50 years and over

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignatio Rika Haryono

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise training can improve blood pressure in normotensive, prehypertensive, and hypertensive subjects. One of the mechanisms of blood pressure reduction in hypertensive patients with obesity is through weight loss. This study aimed to examine the effect of exercise training on bodyweight and the relationship between weight loss and reduction of blood pressure. An experimental pre-post test design without controls was used to evaluate the effect of exercise training on weight loss. The study involved 89 elderly aged 50 years or more, consisting of 40 men and 49 women, who were members of Senayan Sport Fitness Club and had been exercising for at least three months. Exercise training was programmed and performed three times a week, consisting of aerobic (walking, jogging, static cycling, and resistance exercise. All exercise was performed for one to two hours with mild to moderate intensity. Blood pressure and body weight were obtained from medical records. Paired t-test showed that systolic blood pressure (SBP, diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, pulse pressure (PP, and body mass index (BMI were significantly lower after training [(systolic, 126.3 ± 2.9 vs 122.3 ± 2.7, p=0.02, (diastolic, 80.2 ± 3.1 vs 77.2 ± 2.4, p=0.00, (MAP, 95.6 ± 4.6 vs 92.2 ± 3.4, p=0.00, (PP, 46.1 ± 4.2 vs 45.1 ± 3.6, p=0.04, (BMI, 24.5 ± 2.9 vs 23.6 ± 2.9, p=0.04]. Duration of training was the most influential factor affecting rBMI, (Beta = 0.38; p=0.00. Exercise training could lower BMI and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was higher for the subjects aged 70 years and over.

  14. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... into exercise group (EG) (n = 15) and control group (CG) (n = 15) respectively. ... Key words: Aerobic exercise, cardiovascular parameters, CD4 count, human immunodeficiency .... wastage, smokers, alcoholic, diabetics and other cardiac, .... mean (SD) age of participants in EG and CG was 38.77 (9.98).

  15. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  16. The effects of differing resistance training modes on the preservation of bone mineral density in postmenopausal women: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, R; Zhao, M; Xu, Z

    2015-05-01

    This meta-analysis synthesized current evidence from 24 clinical trials to evaluate the impact of different resistance training modes on postmenopausal bone loss. Exercise interventions were categorized into two training modes, namely resistance-alone versus combined resistance training protocols. The combined resistance training protocols were defined as the combination of resistance training and high-impact or weight-bearing exercise. The results suggested that the combined resistance training protocols were effective in improving bone mineral density (BMD) at the femoral neck and lumbar spine. The current meta-analysis aimed to examine the effects of combined resistance and resistance-alone training protocols on the preservation of femoral neck and lumbar spine BMD in postmenopausal women. An electronic database search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science, and ProQuest up to March 1, 2014 for the influence of resistance exercise on BMD in postmenopausal women. The study quality was evaluated. The effect sizes were estimated in terms of the standardized mean difference (SMD). A subgroup analysis was conducted by exercise categories. Twenty-four studies were included in the overall analysis of skeletal response to resistance exercise. The between-study heterogeneity was evident for the hip (I (2) = 46.5%) and spine (I (2) = 62.3%). The overall analysis suggested that resistance training significantly increased femoral neck BMD (SMD = 0.303, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 0.127-0.479, p = 0.001) and lumbar spine BMD (SMD = 0.311, 95% CI = 0.115-0.507, p = 0.002) in postmenopausal women. However, subgroup analysis indicated that combined resistance training programs significantly affected both the hip BMD (SMD = 0.411, 95% CI = 0.176-0.645, p = 0.001) and spine BMD (SMD = 0.431, 95% CI = 0.159-0.702, p = 0.002), whereas resistance-alone protocols only produced nonsignificant positive

  17. The effect of dynamic breathing exercises on physical training of students with hearing impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кudelko V.Е.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The program of dynamic breathing exercises that affect the development of physical qualities was developed for the hearing-impaired students. The study involved a group of students with hearing impairments that included 12 people, aged from18 to 19 years with the same diagnosis and level of physical training. The program of dynamic breathing exercises and test data results of students' physical training before and after the teaching experiment were presented. A positive increase in test results after the application of complex dynamic breathing exercises was identified.

  18. Strength Training Prior to Endurance Exercise: Impact on the Neuromuscular System, Endurance Performance and Cardiorespiratory Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Matheus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strengthtraining and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05. These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  19. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Roque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  20. Modulation of Synaptic Plasticity by Exercise Training as a Basis for Ischemic Stroke Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Jingjing; Yang, Xiaosu

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, rehabilitation of ischemic stroke draws more and more attention in the world, and has been linked to changes of synaptic plasticity. Exercise training improves motor function of ischemia as well as cognition which is associated with formation of learning and memory. The molecular basis of learning and memory might be synaptic plasticity. Research has therefore been conducted in an attempt to relate effects of exercise training to neuroprotection and neurogenesis adjacent to the ischemic injury brain. The present paper reviews the current literature addressing this question and discusses the possible mechanisms involved in modulation of synaptic plasticity by exercise training. This review shows the pathological process of synaptic dysfunction in ischemic roughly and then discusses the effects of exercise training on scaffold proteins and regulatory protein expression. The expression of scaffold proteins generally increased after training, but the effects on regulatory proteins were mixed. Moreover, the compositions of postsynaptic receptors were changed and the strength of synaptic transmission was enhanced after training. Finally, the recovery of cognition is critically associated with synaptic remodeling in an injured brain, and the remodeling occurs through a number of local regulations including mRNA translation, remodeling of cytoskeleton, and receptor trafficking into and out of the synapse. We do provide a comprehensive knowledge of synaptic plasticity enhancement obtained by exercise training in this review.

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety ...

  2. Physiologic benefits of exercise training in rehabilitation of patients with severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casaburi, R; Porszasz, J; Burns, M R; Carithers, E R; Chang, R S; Cooper, C B

    1997-05-01

    We determined the effect on exercise tolerance and physiological exercise responses of rigorous rehabilitative exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Fifteen men and 10 women (mean age, 68 +/- 6 yr; FEV1, 0.93 +/- 0.27 L) participated in a rehabilitation program with an exercise component of three per week 45-min sessions of cycle ergometer training for 6 wk with exercise intensity kept near maximal targets. Before and after rehabilitation, patients performed an incremental test and a constant work rate (CWR) test at 80% of the peak work rate in the preprogram incremental test. Ventilation (V(E)) and gas exchange were measured breath by breath; arterialized venous blood was analyzed for blood gas determinations and lactate. Rehabilitation yielded an average increase in peak work rate in the incremental test of 36% (p effect. Further, for identical CWR tasks, V(E) was 10% lower (p exercise training for patients with severe COPD yields more efficient exercise breathing pattern and lower V(E); this is associated with improved exercise tolerance.

