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Sample records for exercise training effects

  1. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  2. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  3. Effects of exercise training on performance and function in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of exercise training on performance and function in individuals with cerebral palsy: ... performance capabilities, and the effect of exercise training interventions, ... The physiology underlying the functional and physical impairments in CP ...

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of aerobic exercise training on cardiovascular parameters and CD4 cell ... its associated cardiovascular risk still pose some consequences for health and ... Moderate intensity aerobic exercise is an effective complementary therapy in ...

  5. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzen, Andreas M.; Madsen, Agnete B.; Kleinert, Maximilian; Treebak, Jonas T.; Lundsgaard, Anne‐Marie; Jensen, Thomas E.; Richter, Erik A.; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen; Kiens, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Key points Regulation of autophagy in human muscle in many aspects differs from the majority of previous reports based on studies in cell systems and rodent muscle.An acute bout of exercise and insulin stimulation reduce human muscle autophagosome content.An acute bout of exercise regulates autophagy by a local contraction‐induced mechanism.Exercise training increases the capacity for formation of autophagosomes in human muscle.AMPK activation during exercise seems insufficient to regulate autophagosome content in muscle, while mTORC1 signalling via ULK1 probably mediates the autophagy‐inhibiting effect of insulin. Abstract Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one‐legged exercise, one‐legged exercise training and subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non‐exercised human muscle. Acute one‐legged exercise decreased (Pexercise in human muscle. The decrease in LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio did not correlate with activation of 5′AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK) trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with 5‐aminoimidazole‐4‐carboxamide riboside (AICAR) in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (Pexercised and non‐exercised leg in humans. This coincided with increased Ser‐757 phosphorylation of Unc51 like kinase 1 (ULK1), which is suggested as a mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) target. Accordingly, inhibition of mTOR signalling in mouse muscle prevented the ability of insulin to reduce the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio. In response to 3 weeks of one‐legged exercise training, the LC3‐II/LC3‐I ratio decreased (Pexercise and insulin stimulation reduce muscle autophagosome content, while exercise

  6. A randomized study of the effects of exercise training on patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Kjaer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown.......Exercise training is beneficial in ischemic and congestive heart disease. However, the effect on atrial fibrillation (AF) is unknown....

  7. Exercise and Training at Altitudes: Physiological Effects and Protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Cecilia Vargas Pinilla

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in altitude leads to a proportional fall in the barometric pressure, and a decrease in atmospheric oxygen pressure, producing hypobaric hypoxia that affects, in different degrees, all body organs, systems and functions. The chronically reduced partial pressure of oxygen causes that individuals adapt and adjust to physiological stress. These adaptations are modulated by many factors, including the degree of hypoxia related to altitude, time of exposure, exercise intensity and individual conditions. It has been established that exposure to high altitude is an environmental stressor that elicits a response that contributes to many adjustments and adaptations that influence exercise capacity and endurance performance. These adaptations include in crease in hemoglobin concentration, ventilation, capillary density and tissue myoglobin concentration. However, a negative effect in strength and power is related to a decrease in muscle fiber size and body mass due to the decrease in the training intensity. Many researches aim at establishing how training or living at high altitudes affects performance in athletes. Training methods, such as living in high altitudes training low, and training high-living in low altitudes have been used to research the changes in the physical condition in athletes and how the physiological adaptations to hypoxia can enhanceperformance at sea level. This review analyzes the literature related to altitude training focused on how physiological adaptations to hypoxic environments influence performance, and which protocols are most frequently used to train in high altitudes.

  8. Effects of Hypoxic Training versus Normoxic Training on Exercise Performance in Competitive Swimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hun-Young Park, Kiwon Lim

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In swimming competition, optimal swimming performance is characterized by a variety of interchangeable components, such as aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power and muscular function. Various hypoxic training methods would potentiate greater performance improvements compared to similar training at sea-level. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of six-weeks of hypoxic training on exercise performance in moderately trained competitive swimmers. Twenty swimmers were equally divided into a normoxic training group (n = 10 for residing and training at sea-level (PIO2 = 149.7 mmHg, and a hypoxic training group (n = 10 for residing at sea-level but training at 526 mmHg hypobaric hypoxic condition (PIO2 = 100.6 mmHg. Aerobic exercise capacity, anaerobic power, muscular function, hormonal response and 50 and 400 m swimming performance were measured before and after training, which was composed of warm-up, continuous training, interval training, elastic resistance training, and cool-down. The training frequency was 120 min, 3 days per week for 6 weeks. Muscular function and hormonal response parameters showed significant interaction effects (all p 0.288 in muscular strength and endurance, growth hormone; GH, insulin like growth factor-1; IGF-1, and vascular endothelial growth factor; VEGF. The other variables demonstrated no significant interaction effects. However, a hypoxic training group also showed significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption; VO2max (p = 0.001, peak anaerobic power (p = 0.001, and swimming performances for 50 m (p = 0.000 and 400 m (p = 0.000. These results indicated that the hypoxic training method proposed in our study is effective for improvement of muscular strength and endurance in moderately trained competitive swimmers compared to control group. However, our hypoxic training method resulted in unclear changes in aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max, anaerobic power, and swimming performance of 50 m and

  9. Effect of outpatient exercise training programmes in patients with chronic heart failure: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meer, Suzan; Zwerink, Marlies; van Brussel, M.; van der Valk, P.D.; Wajon, E.M.; van der Palen, Jacobus Adrianus Maria

    2012-01-01

    Advantages of outpatient exercise training are reduced waiting lists, better compliance, reduced time investment by the patient with reduced travel expenses, and less dependence on other people to participate. Therefore, this systematic review studies the effects of outpatient exercise training

  10. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON CARDIOVASCULAR ADRENERGIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario eLeosco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In heart failure (HF, exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR dysfunction . It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2 which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/cathecolamine (CA production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50 % of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favourable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  11. Effects of exercise training on cardiovascular adrenergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leosco, Dario; Parisi, Valentina; Femminella, Grazia D; Formisano, Roberto; Petraglia, Laura; Allocca, Elena; Bonaduce, Domenico

    2013-11-28

    In heart failure (HF), exercise has been shown to modulate cardiac sympathetic hyperactivation which is one of the earliest features of neurohormonal derangement in this syndrome and correlates with adverse outcome. An important molecular alteration related to chronic sympathetic overstimulation in HF is represented by cardiac β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) dysfunction. It has been demonstrated that exercise reverses β-AR dysfunction by restoring cardiac receptor membrane density and G-protein-dependent adenylyl cyclase activation. In particular, several evidence indicate that exercise reduces levels of cardiac G-protein coupled receptor kinase-2 (GRK2) which is known to be involved in both β1-AR and β2-AR dysregulation in HF. Similar alterations of β-AR system have been described also in the senescent heart. It has also been demonstrated that exercise training restores adrenal GRK2/α-2AR/catecholamine (CA) production axis. At vascular level, exercise shows a therapeutic effect on age-related impairment of vascular reactivity to adrenergic stimulation and restores β-AR-dependent vasodilatation by increasing vascular β-AR responsiveness and reducing endothelial GRK2 activity. Sympathetic nervous system overdrive is thought to account for >50% of all cases of hypertension and a lack of balance between parasympathetic and sympathetic modulation has been observed in hypertensive subjects. Non-pharmacological, lifestyle interventions have been associated with reductions in SNS overactivity and blood pressure in hypertension. Several evidence have highlighted the blood pressure lowering effects of aerobic endurance exercise in patients with hypertension and the significant reduction in sympathetic neural activity has been reported as one of the main mechanisms explaining the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure control.

  12. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    responsible for this benefit are not fully understood, exercise is known to have ... smokers, alcoholic, diabetic, other cardiac, renal, respiratory disease patients were ..... rehabilitation should feel confident in the use of this mode of training in the ...

  13. Aerobic vs anaerobic exercise training effects on the cardiovascular system

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Harsh; Alkhawam, Hassan; Madanieh, Raef; Shah, Niel; Kosmas, Constantine E; Vittorio, Timothy J

    2017-01-01

    Physical exercise is one of the most effective methods to help prevent cardiovascular (CV) disease and to promote CV health. Aerobic and anaerobic exercises are two types of exercise that differ based on the intensity, interval and types of muscle fibers incorporated. In this article, we aim to further elaborate on these two categories of physical exercise and to help decipher which provides the most effective means of promoting CV health.

  14. The Effects of Physical Exercise and Cognitive Training on Memory and Neurotrophic Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisz, Jennifer J; Clark, Ilana B; Bonin, Katija; Paolucci, Emily M; Michalski, Bernadeta; Becker, Suzanna; Fahnestock, Margaret

    2017-11-01

    This study examined the combined effect of physical exercise and cognitive training on memory and neurotrophic factors in healthy, young adults. Ninety-five participants completed 6 weeks of exercise training, combined exercise and cognitive training, or no training (control). Both the exercise and combined training groups improved performance on a high-interference memory task, whereas the control group did not. In contrast, neither training group improved on general recognition performance, suggesting that exercise training selectively increases high-interference memory that may be linked to hippocampal function. Individuals who experienced greater fitness improvements from the exercise training (i.e., high responders to exercise) also had greater increases in the serum neurotrophic factors brain-derived neurotrophic factor and insulin-like growth factor-1. These high responders to exercise also had better high-interference memory performance as a result of the combined exercise and cognitive training compared with exercise alone, suggesting that potential synergistic effects might depend on the availability of neurotrophic factors. These findings are especially important, as memory benefits accrued from a relatively short intervention in high-functioning young adults.

  15. Regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle: effects of exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzen, Andreas Mæchel; Madsen, Agnete Louise Bjerregaard; Kleinert, Maximilian

    2016-01-01

    Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one-legged exer......Studies in rodent muscle suggest that autophagy is regulated by acute exercise, exercise training and insulin stimulation. However, little is known about the regulation of autophagy in human skeletal muscle. Here we investigate the autophagic response to acute one-legged exercise, one......-legged exercise training as well as in response to subsequent insulin stimulation in exercised and non-exercised human muscle. Acute one-legged exercise decreased (phuman muscle....... The decrease in LC3-II/LC3-I ratio did not correlate with activation of AMPK trimer complexes in human muscle. Consistently, pharmacological AMPK activation with AICAR in mouse muscle did not affect the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. Four hours after exercise, insulin further reduced (p

  16. Effects of combined exercise training and electromyostimulation treatments in chronic heart failure: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Marie C; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Pavy, Bruno; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Monpère, Catherine; Richard, Rudy; Verdier, Jean C

    2017-08-01

    Background Exercise training as part of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients with cardiac heart failure. It is a valuable method for the improvement of exercise tolerance. Some studies reported a similar improvement with quadricipital electrical myostimulation, but the effect of combined exercise training and electrical myostimulation in cardiac heart failure has not been yet evaluated in a large prospective multicentre study. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low frequency electrical myostimulation to exercise training may improve exercise capacity and/or muscular strength in cardiac heart failure patients. Methods Ninety-one patients were included (mean age: 58 ± 9 years; New York Heart Association II/III: 52/48%, left ventricular ejection fraction: 30 ± 7%) in a prospective French study. The patients were randomised into two groups: 41 patients in exercise training and 50 in exercise training + electrical myostimulation. All patients underwent 20 exercise training sessions. In addition, in the exercise training + electrical myostimulation group, patients underwent 20 low frequency (10 Hz) quadricipital electrical myostimulation sessions. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a six-minute walk test, a muscular function evaluation and a quality of life questionnaire, before and at the end of the study. Results A significant improvement of exercise capacity (Δ peak oxygen uptake+15% in exercise training group and +14% in exercise training + electrical myostimulation group) and of quality of life was observed in both groups without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Mean creatine kinase level increased in the exercise training group whereas it remained stable in the combined group. Conclusions This prospective multicentre study shows that electrical myostimulation on top of exercise training does not demonstrate any significant

  17. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Psychosocial Status and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Chronic psychosocial stress and serum uric acid (SUA) level have been implicated in the etiology and cardiovascular events risk factors in hypertension. Studies have reported significant benefit of exercise in the overall management of hypertension. However, studies on the effect of exercise on psychosocial ...

  18. Effects of exercise training on coronary transport capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laughlin, M.H.

    1985-01-01

    Coronary transport capacity was estimated in eight sedentary control and eight exercise-trained anesthetized dogs by determining the differences between base line and the highest coronary blood flow and permeability-surface area product (PS) obtained during maximal adenosine vasodilation with coronary perfusion pressure constant. The anterior descending branch of the left coronary artery was cannulated and pump- perfused under constant-pressure conditions (approximately equal to 100 Torr) while aortic, central venous, and coronary perfusion pressures, heart rate, electrocardiogram, and coronary flow were monitored. Myocardial extraction and PS of 51 Cr-labeled ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid were determined with the single-injection indicator-diffusion method. The efficacy of the 16 +/- 1 wk exercise training program was shown by significant increases in the succinate dehydrogenase activities of the gastrocnemius, gluteus medialis, and long head of triceps brachii muscles. There were no differences between control and trained dogs for either resting coronary blood flow or PS. During maximal vasodilation with adenosine, the trained dogs had significantly lower perfusion pressures with constant flow and, with constant-pressure vasodilation, greater coronary blood flow and PS. It is concluded that exercise training in dogs induces an increased coronary transport capacity that includes increases in coronary blood flow capacity (26% of control) and capillary diffusion capacity (82% of control)

  19. EFFECTIVENESS OF TRUNK TRAINING EXERCISES VERSUS SWISS BALL EXERCISES FOR IMPROVING SITTING BALANCE AND GAIT PARAMETERS IN ACUTE STROKE SUBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kothalanka Viswaja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises in acute stroke subjects. Trunk is often neglected part in the stroke rehabilitation, trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises result in better recruitment of trunk muscles thus improving sitting balance and gait parameters in acute stroke subjects. However literature evidences for trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises in improving sitting balance and gait are scarce in acute stroke population. Methods: A total of 60 subjects who met the inclusion criteria were recruited from department of physiotherapy, G.S.L general hospital and were randomly allocated into 2 groups with 30 subjects in each group. Initially all of them were screened for balance and gait using trunk impairment scale and by assessing gait parameters, after that they were given a 30min of trunk training and Swiss ball exercises for 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Both the groups received conventional physiotherapy for 4 weeks. Results: Post intervention there was no significant difference between the two groups. There was improvement post treatment in trunk training group (P0.5. Conclusion: The results had shown that both groups noted significant difference. But when comparing between these two groups there is no statistical significance noted. So this study concluded that there is no significant difference between trunk training exercises and Swiss ball exercises on sitting balance and gait parameters in subjects with stroke.

  20. Exercise training in patients with heart disease: review of beneficial effects and clinical recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Stephan; Laughlin, M Harold; O'Conner, Christopher; Duncker, Dirk J

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades exercise training has evolved into an established evidence-based therapeutic strategy with prognostic benefits in many cardiovascular diseases (CVDs): In stable coronary artery disease (CAD) exercise training attenuates disease progression by beneficially influencing CVD risk factors (i.e., hyperlipidemia, hypertension) and coronary endothelial function. In heart failure (HF) with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) training prevents the progressive loss of exercise capacity by antagonizing peripheral skeletal muscle wasting and by promoting left ventricular reverse remodeling with reduction in cardiomegaly and improvement of ejection fraction. Novel areas for exercise training interventions include HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), pulmonary hypertension, and valvular heart disease. In HFpEF, randomized studies indicate a lusitropic effect of training on left ventricular diastolic function associated with symptomatic improvement of exercise capacity. In pulmonary hypertension, reductions in pulmonary artery pressure were observed following endurance exercise training. Recently, innovative training methods such as high-intensity interval training, resistance training and others have been introduced. Although their prognostic value still needs to be determined, these approaches may achieve superior improvements in aerobic exercise capacity and gain in muscle mass, respectively. In this review, we give an overview of the prognostic and symptomatic benefits of exercise training in the most common cardiac disease entities. Additionally, key guideline recommendations for the initiation of training programs are summarized. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Therapeutic validity and effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vooijs, M.; Siemonsma, P.C.; Heus, I.; Sont, J.K.; Rövekamp, T.A.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Our aim was to determine the effectiveness of supervised physical exercise training on exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease taken into consideration indices such as therapeutic validity of interventions, methodological quality of studies, and exercise

  2. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise

  3. Strongwomen® Program Evaluation: Effect of Strength Training Exercises on Physical Fitness of Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Anil Kumar; Van Horn, Beth; Corbin, Marilyn

    2015-01-01

    The Strongwomen® Program (SWP) is a nationally disseminated group strength-training exercise and nutrition education program delivered by Extension. The study reported here examined the effect of strength training exercises in SWP on improvement in physical fitness of program participants. Senior Fitness Test was used to collect data. Upon…

  4. Effects of Exercise Training on Haematology and Maximal Cardiac Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonne, Thomas Christian

    = 0.051) and time to complete 3000 m tended (P = 0.09) to increase in LHTH but not after sea level training. In study III haematological parameters were determined weekly three times before and four times after classical altitude and sea level training and ABP thresholds for [Hb], %ret, OFF......-score and the abnormal blood profile score (ABPS) were generated using the official ABP software. After altitude training, six swimmers exceeded the 99% ABP thresholds: Two swimmers exceeded the OFF-score thresholds at day 7; One swimmer exceeded the OFF-score threshold at day 28; One swimmer exceeded the threshold...... for %ret at day 14; One swimmer surpassed the ABPS threshold at day 7 and one swimmer exceeded the ABPS threshold 28 days after altitude training. No values exceeded the individual thresholds in the control group. In conclusion, this thesis demonstrated that BV is a main determinant of the exercise induced...

