WorldWideScience

Sample records for exercise training effects

  1. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  2. Effects of music during exercise in different training status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldari, C; Macone, D; Bonavolontà, V; Guidetti, L

    2010-09-01

    This study examined the interaction of exercise and music to establish the impact of these factors on state-anxiety and time to exhaustion comparing trained and active participants. Twenty-six university students (13 trained, 13 active) completed the State-anxiety Inventory questionnaire before and after a submaximal treadmill running until volitional exhaustion in both music and no-music condition. ANOVA showed that both trained and active groups significantly reduced their State-Anxiety scores after exercise tasks (Pmusic. Finding also revealed that active group reported a higher significant reduction of their state anxiety score after exercise in music condition compared to no-music task (Pmusic (Pmusic during exercise may improve this effect in active but not in trained participants. Further, listening to music during exercise may prolong the participants' exercise experience but different training status seems to qualify differently this response.

  3. Is balance exercise training as effective as aerobic exercise training in fibromyalgia syndrome?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tuzun, Emine Handan; Culhaoglu, Belde

    2015-05-01

    The aim was to compare the effect of aerobic and balance exercises on pain severity, myalgic score, quality of life, exercise capacity and balance in fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS). A total of 33 females diagnosed with FMS by the American College of Rheumatology criteria were recruited in this randomised controlled study and allocated to aerobic exercise (AE) or balance exercise (BE) groups. Exercises were performed three times a week, for 6 weeks on a treadmill or with a Tetrax interactive balance system (TIBS). Outcome measures were characterised by myalgic score, visual analogue scale, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), exercise testing, Timed Up-Go (TUG) and TIBS measurements. Comparisons from baseline to 6 weeks were evaluated using Wilcoxon test. Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare differences between groups. Effect sizes were also calculated. Improvements in pain, myalgic score and FIQ were found in both groups (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, myalgic score was significant (p = 0.02, d = -1.77), the value was higher in AE. Exercise duration, Borg scale, resting blood pressures (RBP) and maximal heart rate were significant in AE. In BE, Borg scale, exercise duration was significant (p < 0.05). While comparing groups, diastolic RBP (p = 0.04, d = -0.92), exercise duration (p = 0.00, d = -1.64) were significant, with higher values in AE. TUG significantly changed in groups (p < 0.05, d ≥ -1.22). Stability scores, eyes open while standing on elastic pads (p = 0.00, d = -0.98) and head back (p = 0.03, d = -0.74), were significant, with higher values in BE. This study showed that BE provided some improvements in FMS, but AE training led to greater gains. BE training should be included in comprehensive programs.

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell count of people living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: A randomized controlled trial.

  5. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation

    OpenAIRE

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J.; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2008-01-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moder...

  6. Chromium and exercise training: effect on obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K E; Chandler, R M; Castle, A L; Ivy, J L

    1997-08-01

    Chromium supplementation may affect various risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), including body weight and composition, basal plasma hormone and substrate levels, and response to an oral glucose load. This study examined the effects of chromium supplementation (400 micrograms.d-1), with or without exercise training, on these risk factors in young, obese women. Chromium picolinate supplementation resulted in significant weight gain in this population, while exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation resulted in significant weight loss and lowered the insulin response to an oral glucose load. We conclude that high levels of chromium picolinate supplementation are contraindicated for weight loss in young, obese women. Moreover, our results suggest that exercise training combined with chromium nicotinate supplementation may be more beneficial than exercise training alone for modification of certain CAD and NIDDM risk factors.

  7. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... THERAPEUTIC EFFECT OF CONTINUOUS EXERCISE TRAINING. PROGRAM ON SERUM CREATININE CONCENTRATION IN MEN. WITH HYPERTENSION: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL. L. SIKIRU1and G. C. OKOYE2. 1Biomedical Technology Dept., School of Health Technology, Federal ...

  8. Therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Creatinine (Cr) has been implicated as an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as adjunct therapy for hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous training programme on blood pressure and serum creatinine concentration in black ...

  9. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Inclusion criteria. Only those who volunteered to participate in the study were recruited. Subjects between the age range of 50 and 70 years with chronic mild to moderate and stable (>1 year duration) ... automated digital electronic BP monitor (Omron digital BP ..... The cardiovascular effects of exercise training in elderly.

  10. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M; Madsen, Agnete B; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T; Lundsgaard, Anne-Marie; Jensen, Thomas E; Richter, Erik A; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente; Frøsig, Christian

    2016-02-01

    Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle. An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content. An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction-induced mechanism. Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle. AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy-inhibiting effect of insulin. Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5'AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non-exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser-757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one-legged exercise training, the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise training may increase the capacity for formation of autophagosomes

  11. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  12. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one...... increase the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in muscle. Moreover, AMPK activation during exercise may not be sufficient to regulate autophagy in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 likely mediates the autophagy-inhibiting effect of insulin. This article is protected by copyright. All rights...

  13. Separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on exercise efficiency and substrate oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amati, Francesca; Dubé, John J; Shay, Chris; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2008-09-01

    Perturbations in body weight have been shown to affect energy expenditure and efficiency during physical activity. The separate effects of weight loss and exercise training on exercise efficiency or the proportion of energy derived from fat oxidation during physical activity, however, are not known. The purpose of this study was to determine the separate and combined effects of exercise training and weight loss on metabolic efficiency, economy (EC), and fat oxidation during steady-state moderate submaximal exercise. Sixty-four sedentary older (67 +/- 0.5 yr) overweight to obese (30.7 +/- 0.4 kg/m(2)) volunteers completed 4 mo of either diet-induced weight loss (WL; n = 11), exercise training (EX; n = 36), or the combination of both interventions (WLEX; n = 17). Energy expenditure, gross efficiency (GE), EC, and proportion of energy expended from fat (EF) were determined during a 1-h submaximal (50% of peak aerobic capacity) cycle ergometry exercise before the intervention and at the same absolute work rate after the intervention. We found that EX increased GE by 4.7 +/- 2.2%. EC was similarly increased by 4.2 +/- 2.1% by EX. The addition of concomitant WL to EX (WLEX) resulted in greater increases in GE (9.0 +/- 3.3%) compared with WL alone but not compared with EX alone. These effects remained after adjusting for changes in lean body mass. The proportion of energy derived from fat during the bout of moderate exercise increased with EX and WLEX but not with WL. From these findings, we conclude that exercise training, either alone or in combination with weight loss, increases both exercise efficiency and the utilization of fat during moderate physical activity in previously sedentary, obese older adults. Weight loss alone, however, significantly improves neither efficiency nor utilization of fat during exercise.

  14. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  15. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  16. Training effects of combined resistance and proprioceptive neck muscle exercising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Michael; Hohl, Kathrin; Bockholt, Ulrich; Schneider, Florian; Dehner, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    To investigate training effects of two different resistance and proprioceptive exercising concepts of neck muscles. Twenty-six healthy women participated in a randomized pilot trial. The test persons were randomized to two different neck-training programs (resistance training (RT) and proprioceptive resistance training (PRT)). They performed a standardized training program for the duration of ten weeks two times weekly. The neck strength, the cross-sectional area of three neck muscle groups (1. sternocleidomastoid muscles; 2. multifidus and semispinalis cervicis muscles; 3. semispinalis capitis and splenius muscles) and the proprioceptive capability evaluated by the dynamic joint repositioning error (DJRE) of the head were assessed pre- and post-intervention. Strength gain did not differ significantly between the two resistance training groups (PRT group: 8.2% to 29.3%; RT group: 1.4% to 19.8%). Change of hypertrophy of all neck muscle groups was significantly (ptraining, proprioceptive training led to a significantly higher muscle hypertrophy and didn't effect a significant deterioration of the proprioceptive capability compared to isolated resistance training.

  17. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) suffer from the symptom of intermittent claudication and are therefore intolerant to walking. Exercise training has been shown to be a beneficial treatment for patients with PVD. Therefore studies have aimed to assess the efficacy of exercise training programmes. This review ...

  18. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although much research exists on individuals with CP, there is conflicting evidence for the benefits of exercise training in these individuals. This is due to the use of sedentary, paediatric populations and varied methodologies. Investigating individuals who have undergone high-volume exercise training from a young age ...

  19. Effects of moderate aerobic exercise training on chronic primary insomnia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passos, Giselle Soares; Poyares, Dalva; Santana, Marcos Gonçalves; D'Aurea, Carolina Vicaria Rodrigues; Youngstedt, Shawn D; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of long-term moderate aerobic exercise on sleep, quality of life, and mood of individuals with chronic primary insomnia, and to examine whether these effects differed between exercise in the morning and exercise in the late afternoon. Nineteen sedentary individuals with chronic primary insomnia, mean age 45.0 (standard error [SE] 1.9) years, completed a 6-month exercise training protocol, randomized to morning and late-afternoon exercise groups. Combining polysomnographic data across both time points, this study found a significant decrease in sleep onset latency (from 17.1 [SE 2.6] min to 8.7 [SE 1.4] min; Psleep onset (from 63.2 [SE 12.8] min to 40.1 [SE 6.0] min), and a significant increase in sleep efficiency (from 79.8 [SE 3.0]% to 87.2 [SE 1.6]%) following exercise. Data from sleep diaries revealed significant improvement in sleep onset latency (from 76.2 [SE 21.5] min to 80.3 [SE 7.4] min) sleep quality (from 41.5 [SE 5.2]% to 59.4 [SE 6.6]%) and feeling rested in the morning (from 50.8 [SE 5.3] to 65.1 [SE 5.0]). There were generally no significant differences in response between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Following exercise, some quality-of-life measures improved significantly, and a significant decrease was seen in the following Profile of Mood State measures: tension-anxiety (from 7.2 [SE 1.0] to 3.5 [SE 1.0]), depression (from 5.9 [SE 1.2] to 3.3 [SE 1.1]) and total mood disturbance (from 9.2 [SE 4.8] to -1.7 [SE 4.8]). These effects did not vary between morning and late-afternoon exercise. Long-term moderate aerobic exercise elicited significant improvements in sleep, quality of life and mood in individuals with chronic primary insomnia. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Training effects on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise: comparison between continuous and interval training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanisho, Kei; Hirakawa, Kazufumi

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 2 different training regimens, continuous (CT) and interval (IT), on endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. Eighteen lacrosse players were divided into CT (n = 6), IT (n = 6), and nontraining (n = 6) groups. Both training groups trained for 3 days per week for 15 weeks using bicycle ergometers. Continuous training performed continuous aerobic training for 20-25 minutes, and IT performed high-intensity pedaling comprising 10 sets of 10-second maximal pedaling with 20-second recovery periods. Maximal anaerobic power, maximal oxygen uptake (V(O2max)), and intermittent power output were measured before and after the training period. The intermittent exercise test consisted of a set of ten 10-second maximal sprints with 40-second intervals. Maximal anaerobic power significantly increased in IT (p training groups (p intermittent exercise test, the average of the total mean power output (1-10 sets) increased in both training groups (p training reduced lactate production and increased the mean power output, but there was little effect on high-power endurance capacity in maximal intermittent exercise. In contrast, although lactate production did not decrease, IT improved fatigability and mean power output in the last stage. These results indicated that the endurance capacities for maximal intermittent and continuous exercises were not identical. Ball game players should therefore improve their endurance capacity with high-intensity intermittent exercise, and it is insufficient to assess their capacity with only V(O2max) or continuous exercise tests.

  1. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    Qmax may increase within a few weeks of exercise and the underlying mechanisms leading to this are likely to be multi-factorial. Plasma volume is generally thought to rapidly increase in response to exercise training driving an increase in Qmax and hence VO2max. Structural and functional changes ...

  2. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    increased after altitude training by 6.2 ± 3.9% (P VO2max was similar before and after training camps in both groups (LHTH: n = 7, SL: n = 6). Maximal 200 m speed reached in an incremental swimming step-test (P......Qmax may increase within a few weeks of exercise and the underlying mechanisms leading to this are likely to be multi-factorial. Plasma volume is generally thought to rapidly increase in response to exercise training driving an increase in Qmax and hence VO2max. Structural and functional changes...... they can be a challenge in an anti-doping context. In study I nine individuals performed six weeks of endurance exercise. Intravascular volumes, Qmax and VO2max were measured before and after the training intervention. Any increases in BV were then restored by phlebotomy. After the training period, PV, RCV...

  3. Aerobicvsanaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-02-26

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  4. Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy with Concurrent Exercise Training: Contrary Evidence for an Interference Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murach, Kevin A; Bagley, James R

    2016-08-01

    Over the last 30+ years, it has become axiomatic that performing aerobic exercise within the same training program as resistance exercise (termed concurrent exercise training) interferes with the hypertrophic adaptations associated with resistance exercise training. However, a close examination of the literature reveals that the interference effect of concurrent exercise training on muscle growth in humans is not as compelling as previously thought. Moreover, recent studies show that, under certain conditions, concurrent exercise may augment resistance exercise-induced hypertrophy in healthy human skeletal muscle. The purpose of this article is to outline the contrary evidence for an acute and chronic interference effect of concurrent exercise on skeletal muscle growth in humans and provide practical literature-based recommendations for maximizing hypertrophy when training concurrently.

  5. EFFECT OF A HOME EXERCISE TRAINING-PROGRAM IN PATIENTS WITH CYSTIC-FIBROSIS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEJONG, W; GREVINK, RG; ROORDA, RJ; KAPTEIN, AA; VANDERSCHANS, CP

    Physical training in patients with pulmonary diseases, including cystic fibrosis (CF), may improve exercise tolerance in these patients. Most training programs are performed in a clinical setting. Little information is available concerning the effect of home exercise training programs in CF

  6. Postexercise oxygen consumption in trained females: effect of exercise duration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, T J; Vroman, N B; Kertzer, R

    1994-07-01

    Many research studies report the long-lasting elevation of metabolism following exercise. However, little is known regarding the impact of duration and intensity on this phenomenon, particularly in trained women in whom the time of the menstrual cycle has been controlled. This study examined the effects of a constant walking intensity (70% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)) on the treadmill at various levels of duration (20, 40, and 60 min) on 3-h recovery of oxygen uptake (VO2). Eight trained (mean +/- SD) (VO2max = 47.6 +/- 3.2 ml.kg-1.min-1) females (mean age = 30.2 +/- 5.0 yr, mean weight = 58.7 +/- 7.6 kg, mean height = 165.6 +/- 7.0 cm) participated in the study. Subjects reported to the lab for a maximal oxygen consumption test and returned on four additional occasions (control, 20, 40, 60 min) in random fashion. Treadmill speed and grade were established to yield the appropriate intensity for each subject. Following each exercise bout subjects sat quietly for a 3-h time period. Variables measured included VO2, minute ventilation (VE), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and core (rectal) temperature (Tc). Variables were measured each 15 min of recovery. An ANOVA was used to assess differences due to duration. Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) was calculated by subtracting the resting VO2 from the absolute VO2 and summing the individual EPOCs during each 3-h postexercise session and comparing these individual values to the preexercise VO2 values. The EPOC was significantly elevated (P < 0.05) in each of the three durations as compared with the control (sitting) and preexercise periods. The total EPOC was significantly higher for the 60-min duration (15.2 l) as compared with either 20-min (8.b l) or 40-min (9.8 l) duration (P < 0.05). This was observed without significant changes in VE, RER, HR, SBP, DBP, or Tc. Additionally, there were no differences during exercise

  7. Treadmill training combined with water and land-based exercise programs: Effects on Parkinson's disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayan, Carlos; Varela, Silvia; Vila, M Helena; Seijo-Martinez, Manuel; Cancela, José M

    2016-06-30

    There is a need for studies about the effects of treadmill training (TT) on Parkinson's disease (PD) patients when combined with other exercise training modalities. To identify the effects of a multicomponent rehabilitation program on the illness impact, quality of life and fitness level in Parkinson's disease. Participants were assigned to two exercise groups: water and land-based exercise (WL) or water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training (TWL). The water and land-based exercise group performed one water-based exercise and one land-based exercise session per week for 15 weeks. Participants in the water and land-based exercise plus treadmill training added two sessions of treadmill training to this schedule. The Senior Fitness Test (SFT) was used to assess the sample's fitness level. Participants in the water and land-based exercise Group experienced significant benefits in the disease impact (UPDRS t = 3.083; p = 0.029) and quality of life (PDQ-39 t = 2.942; p = 0.036). The addition of treadmill training did not have any significant effect on these variables. Both programs showed similar effects on the fitness components evaluated. Adding treadmill training to a combination of water and land-based exercise programs may have limited effects on quality of life and the impact on the disease.

  8. Effects of Exercise Training on Exercise Capacity in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Systematic Review of Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Abraham Samuel; Padmakumar, Ramachandran; Maiya, Arun G; Mohapatra, Aswini Kumar; Kamath, R L

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) causes profound functional limitations and poor quality of life. Yet, there is only a limited literature available on the role of exercise training. This paper systematically reviews the effects of exercise training on exercise capacity in PAH. A systematic search of databases (PubMed, CINAHL, CENTRAL, Web of Science and PEDRo) was undertaken for English language articles published between 1(st) January 1980 and 31(st) March 2015. Quality rating for all articles was done using the Downs and Black scoring system. Fifteen articles of good (n=4), moderate (n=6) and poor (n=5) quality were included in the review. Exercise interventions included aerobic, resistance, inspiratory muscle training or a combination, for 6-18 weeks. Improvements were seen in exercise capacity (six minute walk distance (6MWD) and peak VO2) by 17-96m and 1.1-2.1ml/Kg/min, functional class by one class and quality of life, with minimal adverse events. There is evidence to recommend the use of exercise training as an adjunct to medical treatment in PAH. More clinical trials and research are required to assess the effects of different types of exercise programs in patients with PAH, while focussing on strong exercise endpoints to quantify the improvements seen with exercise training. Copyright © 2015 Australian and New Zealand Society of Cardiac and Thoracic Surgeons (ANZSCTS) and the Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand (CSANZ). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Effects of exercise training on maternal hormonal changes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Sarah A; Baldi, James C; Cutfield, Wayne S; McCowan, Lesley; Hofman, Paul L

    2011-04-01

    A recent paper by our group reported that regular aerobic exercise during pregnancy led to lower foetal IGF-I and IGF-II concentrations and a modest reduction in offspring birth weight when compared with the offspring of nontraining control participants. Maternal hormonal alterations in response to exercise training may be associated with the regulation of nutrient availability for foetal growth through placental regulation of maternal metabolism. To determine whether the reduction in offspring size was associated with changes in the maternal IGF axis [including placental growth hormone (PGH)], leptin and/or free fatty acids (FFA) in response to aerobic exercise training in the second half of pregnancy. A randomized, controlled trial of exercise in pregnancy. Eighty-four healthy nulliparous women (mean±SD age 30±4 year, BMI 25·5±4 kg/m(2) ). Serum samples were drawn at 19 and 35 weeks gestation to determine serum IGF-I, IGF-II, IGF-binding protein-1, IGF-binding protein-3, PGH, leptin and FFA. Exercise training in pregnancy had no impact on the pregnancy-related changes in the maternal IGF axis. Women in the exercise group experienced a 29% increase in leptin in late gestation (P=0·026 vs control) and a trend towards lower FFA (P=0·07 vs control). Late pregnancy changes in maternal leptin were inversely related to offspring birth weight (r= -0·24, Pchanges within the placenta in response to regular exercise and may contribute to the reduction in offspring size previously reported in this cohort. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Effects of combined exercise training and electromyostimulation treatments in chronic heart failure: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Marie C; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Pavy, Bruno; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Monpère, Catherine; Richard, Rudy; Verdier, Jean C

    2017-08-01

    Background Exercise training as part of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients with cardiac heart failure. It is a valuable method for the improvement of exercise tolerance. Some studies reported a similar improvement with quadricipital electrical myostimulation, but the effect of combined exercise training and electrical myostimulation in cardiac heart failure has not been yet evaluated in a large prospective multicentre study. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low frequency electrical myostimulation to exercise training may improve exercise capacity and/or muscular strength in cardiac heart failure patients. Methods Ninety-one patients were included (mean age: 58 ± 9 years; New York Heart Association II/III: 52/48%, left ventricular ejection fraction: 30 ± 7%) in a prospective French study. The patients were randomised into two groups: 41 patients in exercise training and 50 in exercise training + electrical myostimulation. All patients underwent 20 exercise training sessions. In addition, in the exercise training + electrical myostimulation group, patients underwent 20 low frequency (10 Hz) quadricipital electrical myostimulation sessions. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a six-minute walk test, a muscular function evaluation and a quality of life questionnaire, before and at the end of the study. Results A significant improvement of exercise capacity (Δ peak oxygen uptake+15% in exercise training group and +14% in exercise training + electrical myostimulation group) and of quality of life was observed in both groups without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Mean creatine kinase level increased in the exercise training group whereas it remained stable in the combined group. Conclusions This prospective multicentre study shows that electrical myostimulation on top of exercise training does not demonstrate any significant

  11. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  12. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Equine sweat composition: effects of adrenaline infusion, exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McConaghy, F F; Hodgson, D R; Evans, D L; Rose, R J

    1995-11-01

    Significant alterations in plasma electrolyte concentrations have been reported in horses following prolonged exercise, resulting from loss of hypertonic sweat. Sweat was collected from 10 horses undergoing a 10 week training programme; 5 at moderate intensity, to speeds of 10 m/s and 5 at low intensity, to speeds of 5 m/s. Sweat was collected from 2 sites in response to a submaximal exercise test (30 min at 50% VO2max and during an adrenaline infusion (dose mean +/- s.d.; 0.3 +/- 0.05 g/kg over 30 min). Sweat samples were analysed for sodium, chloride, potassium, protein, magnesium, calcium and urea concentrations. Sweat produced in response to exercise and adrenaline infusion was hypertonic and showed no significant differences in composition following training. However, the [NaCl] of sweat rose with increased duration of sweating. Sweat produced in response to adrenaline infusion was more dilute than that produced in response to exercise, which may be related to sympathetic outflow during exercise.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  15. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  16. Analyzing Exercise Training Effect and Its Impact on Cardiorespiratory and Cardiovascular Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumakis, Paul J.; McCormack, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides a statistical investigation of the impact of heart rate levels on training effect for a specific exercise regimen, including an analysis of post-exercise heart rate recovery. Results indicate optimum target values for both average and maximum heart rate during exercise in order to improve both cardiorespiratory and…

  17. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  18. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  19. Effects of Resveratrol Supplementation and Exercise Training on Exercise Performance in Middle-Aged Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nai-Wen Kan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Resveratrol (RES has antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic, antiasthmatic, antalgic, and anti-fatigue activities. Exercise training (ET improves frailty resulting from aging. This study evaluated the effects of a combination of RES supplementation and ET on the exercise performance of aged mice. C57BL/6J mice (16 months old were randomly divided into four groups: an older control group (OC group, supplementation with RES group (RES group, ET group (ET group, and a combination of ET and RES supplementation group (ET+RES group. Other 10-week-old mice were used as a young control group (Y-Ctrl group. In this study, exercise performance was evaluated using forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time, as well as levels of plasma lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after an acute swimming exercise. Our results showed that the forelimb grip strength of mice in the ET+RES group was significantly higher than those in the OC, RES, and ET groups (by 1.3-, 1.2-, and 1.1-fold, respectively, p < 0.05, and exhibited no difference with the Y-Ctrl group. The endurance swimming test showed that swimming times of the ET and ET+RES groups were significantly longer than those of the OC and RES groups. Moreover, plasma lactate and ammonia levels of the ET + RES group after acute swimming exercise were significantly lower compared to the OC group (p < 0.05. Thus, it was suggested that by combining RES supplementation with ET for 4 weeks, the muscle strength and endurance performance of aged mice were significantly improved compared to the single intervention with either RES or ET alone. This combination might help shorten the extent of deterioration accompanying the aging process.

  20. Effects of exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure and sleep apnea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Linda M; Drager, Luciano F; Rodrigues, Ana C T; Rondon, Maria U P B; Braga, Ana M F W; Mathias, Wilson; Krieger, Eduardo M; Barretto, Antonio C P; Middlekauff, Holly R; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Negrão, Carlos E

    2009-05-01

    To test the effects of exercise training on sleep and neurovascular control in patients with systolic heart failure with and without sleep disordered breathing. Prospective interventional study. Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise physiology unit and sleep laboratory. Twenty-five patients with heart failure, aged 42 to 70 years, and New York Heart Association Functional Class I-III were divided into 1 of 3 groups: obstructive sleep apnea (n=8), central sleep apnea (n=9) and no sleep apnea (n=7). INTERVENTIONS Four months of no-training (control) followed by 4 months of an exercise training program (three 60-minute, supervised, exercise sessions per week). Sleep (polysomnography), microneurography, forearm blood flow (plethysmography), peak VO2, and quality of life were evaluated at baseline and at the end of the control and trained periods. No significant changes occurred in the control period. Exercise training reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (P sleep apnea. Exercise training improved the apnea-hypopnea index, minimum 0O saturation, and amount stage 3-4 sleep (P sleep apnea but had no significant effects in patients with central sleep apnea. The beneficial effects of exercise training on neurovascular function, functional capacity, and quality of life in patients with systolic dysfunction and heart failure occurs independently of sleep disordered breathing. Exercise training lessens the severity of obstructive sleep apnea but does not affect central sleep apnea in patients with heart failure and sleep disordered breathing.

  1. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p endurance exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  2. Training with a balance exercise assist robot is more effective than conventional training for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kenichi; Kondo, Izumi; Hirano, Satoshi; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Osawa, Aiko; Fujinori, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of postural strategy training using a balance exercise assist robot (BEAR) as compared with conventional balance training for frail older adults. The present study was designed as a cross-over trial without a washout term. A total of 27 community-dwelling frail or prefrail elderly residents (7 men, 20 women; age range 65-85 years) were selected from a volunteer sample. Two exercises were prepared for interventions: robotic exercise moving the center of gravity by the balance exercise assist robot system; and conventional balance training combining muscle-strengthening exercise, postural strategy training and applied motion exercise. Each exercise was carried out twice a week for 6 weeks. Participants were allocated randomly to either the robotic exercise first group or the conventional balance exercise first group. preferred and maximal gait speeds, tandem gait speeds, timed up-and-go test, functional reach test, functional base of support, center of pressure, and muscle strength of the lower extremities were assessed before and after completion of each exercise program. Robotic exercise achieved significant improvements for tandem gait speed (P = 0.012), functional reach test (P = 0.002), timed up-and-go test (P = 0.023) and muscle strength of the lower extremities (P = 0.001-0.030) compared with conventional exercise. In frail or prefrail older adults, robotic exercise was more effective for improving dynamic balance and lower extremity muscle strength than conventional exercise. These findings suggest that postural strategy training with the balance exercise assist robot is effective to improve the gait instability and muscle weakness often seen in frail older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1982-1990. © 2017 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. Effect of chronic clenbuterol administration and exercise training on immune function in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, K; Kearns, C F; Guirnalda, P D; Roegner, V; McKeever, K H

    2004-12-01

    Effects of longitudinal exercise training and acute intensive exercise (simulated race test) on immune function have not been reported in horses. Clenbuterol, a beta2-adrenergic agonist, is used to manage inflammatory airway disease in horses. This study investigated the interaction of 8 wk of exercise training with or without 12 wk of clenbuterol administration in horses. Twenty-three untrained standardbred mares (10 +/- 3 yr, Mean +/- SE) were used and divided into four experimental groups. Horses given clenbuterol plus exercise (CLENEX; n = 6) and clenbuterol alone (CLEN; n = 6) received 2.4 microg/kg BW of clenbuterol twice daily (in an average volume of 20 mL) on a schedule of 5 d on and 2 d off for 12 wk. The CLENEX group was also aerobically trained 3 d/wk. Mares given exercise alone (EX; n = 5) were aerobically trained for 3 d/wk, and the control group (CON; n = 6) remained sedentary. Both EX and CON horses were administered similar volumes (approximately 20 mL) of molasses twice daily. A simulated race test (SRT) resulted in an elevation in lymphocyte number postexercise (P Clenbuterol and exercise training did not significantly affect post-SRT changes in leukocyte numbers. Exercise training resulted in a decrease (P clenbuterol or exercise conditioning. Lymphocyte proliferative response was not affected by clenbuterol or exercise treatment. Horses demonstrated responses to bouts of acute exercise as noted with other species, namely humans and rodents.

  4. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stoedefalke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The following review aims to describe what is known about the effects of exercise training in children and adolescents on the following blood lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Only studies that described mode, frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise were included in the review. The results of the studies reviewed were equivocal. Clearly the effects of exercise training on the blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of normolipidemic children and adolescents are equivocal. Of the 14 studies reviewed, six observed a positive alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile, four of the studies observed no alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and one study observed a negative effect on HDL-C but an overall improvement in the lipid and lipoprotein profile due to the decrease in the TC/HDL ratio. It appears that methodological problems present in the majority of the exercise training studies limits the ability to make a conclusive, evidence based statement regarding the effect exercise training has on blood lipid levels in normolipidemic children. Most of the research design flaws can be linked to one or more of the following: small numbers of subjects in each study, low or no representation of girls, inclusion of both boys and girls in the subject pool, inclusion of boys and girls at different maturational stages in the subject pool, exercise training regimes that do not adequately control for exercise intensity, exercise training regimes that do not last longer than 8 weeks and exercise training studies that do not have an adequate exercise volume to elicit a change. Ideally, future research should focus on longitudinal studies which examine the effects of exercise training from the primary school years through adulthood

  5. Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent training in the elderly: effects of intrasession exercise sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Radaelli, Régis; González-Izal, Miriam; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the effects of different intrasession exercise orders in the neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7 ± 4.1 years), were placed into two concurrent training groups: strength prior to (SE, n = 13) or after (ES, n = 13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training during 12 weeks, three times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper an...

  6. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  7. Aquatic Exercise Training is Effective in Maintaining Exercise Performance in Trained Heart Failure Patients: A Randomised Crossover Pilot Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adsett, Julie; Morris, Norman; Kuys, Suzanne; Hwang, Rita; Mullins, Robert; Khatun, Mohsina; Paratz, Jennifer; Mudge, Alison

    2017-06-01

    Providing flexible models and a variety of exercise options are fundamental to supporting long-term exercise participation for patients with heart failure (HF). The aim of this pilot study was to determine the feasibility and efficacy of aquatic exercise training during a maintenance phase for a clinical heart failure population. In this 2 x 2 crossover design trial, individuals who had previously completed HF rehabilitation were randomised into either a land-based or aquatic training program once per week for six weeks, after which time they changed to the alternate exercise training protocol for an additional six weeks. Six-minute walk test (6MWT), grip strength, walk speed, and measures of balance were compared for the two training protocols. Fifty-one participants (43 males, mean age 69.2 yrs) contributed data for the analysis. Both groups maintained function during the follow-up period, however improvements in 6MWT were greater in the land-based training group (95% CI: 0.7, 22.5; p=0.038), by a mean difference of 10.8 metres. No significant difference was observed for other parameters when the two training protocols were compared. Attending an aquatic exercise program once per week is feasible for patients with stable HF and may provide a suitable option to maintain functional performance in select patients. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Do acute effects of exercise on vascular function predict adaptation to training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ellen A; Cable, N Timothy; Green, Daniel J; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2018-03-01

    No previous study has explored the importance of exercise-induced changes in vascular function to prolonged adaptations. Therefore, the purpose was to explore the within-subject relationship between the acute post-exercise change in brachial artery endothelial function (flow-mediated dilation, FMD) and the change in resting FMD after a 2-week exercise training in healthy volunteers. Twenty one healthy, young men (24 ± 5 years) underwent assessment of brachial artery FMD using high-resolution ultrasound before and after 30-min of moderate-intensity cycle exercise (80% maximal heart rate). Subsequently, subjects performed five 30-min cycle exercise bouts at 80% maximal heart rate across a 2-week period, followed by repeat assessment of resting brachial FMD post-training. Correcting for changes in diameter and shear, FMD did not change after the initial exercise bout (P = 0.26). However, a significant correlation was found between post-exercise changes in FMD and adaptation in resting FMD after training (r = 0.634, P = 0.002), where an acute decrease in post-exercise FMD resulted in a decrease in baseline FMD after 2 weeks and vice versa. We also found a positive correlation between antegrade shear rate during exercise and change in FMD% after acute exercise and after exercise training (r = 0.529 and 0.475, both P < 0.05). Our findings suggest that acute post-exercise changes in vascular function are related to changes in resting FMD after a 2-week endurance exercise training period in healthy men, an effect that may be related to exercise-induced increases in antegrade shear rate. This provides further insight into the relevance of acute changes in shear and FMD for subsequent adaptation.

  9. Effect of continuous and interval exercise training on the PETCO2 response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Enéas A. Rocco; Prado, Danilo M L; Silva, Alexandre G.; Lazzari, Jaqueline M. A.; Bortz, Pedro C; Rocco,Débora F. M.; Carla G. Rosa; Valter Furlan

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the following: 1) the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2) response during a graded exercise test in patients with coronary artery disease; and 2) the effects of exercise training modalities on the association between PETCO2 at the ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and indicators of ventilatory efficiency and cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with co...

  10. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    R. Delevatti; E. Marson; L. Fernando Kruel

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantl...

  11. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  12. Exercise training reverses the negative effects of chronic L-arginine supplementation on insulin sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salgueiro, Rafael Barrera; Gerlinger-Romero, Frederico; Guimarães-Ferreira, Lucas; de Castro Barbosa, Thais; Nunes, Maria Tereza

    2017-12-15

    L-Arginine has emerged as an important supplement for athletes and non-athletes in order to improve performance. Arginine has been extensively used as substrate for nitric oxide synthesis, leading to increased vasodilatation and hormonal secretion. However, the chronic consumption of arginine has been shown to impair insulin sensitivity. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate whether chronic arginine supplementation associated with exercise training would have a beneficial impact on insulin sensitivity. We, therefore, treated Wistar rats for 4weeks with arginine, associated or not with exercise training (treadmill). We assessed the somatotropic activation, by evaluating growth hormone (GH) gene expression and protein content in the pituitary, as well is GH concentration in the serum. Additionally, we evaluate whole-body insulin sensitivity, by performing an insulin tolerance test. Skeletal muscle morpho-physiological parameters were also assessed. Insulin sensitivity was impaired in the arginine-treated rats. However, exercise training reversed the negative effects of arginine. Arginine and exercise training increased somatotropic axis function, muscle mass and body weight gain. The combination arginine and exercise training further decreased total fat mass. Our results confirm that chronic arginine supplementation leads to insulin resistance, which can be reversed in the association with exercise training. We provide further evidence that exercise training is an important tool to improve whole-body metabolism. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Order effects of concurrent endurance and resistance training on post-exercise response of non-trained women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Blasio, Andrea; Gemello, Eugenio; Di Iorio, Angelo; Di Giacinto, Gabriella; Celso, Tiziana; Di Renzo, Donatella; Sablone, Andrea; Ripari, Patrizio

    2012-01-01

    Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67) years, Mean (SD)] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE), oxygen consumption (VO2), ventilation (Ve), respiratory frequency (RF), proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT), resistance-endurance training (RET) and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT). AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses. Key pointsThe concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, could be a practical solution to conform to guidelines for health in the presence of lack of time.The order of concurrent execution of both endurance and resistance exercise, in the same training session, influences the amplitude of some post-exercise physiological responses.

  14. Downhill exercise training in monocrotaline-injected rats: Effects on echocardiographic and haemodynamic variables and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enache, Irina; Favret, Fabrice; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Goette Di Marco, Paola; Charles, Anne-Laure; Geny, Bernard; Charloux, Anne

    2017-02-01

    Eccentric exercise training has been shown to improve muscle force strength without excessive cardiovascular stress. Such an exercise modality deserves to be tested in pulmonary arterial hypertension. We aimed to assess the effects of an eccentric training modality on cardiac function and survival in an experimental monocrotaline-induced model of pulmonary arterial hypertension with right ventricular dysfunction. Forty rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 40mg/kg monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats; 40mg/kg monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats; sedentary control rats; or eccentric-trained control rats. Eccentric exercise training consisted of downhill running on a treadmill with a -15° slope for 30minutes, 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Training tolerance was assessed by echocardiography, right ventricle catheterization and the rats' maximal eccentric speed. Survival in monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats was not different from that in monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats. Monocrotaline-injected eccentric-trained rats tolerated this training modality well, and haemodynamic status did not deteriorate further compared with monocrotaline-injected sedentary rats. The eccentric maximal speed decline was less pronounced in trained compared with sedentary pulmonary arterial hypertension rats. Eccentric exercise training had no detrimental effects on right heart pressure, cardiac function and survival in rats with stable monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  16. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...... improvement in one-leg hop (change 8 vs 2 cm; P=0.040), hamstrings strength 60 degrees /s (P=0.033), and quadriceps endurance 180 degrees /s (P=0.001). Functional exercise training was well tolerated and improved functional performance and thigh muscle strength in this group of middle-aged subjects...

  17. Effect of Nigella sativa supplementation to exercise training in a novel model of physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asoom, L I; Al-Shaikh, B A; Bamosa, A O; El-Bahai, M N

    2014-09-01

    Exercise training is employed as supplementary therapy to patients with heart failure due to its multiple beneficial cardiac effects including physiological remodeling of the heart. However, precautions might be taken for the concomitant high oxidant release. Nigella sativa (NS) has been found to induce cardiac hypertrophy and enhance cardiac function. Combination of NS supplementation and exercise training might induce a safer model of cardiac hypertrophy. Our aim was to study biomarkers associated with cardiac hypertrophy induced by NS supplementation of exercise-trained rats. Forty-five adult male Wistar rats (body weight 150-220 g) were divided equally into three groups: control, exercise-trained (ET) and NS-treated-exercise-trained (NSET) groups. Daily 800 mg/kg NS was administered orally to NSET group for 8 weeks. Rats of the ET and NSET groups were subjected to treadmill running sessions for 2 h/day for 8 weeks. By the end of the experiment, the following were recorded: body, heart and left ventricular weights (BW, HW, LVW), cardiomyocyte diameter, serum growth hormone, insulin growth factor-I (IGF-I), thyroid hormones, catecholamines, total nitrate, ICAM and antioxidant capacity. A homogenous cardiac hypertrophy was evidenced by increased HW/BW, LVW/BW ratios and cardiomyocyte diameter in the two groups of exercise-trained compared with control rats. Rats of ET group had higher growth hormone. Those of NSET group developed higher IGF-I and total antioxidant capacity, as well as lower serum thyroxin level. Simultaneous NS supplementation to an exercise training program preserves and augments exercise-induced physiological cardiac hypertrophy with step-forward adaptive signs of increased IGF-I and reduced thyroxin level, and with an added advantage of elevation of total serum antioxidant capacity. Thus, the novel model of NSET-induced cardiac hypertrophy might be introduced as a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of heart failure with superior

  18. Effects of Electrical Stimulation, Exercise Training and Motor Skills Training on Strength of Children with Meningomyelocele: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenais, Liese M.; Lahay, Erin R.; Stueck, Kailey A.; White, Erin; Williams, Lindsay; Harris, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    This systematic review provides a critical synthesis of research regarding the effects of electrical stimulation, exercise training, and motor skills training on muscle strength in children with meningomyelocele. Nine databases were searched using terms related to meningomyelocele and physical therapy interventions. Of 298 potentially relevant…

  19. ORDER EFFECTS OF CONCURRENT ENDURANCE AND RESISTANCE TRAINING ON POST-EXERCISE RESPONSE OF NON-TRAINED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Di Blasio

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Physical exercise is used for the promotion and maintenance of good health and for the improvement of physical fitness. Both endurance and resistance exercises are needed to carry out a complete training program. Because time may be a barrier to physical exercise practice, the aim of this study was to verify whether the order of execution of endurance and resistance exercises, in concurrent training, has different effects on the metabolic responses during recovery. Thirteen healthy women [24.40 (1.67 years, Mean (SD] were investigated for energy expenditure (EE, oxygen consumption (VO2, ventilation (Ve, respiratory frequency (RF, proportion of oxygen in expired air (FeO2 and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE both before and after three concurrent endurance and resistance trainings, carried out in different orders: endurance-resistance training (ERT, resistance-endurance training (RET and alternating endurance-resistance training (AERT. AERT elicited a significantly greater increase of EE, VO2, and Ve and a greater decrease of FeO2. ERT elicited a lower increase of RPE. Acute post-exercise physiological responses to concurrent endurance and resistance physical exercise seem to depend on the order of execution of the two parts: among the selected protocols, AERT seems to elicit the best responses

  20. The Effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training on Sickness Presenteeism and Absenteeism Among Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Just Bendix; Søgaard, Karen; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on presenteeism and absenteeism among office workers. METHODS: In a 1-year randomized controlled trial (RCT), employees were allocated to a training group TG (N...... of leisure-time PA significantly improved presenteeism and decreased absenteeism if following the protocol....

  1. Effect Of Interval Training On Blood Pressure And Exercise Capacity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) is a determinant of cardiovascular risk in patient with hypertension. The primary purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of interval training program on MAP in black African subjects with hypertension. Two hundred and forty five male patients with mild to moderate ...

  2. Effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal weight gain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in ...

  3. Effects of high-intensity exercise on leptin and testosterone concentrations in well-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Robert R; Durand, Robert J; Acevedo, Edmund O; Johnson, Lisa G; Synovitz, Linda B; Kraemer, Ginger R; Gimpel, Terry; Castracane, V Daniel

    2003-08-01

    A number of investigations have examined the effect of exercise on leptin concentrations, because leptin is associated with obesity, satiety, and reproductive function. High-intensity exercise is known to increase testosterone, an inhibitor of leptin. The objective of the study was to determine whether the leptin responses to a progressive, intermittent exercise protocol were related to serum testosterone concentrations. Most previous studies have examined leptin responses to low or moderately high exercise intensities. A second objective was to determine whether leptin responses were different than previous experiments using intermittent moderate and high-intensity exercise. Well-trained runners completed strenuous intermittent exercise consisting of treadmill running at 60, 75, 90, and 100% VO(2 max) and a subsequent resting control trial was also conducted. There were significant increases in mean serum levels of leptin and testosterone with both quickly returning to baseline during recovery, but no relationship between the two hormones was found. After examining individual data for both hormones, it was discovered that subjects could be classified as leptin responders or nonresponders, whereas testosterone increased in all subjects. Responders had elevated serum leptin levels at baseline and exhibited increases after high-intensity exercise, whereas nonresponders did not show changes in leptin during exercise. Data suggest testosterone levels do not acutely affect leptin responses to exercise or 1-h of recovery. Moreover, varied leptin responses to intense exercise in comparable well-trained runners was observed and was associated with baseline leptin concentrations.

  4. THE EFFECT OF RESISTANCE AND ENDURANCE EXERCISE TRAINING ON MUSCLE PROTEOME EXPRESSION IN HUMAN SKELETAL MUSCLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Keun Kim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effect of resistance and endurance training on muscle proteome expression, samples of vastus lateralis from 10 physically active young men were analysed by 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Differential patterns of protein expression were determined after 4 weeks of endurance or resistance exercise training. Following endurance exercise training, carbonic anhydrase III immunoglobulin heavy chain, myosin heavy chain 1, titin, chromosome 12, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase 2 were up-regulated while pyruvate kinase 3 isoform, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and phosphoglucomutase were down-regulated. After the 4 weeks of resistance exercise training, five proteins, apolipoprotein A-IV precursor, microtubule-actin cross linking factor 1, myosin light chain, growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein, and an unknown protein were up-regulated and pyruvate kinase 3 isoform, human albumin, and enolase 3 were down-regulated. We conclude that endurance and resistance exercise training differently alter the expression of individual muscle proteins, and that the response of muscle protein expression may be associated with specific myofibre adaptations to exercise training. Proteomic studies represent one of the developing techniques of metabolism which may substantially contribute to new insights into muscle and exercise physiology.

  5. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  6. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline, immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014 and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001 immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively, also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  7. Effects of exercise training with blood flow restriction on blood pressure in medicated hypertensive patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antônio Cezar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The development of non-pharmacological approaches to hypertension (HA is critical for both prevention and treatment. This study examined the hemodynamic and biochemical responses of medicated hypertensive women to resistance exercise with blood flow restriction (vascular occlusion. Twenty-three women were randomly assigned to one of three groups: High intensity strength training (n = 8; low-intensity resistance exercise with occlusion (n = 8; and control (n = 7. The first two groups underwent eight weeks of training performed twice a week, including three series of wrist flexion exercises with or without vascular occlusion. The exercised with occlusion group showed pre- to post-test reduction in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, and double product, whereas the other groups showed no significant hemodynamic changes. In conclusion, resistance exercise during 8 weeks was effective in lowering blood pressure in medicated hypertensive subjects.

  8. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  9. Effect of exercise and training on phospholemman phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benziane, Boubacar; Widegren, Ulrika; Pirkmajer, Sergej; Henriksson, Jan; Stepto, Nigel K; Chibalin, Alexander V

    2011-09-01

    Phospholemman (PLM, FXYD1) is a partner protein and regulator of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase (Na(+)-K(+) pump). We explored the impact of acute and short-term training exercise on PLM physiology in human skeletal muscle. A group of moderately trained males (n = 8) performed a 1-h acute bout of exercise by utilizing a one-legged cycling protocol. Muscle biopsies were taken from vastus lateralis at 0 and 63 min (non-exercised leg) and 30 and 60 min (exercised leg). In a group of sedentary males (n = 9), we determined the effect of a 10-day intense aerobic cycle training on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase subunit expression, PLM phosphorylation, and total PLM expression as well as PLM phosphorylation in response to acute exercise (1 h at ∼72% Vo(2peak)). Biopsies were taken at rest, immediately following, and 3 h after an acute exercise bout before and at the conclusion of the 10-day training study. PLM phosphorylation was increased both at Ser(63) and Ser(68) immediately after acute exercise (75%, P PLM phosphorylation at Ser(63) and Ser(68), nor was the total amount of PLM altered posttraining. The protein expressions of α(1)-, α(2)-,and β(1)-subunits of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase were increased after training (113%, P PLM on Ser(63) and Ser(68), and data from one-legged cycling indicate that this effect of exercise on PLM phosphorylation is not due to systemic factors. Our results provide evidence that phosphorylation of PLM may play a role in the acute regulation of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase response to exercise.

  10. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003975.htm Pelvic floor muscle training exercises To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pelvic floor muscle training exercises are a series of exercises ...