  3. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  4. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  5. Effects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.

  6. Cognitive Fatigue Influences Time-On-Task During Bodyweight Resistance Training Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Head

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Prior investigations have shown measurable performance impairments on continuous physical performance tasks when preceded by a cognitively fatiguing task. However, the effect of cognitive fatigue on bodyweight resistance training exercise task performance is unknown. In the current investigation 18 amateur athletes completed a full body exercise task preceded by either a cognitive fatiguing or control intervention. In a randomized repeated measure design, each participant completed the same exercise task preceded by a 52 minute cognitively fatiguing intervention (vigilance or control intervention (video. Data collection sessions were separated by 1 week. Participants rated the fatigue intervention as being significantly more mentally demanding than the control intervention (p .05. There was no statistical difference for heart rate or metabolic expenditure as a function of fatigue intervention during exercise. Cognitively fatigued athletes have decreased time-on-task in bodyweight resistance training exercise tasks.

  7. Acute EPOC response in women to circuit training and treadmill exercise of matched oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, W A; Hawthorne, W E; Markofski, M M

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effects of circuit training (CT) and treadmill exercise performed at matched rates of oxygen consumption and exercise duration on elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in untrained women, while controlling for the menstrual cycle. Eight, untrained females (31.3 +/- 9.1 years; 2.04 +/- 0.26 l min(-1) estimated VO2max; BMI=24.6+/-3.9 kg/m2) volunteered to participate in the study. Testing was performed during the early follicular phase for each subject to minimize hormonal variability between tests. Subjects performed two exercise sessions approximately 28 days apart. Resting, supine energy expenditure was measured for 30 min preceding exercise and for 1 h after completion of exercise. Respiratory gas exchange data were collected continuously during rest and exercise periods via indirect calorimetry. CT consisted of three sets of eight common resistance exercises. Pre-exercise and exercise oxygen consumption was not different between testing days (P>0.05). Thus, exercise conditions were appropriately matched. Analysis of EPOC data revealed that CT resulted in a significantly higher (pEPOC period (pEPOC.

  8. Brachial artery adaptation to lower limb exercise training: role of shear stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Gurpreet K; Dawson, Ellen A; Atkinson, Ceri; Haynes, Andrew; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2012-05-01

    Lower limb exercise increases upper limb conduit artery blood flow and shear stress, and leg exercise training can enhance upper limb vascular function. We therefore examined the contribution of shear stress to changes in vascular function in the nonexercising upper limbs in response to lower limb cycling exercise training. Initially, five male subjects underwent bilateral brachial artery duplex ultrasound to measure blood flow and shear responses to 30-min cycling exercise at 80% of maximal heart rate. Responses in one forearm were significantly (P 0.05) across the 8-wk intervention period. Our data suggest that lower limb cycle training induces a transient increase in upper limb vascular function in healthy young humans, which is, at least partly, mediated via shear stress.

  9. Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging populations are a worldwide phenomenon affecting both developed and developing countries. This issue raises serious concerns for both governments and the general population. Regular participation in physical activity and/or exercise training programs can minimize the physiological alterations that occur during aging and may contribute to improvements in health and well-being. The present review will discuss the role of regular exercise training in preventing age-related physiological decline and, consequently, associated chronic diseases. Compelling evidence that regular exercise and/or physical activity can improve quality of life, prevent or control the development of chronic disease and increase life expectancy is shown. In summary, regular exercise training and/or physical activity has an important influence on aging and may help to prevent age-related disorders.

  10. Endurance Exercise Training Reduces Cardiac Sodium/Calcium Exchanger Expression in Animals Susceptible to Ventricular Fibrillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica eKukielka

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Increased sodium/calcium exchanger activity (NCX1, an important regulator of cardiomyocyte cystolic calcium may provoke arrhythmias. Exercise training can decrease NCX1 expression in animals with heart failure improving cytosolic calcium regulation, and could thereby reduce the risk for ventricular fibrillation (VF. Methods: To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last min. of exercise in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 23 had VF (S, susceptible and 13 did not (R, resistant. The animals were randomly assigned to either 10-wk exercise training (progressively increasing treadmill running (S n = 9; R n = 8 or 10-wk sedentary (S n = 14; R n = 5 groups. At the end of the 10-wk period, the exercise + ischemia test provoked VF in sedentary but not trained susceptible dogs. On a subsequent day, cardiac tissue was harvested and NCX1 protein expression was determined by Western blot. Results: In the sedentary group, NCX1 expression was significantly (ANOVA, P<0.05 higher in susceptible compared to resistant dogs. In contrast, NCX1 levels were similar in the exercise trained resistant and susceptible animals. Conclusion: These data suggest that exercise training can restore a more normal NCX1 level in dogs susceptible to ventricular fibrillation, improving cystolic calcium regulation and could thereby reduce the risk for sudden death following myocardial infarction.

  11. DHEA, DHEA-S and cortisol responses to acute exercise in older adults in relation to exercise training status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate resting measures of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol, and the response and recovery of these hormones to acute exercise, in male and female older adults of different exercise training status. Participants were 49 community-dwelling older adults (23 females) aged between 60 and 77 years who were either sedentary (n=14), moderately active (n=14) or endurance trained (n=21). Participants undertook an acute bout of exercise in the form of an incremental submaximal treadmill test. The exercise lasted on average 23 min 49 s (SD=2 min 8 s) and participants reached 76.5% (SD=5.44) of the predicted maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, immediately, and 1 h post-exercise. DHEA levels significantly increased immediately post-exercise; however, DHEA-S levels only significantly increased in females. Cortisol significantly decreased immediately post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. There were no significant differences in resting hormone levels or hormonal responses to exercise between training status groups. The findings suggest that exercise can stimulate DHEA production in older adults and that hormonal responses to exercise differ between male and female older adults.

  12. Aerobic Exercise Training in Post-Polio Syndrome: Process Evaluation of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric L Voorn

    Full Text Available To explore reasons for the lack of efficacy of a high intensity aerobic exercise program in post-polio syndrome (PPS on cardiorespiratory fitness by evaluating adherence to the training program and effects on muscle function.A process evaluation using data from an RCT.Forty-four severely fatigued individuals with PPS were randomized to exercise therapy (n = 22 or usual care (n = 22.Participants in the exercise group were instructed to exercise 3 times weekly for 4 months on a bicycle ergometer (60-70% heart rate reserve.The attendance rate was high (median 89%. None of the participants trained within the target heart rate range during >75% of the designated time. Instead, participants exercised at lower intensities, though still around the anaerobic threshold (AT most of the time. Muscle function did not improve in the exercise group.Our results suggest that severely fatigued individuals with PPS cannot adhere to a high intensity aerobic exercise program on a cycle ergometer. Despite exercise intensities around the AT, lower extremity muscle function nor cardiorespiratory fitness improved. Improving the aerobic capacity in PPS is difficult through exercise primarily focusing on the lower extremities, and may require a more individualized approach, including the use of other large muscle groups instead.Netherlands National Trial Register NTR1371.