  5. The effects of different exercise training modalities on plasma proenkephalin Peptide F in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPont, William H; Kraemer, William J; Nindl, Bradley C; Lee, Elaine C; Fragala, Maren S; Hatfield, Disa L; Caldwell, Lydia K; Post, Emily M; Beeler, Matthew K; Volek, Jeff S; Maresh, Carl M

    2017-05-01

    Due to the important interactions of proenkephalin fragments (e.g., proenkephalin [107-140] Peptide F) to enhance activation of immune cells and potentially combat pain associated with exercise-induced muscle tissue damage, we examined the differential plasma responses of Peptide F to different exercise training programs. Participants were tested pre-training (T1), and after 8 weeks (T2) of training. Fifty-nine healthy women were matched and then randomly assigned to one of four groups: heavy resistance strength training (STR, n=18), high intensity endurance training (END, n=14), combined strength and endurance training (CMB, n=17), or control (CON, n=10). Blood was collected using a cannula inserted into a superficial vein in the antecubital fossa with samples collected at rest and immediately after an acute bout of 6 X 10 RM in a squat resistance exercise before training and after training. Prior to any training, no significant differences were observed for any of the groups before or after acute exercise. With training, significant (P≤0.95) elevations were observed with acute exercise in each of the exercise training groups and this effect was significantly greater in the CMB group. These data indicate that in untrained women exercise training will not change resting of plasma Peptide F concentrations unless both forms of exercise are performed but will result in significant increases in the immediate post-exercise responses. Such findings appear to indicate adrenal medullary adaptations opioid production significantly altered with exercise training. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Training with a balance exercise assist robot is more effective than conventional training for frail older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozaki, Kenichi; Kondo, Izumi; Hirano, Satoshi; Kagaya, Hitoshi; Saitoh, Eiichi; Osawa, Aiko; Fujinori, Yoichi

    2017-11-01

    To examine the efficacy of postural strategy training using a balance exercise assist robot (BEAR) as compared with conventional balance training for frail older adults. The present study was designed as a cross-over trial without a washout term. A total of 27 community-dwelling frail or prefrail elderly residents (7 men, 20 women; age range 65-85 years) were selected from a volunteer sample. Two exercises were prepared for interventions: robotic exercise moving the center of gravity by the balance exercise assist robot system; and conventional balance training combining muscle-strengthening exercise, postural strategy training and applied motion exercise. Each exercise was carried out twice a week for 6 weeks. Participants were allocated randomly to either the robotic exercise first group or the conventional balance exercise first group. preferred and maximal gait speeds, tandem gait speeds, timed up-and-go test, functional reach test, functional base of support, center of pressure, and muscle strength of the lower extremities were assessed before and after completion of each exercise program. Robotic exercise achieved significant improvements for tandem gait speed (P = 0.012), functional reach test (P = 0.002), timed up-and-go test (P = 0.023) and muscle strength of the lower extremities (P = 0.001-0.030) compared with conventional exercise. In frail or prefrail older adults, robotic exercise was more effective for improving dynamic balance and lower extremity muscle strength than conventional exercise. These findings suggest that postural strategy training with the balance exercise assist robot is effective to improve the gait instability and muscle weakness often seen in frail older adults. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1982-1990. © 2017 The Authors. Geriatrics & Gerontology International published by John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd on behalf of Japan Geriatrics Society.

  7. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension

    OpenAIRE

    de Man, F.S.; Handoko, M.L.; Groepenhoff, H.; van 't Hul, A.J.; Abbink, J.; Koppers, R.J.H.; Grotjohan, H.P.; Twisk, J.W.R.; Bogaard, H.J.; Boonstra, A.; Postmus, P.E.; Westerhof, N.; van der Laarse, W.J.; Vonk Noordegraaf, A.

    2009-01-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsi...

  8. EFFECTS OF EXERCISE TRAINING ON BLOOD LIPIDS AND LIPOPROTEINS IN CHILDREN AND ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerstin Stoedefalke

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The following review aims to describe what is known about the effects of exercise training in children and adolescents on the following blood lipids and lipoproteins: total cholesterol (TC, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, and triglycerides (TG. Only studies that described mode, frequency, duration and intensity of the exercise were included in the review. The results of the studies reviewed were equivocal. Clearly the effects of exercise training on the blood lipid and lipoprotein levels of normolipidemic children and adolescents are equivocal. Of the 14 studies reviewed, six observed a positive alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile, four of the studies observed no alteration in the blood lipid and lipoprotein profile and one study observed a negative effect on HDL-C but an overall improvement in the lipid and lipoprotein profile due to the decrease in the TC/HDL ratio. It appears that methodological problems present in the majority of the exercise training studies limits the ability to make a conclusive, evidence based statement regarding the effect exercise training has on blood lipid levels in normolipidemic children. Most of the research design flaws can be linked to one or more of the following: small numbers of subjects in each study, low or no representation of girls, inclusion of both boys and girls in the subject pool, inclusion of boys and girls at different maturational stages in the subject pool, exercise training regimes that do not adequately control for exercise intensity, exercise training regimes that do not last longer than 8 weeks and exercise training studies that do not have an adequate exercise volume to elicit a change. Ideally, future research should focus on longitudinal studies which examine the effects of exercise training from the primary school years through adulthood

  9. Beneficial effects of exercise training in heart failure are lost in male diabetic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudia, Dalila; Domergue, Valérie; Mateo, Philippe; Fazal, Loubina; Prud'homme, Mathilde; Prigent, Héloïse; Delcayre, Claude; Cohen-Solal, Alain; Garnier, Anne; Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Samuel, Jane-Lise

    2017-12-01

    Exercise training has been demonstrated to have beneficial effects in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, it is unknown whether diabetic patients with HF will benefit from exercise training. Male Wistar rats were fed either a standard (Sham, n = 53) or high-fat, high-sucrose diet ( n = 66) for 6 mo. After 2 mo of diet, the rats were already diabetic. Rats were then randomly subjected to either myocardial infarction by coronary artery ligation (MI) or sham operation. Two months later, heart failure was documented by echocardiography and animals were randomly subjected to exercise training with treadmill for an additional 8 wk or remained sedentary. At the end, rats were euthanized and tissues were assayed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting, spectrophotometry, and immunohistology. MI induced a similar decrease in ejection fraction in diabetic and lean animals but a higher premature mortality in the diabetic group. Exercise for 8 wk resulted in a higher working power developed by MI animals with diabetes and improved glycaemia but not ejection fraction or pathological phenotype. In contrast, exercise improved the ejection fraction and increased adaptive hypertrophy after MI in the lean group. Trained diabetic rats with MI were nevertheless able to develop cardiomyocyte hypertrophy but without angiogenic responses. Exercise improved stress markers and cardiac energy metabolism in lean but not diabetic-MI rats. Hence, following HF, the benefits of exercise training on cardiac function are blunted in diabetic animals. In conclusion, exercise training only improved the myocardial profile of infarcted lean rats fed the standard diet. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Exercise training is beneficial in patients with heart failure (HF) or diabetes. However, less is known of the possible benefit of exercise training for HF patients with diabetes. Using a rat model where both diabetes and MI had been induced, we showed that 2 mo after MI, 8 wk of exercise training failed to improve

  10. Effects of functional exercise training on performance and muscle strength after meniscectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ericsson, Y B; Dahlberg, L E; Roos, E M

    2008-01-01

    Muscular deficits and functional limitations have been found years after meniscectomy of the knee. The purpose of this randomized controlled trial was to examine the effect of functional exercise training on functional performance and isokinetic thigh muscle strength in middle-aged patients...... subsequent to meniscectomy for a degenerative tear. Four years after meniscectomy, 45 patients (29 men, 16 women) were randomized to functional exercise training, supervised by a physical therapist, three times weekly for 4 months or to no intervention. The exercise program comprised of postural stability...... training and functional strength and endurance exercises for leg and trunk muscles. Outcomes were three functional performance tests and isokinetic muscle strength. Thirty patients (16 exercisers/14 controls) completed the study. Compared with control patients, the exercise group showed significant...

  11. The effect of different training exercises on the performance outcome on the da Vinci Skills Simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walliczek-Dworschak, U; Schmitt, M; Dworschak, P; Diogo, I; Ecke, A; Mandapathil, M; Teymoortash, A; Güldner, C

    2017-06-01

    Increasing usage of robotic surgery presents surgeons with the question of how to acquire the special skills required. This study aimed to analyze the effect of different exercises on their performance outcomes. This prospective study was conducted on the da Vinci Skills Simulator from December 2014 till August 2015. Sixty robotic novices were included and randomized to three groups of 20 participants each. Each group performed three different exercises with comparable difficulty levels. The exercises were performed three times in a row within two training sessions, with an interval of 1 week in between. On the final training day, two new exercises were added and a questionnaire was completed. Technical metrics of performance (overall score, time to complete, economy of motion, instrument collisions, excessive instrument force, instruments out of view, master work space range, drops, missed targets, misapplied energy time, blood loss and broken vessels) were recorded by the simulator software for further analysis. Training with different exercises led to comparable results in performance metrics for the final exercises among the three groups. A significant skills gain was recorded between the first and last exercises, with improved performance in overall score, time to complete and economy of motion for all exercises in all three groups. As training with different exercises led to comparable results in robotic training, the type of exercise seems to play a minor role in the outcome. For a robotic training curriculum, it might be important to choose exercises with comparable difficulty levels. In addition, it seems to be advantageous to limit the duration of the training to maintain the concentration throughout the entire session.

  12. THE EFFECTS OF ACUTE PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON MATHEMATICAL COMPUTATION IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustav Bala

    2014-12-01

    The results showed that the children’s computation performance was enhanced significantly in the groups with 30, or 45, or 60 min of physical exercise, but not in the groups without physical exercise. This means that even acute intensive physical training can yield positive effects on children's mathematical abilities.

  13. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Chinese Population with Mild to Moderate Depression in Hong Kong

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandra W. H. Ho

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Exercise has been suggested to be a viable treatment for depression. This study investigates the effect of supervised aerobic exercise training on depressive symptoms and physical performance among Chinese patients with mild to moderate depression in early in-patient phase. Methods. A randomized repeated measure and assessor-blinded study design was used. Subjects in aerobic exercise group received 30 minutes of aerobic training, five days a week for 3 weeks. Depressive symptoms (MADRS and C-BDI and domains in physical performance were assessed at baseline and program end. Results. Subjects in aerobic exercise group showed a more significant reduction in depressive scores (MADRS as compared to control (between-group mean difference = 10.08 ± 9.41; P=0.026 after 3 weeks training. The exercise group also demonstrated a significant improvement in flexibility (between-group mean difference = 4.4 ± 6.13; P=0.02. Limitations. There was lack of longitudinal followup to examine the long-term effect of aerobic exercise on patients with depression. Conclusions. Aerobic exercise in addition to pharmacological intervention can have a synergistic effect in reducing depressive symptoms and increasing flexibility among Chinese population with mild to moderate depression. Early introduction of exercise training in in-patient phase can help to bridge the gap of therapeutic latency of antidepressants during its nonresponse period.

  14. Effect of aquatic exercise training on lipids profile and glycaemia: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Delevatti

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the acute and chronic effects of aquatic exercise training on glycaemia and lipids profile. A systematic review of clinical trials was performed assessing the effects of aquatic exercise and/or training in upright position on lipids profile and glycaemic index. Two raters independently assessed the eligibility criteria and the methodological quality of the studies using the PEDro scale. Average and standard deviation of all variables significantly altered by the interventions were extracted for calculating percentage alterations. Three studies involving the acute effect of aquatic aerobic exercise on the variables of interest were analysed, with two of them demonstrating the efficacy of this type of training in improving lipids profile. Nine studies involving the chronic effects of aquatic training on the same variables were also analysed; eight of them, which assessed different training interventions for different populations, reported benefits of exercise regarding these variables. In conclusion, the improvements found in response to aquatic exercise training in upright position in glycaemia and lipids profile indicate the aquatic environment as a favourable environment for conducting exercise programmes.

  15. Catecholamines and obesity: effects of exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouhal, Hassane; Lemoine-Morel, Sophie; Mathieu, Marie-Eve; Casazza, Gretchen A; Jabbour, Georges

    2013-07-01

    Excess body fat in obese individuals can affect the catecholamine response to various stimuli. Indeed, several studies report lower plasma catecholamine concentrations in obese subjects compared with nonobese subjects in response to submaximal or maximal exercise. This low catecholamine response reflects decreased sympathetic nervous system (SNS) activity. Although the relationship between the SNS and obesity is not well established, some authors have suggested that low SNS activity may contribute to the development of obesity. A decreased catecholamine response could affect α- and β-adrenoceptor sensitivity in adipose tissue, reducing lipolysis and increasing fat stores. Few studies have examined the effects of obesity on the plasma catecholamine response at rest and during exercise in adolescents. It is interesting to note that the effects of age, sex, and degree of obesity and the impact of very intense exercise on the catecholamine response have not yet been well examined. Moreover, the hormonal concentrations measured in the majority of obesity studies did not take into account plasma volume changes. This methodological factor can also undoubtedly influence plasma catecholamine results.

  16. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  17. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal weight gain in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BACKGROUND: Weight gains in pregnancy within the recommended guidelines are associated with healthy fetal and maternal outcomes; higher weight gains are associated with fetal macrosomia. This study was a systemic review of randomized controlled trials on the effect of aerobic training on maternal weight in ...

  19. The effect of training on cardiovascular responses to arm exercise in individuals with tetraplegia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hopman, M T; Dallmeijer, A J; Snoek, G; van der Woude, L H

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the physiological responses to maximal and submaximal arm-cranking exercise in 21 individuals with tetraplegia (TP) and to evaluate the effect of a 3 and 6-month training period (mean frequency of 1.5 h.week-1, mean intensity at 35% of the training time above

  20. Effect of body weight gain on insulin sensitivity after retirement from exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolkas, Constantine B.; Rodnick, Kenneth J.; Mondon, Carl E.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of the body-weight gain after retirement from an exercise-training program on the retained increase in insulin sensitivity elicited by the training was investigated in exercise-trained (ET) rats. Insulin sensitivity was assessed by oral glucose tolerance and insulin suppression tests immediately after training and during retirement. Results show that, compared with sedentary controls, exercise training enhanced insulin-induced glucose uptake, but the enhanced sensitivity was gradually lost with the end of running activity until after seven days of retirement, when it became equal to that of controls. This loss of enhanced sensitivity to insulin was associated with an accelerated gain in body weight beginning one day after the start of retirement. However, those animals that gained weight only at rates similar to those of control rats, retained their enhanced sensitivity to insulin.