  11. The effect of exercise training on cutaneous microvascular reactivity: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanting, Sean M; Johnson, Nathan A; Baker, Michael K; Caterson, Ian D; Chuter, Vivienne H

    2017-02-01

    This study aimed to review the efficacy of exercise training for improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in response to local stimulus in human adults. Systematic review with meta-analysis. A systematic search of Medline, Cinahl, AMED, Web of Science, Scopus, and Embase was conducted up to June 2015. Included studies were controlled trials assessing the effect of an exercise training intervention on cutaneous microvascular reactivity as instigated by local stimulus such as local heating, iontophoresis and post-occlusive reactive hyperaemia. Studies where the control was only measured at baseline or which included participants with vasospastic disorders were excluded. Two authors independently reviewed and selected relevant controlled trials and extracted data. Quality was assessed using the Downs and Black checklist. Seven trials were included, with six showing a benefit of exercise training but only two reaching statistical significance with effect size ranging from -0.14 to 1.03. The meta-analysis revealed that aerobic exercise had a moderate statistically significant effect on improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity (effect size (ES)=0.43, 95% CI: 0.08-0.78, p=0.015). Individual studies employing an exercise training intervention have tended to have small sample sizes and hence lacked sufficient power to detect clinically meaningful benefits to cutaneous microvascular reactivity. Pooled analysis revealed a clear benefit of exercise training on improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in older and previously inactive adult cohorts. Exercise training may provide a cost-effective option for improving cutaneous microvascular reactivity in adults and may be of benefit to those with cardiovascular disease and metabolic disorders such as diabetes. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of exercise training on bone density in older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; Schniebolk, S; Riddle, M W; Cobb, F R; Higginbotham, M; Coleman, R E

    1991-11-01

    To determine the effects of up to 14 months of aerobic exercise on measures of bone density in older adults. Randomized controlled trial with subjects assigned to either an aerobic exercise condition, non-aerobic yoga, or a wait list non-exercise control group for 4 months. Aerobic fitness and bone density were evaluated in all subjects at baseline (Time 1) and after 4 months (Time 2). A semi-crossover design was utilized with all subjects completing 4 months of aerobic exercise, followed by another evaluation (Time 3). All subjects were then given the option of 6 additional months of aerobic exercise, after which they had a fourth evaluation (Time 4). An outpatient exercise rehabilitation facility at a large, major medical center. One-hundred-one healthy men (n = 50) and women (n = 51) over age 60 (Mean age = 67.0), recruited from the community. The exercise program included stretching, cycle ergometry, and walking three times per week for 60 minutes throughout the course of the study. Aerobic fitness (VO2max) as assessed by cycle ergometry, and bone density (bone mineral content) measured by single photon absorptiometry. Subjects achieved a 10%-15% increase in VO2max after 4 months of exercise training, and 1%-6% further improvement with additional training. Aerobic fitness was associated with significant increases in bone density in men, but not women, who maintained aerobic exercise for 14 months.

  13. Effects of 2 exercise training programs on physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Vanessa S; Kovelis, Demétria; Hernandes, Nídia A; Camillo, Carlos A; Cavalheri, Vinícius; Pitta, Fabio

    2011-11-01

    The effects of different exercise training programs on the level of physical activity in daily life in patients with COPD remain to be investigated. In patients with COPD we compared the effects of 2 exercise/training regimens (a high-intensity whole-body endurance-and-strength program, and a low-intensity calisthenics-and-breathing-exercises program) on physical activity in daily life, exercise capacity, muscle force, health-related quality of life, and functional status. We randomized 40 patients with COPD to perform either endurance-and-strength training (no. = 20, mean ± SD FEV(1) 40 ± 13% of predicted) at 60-75% of maximum capacity, or calisthenics-and-breathing-exercises training (no. = 20, mean ± SD FEV(1) 39 ± 14% of predicted). Both groups underwent 3 sessions per week for 12 weeks. Before and after the training programs the patients underwent activity monitoring with motion sensors, incremental cycle-ergometry, 6-min walk test, and peripheral-muscle-force test, and responded to questionnaires on health-related quality of life and functional status (activities of daily living, pulmonary functional status, and dyspnea). Time spent active and energy expenditure in daily life were not significantly altered in either group. Exercise capacity and muscle force significantly improved only in the endurance-and-strength group. Health-related quality of life and functional status improved significantly in both groups. Neither training program significantly improved time spent active or energy expenditure in daily life. The training regimens similarly improved quality of life and functional status. Exercise capacity and muscle force significantly improved only in the high-intensity endurance-and-strength group.

  14. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper; Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Peronard, Sebastian Louis; Grandjean, Simon Udsen; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Nyberg, Michael; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hellsten, Ylva

    2013-10-15

    Ageing is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, and improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1 signalling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg m(-2); mean arterial pressure (MAP): 95.8 ± 2.2 mmHg; maximal oxygen uptake: 2488 ± 72 ml O2 min(-1)) were randomized into 8 weeks of either daily intake of either 250 mg trans-resveratrol (n = 14) or of placebo (n = 13) concomitant with high-intensity exercise training. Exercise training led to a 45% greater (P exercise on low-density lipoprotein, total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein ratio and triglyceride concentrations in blood (P exercise training on the atherosclerosis marker vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation can blunt these effects.

  15. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Phlippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Heloise; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renee; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-09-07

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n= 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose (HFHS) diet (D, n=66) for 6 months. After 2 months of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation (Sham). Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for eight additional weeks or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 weeks resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes, and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean- but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  16. NO signaling in exercise training-induced anti-apoptotic effects in human neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Shu-Hui; Jen, Chauying J; Chen, Hsiun-ing

    2011-02-04

    Short-lived neutrophils play a predominant role in innate immunity, the effects of exercise training on neutrophil survival is unclear. In this study, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of training effects on human neutrophil apoptosis. Healthy male subjects were trained on a cycling ergometer for 8 weeks and followed by 4 weeks of detraining. Blood neutrophils were collected before exercise, after training, and after detraining. Comparing with pre-exercise specimens, neutrophils collected after training showed reduced apoptosis rate, which partially returned after detraining. Various intracellular proteins, including iNOS, Mcl-1, A1, Grp78, and IL-8, were upregulated by training, and they remained high after detraining. Upregulated iNOS was closely correlated with these anti-apoptotic molecules in neutrophils. Furthermore, the possible mechanism by which iNOS suppressed apoptosis was explored. Neutrophil apoptosis was accelerated by blocking and retarded by stimulating the endogenous iNOS activity. As an anti-apoptosis mediator of NO signaling, the Mcl-1 level dropped by depletion of the major NO downstream molecule cGMP and such loss of Mcl-1 was avoidable when supplying exogenous NO. Upon activation of NO-cGMP signaling, neutrophils held increased Mcl-1 expression and delayed apoptosis. Collectively, our results suggested that exercise training may retard neutrophil apoptosis by upregulating the iNOS-NO-cGMP-Mcl-1 pathway. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-02-07

    Feb 7, 2014 ... into exercise group (EG) (n = 15) and control group (CG) (n = 15) respectively. ... Key words: Aerobic exercise, cardiovascular parameters, CD4 count, human immunodeficiency .... wastage, smokers, alcoholic, diabetics and other cardiac, .... mean (SD) age of participants in EG and CG was 38.77 (9.98).

  18. Exercise training in older adults, what effects on muscle oxygenation? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiogbé, Elie; de Vassimon-Barroso, Verena; de Medeiros Takahashi, Anielle Cristhine

    2017-07-01

    To determine the effects of different modality of exercise training programs on muscle oxygenation in older adults. Relevant articles were searched in PubMed, Web of Science, Science Direct and Scopus, using the keywords: "Aged" AND "Muscle oxygenation" AND (Exercise OR "Exercise therapy" OR "Exercise Movement Techniques" OR Hydrotherapy), without limitation concerning the publication date. To be included in the full analysis, the study had to be a randomized controlled trial in which older adults participants (mean age: 65 years at least) were submitted to an exercise-training program and muscle oxygenation assessment. The searches resulted in 1238 articles from which 7 met all the inclusion criteria. The trials involved 370 older adults (68.7±1.7years), healthy and with peripheral arterial disease. Studies included resistance and endurance exercises as well as walking sessions. Training sessions were 2-6 time per week, lasted 3-24 months and with different training intensity throughout studies. After a long-term resistance training, healthy older adults showed enhanced muscle oxygen extraction capacity, regulation of vessels and vascular endothelium function; endurance training is reported to improve microvascular blood flow and matching of oxygen delivery to oxygen utilization, muscle oxidative capacity and muscle saturation, and walking sessions results in better muscle oxygen availability and muscle oxygen extraction capacity in older adults with peripheral arterial disease. This review supports the fact that depending on the clinical status of the participants and the modality, exercise training improves different aspects of the muscle oxygenation in older adults. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of exercise on ankle proprioception in adult women during 16 weeks of training and eight weeks of detraining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Cui; Sun, Wei; Yu, Bing; Song, Qipeng; Mao, Dewei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluates the effects of training and detraining on ankle proprioception in terms of kinesthesia in adult women. Sixty participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Tai Chi and Brisk Walking Groups went through a 16-week training period followed by an eight-week detraining period. The ankle plantar-flexion, dorsal-flexion, inversion, and eversion kinesthesia were measured every four weeks. The ankle kinesthesia in plantar/dorsal flexion of both exercise groups decreased, but the Tai Chi Group decreased more and sooner than the Brisk Walking Group. The training effects of Tai Chi exercise were retained but diminished during the detraining. The training effects of Brisk Walking exercise were not retained. The kinesthesia of ankle inversion and eversion remained unchanged after training. The results suggest that Tai Chi exercise is more effective in training ankle proprioception in plantar and dorsal flexion and in retaining the training effects compared with Brisk Walking exercise.

  20. Effects of Exhaustive Aerobic Exercise on Tryptophan-Kynurenine Metabolism in Trained Athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser

    Full Text Available Exhaustive exercise can cause a transient depression of immune function. Data indicate significant effects of immune activation cascades on the biochemistry of monoamines and amino acids such as tryptophan. Tryptophan can be metabolized through different pathways, a major route being the kynurenine pathway, which is often systemically up-regulated when the immune response is activated. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of exhaustive aerobic exercise on biomarkers of immune activation and tryptophan metabolism in trained athletes. After a standardized breakfast 2 h prior to exercise, 33 trained athletes (17 women, 16 men performed an incremental cycle ergometer exercise test at 60 rpm until exhaustion. After a 20 min rest phase, the participants performed a 20 min maximal time-trial on a cycle ergometer (RBM Cyclus 2, Germany. During the test, cyclists were strongly encouraged to choose a maximal pedalling rate that could be maintained for the respective test duration. Serum concentrations of amino acids tryptophan, kynurenine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine were determined by HPLC and immune system biomarker neopterin by ELISA at rest and immediately post exercise. Intense exercise was associated with a strong increase in neopterin concentrations (p<0.001, indicating increased immune activation following intense exercise. Exhaustive exercise significantly reduced tryptophan concentrations by 12% (p<0.001 and increased kynurenine levels by 6% (p = 0.022. Also phenylalanine to tyrosine ratios were lower after exercise as compared with baseline (p<0.001. The kynurenine to tryptophan ratio correlated with neopterin (r = 0.560, p<0.01. Thus, increased tryptophan catabolism by indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase appears likely. Peak oxygen uptake correlated with baseline tryptophan and kynurenine concentrations (r = 0.562 and r = 0.511, respectively, both p<0.01. Findings demonstrate that exhaustive aerobic exercise is associated with

  1. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Stress Reactivity in Every-Day Life

    OpenAIRE

    Haaren, Birte von

    2015-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise training on physiological and emotional responses to real-life stress using a randomized, controlled trial and an inactive sample. To assess participants' physiological and psychological responses during everyday life, ambulatory assessment was used. In summary, the present thesis provides empirical support that regular exercise can lead to improved emotional and physiological responses during real-life stress.

  2. Clinical and Physiological Effects of Exercise Training in Dyspneic Mild COPD Patients: Design of the Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Labarca; Andrea Bustamante; Francisco Rodríguez; Igor Nuñez; Gonzalo Valdivia; Paul Mac Nab; Álvaro Huete; Jaime Leppe; Fernando Saldías; Orlando Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be associated with physical inactivity, exercise limitation, and impaired health related quality of life, because of a combination of deconditioning, dyspnea, and reduced peripheral muscle mass. Although the benefits of exercise training (ET) in counteracting these consequences are well established in moderate-to-very-severe COPD, it is unclear if they are also effective in mild disease. The aim of this paper is to describe t...

  3. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  4. Controlled exercise effects on chromium excretion of trained and untrained runners consuming a constant diet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R.A.; Bryden, N.A.; Polansky, M.M.; Deuster, P.A.

    1986-03-05

    To determine if degree of training effects urinary Cr losses, Cr excretion of 8 adult trained and 5 untrained runners was determined on rest days and following exercise at 90% of maximal oxygen uptake on a treadmill to exhaustion with 30 second exercise and 30 second rest periods. Subjects were fed a constant daily diet containing 9 ..mu..g of Cr per 1000 calories to minimize changes due to diet. Maximal oxygen consumption of the trained runners was in the good or above range based upon their age and that of the untrained runners was average or below. While consuming the control diet, basal urinary Cr excretion of subjects who exercise regularly was significantly lower than that of the sedentary control subjects, 0.09 +/- 0.01 and 0.21 +/- 0.03 ..mu..g/day (mean +/- SEM), respectively. Daily urinary Cr excretion of trained subjects was significantly higher on the day of a single exercise bout at 90% of maximal oxygen consumption compared to nonexercise days, 0.12 +/- 0.02 and 0.09 +/- 0.01 ..mu..g/day, respectively. Urinary Cr excretion of 5 untrained subjects was not altered following controlled exercise. These data demonstrate that basal urinary Cr excretion and excretion in response to exercise are related to maximal oxygen consumption and therefore degree of fitness.

  5. "The effect of supervised exercise training on psychological characteristics and physical fitness after myocardial infarction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Boshtam M

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD especially myocardial infarction (MI, and the insufficiency of information in the field of physical rehabilitation, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a course of physical rehabilitation on the psychological status and physical characteristics f cardiac patients. In this study, the effect of 8 weeks exercise training, 3 sessions of 45 minutes duration per week, on the physical and psychological function of MI patients was evaluated. Eighty patients who were referred to the rehabilitation unit of Isfahan cardiovascular Research Center were randomly divided into two groups of exercise and non-exercise. The data of pre and post exercise course were analyzed with the SPSS software using the two-sample t-test and multiple liner regression. The comparison of the mean changes of functional capacity. Weight, body mass index (BMI, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between exercise and non-exercise groups after 8 weeks showed significant difference for all studied factors (P<0.05. Also, investigating the psychological characteristics such as depression, anxiety and hostility scores indicated a significant change after exercise training (P<0.05. Personality and behavior showed no significant difference. This study suggests the functional has a significant effect on improving the function capacity and psychological behavior in post MI patients.

  6. Do antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavie, Carl J; Milani, Jenna N

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training has numerous health benefits, and in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it can improve insulin sensitivity and glucose control. A recent publication suggests that antioxidant vitamins (C and E) block these effects on blood glucose. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether antioxidant vitamins ameliorate the beneficial effects of cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) on insulin sensitivity and glucose metabolism in patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). We assessed CHD risk factors, including clinical indices of glucose metabolism, and evaluated the effects of exercise training in 315 patients with CHD with diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome before and after a 3-month program of CRET. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on self-reported antioxidant vitamin (vitamins C and E) consumption. Both groups, 113 patients (36%) consuming vitamins (Vits group) and 202 patients (64%) who reported no vitamin use (no-Vits group) were statistically similar at baseline. Following CRET, patients improved exercise capacity (10%, P vitamin E and 500 mg of vitamin C) do not ameliorate the health benefits of exercise training, including fasting blood glucose, in CHD patients

  7. Structured-Exercise-Program (SEP): An Effective Training Approach to Key Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazi, Mosharaf H.; Hossain, Taleb; Tiroyakgosi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Structured exercise program is an effective approach to technology dependent resource limited healthcare area for professional training. The result of a recently conducted data analysis revealed this. The aim of the study is to know the effectiveness of the applied approach that was designed to observe the level of adherence to newly adopted…

  8. Nonlinear exercise training in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is superior to traditional exercise training. A randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klijn, Peter; van Keimpema, Anton; Legemaat, Monique; Gosselink, Rik; van Stel, Henk

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: The optimal exercise training intensity and strategy for individualized exercise training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is not clear. Objectives: This study compares the effects of nonlinear periodized exercise (NLPE) training used in athletes to traditional endurance

  9. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  10. Effects of exercise and training in hypoxia on antioxidant/pro-oxidant balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pialoux, V; Mounier, R; Ponsot, E; Rock, E; Mazur, A; Dufour, S; Richard, R; Richalet, J-P; Coudert, J; Fellmann, N

    2006-12-01

    The aim was to investigate the effects of acute exercise under hypoxic condition and the repetition of such exercise in a 'living low-training high' training on the antioxidant/prooxidant balance. Randomized, repeated measures design. Faculté de Médecine, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Fourteen runners were randomly divided into two groups. A 6-week endurance training protocol integrated two running sessions per week at the second ventilatory threshold into the usual training. A 6-week endurance training protocol integrated two running sessions per week at the second ventilatory threshold into the usual training. The first hypoxic group (HG, n=8) carried out these sessions under hypoxia (3000 m simulated altitude) and the second normoxic group (NG, n=6) in normoxia. In control period, the runners were submitted to two incremental cycling tests performed in normoxia and under hypoxia (simulated altitude of 3000 m). Plasma levels of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), malondialdehydes (MDA) and lipid oxidizability, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), lipid-soluble antioxidants (alpha-tocopherol and beta-carotene) normalized for triacyglycerols and cholesterol were measured before and after the two incremental tests and at rest before and after training. No significant changes of MDA and AOPP level were observed after normoxic exercise, whereas hypoxic exercise induced a 56% rise of MDA and a 44% rise of AOPP. Plasma level of MDA and arterial oxygen hemoglobin desaturations after the acute both exercises were highly correlated (r=0.73). alpha-Tocopherol normalized for cholesterol and triacyglycerols increased only after hypoxic exercise (10-12%, PJeunesse et des Sports de la Région Auvergne.

  11. Impairments in site-specific AS160 phosphorylation and effects of exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consitt, Leslie A; Van Meter, Jessica; Newton, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if site-specific phosphorylation at the level of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is altered in skeletal muscle from sedentary humans across a wide range of the adult lifespan (18 to 84 years) and if endurance- and/or strength-oriented exercise training...... in whole-body insulin action were associated with impairments in insulin-induced phosphorylation of skeletal muscle AS160 on sites Ser-588, Thr-642, Ser-666 and phospho-Akt substrate (PAS), but not Ser-318 or Ser-751. Twelve weeks of either endurance- or strength-oriented exercise training increased whole...... population and that exercise training is an effective intervention for treating these impairments....

  12. Resistance training vs. aerobic training and role of other factors on the exercise effects on visceral fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, T; Fu, Y-F

    2015-05-01

    In the last 25 years, obesity has reached epidemic levels of prevalence. It has even affected the children such that rates of severe childhood obesity that have almost tripled in numbers. These numbers are alarming because of the known fact that obesity is associated with an increased risk of several comorbidities as well as with an increased risk of premature death. Almost since the beginning, exercise has been known to play a key role in the prevention and treatment of overweight and the non-pharmacological treatment of dyslipidemia. However, the effects of exercise on obesity seems to be dynamic and influenced by several other factors. These factors can be related to exercise or to the associated comorbidities. In this review we will address following factors: (1) The type of exercise which could be either aerobic or resistance training (2) The volume or amount of training (3) Intensity of training and (4) The effect of comorbidity of diabetes mellitus. We will observe that all of these factors modify the effect of exercise on the visceral fat.

  13. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vooijs, Martijn; Siemonsma, Petra C; Heus, Inge; Sont, Jacob K; Rövekamp, Ton Ajm; van Meeteren, Nico Lu

    2016-11-01

    Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise volume. MEDLINE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, CINAHL, and PEDro databases were searched from inception until 17 July 2015 for randomized controlled trials comparing the effect of supervised exercise training vs. usual care in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The references of included studies and review articles were hand searched for additional references and key authors of included trials were crosschecked in PubMed for any missed references. Two reviewers independently assessed therapeutic validity of exercise training and methodological quality of included studies. Overall effects were calculated using a random effects model. A total of 13 studies involving 756 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were included. Significant differences in maximal exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.52, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.74) and endurance exercise capacity (standardized mean difference 0.73, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.96) in favor of physical exercise training were found. The volume of physical exercise per week, the total volume of physical exercise, or their associations did not significantly influence the effect of training. Effects of supervised physical exercise was not significantly altered by therapeutic validity. A combination of aerobic exercise and strength training was found to be more effective than strength training or endurance training alone in increasing the 6-minute walking distance.

  14. The effect of physical fitness and physical exercise training on work productivity among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON WORK PRODUCTIVITY AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS Kongstad, M. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Christensen, JR. 1 1: SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Workplace health promotion involving physical exercise training may negate lifestyle...... diseases and improve work productivity (WP) mediated by physiological variables such as BMI, cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), and maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). The aim of this paper was to examine 1) the relationship between WP and the physiological variables BMI, CRF, and MVC in a cross...

  15. Effect of exercise order on the number of repeats and training volume in the tri-set training method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p187   Although the tri-set system is widely adopted by athletes and experienced weight training practitioners aimed at optimizing the metabolic overload, there are still few works in literature on the effect of exercise order manipulation on this training system. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of exercise order manipulation on the number of repeats and training volume using the tri-set system for lower limbs. This is a randomized cross-over design study. The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy men (23.53 ± 5.40 years; 24.51 ± 2.96 kg/m2. Subjects were submitted to two experimental sessions at different exercise order for lower limbs: Sequence A: squat on guided bar, leg press 45° and bilateral leg extension; sequence B: bilateral leg extension, leg press 45° and squat on guided bar. Three sets to volitional fatigue in all exercises were performed, with intensity of 75% 1RM. Superiority for sequence B in the total number of repeats (70.14 ± 13 vs 60.93 ± 7.94 repeats, p = 0.004 and total training volume (9129.64 ± 2830.05 vs 8238.29 ± 2354.20 kg, p = 0.014 was observed. Based on the above, the performance of single-joint exercises before multi-joint exercises in the tri-set system adopted for lower limbs induced higher number of repeats and total training volume.

  16. Effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise on bone mineral density in growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ertem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise (daily for 30 min and 60 min on bone mineral density (BMD in young growing rats. Training consisted of treadmill running at 5 days per week during a period of 13 weeks. The rats in 30 min and 60 min exercise groups began to training on day 63 of life and had maintained for at least a week, with a minimal progression as a guide to the rats’ training and adaptation to the treadmill. Running time was gradually increased from 15 min to 30 and 60 min per session for two exercise groups respectively. Control rats were kept in the cages at the same environmental conditions and daily inspected to control their health. At the end of 13 weeks, bone mineral densities of the bilateral tibia of all rats were measured .with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA (QDR 4500/W, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA and results were evaluated. There were significantly increases in BMD of right and left tibia of rats in 30 min exercise group at post-exercise period (p<0.01 for both sides when compared to the control group. BMD of right and left tibia of rats were also correlated with each other (r=0.556 and p=0.003. Otherwise, there is a positive correlation between pre- and post-exercise body weights of rats (r=0.588 and p=0.002. From our results, we concluded that subjects should perform moderate running exercise for development of bone mass and its protection during the lifelong. However, intensity and duration of performing exercise are required to put in order for every ages or actual physical conditions.

  17. Effect of early progressive resistance training compared with home-based exercise after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Lone Ramer; Mechlenburg, Inger; Søballe, Kjeld

    /week). The IG trained with loads of 10 repetition maximum from week 1 to 10 after THR. Before surgery and after the intervention, performance was evaluated by leg extension power (primary outcome), isometric strength (hip abduction + flexion), sit-to-stand test (STS), stair test and 20 meter walking speed......Introduction Muscle strength and physical function deficits persist after total hip replacement (THR). Training effect evidence after THR is lacking. This study investigates the effect of supervised progressive resistance training in early post-THR rehabilitation on muscle strength and functional...... performance. Material and Method 73 THR patients with preoperative self-assessed disability (HOOS ADL score≤67) were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, home-based exercise 7 days/week) or an intervention group (IG, home-based exercise 5 days/week and resistance training of hip and thigh muscles 2 days...

  18. Exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Mary M

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this study was to provide an overview of evidence regarding exercise therapies for patients with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). This manuscript summarizes the content of a lecture delivered as part of the 2016 Crawford Critical Issues Symposium. Multiple randomized clinical trials demonstrate that supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD and intermittent claudication symptoms. A meta-analysis of 25 randomized trials demonstrated a 180-meter increase in treadmill walking distance in response to supervised exercise interventions compared with a nonexercising control group. Supervised treadmill exercise has been inaccessible to many patients with PAD because of lack of medical insurance coverage. However, in 2017, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services issued a decision memorandum to support health insurance coverage of 12 weeks of supervised treadmill exercise for patients with walking impairment due to PAD. Recent evidence also supports home-based walking exercise to improve walking performance in people with PAD. Effective home-exercise programs incorporate behavioral change interventions such as a remote coach, goal setting, and self-monitoring. Supervised treadmill exercise programs preferentially improve treadmill walking performance, whereas home-based walking exercise programs preferentially improve corridor walking, such as the 6-minute walk test. Clinical trial evidence also supports arm or leg ergometry exercise to improve walking endurance in people with PAD. Treadmill walking exercise appears superior to resistance training alone for improving walking endurance. Supervised treadmill exercise significantly improves treadmill walking performance in people with PAD by approximately 180 meters compared with no exercise. Recent evidence suggests that home-based exercise is also effective and preferentially improves over-ground walking performance, such as

  19. Beneficial effects of previous exercise training on renal changes in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Liliany S de Brito; Silva, Fernanda A; Correia, Vicente B; Andrade, Clara EF; Dutra, Bárbara A; Oliveira, Márcio V; de Magalhães, Amélia CM; Volpini, Rildo A; Seguro, Antonio C; Coimbra, Terezila M

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise performed both previously and after the induction of diabetes mellitus on changes of renal function and structure in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Female wistar rats were divided into five groups: sedentary control (C + Se); trained control (C + Ex); sedentary diabetic (D + Se); trained diabetic (D + Ex) and previously trained diabetic (D + PEx). The previous exercise consisted of treadmill running for four weeks before the induction of diabetes mellitus. After induction of diabetes mellitus with streptozotocin, the D + PEx, D + Ex and C + Ex groups were submitted to eight weeks of aerobic exercise. At the end of the training protocol, we evaluate the serum glucose, insulin and 17β-estradiol levels, renal function and structure, proteinuria, and fibronectin, collagen IV and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) renal expressions. Induction of diabetes mellitus reduced the insulin and did not alter 17β-estradiol levels, and exercise did not affect any of these parameters. Previous exercise training attenuated the loss of body weight, the blood glucose, the increase of glomerular filtration rate and prevented the proteinuria in the D + PEx group compared to D + Se group. Previous exercise also reduced glomerular hypertrophy, tubular and glomerular injury, as well as the expressions of fibronectin and collagen IV. These expressions were associated with reduced expression of TGF-β1. In conclusion, our study shows that regular aerobic exercise especially performed previously to induction of diabetes mellitus improved metabolic control and has renoprotective action on the diabetic kidney. PMID:26490345

  20. EFFECT OF EXERCISE TRAINING OF DIFFERENT INTENSITIES ON ANTI-INFLAMMATORY REACTION IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.–S. Kim

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of high- and low-intensity exercise training on inflammatory reaction of blood and skeletal muscle in streptozotocin (STZ-induced diabetic male Sprague-Dawley rats (243 ± 7 g, 8 weeks. The rats completed treadmill running in either high-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training, acute bouts of exercise or low-intensity exercise (6 weeks of exercise training. Non-running, sedentary rats served as controls. To induce diabetes mellitus, rats received a peritoneal injection of STZ (50 mg · kg-1. Rats were sacrificed immediately after an acute bout of exercise and 6 weeks of exercise training. Inflammatory factors were analyzed by ELISA and by immune blotting from the soleus and extensor digitorum longus muscles. In the serum, inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-4 and reactive oxygen species (ROS (nitric oxide and malondialdehyde increased in diabetic rats. However, all exercise training groups displayed reduced inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species. In skeletal muscles, low-intensity exercise training, but not high intensity exercise, reduced the levels of COX-2, iNOS, and MMP-2, which were otherwise markedly elevated in the presence of STZ. Moreover, the levels of GLUT-4 and MyoD were effectively increased by different exercise intensity and exercise duration. Low-intensity exercise training appeared most effective to reduce diabetes-related inflammation. However, high-intensity training also reduced inflammatory factors in tissue-specific muscles. The data implicate regular exercise in protecting against chronic inflammatory diseases, such as diabetes.

  1. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, uric acid (UA) is the end-product of purine metabolism and has been associated with ..... including simulated public speaking, anger recall interview, mirror trace, and cold pressor, before and after a 6- .... Siegel W, Blumenthal J. The role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of hypertension. Ann Behav Med ...

  2. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hypertension, cigarette smoking, diabetes and coronary artery disease. ... al.33 who recognised cigarette smoking as a primary risk factor for PVD. .... of time in percentage. MWD = maximum walking distance; PFWD = pain-free walking distance; DLE = dynamic leg exercises; PTA = percutaneous transluminal angioplasty.

  3. Effects of acute exercise on plasma erythropoietin levels in trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodary, P F; Pate, R R; Wu, Q F; McMillan, G S

    1999-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate further the influence of exercise on erythropoietin. We observed the effects of high intensity running on plasma erythropoietin concentration in competitive distance runners. A repeated measures design was used to compare the responses of intermittent high intensity (HIGH) exercise to continuous moderate intensity (MOD) exercise and rest (REST). The HIGH treatment consisted of 60 min of exercise alternating 5 min of running at approximately 90% of VO2max with 5 min of brisk walking. The MOD treatment consisted of a continuous 60-min run on the treadmill at 60% of VO2max. Blood samples were collected immediately before the exercise (PRE), immediately following the exercise (POST), and 4 (heart rate (4HR), 12 (12HR), 24 (24HR), and 48 (48HR)) h following the exercise. The variables examined included plasma erythropoietin concentration ([EPO]), hemoglobin (Hb) concentration ([Hb]), hematocrit (Hct), red blood cell count (RBC), and mean corpuscular volume (MCV). ANOVA revealed the expected treatment-by-time interaction for Hct and [Hb] suggesting a hemodilution at 24 and 48 h postexercise for the MOD and HIGH treatments. However, no significant treatment-by-time interactions were observed for [EPO], RBC, or MCV. These results indicate that intermittent high intensity exercise does not have a significant effect on [EPO] in trained distance runners.

  4. Effects of interval and continuous exercise training on autonomic cardiac function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Diego A; Arbillaga, Ane; Barberan-Garcia, Anael; Ramirez-Sarmiento, Alba; Torralba, Yolanda; Vilaró, Jordi; Gimeno-Santos, Elena; Gea, Joaquim; Orozco-Levi, Mauricio; Roca, Josep; Marco, Ester

    2016-01-01

    Both interval (IT) and continuous (CT) exercise training results in an improvement of aerobic capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, their effects on cardiac autonomic function remains unclear. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of a supervised CT vs IT on autonomic cardiac function in COPD patients. COPD patients were divided into two different groups according to training modality (IT or CT). Autonomic cardiac dysfunction (ACD) was defined as a heart rate recovery lower than 12 bpm heart rate after the first minute of maximal exercise (HRR1 ) and an abnormal chronotropic response (CR) to exercise (age: 68 (8) years, %FEV1 : 42 (13) predicted} were trained (15 subjects in the CT group, 14 subjects in the IT group). After training, both groups increased peak oxygen consumption [mean difference ΔVO2 peak: 156 mL/min (P = 0.04) on IT; and 210 mL/min (P = 0.01) on CT], HRR1 [IT, from 10.4 (5) to 13.8 (5) bpm (P = 0.04); and CT, from 14.3 (5) to 17.7 (5) bpm (P = 0.04)] and CR [IT, from 57% (22) to 81% (9) (P = 0.001); and CT, from 48% (28) to 73% (17) (P = 0.001)]. Sixteen patients showed ACD. Among these patients, HRR1 (P = 0.01 for IT and P = 0.04 for CT) and CR (P = 0.001 for IT and P = 0.002 for CT) were enhanced after training. Both IT and CT exercise training improve heart rate recovery and CR in COPD patients. These benefits could help to individualize exercise training. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Effect of the movement speed of resistance training exercises on sprint and strength performance in concurrently training elite junior sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blazevich, Anthony J; Jenkins, David G

    2002-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of 7 weeks of high- and low-velocity resistance training on strength and sprint running performance in nine male elite junior sprint runners (age 19.0+/-1.4 years, best 100 m times 10.89+/-0.21 s; mean +/- s). The athletes continued their sprint training throughout the study, but their resistance training programme was replaced by one in which the movement velocities of hip extension and flexion, knee extension and flexion and squat exercises varied according to the loads lifted (i.e. 30-50% and 70-90% of 1-RM in the high- and low-velocity training groups, respectively). There were no between-group differences in hip flexion or extension torque produced at 1.05, 4.74 or 8.42 rad x s(-1), 20 m acceleration or 20 m 'flying' running times, or 1-RM squat lift strength either before or after training. This was despite significant improvements in 20 m acceleration time (P training period. Although velocity-specific strength adaptations have been shown to occur rapidly in untrained and nonconcurrently training individuals, the present results suggest a lack of velocity-specific performance changes in elite concurrently training sprint runners performing a combination of traditional and semi-specific resistance training exercises.

  6. Clinical efficacy of electrical stimulation exercise training : Effects on health, fitness, and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T. W J; Glaser, R. M.; Shuster, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize research findings pertaining to the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) lower limb exercise training on health, fitness, and function in individuals with spinal cord injury. This lays the foundation for defining the potential clinical

  7. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  8. The Effect of Exercise Training on Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Sleep Quality: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E.; Crowley, E. Patrick; Ewing, Gary B.; Burch, James B.; Blair, Steven N.; Durstine, J. Larry; Davis, J. Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D.

    2011-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of a 12-week exercise training program for reducing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and improving sleep quality, and to explore possible mechanisms by which exercise may reduce OSA severity. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Setting: Clinical exercise physiology center, sleep laboratory. Participants: Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (screening apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15). Interventions: Participants randomized to exercise training (n = 27) met 4 times/week for 12 weeks and performed 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, followed by resistance training twice/week. Participants randomized to a stretching control (n = 16) met twice weekly for 12 weeks to perform low-intensity exercises designed to increase whole-body flexibility. Measurements and Results: OSA severity was assessed with one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG) before and following the 12-week intervention. Measures of sleep quality included PSG, actigraphy (7-10 days), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Compared with stretching, exercise resulted in a significant AHI reduction (exercise: 32.2 ± 5.6 to 24.6 ± 4.4, stretching: 24.4 ± 5.6 to 28.9 ± 6.4; P sleep (P = 0.03). Reductions in AHI and ODI were achieved without a significant decrease in body weight. Improvements in actigraphic sleep and subjective sleep quality were also noted following exercise compared with stretching. Conclusions: Exercise training had moderate treatment efficacy for the reduction of AHI in sedentary overweight/obese adults, which suggests that exercise may be beneficial for the management of OSA beyond simply facilitating weight loss. Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov identification number NCT00956423. Citation: Kline CE; Crowley EP; Ewing GB; Burch JB; Blair SN; Durstine JL; Davis JM; Youngstedt SD. The effect of exercise training on obstructive sleep

  9. The Effects of Exercise Training on Anxiety in Fibromyalgia Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Cillian P; Cook, Dane B; Herring, Matthew P

    2017-09-01

    Physical inactivity and comorbid anxiety symptoms are prevalent among fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Exercise training may be an effective alternative therapy to reduce these symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on anxiety symptoms in patients with FM and to examine whether variables of theoretical or practical importance moderate the estimated mean effect. Twenty-five effects were derived from 10 articles published before June 2016 located using Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Trials involved 595 patients with FM (mean age = 47.6 yr, 97.5% female) and included both randomization to exercise training (n = 297) or a nonexercise control condition (n = 298) and an anxiety outcome measured at baseline and during and/or after exercise training. Hedges' d effect sizes were computed, data for moderator variables were extracted, and random effects models were used to estimate sampling error and population variance for all analyses. Meta-regression quantified the extent to which patient and trial characteristics moderated the mean effect. Exercise training significantly reduced anxiety symptoms by a mean effect Δ of 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16-0.40). No significant heterogeneity was observed (Q24 = 30.79, P = 0.16, I = 25.29%). Program duration (β = 1.44, z = 2.50, P ≤ 0.01) was significantly related to the overall effect, with significantly larger anxiety improvements resulting from programs lasting greater than 26 wk (Δ = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.05-0.66) compared with those lasting less than 26 wk (Δ = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.13-0.39). Exercise training improves anxiety symptoms among FM patients. The findings also suggest that larger anxiety symptom reductions will be achieved by focusing on longer exercise programs while promoting long-term adherence. Future well-designed investigations are required to examine the potential moderating effect of pain-related improvements in FM patients.

  10. Acute effects of strength exercises and effects of regular strength training on cell free DNA concentrations in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tross, Anna-Katharina; Hegen, Patrick; Neuberger, Elmo Wanja Immanuel; Helmig, Susanne; Schöllhorn, Wolfgang; Simon, Perikles

    2017-01-01

    Creatine kinase (CK) is a marker for muscle cell damage with limited potential as marker for training load in strength training. Recent exercise studies identified cell free DNA (cfDNA) as a marker for aseptic inflammation and cell damage. Here we overserved in a pilot study the acute effects during strength exercise and chronic effects of regular strength training on cfDNA concentrations over a period of four weeks in three training groups applying conservation training (CT) at 60% of the 1 repetition maximum, high intensity-low repetition training (HT) at 90% of the 1 repetition maximum and differential training (DT) at 60% of the 1 repetition maximum. EDTA-plasma samples were collected before every training session, and on the first and last training day repeatedly after every set of exercises. CfDNA increased significantly by 1.62-fold (mean (±SD) before first exercise: 8.31 (2.84) ng/ml, after last exercise 13.48 (4.12) ng/ml) across all groups within a single training session (ptraining session only at day two with a subsequent return to baseline (ptraining procedures did not cause any alterations in CK. Our results suggest that during strength exercise short-fragmented cfDNA is released, reflecting a fast, aseptic inflammatory response, while elevation of longer fragments at baseline on day two seemed to reflect mild cellular damage due to a novel training regime. We critically discuss the implications of our findings for future evaluations of cfDNA as a marker for training load in strength training. PMID:28910365

  11. Smoking Counteracts the Favorable Effect of Exercise Training on Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Shinji; Nakayama, Noriko; Otsuki, Shingo; Tanaka, Shiro; Nakamura, Hajime; Koshiyama, Hiroyuki; Nohara, Ryuji

    2013-01-01

    Background Exercise training can improve endothelial function in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that the favorable effect of exercise training on endothelial function in patients with diabetes is counteracted by cigarette smoking. Purpose: To assess whether there is a difference in the effect of exercise on endothelial function in smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes. Methods: We performed a 3-month controlled trial in 27 never-smoking and 17 smoking individuals with type 2 d...

  12. Effect of physical training on the recovery of acute exercise, among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldivia, Marianna; Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Myers, Jonathan; Lara, Jorge; Bueno, Leopoldo

    Physical training programs (PTP) have shown several beneficial effects for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly by increasing survival and quality of life. Physiological response during the effort and recovery phases of an exercise testing, is one of the strongest prognostic markers among patients with CVD. A reasonable mechanism that explains those training effects on survival is through the adaptations seen on heart rate recovery (HRR) and oxygen uptake kinetics at the post-exertional phase (RVO 2 ). Compare the HRR and RVO 2 values before and after a PTP in patients with CVD. We studied a cohort of patients included in a cardiac rehabilitation program, whom performed a cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Then, risk stratification and an individualized exercise training program were performed. The exercise training program included 20 sessions of aerobic exercise, 30min a day, five times a week, at moderate intensity. Finally, a second CPX was performed. A total of 215 patients were included. Peak oxygen uptake values rose 2.2±5.2ml/kg/min (p<0.001), HRR increased 1.6±10bpm (p<0.05) and RVO 2 improved -21±98s (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis show that the percentage of maximum heart rate remained statistically associated with HRR increment. Furthermore, diabetes and sedentarism were strongly related to RVO 2 improvement. No correlation between HRR and RVO 2 was found (R 2 =0.002). Physical exercise was associated with a beneficial effect on HRR and RVO 2 . Nevertheless, both variables were statistically unrelated. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. All rights reserved.

  13. Effectiveness of combined exercise training to improve functional fitness in older adults: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Nelson; Mendes, Romeu; Abrantes, Catarina; Sampaio, Jaime; Oliveira, José

    2014-10-01

    The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the impact of different exercise training modalities on functional fitness responses in apparently healthy older men. A total of 59 community-dwelling older men were randomly assigned to an aerobic training group (ATG, n=19), a combined aerobic and resistance training group (CTG, n=20) or a control group (n=20). Both exercise training programs were moderate-to-vigorous intensity, 3 days/week for 9 months. Six independent functional fitness tests (back scratch, chair sit-and-reach, 30-s chair stand, arm curl, 8-ft up-and-go, 6-min walk) were measured on five different occasions. The data were analyzed using a mixed-model ANOVA. ANOVA showed a significant main effect of group (Pfunctional fitness tests, with significant differences between both training groups and controls. However, the ATG only improved the chair sit-and-reach and the 30-s chair stand performance, whereas CTG improved in all functional fitness tests. ANOVA also identified a significant main effect of time for 8-ft up-and-go (P=0.031) in the CTG. Only the combined exercise program was effective in improving all functional fitness components related to daily living activities. © 2014 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  14. Effect of chronic supplementation with shark liver oil on immune responses of exercise-trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitorino, Daniele Cristina; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim; Curi, Rui; Fernandes, Luiz Claudio

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have reported that chronic supplementation with shark liver oil (SLO) improves immune response of lymphocyte, macrophage and neutrophil in animal models and humans. In a similar manner, exercise training also stimulates the immune system. However, we are not aware of any study about the association of exercise and SLO supplementation on immune response. Thus, our main goal was to investigate the effect of chronic supplementation with SLO on immune responses of exercise-trained rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: sedentary with no supplementation (SED, n = 20), sedentary with SLO supplementation (SEDslo, n = 20), exercised (EX, n = 17) and exercised supplemented with SLO (EXslo, n = 19). Rats swam for 6 weeks, 1.5 h/day, in water at 32 +/- 1 degrees C, with a load of 6.0% body weight attached to the thorax of rat. Animals were killed 48 h after the last exercise session. SLO supplementation did not change phagocytosis, lysosomal volume, superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide production by peritoneal macrophages and blood neutrophils. Thymus and spleen lymphocyte proliferation were significantly higher in SEDslo, EX, and EXslo groups compared with SED group (P immune response and also did not modify innate immunity.

  15. The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    absence between the two groups. A per protocol analysis, where 89 (46%) office workers participated ≥70 % showed a significant 6% improvement in job performance (p = ...The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers: a randomized controlled trial Christensen, JR. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Justesen, JB. 1 SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Physical training may improve health and decrease...... the risk of sickness absence and low job performance. The aim of this paper was thus to investigate the effect of individually tailored intelligent physical exercise training (IPET) on sickness absence and job performance among office workers. Methods In a randomized controlled trial employees from six...

  16. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    -induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate...... and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship.......BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  17. Behavioural treatments for chronic systemic inflammation: effects of dietary weight loss and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, Barbara J; You, Tongjian; Pahor, Marco

    2005-04-26

    Persistent low-grade inflammation, as indicated by higher circulating levels of inflammatory mediators such as C-reactive protein, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, is a strong risk factor for several chronic diseases. There are data indicating that decreasing energy intake and increasing physical activity may be effective therapies for reducing overall inflammation. Evidence is strong that circulating levels of inflammatory markers are elevated with total and abdominal obesity, possibly owing to a higher secretion rate of cytokines by adipose tissue in obese people. Moreover, very-low-energy dietary weight loss reduces both circulating markers of inflammation and adipose-tissue cytokine production. Data from several large population-based cohorts show an inverse association between markers of systemic inflammation and physical activity or fitness status; small-scale intervention studies support that exercise training diminishes inflammation. Dietary weight loss plus exercise is likely more effective than weight reduction alone in reducing inflammation. To date, data from randomized, controlled trails designed to definitively test the effects of weight loss or exercise training, or both, on inflammation are limited. Future studies are required to define the amount of weight loss needed for clinically meaningful reductions of inflammation; in addition, fully powered and controlled studies are necessary to clarify the effect of exercise training on chronic, systemic inflammation.

  18. Effects of acute exercise and training on insulin binding to monocytes and insulin sensitivity in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivisto, V A; Soman, V R; Defronzo, R; Felig, P

    1980-01-01

    Insulin binding to monocytes was studied in well-trained long distance runners and in sedentary control subjects in the resting state and after 3 h cycle ergometer exercise at 40% of maximal aerobic power. In addition, in previously untrained subjects we examined the effect of 6 weeks of training on insulin binding to monocytes and insulin sensitivity in vivo. In the athletes at rest, insulin binding to monocytes was 69% higher than in controls (p less than 0.01), and correlated with maximal aerobic power (r = 9.63, p less than 0.05). The rise in insulin binding in the athletes was due to an increase in binding capacity rather than a change in binding affinity. During exercise, insulin binding fell in athletes by 31% (p less than 0.025) in contrast to a 35% rise observed in control subjects (p less than 0.01). As compared to controls, the athletes had a lower respiratory exchange ratio and a smaller decline in plasma glucose during exercise. In previously untrained subjects, physical training resulted in a 35% rise in insulin binding to monocytes (p less than 0.02). The rise in binding was due mainly to an increase in binding capacity. Insulin mediated glucose uptake (as measured by insulin clamp technique) also rose by 30% after physical training (p less than 0.01). The rise in insulin sensitivity was proportional to the improvement in physical fitness (r = 0.81, p less than 0.05). These findings indicate that (a) elevated insulin binding may contribute to the enhanced insulin sensitivity observed after physical training, (b) a fall in insulin binding in athletes during acute exercise may contribute to a greater shift from carbohydrate to fat utilization during exercise in athletes as compared to sedentary controls. These data suggest that physical training may provide a means of reversing or ameliorating abnormalities in insulin binding and sensitivity in insulin resistant states, such as obesity or maturity onset diabetes.

  19. Implementation of exercise training programs in a hemodialysis unit: effects on physical performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulckaen, Massimo; Capitanini, Alessandro; Lange, Sara; Caciula, Andrea; Giuntoli, Franco; Cupisti, Adamasco

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is beneficial for hemodialysis patients, but it should be tailored to individual abilities and willingness to participate. This study evaluated the effects of different 6-month programs of physical activity in 18 patients of a single hemodialysis unit. Before and after a 12-month control period (T0), and following 3 (T3) and 6 (T6) months of training, the patients underwent the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and constant treadmill test at 3 km/hour speed and 10% grade; spontaneous physical activity was assessed by pedometers. All patients trained for coordination, flexibility and muscular strengthening for 30 minutes within the first 2 hours of hemodialysis sessions: 9 patients underwent home exercise walking training (advised walking group [AWG]); the other 9 patients underwent the advised home training program plus an additional supervised gym training session, twice weekly (supervised walking group [SWG]). In both AWG and SWG, no changes occurred during the control period (232 ± 204 m and 248 ± 187 m at T0). In contrast, endurance performance at treadmill increased at T3 and T6 in the AWG (377 ± 272 m and 615 ± 413 m; p<0.01) and in the SWG (424 ± 272 m and 890 ± 364 m; p<0.001). No unwanted side effects occurred. This study shows that physical exercise programs can safely increase physical performance in hemodialysis patients. The training program should be continued for at least 6 months to increase muscle strength and endurance. Intradialytic exercise and home-based, pedometer-based regimens may be a useful and easy approach, whereas supervised programs can give additional benefits in motivated, selected patients.