  13. High-intensity interval training evokes larger serum BDNF levels compared with intense continuous exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saucedo Marquez, Cinthia Maria; Vanaudenaerde, Bart; Troosters, Thierry; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-12-15

    Exercise can have a positive effect on the brain by activating brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related processes. In healthy humans there appears to be a linear relationship between exercise intensity and the positive short-term effect of acute exercise on BDNF levels (i.e., the highest BDNF levels are reported after high-intensity exercise protocols). Here we performed two experiments to test the effectiveness of two high-intensity exercise protocols, both known to improve cardiovascular health, to determine whether they have a similar efficacy in affecting BDNF levels. Participants performed a continuous exercise (CON) protocol at 70% of maximal work rate and a high-intensity interval-training (HIT) protocol at 90% of maximal work rate for periods of 1 min alternating with 1 min of rest (both protocols lasted 20 min). We observed similar BDNF kinetics in both protocols, with maximal BDNF concentrations being reached toward the end of training (experiment 1). We then showed that both exercise protocols significantly increase BDNF levels compared with a rest condition (CON P = 0.04; HIT P high intensity exercise are slightly more effective than continuous high-intensity exercise for elevating serum BDNF. Additionally, 73% of the participants preferred the HIT protocol (P = 0.02). Therefore, we suggest that the HIT protocol might represent an effective and preferred intervention for elevating BDNF levels and potentially promoting brain health. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Effects of exercise training on bone density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; Schniebolk, S; Riddle, M W; Cobb, F R; Higginbotham, M; Coleman, R E

    1991-11-01

    To determine the effects of up to 14 months of aerobic exercise on measures of bone density in older adults. Randomized controlled trial with subjects assigned to either an aerobic exercise condition, non-aerobic yoga, or a wait list non-exercise control group for 4 months. Aerobic fitness and bone density were evaluated in all subjects at baseline (Time 1) and after 4 months (Time 2). A semi-crossover design was utilized with all subjects completing 4 months of aerobic exercise, followed by another evaluation (Time 3). All subjects were then given the option of 6 additional months of aerobic exercise, after which they had a fourth evaluation (Time 4). An outpatient exercise rehabilitation facility at a large, major medical center. One-hundred-one healthy men (n = 50) and women (n = 51) over age 60 (Mean age = 67.0), recruited from the community. The exercise program included stretching, cycle ergometry, and walking three times per week for 60 minutes throughout the course of the study. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) as assessed by cycle ergometry, and bone density (bone mineral content) measured by single photon absorptiometry. Subjects achieved a 10%-15% increase in VO2max after 4 months of exercise training, and 1%-6% further improvement with additional training. Aerobic fitness was associated with significant increases in bone density in men, but not women, who maintained aerobic exercise for 14 months.

  15. The effect of exercise training on obstructive sleep apnea and sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Crowley, E Patrick; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a 12-week exercise training program for reducing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and improving sleep quality, and to explore possible mechanisms by which exercise may reduce OSA severity. Randomized controlled trial. Clinical exercise physiology center, sleep laboratory. Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (screening apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15). Participants randomized to exercise training (n = 27) met 4 times/week for 12 weeks and performed 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, followed by resistance training twice/week. Participants randomized to a stretching control (n = 16) met twice weekly for 12 weeks to perform low-intensity exercises designed to increase whole-body flexibility. OSA severity was assessed with one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG) before and following the 12-week intervention. Measures of sleep quality included PSG, actigraphy (7-10 days), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Compared with stretching, exercise resulted in a significant AHI reduction (exercise: 32.2 ± 5.6 to 24.6 ± 4.4, stretching: 24.4 ± 5.6 to 28.9 ± 6.4; P sleep (P = 0.03). Reductions in AHI and ODI were achieved without a significant decrease in body weight. Improvements in actigraphic sleep and subjective sleep quality were also noted following exercise compared with stretching. Exercise training had moderate treatment efficacy for the reduction of AHI in sedentary overweight/obese adults, which suggests that exercise may be beneficial for the management of OSA beyond simply facilitating weight loss. Clinicaltrials.gov identification number NCT00956423.

  16. Effect of exercise and training on phospholemman phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziane, Boubacar; Widegren, Ulrika; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Henriksson, Jan; Stepto, Nigel K; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2011-09-01

    Phospholemman (PLM, FXYD1) is a partner protein and regulator of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (Na(+)-K(+) pump). We explored the impact of acute and short-term training exercise on PLM physiology in human skeletal muscle. A group of moderately trained males (n = 8) performed a 1-h acute bout of exercise by utilizing a one-legged cycling protocol. Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis at 0 and 63 min (non-exercised leg) and 30 and 60 min (exercised leg). In a group of sedentary males (n = 9), we determined the effect of a 10-day intense aerobic cycle training on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit expression, PLM phosphorylation, and total PLM expression as well as PLM phosphorylation in response to acute exercise (1 h at ∼72% Vo(2peak)). Biopsies were taken at rest, immediately following, and 3 h after an acute exercise bout before and at the conclusion of the 10-day training study. PLM phosphorylation was increased both at Ser(63) and Ser(68) immediately after acute exercise (75%, P PLM phosphorylation at Ser(63) and Ser(68), nor was the total amount of PLM altered posttraining. The protein expressions of α(1)-, α(2)-,and β(1)-subunits of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase were increased after training (113%, P PLM on Ser(63) and Ser(68), and data from one-legged cycling indicate that this effect of exercise on PLM phosphorylation is not due to systemic factors. Our results provide evidence that phosphorylation of PLM may play a role in the acute regulation of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase response to exercise.