  1. Eccentric exercise: mechanisms and effects when used as training regime or training adjunct.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Michael; Hoppeler, Hans H

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the current review is to discuss applications and mechanism of eccentric exercise in training regimes of competitive sports. Eccentric muscle work is important in most sports. Eccentric muscle contractions enhance the performance during the concentric phase of stretch-shortening cycles, which is important in disciplines like sprinting, jumping, throwing, and running. Muscles activated during lengthening movements can also function as shock absorbers, to decelerate during landing tasks or to precisely deal with high external loading in sports like alpine skiing. The few studies available on trained subjects reveal that eccentric training can further enhance maximal muscle strength and power. It can further optimize muscle length for maximal tension development at a greater degree of extension, and has potential to improve muscle coordination during eccentric tasks. In skeletal muscles, these functional adaptations are based on increases in muscle mass, fascicle length, number of sarcomeres, and cross-sectional area of type II fibers. Identified modalities for eccentric loading in athletic populations involve classical isotonic exercises, accentuated jumping exercises, eccentric overloading exercises, and eccentric cycle ergometry. We conclude that eccentric exercise offers a promising training modality to enhance performance and to prevent injuries in athletes. However, further research is necessary to better understand how the neuromuscular system adapts to eccentric loading in athletes. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  2. Cardioprotective effects of early and late aerobic exercise training in experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira-Gonçalves, Daniel; Ferreira, Rita; Fonseca, Hélder; Padrão, Ana Isabel; Moreno, Nuno; Silva, Ana Filipa; Vasques-Nóvoa, Francisco; Gonçalves, Nádia; Vieira, Sara; Santos, Mário; Amado, Francisco; Duarte, José Alberto; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F; Henriques-Coelho, Tiago

    2015-11-01

    Clinical studies suggest that aerobic exercise can exert beneficial effects in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), but the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. We compared the impact of early or late aerobic exercise training on right ventricular function, remodeling and survival in experimental PAH. Male Wistar rats were submitted to normal cage activity (SED), exercise training in early (EarlyEX) and in late stage (LateEX) of PAH induced by monocrotaline (MCT, 60 mg/kg). Both exercise interventions resulted in improved cardiac function despite persistent right pressure-overload, increased exercise tolerance and survival, with greater benefits in EarlyEX+MCT. This was accompanied by improvements in the markers of cardiac remodeling (SERCA2a), neurohumoral activation (lower endothelin-1, brain natriuretic peptide and preserved vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA), metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative stress in both exercise interventions. EarlyEX+MCT provided additional improvements in fibrosis, tumor necrosis factor-alpha/interleukin-10 and brain natriuretic peptide mRNA, and beta/alpha myosin heavy chain protein expression. The present study demonstrates important cardioprotective effects of aerobic exercise in experimental PAH, with greater benefits obtained when exercise training is initiated at an early stage of the disease.

  3. Sleep quality, sleep duration and physical activity in obese adolescents: effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendelson, M; Borowik, A; Michallet, A-S; Perrin, C; Monneret, D; Faure, P; Levy, P; Pépin, J-L; Wuyam, B; Flore, P

    2016-02-01

    Decreased sleep duration and altered sleep quality are risk factors for obesity in youth. Structured exercise training has been shown to increase sleep duration and improve sleep quality. This study aimed at evaluating the impact of exercise training for improving sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity in obese adolescents (OB). Twenty OB (age: 14.5 ± 1.5 years; body mass index: 34.0 ± 4.7 kg m(-2) ) and 20 healthy-weight adolescents (HW) completed an overnight polysomnography and wore an accelerometer (SenseWear Bodymedia) for 7 days. OB participated in a 12-week supervised exercise-training programme consisting of 180 min of exercise weekly. Exercise training was a combination of aerobic exercise and resistance training. Sleep duration was greater in HW compared with OB (P < 0.05). OB presented higher apnoea-hypopnoea index than HW (P < 0.05). Physical activity (average daily metabolic equivalent of tasks [METs]) by accelerometer was lower in OB (P < 0.05). After exercise training, obese adolescents increased their sleep duration (+64.4 min; effect size: 0.88; P = 0.025) and sleep efficiency (+7.6%; effect size: 0.76; P = 0.028). Physical activity levels were increased in OB as evidenced by increased steps per day and average daily METs (P < 0.05). Improved sleep duration was associated with improved average daily METs (r = 0.48, P = 0.04). The present study confirms altered sleep duration and quality in OB. Exercise training improves sleep duration, sleep quality and physical activity. © 2015 World Obesity.

  4. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  5. Exercise training alters effect of high-fat feeding on the ACTH stress response in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankord, Ryan; Ganjam, Venkataseshu K; Turk, James R; Hamilton, Marc T; Laughlin, M Harold

    2008-06-01

    Eating and physical activity behaviors influence neuroendocrine output. The purpose of this study was to test, in an animal model of diet-induced cardiovascular disease, the effects of high-fat feeding and exercise training on hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis activity. We hypothesized that a high-fat diet would increase circulating free fatty acids (FFAs) and decrease the adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol response to an acute stressor. We also hypothesized that exercise training would reverse the high-fat diet-induced changes in FFAs and thereby restore the ACTH and cortisol response. Pigs were placed in 1 of 4 groups (normal diet, sedentary; normal diet, exercise training; high-fat diet, sedentary; high-fat diet, exercise training; n = 8/group). Animals were placed on their respective dietary and activity treatments for 16-20 weeks. After completion of the treatments animals were anesthetized and underwent surgical intubation. Blood samples were collected after surgery and the ACTH and cortisol response to surgery was determined and the circulating concentrations of FFAs, glucose, cholesterol, insulin, and IGF-1 were measured. Consistent with our hypothesis, high-fat feeding increased FFAs by 200% and decreased the ACTH stress response by 40%. In exercise-trained animals, the high-fat diet also increased FFA; however, the increase in FFA in exercise-trained pigs was accompanied by a 60% increase in the ACTH response. The divergent effect of high-fat feeding on ACTH response was not expected, as exercise training alone had no effect on the ACTH response. Results demonstrate a significant interaction between diet and exercise and their effect on the ACTH response. The divergent effects of high-fat diet could not be explained by changes in weight gain, blood glucose, insulin, or IGF-1, as these were altered by high-fat feeding, but unaffected by exercise training. Thus, the increase in FFA with high-fat feeding may explain the blunted

  6. Resveratrol blunts the positive effects of exercise training on cardiovascular health in aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hybholt, Lasse Gliemann; Schmidt, Jakob Friis; Olesen, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    on atherosclerosis marker VCAM-1. Sirtuin 1 protein levels were not affected by resveratrol supplementation. These findings indicate that, whereas exercise training effectively improves several cardiovascular health parameters in aged men, concomitant resveratrol supplementation blunts most of these effects.......Aging is thought to be associated with decreased vascular function partly due to oxidative stress. Resveratrol is a polyphenol, which, in animal studies has been shown to decrease atherosclerosis, improve cardiovascular health and physical capacity, in part through its effects on Sirtuin 1.......02) and muscle TBX synthase was higher in the resveratrol group after training (P effects of exercise on LDL, TC/HDL ratio and triglycerides concentrations in blood (P effect of exercise training...

  7. Effects of exercise training on coronary collateralization and control of collateral resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Janet L.

    2011-01-01

    Coronary collateral vessels serve as a natural protective mechanism to provide coronary flow to ischemic myocardium secondary to critical coronary artery stenosis. The innate collateral circulation of the normal human heart is typically minimal and considerable variability occurs in extent of collateralization in coronary artery disease patients. A well-developed collateral circulation has been documented to exert protective effects upon myocardial perfusion, contractile function, infarct size, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Thus therapeutic augmentation of collateral vessel development and/or functional adaptations in collateral and collateral-dependent arteries to reduce resistance into the ischemic myocardium represent a desirable goal in the management of coronary artery disease. Tremendous evidence has provided documentation for the therapeutic benefits of exercise training programs in patients with coronary artery disease (and collateralization); mechanisms that underlie these benefits are numerous and multifaceted, and currently under investigation in multiple laboratories worldwide. The role of enhanced collateralization as a major beneficial contributor has not been fully resolved. This topical review highlights literature that examines the effects of exercise training on collateralization in the diseased heart, as well as effects of exercise training on vascular endothelial and smooth muscle control of regional coronary tone in the collateralized heart. Future directions for research in this area involve further delineation of cellular/molecular mechanisms involved in effects of exercise training on collateralized myocardium, as well as development of novel therapies based on emerging concepts regarding exercise training and coronary artery disease. PMID:21565987

  8. Effect of chronic ethanol ingestion and exercise training on skeletal muscle in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila, L; Ferrando, A; Voces, J; Cabral de Oliveira, C; Prieto, J G; Alvarez, A I

    2001-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the interactive effects of exercise training and chronic ethanol consumption on metabolism, capillarity, and myofibrillar composition in rat limb muscles. Male Wistar rats were treated in separate groups as follows: non exercised-control; ethanol (15%) in animals' drinking water for 12 weeks; exercise training in treadmill and ethanol administration plus exercise for 12 weeks. Ethanol administration decreased capillarity and increased piruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase activities in white gastrocnemius; in plantaris muscle, ethanol increased citrate synthase activity and decreased cross-sectional area of type I, IIa, and IIb fibres. Exercise increased capillarity in all four limb muscles and decreased type I fibre area in plantaris. The decreased capillarity effect induced by ethanol in some muscles, was ameliorated when alcohol was combined with exercise. While alcoholic myopathy affects predominantly type IIb fibres, ethanol administration and aerobic exercise in some cases can affect type I and type IIa fibre areas. The exercise can decrease some harmful effects produced by ethanol in the muscle, including the decrease in the fibre area and capillary density.

  9. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  10. Clinical and Physiological Effects of Exercise Training in Dyspneic Mild COPD Patients: Design of the Study

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Labarca; Andrea Bustamante; Francisco Rodríguez; Igor Nuñez; Gonzalo Valdivia; Paul Mac Nab; Álvaro Huete; Jaime Leppe; Fernando Saldías; Orlando Díaz

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be associated with physical inactivity, exercise limitation, and impaired health related quality of life, because of a combination of deconditioning, dyspnea, and reduced peripheral muscle mass. Although the benefits of exercise training (ET) in counteracting these consequences are well established in moderate-to-very-severe COPD, it is unclear if they are also effective in mild disease. The aim of this paper is to describe t...

  11. Effects of Aerobic Exercise Training on Stress Reactivity in Every-Day Life

    OpenAIRE

    Haaren, Birte von

    2015-01-01

    The current thesis investigated the effects of a 20-week aerobic exercise training on physiological and emotional responses to real-life stress using a randomized, controlled trial and an inactive sample. To assess participants' physiological and psychological responses during everyday life, ambulatory assessment was used. In summary, the present thesis provides empirical support that regular exercise can lead to improved emotional and physiological responses during real-life stress.

  12. Is Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Combined with High Intensity Interval Training More Effective at Improving Cardiorespiratory Fitness than Moderate Intensity Exercise Training Alone?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brendon H. Roxburgh, Paul B. Nolan, Ryan M. Weatherwax, Lance C. Dalleck

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of either continuous moderate intensity exercise training (CMIET alone vs. CMIET combined with a single weekly bout of high intensity interval training (HIIT on cardiorespiratory fitness. Twenty nine sedentary participants (36.3 ± 6.9 yrs at moderate risk of cardiovascular disease were recruited for 12 weeks of exercise training on a treadmill and cycle ergometer. Participants were randomised into three groups: CMIET + HIIT (n = 7; 8-12 x 60 sec at 100% VO2max, 150 sec active recovery, CMIET (n = 6; 30 min at 45-60% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R and a sedentary control group (n = 7. Participants in the CMIET + HIIT group performed a single weekly bout of HIIT and four weekly sessions of CMIET, whilst the CMIET group performed five weekly CMIET sessions. Probabilistic magnitude-based inferences were determined to assess the likelihood that the true value of the effect represents substantial change. Relative VO2max increased by 10.1% (benefit possible relative to control in in the CMIET + HIIT group (32.7 ± 9.2 to 36.0 ± 11.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 and 3.9% (benefit possible relative to control in the CMIET group (33.2 ± 4.0 to 34.5 ± 6.1 mL·kg-1·min-1, whilst there was a 5.7% decrease in the control group (30.0 ± 4.6 to 28.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1. It was ‘unclear’ if a clinically significant difference existed between the effect of CMIET + HIIT and CMIET on the change in VO2max. Both exercising groups showed clinically meaningful improvements in VO2max. Nevertheless, it remains ‘unclear’ whether one type of exercise training regimen elicits a superior improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness relative to its counterpart.

  13. therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-09-01

    Sep 1, 2014 ... an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as .... assess subject's aerobic power (VO2max) as described by ACSM.20 .... improving the cardiovascular endurance by slowing the burning of ...

  14. "The effect of supervised exercise training on psychological characteristics and physical fitness after myocardial infarction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Boshtam M

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD especially myocardial infarction (MI, and the insufficiency of information in the field of physical rehabilitation, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a course of physical rehabilitation on the psychological status and physical characteristics f cardiac patients. In this study, the effect of 8 weeks exercise training, 3 sessions of 45 minutes duration per week, on the physical and psychological function of MI patients was evaluated. Eighty patients who were referred to the rehabilitation unit of Isfahan cardiovascular Research Center were randomly divided into two groups of exercise and non-exercise. The data of pre and post exercise course were analyzed with the SPSS software using the two-sample t-test and multiple liner regression. The comparison of the mean changes of functional capacity. Weight, body mass index (BMI, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between exercise and non-exercise groups after 8 weeks showed significant difference for all studied factors (P<0.05. Also, investigating the psychological characteristics such as depression, anxiety and hostility scores indicated a significant change after exercise training (P<0.05. Personality and behavior showed no significant difference. This study suggests the functional has a significant effect on improving the function capacity and psychological behavior in post MI patients.

  15. Effects of exercise training in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Man, F S; Handoko, M L; Groepenhoff, H; van 't Hul, A J; Abbink, J; Koppers, R J H; Grotjohan, H P; Twisk, J W R; Bogaard, H-J; Boonstra, A; Postmus, P E; Westerhof, N; van der Laarse, W J; Vonk-Noordegraaf, A

    2009-09-01

    We determined the physiological effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quadriceps muscle function in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (iPAH). In total, 19 clinically stable iPAH patients (New York Heart Association II-III) underwent a supervised exercise training programme for the duration of 12 weeks. Maximal capacity, endurance capacity and quadriceps function were assessed at baseline and after 12 weeks. In 12 patients, serial quadriceps muscle biopsies were obtained. 6-min walk distance and peak exercise capacity did not change after training. However, endurance capacity improved significantly after training, demonstrated by a shift of the anaerobic threshold to a higher workload (from 32+/-5 to 46+/-6 W; p = 0.003) together with an increase in exercise endurance time (pendurance by 34% (p = 0.001). Training enhanced aerobic capacity of the quadriceps, by increasing capillarisation (1.36+/-0.10 to 1.78+/-0.13 capillaries per muscle fibre; pendurance and quadriceps muscle function, which is also reflected by structural changes of the quadriceps.

  16. The effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects of men with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardar, Mohammad Ali; Boghrabadi, Vahdat; Sohrabi, Mehdi; Aminzadeh, Reza; Jalalian, Mehrdad

    2014-01-20

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of aerobic exercise training on psychosocial aspects (mental health, the aspects of physical symptoms, anxiety and insomnia, social functioning, and depression) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. 53 men who had type 2 diabetes mellitus for a mean duration of the disease for 3±5 years were selected purposely and classified randomly into experimental (27 patients) and a control group (26 patients). Patients in the experimental group did aerobic exercise training three times a week for eight weeks. The exercise included an aerobic activity for 45 to 60 minutes during which the patients' heart rates were maintained at 60-70 percent of heart rate reserve on ergo meter bikes. The eight-week aerobic exercise training had significant effects on mental health (p = 0.002), subscales of physical symptoms (p = 0.006), and anxiety and insomnia (p = 0.001). It had no significant effects on subscales related to disorder of social functioning (p = 0.117) and depression (p = 0.657). Aerobic exercise training can be considered as an appropriate program for improving the health of the patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and it also can improve their mental health.