  20. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.

  1. Effects of endurance exercise training on the motor and non-motor features of Parkinson's disease: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamotte, Guillaume; Rafferty, Miriam R; Prodoehl, Janey; Kohrt, Wendy M; Comella, Cynthia L; Simuni, Tanya; Corcos, Daniel M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the benefits of medications and surgical interventions for Parkinson's disease (PD), these treatments are not without complications and neuroprotective strategies are still lacking. Therefore, there is a need for effective alternative approaches to treat motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. During the last decade, several studies have investigated endurance exercise training as a potential treatment for individuals with PD. This paper reviews the therapeutically beneficial effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor symptoms in PD. First, we performed a systematic review of the literature on the effects of endurance exercise training on motor and non-motor signs of parkinsonism, functional outcomes including gait, balance and mobility, depression and fatigue, quality of life and perceived patient improvement, cardiorespiratory function, neurophysiological measures, and motor control measures in PD. Second we performed a meta-analysis on the motor section of the UPDRS. Then, we focused on several important factors to consider when prescribing endurance exercise training in PD such as intensity, duration, frequency, specificity and type of exercise. In addition, we identified current knowledge gaps regarding endurance exercise training in PD and made suggestions for future research. A total of eight randomized controlled trials met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. This systematic review synthesizes evidence that endurance exercise training at a sufficiently high level enhances cardiorespiratory capacity and endurance by improving VO2 max and gait in moderately to mildly affected individuals with PD. However, there is not yet a proven effect of endurance exercise training on specific features of PD such as motor signs of parkinsonism. Endurance exercise training improves physical conditioning in PD patients; however, to date, there is insufficient evidence to include endurance exercise training as a specific treatment for PD. There is

  2. Effects of exercise training on sleep apnea: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iftikhar, Imran H; Kline, Christopher E; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2014-02-01

    Several studies have shown a favorable effect of supervised exercise training on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). This meta-analysis was conducted to analyze the data from these studies on the severity of OSA (primary outcome) in adults. Secondary outcomes of interest included body mass index (BMI), sleep efficiency, daytime sleepiness and cardiorespiratory fitness. Two independent reviewers searched PubMed and Embase (from inception to March 6, 2013) to identify studies on the effects of supervised exercise training in adults with OSA. Pre- and postexercise training data on our primary and secondary outcomes were extracted. A total of 5 studies with 6 cohorts that enrolled a total of 129 study participants met the inclusion criteria. The pooled estimate of mean pre- to postintervention (exercise) reduction in AHI was −6.27 events/h (95 % confidence interval [CI] -8.54 to -3.99; p sleep efficiency, Epworth sleepiness scale and VO2 peak were -1.37 (95 % CI −2.81 to 0.07; p = 0.06), 5.75 % (95 % CI 2.47-9.03; p = 0.001), -3.3 (95 % CI -5.57 to -1.02; p = 0.004), and 3.93 mL/kg/min (95 % CI 2.44-5.42; p effect of exercise in reducing the severity of sleep apnea in patients with OSA with minimal changes in body weight. Additionally, the significant effects of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness, daytime sleepiness, and sleep efficiency indicate the potential value of exercise in the management of OSA.

  3. Effects of continuous vs interval exercise training on oxygen uptake efficiency slope in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    Prado, D.M.L.; Rocco,E.A.; SILVA, A. G.; Rocco, D.F.; Pacheco, M.T.; Silva,P.F.; Furlan, V

    2016-01-01

    The oxygen uptake efficiency slope (OUES) is a submaximal index incorporating cardiovascular, peripheral, and pulmonary factors that determine the ventilatory response to exercise. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of continuous exercise training and interval exercise training on the OUES in patients with coronary artery disease. Thirty-five patients (59.3±1.8 years old; 28 men, 7 women) with coronary artery disease were randomly divided into two groups: continuous exercis...

  4. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level...... into the beneficial effects of SET have been conducted in untrained and recreationally active individuals, making extrapolation towards athletes' performance difficult. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that only few weeks of SET enhances intense exercise performance in highly-trained individuals...

  5. Neuromuscular adaptations to water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women: effects of intrasession exercise sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Bagatini, Natália C; Zaffari, Paula; Cadore, Eduardo L; Radaelli, Régis; Baroni, Bruno M; Lanferdini, Fábio J; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Pinto, Ronei S; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Kruel, Luiz Fernando M

    2015-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of different exercise sequences on the neuromuscular adaptations induced by water-based concurrent training in postmenopausal women. Twenty-one healthy postmenopausal women (57.14 ± 2.43 years) were randomly placed into two water-based concurrent training groups: resistance training prior to (RA, n = 10) or after (AR, n = 11) aerobic training. Subjects performed resistance and aerobic training twice a week over 12 weeks, performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper (elbow flexors) and lower-body (knee extensors) one-repetition maximal test (1RM) and peak torque (PT) (knee extensors) were evaluated. The muscle thickness (MT) of upper (biceps brachii) and lower-body (vastus lateralis) was determined by ultrasonography. Moreover, the maximal and submaximal (neuromuscular economy) electromyographic activity (EMG) of lower-body (vastus lateralis and rectus femoris) was measured. Both RA and AR groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM and PT, while the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the RA was greater than AR (34.62 ± 13.51 vs. 14.16 ± 13.68 %). RA and AR showed similar MT increases in upper- and lower-body muscles evaluated. In addition, significant improvements in the maximal and submaximal EMG of lower-body muscles in both RA and AR were found, with no differences between groups. Both exercise sequences in water-based concurrent training presented relevant improvements to promote health and physical fitness in postmenopausal women. However, the exercise sequence resistance-aerobic optimizes the strength gains in lower limbs.

  6. The Effect of Multimodal Exercise Training Program in Subject with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serap Acar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of our research was to investigate the effect of multimodal aerobic, resistance and flexibility exercise training program on cardiovascular disease risk factor related with exercise capacity, lipid profile, flexibility, body composition, and glycemic control in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetic patients. Material and Method: Sixteen newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients including 6 study subjects and 10 controls were enrolled in the study. Study group attended to exercise program for a period of 12 weeks. Body composition, flexibility, aerobic capacity, lipid profile, fasting blood glucose (FBG, postprandial glucose (PPG, and hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c levels were assessed in all participants. Results: Body fat decreased, flexibility, which was assessed using the sit and reach test, and aerobic capacity increased after the exercise program, these variables showed statistically significant difference within the groups (p<0.05. Triglyceride cholesterol and postprandial glucose levels showed statistically significantly decrease after the exercise program in all participants (p<0.05. Only post exercise FBG and hemoglobin A1c levels showed statistically significant difference between exercise and control groups (p<0.05. Additionally, the Borg Scale significantly positively correlated with FBG (r=0.63, p=0.09, PPG (r=0.51, p=0.039, and HbA1c (r=0.59, p=0.014. Discussion: Twelve-week multimodal exercise training program improved the aerobic capacity and flexibility and decreased the cardiovascular disease risk related glycemic control by controlling body fat and triglycerides and by maintaining FBG and HbA1c below certain values. Turk Jem 2014; 18: 67-74

  7. Effects of intermittent hypoxic training performed at high hypoxia level on exercise performance in highly trained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Anthony M J; Borrani, Fabio

    2018-02-02

    This study exanimated the effects of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) conducted at a high level of hypoxia with recovery at ambient air on aerobic/anaerobic capacities at sea level and hematological variations. According to a double-blind randomized design, fifteen highly endurance-trained runners completed a 6-weeks regimented training with 3 sessions per week consisting of intermittent runs (6x work-rest ratio of 5':5') on a treadmill at 80-85% of maximal aerobic speed ([Formula: see text]). Nine athletes (hypoxic group, HG) performed the exercise bouts at FI0 2  = 10.6-11.4% while six athletes (normoxic group, NG) exercised at ambient air. Running time to exhaustion at a velocity corresponding to 95% [Formula: see text] significantly increased for HG while no effect was found for NG. Regarding [Formula: see text], no significant effects were found in either training group. In addition, the decline of jumping performances over a 45s-continuous maximal vertical jump test (i.e. anaerobic capacity index) tended to be lower in HG compared to NG. The levels of the studied hematological variables, including erythropoietin and hematocrit, did not significantly change for either HG or NG. These results highlight that our IHT protocol may induce additional effects on aerobic performance without compromising the anaerobic capacity index in highly-trained athletes.

  8. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  9. Determinants of the effects of physical training and of the complications requiring resuscitation during exercise in patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhees, Luc; Stevens, An; Schepers, Dirk; Defoor, Johan; Rademakers, Frank; Fagard, Robert

    2004-08-01

    Benefits of cardiac rehabilitation with exercise therapy are well-established, although individual reactions are heterogeneous. The identification of determinants of training effects is useful from a prognostic point of view, but data regarding this are scarce. Furthermore, limited data exist on the determinants of complications during exercise in cardiac patients. This study aimed to investigate the determinants (1) of training effects in cardiac rehabilitation and (2) of complications requiring resuscitation during exercise activities at the hospital and during continued exercise at a sports club for cardiac patients. Clinical association study. Determinants of changes in peak oxygen uptake (VO2) after 3 months of cardiac rehabilitation were determined by multiple regression analysis (n=1909). Determinants of events requiring resuscitation (n=21) were assessed by logistic regression analysis. Improvements in peak VO2 and exercise duration averaged 26%. Eighteen per cent of the variance in absolute improvements of peak VO2 was explained, with age and training characteristics as the strongest determinants. Twenty-one per cent of the variation in relative improvements was explained, with baseline exercise performance and training characteristics being the strongest determinants. The intake of anti-arrhythmics (odds ratio=5.5; P or =1 mm) at baseline exercise testing (odds ratio=1.6; PAge, baseline exercise performance and training characteristics were predictive for training effects in cardiac rehabilitation. Anti-arrhythmics and ST-segment depression at baseline exercise testing were predictive for complications.

  10. Exercise training in adverse cardiac remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncker, Dirk J; van Deel, Elza D; de Waard, Monique C; de Boer, Martine; Merkus, Daphne; van der Velden, Jolanda

    2014-06-01

    Cardiac remodeling in response to a myocardial infarction or chronic pressure-overload is an independent risk factor for the development of heart failure. In contrast, cardiac remodeling produced by regular physical exercise is associated with a decreased risk for heart failure. There is evidence that exercise training has a beneficial effect on disease progression and survival in patients with cardiac remodeling and dysfunction, but concern has also been expressed that exercise training may aggravate pathological remodeling and dysfunction. Here we present studies from our laboratory into the effects of exercise training on pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in mice. The results indicate that even in the presence of a large infarct, exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the heart. These effects were mimicked in part by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) overexpression and abrogated by eNOS deficiency, demonstrating the importance of nitric oxide signaling in mediating the cardiac effects of exercise. Exercise prior to a myocardial infarction was also cardioprotective. In contrast, exercise tended to aggravate pathological cardiac remodeling and dysfunction in the setting of pressure-overload produced by an aortic stenosis. These observations emphasize the critical importance of the underlying pathological stimulus for cardiac hypertrophy and remodeling, in determining the effects of exercise training. Future studies are needed to define the influence of exercise type, intensity and duration in different models and severities of pathological cardiac remodeling. Together such studies will aid in optimizing the therapy of exercise training in the setting of cardiovascular disease.

  11. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    The advancement of perioperative medicine is leading to greater diversity in development of pre-surgical interventions, implemented to reduce patient surgical risk and enhance post-surgical recovery. Of these interventions, the prescription of pre-operative exercise training is gathering momentum as a realistic means for enhancing patient surgical outcome. Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function. Any exercise programme incorporated into the pre-operative pathway of care needs to be effective and time efficient in that any fitness gains are achievable in the limited period between the decision for surgery and operation (e.g. 4 weeks). Fortunately, there is a large volume of research describing effective and time-efficient exercise training programmes within the discipline of sports science. Accordingly, the objective of our commentary is to synthesise contemporary exercise training research, both from non-clinical and clinical populations, with the overarching aim of informing the development of effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise training programmes. The development of such exercise training programmes requires the careful consideration of several key principles, namely frequency, intensity, time, type and progression of exercise. Therefore, in light of more recent evidence demonstrating the effectiveness and time efficiency of high-intensity interval training-which involves brief bouts of intense exercise interspersed with longer recovery periods-the principles of exercise training programme design will be discussed mainly in the context of such high-intensity interval training programmes. Other issues pertinent to the development, implementation and evaluation of pre-operative exercise training programmes, such as individual exercise prescription, training session monitoring and potential

  12. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Beneficial effects of exercise training after myocardial infarction require full eNOS expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; van Haperen, Rien; Soullié, Thomas; Tempel, Dennie; de Crom, Rini; Duncker, Dirk J

    2010-06-01

    Exercise training attenuates left ventricular (LV) dysfunction after myocardial infarction (MI). It could be speculated that these effects of exercise are mediated by increased endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that eNOS plays a critical role in the exercise-induced amelioration of LV dysfunction after MI. MI or sham was induced in eNOS(-/-), eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice. After 8 weeks of voluntary wheel running (approximately 7 km/day in all groups) or sedentary housing, global cardiac function was determined in vivo and (immuno)histochemistry was performed to assess cardiomyocyte size, fibrosis, capillary density and apoptosis in remote myocardium. At baseline eNOS(-/-) mice had higher mean aortic pressure compared to eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(+/+) mice, but had normal global cardiac function. MI resulted in marked LV remodeling, including cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and a reduction in capillary density, increased fibrosis and apoptosis, as well as LV systolic and diastolic dysfunction to the same extent in all genotypes. In eNOS(+/+) MI mice exercise abolished fibrosis and apoptosis in the remote myocardium, attenuated LV systolic dysfunction and ameliorated pulmonary congestion. These beneficial effects were lost in eNOS(+/-) and eNOS(-/-) mice, while LV systolic dysfunction and pulmonary congestion in eNOS(+/-) mice were exacerbated by exercise. In conclusion, the beneficial effects of exercise after MI on LV remodeling and dysfunction depend critically on endogenous eNOS. The observation that the lack of one eNOS allele is sufficient to negate all beneficial effects of exercise, strongly suggests that exercise depends on full eNOS expression. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Cerebellar Insulin/IGF-1 signaling in diabetic rats: Effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariana Eiras; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Arantes, Luciana Mendonça; Luciano, Eliete; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; de Almeida Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos; Medeiros, Alessandra; Bertolini, Natália Oliveira; Sibuya, Clarice Yoshiko; Gomes, Ricardo José

    2017-02-03

    The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease associated with loss of brain regions such as the cerebellum, increasing the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brain of diabetic and PD organisms the insulin/IGF-1 signaling is altered. Exercise training is an effective intervention for the prevention of neurodegerative diseases since it release neurotrophic factors and regulating insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the brain. This study aimed to evaluate the proteins involved in the insulin/IGF-1 pathway in the cerebellum of diabetic rats subjected to exercise training protocol. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD) and trained diabetic (TD). Diabetes was induced by Alloxan (ALX) (32mg/kgb.w.). The training program consisted in swimming 5days/week, 1h/day, during 6 weeks, supporting an overload corresponding to 90% of the anaerobic threshold. At the end, cerebellum was extracted to determinate the protein expression of GSK-3β, IRβ and IGF-1R and the phosphorylation of β-amyloid, Tau, ERK1+ERK2 by Western Blot analysis. All dependent variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with significance level of 5%. Diabetes causes hyperglycemia in both diabetic groups; however, in TD, there was a reduction in hyperglycemia compared to SD. Diabetes increased Tau and β-amyloid phosphorylation in both SD and TD groups. Furthermore, aerobic exercise increased ERK1+ERK2 expression in TC. The data showed that in cerebellum of diabetic rats induced by alloxan there are some proteins expression like Parkinson cerebellum increased, and the exercise training was not able to modulate the expression of these proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Unsupervised Rehabilitation: effects of Exercise Training over the Long Run

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Japy Angelini Oliveira Filho

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the safety and efficacy of unsupervised rehabilitation (USR in the long run in low-risk patients with coronary artery disease. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective study with 30 patients divided into: group I (GI - 15 patients from private clinics undergoing unsupervised rehabilitation; group II (GII - control group, 15 patients from ambulatory clinic basis, paired by age, sex, and clinical findings. GI was stimulated to exercise under indirect supervision (jogging, treadmill, and sports. GII received the usual clinical treatment. RESULTS: The pre- and postobservation values in GI were, respectively: VO2peak (mL/kg/min, 24±5 and 31± 9; VO2 peak/peak HR: 0.18±0.05 and 0.28±0.13; peak double product (DP peak:26,800±7,000 and 29,000 ± 6,500; % peak HR/predicted HRmax: 89.5±9 and 89.3±9. The pre- and post- values in GII were: VO2 peak (mL/kg/min, 27± 7 and 28±5; VO2 peak/peak HR: 0.2±0.06 and 0.2± 0.05; DP peak: 24,900±8,000 and 25,600± 8,000, and % peak HR/predicted HRmax: 91.3±9 and 91.1± 11. The following values were significant: preobservation VO2peak versus postobservation VO2peak in GI (p=0.0 063; postobservation VO2peak in GI versus postobservation VO2peak in GII (p=0.0045; postobservation VO2 peak/peak HR GI versus postobservation peak VO2/peak HR in GII (p=0.0000. The follow-up periods in GI and GII were, respectively, 41.33± 20.19 months and 20.60±8.16 months (p<0.05. No difference between the groups was observed in coronary risk factors, therapeutic management, or evolution of ischemia. No cardiovascular events secondary to USR were observed in 620 patient-months. CONCLUSION: USR was safe and efficient, in low-risk patients with coronary artery disease and provided benefits at the peripheral level.

  16. Effects of inspiratory muscle training on resistance to fatigue of respiratory muscles during exhaustive exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segizbaeva, M O; Timofeev, N N; Donina, Zh A; Kur'yanovich, E N; Aleksandrova, N P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on resistance to fatigue of the diaphragm (D), parasternal (PS), sternocleidomastoid (SCM) and scalene (SC) muscles in healthy humans during exhaustive exercise. Daily inspiratory muscle strength training was performed for 3 weeks in 10 male subjects (at a pressure threshold load of 60% of maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) for the first week, 70% of MIP for the second week, and 80% of MIP for the third week). Before and after training, subjects performed an incremental cycle test to exhaustion. Maximal inspiratory pressure and EMG-analysis served as indices of inspiratory muscle fatigue assessment. The before-to-after exercise decreases in MIP and centroid frequency (fc) of the EMG (D, PS, SCM, and SC) power spectrum (Pmuscle fatigue during exhaustive exercise, and a significant improvement in maximal work performance. We conclude that the IMT elicits resistance to the development of inspiratory muscles fatigue during high-intensity exercise.

  17. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of exercise training in patients with coronary artery disease: Systematic review and meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraal, Jos J; Vromen, Tom; Spee, Ruud; Kemps, Hareld M C; Peek, Niels

    2017-10-15

    Although exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation improves exercise capacity of coronary artery disease patients, it is unclear which training characteristic determines this improvement. Total energy expenditure and its constituent training characteristics (training intensity, session frequency, session duration and programme length) vary considerably among clinical trials, making it hard to compare studies directly. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and meta-regression analysis to assess the effect of total energy expenditure and its constituent training characteristics on exercise capacity. We identified randomised controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care for patients with coronary artery disease. Studies were included when training intensity, session frequency, session duration and programme length was described, and exercise capacity was reported in peakVO2. Energy expenditure was calculated from the four training characteristics. The effect of training characteristics on exercise capacity was determined using mixed effects linear regression analyses. The analyses were performed with and without total energy expenditure as covariate. Twenty studies were included in the analyses. The mean difference in peakVO2 between the intervention group and control group was 3.97ml·min-1·kg-1 (pcharacteristics after adjustment for total energy expenditure. We conclude that the design of an exercise programme should primarily be aimed at optimising total energy expenditure rather than on one specific training characteristic. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. The effects of moderate exercise training on psychological well-being and mood state in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, S R; Nieman, D C; Lee, J W

    1991-01-01

    The relationship between moderate exercise training (five 45 min sessions/week, brisk walking at 62 beta +/- 2% VO2max for 15 weeks, psychological well-being and mood state was investigated in a group of 35 sedentary, mildly obese women. A 2 (exercise (EX) (N = 18), and nonexercise (NEX) (N = 17) groups) x 3 (baseline, 6-week, 15-week testing sessions) factorial design was used with data analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Four psychological tests were administered: Daily Hassles Scale (DHS), General Well-being Schedule (GWB), Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (S-Anxiety), and Profile of Mood States (POMS). The EX and NEX groups had significantly different patterns of change over time for GWB total scores [F(2,66) = 5.72, p = 0.005] and the GWB subscales 'energy level' and 'freedom from health concern or worry'. Scores for the EX group were elevated at both 6 and 15 weeks. General well-being total scores and subscale 'energy level' scores were significantly correlated with improvement in submaximal cardiorespiratory fitness (r = -0.41, p = 0.014; r = -0.40, p = 0.017, respectively). Exercise training also had a significant effect on frequency but not intensity of DHS scores, and S-Anxiety, with a significant decrease seen in the EX group at 6 weeks but not 15 weeks. Profile of Mood States scores were not significantly related to exercise training. These data support the results of other studies that have reported improvement in general psychological well-being with exercise training.

  19. Chronic effects of different resistance training exercise orders on flexibility in elite judo athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Alam R; Reis, Victor M; Costa, Pablo B; Bentes, Claudio M; Costa E Silva, Gabriel V; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2014-03-27

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of twelve weeks of resistance training with different exercise orders (upper limbs and lower limbs vs. lower limbs and upper limbs) on flexibility levels in elite judo athletes. Thirty-nine male athletes were randomly divided into 3 groups as follows: G1 (n = 13), G2 (n = 13), and CG (n = 13). The flexibility was assessed on 8 joint movements: shoulder flexion and shoulder extension, shoulder abduction and shoulder adduction, trunk flexion and trunk extension, and hip flexion and hip extension. Two-way repeated measures ANOVAs (time [pre-experimental vs. post-experimental] × group [G1 vs. G2 vs. CG]) were used to compare the differences between pre- and post-test situations and the differences among groups. The results from the within-group (pre vs. post) comparisons demonstrated significant increases (p training groups, respectively, in all joints. No significant changes (p > 0.05) were observed for the CG. The results from the between-group comparisons demonstrated no significant differences (p > 0.05) in the range of motion between G1post vs. G2post (1.15%). Although both exercise orders (from upper to lower limbs and from lower to upper limbs) increased flexibility, no significant variations were observed between the different exercise orders. Nevertheless, these findings demonstrate that flexibility gains could be obtained with a resistance training program, and thus, more time can be devoted to sports-specific judo training.

  20. Hydration during intense exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maughan, R J; Meyer, N L

    2013-01-01

    Hydration status has profound effects on both physical and mental performance, and sports performance is thus critically affected. Both overhydration and underhydration - if sufficiently severe - will impair performance and pose a risk to health. Athletes may begin exercise in a hypohydrated state as a result of incomplete recovery from water loss induced in order to achieve a specific body mass target or due to incomplete recovery from a previous competition or training session. Dehydration will also develop in endurance exercise where fluid intake does not match water loss. The focus has generally been on training rather than on competition, but sweat loss and fluid replacement in training may have important implications. Hypohydration may impair training quality and may also increase stress levels. It is unclear whether this will have negative effects (reduced training quality, impaired immunity) or whether it will promote a greater adaptive response. Hypohydration and the consequent hyperthermia, however, can enhance the effectiveness of a heat acclimation program, resulting in improved endurance performance in warm and temperate environments. Drinking in training may be important in enhancing tolerance of the gut when athletes plan to drink in competition. The distribution of water between body water compartments may also be important in the initiation and promotion of cellular adaptations to the training stimulus. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Vascular dysfunction in obesity: Beneficial effects of aerobic exercise training in animal models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Christine da Silva Sponton

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cardiovascular disease (CVD is the leading cause of mortality in the world and several risk factors for developing CVD have been pointed out, including obesity and physical inactivity. Endothelial dysfunction as a consequence of metabolic and inflammatory disorders plays an important role in the onset of vascular complications in obesity. In addition, it is well established that aerobic exercises promote beneficial effects on CVD by increasing nitric oxide (NO production or its bioavailability in human and experimental models. The interest in exercise studies increased significantly, with promising results. Considering the importance of this field, the purpose of this mini-review is to summarize the animal studies that investigated the physiological mechanisms of vascular dysfunction in obesity and how aerobic exercise training influenced these alterations.

  2. Neuromuscular adaptations to concurrent training in the elderly: effects of intrasession exercise sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Izquierdo, Mikel; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Baroni, Bruno Manfredini; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Lanferdini, Fábio Juner; Radaelli, Régis; González-Izal, Miriam; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was investigate the effects of different intrasession exercise orders in the neuromuscular adaptations induced by concurrent training in elderly. Twenty-six healthy elderly men (64.7 ± 4.1 years), were placed into two concurrent training groups: strength prior to (SE, n = 13) or after (ES, n = 13) endurance training. Subjects trained strength and endurance training during 12 weeks, three times per week performing both exercise types in the same training session. Upper and lower body one maximum repetition test (1RM) and lower-body isometric peak torque (PTiso) and rate of force development were evaluated as strength parameters. Upper and lower body muscle thickness (MT) was determined by ultrasonography. Lower-body maximal surface electromyographic activity of vastus lateralis and rectus femoris muscles (maximal electromyographic (EMG) amplitude) and neuromuscular economy (normalized EMG at 50 % of pretraining PTiso) were determined. Both SE and ES groups increased the upper- and lower-body 1RM, but the lower-body 1RM increases observed in the SE was higher than ES (35.1 ± 12.8 vs. 21.9 ± 10.6 %, respectively; P muscles evaluated, with no differences between groups. In addition, there were increases in the maximal EMG and neuromuscular economy of vastus lateralis in both SE and ES, but the neuromuscular economy of rectus femoris was improved only in SE (P strength prior to endurance exercise during concurrent training resulted in greater lower-body strength gains as well as greater changes in the neuromuscular economy (rectus femoris) in elderly.

  3. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engi, Sheila A; Planeta, Cleopatra S; Crestani, Carlos C

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6), animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  4. The effect of 1 year of Alagebrium and moderate-intensity exercise training on left ventricular function during exercise in seniors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Fujimoto, Naoki; Shafer, Keri M; Hastings, Jeffrey L; Shibata, Shigeki; Palmer, M Dean; Boyd, Kara; Levine, Benjamin D

    2016-08-01

    Sedentary aging leads to left ventricular (LV) and vascular stiffening due in part to advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) cross-linking of extracellular matrix proteins. Vigorous lifelong exercise ameliorates age-related cardiovascular (CV) stiffening and enhances exercise LV function, although this effect is limited when exercise is initiated later in life. We hypothesized that exercise training might be more effective at improving the impact of age-related CV stiffening during exercise when combined with an AGE cross-link breaker (Alagebrium). Sixty-two seniors (≥60 yr) were randomized into four groups: sedentary + placebo, sedentary + Alagebrium, exercise + placebo, and exercise + Alagebrium for 1 yr. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise was performed 3-4 sessions/wk; controls underwent similar frequency of yoga/balance training. Twenty-four similarly-aged, lifelong exercisers (4-5 sessions/wk) served as a comparator for the effect of lifelong exercise on exercising LV function. Oxygen uptake (Douglas bags), stroke index (SI; acetylene rebreathing), and effective arterial elastance (Ea) were collected at rest and submaximal and maximal exercise. Maximum O2 uptake (23 ± 5 to 25 ± 6 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) increased, while SI (35 ± 11 to 39 ± 12 ml/m(2)) and Ea (4.0 ± 1.1 to 3.7 ± 1.2 mmHg·ml(-1)·m(-2)) were improved across all conditions with exercise, but remained unchanged in controls (exercise × time, P ≤ 0.018). SI or Ea were not affected by Alagebrium (medication × time, P ≥ 0.468) or its combination with exercise (interaction P ≥ 0.252). After 1 yr of exercise plus Alagebrium, exercise SI and Ea remained substantially below that of lifelong exercisers (15-24 and 9-22%, respectively, P ≤ 0.415). In conclusion, Alagebrium plus exercise had no synergistic effect on exercise LV function and failed to achieve levels associated with lifelong exercise, despite a similar exercise frequency.

  5. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  6. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  7. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shames, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  8. Outpatient exercise training in children with cystic fibrosis: physiological effects, perceived competence, and acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulmans, V A; de Meer, K; Brackel, H J; Faber, J A; Berger, R; Helders, P J

    1999-07-01

    Exercise training is currently advocated as part of the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). However, data are few that document physiologic benefits or changes in patients' perceptions of long-term training programs in children with CF. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects and acceptability of a home cycling program in children with CF. Fourteen patients (9 boys, 5 girls) with CF, mean (SD) age 14.1 (2.0) years, with mild to moderate impairment of lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, mean (SD) 58.3 (16.3)% of predicted) were studied for 1 year. The first half of the study year was used to obtain baseline values at 0 and 6 months. During the second half of the year, a cycle program was carried out 5 times a week, for 20 min each day at a level of work that resulted in a heart rate of 140-160 beats/min. Once a week the cycle program was supervised by a physiotherapist. Measurements were repeated at 12 months. Effects of the exercise program were measured in terms of lung function, nutritional status, growth, muscle strength, exercise performance, perceived competence, and attitude towards the training program. Differences between the changes during the 6-month training period as compared to the 6-month control period were analyzed by multivariate statistics and nonparametric tests. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) between the two periods were found with respect to muscle strength of knee extensors and ankle dorsiflexors, and with respect to maximal oxygen consumption per kg body weight as well as per kg fat free mass. All changes were positive. No adverse effects were found. Perceived competence showed significant positive changes in feelings about physical appearance, general self-worth, and Total Perceived Competence Score. Scores concerning perceived acceptability of the program were significantly lower at the end of the training period; however, patients reported that they did want to continue with other

  9. Effects of exercise training on resting energy expenditure and lean mass during pediatric burn rehabilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mousawi, Ahmed M.; Williams, Felicia N.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Jeschke, Marc G.; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Severe burns cause profound hormonal and metabolic disturbances resulting in hypermetabolism, reflected in extreme elevation of resting energy expenditure (REE) and extensive skeletal muscle catabolism. Aerobic and resistive exercise programs during rehabilitation have shown substantial benefits, although whether such training potentially exacerbates basal metabolism is unknown. We therefore examined the effects of exercise training upon REE during the rehabilitation of severely burned pediatric patients. Methods Children with 40% total body surface area (TBSA) burns and greater were enrolled on admission to our burn intensive-care unit to participate in a twelve-week, hospital-based exercise program (EX), or a home-based standard of care program (SOC), commencing six months post-injury. Results Twenty-one patients (7–17 years) were enrolled and randomized to SOC (n=10) or EX (n=11). Age, gender, and TBSA burned were similar. Mean change (± sd) in REE, normalized to individual lean body mass (LBM), was almost negligible between SOC and EX group patients (0.03 ± 17.40%, SOC vs. 0.01 ± 26.38%, EX). A significant increase in LBM was found for EX patients (2.06 ± 3.17%, SOC vs. 8.75 ± 5.65%, EX; p=0.004), which persisted when normalized to height (0.70 ± 2.39%, SOC vs. 6.14 ± 6.46%, EX; p=0.02). Peak torque also improved significantly more in EX patients (12.29 ± 16.49%, SOC vs. 54.31 ± 44.25%, EX; p=0.02), reflecting improved strength. Conclusion Exercise training significantly enhanced lean mass and strength, without observed exacerbation of post-burn hypermetabolism. We therefore advocate use of exercise conditioning as a safe and effective component of pediatric burn rehabilitation. PMID:20354445

  10. Effects of Pulse Current on Endurance Exercise and Its Anti-Fatigue Properties in the Hepatic Tissue of Trained Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Chang; Xinfang Miao; Xiaowei Ju; Lvgang Zhu; Changlin Huang; Tao Huang; Xincheng Zuo; Chunfang Gao

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is synonymous with a wide spectrum of familiar physiological conditions, from pathology and general health, to sport and physical exercise. Strenuous, prolonged exercise training causes fatigue. Although several studies have investigated the effects of electrical stimulation frequency on muscle fatigue, the effects of percutaneous pulse current stimulation on fatigue in the hepatic tissue of trained rats is still unclear. In order to find an effective strategy to prevent fatigue or en...

  11. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling....... We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status...

  12. EXERCISE X BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION IN YOUNG TRAINED RATS: WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS ON BODY GROWTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation

  13. [Relationships between nutritional status and the effects of exercise training in frail elderly people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Takeshi; Obuchi, Shuichi

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to examine the relationship between nutritional status indicators such as body mass index (BMI) and serum albumin, and the effects of exercise intervention in community-dwelling frail elderly people. We enrolled 44 subjects aged 65 years and older (average age 73.9±5.1 years) in this study. The subjects participated in exercise intervention, including muscle strength training twice a week for 3 months. We evaluated various functional performance measures at the start and end of the intervention, and calculated the measurement differences. We then evaluated any relationships between nutritional status and the amount of changes. Some physical functions improved after exercise intervention, even in participants with under-nutritional status. There were no significant differences or relationships found between nutritional status and improvements in physical function. These results suggest that the physical functions of frail elderly people can improve regardless of their nutritional status. Further study is necessary to evaluate the influence of nutritional status on exercise effects, and the optimal method of applying exercise interventions, primarily for community-dwelling frail older people.

  14. Effects of Tai Chi and Multimodal Exercise Training on Movement and Balance Function in Mild to Moderate Idiopathic Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yu; Hu, Yong; Nie, Zhi-Yu; Jin, Rong-Xiang; Chen, Fei; Guan, Qiang; Hu, Bin; Gu, Chun-Ya; Zhu, Ling; Jin, Ling-Jing

    2015-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two different patterns of rehabilitation training on movement and balance function in patients with idiopathic Parkinson disease. Forty patients with Parkinson disease were randomized into the tai chi group (n = 20) or the multimodal exercise training group (n = 20). Outcome measures were assessed at baseline and after 12 wks of exercise. Balance was assessed using the Berg Balance Scale, and movement was assessed by the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-Motor Examination, stride length, gait velocity, and Timed Up and Go Test. The multimodal exercise training group improved significantly in movement from baseline, and a reduction in balance impairment was observed for the multimodal exercise training group. The questionnaire results after training showed that the multimodal exercise training is easy to learn and adhere to. No major adverse events were noted in both groups. This multimodal exercise training could improve motion function and benefit balance function in patients with Parkinson disease. The multimodal exercise training is easy to learn and practice.

  15. Exercise Training and Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Timothy G.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of exercise on total and regional bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women is reviewed. Studies on non-estrogen-replete postmenopausal women show 1-2% changes in regional BMD with 1 year of weight-bearing exercises. Studies of exercise training in the estrogen-replete postmenopausal population suggest large BMD changes.…

  16. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P pressure was more pronounced in the 30 hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P pressure of 3.2 mmHg (P = 0.10). 5. In conclusion, dynamic aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  17. Should we treat obesity in COPD? The effects of diet and resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G; Scott, Hayley A; Baines, Penelope J; Hensley, Michael J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Wood, Lisa G

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for poor health outcomes, but paradoxically in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is associated with improved survival and lung function. A major evidence gap exisits to inform treatment recommendations for patients with COPD who are obese. We aimed to determine the effect of weight reduction involving a low-energy diet utilizing a partial meal replacement plan, coupled with resistance exercise training in obese COPD patients. In a proof of concept before-after clinical trial, obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ) COPD patients received a 12 week weight reduction programme involving meal replacements, dietary counselling by a dietitian and resistance exercise training prescribed and supervised by a physiotherapist. Patients were reviewed face to face by the dietitian and physiotherapist every 2 weeks for counselling. Twenty-eight participants completed the intervention. Mean (standard deviation) body mass index was 36.3 kg/m(2) (4.6) at baseline and reduced by 2.4 kg/m(2) ((1.1) P index, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise score (BODE). Systemic inflammation measured by C-reactive protein however did not change. In obese COPD patients, dietary energy restriction coupled with resistance exercise training results in clinically significant improvements in body mass index, exercise tolerance and health status, whilst preserving skeletal muscle mass. This novel study provides a framework for development of guidelines for the management of obese COPD patients and in guiding future research. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Exercise and Academic Achievement in Children: Effects of Acute Class-Based Circuit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Ben D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.

  19. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaister, Mark; Williams, Benjamin Henley; Muniz-Pumares, Daniel; Balsalobre-Fernández, Carlos; Foley, Paul

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; [Formula: see text]: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2-4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions.

  20. Effects of combined physical exercise training on DNA damage and repair capacity: role of oxidative stress changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Jorge Pinto; Silva, Amélia M; Oliveira, Maria Manuel; Peixoto, Francisco; Gaivão, Isabel; Mota, Maria Paula

    2015-06-01

    Regular physical exercise has been shown to be one of the most important lifestyle influences on improving functional performance, decreasing morbidity and all causes of mortality among older people. However, it is known that acute physical exercise may induce an increase in oxidative stress and oxidative damage in several structures, including DNA. Considering this, the purpose of this study was to identify the effects of 16 weeks of combined physical exercise in DNA damage and repair capacity in lymphocytes. In addition, we aimed to investigate the role of oxidative stress involved in those changes. Fifty-seven healthy men (40 to 74 years) were enrolled in this study. The sample was divided into two groups: the experimental group (EG), composed of 31 individuals, submitted to 16 weeks of combined physical exercise training; and the control group (CG), composed of 26 individuals, who did not undergo any specifically orientated physical activity. We observed an improvement of overall physical performance in the EG, after the physical exercise training. A significant decrease in DNA strand breaks and FPG-sensitive sites was found after the physical exercise training, with no significant changes in 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase enzyme activity. An increase was observed in antioxidant activity, and a decrease was found in lipid peroxidation levels after physical exercise training. These results suggest that physical exercise training induces protective effects against DNA damage in lymphocytes possibly related to the increase in antioxidant capacity.

  1. Feasibility and effect of in-home physical exercise training delivered via telehealth before bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillot, Aurélie; Boissy, Patrick; Tousignant, Michel; Langlois, Marie-France

    2017-06-01

    Optimal physical activity (PA) interventions are needed to increase PA in individuals with severe obesity, and optimize the results of bariatric surgery (BS). The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility and effect of Pre-Surgical Exercise Training (PreSET) delivered in-home via telehealth (TelePreSET) in subjects awaiting BS. Six women following the TelePreSET were compared to the women from a previous study (12 performing the PreSET in a gymnasium and 11 receiving usual care). In-home TelePreSET (12-weeks of endurance and strength training) was supervised twice weekly using videoconferencing. Physical fitness, quality of life, exercise beliefs, anthropometric measures and telehealth perception were assessed before and after 12-weeks. Satisfaction was evaluated with questionnaires at the end of the intervention. The TelePreSET participants attended 96% of the exercise sessions, and were very satisfied by the TelePreSET. The baseline telehealth perception score was high, and increased significantly after the intervention. The TelePreSET group significantly increased their physical fitness compared to the usual care group. No significant change was noted in other outcomes. The TelePreSET is feasible and seems effective to improve the physical fitness of women awaiting BS. Further studies are needed to confirm beneficial effects of this innovative mode of delivery.

  2. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  3. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  4. Immunometabolic Responses to Concurrent Training: The Effects of Exercise Order in Recreational Weightlifters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Daniela S; Panissa, Valéria L G; Monteiro, Paula A; Gerosa-Neto, José; Rossi, Fabrício E; Antunes, Barbara M M; Franchini, Emerson; Cholewa, Jason M; Gobbo, Luís A; Lira, Fábio S

    2016-07-01

    Inoue, DS, Panissa, VLG, Monteiro, PA, Gerosa-Neto, J, Rossi, FE, Antunes, BMM, Franchini, E, Cholewa, JM, Gobbo, LA, and Lira, FS. Immunometabolic responses to concurrent training: the effects of exercise order in recreational weightlifters. J Strength Cond Res 30(7): 1960-1967, 2016-The relationship between immunometabolic response and performance is not well understood. This study evaluated the influence of concurrent strength and high-intensity aerobic sequence of exercise order between sessions on strength performance, metabolic, and inflammatory response. Eleven recreational weightlifters underwent the following 2 randomized sessions: (a) strength-aerobic exercise order (SA) and (b) aerobic-strength exercise order (AS). Blood samples were collected before (Pre) and immediately after the first exercise (Post-1) and the second exercise (Post-2) of each session. The SA condition presented a higher number of repetitions (SA: 54 ± 15 vs. AS: 43 ± 12) and total volume (SA: 7,265 ± 2,323 vs. AS: 5,794 ± 1846 kg) than the AS condition (both p = 0.001). Glucose was higher in Pre when compared with post-1 in both orders (p ≤ 0.05); changes in lactate were time-dependent in the different orders (p ≤ 0.05); however, AS post-2 lactate was lower when compared with SA post-2 (p ≤ 0.05). Interleukin-6 levels showed time-dependent changes for both exercise orders (p ≤ 0.05). Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) level was increased only in AS post-1 (AS: pre = 21.91 ± 35.47, post-1 = 26.99 ± 47.69 pg·ml vs. SA: pre = 25.74 ± 43.64, post-1 = 29.74 ± 46.05 pg·ml, p ≤ 0.05). These results suggest that concurrent training order exhibits different immunometabolic responses and, at least in part, can be associated with the acute decline in strength performance induced by concurrent exercise. Our results point to a possible role of TNF-α (post-1 AS condition) as a trigger to restore the energy demand by providing substrates to help maintain contractile activity

  5. Physical fitness in morbidly obese patients: effect of gastric bypass surgery and exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegen, Sanne; Derave, Wim; Calders, Patrick; Van Laethem, Christophe; Pattyn, Piet

    2011-01-01

    There is a growing consensus that bariatric surgery is currently the most efficacious and long-term treatment for clinically severe obesity. However, it remains to be determined whether poor physical fitness, an important characteristic of these patients, improves as well. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effect of gastric bypass surgery on physical fitness and to determine if an exercise program in the first 4 months is beneficial. Fifteen morbidly obese patients (BMI 43.0 kg/m(2)) were tested before and 4 months after gastric bypass surgery. Eight of them followed a combined endurance and strength training program. Before and after 4 months the operation, anthropometrical characteristics were measured, and an extensive assessment of physical fitness (strength, aerobic, and functional capacity) was performed. Large-scale weight loss through gastric bypass surgery results in a decrease in dynamic and static muscle strength and no improvement of aerobic capacity. In contrast, an intensive exercise program could prevent the decrease and even induced an increase in strength of most muscle groups. Together with an improvement in aerobic capacity, functional capacity increased significantly. Both groups evolved equally with regard to body composition (decrease in fat mass and fat-free mass). An exercise training program in the first 4 months after bariatric surgery is effective and should be promoted, considering the fact that physical fitness does not improve by weight loss only.

  6. Effects of training status on PDH regulation in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudiksen, Anders; Bertholdt, Lærke; Stankiewicz, Tomasz

    2017-01-01

    of this study was to investigate the impact of training state on post-translational regulation of PDHa activity during submaximal and exhaustive exercise. Eight untrained and nine endurance exercise-trained healthy male subjects performed incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer: 40 min at 50% incremental peak...... power output (IPPO), 10 min at 65% (IPPO), followed by 80% (IPPO) until exhaustion. Trained subjects had higher (P muscle PDH......Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is the gateway enzyme for carbohydrate-derived pyruvate feeding into the TCA cycle. PDH may play a central role in regulating substrate shifts during exercise, but the influence of training state on PDH regulation during exercise is not fully elucidated. The purpose...

  7. Exercise training in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piepoli, Massimo F

    2005-05-01

    The reduction of exercise capacity with early occurrence of fatigue and dyspnea is a hallmark of heart failure syndrome. There are objective similarities between heart failure and muscular deconditioning. Deficiencies in peripheral blood flow and skeletal muscle function, morphology, metabolism, and function are present. The protective effects of physical activity have been elucidated in many recent studies: training improves ventilatory control, skeletal muscle metabolism, autonomic nervous system, central and peripheral circulation, and heart function. These provide the physiologic basis to explain the benefits in terms of survival and freedom from hospitalization demonstrated by physical training also in heart failure.

  8. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    on atherosclerosis marker VCAM-1. Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation blunts most of these effects.......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1...... signaling and through an improved antioxidant capacity. We tested the hypothesis that resveratrol supplementation enhances training-induced improvements in cardiovascular health parameters in aged men. Twenty-seven healthy physically inactive aged men (age: 65 ± 1 years; BMI: 25.4 ± 0.7 kg/m2; MAP: 95.8 ± 2...