  17. Long-term leucine supplementation aggravates prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular changes in trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Gustavo Barbosa; de Oliveira, André Gustavo; Ramos, Luiz Alberto Ferreira; Gomes-Marcondes, Maria Cristina Cintra; Areas, Miguel Arcanjo

    2016-07-01

    What is the central question of this study? Can long-term leucine supplementation prevent prolonged strenuous endurance exercise induced cardiac injury? What is the main finding and its importance? Prolonged endurance exercise does not seem to exceed cardiac energetic capacity, hence it does not represent an energy threat to this organ, at least in trained subjects. However, it may induce, in susceptible individuals, a state of cardiac electrical instability, which has been associated with ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. This situation might be worsened when combined with leucine supplementation, which leads to increased blood pressure and cardiac injury. Leucine supplementation failed to prevent cardiac fatigue symptoms and may aggravate prolonged strenuous exercise-induced cardiovascular disturbances in trained rats. Observational studies have raised concerns that prolonged strenuous exercise training may be associated with increased risk of cardiac arrhythmia and even primary cardiac arrest or sudden death. It has been demonstrated that leucine can reduce prolonged exercise-induced muscle damage and accelerate the recovery process. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of prolonged strenuous endurance exercise on cardiovascular parameters and biomarkers of cardiac injury in trained adult male rats and assess the use of leucine as an auxiliary substance to prevent the likely cardiac adverse effects caused by strenuous exercise. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomly allocated to receive a balanced control diet (18% protein) or a leucine-rich diet (15% protein plus 3% leucine) for 6 weeks. The rats were submitted to 1 h of exercise, 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Three days after the training period, the rats were submitted to swimming exercise until exhaustion, and cardiac parameters were assessed. Exercising until exhaustion significantly increased cardiac biomarker levels, cytokines and glycogen content inhibited protein

  18. Calf muscle oxygen saturation and the effects of supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckitt, Tim A; Day, Jude; Morgan, Maria; Lamont, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the symptomatic improvement witnessed as a result of exercise training in intermittent claudication remain unclear. There is no reproducible evidence to support increased limb blood flow resulting from neovascularization. Changes in oxygenation of active muscles as a result of blood redistribution are hypothesized but unproven. This study sought evidence of improved gastrocnemius oxygenation resulting from exercise training. The study recruited 42 individuals with claudication. After an initial control period of exercise advice, participants undertook a 3-month supervised exercise program. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy monitored calf muscle oxygen saturation (Sto(2)) during exercise and after a period of cuff-induced ischemia. Comparison was made with 14 individuals undergoing angioplasty for calf claudication. Clinical outcomes of claudication distance and maximum walking distance were measured by treadmill assessment. Significant increases occurred in mean [interquartile range] claudication disease (57 [38-78] to 119 [97-142] meters; P = .01) and maximum walking distance (124 [102-147] to 241 [193-265] meters; P = .02) after supervised exercise but not after the control period. No change occurred in resting Sto(2) at any interval. Angioplasty (27% [21-34] to 19% [13-29]; P = .02) but not exercise training (26% [21-32] vs 23% [20-31]; P > .20) resulted in a reduced Sto(2) desaturation in response to submaximal exercise and an increased hyperemic hemoglobin oxygen recovery rate after ischemia (0.48 [0.39-0.55] to 0.63 [0.52-0.69] s(-1); P = .01). However supervised exercise reduced the Sto(2) recovery half-time by 17% (82 [64-101] to 68 [55-89] seconds; P = .02). Supervised exercise training is not associated with increased gastrocnemius muscle oxygenation during exercise or increased hyperemic hemoglobin flow after a model of ischemia. This suggests that the symptomatic improvement witnessed is not the result of increased

  19. The lung cancer exercise training study: a randomized trial of aerobic training, resistance training, or both in postsurgical lung cancer patients: rationale and design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crawford Jeffrey

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Lung Cancer Exercise Training Study (LUNGEVITY is a randomized trial to investigate the efficacy of different types of exercise training on cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, patient-reported outcomes, and the organ components that govern VO2peak in post-operative non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC patients. Methods/Design Using a single-center, randomized design, 160 subjects (40 patients/study arm with histologically confirmed stage I-IIIA NSCLC following curative-intent complete surgical resection at Duke University Medical Center (DUMC will be potentially eligible for this trial. Following baseline assessments, eligible participants will be randomly assigned to one of four conditions: (1 aerobic training alone, (2 resistance training alone, (3 the combination of aerobic and resistance training, or (4 attention-control (progressive stretching. The ultimate goal for all exercise training groups will be 3 supervised exercise sessions per week an intensity above 70% of the individually determined VO2peak for aerobic training and an intensity between 60 and 80% of one-repetition maximum for resistance training, for 30-45 minutes/session. Progressive stretching will be matched to the exercise groups in terms of program length (i.e., 16 weeks, social interaction (participants will receive one-on-one instruction, and duration (30-45 mins/session. The primary study endpoint is VO2peak. Secondary endpoints include: patient-reported outcomes (PROs (e.g., quality of life, fatigue, depression, etc. and organ components of the oxygen cascade (i.e., pulmonary function, cardiac function, skeletal muscle function. All endpoints will be assessed at baseline and postintervention (16 weeks. Substudies will include genetic studies regarding individual responses to an exercise stimulus, theoretical determinants of exercise adherence, examination of the psychological mediators of the exercise - PRO relationship, and exercise-induced changes

  20. Knee-joint proprioception during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernauer, E. M.; Walby, W. F.; Ertl, A. C.; Dempster, P. T.; Bond, M.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1994-01-01

    To determine if daily isotonic exercise or isokinetic exercise training coupled with daily leg proprioceptive training, would influence leg proprioceptive tracking responses during bed rest (BR), 19 men (36 +/- SD 4 years, 178 +/- 7 cm, 76.8 +/- 7.8 kg) were allocated into a no-exercise (NOE) training control group (n = 5), and isotonic exercise (ITE, n = 7) and isokinetic exercise (IKE, n = 7) training groups. Exercise training was conducted during BR for two 30-min periods.d-1, 5 d.week-1. Only the IKE group performed proprioceptive training using a new isokinetic procedure with each lower extremity for 2.5 min before and after the daily exercise training sessions; proprioceptive testing occurred weekly for all groups. There were no significant differences in proprioceptive tracking scores, expressed as a percentage of the perfect score of 100, in the pre-BR ambulatory control period between the three groups. Knee extension and flexion tracking responses were unchanged with NOE during BR, but were significantly greater (*p proprioceptive tracking was unchanged during BR with NOE, both isotonic exercise training (without additional proprioceptive training) and especially isokinetic exercise training when combined with daily proprioceptive training, significantly improved knee proprioceptive tracking responses after 30 d of BR.

  1. DUAL MODE IN-SERVICE TRAINING AS AN ALTERNATIVE MODEL FOR TEACHERS PROFESSIONAL (PD) IN INDONESIA

    OpenAIRE

    Ari Widodo

    2011-01-01

    To improve the quality of education, the Indonesian government has been launching a number of teachers’ professional development (PD) programs. These, however, brought little impact on the improvement of teaching practice and students’ achievement. This paper reports a two-year research project on a dual mode in-service training program that combines a classical in-service training and training via internet. The first year focused on identifying teachers’ professional needs whi...