  17. What Went Wrong at University Hospital? An Exercise Assessing Training Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Trevor C.; Li, Stan X.; Sargent, Leisa D.; Tasa, Kevin

    2003-01-01

    In an experiential exercise, management students portrayed consultants assessing the effectiveness of a hospital's training program. Feedback from 28 North American and 17 Australian students indicated overall satisfaction and effective achievement of the objective: learning to apply the instructional systems design model to evaluation of training…

  18. Structured-Exercise-Program (SEP): An Effective Training Approach to Key Healthcare Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazi, Mosharaf H.; Hossain, Taleb; Tiroyakgosi, C.

    2014-01-01

    Structured exercise program is an effective approach to technology dependent resource limited healthcare area for professional training. The result of a recently conducted data analysis revealed this. The aim of the study is to know the effectiveness of the applied approach that was designed to observe the level of adherence to newly adopted…

  19. Effects of draught load exercise and training on calcium homeostasis in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vervuert, I; Coenen, M; Zamhöfer, J

    2005-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of draught load exercise on calcium (Ca) homeostasis in young horses. Five 2-year-old untrained Standardbred horses were studied in a 4-month training programme. All exercise workouts were performed on a treadmill at a 6% incline and with a constant draught load of 40 kg (0.44 kN). The training programme started with a standardized exercise test (SET 1; six incremental steps of 5 min duration each, first step 1.38 m/s, stepwise increase by 0.56 m/s). A training programme was then initiated which consisted of low-speed exercise sessions (LSE; constant velocity at 1.67 m/s for 60 min, 48 training sessions in total). After the 16th and 48th LSE sessions, SETs (SET 2: middle of training period, SET 3: finishing training period) were performed again under the identical test protocol of SET 1. Blood samples for blood lactate, plasma total Ca, blood ionized calcium (Ca(2+)), blood pH, plasma inorganic phosphorus (P(i)) and plasma intact parathyroid hormone (PTH) were collected before, during and after SETs, and before and after the first, 16th, 32nd and 48th LSE sessions. During SETs there was a decrease in ionized Ca(2+) and a rise in lactate, P(i) and intact PTH. The LSEs resulted in an increase in pH and P(i), whereas lactate, ionized Ca(2+), total Ca and intact PTH were not affected. No changes in Ca metabolism were detected in the course of training. Results of this study suggest that the type of exercise influences Ca homeostasis and intact PTH response, but that these effects are not influenced in the course of the training period.

  20. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  1. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure : A meta-regression analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vromen, T.; Kraal, J. J.; Kuiper, J.; Spee, R. F.; Peek, N.; Kemps, H. M.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a

  2. Effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise on bone mineral density in growing rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ertem

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of different durations of treadmill training exercise (daily for 30 min and 60 min on bone mineral density (BMD in young growing rats. Training consisted of treadmill running at 5 days per week during a period of 13 weeks. The rats in 30 min and 60 min exercise groups began to training on day 63 of life and had maintained for at least a week, with a minimal progression as a guide to the rats’ training and adaptation to the treadmill. Running time was gradually increased from 15 min to 30 and 60 min per session for two exercise groups respectively. Control rats were kept in the cages at the same environmental conditions and daily inspected to control their health. At the end of 13 weeks, bone mineral densities of the bilateral tibia of all rats were measured .with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA (QDR 4500/W, Hologic Inc., Bedford, MA, USA and results were evaluated. There were significantly increases in BMD of right and left tibia of rats in 30 min exercise group at post-exercise period (p<0.01 for both sides when compared to the control group. BMD of right and left tibia of rats were also correlated with each other (r=0.556 and p=0.003. Otherwise, there is a positive correlation between pre- and post-exercise body weights of rats (r=0.588 and p=0.002. From our results, we concluded that subjects should perform moderate running exercise for development of bone mass and its protection during the lifelong. However, intensity and duration of performing exercise are required to put in order for every ages or actual physical conditions.

  3. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Ventilatory Efficiency and Respiratory Drive in Obese Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlif, Mehdi; Chaouachi, Anis; Ahmaidi, Said

    2017-07-01

    Obese patients show a decline in exercise capacity and diverse degrees of dyspnea in association with mechanical abnormalities, increased ventilatory requirements secondary to the increased metabolic load, and a greater work of breathing. Consequently, obese patients may be particularly predisposed to the development of respiratory muscle fatigue during exercise. The aim of this study was to assess inspiratory muscle performance during incremental exercise in 19 obese male subjects (body mass index 41 ± 6 kg/m 2 ) after aerobic exercise training using the noninvasive, inspiratory muscle tension-time index (T T0.1 ). Measurements performed included anthropometric parameters, lung function assessed by spirometry, rate of perceived breathlessness with the modified Borg dyspnea scale (0-10), breathing pattern, maximal exercise capacity, and inspiratory muscle performance with a breath-by-breath automated exercise metabolic system during an incremental exercise test. T T0.1 was calculated using the equation, T T0.1 = P 0.1 /P Imax × T I /T tot (where P 0.1 represents mouth occlusion pressure, P Imax is maximal inspiratory pressure, and T I /T tot is the duty cycle). At rest, there was no statistically significant difference for spirometric parameters and cardiorespiratory parameters between pre- and post-training. At maximal exercise, the minute ventilation, the rate of exchange ratio, the rate of perceived breathlessness, and the respiratory muscle performance parameters were not significantly different pre- and post-training; in contrast, tidal volume ( P = .037, effect size = 1.51), breathing frequency ( P = .049, effect size = 0.97), power output ( P = .048, effect size = 0.79), peak oxygen uptake ( P = .02, effect size = 0.92) were significantly higher after training. At comparable work load, training induces lower minute ventilation, mouth occlusion pressure, ratio of occlusion pressure to maximal inspiratory pressure, T T0.1 , and rate of perceived

  4. Effect of exercise order on the number of repeats and training volume in the tri-set training method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waynne Ferreira de Faria

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p187   Although the tri-set system is widely adopted by athletes and experienced weight training practitioners aimed at optimizing the metabolic overload, there are still few works in literature on the effect of exercise order manipulation on this training system. Therefore, this work was aimed at investigating the effect of exercise order manipulation on the number of repeats and training volume using the tri-set system for lower limbs. This is a randomized cross-over design study. The experimental group consisted of 14 healthy men (23.53 ± 5.40 years; 24.51 ± 2.96 kg/m2. Subjects were submitted to two experimental sessions at different exercise order for lower limbs: Sequence A: squat on guided bar, leg press 45° and bilateral leg extension; sequence B: bilateral leg extension, leg press 45° and squat on guided bar. Three sets to volitional fatigue in all exercises were performed, with intensity of 75% 1RM. Superiority for sequence B in the total number of repeats (70.14 ± 13 vs 60.93 ± 7.94 repeats, p = 0.004 and total training volume (9129.64 ± 2830.05 vs 8238.29 ± 2354.20 kg, p = 0.014 was observed. Based on the above, the performance of single-joint exercises before multi-joint exercises in the tri-set system adopted for lower limbs induced higher number of repeats and total training volume.

  5. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  6. The functional effects of physical exercise training in frail older people : a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; van Uffelen, J.G.Z.; Riphagen, I.; van Mechelen, W.

    2008-01-01

    This systematic review describes the effect of exercise training on physical performance in frail older people. Randomized controlled trials were identified from searches in PubMed, EMBASE and CENTRAL from January 1995 through August 2007. Two reviewers independently screened the trials for

  7. Clinical efficacy of electrical stimulation exercise training : Effects on health, fitness, and function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, T. W J; Glaser, R. M.; Shuster, D. B.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to summarize research findings pertaining to the effects of functional electrical stimulation (FES) lower limb exercise training on health, fitness, and function in individuals with spinal cord injury. This lays the foundation for defining the potential clinical

  8. Effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue and physical activity in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Ali A; Chin, Lisa M K; Keyser, Randall E; Kennedy, Michelle; Nathan, Steven D; Woolstenhulme, Joshua G; Connors, Gerilynn; Chan, Leighton

    2013-05-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an exercise intervention for decreasing fatigue severity and increasing physical activity in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). A small, phase 2 randomized clinical trial of the effect of aerobic exercise training on fatigue severity and physical activity in patients with idiopathic or PAH associated with other conditions was conducted. Twenty-four patients with PAH (24 female; age: 54.4 ± 10.4 years; BMI: 30.8 ± 7.2 kg/m(2)) participated in the study. A convenience sample was recruited in which 9% (28 of 303) of screened patients were enrolled. The project was carried out in a clinical pulmonary rehabilitation clinic during existing pulmonary rehabilitation program sessions. Patients with PH were randomized into a 10-week program that consisted of patient education only or patient education plus an aerobic exercise-training regimen. Both groups received 20 lectures, two per week over the 10-weeks, on topics related to PAH and its management. The aerobic exercise training consisted of 24-30 sessions of treadmill walking for 30-45 min per session at an intensity of 70-80% of heart rate reserve, three days per week over the 10 weeks. After 10-weeks of intervention, patients receiving aerobic exercise training plus education reported routinely engaging in higher levels of physical activity (p decrease in fatigue severity (p = 0.03). Patients in the education only group did not report changes in fatigue severity or participation in physical activity. The 10-week aerobic exercise training intervention resulted in increased physical activity and decreased fatigue in individuals with PAH. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678821. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. The Effects of Exercise Training on Anxiety in Fibromyalgia Patients: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, Cillian P; Cook, Dane B; Herring, Matthew P

    2017-09-01

    Physical inactivity and comorbid anxiety symptoms are prevalent among fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Exercise training may be an effective alternative therapy to reduce these symptoms. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of exercise training on anxiety symptoms in patients with FM and to examine whether variables of theoretical or practical importance moderate the estimated mean effect. Twenty-five effects were derived from 10 articles published before June 2016 located using Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, PubMed, and Web of Science. Trials involved 595 patients with FM (mean age = 47.6 yr, 97.5% female) and included both randomization to exercise training (n = 297) or a nonexercise control condition (n = 298) and an anxiety outcome measured at baseline and during and/or after exercise training. Hedges' d effect sizes were computed, data for moderator variables were extracted, and random effects models were used to estimate sampling error and population variance for all analyses. Meta-regression quantified the extent to which patient and trial characteristics moderated the mean effect. Exercise training significantly reduced anxiety symptoms by a mean effect Δ of 0.28 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.16-0.40). No significant heterogeneity was observed (Q24 = 30.79, P = 0.16, I = 25.29%). Program duration (β = 1.44, z = 2.50, P ≤ 0.01) was significantly related to the overall effect, with significantly larger anxiety improvements resulting from programs lasting greater than 26 wk (Δ = 0.35, 95% CI = 0.05-0.66) compared with those lasting less than 26 wk (Δ = 0.26, 95% CI = 0.13-0.39). Exercise training improves anxiety symptoms among FM patients. The findings also suggest that larger anxiety symptom reductions will be achieved by focusing on longer exercise programs while promoting long-term adherence. Future well-designed investigations are required to examine the potential moderating effect of pain-related improvements in FM patients.

  10. The effects of exercise training in patients with peripheral vascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mon tools to assess walking tolerance in patients with PVD. A wide variety of ... Department of Sport Management. Faculty of ... cise to maximal claudication pain in order to elicit the best training ..... Edinburgh artery study: Prevalence of ...

  11. The influence of training characteristics on the effect of aerobic exercise training in patients with chronic heart failure: A meta-regression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vromen, T; Kraal, J J; Kuiper, J; Spee, R F; Peek, N; Kemps, H M

    2016-04-01

    Although aerobic exercise training has shown to be an effective treatment for chronic heart failure patients, there has been a debate about the design of training programs and which training characteristics are the strongest determinants of improvement in exercise capacity. Therefore, we performed a meta-regression analysis to determine a ranking of the individual effect of the training characteristics on the improvement in exercise capacity of an aerobic exercise training program in chronic heart failure patients. We focused on four training characteristics; session frequency, session duration, training intensity and program length, and their product; total energy expenditure. A systematic literature search was performed for randomized controlled trials comparing continuous aerobic exercise training with usual care. Seventeen unique articles were included in our analysis. Total energy expenditure appeared the only training characteristic with a significant effect on improvement in exercise capacity. However, the results were strongly dominated by one trial (HF-action trial), accounting for 90% of the total patient population and showing controversial results compared to other studies. A repeated analysis excluding the HF-action trial confirmed that the increase in exercise capacity is primarily determined by total energy expenditure, followed by session frequency, session duration and session intensity. These results suggest that the design of a training program requires high total energy expenditure as a main goal. Increases in training frequency and session duration appear to yield the largest improvement in exercise capacity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Exercise Training on Pulmonary Function in Type 2 Diabetic Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.T. Afshonpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with reduced lung function. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise training on indicators of lung function in type 2 diabetic men. Materials and Methods: The population of the research was all men with diabetes type II in District 2 of Ahwaz. Twenty four patients with diabetes type II, aged 40-55 years and fasting blood glucose lower than 200 mg /dl were selected by purposive sampling. First, the anthropometric variables and indices of lung function were measured, then subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental, n=12 and control, n=12. Combined exercise training was done for 8 weeks (5 days/week, 30 to 50 minutes for experimental group. To analyze the changes in the parameters, one-way ANOVA was applied. P-value ≤ 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Result: After eight-week combined exercise training, pulmonary indicators FVC FEV1, PEF, FEV/FVC and VO2max significantly increased. Blood glucose and HBA1c significantly reduced. Also, the inverse relationship between blood glucose and pulmonary indicators was observed (P≤ 0.05. Conclusion: It seems that regular combined exercise training can lower blood glucose levels in diabetic patients, are effective therapeutic interventions for improving lung function and VO2max in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  13. Effect of physical training on the recovery of acute exercise, among patients with cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Saldivia, Marianna; Ilarraza-Lomelí, Hermes; Myers, Jonathan; Lara, Jorge; Bueno, Leopoldo

    Physical training programs (PTP) have shown several beneficial effects for patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD), particularly by increasing survival and quality of life. Physiological response during the effort and recovery phases of an exercise testing, is one of the strongest prognostic markers among patients with CVD. A reasonable mechanism that explains those training effects on survival is through the adaptations seen on heart rate recovery (HRR) and oxygen uptake kinetics at the post-exertional phase (RVO 2 ). Compare the HRR and RVO 2 values before and after a PTP in patients with CVD. We studied a cohort of patients included in a cardiac rehabilitation program, whom performed a cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPX). Then, risk stratification and an individualized exercise training program were performed. The exercise training program included 20 sessions of aerobic exercise, 30min a day, five times a week, at moderate intensity. Finally, a second CPX was performed. A total of 215 patients were included. Peak oxygen uptake values rose 2.2±5.2ml/kg/min (p<0.001), HRR increased 1.6±10bpm (p<0.05) and RVO 2 improved -21±98s (p<0.001). A post-hoc analysis show that the percentage of maximum heart rate remained statistically associated with HRR increment. Furthermore, diabetes and sedentarism were strongly related to RVO 2 improvement. No correlation between HRR and RVO 2 was found (R 2 =0.002). Physical exercise was associated with a beneficial effect on HRR and RVO 2 . Nevertheless, both variables were statistically unrelated. Copyright © 2016 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. All rights reserved.

  14. Making Olympic lizards: the effects of specialised exercise training on performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Jerry F; Keith, Allison R; Wittry, Beth N

    2015-03-01

    Exercise training is well known to affect a suite of physiological and performance traits in mammals, but effects of training in other vertebrate tetrapod groups have been inconsistent. We examined performance and physiological differences among green anole lizards (Anolis carolinensis) that were trained for sprinting or endurance, using an increasingly rigorous training regimen over 8 weeks. Lizards trained for endurance had significantly higher post-training endurance capacity compared with the other treatment groups, but groups did not show post-training differences in sprint speed. Although acclimation to the laboratory environment and training explain some of our results, mechanistic explanations for these results correspond with the observed performance differences. After training, endurance-trained lizards had higher haematocrit and larger fast glycolytic muscle fibres. Despite no detectable change in maximal performance of sprint-trained lizards, we detected that they had significantly larger slow oxidative muscle fibre areas compared with the other treatments. Treatment groups did not differ in the proportion of number of fibre types, nor in the mass of most limb muscles or the heart. Our results offer some caveats for investigators conducting training research on non-model organisms and they reveal that muscle plasticity in response to training may be widespread phylogenetically. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  15. Effect of the manipulation of exercise order in the tri-set training system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Silva Ribeiro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of the manipulation of two different exercise orders using the tn-set system on the motor performance in exercises for the chest. Ten male (25.6 ± 5.7 years, 77.0 ± 5.8 kg, 172.9 ± 5.0 cm, 25.7 ± 1.4 kg/m2 with experience in resistance training underwent two experimental sessions, in which the subjects performed two sequences of exercises for the chest: SEQA (bench press, incline bench press, and peck deck and SEQB (peck deck, incline bench press, and bench press. The load used allowed 8 to 12 repetitions (80% of 1RM in each exercise. A higher number of repetitions (29 ± 2 reps vs. 26 ± 3 reps, P < 0.001 and a greater total overload (resistance used x repetitions performed = 1,942 ± 172 kg vs. 1,728 ± 234 kg, P < 0.001 were observed in SEQB. The results suggest that in the tn-set system the higher number of repetitions and a greater training volume occur when the single-joint exercise is included before multiple-joint exercises.