  9. Effect of exercise training on eNOS expression, NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robinson Ramírez-Vélez

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during the second half of pregnancy on endothelial NOS expression (eNOS, nitric oxide (NO production and oxygen metabolism in human placenta. METHODS: The study included 20 nulliparous in gestational week 16-20, attending prenatal care at three tertiary hospitals in Colombia who were randomly assigned into one of two groups: The exercise group (n = 10 took part in an exercise session three times a week for 12 weeks which consisted of: aerobic exercise at an intensity of 55-75% of their maximum heart rate for 60 min and 25 mins. Resistance exercise included 5 exercise groups circuit training (50 repetitions of each using barbells (1-3 kg/exercise and low-to-medium resistance bands. The control group (n = 10 undertook their usual physical activity. Mitochondrial and cytosol fractions were isolated from human placental tissue by differential centrifugation. A spectrophotometric assay was used to measure NO production in cytosolic samples from placental tissue and Western Blot technique to determine eNOS expression. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide were measured to determine oxygen metabolism. RESULTS: Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training during pregnancy leads to a 2-fold increase in eNOS expression and 4-fold increase in NO production in placental cytosol (p = 0.05. Mitochondrial superoxide levels and hydrogen peroxide production rate were decreased by 8% and 37% respectively in the placental mitochondria of exercising women (p = 0.05. CONCLUSION: Regular exercise training during the second half of pregnancy increases eNOS expression and NO production and decreases reactive oxygen species generation in human placenta. Collectively, these data demonstrate that chronic exercise increases eNOS/NO production, presumably by increasing endothelial shear stress. This adaptation may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on

  10. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  11. Effect of exercise training on endothelial function in heart failure patients: A systematic review meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, M J; Smart, N A

    2017-03-15

    Endothelial dysfunction contributes to the development and progression of cardiovascular disease and heart failure (HF) and is associated with an increased risk of mortality. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is widely utilised to assess endothelial function and is improved with exercise training in heart failure patients. The aim of this meta-analysis is to quantify the effect of exercise training in patients with heart failure. A large number of studies now exist that have examined endothelial function in patients with heart failure. We sought to add to the current literature by quantifying the effect of exercise training on endothelial function. We conducted database searches (PubMed, EMBASE, PROQUEST and Cochrane Trials Register to June 2016) for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms exercise training, endothelial function, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The 16 included studies provided a total of 529 participants, 293 in an intervention and 236 in controls groups. FMD was improved with exercise training in exercise vs. control, SMD of 1.08 (95%CI 0.70 to 1.46, ptraining improved endothelial function, assessed via FMD, and endothelial progenitor cells in heart failure patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of exercise training on skeletal muscle cytokine expression in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Gatta, Paul A; Garnham, Andrew P; Peake, Jonathan M; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-07-01

    Aging is associated with increased circulating pro-inflammatory and lower anti-inflammatory cytokines. Exercise training, in addition to improving muscle function, reduces these circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines. Yet, few studies have evaluated changes in the expression of cytokines within skeletal muscle after exercise training. The aim of the current study was to examine the expression of cytokines both at rest and following a bout of isokinetic exercise performed before and after 12weeks of resistance exercise training in young (n=8, 20.3±0.8yr) and elderly men (n=8, 66.9±1.6yr). Protein expression of various cytokines was determined in muscle homogenates. The expression of MCP-1, IL-8 and IL-6 (which are traditionally classified as 'pro-inflammatory') increased substantially after acute exercise. By contrast, the expression of the anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-4, IL-10 and IL-13 increased only slightly (or not at all) after acute exercise. These responses were not significantly different between young and elderly men, either before or after 12weeks of exercise training. However, compared with the young men, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines 2h post exercise tended to be greater in the elderly men prior to training. Training attenuated this difference. These data suggest that the inflammatory response to unaccustomed exercise increases with age. Furthermore, regular exercise training may help to normalize this inflammatory response, which could have important implications for muscle regeneration and adaptation in the elderly. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of four weeks high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shabani

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oxidative species produced during exercise can cause damages to some tissues such as kidney, liver and skeletal muscle. It seems that metallothionein plays a protective role against these actions. Objective: To assess the effect of four weeks of high intensity interval training versus aerobic exercise on metallothionein levels of myocardial tissue in healthy male rats. Methods: This experimental study was done on 36 male Wistar rats (2 months of age with an average weight of 180±20 in 2015.The rats were randomly divided into three groups: control (n=12, high intensity interval training (n=12, and aerobic training (n=12 groups. The experimental groups exercised according to the training program 5 days a week for 4 weeks. During this period, the control group did not have any training programs. One-way ANOVA was used to analyze the data. Findings: The results indicate no significant difference among the mean metallothionein in control, aerobic exercise and high intensity interval training groups. However, the amount of myocardial metallothionein increased as a result of high intensity interval training and decreased during aerobic exercise. Conclusion: It seems that the duration and intensity of exercise need to be adjusted in order to obtain better results.

  14. Effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in the hepatic tissue of trained rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Chang

    Full Text Available Fatigue is synonymous with a wide spectrum of familiar physiological conditions, from pathology and general health, to sport and physical exercise. Strenuous, prolonged exercise training causes fatigue. Although several studies have investigated the effects of electrical stimulation frequency on muscle fatigue, the effects of percutaneous pulse current stimulation on fatigue in the hepatic tissue of trained rats is still unclear. In order to find an effective strategy to prevent fatigue or enhance recovery, the effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in exercised rats were studied. Rats were subjected to one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise training. After exercise training, rats in the treated group received daily applications of pulse current. All rats were sacrificed after one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise, and the major biochemical indexes were measured in serum and liver. The results demonstrate that pulse current could prolong the exhaustion swimming time, as well as decrease serum ALT, AST and LD levels and liver MDA content. It also elevated serum LDH activity, liver SOD activity and glycogen content. Furthermore, pulse current increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. Taken together, these results show that pulse current can elevate endurance capacity and facilitate recovery from fatigue.

  15. Effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in the hepatic tissue of trained rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Qi; Miao, Xinfang; Ju, Xiaowei; Zhu, Lvgang; Huang, Changlin; Huang, Tao; Zuo, Xincheng; Gao, Chunfang

    2013-01-01

    Fatigue is synonymous with a wide spectrum of familiar physiological conditions, from pathology and general health, to sport and physical exercise. Strenuous, prolonged exercise training causes fatigue. Although several studies have investigated the effects of electrical stimulation frequency on muscle fatigue, the effects of percutaneous pulse current stimulation on fatigue in the hepatic tissue of trained rats is still unclear. In order to find an effective strategy to prevent fatigue or enhance recovery, the effects of pulse current on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in exercised rats were studied. Rats were subjected to one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise training. After exercise training, rats in the treated group received daily applications of pulse current. All rats were sacrificed after one, three or five weeks of swimming exercise, and the major biochemical indexes were measured in serum and liver. The results demonstrate that pulse current could prolong the exhaustion swimming time, as well as decrease serum ALT, AST and LD levels and liver MDA content. It also elevated serum LDH activity, liver SOD activity and glycogen content. Furthermore, pulse current increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased the expression of Bax. Taken together, these results show that pulse current can elevate endurance capacity and facilitate recovery from fatigue.

  16. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  17. Exercise training in intermittent claudication: effects on antioxidant genes, inflammatory mediators and proangiogenic progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowak, Witold N; Mika, Piotr; Nowobilski, Roman; Kusinska, Katarzyna; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Nizankowski, Rafal; Józkowicz, Alicja; Szczeklik, Andrzej; Dulak, Jozef

    2012-11-01

    Exercise training remains a therapy of choice in intermittent claudication (IC). However, too exhaustive exercise may cause ischaemic injury and inflammatory response. We tested the impact of three-month treadmill training and single treadmill exercise on antioxidant gene expressions, cytokine concentrations and number of marrow-derived proangiogenic progenitor cells (PPC) in the blood of IC patients. Blood samples of 12 patients were collected before and after training, before and 1, 3 and 6 hours after the single exercise. PPCs were analysed with flow cytometry, cytokine concentrations were checked with Milliplex MAP, while expression of mRNAs and miRNAs was evaluated with qRT-PCR. Treadmill training improved pain-free walking time (from 144 ± 44 seconds [s] to 311 ± 134 s, p=0.02) and maximum walking time (from 578 ± 293 s to 859 ± 423 s, p=0.01) in IC patients. Before, but not after training, the single treadmill exercise increased the number of circulating CD45dimCD34+CD133-KDR+ PPCs (p=0.048), decreased expression of HMOX1 (p=0.04) in circulating leukocytes, reduced tumour necrosis factor-α (p=0.03) and tended to elevate myeloperoxidase (p=0.06) concentrations in plasma. In contrast, total plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 was decreased by single exercise only after, but not before training (p=0.02). Both before and after training the single exercise decreased monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 (p=0.006 and p=0.03) concentration and increased SOD1 (p=0.001 and p=0.01) expression. Patients after training had also less interleukin-6 (p=0.03), but more MCP-1 (p=0.04) in the blood. In conclusion, treadmill training improves walking performance of IC patients, attenuates the single exercise-induced changes in gene expressions or PPC mobilisation, but may also lead to higher production of some proinflammatory cytokines.

  18. The Effects of Hyperoxia on Sea-Level Exercise Performance, Training, and Recovery: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallette, Matthew M; Stewart, Desmond G; Cheung, Stephen S

    2017-10-03

    Acute exercise performance can be limited by arterial hypoxemia, such that hyperoxia may be an ergogenic aid by increasing tissue oxygen availability. Hyperoxia during a single bout of exercise performance has been examined using many test modalities, including time trials (TTs), time to exhaustion (TTE), graded exercise tests (GXTs), and dynamic muscle function tests. Hyperoxia has also been used as a long-term training stimulus or a recovery intervention between bouts of exercise. However, due to the methodological differences in fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2), exercise type, training regime, or recovery protocols, a firm consensus on the effectiveness of hyperoxia as an ergogenic aid for exercise training or recovery remains unclear. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the efficacy of hyperoxia as an ergogenic aid for exercise performance, training stimulus, and recovery before subsequent exercise; and (2) determine if a dose-response exists between FiO2 and exercise performance improvements. The PubMed, Web of Science, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for original published articles up to and including 8 September 2017, using appropriate first- and second-order search terms. English-language, peer-reviewed, full-text manuscripts using human participants were reviewed using the process identified in the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement. Data for the following variables were obtained by at least two of the authors: FiO2, wash-in time for gas, exercise performance modality, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, oxygen saturation, arterial and/or capillary lactate, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, arterial pH, arterial oxygen content, arterial partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, consumption of oxygen and carbon dioxide, minute ventilation, tidal volume, respiratory frequency, ratings of perceived exertion of breathing and exercise, and end-tidal oxygen and carbon dioxide

  19. Effects of High-Intensity Intermittent Exercise Training on Appetite Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Aaron Y; Wallman, Karen E; Fairchild, Timothy J; Guelfi, Kym J

    2015-11-01

    An acute bout of high-intensity intermittent exercise suppresses ad libitum energy intake at the postexercise meal. The present study examined the effects of 12 wk of high-intensity intermittent exercise training (HIIT) compared with moderate-intensity continuous exercise training (MICT) on appetite regulation. Thirty overweight inactive men (body mass index, 27.2 ± 1.3 kg·m(-2); V˙O2peak, 35.3 ± 5.3 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomized to either HIIT or MICT (involving 12 wk of training, three sessions per week) or a control group (CON) (n = 10 per group). Ad libitum energy intake from a laboratory test meal was assessed after both a low-energy (847 kJ) and a high-energy preload (2438 kJ) before and after the intervention. Perceived appetite and appetite-related blood variables were also measured. There was no significant effect of the intervention period on energy intake at the test meal after the two different preloads (P ≥ 0.05). However, the 95% confidence interval indicated a clinically meaningful decrease in energy intake after the high-energy preload compared with the low-energy preload in response to HIIT (516 ± 395 kJ decrease), but not for MICT or CON, suggesting improved appetite regulation. This was not associated with alterations in the perception of appetite or the circulating concentration of a number of appetite-related peptides or metabolites, although insulin sensitivity was enhanced with HIIT only (P = 0.003). HIIT seems to benefit appetite regulation in overweight men. The mechanisms for this remain to be elucidated.

  20. High-fat diet overrules the effects of training on fiber-specific intramyocellular lipid utilization during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Deldicque, Louise; Van Dyck, Raf; Ramaekers, Monique; Hespel, Peter

    2011-07-01

    In this study, we compared the effects of endurance training in the fasted state (F) vs. the fed state [ample carbohydrate intake (CHO)] on exercise-induced intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) and glycogen utilization during a 6-wk period of a hypercaloric (∼+30% kcal/day) fat-rich diet (HFD; 50% of kcal). Healthy male volunteers (18-25 yrs) received a HFD in conjunction with endurance training (four times, 60-90 min/wk) either in F (n = 10) or with CHO before and during exercise sessions (n = 10). The control group (n = 7) received a HFD without training and increased body weight by ∼3 kg (P exercise test in F at ∼70% maximal oxygen uptake rate. A HFD, both in the absence (F) or presence (CHO) of training, elevated basal IMCL content by ∼50% in type I and by ∼75% in type IIa fibers (P exercise-induced net IMCL breakdown by approximately twofold in type I and by approximately fourfold in type IIa fibers. Furthermore, exercise-induced net muscle glycogen breakdown was not significantly affected by a HFD. It is concluded that a HFD stimulates net IMCL degradation by increasing basal IMCL content during exercise in type I and especially IIa fibers. Furthermore, a hypercaloric HFD provides adequate amounts of carbohydrates to maintain high muscle glycogen content during training and does not impair exercise-induced muscle glycogen breakdown.

  1. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  2. The effects of exercise training programs on plasma concentrations of proenkephalin Peptide F and catecholamines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Gordon, Scott E; Fragala, Maren S; Bush, Jill A; Szivak, Tunde K; Flanagan, Shawn D; Hooper, David R; Looney, David P; Triplett, N Travis; DuPont, William H; Dziados, Joseph E; Marchitelli, Louis J; Patton, John F

    2015-02-01

    To determine if exercise training alters the pattern and magnitude of plasma concentrations of proenkephalin Peptide F and epinephrine, plasma proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F(ir) and catecholamines were examined pre-training (T-1), and after 4- (T-2), 8- (T-3), and 12-weeks (T-4) of training. 26 healthy men were matched and randomly assigned to one of three groups: heavy resistance strength training (Strength, n=9), high intensity endurance training (Endurance, n=8), or both training modalities combined (Combined, n=9). Blood was collected using a syringe with a cannula inserted into a superficial arm vein with samples collected at rest, after each 7 min stage and 5 and 15 min into recovery. With training, all groups observed shifted plasma Peptide F responses to graded exercise, where significant increases were observed at lower exercise intensities. Increases in plasma epinephrine with exercise were observed in all groups. The Combined group saw increases at 25% at T-3 and for 50% at T-2, T-3, and T-4 which was higher than T-1. The Endurance group demonstrated increases for 50% at T-1, T-2, T-3 but not at T-4. The plasma epinephrine response to graded exercise was reduced in the Strength group. Increases in plasma norepinephrine above rest were observed starting at 50% . The Strength group demonstrated a significant reduction in norepinephrine observed at 100% at T-3 and T-4. Peptide F and catecholamines responses to graded exercise can be altered by different types of physical exercise training. Simultaneous high intensity training may produce adrenal medulla exhaustion when compared to single mode training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of exercise training and detraining in autonomic modulation and cardiorespiratory fitness in breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Reis, Andréa; Silva Garcia, João B; Rodrigues Diniz, Renata; Silva-Filho, Antonio C; Dias, Carlos J; Leite, Richard D; Mostarda, Cristiano

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Heart rate variability (HRV) has attracted scientific community attention in different pathologies, becoming thus an ultimate importance tool in both clinical and research setting, being a good predictor of cardiac events and mortality risk and also used in physical exercise and sports in general. The aim of the present study was to evaluate 12 weeks of exercise training and six weeks of detraining in cardiorespiratory capacity, and autonomic modulation in breast cancer patients. The sample was composed of 18 females (9 controls and 9 exercised), (aged 30-60 years). The HRV in the time and frequency domain was performed using an electrocardiogram before, after 12 weeks of the session of exercise training and after six weeks of detraining. Shapiro-Wilk and Mann-Whitney tests were made. No significant changes in time domain were found. In the frequency domain, 12 weeks of exercise training promote a decrease in LF (nu) and decrease in HF (nu) Index. The exercise training period promoted a decrease in LF/HF. The autonomic data returned to baseline levels after the detraining period. However, cardiorespiratory capacity remained increased after the detraining period. These data demonstrated that exercise training can be used to prevent autonomic dysfunction in breast cancer patients, but detraining promotes loss of all autonomic benefits.

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF ECCENTRIC TRAINING, DYNAMIC RANGE OF MOTION EXERCISES AND STATIC STRETCHING ON FLEXIBILITY OF HAMSTRING MUSCLE AMONG FOOTBALL PLAYERS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Askar P.V

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hamstring stretch is an important part of treatment programs aimed at decreasing the likelihood of hamstring injury. Few studies have examine the effect of eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion(DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility this study compares the effect of eccentric training and static stretching in improving hamstring flexibility. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Eccentric training, Static stretching and Dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise in improving hamstring flexibility and the second objective is find which technique is more effective in improving hamstring flexibility when compared with a control group. Study design is Experimental pre-test post-test design. Methods: 88 male subjects with limited hamstring flexibility were recruited for this study were assigned to four group. Group1 received eccentric training, group2 received dynamic range of motion exercise, group3 received static stretching and group4 was served as control group. Hamstring length was measured pre intervention and post intervention using a self-monitored active knee extension test. Results: Eccentric training, static stretching and dynamic range of motion exercise showed a significant increase in hamstring length between pre and post intervention. Following a between group analysis done by independent t test revealed a significant difference between group1 group2 and group3 Conclusion: It is concluded that eccentric training, dynamic range of motion (DROM exercise and static stretching groups improved hamstring flexibility.

  5. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  6. Effects of repeated yearly exposure to exercise-training on blood pressure and metabolic syndrome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Palomo, Felix; Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Ortega, Juan F; Lopez-Galindo, Pedro L; Fernandez-Martin, Juan; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-10-01

    To study if repeated yearly training programs consolidate the transient blood pressure (BP) improvements of one exercise program into durable adaptations. Obese middle-age individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS) underwent high-intensity aerobic interval training during 16 weeks (November to mid-March) in 3 consecutive years [training group (TRAIN); N = 23]. Evolution of MetS components was compared with a matched-group that remained sedentary [control group (CONT); N = 26]. At the end of the first training program (0-4 months), TRAIN lowered systolic arterial pressure, blood glucose, waist circumference and MetS Z-score below CONT (-8.5 ± 2.5 mmHg; -19.9 ± 2.6 mg/dl; -3.8 ± 0.1 cm and -0.3 ± 0.1, respectively, all P TRAIN adaptations relapsed to the levels of baseline (month 0) except for BP. A second exercise program (month 12-16) lowered blood glucose and waist circumference below CONT (-19.0 ± 2.0 mg/dl; -4.1 ± 0.1 cm). After detraining (month 16-24) BP, blood glucose and Z-score started below CONT values (-6.8 ± 0.9 mmHg; -24.6 ± 2.5 mg/dl and -0.4 ± 0.05, respectively, all P training program (month 24-28). Ten-year atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk estimation increased only in CONT (8.6 ± 1.1-10.1 ± 1.3%; year 2-3; P training are required to chronically improve MetS (Z-score). The chronic effect is mediated by BP that does not fully return to pretraining values allowing a cumulative improvement. On the other hand, sedentarism in MetS patients during 3 years increases their predicted atherosclerotic diseases risk. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  7. Effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate/nitrite in exercise-trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCarthy Cameron G

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betaine, beetroot juice, and supplemental nitrate have recently been reported to improve certain aspects of exercise performance, which may be mechanistically linked to increased nitric oxide. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of betaine supplementation on plasma nitrate/nitrite, a surrogate marker or nitric oxide, in exercise-trained men. Methods We used three different study designs (acute intake of betaine at 1.25 and 5.00 grams, chronic intake of betaine at 2.5 grams per day for 14 days, and chronic [6 grams of betaine per day for 7 days] followed by acute intake [6 grams], all involving exercise-trained men, to investigate the effects of orally ingested betaine on plasma nitrate/nitrite. Blood samples were collected before and at 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after ingestion of 1.25 and 5.00 grams of betaine (Study 1; before and after 14 days of betaine supplementation at a dosage of 2.5 grams (Study 2; and before and after 7 days of betaine supplementation at a dosage of 6 grams, followed by acute ingestion of 6 grams and blood measures at 30 and 60 min post ingestion (Study 3. Results In Study 1, nitrate/nitrite was relatively unaffected and no statistically significant interaction (p = 0.99, dosage (p = 0.69, or time (p = 0.91 effects were noted. Similar findings were noted in Study 2, with no statistically significant interaction (p = 0.57, condition (p = 0.98, or pre/post intervention (p = 0.17 effects noted for nitrate/nitrite. In Study 3, no statistically significant changes were noted in nitrate/nitrite between collection times (p = 0.97. Conclusion Our data indicate that acute or chronic ingestion of betaine by healthy, exercise-trained men does not impact plasma nitrate/nitrite. These findings suggest that other mechanisms aside from increasing circulating nitric oxide are likely responsible for any performance enhancing effect of betaine supplementation.

  8. Concurrent Training Decreases Cortisol but Not Zinc Concentrations: Effects of Distinct Exercise Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Guilherme; Fortes, Marcos de Sá Rego; de Mello, Danielli B

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training (CT) protocols on zinc and cortisol concentrations and test the correlation between these blood variables. Methods. Samples of serum zinc and cortisol were assessed from 10 male subjects (27.1 ± 4.8 years old; BMI 25.38 ± 0.09) before and immediately after each study session: control (CS = no exercises), concurrent training 1 (CT1 = indoor cycling + strength training), and concurrent training 2 (CT2 = strength training + indoor cycle) with five days of interval between each. Results. There were no significant changes in zinc concentrations after the CS (Δ% = 8.45; p = 0.07), CT1 (Δ% = 4.77; p = 0.49), and CT2 (Δ% = -2.90; p = 0.12) sessions. Cortisol levels showed significant decrease after CS (Δ% = -6.02; p = 0.00), CT1 (Δ% = -26.32; p = 0.02), and CT2 (Δ% = -33.57; p = 0.05) sessions. There was a significant correlation between the variables only at CS (zinc post versus cortisol pre: r = 0.82 and cortisol post: r = 0.82). Conclusions. CT decreases cortisol concentrations regardless of the sequence performed. No changes were found in zinc concentrations after the study sessions. The reduction in serum cortisol concentrations appear to occur by a mechanism independent of the zinc status.

  9. Concurrent Training Decreases Cortisol but Not Zinc Concentrations: Effects of Distinct Exercise Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To investigate the effects of distinct concurrent training (CT protocols on zinc and cortisol concentrations and test the correlation between these blood variables. Methods. Samples of serum zinc and cortisol were assessed from 10 male subjects (27.1±4.8 years old; BMI 25.38±0.09 before and immediately after each study session: control (CS = no exercises, concurrent training 1 (CT1 = indoor cycling + strength training, and concurrent training 2 (CT2 = strength training + indoor cycle with five days of interval between each. Results. There were no significant changes in zinc concentrations after the CS (Δ% = 8.45; p=0.07, CT1 (Δ% = 4.77; p=0.49, and CT2 (Δ% = −2.90; p=0.12 sessions. Cortisol levels showed significant decrease after CS (Δ% = −6.02; p=0.00, CT1 (Δ% = −26.32; p=0.02, and CT2 (Δ% = −33.57; p=0.05 sessions. There was a significant correlation between the variables only at CS (zinc post versus cortisol pre: r=0.82 and cortisol post: r=0.82. Conclusions. CT decreases cortisol concentrations regardless of the sequence performed. No changes were found in zinc concentrations after the study sessions. The reduction in serum cortisol concentrations appear to occur by a mechanism independent of the zinc status.

  10. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shames, Lisa

    1998-01-01

    .... Little is known about the effects of moderate intensity exercise on ovarian function. We hypothesize that the observed reduction in breast cancer risk with exercise is due to altered ovarian function...

  11. Cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise training in formerly preeclamptic women and healthy parous control subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholten, Ralph R; Thijssen, Dick J H; Lotgering, Fred K; Hopman, Maria T E; Spaanderman, Marc E A

    2014-11-01

    Women who have had preeclampsia demonstrate higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS), impaired vascular function, and increased sympathetic activity and are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of 12 weeks of exercise training (70-80% maximum volume of oxygen utilization) in women who had had preeclampsia on physical fitness, components of MetS, vasculature, and autonomic functions compared with healthy control subjects. Our prospective case-control study included 24 normotensive women who had had preeclampsia and 20 control subjects who were matched for age and postpartum interval (all 6-12 months after delivery). Before and after training, we measured all components of MetS (ie, BP, lipids, glucose/insulin, and albuminuria), carotid intima media thickness (IMT) and brachial and superficial femoral artery endothelial function that used flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Autonomic activity was quantified with power spectral analysis (low-frequency/high-frequency power [LF/HF] ratio). At baseline, women who had had preeclampsia demonstrated higher values of most components of MetS. Compared with the control subjects, women who had had preeclampsia had increased IMT (580 ± 92 μm vs 477 ± 65 μm, respectively), impaired endothelial function (FMD brachial artery, 5.3% ± 2.2% vs 10.8% ± 3.5%, respectively; FMD superficial femoral artery, 4.9% ± 2.1% vs 8.7% ± 3.2%, respectively) and increased LF/HF power ratio (2.2 ± 1.0 vs 1.3 ± 0.4, respectively; all P exercise training decreased values of most components of MetS and IMT, improved FMD, and concurrently reduced LF/HF. Despite these improvements, vascular and autonomic variables did not normalize by 12 weeks of training in women who had had preeclampsia. This study demonstrates that exercise training in women who had had preeclampsia and control subjects improves components of MetS, endothelial function, vascular wall thickness, and autonomic control

  12. The effect of dynamic breathing exercises on physical training of students with hearing impairments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Кudelko V.Е.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The program of dynamic breathing exercises that affect the development of physical qualities was developed for the hearing-impaired students. The study involved a group of students with hearing impairments that included 12 people, aged from18 to 19 years with the same diagnosis and level of physical training. The program of dynamic breathing exercises and test data results of students' physical training before and after the teaching experiment were presented. A positive increase in test results after the application of complex dynamic breathing exercises was identified.

  13. EFFECT OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON DIFFERENTIATED AND UNDIFFERENTIATED RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING CYCLE AND TREADMILL EXERCISE IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND TRAINED WOMEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda R. Bolgar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1 and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1. Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest, as well as oxygen uptake (VO2 and heart rate were recorded each minute. Individual regression analyses were used to identify RPE-Overall,-Legs, and -Chest at 40, 60, 80% VO2max/peak. Separate two factor (site (3 x intensity (3 ANOVAs with repeated measures on site and intensity were computed for each training status. Furthermore, RPE responses were also examined with a one factor (site (3 within subject ANOVA with repeated measure on site at the ventilatory breakpoint. For both the recreationally active and trained groups no significant differences were observed for RPE-Overall, -Legs, and -Chest during treadmill exercise. However, for cycling exercise results indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater at all exercise intensities than RPE-Overall and RPE-Chest for trained subjects while for recreationally active subjects RPE-Legs was only significantly higher at the highest exercise intensity. Responses at the ventilatory breakpoint during cycle exercise indicated that RPE-Legs was significantly greater than RPE-Chest and RPE-Overall for trained subjects but not for recreationally active subjects. Signal dominance was not observed at an intensity equivalent to the ventilatory breakpoint during treadmill exercise in either of the groups. In recreationally active and trained females signal dominance was demonstrated only during cycling exercise, but not during treadmill exercise. Signal integration could not be demonstrated during

  14. Effects of exercise training on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in skeletal muscle and heart of rats post myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heow Won; Ahmad, Monir; Wang, Hong-Wei; Leenen, Frans H H

    2017-03-01

    What is the central question of this study? Exercise training increases brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus, which depends on a myokine, fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5). Whether exercise training after myocardial infarction induces parallel increases in FNDC5 and BDNF expression in skeletal muscle and the heart has not yet been studied. What is the main finding and its importance? Exercise training after myocardial infarction increases BDNF protein in skeletal muscle and the non-infarct area of the LV without changes in FNDC5 protein, suggesting that BDNF is not regulated by FNDC5 in skeletal muscle and heart. An increase in cardiac BDNF may contribute to the improvement of cardiac function by exercise training. Exercise training after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates progressive left ventricular (LV) remodelling and dysfunction, but the peripheral stimuli induced by exercise that trigger these beneficial effects are still unclear. We investigated as possible mediators fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 (FNDC5) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the skeletal muscle and heart. Male Wistar rats underwent either sham surgery or ligation of the left descending coronary artery, and surviving MI rats were allocated to either a sedentary (Sed-MI) or an exercise group (ExT-MI). Exercise training was done for 4 weeks on a motor-driven treadmill. At the end, LV function was evaluated, and FNDC5 and BDNF mRNA and protein were assessed in soleus muscle, quadriceps and non-, peri- and infarct areas of the LV. At 5 weeks post MI, FNDC5 mRNA was decreased in soleus muscle and all areas of the LV, but FNDC5 protein was increased in the soleus muscle and the infarct area. Mature BDNF (mBDNF) protein was decreased in the infarct area without a change in mRNA. Exercise training attenuated the decrease in ejection fraction and the increase in LV end-diastolic pressure post MI. Exercise training had no

  15. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  16. Molecular effects of exercise training in patients with cardiovascular disease: focus on skeletal muscle, endothelium, and myocardium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Volker; Reich, Bernhard; Uhlemann, Madlen; Niebauer, Josef

    2017-07-01

    For decades, we have known that exercise training exerts beneficial effects on the human body, and clear evidence is available that a higher fitness level is associated with a lower incidence of suffering premature cardiovascular death. Despite this knowledge, it took some time to also incorporate physical exercise training into the treatment plan for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD). In recent years, in addition to continuous exercise training, further training modalities such as high-intensity interval training and pyramid training have been introduced for coronary artery disease patients. The beneficial effect for patients with CVD is clearly documented, and during the last years, we have also started to understand the molecular mechanisms occurring in the skeletal muscle (limb muscle and diaphragm) and endothelium, two systems contributing to exercise intolerance in these patients. In the present review, we describe the effects of the different training modalities in CVD and summarize the molecular effects mainly in the skeletal muscle and cardiovascular system. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Effects of exercise training on tumor hypoxia and vascular function in the rodent preclinical orthotopic prostate cancer model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCullough, Danielle J.; Nguyen, Linda M.-D.; Siemann, Dietmar W.

    2013-01-01

    Regular physical exercise is considered to be an integral component of cancer care strategies. However, the effect of exercise training on tumor microvascular oxygenation, hypoxia, and vascular function, all of which can affect the tumor microenvironment, remains unknown. Using an orthotopic preclinical model of prostate cancer, we tested the hypotheses that, after exercise training, in the tumor, there would be an enhanced microvascular Po2, increased number of patent vessels, and reduced hypoxia. We also investigated tumor resistance artery contractile properties. Dunning R-3327 AT-1 tumor cells (104) were injected into the ventral prostate of 4–5-mo-old male Copenhagen or Nude rats, which were randomly assigned to tumor-bearing exercise trained (TB-Ex trained; n = 15; treadmill exercise for 5–7 wk) or sedentary groups (TB-Sedentary; n = 12). Phosphorescence quenching was used to measure tumor microvascular Po2, and Hoechst-33342 and EF-5 were used to measure patent vessels and tumor hypoxia, respectively. Tumor resistance artery function was assessed in vitro using the isolated microvessel technique. Compared with sedentary counterparts, tumor microvascular Po2 increased ∼100% after exercise training (TB-Sedentary, 6.0 ± 0.3 vs. TB-Ex Trained, 12.2 ± 1.0 mmHg, P Exercise training did not affect the number of patent vessels but did significantly reduce tumor hypoxia in the conscious, resting condition from 39 ± 12% of the tumor area in TB-Sedentary to 4 ± 1% in TB-Ex Trained. Exercise training did not affect vessel contractile function. These results demonstrate that after exercise training, there is a large increase in the driving force of O2 from the tumor microcirculation, which likely contributes to the considerable reduction in tumor hypoxia. These results suggest that exercise training can modulate the microenvironment of the tumor, such that a sustained reduction in tumor hypoxia occurs, which may lead to a less aggressive phenotype and improve

  18. The effect of exercise training on obstructive sleep apnea and sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Christopher E; Crowley, E Patrick; Ewing, Gary B; Burch, James B; Blair, Steven N; Durstine, J Larry; Davis, J Mark; Youngstedt, Shawn D

    2011-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a 12-week exercise training program for reducing obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and improving sleep quality, and to explore possible mechanisms by which exercise may reduce OSA severity. Randomized controlled trial. Clinical exercise physiology center, sleep laboratory. Forty-three sedentary and overweight/obese adults aged 18-55 years with at least moderate-severity untreated OSA (screening apnea-hypopnea index [AHI] ≥ 15). Participants randomized to exercise training (n = 27) met 4 times/week for 12 weeks and performed 150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic activity, followed by resistance training twice/week. Participants randomized to a stretching control (n = 16) met twice weekly for 12 weeks to perform low-intensity exercises designed to increase whole-body flexibility. OSA severity was assessed with one night of laboratory polysomnography (PSG) before and following the 12-week intervention. Measures of sleep quality included PSG, actigraphy (7-10 days), and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Compared with stretching, exercise resulted in a significant AHI reduction (exercise: 32.2 ± 5.6 to 24.6 ± 4.4, stretching: 24.4 ± 5.6 to 28.9 ± 6.4; P sleep (P = 0.03). Reductions in AHI and ODI were achieved without a significant decrease in body weight. Improvements in actigraphic sleep and subjective sleep quality were also noted following exercise compared with stretching. Exercise training had moderate treatment efficacy for the reduction of AHI in sedentary overweight/obese adults, which suggests that exercise may be beneficial for the management of OSA beyond simply facilitating weight loss. Clinicaltrials.gov identification number NCT00956423.

  19. Calf muscle oxygen saturation and the effects of supervised exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckitt, Tim A; Day, Jude; Morgan, Maria; Lamont, Peter M

    2012-08-01

    The mechanisms underlying the symptomatic improvement witnessed as a result of exercise training in intermittent claudication remain unclear. There is no reproducible evidence to support increased limb blood flow resulting from neovascularization. Changes in oxygenation of active muscles as a result of blood redistribution are hypothesized but unproven. This study sought evidence of improved gastrocnemius oxygenation resulting from exercise training. The study recruited 42 individuals with claudication. After an initial control period of exercise advice, participants undertook a 3-month supervised exercise program. Spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy monitored calf muscle oxygen saturation (Sto(2)) during exercise and after a period of cuff-induced ischemia. Comparison was made with 14 individuals undergoing angioplasty for calf claudication. Clinical outcomes of claudication distance and maximum walking distance were measured by treadmill assessment. Significant increases occurred in mean [interquartile range] claudication disease (57 [38-78] to 119 [97-142] meters; P = .01) and maximum walking distance (124 [102-147] to 241 [193-265] meters; P = .02) after supervised exercise but not after the control period. No change occurred in resting Sto(2) at any interval. Angioplasty (27% [21-34] to 19% [13-29]; P = .02) but not exercise training (26% [21-32] vs 23% [20-31]; P > .20) resulted in a reduced Sto(2) desaturation in response to submaximal exercise and an increased hyperemic hemoglobin oxygen recovery rate after ischemia (0.48 [0.39-0.55] to 0.63 [0.52-0.69] s(-1); P = .01). However supervised exercise reduced the Sto(2) recovery half-time by 17% (82 [64-101] to 68 [55-89] seconds; P = .02). Supervised exercise training is not associated with increased gastrocnemius muscle oxygenation during exercise or increased hyperemic hemoglobin flow after a model of ischemia. This suggests that the symptomatic improvement witnessed is not the result of increased

  20. Effect of physical exercise training in patients with Chagas heart disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PEACH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre; Souza, Fernando Cesar de Castro Cesar; Pinto, Vivian Liane Mattos; Silva, Paula Simplicio; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Veloso, Henrique Horta; Holanda, Marcelo Teixeira; Costa, Andréa Rodrigues; Carneiro, Fernanda Martins; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio; Borges, Juliana Pereira; Tibirica, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Lara, Flávio Alves; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix

    2016-09-02

    The effects of exercise training on Chagas heart disease are still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise training over functional capacity, cardiac function, quality of life, and biomarkers in Chagas heart disease. The PEACH study is a superiority randomized clinical trial which will include subjects who meet the following criteria: Chagas heart disease with a left ventricular ejection fraction below 45 % with or without heart failure symptoms; clinical stability in the last 3 months; adherence to clinical treatment; and age above 18 years. The exclusion criteria are: pregnancy; neuromuscular limitations; smoking; evidence of non-chagasic heart disease; systemic conditions that limit exercise practice or cardiopulmonary exercise test; unavailability to attend the center three times a week during the intervention period; and practitioners of regular exercise. The intervention group will perform an exercise training intervention three times per week during 6 months and will be compared to the control group without exercise. Both groups will undergo the same monthly pharmaceutical and nutritional counseling as well as standard medical treatment according to the Brazilian consensus on Chagas disease. The primary outcome is functional capacity based on peak exercise oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary outcomes are: cardiac function; body composition; muscle respiratory strength; microvascular reactivity; cardiac rhythm abnormalities; autonomic function; biochemical; oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers; and quality of life. Subjects will be evaluated at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. Thirty patients will be randomly assigned into exercise or control groups at a ratio of 1:1. Findings of the present study will be useful to determine if physical exercise programs should be included as an important additional therapy in the treatment of patients with Chagas heart disease. Clinical

  1. Effects of Inspiratory Muscle Training and Calisthenics-and-Breathing Exercises in COPD With and Without Respiratory Muscle Weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basso-Vanelli, Renata P; Di Lorenzo, Valéria A Pires; Labadessa, Ivana G; Regueiro, Eloisa M G; Jamami, Mauricio; Gomes, Evelim L F D; Costa, Dirceu

    2016-01-01

    Patients with COPD may experience respiratory muscle weakness. Two therapeutic approaches to the respiratory muscles are inspiratory muscle training and calisthenics-and-breathing exercises. The aims of the study are to compare the effects of inspiratory muscle training and calisthenics-and-breathing exercises associated with physical training in subjects with COPD as an additional benefit of strength and endurance of the inspiratory muscles, thoracoabdominal mobility, physical exercise capacity, and reduction in dyspnea on exertion. In addition, these gains were compared between subjects with and without respiratory muscle weakness. 25 subjects completed the study: 13 composed the inspiratory muscle training group, and 12 composed the calisthenics-and-breathing exercises group. Subjects were assessed before and after training by spirometry, measurements of respiratory muscle strength and test of inspiratory muscle endurance, thoracoabdominal excursion measurements, and the 6-min walk test. Moreover, scores for the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale were reported. After intervention, there was a significant improvement in both groups of respiratory muscle strength and endurance, thoracoabdominal mobility, and walking distance in the 6-min walk test. Additionally, there was a decrease of dyspnea in the 6-min walk test peak. A difference was found between groups, with higher values of respiratory muscle strength and thoracoabdominal mobility and lower values of dyspnea in the 6-min walk test peak and the Modified Medical Research Council dyspnea scale in the inspiratory muscle training group. In the inspiratory muscle training group, subjects with respiratory muscle weakness had greater gains in inspiratory muscle strength and endurance. Both interventions increased exercise capacity and decreased dyspnea during physical effort. However, inspiratory muscle training was more effective in increasing inspiratory muscle strength and endurance, which could

  2. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics and functional status in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Chou, Lan-Ti; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2012-05-01

    The functional status and outcomes in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are often limited by poor endurance and pulmonary mechanics, which result from the primary diseases or prolonged time bedridden. We evaluate the impact of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics, physical functional status, and hospitalization outcomes in PMV patients. Twenty-seven subjects with PMV in our respiratory care center (RCC) were divided randomly into an exercise training group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 15). The exercise program comprised 10 sessions of exercise training. The measurement of pulmonary mechanics and physical functional status (Functional Independence Measurement and Barthel index) were performed pre-study and post-study. The hospitalization outcomes included: days of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization days, and weaning and mortality rates during RCC stay. The training group had significant improvement in tidal volume (143.6 mL vs 192.5 mL, P = .02) and rapid shallow breathing index after training (162.2 vs 110.6, P = .009). No significant change was found in the control group except respiratory rate. Both groups had significant improvement in functional status during the study. However, the training group had greater changes in FIM score than the control group (44.6 vs 34.2, P = .024). The training group also had shorter RCC stay and higher weaning and survival rates than the control group, although no statistical difference was found. Subjects with PMV in our RCC demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics and functional status after exercise training. The application of exercise training may be helpful for PMV patients to improve hospitalization outcomes.

  3. Effects of Two Modes of Exercise Training on Physical Fitness of 10 Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ligia G. dos Santos Chaves; Portal, Maria de Nazare Dias; da Silva, Joao Bittencourt; Saraiva, Alan; da Cruz Monte, Gerson, Jr.; Dantas, Estelio H. M.

    2010-01-01

    Study aim: To compare two exercise training modes on the physical fitness of 10 year-old children. Material and methods: A sample of 60 schoolboys aged 10 years were randomly divided into 3 groups: Traditional (TG), trained according to the Brazilian national curricular parameters, Maturational (MG), in which the degree of difficulty of the…

  4. EFFECT OF EXERCISE INTENSITY ON DIFFERENTIATED AND UNDIFFERENTIATED RATINGS OF PERCEIVED EXERTION DURING CYCLE AND TREADMILL EXERCISE IN RECREATIONALLY ACTIVE AND TRAINED WOMEN

    OpenAIRE

    Melinda R. Bolgar; Baker, Carol E.; GOSS, FREDRIC L.; Elizabeth Nagle; Robertson, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to examine the effect of aerobic exercise intensity on components of the differentiated perceived exertion model in young women performing weight bearing and non-weight bearing aerobic exercise. Subjects were 18-25 yr old women who were recreationally active (n = 19; VO2max = 33.40 ml·kg-1·min-1) and trained (N = 22; VO2max = 43.3 ml·kg-1·min-1). Subjects underwent two graded exercise tests (GXT) on a treadmill and bike which were separated by 48 hours. RPE-Overall...

  5. The Effects of the Preconception Endurance Exercise Training and Voluntary Exercise Activity during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice on Lipid Profile of the Adult Offsprings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbasali Gaeini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preconception endurance exercise training with voluntary exercise activity during pregnancy in mother mice on lipid profile in adult offsprings. Materials and Methods: Twenty four C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into four subgroups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE(20.3±1.02g; trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC(21.58±0.4g; untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE(21.02±0.23g; untrained and unexercised (CC(19.23±0.45g. Trained mice were subjected to a protocol of moderate endurance exercise training over a period of 4 weeks for 5 days before pregnancy. The fasting blood samples were collected from adult mice(8 weeks old and serum levels of glucose and lipid profile were measured. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The Glucose test results in offspring showed that there was a significant interaction between group and sex and group main effect (p<0.001 Glucose levels of male offspring were significantly lower in TC and TE groups. Results on LDL also showed that the sex main effect was significant (p<0.001, and LDL levels of male born to TE and TC dams lower than in female offspring. Conclusion: Improving the mother's physical fitness by providing regular endurance training in the preconception period and maintaining it by exercise activty throughout pregnancy may have potential for eliciting positive changes in lipid profile of offspring, specially males.

  6. Prevalence of low-back pain in Danish office workers and the effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    Background: Low back pain is common among office workers. Physical exercise training at the workplace may reduce the prevalence and result in additional health benefits. The present aim was to assess the effect of individually tailored Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET......) on musculoskeletal health. Methods: Office workers were randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high intensity IPET every week within working hours for one year and requested to exercise 30 minutes moderate intensity six days weekly during...... leisure time. The IPET training program was based on health check measures of muscle strength, musculoskeletal pain (self-reported on a 0-9 numeric box scale), cardiorespiratory fitness, health risk indicators, and functional capacity. Trial registration was in ClinicalTrials.gov, number: NCT01366950...

  7. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Camillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak, work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10. 74 studies (2506 subjects met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation. The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct

  8. Effects of aerobic exercise training on estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Kristin L; Westerlind, Kim C; Harber, Vicki J; Bell, Gordon J; Mackey, John R; Courneya, Kerry S

    2007-04-01

    Regular physical activity may alter estrogen metabolism, a proposed biomarker of breast cancer risk, by shifting metabolism to favor production of 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OHE1). Few studies, however, have examined this question using a randomized controlled trial. To examine the effects of 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training on 2-OHE1 and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OHE1) in premenopausal women. Participants were healthy, regularly menstruating, Caucasian women, 20 to 35 years, body mass index of 18 to 29.9, not using pharmacologic contraceptives, with average or below average fitness [maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), menstrual cycle, participants (N = 32) were randomly assigned to a 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention (n = 17) or usual lifestyle (n = 15). Height, body mass, body composition by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and VO(2max) were measured at baseline and following the intervention. Urine samples were collected in the luteal phase of four consecutive menstrual cycles. The exercise group increased VO(2max) by 14% and had significant, although modest, improvements in fat and lean body mass. No significant between-group differences were observed, however, for the changes in 2-OHE1 (P = 0.944), 16alpha-OHE1 (P = 0.411), or the ratio of 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 (P = 0.317). At baseline, there was an inverse association between body fat and 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 ratio (r = -0.40; P = 0.044); however, it was the change in lean body mass over the intervention that was positively associated with a change in 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 ratio (r = 0.43; P = 0.015). A 12-week aerobic exercise training intervention significantly improved aerobic fitness and body composition but did not alter estrogen metabolism in premenopausal women. Interestingly, an increase in lean body mass was associated with a favorable change in 2-OHE1 to 16alpha-OHE1 ratio.

  9. Effects of exercise intensity on postexercise hypotension after resistance training session in overweight hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcante, Paula Andréa M; Rica, Roberta L; Evangelista, Alexandre L; Serra, Andrey J; Figueira, Aylton; Pontes, Francisco Luciano; Kilgore, Lon; Baker, Julien S; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2015-01-01

    Among all nonpharmacological treatments, aerobic or resistance training (RT) has been indicated as a significantly important strategy to control hypertension. However, postexercise hypotension responses after intensity alterations in RT are not yet fully understood. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcomes of differing intensities of RT on hypertensive older women. Twenty hypertensive older women participated voluntarily in this study. After a maximum voluntary contraction test (one repetition maximum) and determination of 40% and 80% experimental loads, the protocol (3 sets/90″ interset rest) was performed in a single session with the following exercises: leg press, leg extension, leg curl, chest press, elbow flexion, elbow extension, upper back row, and abdominal flexion. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were evaluated at rest, during exercise peak, and after 5, 10, 15, 30, 45, and 60 minutes of exercise and compared to the control. Both experimental loads were effective (Pcontrols, after 30, 45, and 60 minutes, respectively, at 40% (113±2, 112±4, and 110±3 mmHg) and 80% (111±3, 111±4, and 110±4 mmHg). Both procedures promoted hypotension with similar systolic blood pressures (40%: -11%±1.0% and 80%: -13%±0.5%), mean arterial blood pressures (40%: -12%±5.5% and 80%: -12%±3.4%), and rate-pressure products (40%: -15%±2.1% and 80%: -17%±2.4%) compared to control measures (systolic blood pressure: 1%±1%, mean arterial blood pressure:\\ 0.6%±1.5%, rate-pressure product: 0.33%±1.1%). No differences were found in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate measures. In conclusion, hypertensive older women exhibit postexercise hypotension independently of exercise intensity without expressed cardiovascular overload during the session.

  10. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations.Subjects performed a ballistic trainin...

  11. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  12. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  13. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    In rat skeletal muscle prolonged exercise affects the content and composition of ceramides, but in human skeletal muscle no data are available on this compound. Our aim was to examine the content of ceramide- and sphingomyelin fatty acids and neutral, Mg(2+)-dependent sphingomyelinase activity...... in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained subjects before and after prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects were recruited into an untrained (n = 8, VO2,max 3.8 +/- 0.2 1 min1) and a trained (n = 8, Vo2,max 5.1 +/- 0.1 1 min2) group. Before and after a 3-h exercise bout (58 +/- 1% VO2,max) a muscle biopsy......). In conclusion, we have reported, for the first time, the values for ceramide fatty acid content and neutral, Mg2(+)-dependent sphingomyelinase activity in human skeletal muscle. The results indicate that acute prolonged exercise affects ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle both in untrained...