  2. The benefits of exercise training in interstitial lung disease: protocol for a multicentre randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dowman Leona

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interstitial lung disease encompasses a diverse group of chronic lung conditions characterised by distressing dyspnoea, fatigue, reduced exercise tolerance and poor health-related quality of life. Exercise training is one of the few treatments to induce positive changes in exercise tolerance and symptoms, however there is marked variability in response. The aetiology and severity of interstitial lung disease may influence the response to treatment. The aims of this project are to establish the impact of exercise training across the range of disease severity and to identify whether there is an optimal time for patients with interstitial lung disease to receive exercise training. Methods/Design One hundred and sixteen participants with interstitial lung disease recruited from three tertiary institutions will be randomised to either an exercise training group (supervised exercise training twice weekly for eight weeks or a usual care group (weekly telephone support. The 6-minute walk distance, peripheral muscle strength, health-related quality of life, dyspnoea, anxiety and depression will be measured by a blinded assessor at baseline, immediately following the intervention and at six months following the intervention. The primary outcome will be change in 6-minute walk distance following the intervention, with planned subgroup analyses for participants with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, dust-related interstitial lung disease and connective-tissue related interstitial lung disease. The effects of disease severity on outcomes will be evaluated using important markers of disease severity and survival, such as forced vital capacity, carbon monoxide transfer factor and pulmonary hypertension. Discussion This trial will provide certainty regarding the role of exercise training in interstitial lung disease and will identify at what time point within the disease process this treatment is most effective. The results from this study will

  3. Home Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, David; Siaplaouras, Jannos; Apitz, Anita; Bride, Peter; Kaestner, Michael; Latus, Heiner; Schranz, Dietmar; Apitz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is often associated with impaired exercise capacity. It has been shown that supervised training can improve exercise capacity in adult patients with PAH. The objective of this prospective study was to assess the feasibility of a home exercise training program in children with PAH. Nine children and adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 3.8 years) with low-risk PAH (defined as mean pulmonary to systemic arterial pressure ratio patients' well-being was supervised by periodical phone calls and online-questionnaires. Home exercise training was well tolerated in all patients, and no adverse events occurred. After 16 weeks of training, patients significantly improved their exercise capacity [treadmill running distance increased from 589.5 ± 153.9 to 747.9 ± 209.2 m (p = 0.036)]. Oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold increased from 1307.8 (±417) to 1406.4 (±418) ml (p = 0.028). Chronotropic index improved from 0.77 ± 0.12 to 0.82 ± 0.11 (p = 0.004) and was slightly related to the increase in running distance (r = 0.62; p = 0.07). Home exercise training is feasible in children and adolescents with low-risk PAH, and the preliminary results of this pilot study indicate beneficial effects. The observed increase in exercise capacity was accompanied by an improved chronotropic competence and increased oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold. Future research is needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of home exercise training in a larger population of children with PAH including also patients in WHO functional class III or IV.

  4. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Phlippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Heloise; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-09-07

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n= 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet (D, n=66) for 6 months. After 2 months of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation (Sham). Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for eight additional weeks or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 weeks resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes, and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean- but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  5. Changes in motivational outcomes after a supervised resistance exercise training intervention in lung cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddle-McIntyre, Carolyn J; Bell, Gordon; Fenton, David; McCargar, Linda; Courneya, Kerry S

    2013-01-01

    Short-term supervised exercise interventions improve health-related fitness in lung cancer survivors; however, sustained exercise is required to maintain the health benefits. The impact of exercise interventions on motivational outcomes may be important for long-term exercise adoption. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of a 10-week supervised progressive resistance exercise training program on lung cancer survivors' motivational outcomes based on the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). Posttreatment lung cancer survivors were recruited to undergo a 10-week supervised resistance exercise training intervention. The 2-component model of the TPB was measured at baseline and after intervention. Fifteen participants completed assessments of TPB measures. Significant increases in self-efficacy (P = .022) and perceived controllability (P = .032) and a nonsignificant increase in affective attitude (P = .090) were observed after intervention. Intention was significantly lower at postintervention (P = .044). Significant correlates of postintervention intention were instrumental attitude (P = .001), self-efficacy (P = .004), perceived behavioral control (P = .009), and affective attitude (P = .044). At postintervention, self-efficacy was significantly correlated with planning (P resistance exercise training may improve some motivational outcomes for lung cancer survivors. Intentions appeared to be weakened after the intervention, but there are methodological explanations for this finding. Participation in short-term supervised resistance exercise may be an effective method to improve some motivational factors related to exercise in lung cancer survivors. More research is needed to examine the long-term effects of supervised resistance exercise on motivational outcomes in lung cancer survivors. Strategies to maintain motivational changes that occur following a supervised resistance exercise intervention need to be investigated.

  6. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics and functional status in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Chou, Lan-Ti; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2012-05-01

    The functional status and outcomes in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are often limited by poor endurance and pulmonary mechanics, which result from the primary diseases or prolonged time bedridden. We evaluate the impact of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics, physical functional status, and hospitalization outcomes in PMV patients. Twenty-seven subjects with PMV in our respiratory care center (RCC) were divided randomly into an exercise training group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 15). The exercise program comprised 10 sessions of exercise training. The measurement of pulmonary mechanics and physical functional status (Functional Independence Measurement and Barthel index) were performed pre-study and post-study. The hospitalization outcomes included: days of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization days, and weaning and mortality rates during RCC stay. The training group had significant improvement in tidal volume (143.6 mL vs 192.5 mL, P = .02) and rapid shallow breathing index after training (162.2 vs 110.6, P = .009). No significant change was found in the control group except respiratory rate. Both groups had significant improvement in functional status during the study. However, the training group had greater changes in FIM score than the control group (44.6 vs 34.2, P = .024). The training group also had shorter RCC stay and higher weaning and survival rates than the control group, although no statistical difference was found. Subjects with PMV in our RCC demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics and functional status after exercise training. The application of exercise training may be helpful for PMV patients to improve hospitalization outcomes.

  7. The Effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training on Sickness Presenteeism and Absenteeism Among Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Just Bendix; Søgaard, Karen; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on presenteeism and absenteeism among office workers. METHODS: In a 1-year randomized controlled trial (RCT), employees were allocated to a training group TG (N...... of leisure-time PA significantly improved presenteeism and decreased absenteeism if following the protocol....