  16. Impairments in site-specific AS160 phosphorylation and effects of exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Consitt, Leslie A; Van Meter, Jessica; Newton, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if site-specific phosphorylation at the level of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is altered in skeletal muscle from sedentary humans across a wide range of the adult lifespan (18 to 84 years) and if endurance- and/or strength-oriented exercise training ...... population and that exercise training is an effective intervention for treating these impairments.......The purpose of this study was to determine if site-specific phosphorylation at the level of Akt substrate of 160 kDa (AS160) is altered in skeletal muscle from sedentary humans across a wide range of the adult lifespan (18 to 84 years) and if endurance- and/or strength-oriented exercise training...... in whole-body insulin action were associated with impairments in insulin-induced phosphorylation of skeletal muscle AS160 on sites Ser-588, Thr-642, Ser-666 and phospho-Akt substrate (PAS), but not Ser-318 or Ser-751. Twelve weeks of either endurance- or strength-oriented exercise training increased whole...

  17. Exercise x BCAA Supplementation in Young Trained Rats: What are their Effects on Body Growth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Campos-Ferraz, Patricia Lopes; Ribeiro, Sandra Maria Lima; Luz, Silmara Dos Santos; Lancha, Antonio Herbert; Tirapegui, Julio

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d) were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8): Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex), Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex), Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed) and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed). The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day) or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation. Key pointsCartilage proteoglycan synthesis was dramatically reduced in trained animals as a whole.BCAA supplementation augmented liver glycogen stores and reduced proteolysis in our experimental conditionsTrained animals receiving BCAA supplementation featured increased proteoglycan synthesis compared to sedentary ones, probably because BCAA may have attenuated the negative effects of exercise on cartilage development.BCAA supplementation was not capable of neutralizing directly the negative effects of long-term physical training and lower food intake in young male rats on body growth.

  18. Quantifying the placebo effect in psychological outcomes of exercise training: a meta-analysis of randomized trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindheimer, Jacob B; O'Connor, Patrick J; Dishman, Rod K

    2015-05-01

    The placebo effect could account for some or all of the psychological benefits attributed to exercise training. The magnitude of the placebo effect in psychological outcomes of randomized controlled exercise training trials has not been quantified. The aim of this investigation was to estimate the magnitude of the population placebo effect in psychological outcomes from placebo conditions used in exercise training studies and compare it to the observed effect of exercise training. Articles published before 1 July 2013 were located using Google Scholar, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and The Cochrane Library. To be included in the analysis, studies were required to have (1) a design that randomly assigned participants to exercise training, placebo, and control conditions and (2) an assessment of a subjective (i.e., anxiety, depression, energy, fatigue) or an objective (i.e., cognitive) psychological outcome. Meta-analytic and multi-level modeling techniques were used to analyze effects from nine studies involving 661 participants. Hedges' d effect sizes were calculated, and random effects models were used to estimate the overall magnitude of the placebo and exercise training effects. After adjusting for nesting effects, the placebo mean effect size was 0.20 (95% confidence interval [CI] -0.02, 0.41) and the observed effect of exercise training was 0.37 (95% CI 0.11, 0.63). A small body of research suggests both that (1) the placebo effect is approximately half of the observed psychological benefits of exercise training and (2) there is an urgent need for creative research specifically aimed at better understanding the role of the placebo effect in the mental health consequences of exercise training.

  19. Effects of aerobic training on exercise-related oxidative stress in mitochondrial myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Gabriele; Simoncini, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2012-12-01

    In mitochondrial myopathies with respiratory chain deficiency impairment of energy cell production may lead to in excess reactive oxygen species generation with consequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Aerobic training has been showed to increase muscle performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Aim of this study has been to evaluate, in 7 patients (6 F e 1M, mean age 44.9 ± 12.1 years) affected by mitochondrial disease, concomitantly to lactate exercise curve, the occurrence of oxidative stress, as indicated by circulating levels of lipoperoxides, in rest condition and as effect of exercise, and also, to verify if an aerobic training program is able to modify, in these patients, ox-redox balance efficiency. At rest and before training blood level of lipoperoxides was 382.4 ± 37.8 AU, compared to controls (318.7 ± 63.8; Pstress degree according to the adopted scale. During incremental exercise blood level of lipoperoxides did not increase, but maintained significantly higher compared to controls. After an aerobic training of 10 weeks the blood level of lipoperoxides decreased by 13.7% at rest (Pexercise test (P=0.06). These data indicate that, in mitochondrial patients, oxidative stress occurs and that an aerobic training is useful in partially reverting this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of combined exercise training on plasma Leptin levels and hormonal factors in overweight men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    saeed Emamdost

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a period of combined exercise training on the plasma leptin level and hormonal factors in overweight men.   Materials and Methods: The subjects of this research consisted of thirty males (22-42 years old, BMI ≥29 who randomly were divided into experimental (n=15 and control groups(n=15. The experimental group performed for 8 weeks aerobic and resistance training, 3 sessions per week and each session included 10-12 station strength training at 75-70% of One Repetition Maximum (1RM for the first 4 weeks and at 75-80% of 1RM for the second 4 weeks. At the end, 10 minutes aerobic runing training at 70-75% of MHR in the first 4 weeks and 13 minute at 75-80% of MHR in the second 4 weeks were conducted.   Results: Leptin, body weight, Body Mass Index (BMI and insulin significantly decreased after the training ((P<0.05. However, There were no significant differences in the serum levels of cortisol and testosteron after 8 weeks concurrent training. The ratio of testosteron to cortisol (T/C in the experimental group showed a slight increase.   Conclusion: Generally, it appears that decrease of leptin due to a period of combined exercise training is more associated with reduce of body fat, weight and BMI than the change of testosteron or cortisol. In contrast to most researches, it seems that combined exercise training is more effective.

  1. Protective effects of exercise training on endothelial dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvet, Fabien; Arnal, Pierrick J; Tardo-Dino, Pierre Emmanuel; Drogou, Catherine; Van Beers, Pascal; Bougard, Clément; Rabat, Arnaud; Dispersyn, Garance; Malgoyre, Alexandra; Leger, Damien; Gomez-Merino, Danielle; Chennaoui, Mounir

    2017-04-01

    Sleep loss is a risk factor for cardiovascular events mediated through endothelial dysfunction. To determine if 7weeks of exercise training can limit cardiovascular dysfunction induced by total sleep deprivation (TSD) in healthy young men. 16 subjects were examined during 40-h TSD, both before and after 7weeks of interval exercise training. Vasodilatation induced by ACh, insulin and heat (42°C) and pulse wave velocity (PWV), blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were assessed before TSD (controlday), during TSD, and after one night of sleep recovery. Biomarkers of endothelial activation, inflammation, and hormones were measured from morning blood samples. Before training, ACh-, insulin- and heat-induced vasodilatations were significantly decreased during TSD and recovery as compared with the control day, with no difference after training. Training prevented the decrease of ACh-induced vasodilation related to TSD after sleep recovery, as well as the PWV increase after TSD. A global lowering effect of training was found on HR values during TSD, but not on blood pressure. Training induces the decrease of TNF-α concentration after TSD and prevents the increase of MCP-1 after sleep recovery. Before training, IL-6 concentrations increased. Cortisol and testosterone decreased after TSD as compared with the control day, while insulin and E-selectin increased after sleep recovery. No effect of TSD or training was found on CRP and sICAM-1. In healthy young men, a moderate to high-intensity interval training is effective at improving aerobic fitness and limiting vascular dysfunction induced by TSD, possibly through pro-inflammatory cytokine responses.(ClinicalTrial:NCT02820649). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Pyridostigmine Improves the Effects of Resistance Exercise Training after Myocardial Infarction in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele J.; Coelho-Júnior, Hélio J.; de Oliveira, Juliana C. M. F.; Delbin, Maria A.; Mostarda, Cristiano T.; Dourado, Paulo M. M.; Caperuto, Érico C.; Irigoyen, Maria C. C.; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-01-01

    Myocardial infarction (MI) remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Exercise training and pharmacological treatments are important strategies to minimize the deleterious effects of MI. However, little is known about the effects of resistance training combined with pyridostigmine bromide (PYR) treatment on cardiac and autonomic function, as well as on the inflammatory profile after MI. Thus, in the present study, male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into: control (Cont); sedentary infarcted (Inf); PYR – treated sedentary infarcted rats (Inf+P); infarcted rats undergoing resistance exercise training (Inf+RT); and infarcted rats undergoing PYR treatment plus resistance training (Inf+RT+P). After 12 weeks of resistance training (15–20 climbs per session, with a 1-min rest between each climb, at a low to moderate intensity, 5 days a week) and/or PYR treatment (0.14 mg/mL of drink water), hemodynamic function, autonomic modulation, and cytokine expressions were evaluated. We observed that 3 months of PYR treatment, either alone or in combination with exercise, can improve the deleterious effects of MI on left ventricle dimensions and function, baroreflex sensitivity, and autonomic parameters, as well as systemic and tissue inflammatory profile. Furthermore, additional benefits in a maximal load test and anti-inflammatory state of skeletal muscle were found when resistance training was combined with PYR treatment. Thus, our findings suggest that the combination of resistance training and PYR may be a good therapeutic strategy since they promote additional benefits on skeletal muscle anti-inflammatory profile after MI. PMID:29483876

  3. Cerebellar Insulin/IGF-1 signaling in diabetic rats: Effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Mariana Eiras; Ribeiro, Alessandra Mussi; Pauli, José Rodrigo; Arantes, Luciana Mendonça; Luciano, Eliete; de Moura, Leandro Pereira; de Almeida Leme, José Alexandre Curiacos; Medeiros, Alessandra; Bertolini, Natália Oliveira; Sibuya, Clarice Yoshiko; Gomes, Ricardo José

    2017-02-03

    The Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is a chronic disease associated with loss of brain regions such as the cerebellum, increasing the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In the brain of diabetic and PD organisms the insulin/IGF-1 signaling is altered. Exercise training is an effective intervention for the prevention of neurodegerative diseases since it release neurotrophic factors and regulating insulin/IGF-1 signaling in the brain. This study aimed to evaluate the proteins involved in the insulin/IGF-1 pathway in the cerebellum of diabetic rats subjected to exercise training protocol. Wistar rats were distributed in four groups: sedentary control (SC), trained control (TC), sedentary diabetic (SD) and trained diabetic (TD). Diabetes was induced by Alloxan (ALX) (32mg/kgb.w.). The training program consisted in swimming 5days/week, 1h/day, during 6 weeks, supporting an overload corresponding to 90% of the anaerobic threshold. At the end, cerebellum was extracted to determinate the protein expression of GSK-3β, IRβ and IGF-1R and the phosphorylation of β-amyloid, Tau, ERK1+ERK2 by Western Blot analysis. All dependent variables were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance with significance level of 5%. Diabetes causes hyperglycemia in both diabetic groups; however, in TD, there was a reduction in hyperglycemia compared to SD. Diabetes increased Tau and β-amyloid phosphorylation in both SD and TD groups. Furthermore, aerobic exercise increased ERK1+ERK2 expression in TC. The data showed that in cerebellum of diabetic rats induced by alloxan there are some proteins expression like Parkinson cerebellum increased, and the exercise training was not able to modulate the expression of these proteins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Should we treat obesity in COPD? The effects of diet and resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Vanessa M; Gibson, Peter G; Scott, Hayley A; Baines, Penelope J; Hensley, Michael J; Pretto, Jeffrey J; Wood, Lisa G

    2016-07-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for poor health outcomes, but paradoxically in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), it is associated with improved survival and lung function. A major evidence gap exisits to inform treatment recommendations for patients with COPD who are obese. We aimed to determine the effect of weight reduction involving a low-energy diet utilizing a partial meal replacement plan, coupled with resistance exercise training in obese COPD patients. In a proof of concept before-after clinical trial, obese (body mass index ≥30 kg/m(2) ) COPD patients received a 12 week weight reduction programme involving meal replacements, dietary counselling by a dietitian and resistance exercise training prescribed and supervised by a physiotherapist. Patients were reviewed face to face by the dietitian and physiotherapist every 2 weeks for counselling. Twenty-eight participants completed the intervention. Mean (standard deviation) body mass index was 36.3 kg/m(2) (4.6) at baseline and reduced by 2.4 kg/m(2) ((1.1) P exercise capacity, health status, dyspnea, strength and functional outcomes. There was also a significant reduction in the body mass index, obstruction, dyspnea and exercise score (BODE). Systemic inflammation measured by C-reactive protein however did not change. In obese COPD patients, dietary energy restriction coupled with resistance exercise training results in clinically significant improvements in body mass index, exercise tolerance and health status, whilst preserving skeletal muscle mass. This novel study provides a framework for development of guidelines for the management of obese COPD patients and in guiding future research. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  5. Effects of exercise training on regulation of skeletal muscle glucose metabolism in elderly men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biensø, Rasmus Sjørup; Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann, Lasse

    2015-01-01

    glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and a muscle biopsy was obtained from the vastus lateralis before and 45 minutes into the OGTT. Blood samples were collected before and up to 120 minutes after glucose intake. RESULTS: Exercise training increased Hexokinase II, GLUT4, Akt2, glycogen synthase (GS), pyruvate......) phosphorylation was increased after exercise training. In the trained state, the PDHa activity was reduced following glucose intake and without changes in phosphorylation level of PDH-E1α. CONCLUSIONS: The present results suggest that exercise training improves glucose regulation in elderly subjects by enhancing......BACKGROUND: The aim was to investigate the molecular mechanisms behind exercise training-induced improvements in glucose regulation in aged subjects. METHODS: Twelve elderly male subjects completed 8 weeks of exercise training. Before and after the training period, the subjects completed an oral...

  6. [Supervised exercise training in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension - analyses of the effectiveness and safety].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxer, S; Rhyner, M; Treder, U; Speich, R; van Gestel, A J R

    2012-02-01

    Both in today's scientific research and in clinical practice, there exists a need to address the uncertainty concerning the effectiveness and safety of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET) in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). It is commonly believed that CPET may be dangerous for patients with PAH, because increasing pressure on the pulmonary arteries may worsen right-sided heart failure. Recently, the first clinical trials on exercise training in patients with pulmonary hypertension reported promising results. Extension of the walking distance at the 6-minute walk test improved quality of life, endurance capacity and a reduction in symptoms were observed after CPET. Furthermore, CPET was well tolerated by the patients in five clinical trials. In conclusion, it may be postulated that CPET is an effective therapy in patients with PAH and was tendentially well tolerated by the patients.