  14. Inflammatory markers as related to disease severity in patients with chronic heart failure: limited effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Nilsson, Birgitta B; Westheim, Arne S; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg

    2011-11-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with increased inflammation, and exercise training has in some studies been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect, although controversies exist. We investigated the effects of exercise training in CHF patients on markers of inflammation, and further explored any association between inflammation and the severity and etiology of the disease. Eighty patients in stable CHF were randomized to 4 months of group-based high intensity exercise training or to a control group. Physical capacity was measured by 6-minute walk test and cycle ergometer test. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, after 4 months and after 12 months follow-up for analyses of a range of biomarkers. Physical capacity was significantly inversely related to CRP, IL-6, VCAM-1 and TGF-β, and NT pro-BNP levels were significantly correlated to CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and TGF-β (p markers of inflammation. We could not demonstrate over-all anti-inflammatory effect of exercise in this population of CHF patients. However, the etiology of CHF affected the inflammatory profile and the effect of exercise training.

  15. Effects of Exercise Training With Proprioceptive Equipment on Proprioceptive and Functional Status of Children with Obstetrical Brachial Plexus Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deran Oskay

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Decreased proprioception in Obstetric Brachial Plexus Injury (OBPI reduces the quality of functional movement. Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training with additional proprioceptive equipments on the functional status and proprioceptive sense in children with OBPI. Methods: Forty children with OBPI were randomly divided into two groups. Passive, active and active-assisted range of motion and stretching exercises were included in home-based program (HP group while additional exercises with proprioceptive equipments were also added in the proprioceptive training (PT group. After 6 weeks, proprioceptive perception and functional level were compared to pre-treatment results. Results: Proprioceptive perception at the beginning and at the end of the movement increased in both groups (p<0,05. The Active Movement Scale (AMS scores increased significantly only in some movements in both groups (p<0,05. AMS scores of shoulder abduction and external rotation in PT group were better than HP group (p<0,05. Conclusion: Home exercise program and proprioceptive exercise training both improve proprioceptive sense and functional status in children with OBPI. The proprioceptive exercise training seems to be more beneficial in improving functional movements of shoulder.

  16. Effects of insulin and exercise training on FGF21, its receptors and target genes in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Kruse; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Vind, Birgitte F

    2017-01-01

    that insulin and exercise increase FGF21 in plasma. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are potentially FGF21-resistant states, but to what extent FGF21 responses to insulin and exercise training are preserved, and whether FGF21, its receptors and target genes are altered, remains to be established. METHODS...... was evaluated by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). RESULTS: Insulin increased serum and muscle FGF21 independent of overweight/obesity or type 2 diabetes, and there were no effects associated with exercise training. The insulin-induced increases in serum FGF21 and muscle FGF21 expression correlated tightly (p......: The effects of insulin during euglycaemic-hyperinsulinaemic clamps and 10 week endurance training on serum FGF21 were examined in individuals with type 2 diabetes and in glucose tolerant overweight/obese and lean individuals. Gene expression of FGF21, its receptors and target genes in muscle and WAT biopsies...

  17. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  18. Effect of the Canadian Air Force training programme on a submaximal exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kappagoda, C T; Linden, R J; Newell, J P

    1979-07-01

    Validation of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship as an index of 'cardiorespiratory fitness' requires the demonstration of systematic alterations in this relationship concomitant with interventions designed to alter physical fitness. To fulfil those criteria a longitudinal training/de-training study was undertaken. Previously sedentary adult subjects undertook the Canadian Airforce 5BX-XBX exercise programme. Submaximal exercise tests were performed before and after training, and following several weeks cessation of training. A regression line of submaximal heart rate on submaximal oxygen consumption was calculated from the data of each submaximal exercise test. Alterations in the regression lines were examined for each subject individually by testing statistically for difference in slope and elevation between any pair of lines. Subjects who undertook the training/de-training study demonstrated significant systematic alterations in the elevation of the regression lines concomitant with periods of training and de-training. The reproducibility of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship was examined in two additional groups of subjects. Group A repeated a submaximal test on 3 or 4 successive days; Group B were tested before and after 16 weeks of normal activity. Subjects in Group A demonstrated non significant, random alterations in the regression lines on repeated testing and subjects in Group B demonstrated random, though on occasion significant, alterations in the regression lines. The elevation of the submaximal heart rate/oxygen consumption relationship is therefore a valid index for detecting sequential changes in 'cardiorespiratory fitness' in individual subjects.

  19. Concurrent exercise training: do opposites distract?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffey, Vernon G; Hawley, John A

    2017-05-01

    Specificity is a core principle of exercise training to promote the desired adaptations for maximising athletic performance. The principle of specificity of adaptation is underpinned by the volume, intensity, frequency and mode of contractile activity and is most evident when contrasting the divergent phenotypes that result after undertaking either prolonged endurance or resistance training. The molecular profiles that generate the adaptive response to different exercise modes have undergone intense scientific scrutiny. Given divergent exercise induces similar signalling and gene expression profiles in skeletal muscle of untrained or recreationally active individuals, what is currently unclear is how the specificity of the molecular response is modified by prior training history. The time course of adaptation and when 'phenotype specificity' occurs has important implications for exercise prescription. This context is essential when attempting to concomitantly develop resistance to fatigue (through endurance-based exercise) and increased muscle mass (through resistance-based exercise), typically termed 'concurrent training'. Chronic training studies provide robust evidence that endurance exercise can attenuate muscle hypertrophy and strength but the mechanistic underpinning of this 'interference' effect with concurrent training is unknown. Moreover, despite the potential for several key regulators of muscle metabolism to explain an incompatibility in adaptation between endurance and resistance exercise, it now seems likely that multiple integrated, rather than isolated, effectors or processes generate the interference effect. Here we review studies of the molecular responses in skeletal muscle and evidence for the interference effect with concurrent training within the context of the specificity of training adaptation. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  20. [SIRT1 signaling pathway mediated the protective effects on myocardium of rats after endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X Y; Han, X; Zhang, H M; Tan, H; Han, S F

    2017-06-24

    Objective: To detect the expression of SIRT1 and Ac-FOXO1 in rats after endurance training and acute exhaustive exercise, and explicit the myocardial protective effect of SIRT1. Methods: Rats were randomly divided into four groups: control group(n=20), exhaustive exercise group (E group, n=20), exhaustive exercise group + endurance training (TE group, n=18), exhaustive exercise group + endurance training + selective SIRT1 inhibitor (TSE group, n=17). The Control and E groups were fed routinely for 5 weeks. The TE and TSE groups were subjected to swimming exercise for 5 weeks for endurance exercising. The TSE group was intraperitoneally injected with selective SIRT1 inhibitor Sirtinol(2 mg/kg) at 30 minutes before endurance exercising. The E, TE and TSE groups were subjected to exhaustive exercise. The myocardial tissues of rats were collected after exhaustive exercise. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis were performed to detect the myocardial mRNA and protein expressions of SIRT1 and Ac-FOXO1. The myocardial protein expression of Bax and Bcl-2 was also detected by Western blot. Terminal-deoxynucleoitidyl transferase mediated nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay was used to assess the apoptosis of myocardial cells. Results: Compared with Control group, the SIRT1 and Bcl-2 expression in the myocardial tissue was obviously decreased, while the Ac-FOXO1, Bax, and the myocardial cell apoptosis were significantly increased in E group (all PEndurance training could protect myocardium by reducing the myocardial oxidative stress injury and apoptosis via activating SIRT1 signaling pathway, up-regulating the myocardial expression of SIRT1 and regulating the deacetylation of FOXO1.

  1. Differential effects of exercise training on skeletal muscle SERCA gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Hajime; Libonati, Joseph R; Kendrick, Zebulon V; Paolone, Albert; Gaughan, Johm P; Houser, Steven R

    2003-01-01

    Exercise training induces significant changes in the performance of skeletal muscle. To determine whether changes in the gene expression of rat hind-limb muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ -ATPase isoforms (SERCA1a and SERCA2a) in response to either moderate- or high-intensity exercise training underlie the functional remodeling. SERCA1a and SERCA2a isoform mRNA expression was determined in predominantly fast-twitch, gastrocnemius muscle and predominantly slow-twitch, soleus muscle with northern analysis. SERCA mRNA was normalized by the 18S rRNA measured in the same sample. Significant increases in the gastrocnemius SERCA2a mRNA expression were observed after both moderate- and high-intensity training. No significant change in SERCA1a expression was found under any conditions. These results indicate that both moderate and high intensity exercise increase the relative SERCA2a expression in the gastrocnemius.

  2. Effects of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on post-exercise heart rate recovery in coronary heart-disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villelabeitia-Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Senen, Alejandro Berenguel; Jiménez, Verónica Hernández; Garrido-Lestache, María Elvira Barrios; Chicharro, Jose López

    2017-10-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) has been considered a prognostic and mortality indicator in both healthy and coronary patients. Physical exercise prescription has shown improvements in VO2peak and HRR, but most of the studies have been carried out applying continuous training at a moderate intensity, being very limited the use of protocols of high intensity interval training in coronary patients. We aimed to compare the effects of a moderate continuous training (MCT) versus a high intensity interval training (HIIT) programme on VO2peak and HRR. Seventy three coronary patients were assigned to either HIIT or MCT groups for 8weeks. Incremental exercise tests in a cycloergometer were performed to obtain VO2peak data and heart rate was monitored during and after the exercise test to obtain heart rate recovery data. Both exercise programmes significantly increase VO2peak with a higher increase in the HIIT group (HIIT: 4.5±4.46ml/kg/min vs MCT: 2.46±3.57ml/kg/min; p=0.039). High intensity interval training resulted in a significantly increase in HRR at the first and second minute of the recovery phase (15,44±7,04 vs 21,22±6,62, ptraining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Exercise training effects on memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity in multiple sclerosis: a novel application of magnetic resonance elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandroff, Brian M. [Kessler Foundation, Neuropsychology and Neuroscience Laboratory, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Johnson, Curtis L. [University of Delaware, Deparment of Biomedical Engineering, Newark, DE (United States); Motl, Robert W. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. However, the effects of exercise training on viscoelastic brain properties in this population are unknown. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of an aerobic exercise training intervention on learning and memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in persons with MS. Eight fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive treadmill walking exercise training. All participants underwent measures of learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test-II; CVLT-II) and further underwent MRE scans for measurement of shear stiffness (μ) and damping ratio (ξ) of the hippocampus before and after the 12-week period. Overall, there were small-to-moderate intervention effects on CVLT-II performance (d = 0.34) and large intervention effects on hippocampal μ (d = 0.94) and hippocampal ξ (d = -1.20). Change in CVLT-II scores was strongly associated with change in μ (r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and ξ (r = -.96, p < 0.01) of the hippocampus. This small pilot RCT provides exciting proof-of-concept data supporting progressive treadmill walking exercise training for potentially improving learning and memory and underlying hippocampal viscoelastic properties in persons with MS. This is important given the high prevalence and burden of MS-related memory impairment. (orig.)

  4. Effects of age and exercise training on coronary microvascular smooth muscle phenotype and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller-Delp, Judy M; Hotta, Kazuki; Chen, Bei; Behnke, Bradley Jon; Maraj, Joshua J; Delp, Michael D; Lucero, Tiffani R; Bramy, Jeremy A; Alarcon, David B; Morgan, Hannah E; Cowan, Morgan R; Haynes, Anthony D

    2017-10-12

    Coronary microvascular function and blood flow responses during acute exercise are impaired in the aged heart, but can be restored by exercise training. Coronary microvascular resistance is directly dependent on vascular smooth muscle function in coronary resistance arterioles; therefore, we hypothesized that age impairs contractile function and alters the phenotype of vascular smooth muscle in coronary arterioles. We further hypothesized that exercise training restores contractile function and reverses age-induced phenotypic alterations of arteriolar smooth muscle. Young and old Fischer 344 rats underwent 10 weeks of treadmill exercise training or remained sedentary. At the end of training or cage-confinement, contractile responses, vascular smooth muscle proliferation, and expression of contractile proteins were assessed in isolated coronary arterioles. Both receptor- and non-receptor-mediated contractile function were impaired in coronary arterioles from aged rats. Vascular smooth muscle shifted from a differentiated, contractile phenotype to a secretory phenotype with associated proliferation of smooth muscle in the arteriolar wall. Expression of smooth muscle myosin heavy chain 1 (SM1) was decreased in arterioles from aged rats; whereas expression of phospho-histone H3 and of the synthetic protein, ribosomal protein S6 (rpS6), were increased. Exercise training improved contractile responses, reduced smooth muscle proliferation and expression of rpS6, and increased expression of SM1 in arterioles from old rats. Thus, age-induced contractile dysfunction of coronary arterioles and emergence of a secretory smooth muscle phenotype may contribute to impaired coronary blood flow responses, but arteriolar contractile responsiveness and a younger smooth muscle phenotype can be restored with late-life exercise training. Copyright © 2017, Journal of Applied Physiology.

  5. Effect of low-level laser therapy (808 nm) in skeletal muscle after resistance exercise training in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrocinio, Tatiane; Sardim, Andre Cabral; Assis, Livia; Fernandes, Kelly Rossetti; Rodrigues, Natalia; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of 808 nm laser applied after a resistance training protocol, on biochemical markers and the morphology of skeletal muscle in rats. Strenuous physical activity results in fatigue and decreased muscle strength, impaired motor control, and muscle pain. Many biochemical and biophysical interventions have been studied in an attempt to accelerate the recovery process of muscle fatigue. Among these, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been demonstrated to be effective in increasing skeletal muscle performance in in vivo studies and in clinical trials. However, little is known about the effects of LLLT on muscle performance after resistance training. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group (CG), trained group (TG), and trained and laser-irradiated group (TGL). The resistance training program was performed three times per week for 5 weeks, and consisted of a climbing exercise, with weights attached to the tail of the animal. Furthermore, laser irradiation was performed in the middle region of tibialis anterior (TA) muscle of both legs, after the exercise protocol. Analysis demonstrated that TGL demonstrated significantly reduced resting lactate level and decreased muscle glycogen depletion than the animals that were exercised only, and significantly increased the cross-section area of TA muscle fibers compared with thoseo in the other groups. These results suggest that LLLT could be an effective therapeutic approach in increasing muscle performance during a resistance exercise protocol.

  6. THE EFFECTS OF A SHORT TERM HIGH-INTENSITY CIRCUIT TRAINING EXERCISE IN UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie Takakura

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical inactivity is one non-communicable disease threatening to become the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Japan is no exception especially in the younger population. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of high-intensity circuit exercise training (HICET in university students. The second purpose is to examine the factors influencing exercise adherence. Methods: This study was a home based experimental study with 65 healthy participants from the Osaka Kawasaki Rehabilitation University, Japan. An independent variable was the 7-minute HICET and a dependent variable was the physical fitness test (PFT results. All participants were instructed to perform once daily a cycle of HICET, 2-3 times a week non-consecutively for 8 weeks. Pre and post PFT scores for men and women were compared for the effectiveness of the program. A brief survey was conducted 8 weeks after the completion of the study. Results: Both groups showed improvement in sit-up, push-up, and 5-minute run after the 8 week HICET. The changes between pre and post scores were significant in all but the 5-minute run for women. Discontinuation rate 8 weeks after the study was higher in women than in men, but not statistically significant with no dropouts during intervention. Discussion: An 8 week home based HICET significantly improved strength for both genders and endurance for men of the university students when measured by PFT. The exercise barriers should be assessed and adapted to fit individual needs to improve adherence rate.

  7. Effect of exercise training on clot strength in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: An ancillary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Karin; Exaire, J Emilio; Stoner, Julie A; Saucedo, Jorge F; Montgomery, Polly S; Gardner, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with peripheral artery disease have walking impairment, greater thrombotic risk, and are often treated with exercise training. We sought to determine the effect of a 3-month-long exercise program on clot strength among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication. Twenty-three symptomatic peripheral artery disease patients were randomly assigned to a walking exercise program or to an attention control group who performed light resistance exercise. We investigated the effect of exercise training on clot strength and time to clot formation was assessed by thromboelastography. After 3 months of exercise, clot strength (maximal amplitude) and time to clot formation (R) did not change significantly from baseline, even after improvements in claudication onset time (p < 0.01) and peak walking time (p < 0.05). Furthermore, changes in clot formation parameters were not significantly different between groups. Among the 10 individuals demonstrating a reduction in clot strength (reduced maximal amplitude), one was a smoker (10%) compared to 9 of 13 non-responders (69%) whose maximal amplitude was unchanged or increased (p = 0.0097). In this ancillary study, a 12-week walking program improved ambulatory function in peripheral artery disease patients with claudication, but does not modify clot strength or time to clot formation. Larger studies are needed to confirm these hypothesis generating findings and to determine whether a different amount or type of exercise may induce a change in clotting in this patient population.

  8. Effect of exercise training on clot strength in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: An ancillary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Mauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patients with peripheral artery disease have walking impairment, greater thrombotic risk, and are often treated with exercise training. We sought to determine the effect of a 3-month-long exercise program on clot strength among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication. Methods: Twenty-three symptomatic peripheral artery disease patients were randomly assigned to a walking exercise program or to an attention control group who performed light resistance exercise. We investigated the effect of exercise training on clot strength and time to clot formation was assessed by thromboelastography. Results: After 3 months of exercise, clot strength (maximal amplitude and time to clot formation (R did not change significantly from baseline, even after improvements in claudication onset time (p < 0.01 and peak walking time (p < 0.05. Furthermore, changes in clot formation parameters were not significantly different between groups. Among the 10 individuals demonstrating a reduction in clot strength (reduced maximal amplitude, one was a smoker (10% compared to 9 of 13 non-responders (69% whose maximal amplitude was unchanged or increased (p = 0.0097. Conclusion: In this ancillary study, a 12-week walking program improved ambulatory function in peripheral artery disease patients with claudication, but does not modify clot strength or time to clot formation. Larger studies are needed to confirm these hypothesis generating findings and to determine whether a different amount or type of exercise may induce a change in clotting in this patient population.

  9. The effect of home-based inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea and pulmonary function in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavarsad, Maryam Bakhshandeh; Shariati, Abdolali; Eidani, Esmaeil; Latifi, Mahmud

    2015-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is currently the fourth cause of mortality worldwide. Patients with COPD experience periods of dyspnea, fatigue, and disability, which impact on their life. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of short-term inspiratory muscle training on exercise capacity, exertional dyspnea, and pulmonary lung function. A randomized, controlled trial was performed. Thirty patients (27 males, 3 females) with mild to very severe COPD were randomly assigned to a training group (group T) or to a control group (group C). Patients in group T received training for 8 weeks (15 min/day for 6 days/week) with flow-volumetric inspiratory exerciser named (Respivol). Each patient was assessed before and after 8 weeks of training for the following clinical parameters: exercise capacity by 6-min walking test (6MWT), exertional dyspnea by Borg scale, and pulmonary lung function by spirometry. Patients used training together with medical treatment. The data were analyzed using paired t-test and independent t-test. Results showed statistically significant increase in 6MWT at the end of the training from 445.6 ± 22.99 to 491.06 ± 17.67 meters? (P training group but not in the control group. The values for exercise capacity and dyspnea improved after 8 weeks in group T in comparison with group C (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0001, respectively). No changes were observed in any measure of pulmonary function in both groups. Short-term inspiratory muscle training has beneficial effects on exercise capacity and exertional dyspnea in COPD patients.

  10. The effect of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juvenile darkbarbel catfish (Peltebagrus vachelli).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Peng, Jiang-Lan; Fu, Shi-Jian

    2010-05-01

    To examine the effects of exercise training on the metabolic interaction between digestion and locomotion in juvenile darkbarbel catfish (Peltebagrus vachelli) (5.58+/-0.04 g), the postprandial metabolic response, critical swimming speeds (U(crit)) and oxygen consumption rates (VO(2)) during swimming were measured on fish held at a constant temperature (25 degrees C). Fish were fed a diet of cutlets of freshly killed loach. Fish in the trained group were forced to swim at 60% U(crit) for 50 min followed by an exhaustive 10-min chase once daily for 21 days. Exercise training did not produce significant differences in resting VO(2) (VO(2rest)) and postprandial peak VO(2) (VO(2peak)) compared to the non-trained groups. However, exercise training elicited a significant decrease in both the duration and energy expenditure of digestion when fed with similar food (PFeeding had no significant effect on U(crit) of non-trained fish, while it caused a significantly lower U(crit) (compared to fasting fish) in trained fish (Pfeeding fish. Our results suggest that: (1) the central cardio-respiratory systems of non-trained darkbarbel catfish can support the oxygen demands of both digestion and the locomotion simultaneously; (2) the metabolic mode of competition in darkbarbel catfish is flexible; it changed from an additive model to a digestion-priority model after exercise training; (3) training may be accounted for cardio-respiratory capacity increase and following improvement of swimming performance during fasting in darkbarbel catfish, although, the swimming capacity was sacrificed to digestion in the situation of postprandial locomotion. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of proprioception training with exercise imagery on balance ability of stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    HYUNGJIN LEE; HEESOO KIM; MYUNGHWAN AHN; YOUNGYOUL YOU

    2015-01-01

    [Abstract.] [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients...

  12. Effects of proprioception training with exercise imagery on balance ability of stroke patients

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Hyungjin; Kim, Heesoo; Ahn, Myunghwan; You, Youngyoul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients...

  13. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in ...... extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.......Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic...

  14. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crossman David C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise training has been shown to reduce angina and promote collateral vessel development in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the mechanism whereby exercise exerts these beneficial effects is unclear. There has been increasing interest in the use of whole genome peripheral blood gene expression in a wide range of conditions to attempt to identify both novel mechanisms of disease and transcriptional biomarkers. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effect of a structured exercise programme on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina, and correlate this with changes in angina level, anxiety, depression, and exercise capacity. Methods/Design Sixty patients with stable angina will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to exercise training or conventional care. Patients randomised to exercise training will attend an exercise physiology laboratory up to three times weekly for supervised aerobic interval training sessions of one hour in total duration. Patients will undergo assessments of angina, anxiety, depression, and peripheral blood gene expression at baseline, after six and twelve weeks of training, and twelve weeks after formal exercise training ceases. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with angina. By correlating this with improvement in angina status we will identify candidate peripheral blood transcriptional markers predictive of improvements in angina level in response to exercise training. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01147952

  15. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, W; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; Alves, C R R; Lancha, A H

    2017-11-17

    Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (Pfasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  16. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. das Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1 untrained control rats, 2 untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3 rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks, the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks. After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all. Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01. Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  17. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  18. Effects and potential mechanisms of exercise training on cancer progression: A translational perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betof, Allison S.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Jones, Lee W.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade there has been increasing research and clinical interest in the role of exercise therapy/rehabilitation as an adjunct therapy to improve symptom control and management following a cancer diagnosis. More recently, the field of ‘exercise – oncology’ has broadened in scope to investigate whether the benefits extend beyond symptom control to modulate cancer-specific outcomes (i.e., cancer progression and metastasis). Here we review the extant epidemiological evidence examining the association between exercise behavior, functional capacity/exercise capacity, and cancer-specific recurrence and mortality as well as all-cause mortality individuals following a cancer diagnosis. We also evaluate evidence from clinical studies investigating the effects of structured exercise on blood-based biomarkers associated with cancer progression/metastasis as well findings from preclinical investigations examining the effects and molecular mechanisms of exercise in mouse models of cancer. Current gaps in knowledge are also discussed. PMID:22610066

  19. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    OpenAIRE

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Emily R. Waldum; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome mea...

  20. Effect of exercise intensity and volume on persistence of insulin sensitivity during training cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpeyi, Sudip; Tanner, Charles J; Slentz, Cris A; Duscha, Brian D; McCartney, Jennifer S; Hickner, Robert C; Kraus, William E; Houmard, Joseph A

    2009-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise prescriptions differing in volume or intensity also differ in their ability to retain insulin sensitivity during an ensuing period of training cessation. Sedentary, overweight/obese subjects were assigned to one of three 8-mo exercise programs: 1) low volume/moderate intensity [equivalent of approximately 12 miles/wk, 1,200 kcal/wk at 40-55% peak O(2) consumption (Vo(2peak)), 200 min exercise/wk], 2) low volume/vigorous intensity ( approximately 12 miles/wk, 1,200 kcal/wk at 65-80% Vo(2peak), 125 min/wk), and 3) high volume/vigorous intensity ( approximately 20 miles/wk, 2,000 kcal/wk at 65-80% Vo(2peak), 200 min/wk). Insulin sensitivity (intravenous glucose tolerance test, S(I)) was measured when subjects were sedentary and at 16-24 h and 15 days after the final training bout. S(I) increased with training compared with the sedentary condition (P training cessation in the low-volume/vigorous-intensity group. In contrast, at 15 days S(I) was significantly elevated compared with sedentary (P volume/moderate intensity, high volume/vigorous intensity). In the high-volume/vigorous-intensity group, indexes of muscle mitochondrial density followed a pattern paralleling insulin action by being elevated at 15 days compared with pretraining; this trend was not evident in the low-volume/moderate-intensity group. These findings suggest that in overweight/obese subjects a relatively chronic persistence of enhanced insulin action may be obtained with endurance-oriented exercise training; this persistence, however, is dependent on the characteristics of the exercise training performed.

  1. Cardiovascular and behavioral effects of aerobic exercise training in healthy older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, J A; Emery, C F; Madden, D J; George, L K; Coleman, R E; Riddle, M W; McKee, D C; Reasoner, J; Williams, R S

    1989-09-01

    The cardiovascular and behavioral adaptations associated with a 4-month program of aerobic exercise training were examined in 101 older men and women (mean age = 67 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to an Aerobic Exercise group, a Yoga and Flexibility control group, or a Waiting List control group. Prior to and following the 4-month program, subjects underwent comprehensive physiological and psychological evaluations. Physiological measures included measurement of blood pressure, lipids, bone density, and cardiorespiratory fitness including direct measurements of peak oxygen consumption (VO2) and anaerobic threshold. Psychological measures included measures of mood, psychiatric symptoms, and neuropsychological functioning. This study demonstrated that 4 months of aerobic exercise training produced an overall 11.6% improvement in peak VO2 and a 13% increase in anaerobic threshold. In contrast, the Yoga and Waiting List control groups experienced no change in cardiorespiratory fitness. Other favorable physiological changes observed among aerobic exercise participants included lower cholesterol levels, diastolic blood pressure levels, and for subjects at risk for bone fracture, a trend toward an increase in bone mineral content. Although few significant psychological changes could be attributed to aerobic exercise training, participants in the two active treatment groups perceived themselves as improving on a number of psychological and behavioral dimensions.

  2. The combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahreman, Daniel E; Boutcher, Yati N; Bustamante, Sonia; Boutcher, Stephen H

    2016-03-31

    This study investigated the combined effect of green tea and acute interval sprinting exercise on fat oxidation of trained and untrained males. Fourteen trained and 14 untrained males ingested one capsule containing either green tea or cellulose with breakfast, lunch, and dinner, 24 hours before two exercise sessions. A fourth capsule was consumed 90 minutes before exercise after overnight NPO (nil per os). Participants performed a 20-minute interval sprinting cycling protocol, consisting of repeated bouts of 8-seconds of sprint cycling (at 65% of maximum power output) and 12-seconds of recovery (at 25% of maximum power output), followed by 75 minutes of post-exercise recovery. Fat oxidation was significantly greater in the resting condition after green tea ingestion (p post-exercise in the green tea, compared with the placebo condition (p post-exercise fat oxidation and also elevated plasma glycerol and epinephrine levels during and after interval sprinting. Glycerol and norepinephrine levels during interval sprinting were significantly higher in the untrained group compared with the trained group.

  3. Effects of sildenafil on the gastrocnemius and cardiac muscles of rats in a model of prolonged moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Rinaldi

    Full Text Available Moderate exercise training improves energetic metabolism, tissue perfusion and induces cardiac and skeletal muscle remodeling. Sildenafil, a potent phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used to treat erectile dysfunction, reduces infarct size and increases tissue oxygenation in experimental models of cardiovascular disease. We have evaluated the effects of prolonged moderate exercise training and a repeat administration of sildenafil on the rat gastrocnemius and cardiac muscles. Animals were divided into two groups: sedentary and trained. Each group was subdivided into animals treated with vehicle or with two doses of sildenafil (10 or 15 mg/kg/day during the last week of training. Physical exercise did not induce cardiac hypertrophy, whereas it increased mRNA levels of the PGC-1α, HIF-1α and VEGF genes, which are involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, and reduced mRNA levels of FoxO3a, MuRF-1 and Atrogin-1. Sildenafil dose-dependently promoted both angiogenesis, as shown by increased capillary density, and muscle atrophy, as shown by muscle fibre size. These effects were more pronounced in trained animals. Our data confirm the beneficial effects of a moderate and prolonged training on cardiovascular and skeletal systems and document the positive and negative effects of sildenafil on these tissues at doses higher than those used in clinical practice. This report may impact on the use of sildenafil as a substance able to influence sports performance.

  4. Effects of high vs. low cadence training on cyclists' brain cortical activity during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludyga, Sebastian; Gronwald, Thomas; Hottenrott, Kuno

    2016-04-01

    As brain cortical activity depends on cadence, exercise at different pedaling frequencies could provide efficient stimuli for functional adaptations of the brain. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of cadence-specific training on brain cortical activity as well as endurance performance. Randomized, controlled experimental trial in a repeated measure design. Male (n=24) and female (n=12) cyclists were randomly assigned to either a high cadence group (HCT), a low cadence group (LCT) or a control group (CON) for a 4 week intervention period. All groups performed 4h of basic endurance training per week. Additionally, HCT and LCT completed four cadence-specific 60min sessions weekly. At baseline and after 4 weeks subjects performed an incremental test with spirometry as well as an interval session (constant load; varying cadences) with continuous recording of electroencephalographic (EEG) rhythms. In contrast to CON, HCT and LCT elicited similar improvements of maximal oxygen uptake and power at the individual anaerobic threshold. Additionally, there was a reduction of alpha-, beta- and overall-power spectral density in HCT, which was more pronounced at high cadences. Improvements of endurance performance were correlated with reductions of EEG spectral power at 90 and 120rpm. Whereas high and low cadence training elicit similar improvements in endurance performance, brain cortical activity is especially sensitive to high cadence training. Its reduction can be interpreted in the sense of the neural efficiency hypothesis and might as well influence the sensation of central fatigue positively. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-04-07

    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations. Subjects performed a ballistic training and then the HIIT either before (HIIT_before) or after (HIIT_after) practicing an interfering accuracy task (AT). The control group (No_HIIT) did not participate in the HIIT but rested instead. Performance in the ballistic task (BT) was tested before and after the ballistic training, after the exercise and practice of the AT and 24h later. After ballistic training, all groups showed comparable increases in performance in the trained and untrained limb. Despite the practice of the AT, HIIT_before maintained their BT performance after the high-intensity interval training whereas HIIT_after (trend) & No_HIIT showed prominent interference effects. After 24h, HIIT_before still did not show any interference effects but further improved ballistic motor performance. HIIT_after counteracted the interference resulting in a comparable BT performance after 24h than directly after the ballistic training while No_HIIT had a significantly lower BT performance in the retention test. The results were similar in the trained and untrained limb. The current results imply that a single session of cardiovascular exercise can prevent motor interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere. Overall learning was best, and interference least, when HIIT was performed before the interfering motor task. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

  7. Effect of lifelong resveratrol supplementation and exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringholm, Stine; Olesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (ET...

  8. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 45 minutes into the OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and up to 120 minutes after glucose intake. RESULTS: Exercise training increased Hexokinase II, GLUT4, Akt2, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate...

  9. Volume-dependent effect of supervised exercise training on fatty liver and visceral adiposity index in subjects with type 2 diabetes The Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Stefano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Pugliese, Luca; D'Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Alessi, Elena; Iacobini, Carla; Menini, Stefano; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco G; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supervised exercise training on liver enzymes and two surrogate measures of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Sedentary patients from 22 outpatient diabetes clinics were randomized by center, age and treatment to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (exercise group, EXE; n=303) versus counseling alone (control group, CON; n=303) for 12 months. EXE participants were further randomized to low-to-moderate (n=142) or moderate-to-high (n=161) intensity training of equal energy cost. Baseline and end-of-study levels of liver enzymes, fatty liver index (FLI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were obtained. Enzyme levels did not change, whereas FLI and VAI decreased significantly in EXE, but not CON participants. Physical activity (PA) volume was an independent predictor of both FLI and VAI reductions, the extent of which increased from the 1st to the 4th quintile of PA volume and baseline to end-of-study changes in fitness parameters. Differences in the effect of LI versus HI training were negligible. Data from this large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes indicate that FLI and VAI decrease with supervised training in a volume-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastula, Robert M; Stopka, Christine B; Delisle, Anthony T; Hass, Chris J

    2012-12-01

    In addition to cognitive impairment, young adults with intellectual disabilities (IDs) are also more likely to be in poor health. Exercise may help ameliorate both of these deficits. While the health benefits of exercise are well documented and understood, the cognitive benefits of exercise are emerging. Exercise has been shown to improve the cognitive function of young, old, and diseased populations but few studies have evaluated the effect of exercise training on the cognitive functioning of individuals with IDs. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training on the cognitive function of young adults with IDs. Fourteen students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes, and intensity was maintained at 60-70% of maximum heart rate (HR(max)). Aerobic fitness was assessed via the Young Men's Christian Association (YMCA) step test, and intellectual functioning was assessed via 3 subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities once before and after the intervention. Performance was significantly improved on all 3 cognitive tests (all, p students (age, 19.4 ± 1.3 years) with mild to moderate IDs participated in an 8-week comprehensive exercise intervention program based on circuit training, aerobic dancing, and adapted sport activities. Sessions lasted 45 minutes and intensity Powered by Editorial Manager and Preprint Manager from Aries Systems Corporation was maintained at 60-70% of HR(max). Aerobic fitness was assessed via the YMCA step test, and intellectual functioning was assessed via 3 subtests from the Woodcock-Johnson III Tests of Cognitive Abilities once before and after the intervention. Performance was significantly improved on all 3 cognitive tests (all, p < 0.002). Aerobic fitness also significantly improved (p

  11. Effectiveness of Functional Progressive Resistance Exercise Training on Walking Ability in Children with Cerebral Palsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholtes, Vanessa A.; Becher, Jules G.; Janssen-Potten, Yvonne J.; Dekkers, Hurnet; Smallenbroek, Linda; Dallmeijer, Annet J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP). Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=26) or control group (n=25, receiving usual care).…

  12. Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, V.A.; Becher, J.G.; Janssen-Potten, Y.J.; Dekkers, H.; Smallenbroek, L.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP).Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=

  13. The effect of intra-uterine growth restriction on blood lipids and response to exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmond, Jessica G; Gage, Timothy B; Kiyamu, Melisa; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2013-01-01

    To determine if a small body size at birth is associated with an unfavorable metabolic profile and a reduced response to exercise training in young adults. Thirty-six college students, all singletons born to term, participated. Subjects were defined as either high ponderal index (HIGHPI) or low ponderal index (LOWPI). LOWPI was defined as below the 10th percentile of the PI-for-gestational age distribution. HIGHPI was defined as greater than the 10th percentile. Subject groups were matched pair-wise on age, sex, BMI, and pretraining physical activity level. Subjects completed an 8-week aerobic exercise program. Pre- and post-training measurements included a blood lipid profile. The LOWPI group, when compared to the HIGHPI group, exhibited higher total (183.6 mg dl(-1) vs. 150.9, P = 0.04) and LDL cholesterol (114.8 mg dl(-1) vs. 80.2, P = 0.019) values prior to exercise training. After training, these values decreased in the LOWPI group, eliminating the group difference. Various blood lipid ratios were more favorable for the HIGHPI group, both before and after training. The inclusion of maternal smoking as a covariate attenuated group differences for pretraining TChol, pre-training TG:HDL, and post-training HDL cholesterol. An 8-week exercise program corrected some, but not all, of the differences in blood lipid values between the LOWPI and HIGHPI group. The persistent group difference in blood lipid ratios suggests a higher long-term risk of chronic disease in the LOWPI group independent of lifestyle intervention. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Multidisciplinary Management Program and Exercise Training Program in Heart Failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Weixiong; Yi, Anji; Jhamnani, Sunny; Wang, Shi-Yi

    2017-10-15

    Heart failure causes significant health and financial burdens for patients and society. Multidisciplinary management program (MMP) and exercise training program (ETP) have been reported as cost-effective in improving health outcomes, yet no study has compared the 2 programs. We constructed a Markov model to simulate life year (LY) gained and total costs in usual care (UC), MMP, and ETP. The probability of transitions between states and healthcare costs were extracted from previous literature. We calculated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) over a 10-year horizon. Model robustness was assessed through 1-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. The expected LY for patients treated with UC, MMP, and ETP was 7.6, 8.2, and 8.4 years, respectively. From a societal perspective, the expected cost of MMP was $20,695, slightly higher than the cost of UC ($20,092). The cost of ETP was much higher ($48,378) because of its high implementation expense and the wage loss it incurred. The ICER of MMP versus UC was $976 per LY gained, and the ICER of ETP versus MMP was $165,702 per LY gained. The results indicated that, under current cost-effectiveness threshold, MMP is cost-effective compared with UC, and ETP is not cost-effective compared with MMP. However, ETP is cost-effective compared with MMP from a healthcare payer's perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of cognitive training with and without aerobic exercise on cognitively demanding everyday activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A; Binder, Ellen F; Bugg, Julie M; Waldum, Emily R; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B; Kudelka, Chris

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive-training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults' performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were 3 laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults' performance on prospective-memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with 6 months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable with previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive-training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  17. Intelligent Physical Exercise Training proves effective in enhancing muscle strength and reducing musculoskeletal pain in a workplace setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    Background: Physical exercise training interventions at the workplace may cause health benefits but not all employees may benefit from the same program despite having the same occupational exposure. The present aim was to individually tailor Intelligent Physical Exercise Training (IPET) for office...... workers based on health checks and to assess the effect on musculoskeletal health (Sjøgaard G et al. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:652). Methods: Office workers were at each of 6 companies randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high...... intensity IPET every week within working hours for one year. The training program was based on baseline health check measures of muscle strength, musculoskeletal pain (self-reported on a 0-9 numeric box scale), cardiorespiratory fitness and health risk indicators, as well as functional capacity including...

  18. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after.......02), but not in F (434 +/- 32 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.23). For a given initial glycogen content, F blunted exercise-induced glycogen breakdown when compared with CHO (P = 0.04). Neither IMCL breakdown (P = 0.23) nor fat oxidation rates during exercise were altered by training. Thus short-term training elicits similar...

  19. Concurrent training with different aerobic exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, R F; Cadore, E L; Kothe, G; Guedes, M; Alberton, C L; Pinto, S S; Pinto, R S; Trindade, G; Kruel, L F M

    2012-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of using different intensities and types of aerobic exercise (i. e., cycle ergometer or running) during concurrent training on neuromuscular adaptations. A total of 44 young women were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: concurrent strength and continuous running training (SCR, n=10), concurrent strength and interval running training (SIR, n=11), concurrent strength and continuous cycle ergometer training (SCE, n=11), or strength training only (STO, n=12). Each group trained twice a week during 11 weeks. The following strength measurements were made on all subjects before and after training period: maximal strength (1RM) in knee extension, bench press and leg press exercises; local muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 70% of 1 RM) in knee extension and bench press exercises; and isometric and isokinetic peak torque of knee extension. There were significant increases in the upper and lower-body 1 RM, isometric and isokinetic peak torque in all training groups (pconcurrent training performed twice a week promotes similar neuromuscular adaptations to strength training alone, regardless of the type and the intensity in which the aerobic training is performed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Fluid ingestion is more effective in preventing hyperthermia in aerobically trained than untrained individuals during exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Hamouti, Nassim; Del Coso, Juan; Ortega, Juan F

    2013-01-01

    It is unclear if fluid ingestion during exercise in the heat alleviates the thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain similarly in aerobically trained and untrained individuals. It is also unknown at what exercise intensity the effects of rehydration are greater. Ten aerobically trained (T) and 10 healthy untrained (UT) subjects ([Formula: see text]O(2peak), 60 ± 6 vs. 44 ± 3 mL O(2)·kg(-1)·min(-1), respectively; P 0.05). At similar metabolic heat production (i.e., 60% for T vs. 80% [Formula: see text]O(2peak) for UT), Fluid lowered T(RE) only in the T individuals (P < 0.05). In summary, rehydration during low- and moderate-intensity exercise reduces T(RE) and HR more than during high-intensity exercise (80% [Formula: see text]O(2peak)) in T and UT subjects. Fluid replacement is more effective on preventing the rise in T(RE) in T than in UT individuals during moderate-intensity exercise (60% [Formula: see text]O(2peak)), as well as when exercising at a similar heat production rate.

  1. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke.

  2. The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on resistance exercise induced lipid peroxidation in trained and untrained participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVoie Norm

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theoretical benefits of using antioxidant vitamin supplements to quench oxygen free radicals appear large. High intensity aerobic-type exercise produces oxygen free radicals that can cause damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation that may lead to many problems such as the inactivation of cell membrane enzymes, the progression of degenerative diseases (cardiovascular disease and cancer and lessening of the effectiveness of the immune system. The major function of vitamin E is to work as a chain-breaking antioxidant in a fat soluble environment. Little research has examined lipid peroxidation associated with high intensity resistance exercise or possible protective effects of antioxidant supplementation or the effects of training state. Results There were no significant group (trained vs untrained or treatment (vitamin E vs placebo effects found between the 4 groups assessed. There was only one significant difference found and that was in the main effect for time (F = 22.41, p Conclusions The Resistance Exercise Test caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde in all 4 groups at 6 hours post exercise. There was no evidence that vitamin E supplementation was effective in reducing oxidative damage in comparison to the placebo group. As well, there was no difference between the trained and untrained groups with respect to their impact on lipid peroxidation measures.

  3. The effectiveness of lumbar extensor training: local stabilization or dynamic strengthening exercises. A review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadała, Michał; Gryckiewicz, Szymon

    2014-01-01

    Deconditioning of the lumbar extensor musculature (lumbar erector spinae and multifidus) is a risk factor for low back injury and pain. The article presents various aspects of scientific reports which confirm the effectiveness of lumbar extensor exercises. The articles to be reviewed were extracted from the MedLine and PubMed data - bases. The following key words were used as search terms: lumbar multifidus muscle exercises, low back global exercise, motor control exercise in chronic low back pain, low back stabilization exercise. A number of prior investigations have described lumbar multifidus atrophy and replacement by fat after low back injury. Restoration of the tonic activity of the multifidus muscle is an essential condition in regaining health and spine functions. On the other hand, conditioning and strengthening exercises are considered valuable in effectively 'pre-habilitating' and reducing injury risk for athletes. 1. The lumbar low load specific stabilization exercises would be more efficient than muscle strengthening in the improvement of chronic low back pain. 2. Conditioning and strengthening exercises are considered valuable in effectively 'pre-habilitating' and reducing injury risk for athletes.

  4. Acute exercise effects on urinary losses and serum concentrations of copper and zinc of moderately trained and untrained men consuming a controlled diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, R A; Bryden, N A; Polansky, M M; Deuster, P A

    1995-03-01

    Acute exercise effect on urinary losses and serum concentrations of Cu and Zn of eight moderately trained and five untrained male runners were determined to ascertain effects of training on trace metal responses owing to acute exercise. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max) of the moderately trained subjects was 47.3 +/- 2.3 and that of the untrained subjects was 34.7 +/- 1.9 ml kg-1 min-1. Subjects consumed a controlled diet to minimize changes due to dietary intake. Immediately following acute exercise at 90% of VO2 max to exhaustion (30 s exercise and 30 s rest periods), serum Zn and Cu levels of moderately trained and untrained subjects were elevated. Serum Zn of moderately trained subjects 2 h post-exercise was lower than before exercise (13.5 +/- 0.05 versus 12.5 +/- 0.05 mumol 1-1, a similar trend was observed for untrained subjects. Serum concentrations of both groups were similar to pre-exercise levels 2 h post-exercise. Changes in urinary losses of Zn and Cu, associated with the acute strenuous exercise of short duration employed in this study, were not significantly different. These data demonstrate that increases in serum Cu and Zn following acute exercise are independent of training status for moderately trained and untrained men.

  5. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeilly, Andrea M; Davison, Gareth W; Murphy, Marie H; Nadeem, Nida; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Novials, Anna; McEneny, Jane

    2011-11-22

    Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise). The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p exercise and α-lipoic acid in combination attenuates LDL oxidation. Furthermore, in the α-lipoic acid supplement plus exercise training group, total antioxidant capacity was significantly increased (p exercise training (p 0.05). These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished. © 2011 McNeilly et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  6. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  7. Severe exercise and exercise training exert opposite effects on human neutrophil apoptosis via altering the redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Da Syu

    Full Text Available Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE and were subsequently divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group (n = 8 underwent 2 months of CME followed by 2 months of detraining. Additional ASE paradigms were performed at the end of each month. Neutrophils were isolated from blood specimens drawn at rest and immediately after each ASE for assaying neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis (annexin-V binding on the outer surface along with redox-related parameters and mitochondria-related parameters. Our results showed that i the initial ASE immediately increased the oxidative stress (cytosolic ROS and glutathione oxidation, and sequentially accelerated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the surface binding of annexin-V, and the generation of mitochondrial ROS; ii CME upregulated glutathione level, retarded spontaneous apoptosis and delayed mitochondria deterioration; iii most effects of CME were unchanged after detraining; and iv CME blocked ASE effects and this capability remained intact even after detraining. Furthermore, the ASE effects on neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis were mimicked by adding exogenous H(2O(2, but not by suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, while ASE induced an oxidative state and resulted in acceleration of human neutrophil apoptosis, CME delayed neutrophil apoptosis by maintaining a reduced state for long periods of time even after detraining.