  8. The impact of exercise training on the diameter dilator response to forearm ischaemia in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, D H J; Tinken, T M; Hopkins, N; Dawson, E A; Cable, N T; Green, D J

    2011-04-01

    Recent studies found differences between groups in the rate of diameter increase following the flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Whilst exercise training alters the magnitude of the FMD, little is known about the impact of exercise training on the rate of diameter increase. The aim of this study is to examine post-cuff deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5 min forearm ischaemia every 2 weeks across 8-weeks of a handgrip exercise training regimen. Post-deflation changes in brachial artery diameter following 5-min of ischaemia were examined before, after and every 2-weeks across an 8-week handgrip training programme in healthy young men (n = 11) using echo-Doppler. The magnitude of dilation increased at week 2-4-6, but returned towards baseline values at week 8 (anova: P = 8.001). The time-to-peak diameter (42 ± 15s) demonstrated a significant prolongation at week 4 (77 ± 32s), but returned towards baseline values at weeks 6 and 8 (anova: P < 0.001). The rate of diameter increase did not differ across the intervention. Exercise training in healthy subjects is initially characterized by a larger dilation. Since the rate of dilation did not change, a longer time-to-peak dilation was necessary to achieve the increase in magnitude of dilation. As exercise training continues, the timing and magnitude of the peak diameter response returns to near baseline levels.

  9. The influence of specific training on trunk muscle recruitment patterns in healthy subjects during stabilization exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Veerle K; Coorevits, Pascal L; Bouche, Katie G; Mahieu, Nele N; Vanderstraeten, Guy G; Danneels, Lieven A

    2007-08-01

    Low back pain is a major problem involving high medical costs, therefore effective prevention strategies are essential. Stabilization exercises seem to facilitate the neuromuscular control of the lumbar spine and may be useful in prevention programs. To investigate whether specific lumbar stabilization training has an effect on muscle recruitment patterns in a healthy population, in the present study 30 subjects were recruited to perform two types of testing exercises, i.e. bridging exercises and exercises in four-point kneeling, both before and after training. Surface electromyographic data of different abdominal and back muscles were obtained. After training, analysis of the relative muscle activity levels (percentage of maximal voluntary isometric contraction) showed a higher activity of the local (segmental-stabilizing) abdominal muscles, but not of the local back muscles; minimal changes in global (torque-producing) muscle activity also occurred. Analysis of the local/global relative muscle activity ratios revealed higher ratios during all exercises after training, although not all differences were significant. These results indicate that muscle recruitment patterns can be changed in healthy subjects by means of a training program that focuses on neuromuscular control. Additional studies are needed to evaluate this type of training as a prevention strategy.

  10. Exercise training in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus: a controlled randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Danilo M L; Benatti, Fabiana B; de Sá-Pinto, Ana L; Hayashi, Ana P; Gualano, Bruno; Pereira, Rosa M R; Sallum, Adriana M E; Bonfá, Eloisa; Silva, Clovis A; Roschel, Hamilton

    2013-03-26

    Exercise training has emerged as a promising therapeutic strategy to counteract physical dysfunction in adult systemic lupus erythematosus. However, no longitudinal studies have evaluated the effects of an exercise training program in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (C-SLE) patients. The objective was to evaluate the safety and the efficacy of a supervised aerobic training program in improving the cardiorespiratory capacity in C-SLE patients. Nineteen physically inactive C-SLE patients were randomly assigned into two groups: trained (TR, n = 10, supervised moderate-intensity aerobic exercise program) and non-trained (NT, n = 9). Gender-, body mass index (BMI)- and age-matched healthy children were recruited as controls (C, n = 10) for baseline (PRE) measurements only. C-SLE patients were assessed at PRE and after 12 weeks of training (POST). Main measurements included exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory measurements in response to a maximal exercise (that is, peak VO2, chronotropic reserve (CR), and the heart rate recovery (ΔHRR) (that is, the difference between HR at peak exercise and at both the first (ΔHRR1) and second (ΔHRR2) minutes of recovery after exercise). The C-SLE NT patients did not present changes in any of the cardiorespiratory parameters at POST (P > 0.05). In contrast, the exercise training program was effective in promoting significant increases in time-to-exhaustion (P = 0.01; ES = 1.07), peak speed (P = 0.01; ES = 1.08), peak VO2 (P = 0.04; ES = 0.86), CR (P = 0.06; ES = 0.83), and in ΔHRR1 and ΔHRR2 (P = 0.003; ES = 1.29 and P = 0.0008; ES = 1.36, respectively) in the C-SLE TR when compared with the NT group. Moreover, cardiorespiratory parameters were comparable between C-SLE TR patients and C subjects after the exercise training intervention, as evidenced by the ANOVA analysis (P > 0.05, TR vs. C). SLEDAI-2K scores remained stable throughout the study. A 3-month aerobic exercise training was safe and capable of

  11. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  12. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooijs, Martijn; Siemonsma, Petra C; Heus, Inge; Sont, Jacob K; Rövekamp, Ton Ajm; van Meeteren, Nico Lu

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise volume. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro databases were searched from inception until 17 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of supervised exercise training vs. usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The references of included studies and review articles were hand searched for additional references and key authors of included trials were crosschecked in PubMed for any missed references. Two reviewers independently assessed therapeutic validity of exercise training and methodological quality of included studies. Overall effects were calculated using a random effects model. A total of 13 studies involving 756 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were included. Significant differences in maximal exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.74) and endurance exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.73, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.96) in favor of physical exercise training were found. The volume of physical exercise per week, the total volume of physical exercise, or their associations did not significantly influence the effect of training. Effects of supervised physical exercise was not significantly altered by therapeutic validity. A combination of aerobic exercise and strength training was found to be more effective than strength training or endurance training alone in increasing the 6-minute walking distance.