  7. Effects of exercise training on calf muscle oxygen extraction and blood flow in patients with peripheral artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wesley B; Li, Zhe; Schenkel, Steven S; Chandra, Malavika; Busch, David R; Englund, Erin K; Schmitz, Kathryn H; Yodh, Arjun G; Floyd, Thomas F; Mohler, Emile R

    2017-12-01

    We employed near-infrared optical techniques, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS), and frequency-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (FD-NIRS) to test the hypothesis that supervised exercise training increases skeletal muscle microvascular blood flow and oxygen extraction in patients with peripheral artery disease (PAD) who experience claudication. PAD patients ( n = 64) were randomly assigned to exercise and control groups. Patients in the exercise group received 3 mo of supervised exercise training. Calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction were optically monitored before, during, and after performance of a graded treadmill protocol at baseline and at 3 mo in both groups. Additionally, measurements of the ankle-brachial index (ABI) and peak walking time (PWT) to maximal claudication were made during each patient visit. Supervised exercise training was found to increase the maximal calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction levels during treadmill exercise by 29% (13%, 50%) and 8% (1%, 12%), respectively [ P group population were significantly higher than corresponding changes in the control group ( P training also increased PWT by 49% (18%, 101%) ( P = 0.01). However, within statistical error, the ABI, resting calf muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction, and the recovery half-time for hemoglobin\\myoglobin desaturation following cessation of maximal exercise were not altered by exercise training. The concurrent monitoring of both blood flow and oxygen extraction with the hybrid DCS/FD-NIRS instrument revealed enhanced muscle oxidative metabolism during physical activity from exercise training, which could be an underlying mechanism for the observed improvement in PWT. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We report on noninvasive optical measurements of skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen extraction dynamics before/during/after treadmill exercise in peripheral artery disease patients who experience claudication. The measurements tracked the effects of a 3-mo supervised

  8. Effects of plyometric exercise training with external weights on punching ability of experienced amateur boxers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruzas, Vidas; Kamandulis, Sigitas; Venckunas, Tomas; Snieckus, Audrius; Mockus, Pranas

    2018-03-01

    During competition, a boxer must continue to deliver high-impact punches despite increasing fatigue. It is unclear whether the effects of plyometric training using external weights are transferred to sport-specific movements such as punching. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a 4-week cycle of plyometric training with external weights on punching ability. The study involved eight male amateur boxers aged 22.3±2.5 years with at least 7 years of competitive experience. They performed 12 plyometric training sessions, each comprising eight exercises of various muscle groups performed at maximum movement velocity. Six drills were performed with external weights, and two drills were performed using the body weight as resistance. All exercises required coordination. The punching ability was tested at baseline and after the 4 weeks of training using the Kiktest-100 boxing bag. The force of single punches and the frequency of punches within a series did not change from before to after the 4 weeks, except for increased power in the rear-hand low punch (Pplyometric training with external weights did not change the maximum punching power or movement frequency significantly, but had a beneficial effect on punching power endurance in boxers.

  9. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  10. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  11. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shames, Lisa

    1997-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  12. The Effect of a Moderate Aerobic Exercise Training Program on Ovarian Function

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peters, Ruth

    2000-01-01

    .... Both cross-sectional studies of highly trained athletes and prospective studies of high intensity exercise training programs have found a higher frequency of anovulation, lower levels of estradiol...

  13. Effect of birth weight and 12 weeks of exercise training on exercise-induced AMPK signaling in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Brynjulf; Hingst, Janne Rasmuss; Frederiksen, Nicklas

    2013-01-01

    . We investigated 21 LBW and 21 normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during 1 hour of acute exercise performed at the same relative workload before and after 12 weeks of exercise training. Multiple skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained before and after exercise. Protein levels and phosphorylation status......Subjects with a low birth weight (LBW) display increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). We hypothesized that this is associated with defects in muscle adaptations following acute and regular physical activity, evident by impairments in the exercise-induced activation of AMPK signaling...... were determined by Western blotting. AMPK activities were measured using activity assays. Protein levels of AMPK isoforms a1 and ¿1 were significantly increased while ¿3 levels decreased with training independent of group. The LBW group had higher exercise-induced AMPK Thr(172) phosphorylation before...

  14. The effect of physical fitness and physical exercise training on work productivity among health care workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kongstad, Malte Bue; Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    THE EFFECT OF PHYSICAL FITNESS AND PHYSICAL EXERCISE TRAINING ON WORK PRODUCTIVITY AMONG HEALTH CARE WORKERS Kongstad, M. 1, Sjøgaard, G. 1, Søgaard, K. 1, Christensen, JR. 1 1: SDU (Odense, Denmark) Introduction Workplace health promotion involving physical exercise training may negate lifestyle......-sectional sample of health care workers, as well as 2) the change in WP in relation to changes in the before mentioned physiological variables following workplace health promotion. Methods Secondary analyses were performed on a subsample of 139 Danish, female health care workers participating in a cluster...... randomized controlled trial. WP was assessed as a summed score using selected, validated questions from three questionnaires (Health and Work Performance Questionnaire, Work Ability, and Quantity and Quality Method). Height and weight were measured to calculate BMI, CRF was measured using a bicycle ergometer...

  15. EXERCISE X BCAA SUPPLEMENTATION IN YOUNG TRAINED RATS: WHAT ARE THEIR EFFECTS ON BODY GROWTH?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Lopes de Campos-Ferraz

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether Branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs supplementation had any beneficial effects on growth and metabolic parameters of young rats submitted to chronic aerobic exercise. Thirty-two young rats (age: 21-d were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (n = 8: Supplemented Trained (Sup/Ex, Control Trained (Ctrl/Ex, Supplemented Sedentary (Sup/Sed and Control Sedentary (Ctrl/Sed. The trained groups underwent a five-week swimming protocol and received supplemented (45 mg BCAA/body weight/day or control ration. Trained animals presented a lower body length and a higher cartilage weight, regardless of supplementation. Physical activity was responsible for a substantial reduction in proteoglycan synthesis in cartilage tissue, and BCAA supplementation was able to attenuate this reduction and also to improve glycogen stores in the liver, although no major differences were found in body growth associated to this supplementation

  16. Exercise and Academic Achievement in Children: Effects of Acute Class-Based Circuit Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dickinson Ben D.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. For schools, the increasingly imposed requirement to achieve well in academic tests puts increasing emphasis on improving academic achievement. While treadmill exercise has been shown to have beneficial effects on cognitive function and cycling ergometers produce stronger effect sizes than treadmill running, it is impractical for schools to use these on a whole-class basis. There is a need to examine if more ecologically valid modes of exercise might have a similar impact on academic achievement. Circuit training is one such modality shown to benefit cognitive function and recall ability and is easily operationalised within schools. Methods. In a repeated measures design, twenty-six children (17 boys, 8 girls aged 10-11 years (mean age 10.3; SD ± 0.46 years completed the Wide Range Achievement Test (WRAT 4 at rest and following 30 minutes of exercise. Results. Standardised scores for word reading were significantly higher post exercise (F(1,18 = 49.9, p = 0.0001 compared to rest. In contrast, standardised scores for sentence comprehension (F(1,18 = 0.078, p = 0.783, spelling (F(1,18 = 4.07, p = 0.06 mathematics (F(1,18 = 1.257, p = 0.277, and reading (F(1,18 = 2.09, p = 0.165 were not significantly different between rest and exercise conditions. Conclusions. The results of the current study suggest acute bouts of circuit based exercise enhances word reading but not other areas of academic ability in 10-11 year old children. These findings support prior research that indicates acute bouts of exercise can selectively improve cognition in children.

  17. The effects of training group exercise class instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoumanis, N; Thøgersen-Ntoumani, C; Quested, E; Hancox, J

    2017-09-01

    Drawing from self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2002), we developed and tested an intervention to train fitness instructors to adopt a motivationally adaptive communication style when interacting with exercisers. This was a parallel group, two-arm quasi-experimental design. Participants in the intervention arm were 29 indoor cycling instructors (n = 10 for the control arm) and 246 class members (n = 75 for the control arm). The intervention consisted of face-to-face workshops, education/information video clips, group discussions and activities, brainstorming, individual planning, and practical tasks in the cycling studio. Instructors and exercisers responded to validated questionnaires about instructors' use of motivational strategies and other motivation-related variables before the first workshop and at the end of the third and final workshop (4 months later). Time × arm interactions revealed no significant effects, possibly due to the large attrition of instructors and exercisers in the control arm. Within-group analyses in the intervention arm showed that exercisers' perceptions of instructor motivationally adaptive strategies, psychological need satisfaction, and intentions to remain in the class increased over time. Similarly, instructors in the intervention arm reported being less controlling and experiencing more need satisfaction over time. These results offer initial promising evidence for the positive impact of the training. © 2016 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  19. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, A M; Bagatini, M D; Roth, M A; Martins, C C; Rezer, J F P; Mello, F F; Lopes, L F D; Morsch, V M; Schetinger, M R C

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  20. Effect of high-intensity exercise training on functional sympatholysis in young and older habitually active men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann; Jørgensen, T Smith; Egelund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    The ability of contracting skeletal muscle to attenuate sympathetic vasoconstriction during exercise, termed functional sympatholysis, can be improved by exercise training. However, to what extent age affects functional sympatholysis is unclear. Thus, this study examined the effect of 8 weeks of ...

  1. Effects of a Supported Speed Treadmill Training Exercise Program on Impairment and Function for Children with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Therese E.; Watson, Kyle E.; Ross, Sandy A.; Gates, Philip E.; Gaughan, John P.; Lauer, Richard T.; Tucker, Carole A.; Engsberg, Jack R.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To compare the effects of a supported speed treadmill training exercise program (SSTTEP) with exercise on spasticity, strength, motor control, gait spatiotemporal parameters, gross motor skills, and physical function. Method: Twenty-six children (14 males, 12 females; mean age 9y 6mo, SD 2y 2mo) with spastic cerebral palsy (CP; diplegia, n =…

  2. Supervised Exercise Training Counterbalances the Adverse Effects of Insulin Therapy in Overweight/Obese Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Fallucca, Sara; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the effect of supervised exercise on traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary, overweight/obese insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The study randomized 73 insulin-treated patients to twice weekly supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (EXE) or to counseling alone (CON) for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory paramete...

  3. COMPARATIVE EFFECT OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES AND COMBINATION OF SPECIFIC YOGIC EXERCISES WITH AUTOGENIC TRAINING ON VITAL CAPACITY OF THE MIDDLE AGED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SURESH KUMAR

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to find out the comparative effect of specific yogic exercises and combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training on vital capacity of the middle aged men. The study tried to find out type of training program that had a maximum effect on the vital capacity of the subjects. The study has been conducted on sixty middle aged men, in the age group of 30 to 50 years. The subjects (N=60 were at random divided into three equalgroups two experimental Groups and one control group, and group consisting of 20 middle aged men. Two experimental Groups participated in two different training programmes i.e. Specific yogic exercises and Combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training for twenty four weeks and control group performed the routine work. The data was collected were collected in beginning ,at the end of twelve week and twenty four week of training program in term of pre, mid and post test respectively by using Wetspirometer. The training schedule was prepared systematically and carefully,keeping the individual differences of the subjects and loading principals in mind. Repeated measures of ANOVA andNewman Keul’s test were applied to find out significance of mean difference among the three tests. ANACOVA andScheffe’s Post Hoc test were applied to determine the significance of mean difference among the three groups. From the results it was found that the Practice of the combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training is significantly effective than the specific yogic exercises programme and control group in improving the vital capacityamong the middle aged men. Twelve weeks’ practice of combination of specific yogic exercises with autogenic training significantly improved in the vital capacity among the middle aged men than the twenty four weeks of practice

  4. Effects of exercise training on circulating and skeletal muscle renin-angiotensin system in chronic heart failure rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes-Santos, Igor Lucas; Fernandes, Tiago; Couto, Gisele Kruger; Ferreira-Filho, Julio César Ayres; Salemi, Vera Maria Cury; Fernandes, Fernanda Barrinha; Casarini, Dulce Elena; Brum, Patricia Chakur; Rossoni, Luciana Venturini; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Negrao, Carlos Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Accumulated evidence shows that the ACE-AngII-AT1 axis of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is markedly activated in chronic heart failure (CHF). Recent studies provide information that Angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7), a metabolite of AngII, counteracts the effects of AngII. However, this balance between AngII and Ang-(1-7) is still little understood in CHF. We investigated the effects of exercise training on circulating and skeletal muscle RAS in the ischemic model of CHF. Male Wistar rats underwent left coronary artery ligation or a Sham operation. They were divided into four groups: 1) Sedentary Sham (Sham-S), 2) exercise-trained Sham (Sham-Ex), sedentary CHF (CHF-S), and exercise-trained CHF (CHF-Ex). Angiotensin concentrations and ACE and ACE2 activity in the circulation and skeletal muscle (soleus and plantaris) were quantified. Skeletal muscle ACE and ACE2 protein expression, and AT1, AT2, and Mas receptor gene expression were also evaluated. CHF reduced ACE2 serum activity. Exercise training restored ACE2 and reduced ACE activity in CHF. Exercise training reduced plasma AngII concentration in both Sham and CHF rats and increased the Ang-(1-7)/AngII ratio in CHF rats. CHF and exercise training did not change skeletal muscle ACE and ACE2 activity and protein expression. CHF increased AngII levels in both soleus and plantaris muscle, and exercise training normalized them. Exercise training increased Ang-(1-7) in the plantaris muscle of CHF rats. The AT1 receptor was only increased in the soleus muscle of CHF rats, and exercise training normalized it. Exercise training increased the expression of the Mas receptor in the soleus muscle of both exercise-trained groups, and normalized it in plantaris muscle. Exercise training causes a shift in RAS towards the Ang-(1-7)-Mas axis in skeletal muscle, which can be influenced by skeletal muscle metabolic characteristics. The changes in RAS circulation do not necessarily reflect the changes occurring in the RAS of skeletal

  5. Effect of antioxidant supplementation on insulin sensitivity in response to endurance exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yfanti, Christina; Nielsen, Anders R; Åkerström, Thorbjörn

    2011-01-01

    While production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) is associated with some of the beneficial adaptations to regular physical exercise, it is not established whether RONS play a role in the improved insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle obtained by endurance training....... To assess the effect of antioxidant supplementation during endurance training on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, twenty-one young healthy (age 29±1 y; BMI 25±3 Kg m(-2)) men were randomly assigned into either an antioxidant (AO; 500 mg vitamin C and 400 IU vitamin E (a-tocopherol) daily) or a placebo (PL......) group that both underwent a supervised intense endurance-training program, 5 times per week for 12 weeks. A 3-hour euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp, a maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)) and maximal power output (P(max)) test, and body composition measurements (fat mass, fat-free mass) were performed...

  6. Effects of exercise training and detraining in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: a 3-yr longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sañudo, Borja; Carrasco, Luis; de Hoyo, Moisés; McVeigh, Joseph G

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the immediate effects of a 6-mo combined exercise program on quality-of-life, physical function, depression, and aerobic capacity in women with fibromyalgia syndrome and to determine the impact of repeated delivery of the intervention. Forty-one women with fibromyalgia were randomly assigned to a training group (EG; n = 21) and a control group (CG; n = 20). Quality-of-life and physical function were assessed using the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) and the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, and depression was measured using the Beck Depression Inventory. Physical fitness was measured using the 6-min Walk Test. Outcomes were assessed at baseline and after each 6-mo intervention, which was delivered over 30 mos (6 mos of training and 6 mos of detraining). After a 6-mo combined exercise program, there was a significant improvement in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (P Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36, Beck Depression Inventory and the 6-min Walk Test, but there were no between-group interaction effects. For the EG, there were significant within-group changes in the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire, SF-36, and Beck Depression Inventory at the final time point; however, there were no within-group changes for the control group. Improvement achieved for the training group were maintained during the detraining period. A long-term exercise program can produce immediate improvements in key health domains in women with fibromyalgia. The benefits achieved with regular training can be maintained for 30 mos. The lack of difference between groups over time may be caused by attrition and consequent lack of power at the final time point.

  7. Exercise and training effects on ceramide metabolism in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Dobrzyn, Agnieszka; Saltin, Bengt

    2004-01-01

    in skeletal muscle in untrained and trained subjects before and after prolonged exercise. Healthy male subjects were recruited into an untrained (n = 8, VO2,max 3.8 +/- 0.2 1 min1) and a trained (n = 8, Vo2,max 5.1 +/- 0.1 1 min2) group. Before and after a 3-h exercise bout (58 +/- 1% VO2,max) a muscle biopsy...... was measured using N-[14CH3]-sphingomyelin as a substrate. Prior to exercise, the muscle total ceramide fatty acid content in both groups was similar (201 +/- 18 and 197 +/- 9 nmol g(-1) in the untrained and trained group, respectively) and after exercise a 25% increase in the content was observed in each...... group. At rest, the muscle total sphingomyelin fatty acid content was higher in untrained than in trained subjects (456 +/- 10, 407 +/- 7 nmol g(-1), respectively; P trained subjects. The muscle neutral, Mg...