  8. Effects of Combined Resistance and Endurance Training Versus Resistance Training Alone on Strength, Exercise Capacity, and Quality of Life in Patients With COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zambom-Ferraresi, Fabrício; Cebollero, Pilar; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Hernández, María; Hueto, Javier; Cascante, José; Rezusta, Lourdes; Val, Luis; Anton, María M

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of 12-week training periods (2 d·wk) involving resistance training only with the effects of 12-week training periods involving combined resistance (once weekly) and endurance (once weekly) training on strength, endurance performance, and quality of life. Thirty-six patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease were randomized to combined training (REG), resistance training alone (RG), or control (CG) groups. Patients were tested for maximal strength of the upper and lower extremities, power output of the lower extremities, maximal (Wmax) and submaximal exercise capacity, performance on a 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and quality of life. REG and RG induced similar maximal strength gains. Muscle power increased 19% (P ≤ .01) and Wmax improved 13% (P training groups. Compared with a twice-weekly resistance training program, the combination of once-weekly resistance and once-weekly endurance training not only produced similar gains in maximal strength, 6MWT performance, and quality of life but also produced improvements in muscle power and endurance performance. These findings may have implications for the prescription of resistance and endurance exercise for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  9. Effects of macro- and micronutrients on exercise-induced hepcidin response in highly trained endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Stellingwerff, Trent; Dieter, Brad P; McKenzie, Donald C; Koehle, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    Iron deficiency has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise-induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by upregulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micronutrients on blunting exercise-induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postexercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D3 and K2 on the postexercise hepcidin response. Ten highly trained male cyclists (age: 26.9 ± 6.4 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 67.4 ± 4.4 mL·kg-1·min-1 completed 4 cycling sessions in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, triple-crossover study. Experimental days consisted of an 8-min warm-up at 50% power output at maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 8 × 3-min intervals at 85% power output at maximal oxygen uptake with 1.5 min at 60% power output at maximal oxygen uptake between each interval. Blood samples were collected pre- and postexercise, and at 3 h postexercise. Three different drinks consisting of CHO (75 g) and protein (25 g) with (VPRO) or without (PRO) vitamins D3 (5000 IU) and K2 (1000 μg), or a zero-calorie control drink (PLA) were consumed immediately after the postexercise blood sample. Results showed that the postexercise drinks had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on any biomarker measured. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in hepcidin and interleukin-6 following intense cycling intervals in the participants. Hepcidin increased significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline (nmol·L-1: 9.94 ± 8.93, 14.18 ± 14.90, 10.44 ± 14.62) to 3 h postexercise (nmol·L-1: 22.27 ± 13.41, 25.44 ± 11.91, 22.57 ± 15.57) in VPRO, PRO, and PLA, respectively. Contrary to our hypothesis, the drink compositions used did not blunt the postexercise hepcidin response in highly trained athletes.

  10. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  11. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nolan, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2015-06-28

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of previously published reviews. To determine the effects of physical exercise training compared to no training on aerobic exercise capacity, forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and other patient-relevant (secondary) outcomes in cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 10 March 2015. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and duration with conventional care in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. Of the 48 studies identified, 13 studies which included 402 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; one study was in adults, six were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and nine studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows limited evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people with cystic fibrosis aerobic or anaerobic physical exercise training or a combination of both has a positive effect on aerobic exercise capacity, pulmonary function and health-related quality of life. Although improvements are not consistent between studies and ranged

  12. Effect of Training Exercise on Urinary Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor Levels and Cognitive Performances in Overweight and Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Angelo; Buratta, Livia; Pippi, Roberto; Aiello, Cristina; Ranucci, Claudia; Reginato, Elisa; Santangelo, Valerio; DeFeo, Pierpaolo; Mazzeschi, Claudia

    2017-02-01

    Exercise-mediated, brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction benefits health and cognitive functions. The multifaceted interplay between physical activity, urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive functioning has been largely neglected in previous literature. In this pilot study, two bouts of training exercise (65% and 70% of heart rate reserve) influenced urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive performances in 12 overweight and obese participants. Percent heart rate reserve, expenditure energy, brain-derived neurotrophic factor urinary levels and cognitive performances were measured before and after the exercise. No significant variations in energy expenditure were observed, while differences of heart rate reserve between two groups were maintained. Both bouts of training exercise induced a similar reduction in urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels. Only visuo-spatial working memory capacity at 65% of heart rate reserve showed a significant increase. These findings indicate a consistent effect of training exercise on urinary brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels and cognitive factors in overweight and obese participants.

  13. Effects of aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsura, Yoshihiro; Yoshikawa, Takahiro; Ueda, Shin-Ya; Usui, Tatsuya; Sotobayashi, Daisuke; Nakao, Hayato; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Okumoto, Tamiko; Fujimoto, Shigeo

    2010-03-01

    To prevent falls in Japan, both gait and resistance training of the lower extremities are recommended. However, resistance training for the elderly induces muscle damage. Recently, aquatic exercise using water buoyancy and resistance have commonly been performed by the elderly. We have now produced new water-resistance equipment. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of aquatic exercise training using the new equipment for the elderly. Subjects were divided into two groups: a resistance group of 12 subjects (using water-resistance equipment) and a non-resistance group of eight subjects (without the equipment). The aquatic exercise training was 90 min, three times per week for 8 weeks, and mostly consisted of walking. All subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, physical performance testing, and profile of mood states (POMS). Significant improvements were observed in muscle strength in plantar flexion, and the timed up and go test (TUG) in both groups. Additionally, 10-m obstacle walking and 5-m maximum walking speed and length with eye-open were significantly improved in the resistance group. Also, a low negative correlation was found between the degree of change in TUG and POMS (tension and anxiety) scores in the resistance group. As it became easier to maintain posture, stand, and move, tension and anxiety in everyday life were alleviated with improvement of strength of the lower extremities and balance function. The present aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment may be used by the elderly to improve balance and walking ability, which are associated with the prevention of falls.

  14. Comparison of exercise training effect with different robotic devices for upper limb rehabilitation: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Roberto; Pisano, Fabrizio; Delconte, Carmen; Mazzone, Alessandra; Grioni, Giuseppe; Castagna, Marisa; Bazzini, Giacomo; Imarisio, Chiara; Maggioni, Giorgio; Pistarini, Caterina

    2017-04-01

    Several robotic devices have been proposed for upper limb rehabilitation, but they differ in terms of application fields and the technical solutions implemented. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of three different robotic devices for shoulder-elbow rehabilitation in reducing motor impairment and improving motor performance in post-stroke patients. Retrospective multi-center study. Inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Eighty-seven chronic and subacute post-stroke patients, aged 48-85 years. Data were obtained through a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent a 3-week rehabilitation program including robot-assisted therapy of the upper limb and conventional physical therapy. Patients were divided into three groups according to the robot device used for exercise training: 'Braccio di Ferro" (BdF), InMotion2 (IMT), and MEchatronic system for MOtor recovery after Stroke (MEMOS). They were evaluated at the beginning and end of treatment using the Fugl-Meyer (FM) and Modified Ashworth (MAS) clinical scales and by a set of robot measured kinematic parameters. The three groups were homogeneous for age, level of impairment, time since the acute event, and spasticity level. A significant effect of time (Probot device used. Further, the ES ranged from moderate to large for the remaining kinematic parameters except for the movement accuracy (mean distance, MD), which exhibited a small ES in the BdF and MEMOS groups. The motor function gains obtained during robot-assisted therapy of stroke patients seem to be independent of the type of robot device used for the training program. All devices tested in this study were effective in improving the level of impairment and motor performance. This study could help rehabilitation professionals to set-up comparative studies involving rehabilitation technologies.

  15. Detrimental effect of combined exercise training and eNOS overexpression on cardiac function after myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Waard, Monique C; van der Velden, Jolanda; Boontje, Nicky M; Dekkers, Dick H W; van Haperen, Rien; Kuster, Diederik W D; Lamers, Jos M J; de Crom, Rini; Duncker, Dirk J

    2009-05-01

    It has been reported that exercise after myocardial infarction (MI) attenuates left ventricular (LV) pump dysfunction by normalization of myofilament function. This benefit could be due to an exercise-induced upregulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression and activity. Consequently, we first tested the hypothesis that the effects of exercise after MI can be mimicked by elevated eNOS expression using transgenic mice with overexpression of human eNOS (eNOSTg). Both exercise and eNOSTg attenuated LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI in mice and improved cardiomyocyte maximal force development (F(max)). However, only exercise training restored myofilament Ca(2+)-sensitivity and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA)2a protein levels and improved the first derivative of LV pressure at 30 mmHg. Conversely, only eNOSTg improved survival. In view of these partly complementary actions, we subsequently tested the hypothesis that combining exercise and eNOSTg would provide additional protection against LV remodeling and dysfunction after MI. Unexpectedly, the combination of exercise and eNOSTg abolished the beneficial effects on LV remodeling and dysfunction of either treatment alone. The latter was likely due to perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis, as myofilament F(max) actually increased despite marked reductions in the phosphorylation status of several myofilament proteins, whereas the exercise-induced increases in SERCA2a protein levels were lost in eNOSTg mice. Antioxidant treatment with N-acetylcysteine or supplementation of tetrahydrobiopterin and l-arginine prevented these detrimental effects on LV function while partly restoring the phosphorylation status of myofilament proteins and further enhancing myofilament F(max). In conclusion, the combination of exercise and elevated eNOS expression abolished the cardioprotective effects of either treatment alone after MI, which appeared to be, at least in part, the result of increased

  16. Aerobic exercise and strength training effects on cardiovascular sympathetic function in healthy adults: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex, Christian; Lindgren, Martin; Shapiro, Peter A; McKinley, Paula S; Brondolo, Elizabeth N; Myers, Michael M; Zhao, Yihong; Sloan, Richard P

    2013-05-01

    Exercise has widely documented cardioprotective effects, but the mechanisms underlying these effects are not entirely known. Previously, we demonstrated that aerobic but not strength training lowered resting heart rate and increased cardiac vagal regulation, changes that were reversed by sedentary deconditioning. Here, we focus on the sympathetic nervous system and test whether aerobic training lowers levels of cardiovascular sympathetic activity in rest and that deconditioning would reverse this effect. We conducted a randomized controlled trial contrasting the effects of aerobic (A) versus strength (S) training on indices of cardiac (preejection period, or PEP) and vascular (low-frequency blood pressure variability, or LF BPV) sympathetic regulation in 149 young, healthy, and sedentary adults. Participants were studied before and after conditioning, as well as after 4 weeks of sedentary deconditioning. As previously reported, aerobic capacity increased in response to conditioning and decreased after deconditioning in the aerobic, but not the strength, training group. Contrary to prediction, there was no differential effect of training on either PEP (A: mean [SD] -0.83 [7.8] milliseconds versus S: 1.47 [6.69] milliseconds) or LF BPV (A: mean [SD] -0.09 [0.93] ln mm Hg(2) versus S: 0.06 [0.79] ln mm Hg(2)) (both p values > .05). These findings, from a large randomized controlled trial using an intent-to-treat design, show that moderate aerobic exercise training has no effect on resting state cardiovascular indices of PEP and LF BPV. These results indicate that in healthy, young adults, the cardioprotective effects of exercise training are unlikely to be mediated by changes in resting sympathetic activity. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00358137.

  17. Effects of moderate- versus high-intensity exercise training on physical fitness and physical function in people with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J David; Fletcher, James P; Mathis, Ruth Ann; Cade, W Todd

    2014-12-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving physical fitness and physical function in people with type 2 diabetes. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. The primary study objective was to investigate the effects of moderate- versus high-intensity exercise training on physical fitness and physical function in people with type 2 diabetes. This was a randomized clinical trial. The setting was a university campus. Twenty-one people with type 2 diabetes were randomly allocated to receive either moderate-intensity training (MOD group) or high-intensity training (HIGH group). The MOD group performed resistance training at an intensity of 75% of the 8-repetition maximum (8-RM) and aerobic training at an intensity of 30% to 45% of the heart rate reserve (HRR). The HIGH group performed resistance training at an intensity of 100% of the 8-RM and aerobic training at an intensity of 50% to 65% of the HRR. Muscle strength (peak torque [newton-meters]), exercise capacity (graded exercise test duration [minutes]), and physical function (Patient-Specific Functional Scale questionnaire) were measured at baseline and 3 months later. Acute exercise-induced changes in glucose levels were assessed immediately before exercise, immediately after exercise, and 1 hour after exercise during the first exercise training session. Although both groups showed improvements in physical fitness and physical function, the between-group effect sizes were not statistically significant (exercise capacity estimated marginal mean [EMM] difference=2.1, 95% confidence interval [95% CI]=-0.2, 4.5; muscle strength EMM difference=20.8, 95% CI=-23.3, 65.0; and physical function EMM difference=0.1, 95% CI=-0.6, 0.9). Mean percent changes in glucose levels measured immediately before exercise and immediately after exercise, immediately after exercise and 1 hour after exercise, and immediately before exercise and 1 hour after exercise for the

  18. Effect of Sling Exercise Training on Balance in Patients with Stroke: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianghua; Chen, Junqi; Peng, Qiyuan; Chen, Jingjie; Zou, Yucong; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of sling exercise training (SET) on balance in patients with stroke. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid LWW, CBM, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of the effect of SET on balance in patients with stroke. The study design and participants were subjected to metrological analysis. Berg balance Scale (BBS), Barthel index score (BI), and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) were used as independent parameters for evaluating balance function, activities of daily living(ADL) and motor function after stroke respectively, and were subjected to meta-analysis by RevMan5.3 software. Nine studies with 460 participants were analyzed. Results of meta-analysis showed that the SET treatment combined with conventional rehabilitation was superior to conventional rehabilitation treatments, with increased degrees of BBS (WMD = 3.81, 95% CI [0.15, 7.48], P = 0.04), BI (WMD = 12.98, 95% CI [8.39, 17.56], P risk of bias. Therefore, more multi-center and large-sampled randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm its clinical applications.

  19. Exercise and gait training in persons with paraplegia and its effect on muscle properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhide, Rohit Prakash; Solomons, Cassandra; Devsahayam, Suresh; Tharion, George

    2015-01-01

    Upper extremity strengthening and gait training with orthoses form a major part of inpatient rehabilitation of paraplegic patients in developing countries. This helps to overcome architectural barriers and limited wheelchair accessible environment in the community. To evaluate the changes in physiological properties of the Triceps Brachii muscle following exercise training in individuals with paraplegia. The authors also explored the correlation between muscle property changes and gait parameters using orthoses in paraplegic persons. Twelve subjects with complete paraplegia and neurological level of injury (NLI) from T9 to L1, underwent exercise training for a mean 64.1 ± 4.1 days. Triceps brachii was chosen as the sample muscle. Variables like arm circumference, time to fatigue and mean power frequency (MF) (surface EMG parameter), were recorded at the beginning and the end of training, during a sub-maximal isometric elbow extension. Non-parametric tests were used to assess statistical significance between the two recordings. Additionally, gait parameters like walking speed and distance (with the help of orthoses) were obtained and compared with the above variables, to determine impact of upper extremity strengthening on gait improvements in such patients. Statistically significant changes were noted in bilateral arm circumferences (p= 0.003 bilaterally) and MF drop, expressed as percentage (right p= 0.04, left p= 0.01), indicative of better muscle resilience and adaptation. Significant positive correlation was observed between `time to fatigue' and the orthoses-aided total walking distance (right ρ = 0.65, left ρ = 0.69). Exercise training induces noticeable changes in the muscles of upper extremities favoring better muscle adaptation. Furthermore, positive correlation between `time to fatigue' and (orthotic) aided walking distance highlights the positive impact of strengthening program on gait parameters in paraplegic patients. These findings are important

  20. [Effects of long-term exercise training on left ventricular function and remodeling in patients with anterior wall myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas-Estany, Eduardo; Sixto-Fernández, Sherien; Barrera-Sarduy, José; Hernández-García, Susana; González-Guerra, Roberto; Stusser-Beltranena, Rodolfo

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effects of long-term exercise training on the function and remodeling of the left ventricle after myocardial infarction. We studied 90 patients with a first acute anterior-wall myocardial infarction, all received conventional medical treatment. Symptom-limited maximal exercise stress tests, echocardiograms and effort-rest isotopic ventriculographies at 2, 6 and 12 months after myocardial infarction were performed; the follow-up time averaged 36.3±17 months. All patients joined a cardiac rehabilitation program with moderate or intense exercise training lasting at least a year. Of all patients, 41.1% suffered severe left ventricle dysfunction. Ergometric parameters that expressed functional capacity increased significantly (Pcardiovascular cause. Long-term exercise training showed no deleterious effects on left ventricle function or remodeling and beneficial functional and clinical effects were obtained in these rehabilitated postinfarction patients. Copyright © 2012 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, Teresa Cristina Barros; Cunha, Thays Crosara Abrahão; Moura-Guimaraes, Thais; Luz, Gabriela Pontes; Ackel-D'Elia, Carolina; Alves, Eduardo da Silva; Pantiga, Gilberto; Mello, Marco Tulio de; Tufik, Sergio; Bittencourt, Lia

    2013-01-01

    There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments. Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9), oral appliance (n = 9) and physical exercise (n = 7). Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness. Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.

  2. Comparison of the effects of continuous positive airway pressure, oral appliance and exercise training in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Barros Schutz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: There are several treatments for obstructive sleep apnea syndrome, such as weight loss, use of an oral appliance and continuous positive airway pressure, that can be used to reduce the signs and symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Few studies have evaluated the effectiveness of a physical training program compared with other treatments. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of physical exercise on subjective and objective sleep parameters, quality of life and mood in obstructive sleep apnea patients and to compare these effects with the effects of continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliance treatments. METHODS: Male patients with moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea and body mass indices less than 30 kg/m2 were randomly assigned to three groups: continuous positive airway pressure (n = 9, oral appliance (n = 9 and physical exercise (n = 7. Polysomnographic recordings, blood samples and daytime sleepiness measurements were obtained prior to and after two months of physical exercise or treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance. Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01289392 RESULTS: After treatment with continuous positive airway pressure or an oral appliance, the patients presented with a significant reduction in the apnea-hypopnea index. We did not observe changes in the sleep parameters studied in the physical exercise group. However, this group presented reductions in the following parameters: T leukocytes, very-low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Two months of exercise training also had a positive impact on subjective daytime sleepiness. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that isolated physical exercise training was able to modify only subjective daytime sleepiness and some blood measures. Continuous positive airway pressure and oral appliances modified the apnea-hypopnea index.

  3. The Effects of Endurance Exercise Training on the Coronary Vascular Responsiveness to Intracoronary Acetylcholine in Swine

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-09

    Katzung and Chatterjee, 1987). It took approximately 2 hours from the time the animal was anesthet ized, until completion of catheter and electrode...and CP levels during exercise after physical training in man. J. App!. Physio!. 33(2): 199- 203, 1972. Katzung , B.G. and 1. Chatterjee. Vasodilators...and the Treatment of Angina Pectoris. In: Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. third edition, edited by B.G. Katzung . Norwalk:Appleton & Lange, 1987, pp

  4. Content and Evaluation of the Benefits of Effective Exercise for Older Adults With Knee Pain Trial Physiotherapist Training Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Melanie A; Whittle, Rebecca; Healey, Emma L; Hill, Susan; Mullis, Ricky; Roddy, Edward; Sowden, Gail; Tooth, Stephanie; Foster, Nadine E

    2017-05-01

    To explore whether participating in the Benefits of Effective Exercise for knee Pain (BEEP) trial training program increased physiotherapists' self-confidence and changed their intended clinical behavior regarding exercise for knee pain in older adults. Before/after training program evaluation. Physiotherapists were asked to complete a questionnaire before the BEEP trial training program, immediately after, and 12 to 18 months later (postintervention delivery in the BEEP trial). The questionnaire included a case vignette and associated clinical management questions. Questionnaire responses were compared over time and between physiotherapists trained to deliver each intervention within the BEEP trial. Primary care. Physiotherapists (N=53) who completed the BEEP trial training program. Not applicable. Self-confidence in the diagnosis and management of knee pain in older adults; and intended clinical behavior measured by a case vignette and associated clinical management questions. Fifty-two physiotherapists (98%) returned the pretraining questionnaire, and 44 (85%) and 39 (74%) returned the posttraining and postintervention questionnaires, respectively. Posttraining, self-confidence in managing older adults with knee pain increased, and intended clinical behavior regarding exercise for knee pain in older adults appeared more in line with clinical guidelines. However, not all positive changes were maintained in the longer-term. Participating in the BEEP trial training program increased physiotherapists' self-confidence and changed their intended clinical behavior regarding exercise for knee pain, but by 12 to 18 months later, some of these positive changes were lost. This suggests that brief training programs are useful, but additional strategies are likely needed to successfully maintain changes in clinical behavior over time. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  6. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculosk...

  7. Effects of Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability in Chagas Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ramos Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart rate variability (HRV is a marker of autonomic dysfunction severity. The effects of physical training on HRV indexes in Chagas heart disease (CHD are not well established. Objective: To evaluate the changes in HRV indexes in response to physical training in CHD. Methods: Patients with CHD and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, physically inactive, were randomized either to the intervention (IG, N = 18 or control group (CG, N = 19. The IG participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of 3 sessions/week. Results: Mean age was 49.5 ± 8 years, 59% males, mean LVEF was 36.3 ± 7.8%. Baseline HRV indexes were similar between groups. From baseline to follow-up, total power (TP: 1653 (IQ 625 - 3418 to 2794 (1617 - 4452 ms, p = 0.02 and very low frequency power: 586 (290 - 1565 to 815 (610 - 1425 ms, p = 0.047 increased in the IG, but not in the CG. The delta (post - pre HRV indexes were similar: SDNN 11.5 ± 30.0 vs. 3.7 ± 25.1 ms. p = 0.10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17 vs. 1 (21 - 9 ms. p = 0.43; TP 943 (731 - 3130 vs. 1780 (921 - 2743 Hz. p = 0.46; low frequency power (LFP 1.0 (150 - 197 vs. 60 (111 - 146 Hz. p = 0.85; except for high frequency power, which tended to increase in the IG: 42 (133 - 92 vs. 79 (61 - 328 Hz. p = 0.08. Conclusion: In the studied population, the variation of HRV indexes was similar between the active and inactive groups. Clinical improvement with physical activity seems to be independent from autonomic dysfunction markers in CHD.

  8. Effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii and treadmill walking exercise on balance and walking for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yo-Soon; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii on balance and walking for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty stroke patients with stroke were randomly divided into two exercise program groups: virtual reality training (n=20) and treadmill (n=20). The subjects underwent their 40-minute exercise program three times a week for eight weeks. Their balance and walking were measured before and after the complete program. We measured the left/right weight-bearing and the anterior/posterior weight-bearing for balance, as well as stance phase, swing phase, and cadence for walking. [Results] For balance, both groups showed significant differences in the left/right and anterior/posterior weight-bearing, with significant post-program differences between the groups. For walking, there were significant differences in the stance phase, swing phase, and cadence of the virtual reality training group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that virtual reality training providing visual feedback may enable stroke patients to directly adjust their incorrect weight center and shift visually. Virtual reality training may be appropriate for patients who need improved balance and walking ability by inducing their interest for them to perform planned exercises on a consistent basis.

  9. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Methods Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. Results HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (Ppeak and Pmean) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (Pmusic during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. Conclusions As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs’ muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises. PMID:23342221

  10. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shenghui; Park, Kyung-Shin; McCormick, Joseph B

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI), and high-intensity training group (HI). Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50-56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI) or 65-70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI). Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI). Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  11. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  12. Effects of oxygen delivery, dietary nitrate, intensified training and prior exercise on oxygen uptake kinetics and performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller

    benefits from supplementing with nitrate to improve exercise efficiency and performance in endurance trained subjects. Furthermore it appears difficult to improve VO2 kinetics with intensified training in trained athletes; however intense exercise can amplify the VO2 response during subsequent high...... the understanding of which mechanisms are regulating VO2 kinetics, in particular at the onset of exercise, five studies were performed manipulating oxygen delivery, dietary nitrate, training intensity and prior exercise intensity. Also the influence on performance capacity was evaluated with some...... was limiting VO2 in the first exercise bout. In study III increased dietary nitrate intake in the form of beetroot juice – expected to increase nitric oxide levels - did not improve exercise economy or performance in highly trained cyclists unlike previous observations in untrained or moderately trained...

  13. Effects of walking and strength training on resting and exercise cardiovascular responses in patients with intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grizzo Cucato, G; de Moraes Forjaz, C L; Kanegusuku, H; da Rocha Chehuen, M; Riani Costa, L A; Wolosker, N; Kalil Filho, R; de Fátima Nunes Marucci, M; Mendes Ritti-Dias, R

    2011-09-01

    Exercise training is recommended as the first-line therapy for intermittent claudication patients. However, the effects of exercise therapy on cardiovascular function of these patients have been poorly studied. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of walking and strength training on cardiovascular responses assessed at rest and during exercise in patients with intermittent claudication. Thirty-four patients with stable symptoms of intermittent claudication were randomized into two groups: strength training (ST) consisting of eight exercises, three sets of 10 repetitions, intensity of 11 - 13 on 15-grade Borg scale, 2-min interval between sets; and walking training (WT) consisting of walking on a treadmill, 15 bouts of 2-min, intensity of 11 - 13 on 15-grade Borg scale, with a 2-min interval between bouts. Before and after 12 weeks, blood pressure, heart rate and rate pressure product were measured at rest and during a progressive treadmill test until maximal claudication pain. Fifteen patients in each group completed the training program. After the training programs, resting systolic blood pressure (ST:-6 ± 13 mmHg and WT:-3 ± 18 mmHg, P = .04), heart rate (ST: -6 ± 10 bpm and WT:-2 ± 9 bpm, P = .03), and rate pressure product (ST:-1485 ± 1442 mmHg*bpm and WT:- 605 ± 2145 mmHg*bpm, P = .01) decreased significantly and similarly in both groups. Submaximal systolic blood pressure (ST: -14 ± 23 mmHg and WT:-6 ± 23 mmHg, P = .02), and rate pressure product (ST:-1579 ± 3444 mmHg*bpm and WT: -1264 ± 3005 mmHg*bpm, P = .04) decreased significantly and similarly in both groups. There were no changes in submaximal heart rate after ST and WT. Maximal systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and rate pressure product did not change in either group, although maximal exercise time increased similarly in the ST and WT groups (+31 ± 19 %, and +31 ± 32 %, respectively, P trainings promoted similar increases in walking capacity and decreases in resting and

  14. The effects of a bridge exercise with vibration training and an unstable base of support on lumbar stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinsik; Lee, Sangyong; Hwangbo, Gak

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a bridge exercise with vibration training and an unstable base of support on lumbar stabilization. [Subjects] This study assigned healthy adults in their 20s to a bridge exercise with a sling and vibration group (BESV, n=20) and a bridge exercise with a sling group (BESG, n=20). [Methods] Electromyography was used to comparatively analyze the activity of the internal obliques (IO), external obliques (EO), and rectus abdominis (RA) when local vibration was applied during a bridge exercise that used a sling as an unstable base of support. [Results] There were statistically significant increases in the activity of the IO and EO within each group after the intervention. The activity of the IO and the EO was significantly higher in the BESV group than in the BES group after the intervention. [Conclusion] The bridge exercise performed using vibration training on an unstable base of support increased the activity of the IO and the EO, which improved lumbar stabilization.

  15. Effect of resistance training using bodyweight in the elderly: Comparison of resistance exercise movement between slow and normal speed movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Yuya; Tanimoto, Michiya; Oba, Naoko; Sanada, Kiyoshi; Miyachi, Motohiko; Ishii, Naokata

    2015-12-01

    The present study investigated whether a slow movement protocol can be applied to resistance training using bodyweight. In addition, the intervention program combined plyometric exercise with resistance exercise to improve physical function overall. A total of 39 active elderly adults participated in a 16-week intervention. The program consisted of five resistance exercises and four plyometric exercises using their own bodyweight with a single set for each exercise. Participants were assigned to one of two experimental groups. One group carried out resistance exercise with slow movement and tonic force generation (3-s concentric, 3-s eccentric and 1-s isometric actions with no rest between each repetition). The other group as a movement comparison followed the same regimen, but at normal speed (1-s eccentric and 1-s concentric actions with 1-s rest between each repetition). Muscle size, strength and physical function were measured before and after the intervention period. After the intervention, strengths of upper and lower limbs, and maximum leg extensor power were significantly improved in both groups. Muscle size did not change in either group. There were no significant differences in any of the parameters between groups. The intervention program using only own bodyweight that comprised resistance exercise with slow movement and plyometric exercise can improve physical function in the elderly, even with single sets for each exercise. However, there was no enhanced muscle hypertrophic effect. Further attempts, such as increasing performing multiple sets, would be required to induce muscle hypertrophy. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2015; 15: 1270-1277. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Effect of exercise training on in vivo lipolysis in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitoneal......, parametrial, and mesenteric) and in subcutaneous AT, and we also studied the effect of physical training. Moreover, we studied the effect of physical training on epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in muscle in vivo. Female rats were either swim trained (15 wk, n = 8) or sedentary (n = 7). Under anesthesia......: 73 +/- 12 (trained) vs. 14 +/- 4 (sedentary) ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), P

  17. Twenty-five years of research on the effects of exercise training in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Claudio L; Mills, Robert C; Phillips, Brett L; Lee, Jordan T; Story, Christina E; Nascimento, Marcelo Gb; Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2014-05-10

    To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise.

  18. The effect of six weeks endurance training on dynamic muscular control of the knee following fatiguing exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanlouei, H; Falla, D; Arendt-Nielsen, L; Kersting, U G

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the study was to examine whether six weeks of endurance training minimizes the effects of fatigue on postural control during dynamic postural perturbations. Eighteen healthy volunteers were assigned to either a 6-week progressive endurance training program on a cycle ergometer or a control group. At week 0 and 7, dynamic exercise was performed on an ergometer until exhaustion and immediately after, the anterior-posterior centre of pressure (COP) sway was analyzed during full body perturbations. Maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) of the knee flexors and extensors, muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) of the vastus lateralis and medialis during sustained isometric knee extension contractions, and power output were measured. Following the training protocol, maximum knee extensor and flexor force and power output increased significantly for the training group with no changes observed for the control group. Moreover, the reduction of MFCV due to fatigue changed for the training group only (from 8.6% to 3.4%). At baseline, the fatiguing exercise induced an increase in the centre of pressure sway during the perturbations in both groups (>10%). The fatiguing protocol also impaired postural control in the control group when measured at week 7. However, for the training group, sway was not altered after the fatiguing exercise when assessed at week 7. In summary, six weeks of endurance training delayed the onset of muscle fatigue and improved the ability to control balance in response to postural perturbations in the presence of muscle fatigue. Results implicate that endurance training should be included in any injury prevention program. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of training on the exercise-induced changes in serum amino acids and hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitkanen, Hannu; Mero, Antti; Oja, Simo S; Komi, Paavo V; Rusko, Heikki; Nummela, Ari; Saransaari, Pirjo; Takala, Timo

    2002-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine power-type athletes to determine changes in amino acid and hormone concentrations in circulating blood following 2 different high-intensity exercise sessions before and after the 5-week training period. Eleven competitive male sprinters and jumpers performed 2 different running exercise sessions: a short run session (SRS) of 3 x 4 x 60 m (intensity of 91-95%) with recoveries of 120 and 360 seconds, and a long run session (LRS) with 20-second intervals (intensity of 56-100%) with recoveries of 100 seconds to exhaustion. The concentrations of serum amino acids, hormones, and lactate were determined from the blood samples drawn after an overnight fast and 10 minutes before and after both SRS and LRS. The average blood lactate concentrations were 12.7 +/- 1.6 mmol;pdL(-1) and 16.6 +/- 1.4 mmol;pdL(-1) (p training period was compared, significant decreases were found in valine (p = 0.048), asparagine (p = 0.029), and taurine (p = 0.030) following SRS. There were significant increases in the absolute hormonal concentration changes following LRS with TE (p = 0.002; 30.4%), cortisol (COR; p = 0.006; 12.0%), and in the TE/COR ratio (p = 0.047; 21.0%) but not in the concentration of growth hormone (GH). The results of the study indicate that the speed and strength training period strongly decreases the fasting concentrations of amino acids in the power-trained athletes in a good anabolic state with the daily protein intake of 1.26 g;pdkg(-1) body weight. At the same time the intensive lactic exercise session induces strong decreases, especially in valine, asparagine, and taurine.

  20. The effect of exercise-induced hypoxemia on blood redox status in well-trained rowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyparos, Antonios; Riganas, Christos; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Sampanis, Michalis; Koskolou, Maria D; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Kouretas, Dimitrios; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2012-06-01

    Exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia (EIAH), characterized by decline in arterial oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO(2)), is a common phenomenon in endurance athletes. Acute intensive exercise is associated with the generation of reactive species that may result in redox status disturbances and oxidation of cell macromolecules. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether EIAH augments oxidative stress as determined in blood plasma and erythrocytes in well-trained male rowers after a 2,000-m rowing ergometer race. Initially, athletes were assigned into either the normoxemic (n = 9, SaO(2) >92%, [Formula: see text]: 62.0 ± 1.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) or hypoxemic (n = 12, SaO(2) <92%, [Formula: see text]: 60.5 ± 2.2 ml kg(-1 )min(-1), mean ± SEM) group, following an incremental [Formula: see text] test on a wind resistance braked rowing ergometer. On a separate day the rowers performed a 2,000-m all-out effort on the same rowing ergometer. Following an overnight fast, blood samples were drawn from an antecubital vein before and immediately after the termination of the 2,000-m all-out effort and analyzed for selective oxidative stress markers. In both the normoxemic (SaO(2): 94.1 ± 0.9%) and hypoxemic (SaO(2): 88.6 ± 2.4%) rowers similar and significant exercise increase in serum thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, protein carbonyls, catalase and total antioxidant capacity concentration were observed post-2,000 m all-out effort. Exercise significantly increased the oxidized glutathione concentration and decreased the ratio of reduced (GSH)-to-oxidized (GSSG) glutathione in the normoxemic group only, whereas the reduced form of glutathione remained unaffected in either groups. The increased oxidation of GSH to GSSG in erythrocytes of normoxemic individuals suggest that erythrocyte redox status may be affected by the oxygen saturation degree of hemoglobin. Our findings indicate that exercise-induced hypoxemia did not further affect the increased blood

  1. Effects of losartan combined with exercise training in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.F. Azevedo

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate whether combined treatment with losartan, an angiotensin II receptor blocker, and exercise training (ET in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR would have an additive effect in reducing hypertension and improving baroreflex sensitivity when compared with losartan alone. Male SHR (8 weeks old were assigned to 3 groups: sedentary placebo (SP, N = 16, sedentary under losartan treatment (SL, N = 11; 10 mg kg-1 day-1, by gavage, and ET under losartan treatment (TL, N = 10. ET was performed on a treadmill 5 days/week for 60 min at 50% of peak VO2, for 18 weeks. Blood pressure (BP was measured with a catheter inserted into the carotid artery, and cardiac output with a microprobe placed around the ascending aorta. The baroreflex control of heart rate was assessed by administering increasing doses of phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside (iv. Losartan significantly reduced mean BP (178 ± 16 vs 132 ± 12 mmHg and left ventricular hypertrophy (2.9 ± 0.4 vs 2.5 ± 0.2 mg/g, and significantly increased baroreflex bradycardia and tachycardia sensitivity (1.0 ± 0.3 vs 1.7 ± 0.5 and 2.0 ± 0.7 vs 3.2 ± 1.7 bpm/mmHg, respectively in SL compared with SP. However, losartan combined with ET had no additional effect on BP, baroreflex sensitivity or left ventricular hypertrophy when compared with losartan alone. In conclusion, losartan attenuates hypertension and improves baroreflex sensitivity in SHR. However, ET has no synergistic effect on BP in established hypertension when combined with losartan, at least at the dosage used in this investigation.

  2. Randomized, blinded, controlled trial on effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy and exercise training in the fibromyalgia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariana Moreira; Albertini, Regiane; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Vieira, Stella Sousa; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Grandinetti, Vanessa; Silva, José Antonio; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the role of the phototherapy and exercise training (EXT) as well as the combined treatment in general symptoms, pain, and quality of life in women suffering from fibromyalgia (FM). A total of 160 women were enrolled and measures were carried out in two sets: it was sought to identify the acute effect for a single phototherapy and EXT session (Set 1); long-term effect (10 weeks) of the interventions (Set 2). Phototherapy irradiation was performed at 11 locations in their bodies, employing a cluster with nine diodes (one super-pulsed infrared 905 nm, four light-emitting diodes [LEDs] of 640 nm, and four LEDs of 875 nm, 39.3 J per location). Algometry and VAS instrument were applied to evaluate pain. The FM symptoms were evaluated with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) instruments. Quality of life was assessed through SF-36 survey. Set 1: pain threshold was improved with the phototherapy, and EXT improved the pain threshold for temporomandibular joint (right and left body side) and occipital site (right body side). Set 2: there was improved pain threshold in several tender points with the phototherapy and EXT. There was an overlap of therapies to reduce the tender point numbers, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep, and difficulty sleeping on FIQ/RDC scores. Moreover, quality of life was improved with both therapies. The phototherapy and EXT improved the pain threshold in FM women. A more substantial effect was noticed for the combined therapy, in which pain relief was accomplished by improving VAS and FIQ scores as well as quality of life.

  3. High-intensity interval training (HIT) for effective and time-efficient pre-surgical exercise interventions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Weston, Matthew; Weston, Kathryn L; Prentis, James M; Snowden, Chris P

    2016-01-01

    .... Indeed, the general benefits of exercise training have the potential to pre-operatively optimise several pre-surgical risks factors, including cardiorespiratory function, frailty and cognitive function...

  4. Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A 30-day 6 deg. head-down bed rest study was conducted to evaluate high-intensity, short-duration, alternating isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regiments designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (acclimation) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (a) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (b) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40%, but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regiments, and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  5. Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric trunk extension and flexion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  7. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease (Review)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  8. Effect of Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle SIRT1 and PGC-1α Expression Levels in Rats of Different Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Chang; Wang, Ting; Tung, Yu-Tang; Lin, Wan-Teng

    2016-01-01

    The protein deacetylase sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) pathway drives the muscular fiber-type switching, and can directly regulate the biophysiological functions of skeletal muscle. To investigate whether 12-week swimming exercise training modulates the SIRT1/PGC-1α pathway associated proteins expression in rats of different age. Male 3-month-old (3M), 12-month-old (12M) and 18-month-old (18M) Sprague-Dawley rats were used and assigned to sedentary control (C) or 12-week swimming exercise training (E) and divided into six groups: 3MC (n = 8), 12MC (n = 6), 18MC (n = 8), 3ME (n = 8), 12ME (n = 5) and 18ME (n = 6). Body weight, muscle weight, epididymal fat mass and muscle morphology were performed at the end of the experiment. The protein levels of SIRT1, PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were examined. The SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK levels in the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles were up-regulated in the three exercise training groups than three control groups. The FOXO3a level in the 12ME group significantly increased in the gastrocnemius muscles than 12MC group, but significantly decreased in the soleus muscles. In 3-, 12- and 18-month-old rats with and without exercise, there was a significant main effect of exercise on PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a in the gastrocnemius muscles, and SIRT1, PGC-1α and AMPK in the soleus muscles. Our result suggests that swimming training can regulate the SIRT1/PGC-1α, AMPK and FOXO3a proteins expression of the soleus muscles in aged rats.

  9. Modes of exercise training for intermittent claudication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauret, Gert Jan; Fakhry, Farzin; Fokkenrood, Hugo J P; Hunink, M G Myriam; Teijink, Joep A W; Spronk, Sandra

    2014-07-04

    According to international guidelines and literature, all patients with intermittent claudication should receive an initial treatment of cardiovascular risk modification, lifestyle coaching, and supervised exercise therapy. In most studies, supervised exercise therapy consists of treadmill or track walking. However, alternative modes of exercise therapy have been described and yielded similar results to walking. Therefore, the following question remains: Which exercise mode gives the most beneficial results? To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on the maximum walking distance (MWD) of patients with intermittent claudication. To assess the effects of different modes of supervised exercise therapy on pain-free walking distance (PFWD) and health-related quality of life scores (HR-QoL) of patients with intermittent claudication. The Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Trials Search Co-ordinator searched the Cochrane Peripheral Vascular Diseases Group Specialised Register (July 2013); CENTRAL (2013, Issue 6), in The Cochrane Lib rary; and clinical trials databases. The authors searched the MEDLINE (1946 to July 2013) and Embase (1973 to July 2013) databases and reviewed the reference lists of identified articles to detect other relevant citations. Randomised controlled trials of studies comparing alternative modes of exercise training or combinations of exercise modes with a control group of supervised walking exercise in patients with clinically determined intermittent claudication. The supervised walking programme needed to be supervised at least twice a week for a consecutive six weeks of training. Two authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias for each study. Because of different treadmill test protocols to assess the maximum or pain-free walking distance, we converted all distances or walking times to total metabolic equivalents (METs) using the American College of Sports Medicine

  10. The Effect of Exercise Training on Mediators of Inflammation in Breast Cancer Survivors: A Systematic Review with Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneses-Echávez, Jose F; Correa-Bautista, Jorge E; González-Jiménez, Emilio; Schmidt Río-Valle, Jacqueline; Elkins, Mark R; Lobelo, Felipe; Ramírez-Vélez, Robinson

    2016-07-01

    Several sources of evidence indicate that exercise during and after breast cancer could positively modulate the tumor microenvironment. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the effects of exercise training on mediators of inflammation in breast cancer survivors. We searched for randomized controlled trials published from January 1990 to March 2014. An inverse variance method of meta-analysis was performed using a random effects model in the presence of statistical heterogeneity. Eight high-quality trials (n = 478) were included. Exercise improved the serum concentrations of IL6 [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.55 pg/mL; 95% confidence interval (CI), -1.02 to -0.09], TNFα (WMD = -0.64 pg/mL; 95% CI, -1.21 to -0.06), IL8 (MD = -0.49 pg/mL; 95% CI, -0.89 to -0.09), and IL2 (WMD = 1.03 pg/mL; 95% CI, 0.40 to 1.67). No significant differences were found in the serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (WMD = -0.15; 95% CI, -0.56 to 0.25) or IL10 (WMD = 0.41; 95% CI, -0.18 to 1.02). Exercise training positively modulates chronic low-grade inflammation in women with breast cancer, which may impact upon carcinogenic mechanisms and the tumor microenvironment. These findings align with the other positive effects of exercise for breast cancer survivors, reinforcing the appropriateness of exercise prescription in this population. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 25(7); 1009-17. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Effect of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Etemadifar, Masoud; Baker, Peter; Mehrabi, Maryam; Hayatbakhsh, Reza

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled trial, 4-week and 8-week follow-up. Referral center of a multiple sclerosis society. Women (N=32) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (mean age ± SD, 32.6±8.0y) were recruited into this study. After undergoing baseline testing by a neurologist, participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (aquatic exercise) or a control group. The intervention consisted of 8 weeks supervised aquatic exercise in a swimming pool (3 times a week, each session lasting 60min). At baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, fatigue and HRQOL were assessed by a blind assessor using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire, respectively. A mixed-model approach to repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect within- and between-subject effects. Findings are based on 21 patients (10 from the exercise group and 11 from the control group) who had data available on outcomes. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups at the baseline. Patients in the aquatic exercise group showed significant improvements in fatigue and subscores of HRQOL after 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control group. Results obtained from the intention-to-treat analysis were consistent with those of per-protocol analysis. The findings suggest that aquatic exercise training can effectively improve fatigue and HRQOL of patients with MS and should be considered in the management of this relatively common public health problem. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of exercise training on adipocyte-size-dependent expression of leptin and adiponectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, Satoko; Izawa, Tetsuya; Ogasawara, Jun-etsu; Sakurai, Takuya; Nomura, Sachiko; Kizaki, Takako; Ohno, Hideki; Komabayashi, Takao

    2010-04-24

    Our aim was to evaluate the effect of exercise training (TR) on adipocyte-size-dependent expression of leptin and adiponectin. Male Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups, sedentary control (CR) and TR group, and both monitored for 9weeks. Adipocytes isolated from epididymal, retroperitoneal, and inguinal fat depots were independently separated into 3 fractions of different cell size, and the relationships between adipocyte size and either leptin or adiponectin mRNA were determined by real-time RT-PCR analysis. In epididymal and inguinal adipose tissue, positive relationships between adipocyte size and both leptin and adiponectin mRNA expression were found. Comparison of TR and CR rats showed no significant effect of TR on the slopes of the linear regression lines of correlation between leptin mRNA and adipocyte size in either adipose tissue, whereas the slopes of the regression line of correlation between adipocyte size and adiponectin mRNA were greater in TR group. Leptin levels per milliliter of plasma were significantly lower in TR than CR rats, whereas leptin levels adjusted to the 3 fat depots did not differ. TR did not affect adiponectin levels in plasma, whereas adiponectin levels adjusted to the 3 fat depots were significantly greater in TR than CR group. TR-induced reduction in leptin mRNA expression was closely associated with smaller adipocyte size. However, TR amplified the adipocyte-size-dependent expression of adiponectin mRNA, suggesting that TR-induced alterations in adiponectin mRNA may also be mediated by factor(s) other than adipocyte size.

  13. Effects of a 12-week exercise training on insulin sensitivity, quality of life, and depression status in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise is one of the optimal and alternative treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Although the effect of a single bout of exercise on insulin sensitivity is reported to persist only for 2–3 days, effects remain unclear of a 12-week aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity, quality of life (QOL, and depression status over time as exercise training duration increases in patients with T2DM. Objectives: To investigate the effects over time in patients with T2DM of a 12-week aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity, QOL, and depression status. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 17 T2DM patients. Participants underwent a 12-week, supervised, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training three times per week, 30 min per session. Outcome indicators including insulin sensitivity (measured by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], QOL (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, and depression status (beck depression inventory scale were evaluated at baseline and at 4-week intervals. Results: A final 13 eligible participants completed the study. For every 4-week increase in duration of exercise training, there was an increase over time in insulin sensitivity, including a decrease over time in OGTT glucose area under the curve of 66.92 min/mmol/L. Glucose concentrations decreased over time at 60, 90, and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge. Further, the HOMA-IR decreased over time as the duration of exercise training increased. QOL and depression status improved significantly during the training. Conclusions: Moderate-intensity exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, QOL, and depression status in T2DM patients, particularly over time within a 12-week exercise training course.

  14. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  15. Aquatic exercise is as effective as dry land training to blood pressure reduction in postmenopausal hypertensive women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arca, Eduardo Aguilar; Martinelli, Bruno; Martin, Luis Cuadrado; Waisberg, César Becalel; Franco, Roberto Jorge da Silva

    2014-06-01

    The evidence of the benefits from regular physical activity to hypertensives is based on dry land training studies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to compare the effect of aquatic exercise with dry land training on hypertensive women. This is a randomized controlled study with 52 post-menopausal hypertensive women. The patients were randomly allocated in three groups: water aerobic training group (n = 19), dry land aerobic training group (n = 19) and a non-intervention control group (n = 14). The training protocol was performed by 12 weeks. There were no differences among the three groups concerning basal blood pressure (BP) and biochemical variables. In water group, there was a statistically significant reduction of systolic BP from 136 ± 16 mm Hg at zero week to 124 ± 18 mm Hg at 11th week and 124 ± 15 mm Hg at 12th week. In dry land training group, there was a statistically significant reduction of systolic BP from 138 ± 15 mm Hg at zero week to 125 ± 10 mm Hg at 7th week, 127 ± 10 mm Hg at 10th week and 126 ± 9 mm Hg at 12th week. The control group presented no change in any of the assessed variables. No changes were carried out in any antihypertensive medications during study. This is a randomized controlled study that demonstrates the antihypertensive efficacy of aerobic aquatic exercise. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Effect of progressive resistive exercise training in improving mobility and functional ability of middle adulthood patients with chronic kidney disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjiv K Sah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD in their middle adulthood are more prone to reduced mobility than younger patients having the same medical condition. Progressive resistive exercise training (PRT is deemed an effective treatment approach for the management of muscular weakness in patients with CKD. The present review is an attempt to understand the effectiveness of PRT in the mobility and functional ability of patients suffering from CKD. We systematically searched electronic databases, including Medline, Scopus, PubMed, CINAHL, PEDRo and Cochrane, to review the published literature on this subject. Electronic searches were limited to training programs carried out on resistive, aerobic, endurance and therapeutic exercises reporting outcome measures including muscular strength, size, physical function and functional capacity in the clinical population with CKD aged >40 years. Studies with a minimum duration of eight weeks of exercise training or more were considered eligible for review. The methodological criteria of the included studies were assessed with the PEDro scale. A total of 80 articles were identified using the keywords in the above-mentioned databases. However, based on the study′s inclusion and exclusion criteria, only 11 articles were finally included. The results of this review substantiate the effectiveness of PRT in patients with CKD. However, further research is warranted in this area due to the limited availability of high-quality published evidence.