  13. [Telemonitoring of bike exercise training in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühle, K-H; Franke, K J; Domanski, U; Schröder, M; Nilius, G

    2013-06-01

    Patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) suffer from daytime sleepiness, cognitive disorders and are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases. In addition to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP), major lifestyle changes to increase physical activity contribute to risk reduction. The daily training duration should be at least 20 minutes to achieve a relevant effect. In addition to exercise training in groups, home training is useful. However, sufficiently intensive training is often not performed because of unavailable feedback (monitoring). It is not clear yet how many patients accept a bicycle home training and to what extent they meet the specified training time. Of the 152 consecutive OSA patients surveyed, 74 (48.7 %) agreed to a 4-week home exercise bike training. After exclusion of 51 patients, 17 for logistical reasons, and 34 because of severe comorbidities, 23 patients remained (age 51.0 +/- 9.3 years, BMI 33.7 +/- 4.2, ESS score 10.4 +/- 6.7, AHI 33.8 +/- 24.0). The daily duration of training at the ventilatory threshold (VT1) was recorded and transmitted by a wireless module (Cinterion) via Internet to a doctor or instructor. The patients exercised during 27.3 +/- 2.9 days. 19 of the 23 patients (83 %) accomplished the training period of > 20 minutes per day. In 4 patients (17 %) the training time was well below this target level with 5.9 +/- 2.3 min. The average training time of all patients was 24.4 +/- 9.0 min. About 50 % of the OSA patients are interested in a regular physical exercise bike training with telemonitoring, and are performing it quite constantly. The described method of telemonitoring provides a simple and, compared to group training cost-effective way to reduce cardiovascular risk in OSA. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  14. Influence of Isometric Exercise Training on Quadriceps Muscle Architecture and Strength in Obese Subjects with Knee Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleed S Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Obese individuals have reduced quadriceps muscle strength relative to body mass that may increase the rate of progression of knee osteoarthritis (OA. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of isometric exercise training on quadriceps muscle architecture and strength in obese subjects with knee osteoarthritis. Methods: Fortyfour obese male subjects aged 40–65 years diagnosed with knee osteoarthritis were randomly assigned into group A (n=32 and group B (n=12. Group A subjects performed a 12-week isometric exercise program. Group B subjects did not participate in any exercise program and maintained their ordinary activities for the same period. Both groups received the same conventional physical therapy program including hot packs and therapeutic ultrasonic. Muscle thickness, pennation angles and fascicle length of the vastus lateralis (VL muscle of the affected knee were measured at rest by B-mode ultrasonography. Maximal voluntary isometric knee extension torque (MVIC of the affected knee was measured using an isokinetic dynamometer. Knee pain and function were evaluated using visual analogue pain scale (VAS and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC. All variables were evaluated before and the end of the intervention period for both groups. Results: at the end of the program, group A subjects showed significant improvements compared with group B subjects regarding MVIC and muscle architecture parameters (p<0.05. Also, there was significant improvement in post-test VAS and WOMAC scores in group A subjects compared to group B subjects (p<0.05. Conclusion: A 12-week quadriceps isometric training program improves knee pain and quadriceps muscle strength and architecture in obese subjects with knee OA. These results indicate that isometric training should be regarded as a proper exercise intervention for obese patients with knee OA.

  15. No evidence of white adipocyte browning after endurance exercise training in obese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiloulis, T; Carey, A L; Bayliss, J; Canny, B; Meex, R C R; Watt, M J

    2017-11-30

    The phenomenon of adipocyte 'beiging' involves the conversion of non-classic brown adipocytes to brown-like adipose tissue with thermogenic, fat-burning properties, and this phenomenon has been shown in rodents to slow the progression of obesity-associated metabolic diseases. Rodent studies consistently report adipocyte beiging after endurance exercise training, indicating that increased thermogenic capacity in these adipocytes may underpin the improved health benefits of exercise training. The aim of this study was to determine whether prolonged endurance exercise training induces beige adipogenesis in subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese men. Molecular markers of beiging were examined in adipocytes obtained from abdominal (AbSC) and gluteofemoral (GF) subcutaneous adipose tissues before and after six weeks of endurance exercise training in obese men (n=6, 37.3±2.3 years, 30.1±2.3 kg/m2). The mRNAs encoding the brown or beige adipocyte-selective proteins were very lowly expressed in AbSC and GF adipose tissues and exercise training did not alter the mRNA expression of UCP1, CD137, CITED, TBX1, LHX8 and TCF21. Using immunohistochemistry, neither multilocular adipocytes, nor UCP1 or CD137-positive adipocytes were detected in any sample. MicroRNAs known to regulate brown and/or beige adipose development were highly expressed in white adipocytes but endurance exercise training did not impact their expression. The present study reaffirms emerging data in humans demonstrating no evidence of white adipose tissue beiging in response to exercise training, and supports a growing body of work demonstrating divergence of brown/beige adipose location, molecular characterisation and physiological function between rodents and humans.International Journal of Obesity accepted article preview online, 30 November 2017. doi:10.1038/ijo.2017.295.

  16. Exercise training in older adults, what effects on muscle oxygenation? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiogbé, Elie; de Vassimon-Barroso, Verena; de Medeiros Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of different modality of exercise training programs on muscle oxygenation in older adults. Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Scopus, using the keywords: "Aged" AND "Muscle oxygenation" AND (Exercise OR "Exercise therapy" OR "Exercise Movement Techniques" OR Hydrotherapy), without limitation concerning the publication date. To be included in the full analysis, the study had to be a randomized controlled trial in which older adults participants (mean age: 65 years at least) were submitted to an exercise-training program and muscle oxygenation assessment. The searches resulted in 1238 articles from which 7 met all the inclusion criteria. The trials involved 370 older adults (68.7±1.7years), healthy and with peripheral arterial disease. Studies included resistance and endurance exercises as well as walking sessions. Training sessions were 2-6 time per week, lasted 3-24 months and with different training intensity throughout studies. After a long-term resistance training, healthy older adults showed enhanced muscle oxygen extraction capacity, regulation of vessels and vascular endothelium function; endurance training is reported to improve microvascular blood flow and matching of oxygen delivery to oxygen utilization, muscle oxidative capacity and muscle saturation, and walking sessions results in better muscle oxygen availability and muscle oxygen extraction capacity in older adults with peripheral arterial disease. This review supports the fact that depending on the clinical status of the participants and the modality, exercise training improves different aspects of the muscle oxygenation in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  18. Effects of 2 exercise training programs on physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Vanessa S; Kovelis, Demétria; Hernandes, Nídia A; Camillo, Carlos A; Cavalheri, Vinícius; Pitta, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    The effects of different exercise training programs on the level of physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD remain to be investigated. In patients with COPD we compared the effects of 2 exercise/training regimens (a high-intensity whole-body endurance-and-strength program, and a low-intensity calisthenics-and-breathing-exercises program) on physical activity in daily life, exercise capacity, muscle force, health-related quality of life, and functional status. We randomized 40 patients with COPD to perform either endurance-and-strength training (no. = 20, mean ± SD FEV(1) 40 ± 13% of predicted) at 60-75% of maximum capacity, or calisthenics-and-breathing-exercises training (no. = 20, mean ± SD FEV(1) 39 ± 14% of predicted). Both groups underwent 3 sessions per week for 12 weeks. Before and after the training programs the patients underwent activity monitoring with motion sensors, incremental cycle-ergometry, 6-min walk test, and peripheral-muscle-force test, and responded to questionnaires on health-related quality of life and functional status (activities of daily living, pulmonary functional status, and dyspnea). Time spent active and energy expenditure in daily life were not significantly altered in either group. Exercise capacity and muscle force significantly improved only in the endurance-and-strength group. Health-related quality of life and functional status improved significantly in both groups. Neither training program significantly improved time spent active or energy expenditure in daily life. The training regimens similarly improved quality of life and functional status. Exercise capacity and muscle force significantly improved only in the high-intensity endurance-and-strength group.