  8. Resistance exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Richards, Rachel S; Bidonde, Julia; Schachter, Candice L; Schafer, Laurel A; Danyliw, Adrienne; Sawant, Anuradha; Dal Bello-Haas, Vanina; Rader, Tamara; Overend, Tom J

    2013-12-20

    Fibromyalgia is characterized by chronic widespread pain that leads to reduced physical function. Exercise training is commonly recommended as a treatment for management of symptoms. We examined the literature on resistance training for individuals with fibromyalgia. Resistance training is exercise performed against a progressive resistance with the intention of improving muscle strength, muscle endurance, muscle power, or a combination of these. To evaluate the benefits and harms of resistance exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We compared resistance training versus control and versus other types of exercise training. We searched nine electronic databases (The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, Current Controlled Trials, World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, AMED) and other sources for published full-text articles. The date of the last search was 5 March 2013. Two review authors independently screened 1856 citations, 766 abstracts and 156 full-text articles. We included five studies that met our inclusion criteria. Selection criteria included: a) randomized clinical trial, b) diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria, c) adult sample, d) full-text publication, and e) inclusion of between-group data comparing resistance training versus a control or other physical activity intervention. Pairs of review authors independently assessed risk of bias and extracted intervention and outcome data. We resolved disagreements between the two review authors and questions regarding interpretation of study methods by discussion within the pairs or when necessary the issue was taken to the full team of 11 members. We extracted 21 outcomes of which seven were designated as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, tenderness, muscle strength, attrition rates, and adverse effects. We evaluated benefits and harms of the interventions using

  9. Aquatic exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Webber, Sandra C; Schachter, Candice L; Danyliw, Adrienne; Overend, Tom J; Richards, Rachel S; Rader, Tamara

    2014-10-28

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for individuals with fibromyalgia. This review examined the effects of supervised group aquatic training programs (led by an instructor). We defined aquatic training as exercising in a pool while standing at waist, chest, or shoulder depth. This review is part of the update of the 'Exercise for treating fibromyalgia syndrome' review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2007. The objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the benefits and harms of aquatic exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched The Cochrane Library 2013, Issue 2 (Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Health Technology Assessment Database, NHS Economic Evaluation Database), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro, Dissertation Abstracts, WHO international Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and AMED, as well as other sources (i.e., reference lists from key journals, identified articles, meta-analyses, and reviews of all types of treatment for fibromyalgia) from inception to October 2013. Using Cochrane methods, we screened citations, abstracts, and full-text articles. Subsequently, we identified aquatic exercise training studies. Selection criteria were: a) full-text publication of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) in adults diagnosed with fibromyalgia based on published criteria, and b) between-group data for an aquatic intervention and a control or other intervention. We excluded studies if exercise in water was less than 50% of the full intervention. We independently assessed risk of bias and extracted data (24 outcomes), of which we designated seven as major outcomes: multidimensional function, self reported physical function, pain, stiffness, muscle strength, submaximal cardiorespiratory function, withdrawal rates and adverse effects. We resolved discordance through discussion. We evaluated interventions using mean differences

  10. Effects of Strength Training Sessions Performed with Different Exercise Orders and Intervals on Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Sandro; Figueiredo, Tiago; Marques, Silvio; Leite, Thalita; Cardozo, Diogo; Willardson, Jeffrey M; Simão, Roberto

    2018-01-01

    This study compared the effect of a strength training session performed at different exercise orders and rest intervals on blood pressure and heart rate variability (HRV). Fifteen trained men performed different upper body exercise sequences [large to small muscle mass (SEQA) and small to large muscle mass (SEQB)] in randomized order with rest intervals between sets and exercises of 40 or 90 seconds. Fifteen repetition maximum loads were tested to control the training intensity and the total volume load. The results showed, significant reductions for systolic blood pressure (SBP) for all sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 at 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes; SEQA40 and SEQB40 at 20 minutes and SEQB90 at 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60 minutes. For diastolic blood pressure (DBP), significant reductions were found for three sequences compared to baseline and, post-exercise: SEQA90 and SEQA40 at 50 and 60 minutes; SEQB40 at 10, 30 and 60 minutes. For HRV, there were significant differences in frequency domain for all sequences compared to baseline. In conclusion, when performing upper body strength training sessions, it is suggested that 90 second rest intervals between sets and exercises promotes a post-exercise hypotensive response in SBP. The 40 second rest interval between sets and exercises was associated with greater cardiac stress, and might be contraindicated when working with individuals that exhibit symptoms of cardiovascular disease.

  11. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance

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    Abbas Asadi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Although both plyometric training methods improved lower body maximal-intensity exercise performance, the traditional sets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations.

  12. Effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy and aerobic exercise training on articular cartilage in an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assis, Lívia; Tim, Carla; Martignago, Cintia; Gonçalves, Silma Rodrigues; Renno, Ana Claudia Muniz

    2018-02-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common disease of the knee joints in adults throughout the world. Photobiomodulation (PBM) and physical exercise have been studied for clinical treatment of OA, even though the effects and action mechanisms have not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of PBM and aerobic exercise (associated or not) on degenerative modifications and inflammatory mediators in articular cartilage using an experimental model of knee OA. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: OA animals without treatment (OAC); OA plus aerobic exercise training (OAT); OA animals plus PBM treatment (OAP); OA plus aerobic exercise training and PBM treatment (OATP). The exercise training (treadmill; 16m/min; 50 min/day) and the PBM treatment started 4 weeks after the surgery, 3 days/week for 8 weeks. The results showed that all treated groups showed a lower degenerative process measured by OARSI system and higher thickness values. Moreover, aerobic exercise and PBM (associated or not) decreased iNOS expression and increased IL-10 expression in OAT and OATL compared to OAC. Furthermore, a lower TGF-β expression was observed in associated therapies. These results suggest that PBM and aerobic exercise training were effective in modulating inflammatory process and preventing cartilage degeneration in knees in OA rats.

  13. Effect of metformin on substrate utilization after exercise training in adults with impaired glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Braun, Barry

    2013-04-01

    Metformin attenuates the higher insulin sensitivity that occurs with exercise training. Sixteen people with prediabetes trained for 10 weeks while taking metformin (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8). Substrate utilization was assessed using glucose kinetics and indirect calorimetry. After training, exercise whole-body fat oxidation was higher and glycogen use lower (p use was unchanged. Training-induced enhancement of insulin sensitivity (clamp) correlated with higher peak oxygen uptake (r = 0.70; p < 0.05), but was independent of glucose kinetic and substrate metabolism.

  14. Effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function in inactive latin-american adults: a randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Quiñonez, Paula Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training is effective for improving cardiometabolic health and physical fitness in inactive adults. However, limited research has been conducted on the optimal exercise training intensity for this population. We investigate the effect of moderate versus high intensity interval exercise training on vascular function and physical fitness in physically inactive adults. Twenty inactive adults were randomly allocated to receive either moderate intensity training (MCT group) or high intens...

  15. Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Plasma Protein Profiles of Endurance-Trained and Untrained Individuals over Time

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    Marius Schild

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute physical exercise and repeated exercise stimuli affect whole-body metabolic and immunologic homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine plasma protein profiles of trained (EET, n=19 and untrained (SED, n=17 individuals at rest and in response to an acute bout of endurance exercise. Participants completed a bicycle exercise test at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their VO2max. Plasma samples were taken before, directly after, and three hours after exercise and analyzed using multiplex immunoassays. Seventy-eight plasma variables were included in the final analysis. Twenty-nine variables displayed significant acute exercise effects in both groups. Seven proteins differed between groups, without being affected by acute exercise. Among these A2Macro and IL-5 were higher in EET individuals while leptin showed elevated levels in SED individuals. Fifteen variables revealed group and time differences with elevated levels for IL-3, IL-7, IL-10, and TNFR2 in EET individuals. An interaction effect could be observed for nine variables including IL-6, MMP-2, MMP-3, and muscle damage markers. The proteins that differ between groups indicate a long-term exercise effect on plasma protein concentrations. These findings might be of importance in the development of exercise-based strategies in the prevention and therapy of chronic metabolic and inflammatory diseases and for training monitoring.

  16. The effect of exercise training on hormone-sensitive lipase in rat intra-abdominal adipose tissue and muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Langfort, J

    2001-01-01

    1. Adrenaline-stimulated lipolysis in adipose tissue may increase with training. The rate-limiting step in adipose tissue lipolysis is catalysed by the enzyme hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL). We studied the effect of exercise training on the activity of the total and the activated form of HSL...

  17. Effect of exercise training on inflammation status among people with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensvold, Dorthe; Slørdahl, Stig Arild; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, a condition thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Among a number of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-18 (IL-18) seems to be the best marker for inflammation among people with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic training versus strength training on circulating IL-18 and other proinflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-one inactive men and women with metabolic syndrome were randomized to either high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT, n=11), strength training (ST, n=10), or a control group (n=10). Exercise training was carried out three times per week for 12 weeks. Serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-18, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured before and after the intervention. Serum IL-18 was reduced by 43% after AIT (Pmetabolic syndrome. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00986024/ .

  18. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of Tai chi exercise training in older adults with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Núñez VM

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez,1 Taide Laurita Arista-Ugalde,1 Juana Rosado-Pérez,1 Mirna Ruiz-Ramos,1 Edelmiro Santiago-Osorio2 1Research Unit on Gerontology, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Hematopoiesis and Leukemia Laboratory, Research Unit on Cell Differentiation and Cancer, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tai chi (TC exercise training in healthy older adults has been demonstrated. However, there are no studies on this effect in older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TC exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in older adults with MetS.Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out with a sample of 110 older sedentary volunteers with clinical diagnoses of MetS: (i a control group, n = 50, of individuals who do not participate in physical exercise, of which 37 fulfilled the entire study protocol, and (ii an experimental group, n = 60, of subjects enrolled in a TC exercise training program (eight-form easy, 5 days a week for 6 months, in sessions of 50 min, under the supervision of a qualified instructor, of which 48 fulfilled the entire study protocol. We measured in both groups (pre- and post-intervention the following cardiovascular parameters: resting heart rate (RHR, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, RHR-SBP product, RHR-MAP product; glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c; oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant status, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, and oxidative stress score; and inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10.Results: A statistically significant decrease in HbA1c concentration was observed in the TC group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. This group also showed a statistically significant increase

  19. Previous exercise training has a beneficial effect on renal and cardiovascular function in a model of diabetes.

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    Kleiton Augusto dos Santos Silva

    Full Text Available Exercise training (ET is an important intervention for chronic diseases such as diabetes mellitus (DM. However, it is not known whether previous exercise training intervention alters the physiological and medical complications of these diseases. We investigated the effects of previous ET on the progression of renal disease and cardiovascular autonomic control in rats with streptozotocin (STZ-induced DM. Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. All groups were followed for 15 weeks. Trained control and trained diabetic rats underwent 10 weeks of exercise training, whereas previously trained diabetic rats underwent 14 weeks of exercise training. Renal function, proteinuria, renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA and the echocardiographic parameters autonomic modulation and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS were evaluated. In the previously trained group, the urinary albumin/creatinine ratio was reduced compared with the sedentary diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. Additionally, RSNA was normalized in the trained diabetic and previously trained diabetic animals (p<0.05. The ejection fraction was increased in the previously trained diabetic animals compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05, and the myocardial performance index was improved in the previously trained diabetic group compared with the diabetic and trained diabetic groups (p<0.05. In addition, the previously trained rats had improved heart rate variability and BRS in the tachycardic response and bradycardic response in relation to the diabetic group (p<0.05. This study demonstrates that previous ET improves the functional damage that affects DM. Additionally, our findings suggest that the development of renal and cardiac dysfunction can be minimized by 4 weeks of ET before the induction of DM by STZ.

  20. Effect of endurance exercise training on left ventricular size and remodeling in older adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, M J; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Ehsani, A A

    2000-04-01

    It is not known whether exercise training can induce a reduction of blood pressure (BP) and a regression of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in older hypertensive subjects. This study was designed to determine whether endurance exercise training, by lowering BP, can induce regression of LVH and left ventricular (LV) concentric remodeling in older hypertensive adults. We studied 11 older adults with mild to moderate hypertension (BP 152.0 +/- 2.5/91.3 +/- 1.5 mm Hg, mean +/- SE), 65.5 +/- 1.2 years old, who exercised for 6.8 +/- 3.8 months. Seven sedentary hypertensive (BP 153 +/- 3/89 +/- 2 mm Hg) subjects, 68.5 +/- 1 years old, served as controls. LV size and geometry and function were assessed with the use of two-dimensional echocardiography. Exercise training increased aerobic power by 16% (p hypertension.

  1. Effect of Voluntary Ethanol Consumption Combined with Testosterone Treatment on Cardiovascular Function in Rats: Influence of Exercise Training.

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    Sheila A Engi

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effects of voluntary ethanol consumption combined with testosterone treatment on cardiovascular function in rats. Moreover, we investigated the influence of exercise training on these effects. To this end, male rats were submitted to low-intensity training on a treadmill or kept sedentary while concurrently being treated with ethanol for 6 weeks. For voluntary ethanol intake, rats were given access to two bottles, one containing ethanol and other containing water, three 24-hour sessions per week. In the last two weeks (weeks 5 and 6, animals underwent testosterone treatment concurrently with exercise training and exposure to ethanol. Ethanol consumption was not affected by either testosterone treatment or exercise training. Also, drug treatments did not influence the treadmill performance improvement evoked by training. However, testosterone alone, but not in combination with ethanol, reduced resting heart rate. Moreover, combined treatment with testosterone and ethanol reduced the pressor response to the selective α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. Treatment with either testosterone or ethanol alone also affected baroreflex activity and enhanced depressor response to acetylcholine, but these effects were inhibited when drugs were coadministrated. Exercise training restored most cardiovascular effects evoked by drug treatments. Furthermore, both drugs administrated alone increased pressor response to phenylephrine in trained animals. Also, drug treatments inhibited the beneficial effects of training on baroreflex function. In conclusion, the present results suggest a potential interaction between toxic effects of testosterone and ethanol on cardiovascular function. Data also indicate that exercise training is an important factor influencing the effects of these substances.

  2. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics and functional status in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Huey; Lin, Hui-Ling; Hsiao, Hsiu-Feng; Chou, Lan-Ti; Kao, Kuo-Chin; Huang, Chung-Chi; Tsai, Ying-Huang

    2012-05-01

    The functional status and outcomes in patients with prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) are often limited by poor endurance and pulmonary mechanics, which result from the primary diseases or prolonged time bedridden. We evaluate the impact of exercise training on pulmonary mechanics, physical functional status, and hospitalization outcomes in PMV patients. Twenty-seven subjects with PMV in our respiratory care center (RCC) were divided randomly into an exercise training group (n = 12) and a control group (n = 15). The exercise program comprised 10 sessions of exercise training. The measurement of pulmonary mechanics and physical functional status (Functional Independence Measurement and Barthel index) were performed pre-study and post-study. The hospitalization outcomes included: days of mechanical ventilation, hospitalization days, and weaning and mortality rates during RCC stay. The training group had significant improvement in tidal volume (143.6 mL vs 192.5 mL, P = .02) and rapid shallow breathing index after training (162.2 vs 110.6, P = .009). No significant change was found in the control group except respiratory rate. Both groups had significant improvement in functional status during the study. However, the training group had greater changes in FIM score than the control group (44.6 vs 34.2, P = .024). The training group also had shorter RCC stay and higher weaning and survival rates than the control group, although no statistical difference was found. Subjects with PMV in our RCC demonstrated significant improvement in pulmonary mechanics and functional status after exercise training. The application of exercise training may be helpful for PMV patients to improve hospitalization outcomes.