  17. The effect of endurance training on cell metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with ischemic heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Rychlewski

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the effect of endurance training on cell metabolism and exercise tolerance in patients with ischemic heart disease. Study population consisted of 24 survivors of myocardial infarction. Patients were assigned to the training group (n=18, mean age 48.2 years or to the control group (n=6, mean age 42.6 years. Directly before (ExTest I and after completing a 3-week endurance training program (ExTest II patients performed bicycle ergometry with computer analysis of ventilatory expired gas (CardioO2, Medical Graphics Corporation. The exercise intensity increased gradually until ventilatory threshold was reached. ExTest II was finished at the same workload level as ExTest I. ECG was recorded and blood pressure was assessed during each ergometry. Prior to and 3 minutes after finishing each test, capillary blood samples were taken for measurements of acid-base equilibrium parameters and lactate concentrations and venous blood samples were collected for assessment of oxypurines and uric acid levels (HPLC method. The training consisted of five 40-min sessions of continuos working on a bicycle ergometer weekly. The workload was 25 W lower than the load at which ventilatory threshold had been reached by the patient. Subjects in the control group did not participate in endurance training. During exercise tests performed after the rehabilitation program, heart rate and rate-pressure product at particular workload were lower than on admission. Similarly, the increases in lactate concentrations and changes in base excess were reduced during ExTest II. The oxypurines pool was reduced after the training, which reflects improvement in cell metabolism. No influence of training on uric acid concentrations was observed.

  18. Glucose kinetics during prolonged exercise in highly trained human subjects: effect of glucose ingestion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeukendrup, Asker E; Raben, Anne; Gijsen, Annemie; Stegen, Jos H C H; Brouns, Fred; Saris, Wim H M; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to investigate whether glucose ingestion during prolonged exercise reduces whole body muscle glycogen oxidation, (2) to determine the extent to which glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized during exercise with and without carbohydrate ingestion and (3) to obtain an estimate of gluconeogenesis. After an overnight fast, six well-trained cyclists exercised on three occasions for 120 min on a bicycle ergometer at 50% maximum velocity of O2 uptake and ingested either water (Fast), or a 4% glucose solution (Lo-Glu) or a 22% glucose solution (Hi-Glu) during exercise. Dual tracer infusion of [U-13C]-glucose and [6,6-2H2]-glucose was given to measure the rate of appearance (Ra) of glucose, muscle glycogen oxidation, glucose carbon recycling, metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and non-oxidative disposal of glucose. Glucose ingestion markedly increased total Ra especially with Hi-Glu. After 120 min Ra and rate of disappearance (Rd) of glucose were 51-52 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Fast, 73-74 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Lo-Glu and 117–119 μmol kg−1 min−1 during Hi-Glu. The percentage of Rd oxidized was between 96 and 100% in all trials. Glycogen oxidation during exercise was not reduced by glucose ingestion. The vast majority of glucose disappearing from the plasma is oxidized and MCR increased markedly with glucose ingestion. Glucose carbon recycling was minimal suggesting that gluconeogenesis in these conditions is negligible. PMID:10050023

  19. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  20. Effects of exercise training on subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue in normal- and high-fat diet-fed rats

    OpenAIRE

    Gollisch, Katja S. C.; Brandauer, Josef; Jessen, Niels; Toyoda, Taro; Nayer, Ali; Hirshman, Michael F.; Goodyear, Laurie J.

    2009-01-01

    Regular physical activity improves glucose tolerance and decreases adiposity. Our aim was to investigate the effects of exercise training on subcutaneous (inguinal) and visceral (parametrial) adipose tissue in rats that were fed a chow diet (13% fat) or made insulin resistant by a high-fat diet (60% fat). Sprague-Dawley rats performed 4 wk of voluntary wheel running or were kept as sedentary controls. The training groups fed chow and the high-fat diet achieved similar running distances (8.8 ±...

  1. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  2. Exercise training for tennis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, T J

    1995-01-01

    Tennis is a physically demanding sport. A complete conditioning program designed to address both the demands of the sport and the individual player's musculoskeletal base is important in tennis, particularly at the competitive junior and professional levels. Recreational players can certainly use conditioning to improve their level of performance, but the primary concern in this group is general fitness development and injury prevention. In the junior player, physical development should begin with a sound program for physical fitness, including flexibility, cardiorespiratory endurance, general strength, and muscular endurance. Once a sound fitness base has been developed, the competitive junior players should progress to conditioning for sport specific movements and for injury prevention. At the elite level, tennis players should have previously developed a sound general physical fitness base. These players can then spend a greater percentage of their conditioning time on athletic fitness and sport specific movement training, as well as injury prevention. By addressing all of the components of a total body conditioning program, the possibility of peak performance of the individual tennis player is enhanced.

  3. Long-term exercise training with constant energy intake. 1: Effect on body composition and selected metabolic variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, C; Tremblay, A; Nadeau, A; Dussault, J; Després, J P; Theriault, G; Lupien, P J; Serresse, O; Boulay, M R; Fournier, G

    1990-01-01

    The effects of long-term negative energy balance generated by exercise while maintaining a constant energy intake were studied in five healthy young males (25 +/- 3 years; mean +/- s.d.). After 2 weeks of monitoring to determine habitual energy intake, they were subjected to a 100-day experimental period during which they exercised on a cycle ergometer, 6 days a week, twice a day at 55 per cent of VO2 max. The daily energy deficit was 4.2 MJ for a total of 353 MJ for the duration of the treatment. Body weight decreased from 86.7 to 78.7 kg (P less than 0.001). More than 80 per cent of the weight loss was accounted for by the reductions in fat mass. Fat-free mass did not change significantly. The data suggest that subcutaneous fat was lost about evenly from the trunk and from the limbs as estimated from skinfolds. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic responses to submaximal work loads indicate that the low intensity exercise regimen was capable of inducing some of the known adaptations of exercise training such as a decrease in plasma insulin and norepinephrine concentrations during exercise, reductions in heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and blood lactate concentration at a given exercise intensity, and an increase in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. The energy cost of sitting and standing was not decreased in spite of the loss in body mass. However, the energy cost of submaximal cycling and walking exercises was reduced considerably. These results clearly demonstrate that it is quite possible to lose fat while preserving fat-free mass through regular prolonged exercise of moderate intensity if energy intake is kept constant at baseline level. They also emphasize the importance of the individual differences in response to negative energy balance.

  4. Low-flow mediated constriction is endothelium-dependent: effects of exercise training after radial artery catheterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Ellen A; Alkarmi, Amr; Thijssen, Dick H J; Rathore, Sudhir; Marsman, Diane E; Cable, N Timothy; Wright, D Jay; Green, Daniel J

    2012-10-01

    Radial artery catheterization is associated with endothelial denudation and impaired vasodilator function, while postcatheterization exercise training may enhance artery function. The impact of catheterization and subsequent exercise training on low-flow mediated vasoconstriction (L-FMC) has not previously been studied. The aim of this study was to examine whether radial artery L-FMC is impaired by catheterization and consequent endothelial denudation. A further aim was to examine the effect of local handgrip exercise training on radial artery L-FMC and flow-mediated dilation (FMD) after transradial catheterization. Thirty-two subjects undergoing transradial catheterization underwent assessment of L-FMC and FMD in the catheterized and contralateral radial artery before, and the day after, catheterization. A further 18 patients were recruited and randomly assigned to either a 6-week handgrip exercise training program (N=9) or a nonexercise control period (N=9). L-FMC was attenuated 1 day postcatheterization in the catheterized arm (-2.07±0.84 to 0.35±0.83), but unchanged in the noncatheterized arm (-0.93±0.86 to -0.90±0.92; P<0.05). In the training study, both FMD and L-FMC of the catheterized arm were preserved in the exercise group 7 weeks after catheterization (FMD-pre, 6.84±0.79; FMD-post, 6.85±1.16; L-FMC-pre, -2.14±1.42; L-FMC-post, -3.58±1.04%), but reduced in the control group (FMD-pre, 8.27±1.52; FMD-post, 4.66±0.70; P=0.06; L-FMC-pre, -3.26±1.19; L-FMC-post, -1.34±1.27%; P<0.05). Catheterization, and associated endothelial denudation, decreases L-FMC in the radial artery, suggesting that it is endothelium-dependent. Moreover, we demonstrate for the first time that exercise training has beneficial impacts on radial artery vasodilator and constrictor function.

  5. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  6. Effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis

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    Elbasan Bulent

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cystic fibrosis is a multisystem disease where the main problems are existing in the respiratory system. Aerobic exercise programs are effective in increasing physical fitness and muscle endurance in addition to chest physiotherapy. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of chest physiotherapy and aerobic exercise training on physical fitness in young children with cystic fibrosis. Methods Sixteen patients with cystic fibrosis, between the ages 5-13 years, were included in this study. All children were assessed at the beginning and at the end of 6 week of the training. Modified Bruce protocol was used for assessing the cardiovascular endurance. The sit-up test was used to evaluate the dynamic endurance of abdominal muscles, standing long jump was used to test power, sit and reach, trunk lateral flexion, trunk hyperextension, trunk rotation and forward bending tests were used to assess flexibility, 20 m shuttle run test and 10-step stair climbing tests were used to assess power and agility. All patients received chest physiotherapy and aerobic training, three days a week for six weeks. Active cycle of breathing technique and aerobic exercise training program on a treadmill were applied. Results By evaluating the results of the training, positive progressions in all parameters except 20 m shuttle run and 10 stairs climbing tests were observed (p 0.05. Conclusion It is thought that in addition to medical approaches to the systems affected, the active cycle of breathing techniques along with aerobic training helps to enhance the aerobic performance, thoracic mobility and improves physical fitness in children with cystic fibrosis.

  7. Effect of whole-body vibration training on body composition, exercise performance and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ching-I; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chen, Wen-Chyuan; Kan, Nai-Wen; Wei, Li; Chiu, Yen-Shuo; Huang, Chi-Chang

    2015-09-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential benefits of WBV on aging-associated changes in body composition, exercise performance, and fatigue are currently unclear. The objective of the study is to investigate the beneficial effects of WBV training on body composition, exercise performance, and physical fatigue-related and biochemical responses in middle-aged mice. In total, 24 male C57BL/6 mice aged 15 months old were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 per group): sedentary control (SC), relatively low-frequency WBV (5.6 Hz, 2 mm, 0.13 g) (LV), and relatively high-frequency WBV (13 Hz, 2 mm, 0.68 g) (HV). Mice in the LV and HV groups were placed inside a vibration platform and vibrated at different frequencies and fixed amplitude (2 mm) for 15 min, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Exercise performance, core temperature and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise, as were changes in body composition and biochemical variables at the end of the experiment. Relative muscle and brown adipose tissue weight (%) was significantly higher for the HV than SC mice, but relative liver weight (%) was lower. On trend analysis, WBV increased grip strength, aerobic endurance and core temperature in mice. As well, serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels were dose-dependently decreased with vibration frequency after the swimming test. Fasting serum levels of albumin and total protein were increased and serum levels of alkaline phosphatase and creatinine decreased dose-dependently with vibration frequency. Moreover, WBV training improved the age-related abnormal morphology of skeletal muscle, liver and kidney tissues. Therefore, it could improve exercise performance and

  8. The effect of aerobic exercise training on work ability of midwives working in health care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abedian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Maintaining and improving the work ability are important social goals, which challenge the health care and rehabilitation systems as well as health providers. The physical and mental health status affect the work ability. Regarding this, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic training on the work ability of the midwives in the health care centers of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 midwives working in the health centers of Mashhad, Iran, using purposeful sampling method. The health care centers were selected randomly, and then assigned into the intervention and control groups. Subsequently, the intervention group performed aerobic exercise for 24 sessions. Data collection was performed using the work ability index and the Bruce test (to compare the fitness of the participants at the pre- and post-intervention stages. For data analysis, the two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Chi-square tests as well as independent and paired sample t-tests were employed, using SPSS version 19. The P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: According to the results of the study, the mean score of work ability was significantly higher in the intervention group than that in the control group (40.5±4.9 vs. 36.4± 5.3, respectively; P=0.004. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding the two variables including work ability compared with life time best (P

  9. Effects of Caloric Restriction and Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Histochemistry in Aging Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Lowenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of calorie restriction and exercise on hindlimb histochemistry and fiber type in Fischer 344 rats as they advanced from adulthood through senescence. At 10 months of age, animals were divided into sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise (18 m/min, 8% grade, 20 min/day, 5 days/week fed ad libitum, and calorie restricted by alternate days of feeding. Succinic dehydrogenase, myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase at pH 9.4, nicotine adenonine dinucleotide reductase, and Periodic Acid Shiff histochemical stains were performed on plantaris and soleus muscles. The results indicated that aging resulted in a progressive decline in plantaris Type I muscle fiber in sedentary animals, while exercise resulted in maintenance of these fibers. The percent of plantaris Type II fibers increased between 10 and 24 months of age. Exercise also resulted in a small, but significant, increase in the percentage of plantaris Type IIa fibers at 24 months of age. The soleus fiber distribution for Type I fibers was unaffected by increasing age in all groups of animals. The implications of these results suggest the implementation of exercise as a lifestyle modification as early as possible.

  10. Effects of resistance training exercise on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with memory impairment: results of a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Leopold Busse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the effects of a resistance training programon cognitive performance and muscle strength in sedentaryelderly individuals with memory impairment. Methods: Thirty-onesedentary elderly persons with no dementia or depression wererandomly distributed into two groups: Physical Activity Group andControl Group. The resistance training exercise program lastednine months and consisted of three series of six exercises persession, carried out on lever-type equipment for approximatelyone hour, twice a week. Every three months, both groups weresubmitted to the following cognitive tests: Rivermead BehavioralMemory Test (RBMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAISDirect and Indirect Digit Span, Memory Complaints Scale, andCambridge Cognitive Test (CAMCOG. Results: After nine months,the group that did resistance exercises showed a significantincrease in the standardized RBMT score (p = 0.021 and in musclestrength (p < 0.001, with no significant difference in the otherparameters evaluated. Conclusions: These results indicate thatsupervised resistance exercises can improve memory performancein sedentary elderly individuals with prior memory compromise,besides increasing muscle strength.

  11. The effects of treadmill exercise training on hip bone density and tibial bone geometry in stroke survivors: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Marco Y C; Lau, Ricky W K

    2010-05-01

    Individuals with stroke often sustain bone loss on the hemiparetic side and are prone to fragility fractures. Exercise training may be a viable way to promote bone mineral density (BMD) and geometry in this population. This was a pilot study to evaluate the effects of a 6-month treadmill exercise program on hip BMD and tibial bone geometry in chronic stroke survivors. Twenty-one individuals with chronic stroke, with a mean age of 64.5 years and mean post-stroke duration of 8.3 years participated in the study. The treatment group underwent a treadmill gait exercise program (two 1-hour sessions per week for 6 months), whereas the control group participated in their usual self-selected activities in the community. The primary outcomes were hip BMD and bone geometry of the midshaft tibia on the paretic side, whereas the secondary outcomes were gait velocity, endurance, leg muscle strength, balance self-efficacy, and physical activity level. Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the change in all outcome variables between the 2 groups after treatment. Significant between-group differences in change scores of tibial cortical thickness (P = .016), endurance ( P = .029), leg muscle strength on the paretic side (P exercise program induced a modest improvement in tibial bone geometry in individuals with chronic stroke. Further studies are required to explore the optimal training protocol for promoting favorable changes in bone parameters following stroke.

  12. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Krzemiński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factoralpha (TNF-IX as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 3011.0 years participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, ratio of early (E to late (A mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A, ratio of early (E' to late (A' diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E‘/A’ and E-wave deceleration time (DT were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-or and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-or correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73 and DT (r=-0.73. It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-or might be involved in this effect.

  13. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemiński, K; Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E') to late (A') diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E'/A') and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E' ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect.

  14. Eccentric exercise training: modalities, applications and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isner-Horobeti, Marie-Eve; Dufour, Stéphane Pascal; Vautravers, Philippe; Geny, Bernard; Coudeyre, Emmanuel; Richard, Ruddy

    2013-06-01

    greater cardiovascular stress is observed during ECC muscle work. This observation underlines the need of cautious interpretation of the heart rate values for training load management because the same training heart rate actually elicits a lower VO2 in ECC muscle work than in concentric muscle work. The last part of this article reviews the documented applications of ECC exercise training and, when possible, presents information on single-joint movement training and cycling or running training programs, respectively. The available knowledge is then summarized according to the specific training objectives including performance improvement for healthy subjects and athletes, and prevention of and/or rehabilitation after injury. The final part of the article also details the current knowledge on the effects of ECC exercise training in elderly populations and in patients with chronic cardiac, respiratory, metabolic or neurological disease, as well as cancer. In conclusion, ECC exercise is a promising training modality with many different domains of application. However, more research work is needed to better understand how the neuromuscular system adapts to ECC exercise training in order to optimize and better individualize future ECC training strategies.

  15. Effect of exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroids on hemodynamics, glycogen content, angiogenesis and apoptosis of cardiac muscle in adult male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Asmaa F; Kamal, Manal M

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of exercise training and anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) on hemodynamics, glycogen content, angiogenesis, apoptosis and histology of cardiac muscle. Forty rats were divided into 4 groups; control, steroid, exercise-trained and exercise-trained plus steroid groups. The exercise-trained and trained plus steroid groups, after one week of water adaptation, were exercised by jumping into water for 5 weeks. The steroid and trained plus steroid groups received nandrolone decanoate, for 5 weeks. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were monitored weekly. Heart weight/body weight ratio (HW/BW ratio) were determined. Serum testosterone, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cardiac caspase-3 activity and glycogen content were measured. Compared with control, the steroid group had significantly higher blood pressure, HR, sympathetic nerve activity, testosterone level, HW/BW and cardiac caspase-3 activity. Histological examination revealed apoptotic changes and hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes. In exercise-trained group, cardiac glycogen, VEGF and testosterone levels were significantly higher while HR was significantly lower than control. HW/BW was more than control confirmed by hypertrophy of cardiomyocytes with angiogenesis on histological examination. Trained plus steroid group, had no change in HR, with higher blood pressure and HW/BW than control, cardiac glycogen and serum VEGF were higher than control but lower than exercise-trained group. Histological examination showed hypertrophy of cardiomyoctes with mild angiogenesis rather than apoptosis. When exercise is augmented with AAS, exercise-associated cardiac benefits may not be fully gained with potential cardiac risk from AAS if used alone or combined with exercise.

  16. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anneka Elizabeth Antoniak; Carolyn A Greig

    2017-01-01

    .... There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive...

  17. A controlled clinical trial investigating the effects of cycle ergometry training on exercise tolerance, balance and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lauhoff, Paula

    2013-03-01

    To establish the effect of a 6-week programme of cycle ergometry training on exercise tolerance, balance, activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life in individuals with Parkinson\\'s disease (PD).

  18. Effect of Supervised Progressive Resistance-Exercise Training Protocol on Insulin Sensitivity, Glycemia, Lipids, and Body Composition in Asian Indians With Type 2 Diabetes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anoop Misra; Narendra K. Alappan; Naval K. Vikram; Kashish Goel; Nidhi Gupta; Kanchan Mittal; Suryaprakash Bhatt; Kalpana Luthra

    2008-01-01

    Effect of Supervised Progressive Resistance-Exercise Training Protocol on Insulin Sensitivity, Glycemia, Lipids, and Body Composition in Asian Indians With Type 2 Diabetes Anoop Misra , MD 1 , Narendra K...

  19. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2014-09-01

    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  20. The effect of endurance exercise training on plasma lipoprotein AI and lipoprotein AI:AII concentrations in sedentary adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilund, Kenneth R; Colvin, Perry L; Phares, Dana; Goldberg, Andrew P; Hagberg, James M

    2002-08-01

    The effect of 6 months of endurance exercise training on plasma concentrations of lipoprotein (Lp)AI and LpAI:AII was determined in 39 sedentary subjects (17 men, 22 women, average age, 57 years) with abnormal cholesterol concentrations (total cholesterol [TC] > 200 mg/dL, or high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [HDL-C] AII concentrations. The change in plasma LpAI concentration was positively correlated to changes in total HDL-C (r =.495, P =.001), the sum of HDL4-C(nmr) + HDL5-C(nmr) (r =.417, P =.008), and average HDL particle size (r =.415, P =.009), but not to changes in body composition or Vo2max. In the 8 subjects with the greatest change in LpAI concentration following training, the size distribution of LpAI and LpAI:AII particles in plasma also was measured before and after training. In these subjects, the size distribution of LpAI:AII particles did not change with training, but there was a significant increase (0.1 nm; P =.048) in the peak size of the "medium" (7.8 to 9.8 nm) LpAI particles after training. In 7 subjects who served as age- and weight-matched sedentary controls, plasma concentrations of total apo A-I, the LpAI and LpAI:AII subfractions, and plasma lipoprotein-lipids did not differ significantly between baseline and final testing. These data indicate that endurance exercise training increases the average size and plasma concentrations of LpAI, but not LpAI:AII, particles, which may represent possible enhancements of reverse cholesterol transport and may provide insight into the role that exercise plays in reducing cardiovascular disease risk. Copyright 2002, Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  2. Effects of volume-based overload plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.

  3. Exercise training for patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casillas, J M; Gremeaux, V; Damak, S; Feki, A; Pérennou, D

    2007-07-01

    This review surveys effort training, a validated and recommended therapy, in patients with atheromatous cardiovascular disease. This true therapy reduces mortality by 25-35%, reduces clinical manifestations and complications (rhythm problems, thrombosis) and improves physical capacity, reintegration and quality of life. The effects are essentially linked to improved metabolic performance of muscles and reduced endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance and neurohormonal abnormalities. Training also has an impact on the evolution of major risk factors, especially diabetes and arterial hypertension. The risks are limited as long as the contraindications are respected and the programmes supervised. The indications (stable angina, chronic heart failure, peripheral arterial disease) should be described more precisely by taking into account functional criteria: physical deconditioning, exclusion, compliance, mood swings, and seriousness of risk factors. The training programme should be tailor made and based on evaluation of the patient's adaptation to effort, in terms of frequency, intensity and duration of the exercises. Various types of exercise include overall or segmental physical training; concentric, eccentric, even isokinetic muscle contraction exercises; and proprioceptive rehabilitation. However, knowledge is lacking about the molecular mechanisms of the effects of training, the most effective intensity of effort, and strategies to develop physical activity in this ever-growing population for both primary and secondary prevention.

  4. Exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: the effects on pain, fatigue, and functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favejee, Marein M; van den Berg, Linda E M; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Wens, Stephan C A; Praet, Stephan F E; Pim Pijnappel, W W M; van Doorn, Pieter A; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2015-05-01

    To assess if a 12-week exercise intervention to improve aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and core stability also had an impact on fatigue, pain, activity, and participation in adults with Pompe disease, an inherited neuromuscular disorder. Open-label trial. Change was assessed by the chi-square test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Physiotherapy practices. Mildly affected adult patients with Pompe disease who were not dependent on ventilators and/or walking devices and were receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Patients participated in a 12-week exercise program, which included 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance, and core stability exercises. Before and after the training program we evaluated fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale), pain (yes/no), motor function (Quantitative Muscle Function Test, Rasch-built Pompe-specific Activity Scale), amount of physical activity (activity monitor), and health status (Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey). Of the 25 patients enrolled, 23 completed the program. At the end of the program, levels of fatigue (median, 5.33 to 4.78, P=.01) and pain (56.5% to 21.7%, P=.04) improved. The quality of motor function and the amount of physical activity patients engaged in did not change. Changes in pain and fatigue were not related to improvements in aerobic fitness or muscle strength. This study in mildly affected adult patients with Pompe disease suggests that a combined training program aiming to increase aerobic fitness, muscle strength, and core stability also leads to improvements in fatigue and pain. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon L Swift

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples.Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005.Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.

  6. Exercise training on chronotropic response and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Li; Min, Gao; Wei, Chen; Min, He; Jie, Zhou

    2017-01-01

    The study was designed to observe the effects and relationship of exercise on chronotropic response (CR) and exercise capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A total of 30 patients with T2DM underwent symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) after excluding contraindication. For each subject individualized exercise prescription was formulated, and they received 12 weeks of exercise training after CPET retest to complete the comparison of CR indicators, includ...

  7. The effect of exercise training on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal transplant patients: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pooranfar, S; Shakoor, E; Shafahi, Mj; Salesi, M; Karimi, Mh; Roozbeh, J; Hasheminasab, M

    2014-01-01

    Patients undergoing renal transplantation consume immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. Cardiovascular complications and reduced quality of sleep are among the side effects of these drugs. Studies have indicated that the use of non-therapeutic methods such as exercise is important to reduce these complications. To evaluate the effect of a period of exercise training, as a non-therapeutic method, on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal transplant patients. 44 renal transplant recipients were selected to participate in the study and randomized into exercise (n=29) and control (n=15) groups. The exercise group participated in a cumulative exercise program 3 days a week for 10 weeks in 60-90-minute exercise sessions. Control group subjects did not participate in any regular exercise activity during this period. Sleep quality of the subjects was evaluated using Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) questionnaire; the sleep quantity was assessed by recording the duration of convenient nocturnal sleep of the subjects. Physiological sleep-related variables (serum triglyceride [TG], and total, high-density lipoprotein [HDL], and low-density lipoprotein [LDL] cholesterol) were measured before and after 10 weeks of exercise training In exercise training group, sleep quality of the subjects was improved by 27%; the sleep quantity was increased by 30 minutes (pexercise training in the exercise group compared to the control group, however, no change was observed in serum HDL level in exercise group compared to the control. There was also a significant (p=0.05) difference in sleep quality and quantity between control and exercise groups. However, there was no correlation between changing quality and quantity of sleep with sleep-related physiological factors. 10 weeks of exercise activity improved the quality and quantity of sleep as well as a number of sleep-related physiological parameters in renal transplant recipients, and would be an

  8. Therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum creatinine concentration in men with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiru, L; Okoye, G C

    2014-09-01

    Creatinine (Cr) has been implicated as an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as adjunct therapy for hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous training programme on blood pressure and serum creatinine concentration in black African subjects with hypertension. Three hundred and fifty seven male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure [SBP] between 140-180 & diastolic blood pressure [DBP] between 90-109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and randomly grouped into continuous & control groups. The continuous group involved in an 8 weeks continuous training (60-79% HR reserve) of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, 3 times per week, while the control group remain sedentary. SBP, DBP, VO2max, serum Cr, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR) and percent (%) body fat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Findings of the study revealed significant decreased effects of continuous training programme on SBP, DBP, Cr, BMI, WHR, % body fat and significant increase in VO2max at ptherapeutic role of moderate intensity continuous exercise training as a multi-therapy in the down regulation of blood pressure, serum Cr, body size and body fat in hypertension.

  9. Effect of a 12-Week Low vs. High Intensity Aerobic Exercise Training on Appetite-Regulating Hormones in Obese Adolescents: A Randomized Exercise Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, Wagner Luiz; Lofrano-Prado, Mara Cristina; Oyama, Lila Missae; Cardel, Michelle; Gomes, Priscyla Praxedes; Andrade, Maria Laura S S; Freitas, Camila R M; Balagopal, Prabhakaran; Hill, James O

    2015-11-01

    Little is known about how the intensity of aerobic training influences appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Our goal was to assess the effect of low and high intensity aerobic trainings on food intake and appetite-regulating hormones in obese adolescents. Forty three obese adolescents (age: 13-18y, BMI: 34.48 ± 3.94 kg/m2) were randomized into high intensity training (HIT; n = 20) or low intensity training (LIT; n = 23) groups for 12 weeks. All participants also received the same nutritional, psychological and clinical counseling. Pre- and postintervention energy intake (EI) and circulating levels of insulin, leptin, peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36) and ghrelin were measured. Adolescents in the HIT showed a reduction in total EI and an increase in PYY3-36 (p exercise training performed at ventilatory threshold 1 intensity, reduced EI and augmented PYY3-36 in obese adolescents, compared with LIT. The data suggest that HIT and LIT have differential effects in the regulation of appetite signals and subsequent EI in obese adolescents.

  10. Effects of proprioception training with exercise imagery on balance ability of stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyungjin; Kim, Heesoo; Ahn, Myunghwan; You, Youngyoul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the present study was to examine and compare the effects of proprioceptive training accompanied by motor imagery training and general proprioceptive training on the balance of stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty-six stroke patients were randomly assigned to either an experimental group of 18 patients or a control group of 18 patients. The experimental group was given motor imagery training for 5 minutes and proprioceptive training for 25 minutes, while the control group was given proprioceptive training for 30 minutes. Each session and training program was implemented 5 times a week for 8 weeks. The Korean version of the Berg Balance Scale (K-BBS), Timed Up and Go test (TUG), weight bearing ratio (AFA-50, Alfoots, Republic of Korea), and joint position sense error (Dualer IQ Inclinometer, JTECH Medical, USA) were measured. [Results] Both groups showed improvements in K-BBS, TUG, weight bearing ratio, and joint position sense error. The measures of the experimental group showed greater improvement than the control group. [Conclusion] Motor imagery training, which is not subject to time restrictions, is not very risky and can be used as an effective treatment method for improving the balance ability of stroke patients.

  11. Exercise Training in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobby Cheema

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Maori and Pacific Islands peoples of New Zealand suffer a greater burden of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM and associated comorbidities than their European counterparts. Empirical evidence supports the clinical application of aerobic and resistance training for effective diabetes management and potential remission, but few studies have investigated the effectiveness of these interventions in specific ethnic cohorts. We recently conducted the first trial to investigate the effect of prescribed exercise training in Polynesian people with T2DM. This article presents the cultural considerations undertaken to successfully implement the study. The research procedures were accepted and approved by cultural liaisons and potential participants. The approved methodology involved a trial evaluating and comparing the effects of two, 16-week exercise regimens (i.e. aerobic training and resistance training on glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c, related diabetes markers (i.e. insulin resistance, blood lipids, relevant cytokines and anthropometric and hemodynamic indices and health-related quality of life. Future exercise-related research or implementation strategies in this cohort should focus on cultural awareness and techniques to enhance participation and compliance. Our approach to cultural consultation could be considered by researchers undertaking trials in this and other ethnic populations suffering an extreme burden of T2DM, including indigenous Australians and Americans.

  12. Effects of exercise training on cardiac performance, exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with heart failure: a meta-analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, B.A. van; Huijsmans, R.J.; Kroon, D.W.; Schothorst, M.; Kwakkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite major advances in pharmacological treatment of chronic heart failure (CHF), a number of patients still suffer from dyspnoea, fatigue, diminished exercise capacity and poor quality of life. It is in this context that exercise training is being intensively evaluated for any

  13. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  14. Effect of repeat-sprint training in hypoxia on post-exercise interleukin-6 and F2-isoprostanes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goods, Paul S R; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J; Gore, Christopher J; Croft, Kevin; Peeling, Peter

    2016-11-01

    This investigation examined the oxidative stress (F2-Isoprostane; F2-IsoP) and inflammatory (interleukin-6; IL-6) responses to repeat-sprint training in hypoxia (RSH). Ten trained male team sport athletes performed 3(sets)*9(repetitions)*5 s cycling sprints in simulated altitude (3000 m) and sea-level conditions. Mean and peak sprint power output (MPO and PPO) were recorded, and blood samples were collected pre-exercise, and again at 8 and 60 min post-exercise. Both MPO and PPO were significantly reduced in hypoxia (compared to sea-level) in the second (MPO: 855 ± 89 vs. 739 ± 95 W, p = .006; PPO: 1024 ± 114 vs. 895 ± 112 W, p = .010) and third (MPO: 819 ± 105 vs. 686 ± 83 W, p = .008; PPO: 985 ± 125 vs. 834 ± 99 W, p = .008) sets, respectively. IL-6 was significantly increased from pre- to 1 h post-exercise in both hypoxia (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 2.4 ± 1.4 pg/mL, p = .004) and sea-level conditions (0.7 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.3 pg/mL, p levels of post-hypoxia. F2-IsoP was significantly lower 1 h post-exercise in both the hypoxic (p = .005) and sea-level (p = .002) conditions, with no differences between trials. While hypoxia can impact on exercise intensity and may result in greater post-exercise inflammation, it appears to have little effect on oxidative stress. These results indicate that team sport organisations with ready access to hypoxic training facilities could confidently administer RSH without significantly increasing the post-exercise inflammatory or oxidative stress response.

  15. The Effect of Exercise Training on Resting Concentrations of Peripheral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF: A Meta-Analysis.

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    Adam Dinoff

    Full Text Available The mechanisms through which physical activity supports healthy brain function remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mediates some cognitive and mood benefits. This meta-analysis sought to determine the effect of exercise training on resting concentrations of BDNF in peripheral blood.MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source, and CINAHL databases were searched for original, peer-reviewed reports of peripheral blood BDNF concentrations before and after exercise interventions ≥ 2 weeks. Risk of bias was assessed using standardized criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs were generated from random effects models. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored in subgroup analyses.In 29 studies that met inclusion criteria, resting concentrations of peripheral blood BDNF were higher after intervention (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.60, p < 0.001. Subgroup analyses suggested a significant effect in aerobic (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99, p < 0.001 but not resistance training (SMD = 0.07, 95% CI: -0.15-0.30, p = 0.52 interventions. No significant difference in effect was observed between males and females, nor in serum vs plasma.Aerobic but not resistance training interventions increased resting BDNF concentrations in peripheral blood.

  16. Impact of leucine supplementation on exercise training induced anti-cardiac remodeling effect in heart failure mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Moraes, Wilson Max Almeida Monteiro; Melara, Thaís Plasti; de Souza, Pamella Ramona Moraes; Guimarães, Fabiana de Salvi; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Medeiros, Alessandra

    2015-05-15

    Leucine supplementation potentiates the effects of aerobic exercise training (AET) on skeletal muscle; however, its potential effects associated with AET on cardiac muscle have not been clarified yet. We tested whether leucine supplementation would potentiate the anti-cardiac remodeling effect of AET in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A/α2CARKO). Mice were assigned to five groups: wild type mice treated with placebo and sedentary (WT, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and sedentary (KO, n = 9), α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and sedentary (KOL, n = 11), α2A/α2CARKO treated with placebo and AET (KOT, n = 12) or α2A/α2CARKO treated with leucine and AET (KOLT, n = 12). AET consisted of four weeks on a treadmill with 60 min sessions (six days/week, 60% of maximal speed) and administration by gavage of leucine (1.35 g/kg/day) or placebo (distilled water). The AET significantly improved exercise capacity, fractional shortening and re-established cardiomyocytes' diameter and collagen fraction in KOT. Additionally, AET significantly prevented the proteasome hyperactivity, increased misfolded proteins and HSP27 expression. Isolated leucine supplementation displayed no effect on cardiac function and structure (KOL), however, when associated with AET (KOLT), it increased exercise tolerance to a higher degree than isolated AET (KOT) despite no additional effects on AET induced anti-cardiac remodeling. Our results provide evidence for the modest impact of leucine supplementation on cardiac structure and function in exercised heart failure mice. Leucine supplementation potentiated AET effects on exercise tolerance, which might be related to its recognized impact on skeletal muscle.

  17. Physical fitness in morbidly obese patients: effect of gastric bypass surgery and exercise training

    OpenAIRE

    Stegen, Sanne; Derave, Wim; Calders, Patrick; Van Laethem, Christophe; Pattyn, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a growing consensus that bariatric surgery is currently the most efficacious and long-term treatment for clinically severe obesity. However, it remains to be determined whether poor physical fitness, an important characteristic of these patients, improves as well. The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the effect of gastric bypass surgery on physical fitness and to determine if an exercise program in the first 4 months is beneficial. Methods Fifteen morbidly ...

  18. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  19. Concurrent Training in Rugby Sevens: Effects of High-Intensity Interval Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robineau, Julien; Lacome, Mathieu; Piscione, Julien; Bigard, Xavier; Babault, Nicolas

    2017-03-01

    To assess the impact of 2 high-intensity interval-training (HIT) programs (short interval vs sprint interval training) on muscle strength and aerobic performances in a concurrent training program in amateur rugby sevens players. Thirty-six amateur rugby sevens players were randomly assigned to strength and short interval training (INT), strength and sprint interval training (SIT), or a strength-only training group (CON) during an 8-wk period. Maximal strength and power tests, aerobic measurements (peak oxygen uptake [VO2peak] and maximal aerobic velocity), and a specific repeated-sprint ability (RSA) test were conducted before and immediately after the overall training period. From magnitude-based inference and effect size (ES ± 90% confidence limit) analyses, the current study revealed substantial gains in maximal strength and jump-height performance in all groups. The difference in change of slow concentric torque production was greater in CON than in SIT (0.65 ± 0.72, moderate). VO2peak and, consequently, mean performance in the RSA test were improved in the SIT group only (0.64 ± 0.29, moderate; -0.54 ± 0.35, moderate). The study did not emphasize interference on strength development after INT but showed a slight impairment of slow concentric torque production gains after SIT. Compared with INT, SIT would appear to be more effective to develop VO2peak and RSA but could induce lower muscle-strength gains, especially at low velocity.

  20. Effects of skilled reach training with affected forelimb and treadmill exercise on the expression of neurotrophic factor following ischemia-induced brain injury in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Min-Sik; Kim, Seong-gil; Cheon, Song-Hee

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study was to investigate effects of skilled reach training with affected forelimb and treadmill exercise on the expression of neurotrophic factor following ischemia-induced brain injury in rats. [Subjects and Methods] Thirty male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups randomly: namely, the control sacrified 2 weeks after surgery, skilled reach training with forepaw contralateral to brain injury for 2 weeks, and treadmill exercise for 2 weeks. Transient...

  1. Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tonacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypothesized that weight loss by diet (D or diet plus exercise training (D + ET would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m², D + ET (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m², and nonadherent (NA, N = 9, 35 ± 2 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m² groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was measured by microneurography and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Mental stress was elicited by a 3-min Stroop color word test. Weight loss was similar between D and D + ET groups (87 ± 2 vs 79 ± 2 and 85 ± 2 vs 76 ± 2 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 with a significant reduction in MSNA during mental stress (58 ± 2 vs 50 ± 2, P = 0.0001, and 59 ± 3 vs 50 ± 2 bursts/100 beats, P = 0.0001, respectively, although the magnitude of the response was unchanged. Forearm vascular conductance during mental stress was significantly increased only in D + ET (2.74 ± 0.22 vs 3.52 ± 0.19 units, P = 0.02. Weight loss reduces MSNA during mental stress in obese women. The increase in forearm vascular conductance after weight loss provides convincing evidence for D + ET interventions as a nonpharmacologic therapy of human obesity.

  2. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luca Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist. Aim of study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters for better characterize the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different kind of sports. Eventually, verify early on any possible impact due to the regular sport activity not revealed by the standard parameters. Methods 50 young athletes (16 cyclists, 17 soccer players, 17 basket players regularly trained at least three times a week for at least 9 months a year and 10 young controls (mean age 18.5 ± 0.5 years were evaluated either by to 2D echocardiography or by a Speckle Tracking (ST multi-layer approach to calculate Left Ventricle (LV endocardial and epicardial rotation, twist, circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS. Data were compared by ANOVA test. Results All the found values were within the normal range. Left Ventricle Diastolic Diameter (LVDD 51.7 ± 2.6 mm, Cardiac Mass index (CMi 114.5 ± 18.5 g/m2, epi-CS, epi-LS, epicardial apex rotation and the Endo/Epi twist were significantly higher only in cyclists. In all the groups, a physiological difference of the Endo/Epi basal circumferential strain and twist values have been found. A weak but not significant relationship between the Endo and twist values and LVDD (r2 = 0.44, p = .005 and CMi was also reported in cyclists. Conclusions Progressive increase of apical LV twist may represent an important component of myocardial remodelling. This aspect is particularly evident in the young cyclists group where the CMi and the LVDD are higher. ST multilayer approach completes the LV performance evaluation in young trained athletes showing values similar to adults.

  3. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P weight loss, exercise is related to 6.1% decrease in VAT, whilst diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. © 2016 World Obesity.

  4. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

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    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  5. Effects of intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training on mitochondrial biogenesis and endoplasmic reticulum stress of the cardiac muscle in obese middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kijin; Ahn, Nayoung; Jung, Suryun; Park, Solee

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training on mitochondrial biogenesis and ER stress of the cardiac muscle in high fat diet-induced obese middle-aged rats. We induced obesity over 6 weeks of period in 40 male Sprague-Dawley rats around 50 weeks old, and were randomly divided into four experimental groups: chow, HFD, exercise+HFD, and exercise+chow. The exercising groups underwent high-intensity intermittent training using a ladder-climbing and weight exercise 3 days/week for a total of 8 weeks. High-fat diet and concurrent exercise resulted in no significant reduction in body weight but caused a significant reduction in visceral fat weight (p<0.05). Expression of PPARδ increased in the exercise groups and was significantly increased in the high-fat diet+exercise group (p<0.05). Among the ER stress-related proteins, the expression levels of p-PERK and CHOP, related to cardiac muscle damage, were significantly higher in the cardiac muscle of the high-fat diet group (p<0.05), and were significantly reduced by intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training (p<0.05). Specifically, this reduction was greater when the rats underwent exercise after switching back to the chow diet with a reduced caloric intake. Collectively, these results suggest that the combination of intermittent ladder-climbing exercise training and a reduced caloric intake can decrease the levels of ER stress-related proteins that contribute to cardiac muscle damage in obesity and aging. However, additional validation is required to understand the effects of these changes on mitochondrial biogenesis during exercise.

  6. Effects of exercise training on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality and fatigue among hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yuan-Yuan; Hu, Ru-Jun; Diao, Yong-Shu; Chen, Lin; Jiang, Xiao-Lian

    2017-12-13

    Hemodialysis patients experience a heavy symptom burden that leads to a decreased quality of life. Pharmacological treatment is effective but costly and has adverse effects. Exercise is a promising approach for symptom management, but the effect of exercise on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality and fatigue in hemodialysis patients is still uncertain. This meta-analysis was conducted to identify whether exercise training is beneficial in the treatment of the symptoms of restless legs syndrome, depression, poor sleep quality, and fatigue in patients receiving hemodialysis. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and Web of Science was conducted to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing exercise training with routine care on restless legs syndrome, depression, sleep quality and fatigue among hemodialysis patients. Quality assessment was conducted using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and RevMan (5.3) was used to analyze the data. Fifteen RCTs met our inclusion criteria were included. The pooled effect size showed that exercise training was effective on restless legs syndrome (Psleep quality were not performed due to the sensitivity analysis results. Exercise training may help hemodialysis patients to reduce the severity of restless legs syndrome, depression, and fatigue. More high-quality RCTs with larger samples and comparative RCTs focused on different exercise regimens are needed. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Fitness in chronic heart failure : effects of exercise training and of biventricular pacing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gademan, Maaike

    2009-01-01

    In CHF patients exercise capacity is decreased (low physical fitness). The degree of exercise intolerance in CHF is paralleled by an increased mortality, moreover, several studies suggest that increasing exercise capacity in CHF improves prognosis. Therefore, improving exercise capacity is one of

  8. [Effects of aerobic exercise training on antihypertension and expressions of VEGF, eNOS of skeletal muscle in spontaneous hypertensive rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhi-Yong; Zhao, Yong-Cai

    2014-07-01

    To investigate effects of exercise training on vascular regulators and discuss its antihypertensive mechanism. Rats were divided into three groups (n = 7): spontaneous hypertensive rats control group (SHR-C), training group (SHR-T) and normotensive wistar-kyoto control group (WKY-C). Aerobic exercise consisted of 10 weeks of swimming training for 5 days/week. Exercise duration was 40 min in the first week, then 50 min in the second week, from the third week to the end of training, duration was maintained at 60 min. After training, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and other biomarkers in soleus were measured by RT-PCR and immunoblotting. VEGF and endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in SHR-C were lower than that in WKY-C (P antihypertensive effects.

  9. The effects of Pilates exercise training on physical fitness and wellbeing in the elderly: A systematic review for future exercise prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullo, V; Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Sieverdes, J C; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-06-01

    This systematic review aims to summarize the effects of Pilates exercise training (PET) in elderly population on physical fitness, balance and fall prevention, and its effects on mood states, quality of life and independence in the daily living activities. Keyword "Pilates" associated with "elderly", "aging" and "old subjects" were identified as terms for the literature research in MEDLINE, Embase, PubMed, Scopus, PsycINFO and SPORTDiscus. Only studies published in peer-reviewed journals written in English language were considered. A meta-analysis was performed and effect sizes (ES) calculated. 10 studies were identified (6 RCTs and 4 uncontrolled trials); age ranged from 60 to 80years. Overall, PET showed large ES to improve muscle strength (ES=1.23), walking and gait performances (ES=1.39), activities of daily living, mood states and quality of life (ES=0.94), moderate to high effect on dynamic balance (ES=0.77), small effects on static balance (ES=0.34) and flexibility (ES=0.31), while a small effect on cardio-metabolic outcomes (ES=0.07). PET should be taken into account as a way to improve quality of life in the elderly, due to the imparted benefits of fall prevention, physical fitness, and mood states. In this context, physicians might include PET as a tool for exercise prescriptions for the elderly. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of exercise training combined with isoflavone supplementation on bone and lipids in postmenopausal women: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilibeck, Philip D; Vatanparast, Hassanali; Pierson, Roger; Case, Allison; Olatunbosun, Olufemi; Whiting, Susan J; Beck, Thomas J; Pahwa, Punam; Biem, H Jay

    2013-04-01

    We determined the effects of 2 years of exercise training and soy isoflavone supplementation on bone mass and lipids in postmenopausal women provided with calcium and vitamin D. Women were randomized to four groups: exercise training (Ex); isoflavone supplementation (Iso: 165 mg/d [105 mg/d aglycone equivalent]); combined Ex and Iso (ExIso); and placebo (control). Exercise included resistance training (2 days/week) and walking (4 days/week). Our primary outcomes were lumbar spine and hip bone mineral density (BMD). Secondary outcomes included hip geometry, tibia and radius speed of sound (SOS), dynamic balance (6 m backward tandem walking), blood lipids, mammography, and endometrial thickness. A total of 351 women (Ex = 86, Iso = 90, ExIso = 87, control = 88) were randomized, with 298 analyzed at 2 years (Ex = 77, Iso = 76, ExIso = 72, control = 73). There was a significant interaction for total hip BMD (p bone SOS. Exercise groups improved dynamic balance as measured by a decrease in backward tandem walking time over 6 m (p = 0.017). Isoflavone groups decreased low density lipoproteins (Iso: -0.20 [-0.37, -0.02] mmol/L; ExIso: -0.23 [-0.40, -0.06] mmol/L; p = 0.003) compared to non-isoflavone groups (Ex: 0.01 [-0.16, 0.18] mmol/L; control: -0.09 [-0.27, 0.08] mmol/L) and had lower adverse reports of menopausal symptoms (14% versus 33%; p = 0.01) compared to non-isoflavone groups. Isoflavone supplementation did not increase endometrial thickness or abnormal mammograms. We conclude exercise training and isoflavone supplementation maintain hip BMD compared to control, but these two interventions interfere with each other when combined. Isoflavone supplementation decreased LDL and adverse events related to menopausal symptoms. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  11. Effect of exercise and strength training on cardiovascular status in HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scevola, Daniele; Di Matteo, Angela; Lanzarini, Paolo; Uberti, Filippo; Scevola, Silvia; Bernini, Verginia; Spoladore, Greta; Faga, Angela

    2003-04-01

    A routine evaluation of lipid metabolism and body fat distribution along with a careful cardiovascular risk stratification according to international guidelines are required for HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Intervention includes evaluation of patients for both epidemiological and clinical factors, and for anthropometric and biochemical parameters. Diet counseling, prescription of antihyperlipidemic drugs and exercise training are the cornerstones of programs devoted to protecting patients from side effects of therapies that compromise quality of life and the functions of organs like the pancreas and heart that are involved in lipid disorders.