  19. Adipose triglyceride lipase in human skeletal muscle is upregulated by exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alsted, Thomas J; Schweiger, Martina; Nybo, Lars

    2009-01-01

    ) is not changed. Recently, adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) was identified as a TG-specific lipase in various rodent tissues. To investigate whether human skeletal muscle ATGL protein is regulated by endurance exercise training, 10 healthy young men completed 8 wk of supervised endurance exercise training...... altogether, indicating an enhanced basal activity of this lipase. No change was found in the expression of diacylglycerol acyl transferase 1 (DGAT1) after training. Inhibition of HSL with a monospecific, small molecule inhibitor (76-0079) and stimulation of ATGL with CGI-58 revealed that significant ATGL...

  20. Exercise training modulates functional sympatholysis and alpha-adrenergic vasoconstrictor responsiveness in hypertensive and normotensive individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    Essential hypertension is linked to an increased sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and reduced tissue perfusion. We investigated the role of exercise training on functional sympatholysis and postjunctional α-adrenergic responsiveness in individuals with essential hypertension. Leg haemodynamics...... were measured before and after 8 weeks of aerobic training (3-4 times/week) in 8 hypertensive (47 ± 2 years) and 8 normotensive untrained individuals (46 ± 1 years) during arterial tyramine infusion, arterial ATP infusion and/or one-legged knee extensions. Before training, exercise hypaeremia and leg...... vascular conductance (LVC) were lower in the hypertensive individuals (P hypertensive individuals (P

  1. Moderate exercise training modulates cytokine profile and sleep in elderly people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, R V T; Viana, V A R; Boscolo, R A; Marques, V G; Santana, M G; Lira, F S; Tufik, S; de Mello, M T

    2012-12-01

    Aging causes several physiological alterations, including alterations in sleep. It is possible that difficulty sleeping can be exacerbated by increased inflammation in older individuals. Moderate exercise training may be a modality of non-pharmacological treatment for sleep disorders and inflammation. We aimed to assess the effects of moderate exercise training on sleep in elderly people as well as their cytokine profiles. Additionally, we examined the effect of exercise training on quality of life parameters using a SF-36 questionnaire. Twenty-two male, sedentary, healthy, elderly volunteers performed moderate training for 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 24 week at a work rate equivalent to their ventilatory aerobic threshold. The environment was kept at a temperature of 23 ± 2°C, with a humidity of 60 ± 5%. Blood and polysomnograph were collected twice: at baseline (1 week before training began) and after 6 months of training. Training increased aerobic capacity parameters (pexercise training was shown to improve quality of life parameters. Our results suggest that 6 months of training can improve sleep in the elderly and is related to the anti-inflammatory effect of moderate training, which modifies cytokine profiles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Randomized controlled trial using bosentan to enhance the impact of exercise training in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, T.H.A.; Duncker, D.J.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes patients, endothelin (ET) receptor blockade may enhance blood flow responses to exercise training. The combination of exercise training and ET receptor blockade may represent a more potent stimulus than training alone to improve vascular function, physical fitness and glucose

  3. Acute and chronic cytokine responses to resistance exercise and training in people with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjølhede, Tue; Dalgas, Ulrik; Brolin Gade, Anne

    2016-01-01

    responses to resistance exercise training in medicated PwMS. Thirty-five people with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (MS) treated with interferon (IFN)-β, were randomized to a 24-week progressive resistance training (PRT) or control group. Plasma interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, IL-10, IL-17F, IL-23, tumor...... necrosis factor-α and IFN-γ were measured before and after 24 weeks of PRT. The acute effect was evaluated following standardized single-bout resistance exercise in the untrained and the trained state. No changes were observed in resting cytokine levels after PRT. However, an indication of reduced IL-17F...... secretion following resistance exercise was observed in the trained compared with the untrained state. This study suggests little acute and chronic effect of PRT on cytokine levels in IFN-treated PwMS....

  4. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirsti Krohn Garnæs

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition.This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46 or control (standard maternity care (n = 45. Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18 and in late pregnancy (week 34-37, as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group. Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19 compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43. Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1% compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%, with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  5. Exercise Training and Weight Gain in Obese Pregnant Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial (ETIP Trial).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnæs, Kirsti Krohn; Mørkved, Siv; Salvesen, Øyvind; Moholdt, Trine

    2016-07-01

    The effectiveness of exercise training for preventing excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is still uncertain. As maternal obesity is associated with both GWG and GDM, there is a special need to assess whether prenatal exercise training programs provided to obese women reduce the risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Our primary aim was to assess whether regular supervised exercise training in pregnancy could reduce GWG in women with prepregnancy overweight/obesity. Secondary aims were to examine the effects of exercise in pregnancy on 30 outcomes including GDM incidence, blood pressure, blood measurements, skinfold thickness, and body composition. This was a single-center study where we randomized (1:1) 91 pregnant women with a prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) ≥ 28 kg/m2 to exercise training (n = 46) or control (standard maternity care) (n = 45). Assessments were done at baseline (pregnancy week 12-18) and in late pregnancy (week 34-37), as well as at delivery. The exercise group was offered thrice weekly supervised sessions of 35 min of moderate intensity endurance exercise and 25 min of strength training. Seventeen women were lost to follow-up (eight in the exercise group and nine in the control group). Our primary endpoint was GWG from baseline testing to delivery. The principal analyses were done as intention-to-treat analyses, with supplementary per protocol analyses where we assessed outcomes in the women who adhered to the exercise program (n = 19) compared to the control group. Mean GWG from baseline to delivery was 10.5 kg in the exercise group and 9.2 kg in the control group, with a mean difference of 0.92 kg (95% CI -1.35, 3.18; p = 0.43). Among the 30 secondary outcomes in late pregnancy, an apparent reduction was recorded in the incidence of GDM (2009 WHO definition) in the exercise group (2 cases; 6.1%) compared to the control group (9 cases; 27.3%), with an odds ratio of 0.1 (95% CI 0.02, 0.95; p = 0

  6. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...

  7. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caponi, Paula Wesendonck; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado; Pinto, Graziela Hünning; Borges, Júlia; Markoski, Melissa; Machado, Ubiratan F; Schaan, Beatriz D'Agord

    2013-07-01

    We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome. Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monos