  12. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Howe

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1 for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  13. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  14. Exercise training, creatine supplementation, and bone health in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, I H; Roschel, H; Pabis, L V S; Takayama, L; de Oliveira, R B; Dos Santos Pereira, R T; Dantas, W S; Pereira, R M R; Jorgetti, V; Ballester, R Y; Gualano, B

    2015-04-01

    Evidence suggests that creatine may have some beneficial effects on bone. The study aimed to investigate the effects of exercise alone or combined with creatine on bone health in ovariectomized rats. Findings show that exercise, but not creatine, has an important role in improving bone health. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training alone or combined with creatine supplementation on bone health parameters in ovariectomized rats. Wistar rats were randomly allocated into one of five groups: (i) sham-operated, (ii) ovariectomized non-trained placebo-supplemented, (iii) ovariectomized non-trained creatine-supplemented, (iv) ovariectomized exercise-trained placebo-supplemented, and (v) ovariectomized exercise-trained creatine-supplemented. Downhill running training and/or creatine supplementation (300 mg/kg body weight) were administered for 12 weeks. Bone mineral content (BMC), bone mineral density (BMD), and biomechanical and histomorphometric parameters were assessed. No interaction effects were observed for BMC and BMD at whole body, femur, and lumbar spine (p > 0.05). Importantly, a main effect of training was detected for whole body BMC and BMD (p = 0.003 and p creatine supplementation. Main effects of training were also observed for maximal load (p  0.05). No main or interaction effects were observed for any of the histomorphometric parameters evaluated (p > 0.05). Exercise training, but not creatine supplementation, attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss in this rat model.

  15. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  16. The effect of three different exercise training modalities on cognitive and physical function in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetsee, Carla; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are encouraged to participate in regular physical activity to counter the age-related declines in physical and cognitive health. Literature on the effect of different exercise training modalities (aerobic vs resistance) on these health-related outcomes is not only sparse, but results are inconsistent. In general, it is believed that exercise has a positive effect on executive cognitive function, possibly because of the physiological adaptations through increases in fitness. Indications are that high-intensity interval training is a potent stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness, even in older adults; however, its effect on cognitive function has not been studied before. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training, high-intensity aerobic interval training and moderate continuous aerobic training on the cognitive and physical functioning of healthy older adults. Sixty-seven inactive individuals (55 to 75 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance training (RT) group (n = 22), high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) group (n = 13), moderate continuous aerobic training (MCT) group (n = 13) and a control (CON) group (n = 19) for a period of 16 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed with a Stroop task and physical function with the Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and submaximal Bruce treadmill tests. No significant GROUP x TIME interaction was found for Stroop reaction time (P > .05). The HIIT group showed the greatest practical significant improvement in reaction time on the information processing task, i.e. Stroop Neutral (ES = 1.11). MCT group participants had very large practical significant improvements in reaction time on the executive cognitive tasks, i.e. Stroop Incongruent and Interference (ES = 1.28 and 1.31, respectively). The HIIT group showed the largest practically significant increase in measures of physical function, i.e. walking endurance (ES = 0.91) and functional mobility

  17. Sex-Based Effects on Immune Changes Induced by a Maximal Incremental Exercise Test in Well-Trained Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José P. Morgado

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies examining the immune response to acute intensive swimming have shown increased leukocytosis and lymphocyte populations. However, studies concerning mucosal immunity and sex differences remain controversial. The objective of the study was to examine sex differences on the immune response to maximal incremental swimming exercise in well trained swimmers. Participants (11 females, controlled for menstrual cycle phase effects; 10 males performed a maximal incremental 7x200 m front crawl set. Fingertip capillary blood samples were obtained after each 200 m swim for lactate assessment. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected before and 5 minutes after the swimming test to determine total numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes and subpopulations, and serum and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA levels. IgA secretion rate was calculated. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence the immune response to exercise. As for sex differences, exercise induced an increase in leukocytes, total lymphocytes, CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD16+/56+ in males. In females, only leukocytosis, of a lower magnitude than was observed in males, occurred. CD19+ increased and CD4+/CD8+ ratio decreased in both groups following exercise whilst IgA, SIgA concentrations, and srIgA did not change. Both males and females finished the incremental exercise very close to the targeted race velocity, attaining peak blood lactate concentrations of 14.6±2.25 and 10.4±1.99 mmol.L-1, respectively. The effect of a maximal incremental swimming task on immunity is sex dependent and more noticeable in men. Males, as a consequence of higher levels of immunosurveillance may therefore be at a lower risk of infection than females.

  18. The Effect of Exercise Training Intensity on Quality of Life in Heart Failure Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, Cecilia; Jewiss, Daniel; Smart, Neil A

    2017-01-01

    To establish if exercise training intensity produces different effect sizes for quality of life in heart failure. Exercise intensity is the primary stimulus for physical and mental adaptation. We conducted a MEDLINE search (1985 to February 2016) for exercise-based rehabilitation trials in heart failure using the search terms 'exercise training', 'left ventricular dysfunction', 'peak VO2', 'cardiomyopathy', and 'systolic heart dysfunction'. Twenty-five studies were included; 4 (16%) comprised high-, 10 (40%) vigorous-, 9 (36%) moderate- and 0 (0%) low-intensity groups; two studies were unclassified. The 25 studies provided a total of 2,385 participants, 1,223 exercising and 1,162 controls (36,056 patient-hours of training). Analyses reported significant improvement in total Minnesota living with heart failure (MLWHF) total score [mean difference (MD) -8.24, 95% CI -11.55 to -4.92, p training (MD -8.56, 95% CI -12.77 to -4.35, p training. A significant improvement in the total MLWHF score was seen after aerobic training (MD -3.87, 95% CI -6.97 to -0.78, p = 0.01), and combined aerobic and resistance training (MD -9.82, 95% CI -15.71 to -3.92, p = 0.001), but not resistance training. As exercise training intensity rises, so may the magnitude of improvement in quality of life in exercising patients. Aerobic-only or combined aerobic and resistance training may offer the greatest improvements in quality of life. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Effects of music on physiological and affective responses to graded treadmill exercise in trained and untrained runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownley, K A; McMurray, R G; Hackney, A C

    1995-04-01

    The influence of music on physiological and affective exercise responses was studied in 8 trained and 8 untrained runners under three music conditions ("no", "sedative", and "fast") during low, moderate, and high intensity exercise. Repeated measures ANOVA revealed increased respiratory frequency (FR) during fast music as compared to the no music and sedative music conditions (p untrained subjects reported more positive affect compared to trained subjects while listening to fast music during low and high intensity exercise. Data collected at voluntary exhaustion revealed significantly more positive affect and higher skin temperature (p values untrained compared to trained subjects. Collectively, these results suggest listening to fast, upbeat music during exercise may be beneficial for untrained runners but counterproductive for trained runners.

  20. Effect of exercise training on metabolic flexibility in response to a high-fat diet in obese individuals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Battaglia, Gina M; Zheng, Donghai; Hickner, Robert C; Houmard, Joseph A

    2012-01-01

    ...) upon the imposition of a high-fat diet (HFD). Exercise training increases FAO in the skeletal muscle of obese individuals, but whether this intervention can restore metabolic flexibility is unclear...

  1. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    McNeilly, Andrea M; Davison, Gareth W; Murphy, Marie H; Nadeem, Nida; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Novials, Anna; McEneny, Jane

    2011-01-01

    .... This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT...

  2. The effect of exercise training in adults with multiple sclerosis with severe mobility disability: A systematic review and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Pilutti, Lara A

    2017-08-01

    There is evidence for the benefits of exercise training in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these benefits have primarily been established in individuals with mild-to-moderate disability (i.e., Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] scores 1.0-5.5), rather than among those with significant mobility impairment. Further, the approaches to exercise training that have been effective in persons with mild-to-moderate MS disability may not be physically accessible for individuals with mobility limitations. Therefore, there is a demand for an evidence-base on the benefits of physically accessible exercise training approaches for managing disability in people with MS with mobility impairment. To conduct a systematic review of the current literature pertaining to exercise training in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) with severe mobility disability. Four electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OvidMEDLINE, and PsychINFO) were searched for relevant articles published up until October 2016. The review focused on English-language studies that examined the effect of exercise training in people with MS with severe mobility disability, characterized as the need for assistance in ambulation or EDSS score ≥ 6.0. The inclusion criteria involved full-text articles that: (i) included participants with a diagnosis of MS; (ii) included primarily participants with a reported EDSS score ≥ 6.0 and/or definitively described disability consistent with this level of neurological impairment; and (iii) implemented a prospective, structured exercise intervention. Data were analyzed using a descriptive approach and summarized by exercise training modality (conventional or adapted exercise training), and by outcome (disability, physical fitness, physical function, and symptoms and participation). Initially, 1164 articles were identified and after removal of duplicates, 530 articles remained. In total, 512 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria. 19 articles were

  3. Twenty-five years of research on the effects of exercise training in breast cancer survivors: A systematic review of the literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglini, Claudio L; Mills, Robert C; Phillips, Brett L; Lee, Jordan T; Story, Christina E; Nascimento, Marcelo GB; Hackney, Anthony Carl

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of exercise training the past 25 years on major physiological-psychological outcomes studied thus far in this patient population. METHODS: PubMed, MedlinePlus, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SportDiscus, Embase, Scorpus, and Google Scholar were searched from September to November 2013 to identify exercise training studies that used objective measurements of fitness and/or patient reported outcomes assessed pre and post-exercise training with statistical analyses performed in at least one of the following outcome measurements: Cardiorespiratory function, body composition, muscular strength, fatigue, depression, and overall quality of life. Five reviewers independently identified the studies that met the criteria for the review and discrepancies were resolved by consensus among all authors. RESULTS: Fifty-one studies were included in this review with 5 from the period between 1989-1999, 11 from 2000-2006, and 35 from 2007-2013. The evolution of study designs changed from aerobic only exercise training interventions (1989-1999), to a combination of aerobic and resistance training (2000-2006), to studies including an arm of resistance training or examining the effects of resistance training as the main mode of exercise (2007-2013). Overall, the benefits of exercise showed improvements in cardiorespiratory function, body composition, strength, and patient reported outcomes including fatigue, depression, and quality of life. CONCLUSION: Exercise training appears to be safe for most breast cancer patients and improvements in physiological, psychological, and functional parameters can be attained with regular participation in moderate intensity exercise. PMID:24829866

  4. Effect of high-intensity interval versus continuous exercise training on functional capacity and quality of life in patients with coronary artery disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Villelabeitia Jaureguizar, Koldobika; Vicente Campos, Davinia; Ruiz Bautista, Lorena; Hernández de la Peña, César; Arriaza Gómez, María José; Calero Rueda, María José; Mahillo Fernández, Ignacio

    2015-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training has beneficial health effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on moderate continuous training (MCT); however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating that highintensity interval training (HIIT) has significantly better results in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MCT versus HIIT on functional capacity and quality of life and t...

  5. Effects of exercise training programs on walking competency after stroke - A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Port, Ingrid G. L.; Wood-Dauphinee, Sharon; Lindeman, Eline; Kwakkel, Gert

    2007-01-01

    To determine the effectiveness of training programs that focus on lower-limb strengthening, cardiorespiratory fitness, or gait-oriented tasks in improving gait, gait-related activities, and health-related quality of life after stroke. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were searched for in the

  6. Exercise training for performance and health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster, C.; Porcari, J.P.; de Koning, J.J.; Bannwarth, E.; Casolino, E.; Condello, G.; Gamalback, K; Gibson, M.; Lueck, J.; Rodriguez-Marroyo, J.; Walraven, L.

    2012-01-01

    Exercise training is an important positive activity for both health and performance. A rich literature demonstrates, in a semi-quantitative way, the value of exercise. However, knowledge about how to improve the process of giving exercise advice is always important. This paper reviews recent studies

  7. Effect of α-lipoic acid and exercise training on cardiovascular disease risk in obesity with impaired glucose tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNeilly Andrea M

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT are more susceptible than healthy individuals to oxidative stress and cardiovascular disease. This randomised controlled investigation was designed to test the hypothesis that α-lipoic acid supplementation and exercise training may elicit favourable clinical changes in obese subjects with IGT. All data were collected from 24 obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2 IGT patients. Following participant randomisation into two groups, fasting venous blood samples were obtained at baseline, and before and following intervention. The first group consisted of 12 participants who completed a 12 week control phase followed by 12 weeks of chronic exercise at 65% HRmax for 30 minutes a day, 5 days per week, while ingesting 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid for 12 weeks. The second group consisted of 12 participants who completed the same 12 week control phase, but this was followed by 12 weeks of 1 gram per day of α-lipoic acid supplementation only (no exercise. The main findings show a comparatively greater rate of low density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation in the group consisting of α-lipoic acid only (p p p p p > 0.05. These findings report that α-lipoic acid ingestion may increase the atherogenicity of LDL when ingested in isolation of exercise, suggesting that in IGT the use of this antioxidant treatment does not ameliorate metabolic disturbances, but instead may detrimentally contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and development of CVD. However, when α-lipoic acid is combined with exercise, this atherogenic effect is abolished.

  8. Exercise regulates breast cancer cell viability: systemic training adaptations versus acute exercise responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Lillelund, Christian; Midtgaard, Julie; Andersen, Christina; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2016-10-01

    Exercise decreases breast cancer risk and disease recurrence, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Training adaptations in systemic factors have been suggested as mediating causes. We aimed to examine if systemic adaptations to training over time, or acute exercise responses, in breast cancer survivors could regulate breast cancer cell viability in vitro. Blood samples were collected from breast cancer survivors, partaking in either a 6-month training intervention or across a 2 h acute exercise session. Changes in training parameters and systemic factors were evaluated and pre/post exercise-conditioned sera from both studies were used to stimulate breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231) in vitro. Six months of training increased VO2peak (16.4 %, p cancer cell viability in vitro. During 2 h of acute exercise, increases in serum lactate (6-fold, p exercise reduced viability by -9.2 % in MCF-7 (p = 0.04) and -9.4 % in MDA-MB-231 (p exercise session reduced breast cancer viability, while adaptations to 6 months of training had no impact. Our data question the prevailing dogma that training-dependent baseline reductions in risk factors mediate the protective effect of exercise on breast cancer. Instead, we propose that the cancer protection is driven by accumulative effects of repeated acute exercise responses.

  9. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  10. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  11. Effects of additional exercise training on epicardial, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous adipose tissue in major depressive disorder: A randomized pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, K G; Kerling, A; Tegtbur, U; Gützlaff, E; Herrmann, J; Borchert, L; Ates, Zeynep; Westhoff-Bleck, M; Hueper, K; Hartung, D

    2016-03-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with increased amounts of intra-abdominal and epicardial adipose tissue, risk factors for the development of cardio-metabolic disorders. Exercise has been shown to reduce intra-abdominal fat in different conditions such as obesity and diabetes mellitus, thereby reducing cardio-metabolic risks. Therefore we examined the effects of exercise on adipose tissue compartments in patients with MDD. Of thirty depressed patients included, twenty received supervised exercise training, and ten received no specific training. Volumes of subcutaneous, intra-abdominal and epicardial adipose tissue were measured using magnetic resonance imaging, and factors constituting the metabolic syndrome were determined. Significant effects of the training condition were observed on the amount of epicardial adipose tissue (P=0.017), subcutaneous adipose tissue (P=0.023), weight (P=0.047), body-mass index (P=0.04), high density lipoproteins (P=0.021) and the number of metabolic syndrome factors (P=0.018). The amount of intra-abdominal adipose tissue decreased slightly, although not significantly, in the exercise group. Exercise training reduces the amount of visceral, in particular epicardial adipose tissue, in patients with MDD, and ameliorates factors constituting the metabolic syndrome. Given the high prevalence of cardio-metabolic disorders in major depression, exercise training may be recommended as an additional treatment component. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of Three-year Multi-Component Exercise Training on Bone Mineral Density and Content in a Postmenopausal Woman with Osteoporosis: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movaseghi, Farzaneh; Sadeghi, Heydar

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of 3-years of moderate multi-component exercise training on bone mineral density and bone mineral content in a female subject with osteoporosis. A 57-year-old postmenopausal woman, a known case of osteoporosis following an accident, participated in this study. Bone mineral density and bone mineral content was measured in the femoral neck area and the lumbar spine by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. The measurements lasted four years, first year without any exercise training and three succeeding years with exercise intervention. After three years of exercise training, bone mineral density and bone mineral content were improved in both regions, despite the increase in age and decrease in weight. This case highlights the importance of exercise training in maintaining and increasing bone mineral density and bone mineral content of the spine and hip in post-menopausal women. Considering its positive effects, regular and lifelong exercise training must be incorporated into peoples' life due to the chronic nature of bone loss in aging process.

  13. Exercise training and the progression of chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Haaber, A B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    The possible beneficial effect of regular exercise training on the progression of chronic renal failure was studied in a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/(min.1.73 m2) (range 10-43) were randomized to physical training...... the rate of progression judged by the slope of GFR versus time plot was equal in the two groups. Hence, the beneficial effect of exercise training, earlier observed in rat studies, could not be reproduced in our patients. Physical exercise had no untoward effect on progression of renal disease....

  14. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcelik, Oguz; Ozkan, Yusuf; Algul, Sermin; Colak, Ramis

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females. Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet-orlistat or diet-orlistat-exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session) at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week. A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006) was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001) was seen in the orlistat-exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat-exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group. While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors.

  15. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  16. [New strategies for exercise training in osteoporosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkelmann, A; Schilling, S; Neuerburg, C; Mutschler, W; Böcker, W; Felsenberg, D; Stumpf, U

    2015-11-01

    In the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis, movement with muscle strengthening and proprioceptive training plays a major role. This was taken into consideration in the guidelines by the governing body on osteoporosis (Dachverband Osteoporose, DVO) from 2014 on prophylaxis, diagnosis and treatment of osteoporosis and in the DVO guidelines from 2008 on physiotherapy and exercise therapy for osteoporosis. Increases in lumbar bone density of between 0.5 % and 2.5 % can be achieved in women by strengthening exercises with high resistance. With this combination and strengthening of the quadriceps muscle a reduction of falls and hence the fracture risk could also be achieved. In traumatology, training for muscle strengthening is not always possible, especially for elderly patients. Practically relevant alternatives are regular walking and aquatraining, which may also lead to a significant increase in bone mineral density. Furthermore, large effects can be achieved with alternating side whole-body vibration (WBV) training with whole body vibration plates with only 3 days of training per week and with short training periods (15-20 min). Rates of increase in leg strength between 20 % and almost 40 % and in bone density between 0.5 % and 4 % in 6 months have been described. Whether and with what intensity whole body vibration therapy could be used for e.g. more rapid healing of fractures, is currently unclear. Initial positive results have been described in animal models.

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  18. The Effect of Exercise Training on Quality and Quantity of Sleep and Lipid Profile in Renal Transplant Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Pooranfar, S; Shakoor, E; Shafahi, MJ; Salesi, M; Karimi, MH; Roozbeh, J; Hasheminasab, M

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients undergoing renal transplantation consume immunosuppressive drugs to prevent graft rejection. Cardiovascular complications and reduced quality of sleep are among the side effects of these drugs. Studies have indicated that the use of non-therapeutic methods such as exercise is important to reduce these complications. Objective: To evaluate the effect of a period of exercise training, as a non-therapeutic method, on quality and quantity of sleep and lipid profile in renal t...

  19. Effect of treadmill testing and exercise training on self-efficacy in patients with heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Roberta K; DeMarco, Teresa; Haskell, William L

    2005-09-01

    Self-efficacy is a person's confidence in being able to successfully perform a specific activity or behavior. Self-efficacy has been shown to influence exercise capacity in patients post myocardial infarction, but has not been fully explored in patients with heart failure (HF). This study examined the impact of performance of a single treadmill exercise test and participation in a 3-month program of walking and resistance exercise on self-efficacy in HF patients. 24 patients were randomized to either a home-based walking and resistance exercise program or usual care for 3 months. Prior to enrollment into the exercise program all participants performed a single treadmill exercise test with respiratory gas analysis. Self-efficacy questionnaires were completed at 3 time points, 1) prior to performance of an exercise treadmill test; 2) immediately after completing an exercise test; and 3) at the end of a 3-month exercise program. Self-efficacy for walking (p=0.07), climbing (p=0.17), lifting (p=0.73) and general activity (p=0.15) did not improve after performance of a single treadmill exercise test and usual care. However, self-efficacy for walking increased after 3 months of a walking and resistance exercise program. (p=0.04). The findings from this study suggest that in patients with stable mild to moderate heart failure, self-efficacy is improved with participation in a home-based walking and endurance exercise program. Self-efficacy is not enhanced by performance of a single treadmill exercise test and usual care.

  20. Effects of Endurance Exercise Training and Crataegus Extract WS® 1442 in Patients with Heart Failure with Preserved Ejection Fraction – A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sascha Härtel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Impaired exercise capacity is the core symptom of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF. We assessed effects of exercise training and Crataegus extract WS 1442 in HFpEF and aimed to identify mechanisms of action in an exploratory trial (German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00000259. 140 sedentary HFpEF NYHA II patients on standard treatment received eight weeks of aerobic endurance training and half were randomized to WS 1442 900 mg/day. Symptoms, 2 km walking time (T2km, parameters of exercise tolerance, cardiac and vascular function, muscular efficiency and skeletal muscular haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2 measured during a treadmill protocol were captured at baseline and after eight weeks. Adverse events were recorded during the trial. Mechanisms of action were explored by correlation and path analyses of changes. Symptoms and exercise capacity improved with training, but correlations between improvements were low and path models were rejected. SO2 increased, decreased or undulated with increasing exercise intensity in individual patients and was not altered by training. WS 1442 improved T2km (-12.7% vs. -8.4%, p = 0.019, tended to improve symptoms and to pronounce SO2-decrease with increasing exercise, an indicator of oxygen utilisation. Endurance training and WS 1442 were safe and well tolerated in combination with standard drug treatment.

  1. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles.

  2. Effect of exercise training and carvedilol treatment on cardiac function and structure in mice with sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Medeiro

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of β-blockers and exercise training on cardiac structure and function, respectively, as well as overall functional capacity in a genetic model of sympathetic hyperactivity-induced heart failure in mice (α2A/α2CArKO. α2A/α2CArKO and their wild-type controls were studied for 2 months, from 3 to 5 months of age. Mice were randomly assigned to control (N = 45, carvedilol-treated (N = 29 or exercise-trained (N = 33 groups. Eight weeks of carvedilol treatment (38 mg/kg per day by gavage or exercise training (swimming sessions of 60 min, 5 days/week were performed. Exercise capacity was estimated using a graded treadmill protocol and HR was measured by tail cuff. Fractional shortening was evaluated by echocardiography. Cardiac structure and gastrocnemius capillary density were evaluated by light microscopy. At 3 months of age, no significant difference in fractional shortening or exercise capacity was observed between wild-type and α2A/α2CArKO mice. At 5 months of age, all α2A/α2CArKO mice displayed exercise intolerance and baseline tachycardia associated with reduced fractional shortening and gastrocnemius capillary rarefaction. In addition, α2A/ α2CArKO mice presented cardiac myocyte hypertrophy and ventricular fibrosis. Exercise training and carvedilol similarly improved fractional shortening in α2A/α2CArKO mice. The effect of exercise training was mainly associated with improved exercise tolerance and increased gastrocnemius capillary density while β-blocker therapy reduced cardiac myocyte dimension and ventricular collagen to wild-type control levels. Taken together, these data provide direct evidence for the respective beneficial effects of exercise training and carvedilol in α2A/α2CArKO mice preventing cardiac dysfunction. The different mechanisms associated with beneficial effects of exercise training and carvedilol suggest future studies associating both therapies.

  3. A new approach to monitoring exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, C; Florhaug, J A; Franklin, J; Gottschall, L; Hrovatin, L A; Parker, S; Doleshal, P; Dodge, C

    2001-02-01

    The ability to monitor training is critical to the process of quantitating training periodization plans. To date, no method has proven successful in monitoring training during multiple types of exercise. High-intensity exercise training is particularly difficult to quantitate. In this study we evaluate the ability of the session rating of perceived exertion (RPE) method to quantitate training during non-steady state and prolonged exercise compared with an objective standard based on heart rate (HR). In a 2-part design, subjects performed steady state and interval cycle exercise or practiced basketball. Exercise bouts were quantitated using both the session RPE method and an objective HR method. During cycle exercise, the relationship between the exercise score derived using the session RPE method and the HR method was highly consistent, although the absolute score was significantly greater with the session RPE method. During basketball, there was a consistent relationship between the 2 methods of monitoring exercise, although the absolute score was also significantly greater with the session RPE method. Despite using different subjects in the 2 parts of the study, the regression relationships between the session RPE method and the HR method were nearly overlapping, suggesting the broad applicability of this method. We conclude that the session RPE method is a valid method of quantitating exercise training during a wide variety of types of exercise. As such, this technique may hold promise as a mode and intensity-independent method of quantitating exercise training and may provide a tool to allow the quantitative evaluation of training periodization plans.

  4. Cardiovascular disease markers in type 2 diabetes: the effects of a moderate home-based exercise training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Benee Olsen, David; Reving, Danny

    2009-01-01

    -based exercise training program improves biomarker levels and insulin sensitivity. Patients with T2DM (n=12), IGT (n=4) and healthy control subjects (n=9) were studied before and after eight weeks of exercise training by rowing ergometry at 65-70% of peak oxygen uptake. Conclusions: 1) patients with T2DM have...... elevated plasma concentrations of CVD biomarkers compared to the matched control and IGT groups; 2) a moderate to vigorous intensity home-based training program did not reduce plasma concentrations of these CVD markers; 3) insulin sensitivity improved as a result of exercise training in the control group......Patients with T2DM have an increased risk of CVD. Prevention of CVD represents the major goal of all treatment of T2DM, and early intervention in those patients at particularly high risk is important.We measured the insulin sensitivity and plasma biomarkers of CVD to determine whether a home...

  5. The Effect of Astaxanthin and Regular Training on Dynamic Pattern of Oxidative Stress on Male under Strenuous Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sylviana, N.; Gunawan, H.; Lesmana, R.; Purba, A.; Akbar, I. B.

    2017-03-01

    Strenuous physical activity will induced higher Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) level in human body that can be measured by serum Malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Malondialdehyde is product of lipid peroxidation process that define as oxidative damage of lipid biomolecule by reactivity of reactive oxygen species. Still, the dynamic pattern of Malondialdehyde (MDA) level under strenuous exercise is not fully understood. Potent antioxidant such as Astaxanthin and training may be altered the level of MDA. Thus, purpose of this study is to understand effect of astaxanthin to MDA dynamic pattern on training male after strenuous physical activity. It was a double blind, experimental study, conducted on thirty young male age, divided into untrained and trained groups. Supplement Astaxanthin was given to 15 subject as well as placebo for one week after supplementation, Subjects were tested with anaerobic strenuous physical activity. The values were analyzed with ANOVA test followed by Duncan test showed that in every groups, mean of MDA before test was similar, start increase significantly after tested, begin decrease at 6th hour post test and back to baseline at 24th hour post-test ( pplacebo still increase twice from baseline. The lowest mean of MDA was found on group of trained male with Astaxanthin supplementation and the highest was found on group of untrained male with placebo (peffect to oxidative stress condition without altered its dynamic pattern in male after strenuous physical activity

  6. Effect of Exercise and Cognitive Training on Falls and Fall-Related Factors in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipardo, Donald S; Aseron, Anne Marie C; Kwan, Marcella M; Tsang, William W

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of exercise and cognitive training on falls reduction and on factors known to be associated with falls among community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Seven databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Digital Dissertation Consortium) and reference lists of pertinent articles were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of exercise, cognitive training, or a combination of both on falls and factors associated with falls such as balance, lower limb muscle strength, gait, and cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults with MCI were included. Data were extracted using the modified Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) tool. Study quality was assessed using the JBI-MAStARI appraisal instrument. Seventeen RCTs (1679 participants; mean age ± SD, 74.4±2.4y) were included. Exercise improved gait speed and global cognitive function in MCI; both are known factors associated with falls. Cognitive training alone had no significant effect on cognitive function, while combined exercise and cognitive training improved balance in MCI. Neither fall rate nor the number of fallers was reported in any of the studies included. This review suggests that exercise, and combined exercise and cognitive training improve specific factors associated with falls such as gait speed, cognitive function, and balance in MCI. Further research on the direct effect of exercise and cognitive training on the fall rate and incidence in older adults with MCI with larger sample sizes is highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sex-based effects on immune changes induced by a maximal incremental exercise test in well-trained swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgado, José P; Monteiro, Cristina P; Matias, Catarina N; Alves, Francisco; Pessoa, Pedro; Reis, Joana; Martins, Fátima; Seixas, Teresa; Laires, Maria J

    2014-09-01

    Studies examining the immune response to acute intensive swimming have shown increased leukocytosis and lymphocyte populations. However, studies concerning mucosal immunity and sex differences remain controversial. The objective of the study was to examine sex differences on the immune response to maximal incremental swimming exercise in well trained swimmers. Participants (11 females, controlled for menstrual cycle phase effects; 10 males) performed a maximal incremental 7x200 m front crawl set. Fingertip capillary blood samples were obtained after each 200 m swim for lactate assessment. Venous blood and saliva samples were collected before and 5 minutes after the swimming test to determine total numbers of leukocytes, lymphocytes and subpopulations, and serum and salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) levels. IgA secretion rate was calculated. Menstrual cycle phase did not influence the immune response to exercise. As for sex differences, exercise induced an increase in leukocytes, total lymphocytes, CD3(+), CD4(+), CD8(+), and CD16(+)/56(+) in males. In females, only leukocytosis, of a lower magnitude than was observed in males, occurred. CD19(+) increased and CD4(+)/CD8(+) ratio decreased in both groups following exercise whilst IgA, SIgA concentrations, and srIgA did not change. Both males and females finished the incremental exercise very close to the targeted race velocity, attaining peak blood lactate concentrations of 14.6±2.25 and 10.4±1.99 mmol.L(-1), respectively. The effect of a maximal incremental swimming task on immunity is sex dependent and more noticeable in men. Males, as a consequence of higher levels of immunosurveillance may therefore be at a lower risk of infection than females. Key PointsMaximal exercise induces an immune response.This study investigated the influence of sex over the leukocytes subpopulations and mucosal immune responses to maximal swimming.Male swimmers showed a stronger increase of T helper, T cytotoxic and NK lymphocytes than

  8. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A

    2017-07-20

    In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health in older adults. A comprehensive search of electronic databases, including Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane CENTRAL accessed by Wiley Science) was conducted. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials including men and women (aged ≥65 years or mean age ≥65 years); enlisting resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation; including outcomes of muscle strength, function, muscle power, body composition, serum vitamin D/calcium status or quality of life comparing results with a control group. The review was informed by a preregistered protocol (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015020157). Seven studies including a total of 792 participants were identified. Studies were categorised into two groups; group 1 compared vitamin D3 supplementation and exercise training versus exercise alone (describing the additive effect of vitamin D3 supplementation when combined with resistance exercise training) and group 2 compared vitamin D3 supplementation and exercise training versus vitamin D3 supplementation alone (describing the additive effect of resistance exercise training when combined with vitamin D3 supplementation).Meta-analyses for group 1 found muscle strength of the lower limb to be significantly improved within the intervention group (0.98, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.24, pvitamin D3 supplementation for the improvement of muscle strength in older adults. For

  9. The effect of exercise training on the level of tissue IL-6 and vascular endothelial growth factor in breast cancer bearing mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadegh Amani Shalamzari

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The goal of this study was assessing the prophylactic effect of exercise and its role as an adjuvant therapy on level of cytokines involved in angiogenesis in estrogen-dependent breast cancer. Materials and Methods: Forty female BALB/c mice were randomly assigned to exercise-tumor-exercise (ETE, exercise-tumor-rest (ETR, rest-tumor-exercise (RTE and rest-tumor-rest (RTR groups. After orientation in the environment, two groups of mice performed continuous endurance exercise for 8 weeks, and thereafter estrogen-dependent MC4L2 cancer cells were injected to them. Then, one group of each of trained and non-trained mice performed endurance exercise 5 days per week for 6 weeks. Tumor volume was measured by a digital caliper weekly. Finally, the mice were sacrificed; tumor tissue was removed, immediately frozen and kept in              -70°C. Tumor sample was homogenized; levels of cytokines were measured and quantified using ELISA. Results: There was significant reduction in the level of interlukin-6 (IL-6 (P=0.001, Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF (P=0.0001 and tumor volume (P=0.0001 among the groups performing endurance exercise after malignancy (RTE and ETE in comparison with groups not performing endurance exercise (ETR and RTR, and these results were in agreement with tumor growth rate. Conclusion: Exercise can cause reduction in levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in tumor tissue. Decreased IL-6 production could reduce the generation of VEGF, resulting in reduced intra-tumor angiogenesis. Due to reduction of the level of these cytokines in groups doing exercise before and after malignancy, exercise is presumed to be an adjuvant therapy in estrogen-receptor dependent tumors in addition to its effective prophylactic role.

  10. Effect of exercise training on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease: the moderating effect of health behavior and disease knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A; van Dijk, Arie P J; Helbing, Wim A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93 patients, aged 10 to 25, with surgical repair for tetralogy of Fallot or with a Fontan circulation for single-ventricle physiology, of 5 participating centers of pediatric cardiology in The Netherlands. They were randomly allocated, stratified for age, gender, and type of congenital heart disease to a 12-week period with either: (1) three times per week standardized exercise training or (2) care as usual (randomization ratio 2:1). At baseline and after 12 weeks, participants completed Web-based questionnaires and were interviewed by phone. Primary analyses tested changes from baseline to follow-up in sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in the exercise group vs. control group. Secondary analyses concerned the moderating influence of baseline health behavior and disease knowledge on changes from baseline to follow-up, and comparison with normative data. At follow-up, the exercise group reported a decrease in passive leisure-time spending (watching television and computer usage) compared with controls. Exercise training had no effect on sports enjoyment and active leisure-time spending. Disease knowledge had a moderating effect on improvement in sports enjoyment, whereas health behavior did not. Compared with normative data, patients obtained similar leisure time scores and lower frequencies as to drinking alcohol and smoking. Exercise training decreased passive, but not active, leisure-time spending. It did not influence sports enjoyment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Lactate Kinetics After Intermittent and Continuous Exercise Training

    OpenAIRE

    Gharbi, Adnene; Chamari, Karim; Kallel, Amjad; Ahmaidi, Saîd; Tabka, Zouhair; Abdelkarim, Zbidi

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess, the effects of continuous and intermittent exercise training on lactate kinetic parameters and maximal aerobic speed (MAS) using field tests. Twenty-four male sport students were equally divided into continuous (CT) and intermittent (IT) physically trained groups. Another six participants acted as non-trained controls (CG). The trained participants practiced 6-days per week for 6 weeks. Before and after training, all participants completed an increment...

  12. Effect of exercise on epinephrine turnover in trained and untrained male subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaer, M.; Christensen, N.J.; Sonne, B.; Richter, E.A.; Galbo, H.

    1985-10-01

    The kinetics underlying plasma epinephrine concentrations were studied. Six athletes (T) and six sedentary males (C) were given intravenous infusions of TH-labeled epinephrine, after which arterial blood was drawn. They rested sitting and bicycled continuously to exhaustion (60 min at 125 W, 60 min at 160 W, 40 min at 200 W, and 240 W to the end). Work time was 154 +/- 13 (SE) (T) and 75 +/- 6 (C) min. At rest, epinephrine clearance was identical (28.4 +/- 1.3 (T) vs. 29.2 +/- 1.8 (C) ml . kg-1 . min-1), but plasma concentration (1.42 +/- 0.27 (T) vs. 0.71 +/- 0.16 (C) nmol . l-1) and, accordingly, secretion (2.9 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.4 nmol . min-1) were higher (P less than 0.05) in T than C subjects. Epinephrine clearance was closely related to relative work load, decreasing from 15% above the basal level at 30% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) to 22% below at 76% of VO2 max. Epinephrine concentrations increased much more with work intensity than could be accounted for by changes in clearance and were, at exhaustion, higher (P less than 0.05) in T (7.2 +/- 1.6) than in C (2.5 +/- 0.7 nmol . l-1) subjects despite similar glucose, heart rate, and hematocrit values. At a given load, epinephrine clearance rapidly became constant, whereas concentration increased continuously. Forearm extraction of epinephrine invalidated use of blood from a cubital vein or a hand vein arterialized by hot water in turnover measurements. During exercise, changes in epinephrine concentrations reflect changes in secretion rather than in clearance. Training may increase adrenal medullary secretory capacity.

  13. The effect of different rehydration drinks on post-exercise electrolyte excretion in trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouns, F; Kovacs, E M; Senden, J M

    1998-01-01

    Eight well-trained cyclists were dehydrated (median [P25-P75 percentiles]) 3.21 [2.97-3.56]% of body mass by cycling in the heat (28 C). During the first 2 h of recovery, the subjects randomly ingested ad libitum either a caffeinated soft drink (CC), a low Na+ mineral water (MW), or an isotonic carbohydrate-electrolyte solution (CES). Fluid intake and urine loss amounted respectively to 2.77 [2.34-2.85] kg, 1.00 [0.82-1.20] kg for CC, 2.15 [1.86-2.79] kg, 0.96 [0.40-1.49] kg for MW, and 2.86 [2.15-3.58] kg, 1.10 [0.86- 1.50] kg for CES. Electrolyte retention was calculated from electrolyte intake with the drink and loss with the urine. Consumption of CC and MW which were low in electrolytes resulted in marked loss of Na+, K+, Cl-, Mg2+ and Ca2+. Consumption of CES resulted in Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ retention while K+ and Cl- loss were not influenced. The significantly lower Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ loss with CES compared to both CC and MW may be explained by its higher electrolyte content in CES, compared to CC and MW, which only had minor amounts of these electrolytes. Furthermore, it was shown that CC potentiated urinary Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion. It is concluded that: 1) Post-exercise MW or CC ingestion results in a negative electrolyte balance, 2) Caffeine containing beverages potentiate Mg2+ and Ca2+ excretion; 3) Consumption of CES containing moderate amounts of Na+, Mg2+ and Ca2+ results in sufficient replacement to compensate for urinary losses.

  14. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  15. Effect of aerobic exercise training followed by a low-calorie diet on metabolic syndrome risk factors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T; So, R; Shimojo, N; Tanaka, K

    2015-09-01

    Whether low-volume, high-intensity, interval training (HIIT) is an adequate exercise method for improving metabolic risk factors is controversial. Moreover, it is not known if performing a short-term, low-calorie diet intervention (LCDi) after a HIIT program affects risk factors. This study investigated how an 8-week, 3 times/week exercise intervention (EXi) incorporating either HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) followed by a 4-week LCDi affects risk factors. Twenty-six male workers with metabolic risk factors (47.4 ± 7.1 years; cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2peak) of 28.5 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min) were randomly assigned to either the HIIT (3 sets of 3-min cycling with a 2-min active rest between sets, 180 kcal) or MICT (45 min, 360 kcal) group. After the EXi, all subjects participated in a 4-week LCDi (4 counseling sessions). During the EXi, VO2peak improved more (P HIIT (25.4 ± 14.6%) than through MICT (14.9 ± 12.8%), whereas improvements in body fat and HDL cholesterol were similar. During the LCDi, some risk factors improved further (P HIIT group decreased (P HIIT than with MICT during the EXi despite HIIT having a lower exercise volume than MICT, but this advantage of HIIT promptly disappeared through detraining. An intervention strategy consisting of 8 weeks of either HIIT or MICT followed by a 4-week LCDi has a positive effect on metabolic risk factors. UMIN11352. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Chronic heart failure and aging - effects of exercise training on endothelial function and mechanisms of endothelial regeneration: Results from the Leipzig Exercise Intervention in Chronic heart failure and Aging (LEICA) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandri, Marcus; Viehmann, Manuel; Adams, Volker; Rabald, Kristin; Mangner, Norman; Höllriegel, Robert; Lurz, Philipp; Erbs, Sandra; Linke, Axel; Kirsch, Katharina; Möbius-Winkler, Sven; Thiery, Joachim; Teupser, Daniel; Hambrecht, Rainer; Schuler, Gerhard; Gielen, Stephan

    2016-03-01

    A reduction in number and function of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) occurs in both physiologic aging and chronic heart failure (CHF). We assessed whether disease and aging have additive effects on EPCs or whether beneficial effects of exercise training are diminished in old age. We randomized 60 patients with stable CHF and 60 referent controls to a training or a control group. To detect possible aging effects we included subjects below 55 (young) and above 65 years (older). Subjects in the training group exercised four times daily at 60% to 70% of VO2max for four weeks under supervision. At baseline and after the intervention the number and function of EPCs were assessed. As compared with young referent controls, older referent controls showed at baseline a reduced EPC number (young: 190 ± 37 CD34/KDR positive cells/ml blood; older: 131 ± 26 CD34/KDR positive cells/ml blood; p function (young: 230 ± 41 migrated cells/1000 plated cells; older: 185 ± 28 cells/1000 plated cells; p function (young: 113 ± 26 cells/1000 plated cells; older: 120 ± 27 cells/1000 plated cells) were impaired. As a result of exercise training, EPC function improved by 24% in older referent controls (p training referent controls and controls respectively. In young and older patients with CHF four weeks of exercise training resulted in a significant improvement in EPC numbers and EPC function (young: number +66% function +43%; p function +36%; p training groups of young/older CHF patients and in older referent controls. Four weeks of exercise training are effective in improving EPC number and EPC function in CHF patients. These training effects were not impaired among older patients, emphasizing the potentials of rehabilitation interventions in a patient group where CHF has a high prevalence. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  17. Effectiveness of progressive resistance strength training versus traditional balance exercise in improving balance among the elderly - a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua, Abraham M; D'Souza, Vivian; Unnikrishnan, B; Mithra, Prasanna; Kamath, Asha; Acharya, Vishak; Venugopal, Anand

    2014-03-01

    Falls are important health issues among the elderly people. Most falls in elderly result from abnormal balance control mechanisms. Balance and muscle force generation are directly related, and are associated with age related muscular changes. Studies addressing fall prevention have focused on various group and individualised strength training. However, evidence on strengthening of key muscles necessary for maintaining balance and postural control is lacking. To evaluate the effectiveness of individualised progressive resistance strength training (PRT) programme in improving balance for forward limits of stability in elderly with balance impairment, compared to traditional balance exercise (TBE), and combination of both (COMBI). This randomised controlled trial included three groups; 18 subjects in each aged ≥ 65 years, from the elderly care centres of Mangalore city in Southern India (between June 2008 and December 2012). Block randomisation technique was used and allocation concealment was done using sequentially arranged sealed opaque envelopes. The TBE group received 8 component traditional balance exercise; 4 times a week for 6 months. The PRT group received resistance training for the key muscles of lower extremities, using DeLormes and Watkins protocol. The COMBI group received PRT and TBE alternately (2 days of PRT and 2 days of TBE per week). Functional reach test (FRT) was used for measurement of forward limits of stability. The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 15. For functional reach, PRT group had steady progression from baseline to 6 months (pmuscles of lower limbs is more effective than TBE in improving forward limits of stability among non-frail elderly aged ≥65 years.

  18. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  19. The effect of endurance exercise on intestinal integrity in well-trained healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen Duijghuijsen, Lonneke; Mensink, Marco; Lenaerts, Kaatje; Fiedorowicz, Ewa; Dartel, van Dorien A.M.; Mes, Jurriaan J.; Luiking, Yvette C.; Keijer, Jaap; Wichers, Harry J.; Witkamp, Renger F.; Norren, van Klaske

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is one of the external factors associated with impairment of intestinal integrity, possibly leading to increased permeability and altered absorption. Here, we aimed to examine to what extent endurance exercise in the glycogen-depleted state can affect intestinal permeability toward small

  20. Effects of sprint interval training on VO2max and aerobic exercise performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloth, M; Sloth, D; Overgaard, K; Dalgas, U

    2013-12-01

    Recently, several studies have examined whether low-volume sprint interval training (SIT) may improve aerobic and metabolic function. The objective of this study was to systematically review the existing literature regarding the aerobic and metabolic effects of SIT in healthy sedentary or recreationally active adults. A systematic literature search was performed (Bibliotek.dk, SPORTDiscus, Embase, PEDro, SveMed+, and Pubmed). Meta-analytical procedures were applied evaluating effects on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). Nineteen unique studies [four randomized controlled trials (RCTs), nine matched-controlled trials and six noncontrolled studies] were identified, evaluating SIT interventions lasting 2-8 weeks. Strong evidence support improvements of aerobic exercise performance and VO2max following SIT. A meta-analysis across 13 studies evaluating effects of SIT on VO2max showed a weighted mean effects size of g = 0.63 95% CI (0.39; 0.87) and VO2max increases of 4.2-13.4%. Solid evidence support peripheral adaptations known to increase the oxidative potential of the muscle following SIT, whereas evidence regarding central adaptations was limited and equivocal. Some evidence indicated changes in substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise as well as improved glycemic control and i