  3. The Effects of the Preconception Endurance Exercise Training and Voluntary Exercise Activity during Pregnancy in C57BL/6 Mice on Lipid Profile of the Adult Offsprings

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    Abbasali Gaeini

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preconception endurance exercise training with voluntary exercise activity during pregnancy in mother mice on lipid profile in adult offsprings. Materials and Methods: Twenty four C57BL/6 female mice were randomly divided into four subgroups: trained in preconception period and exercised during pregnancy (TE(20.3±1.02g; trained in preconception periods but unexercised during pregnancy (TC(21.58±0.4g; untrained in preconception periods but exercised during pregnancy (CE(21.02±0.23g; untrained and unexercised (CC(19.23±0.45g. Trained mice were subjected to a protocol of moderate endurance exercise training over a period of 4 weeks for 5 days before pregnancy. The fasting blood samples were collected from adult mice(8 weeks old and serum levels of glucose and lipid profile were measured. Data were analyzed using two way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: The Glucose test results in offspring showed that there was a significant interaction between group and sex and group main effect (p<0.001 Glucose levels of male offspring were significantly lower in TC and TE groups. Results on LDL also showed that the sex main effect was significant (p<0.001, and LDL levels of male born to TE and TC dams lower than in female offspring. Conclusion: Improving the mother's physical fitness by providing regular endurance training in the preconception period and maintaining it by exercise activty throughout pregnancy may have potential for eliciting positive changes in lipid profile of offspring, specially males.

  4. Smoking Counteracts the Favorable Effect of Exercise Training on Endothelial Function in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

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    Shinji Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Exercise training can improve endothelial function in patients with diabetes. We hypothesized that the favorable effect of exercise training on endothelial function in patients with diabetes is counteracted by cigarette smoking. Purpose To assess whether there is a difference in the effect of exercise on endothelial function in smokers and non-smokers with type 2 diabetes. Methods We performed a 3-month controlled trial in 27 never-smoking and 17 smoking individuals with type 2 diabetes who participated in a home-based walking program. The percentage decrease in post-exercise ankle-brachial pressure index (ABI, which is an index of endothelial function, was assessed at baseline and after 3 months. Results Compared to the smoking group, the never-smoking group showed a more significant improvement in post exercise ABI during the 3 months of home-based training (interaction, P < 0.01. Conclusions These results indicate that smoking may counteract the favorable effects of exercise training on endothelial function. Endothelial function plays an important role in the prevention of cardiovascular disease among patients with diabetes. Therefore, a Certified Diabetes Educator should strongly advise diabetic patients not to smoke.

  5. Effect of “add-on” interventions on exercise training in individuals with COPD: a systematic review

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    Carlos A. Camillo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to identify the effectiveness of therapies added on to conventional exercise training to maximise exercise capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Electronic databases were searched, identifying trials comparing exercise training with exercise training plus “add-on” therapy. Outcomes included peak oxygen uptake (V′O2peak, work rate and incremental/endurance cycle and field walking tests. Individual trial effects on exercise capacity were extracted and collated into eight subgroups and pooled for meta-analysis. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to explore the stability of effect estimates across studies employing patient-centred designs and those deemed to be of “high” quality (PEDro score >5 out of 10. 74 studies (2506 subjects met review inclusion criteria. Interventions spanned a broad scope of clinical practice and were most commonly evaluated via the 6-min walking distance and V′O2peak. Meta-analysis revealed few clinically relevant and statistically significant benefits of “add-on” therapies on exercise performance compared with exercise training. Benefits favouring “add-on” therapies were observed across six different interventions (additional exercise training, noninvasive ventilation, bronchodilator therapy, growth hormone, vitamin D and nutritional supplementation. The sensitivity analyses included considerably fewer studies, but revealed minimal differences to the primary analysis. The lack of systematic benefits of “add-on” interventions is a probable reflection of methodological limitations, such as “one size fits all” eligibility criteria, that are inherent in many of the included studies of “add-on” therapies. Future clarification regarding the exact value of such therapies may only arise from adequately powered, multicentre clinical trials of tailored interventions for carefully selected COPD patient subgroups defined according to distinct

  6. Effect of DHA on plasma fatty acid availability and oxidative stress during training season and football exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martorell, Miquel; Capó, Xavier; Sureda, Antoni; Batle, Joan M; Llompart, Isabel; Argelich, Emma; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni

    2014-08-01

    The aim was to determine the effects of a diet supplemented with 1.14 g per day of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) for eight weeks on the plasma oxidative balance and anti-inflammatory markers after training and acute exercise. Fifteen volunteer male football players were randomly assigned to placebo or experimental and supplemented groups. Blood samples were taken under resting conditions at the beginning and after eight weeks of training under resting and post-exercise conditions. The experimental beverage increased the plasma DHA availability in non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) and triglyceride fatty acids (TGFAs) and increased the polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) fraction of NEFAs but had no effects on the biomarkers for oxidative balance in plasma. During training, plasma protein markers of oxidative damage, the haemolysis degree and the antioxidant enzyme activities increased, but did not affect lipid oxidative damage. Training season and DHA influenced the circulating levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Acute exercise did not alter the basal levels of plasma markers for oxidative and nitrosative damage of proteins and lipids, and the antioxidant enzyme activities, although DHA-diet supplementation significantly increased the PGE2 in plasma after acute exercise. In conclusion, the training season and acute exercise, but not the DHA diet supplementation, altered the pattern of plasma oxidative damage, as the antioxidant system proved sufficient to prevent the oxidative damage induced by the acute exercise in well-trained footballers. The DHA-diet supplementation increased the prostaglandin PGE2 plasma evidencing anti-inflammatory effects of DHA to control inflammation after acute exercise.

  7. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardoso, A.M. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bagatini, M.D. [Curso de Enfermagem, Campus Chapecó, Universidade Federal da Fronteira Sul, Chapecó, SC (Brazil); Roth, M.A. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Mello, F.F. [Departamento de Desportos Individuais, Centro de Educação Física e Desportos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Lopes, L.F.D. [Departamento de Administração, Centro de Ciências Sociais e Humanas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C. [Departamento de Química, Centro de Ciências Naturais e Exatas, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2012-10-26

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  8. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Cardoso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12, spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12, and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10. In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05. Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group was observed (P < 0.05. A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05. These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity.

  9. Acute effects of resistance exercise and intermittent intense aerobic exercise on blood cell count and oxidative stress in trained middle-aged women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, A.M.; Bagatini, M.D.; Roth, M.A.; Martins, C.C.; Rezer, J.F.P.; Mello, F.F.; Lopes, L.F.D.; Morsch, V.M.; Schetinger, M.R.C.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effect of an intermittent intense aerobic exercise session and a resistance exercise session on blood cell counts and oxidative stress parameters in middle-aged women. Thirty-four women were selected and divided into three groups: RE group (performing 60 min of resistance exercises, N = 12), spinning group (performing 60 min of spinning, N = 12), and control group (not exercising regularly, N = 10). In both exercise groups, lymphocytes and monocytes decreased after 1-h recuperation (post-exercise) compared to immediately after exercise (P < 0.05). Immediately after exercise, in both exercised groups, a significant increase in TBARS (from 16.5 ± 2 to 25 ± 2 for the spinning group and from 18.6 ± 1 to 28.2 ± 3 nmol MDA/mL serum for the RE group) and protein carbonyl (from 1.0 ± 0.3 to 1.6 ± 0.2 for the spinning group and from 0.9 ± 0.2 to 1.5 ± 0.2 nmol/mg protein for the RE group) was observed (P < 0.05). A decrease in antioxidant activities (non-protein sulfhydryl, superoxide dismutase, catalase) was also demonstrated with a negative correlation between damage markers and antioxidant body defenses (P < 0.05). These results indicate that an acute bout of intermittent or anaerobic exercise induces immune suppression and increases the production of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress in middle-aged and trained women. Furthermore, we demonstrated that trained women show improved antioxidant capacity and lower oxidative damage than sedentary ones, demonstrating the benefits of chronic regular physical activity

  10. Effect of endurance exercise training on oxidative stress in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) after emergence of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Hiroko; Kon, Nobuko; Furukawa, Satoshi; Mukaida, Masahiro; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Matsumoto, Kazuko; Sone, Hirohito; Murakami-Murofushi, Kimiko

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to elucidate the effect of wheel training on oxidative stress maker levels in spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR). 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the aorta of SHRs were allowed to run for 10 weeks from the age of 15 weeks were measured and compared with those of nonexercised SHRs. The 4-hydroxynonenal and 3-nitrotyrosine levels in the exercised group were significantly lower than those in the nonexercised group. The exercised group showed a significant increase of manganese-containing superoxide dismutase. Endurance exercise showed a possible suppressing effect on the arteriosclerosis development by reducing oxidative stress, even after emergence of hypertension.

  11. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere

    OpenAIRE

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations.Subjects performed a ballistic trainin...

  12. Effects of ovariectomy and exercise training intensity on energy substrate and hepatic lipid metabolism, and spontaneous physical activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, Marc A; Campbell, Sara C; Klein, Dylan J; Shapses, Sue A; Anacker, Keith R; Anthony, Tracy G; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Henderson, Gregory C

    2018-06-01

    Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice. OVX and SHAM were assigned to distance- and duration-matched CE and HIIE, or sedentary control. Energy expenditure during exercise was confirmed to be identical between CE and HIIE and both similarly reduced post-exercise absolute carbohydrate oxidation and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). OVX vs. SHAM displayed impaired glucose tolerance and greater body fat despite lower hepatic TG, and these outcomes were not affected by training. Only HIIE increased hepatic AMPK in OVX and SHAM, but neither training type impacted VLDL-TG secretion. As expected, BMD was lower in OVX, and training did not affect long bones. The results reveal intensity-dependent effects on hepatic AMPK expression and general exercise effects on subsequent SPA and substrate oxidation that is independent of estrogen status. These findings support the notion that HIIE can impact aspects of liver physiology in females while the effects of exercise on whole body substrate selection appear to be independent of training intensity. However, neither exercise approach mitigated the impairment in glucose tolerance and elevated body fat occurring in OVX mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A risk-based approach to designing effective security force training exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bott, T.F.; Eisenhawer, S.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effectiveness of a security force in protecting a nuclear facility is often evaluated using training exercises that pit a group of simulated attackers against a security team. In the situation studied here, a security force was regularly tested by a regulatory body with the responsibility for security oversight. It was observed that the regulators were continually imposing more challenging security scenarios by assigning increasingly sophisticated facility knowledge to the attackers. Not surprisingly, the security forces' assessed effectiveness decreased until eventually they were unable to successfully resist the attacks. Security managers maintained that the knowledge attributed to the attackers was becoming increasingly unrealistic and feared they would be forced to concentrate resources on unrealistic scenarios at the expense of more credible threats.

  14. Metformin modifies the exercise training effects on risk factors for cardiovascular disease in impaired glucose tolerant adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Nightingale, Joy; Choi, Sung-Eun; Chipkin, Stuart R.; Braun, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerant (IGT) adults are at elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise or metformin reduce CVD risk, but the efficacy of combining treatments is unclear. To determine the effects of exercise training plus metformin, compared to each treatment alone, on CVD risk factors in IGT adults. Subjects were assigned to: placebo (P), metformin (M), exercise plus placebo (EP), or exercise plus metformin (EM) (8/group). In a double-blind design, P or 2000mg/d of M were administered for 12 weeks and half performed aerobic and resistance training 3 days/week for approximately 60 minutes/day at 70% pre-training heart rate peak. Outcomes included: adiposity, blood pressure (BP), lipids and high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP). Z-scores were calculated to determine metabolic syndrome severity. M and EM, but not EP, decreased body weight compared to P (p metabolic syndrome Z-score compared to baseline (EP; trend p = 0.07 and EM or M; p exercise and/or metformin improve some CVD risk factors, only training or metformin alone lowered hs-CRP and BP. Thus, metformin may attenuate the effects of training on some CVD risk factors and metabolic syndrome severity in IGT adults. PMID:23505172

  15. Effects of exercise training and exhaustion on 45Ca uptake by rat skeletal muscle mitochondria and sarcoplasmic reticulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonner, H.W.; Leslie, S.W.; Combs, A.B.; Tate, C.A.

    1976-01-01

    Mitochondrial and sarcoplasmic reticular 45 Ca 2+ uptake and Ca 2+ -ATPase activity were determined in skeletal muscle from exercise trained and non-trained rats at rest or following short-term exhaustive exercise. In trained rats exercised to exhaustion, mitochondrial 45 Ca 2+ uptake was significantly depressed when compared to non-trained rats at rest. Ca 2+ -ATPase activity of sarcoplasmic reticulum from trained rats exercised to exhaustion was significantly increased as compared to trained rats at rest. These data suggest that the disruptive influence of Ca 2+ accumulation in mitochondria isolated following exhaustive exercise may be diminished as a result of training

  16. Effect of dehydroepiandrosterone administration on recovery from mix-type exercise training-induced muscle damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Yi-Hung; Liao, Kun-Fu; Kao, Chung-Lan; Chen, Chung-Yu; Huang, Chih-Yang; Chang, Wei-Hsiang; Ivy, John L; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Lee, Shin-Da; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the role of DHEA-S in coping against the exercise training mixing aerobic and resistance components. During 5-day successive exercise training, 16 young male participants (19.2 ± 1.2 years) received either a placebo (flour capsule) or DHEA (100 mg/day) in a double-blinded and placebo-controlled design. Oral DHEA supplementation significantly increased circulating DHEA-S by 2.5-fold, but a protracted drop (~35 %) was observed from Day 3 during training. In the Placebo group, only a minimal DHEA-S reduction (~17 %) was observed. Changes in testosterone followed a similar pattern as DHEA-S. Muscle soreness was elevated significantly on Day 2 for both groups to a similar extent. Lower muscle soreness was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group on Day 3 and Day 6. In the Placebo group, training increased circulating creatine kinase (CK) levels by approximately ninefold, while only a threefold increase was observed in the DHEA-supplemented group. This mix-type exercise training improved glucose tolerance in both groups, while lowering the insulin response to the glucose challenge, but no difference between treatments was observed. Our results suggest that DHEA-S may play a role in protecting skeletal muscle from exercise training-induced muscle damage.

  17. Effect of training in the fasted state on metabolic responses during exercise with carbohydrate intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Bock, K; Derave, W; Eijnde, B O

    2008-01-01

    program (6 wk, 3 day/wk, 1-2 h, 75% of peak Vo(2)) in moderately active males. They trained in the fasted (F; n = 10) or carbohydrate-fed state (CHO; n = 10) while receiving a standardized diet [65 percent of total energy intake (En) from carbohydrates, 20%En fat, 15%En protein]. Before and after...... the training period, substrate use during a 2-h exercise bout was determined. During these experimental sessions, all subjects were in a fed condition and received extra carbohydrates (1 g.kg body wt(-1) .h(-1)). Peak Vo(2) (+7%), succinate dehydrogenase activity, GLUT4, and hexokinase II content were...... adaptations in peak Vo(2) whether carried out in the fasted or carbohydrate-fed state. Although there was a decrease in exercise-induced glycogen breakdown and an increase in proteins involved in fat handling after fasting training, fat oxidation during exercise with carbohydrate intake was not changed....

  18. Exercise training effects on memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity in multiple sclerosis: a novel application of magnetic resonance elastography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandroff, Brian M. [Kessler Foundation, Neuropsychology and Neuroscience Laboratory, East Hanover, NJ (United States); Johnson, Curtis L. [University of Delaware, Deparment of Biomedical Engineering, Newark, DE (United States); Motl, Robert W. [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Department of Kinesiology and Community Health, Urbana, IL (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. However, the effects of exercise training on viscoelastic brain properties in this population are unknown. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of an aerobic exercise training intervention on learning and memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in persons with MS. Eight fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive treadmill walking exercise training. All participants underwent measures of learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test-II; CVLT-II) and further underwent MRE scans for measurement of shear stiffness (μ) and damping ratio (ξ) of the hippocampus before and after the 12-week period. Overall, there were small-to-moderate intervention effects on CVLT-II performance (d = 0.34) and large intervention effects on hippocampal μ (d = 0.94) and hippocampal ξ (d = -1.20). Change in CVLT-II scores was strongly associated with change in μ (r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and ξ (r = -.96, p < 0.01) of the hippocampus. This small pilot RCT provides exciting proof-of-concept data supporting progressive treadmill walking exercise training for potentially improving learning and memory and underlying hippocampal viscoelastic properties in persons with MS. This is important given the high prevalence and burden of MS-related memory impairment. (orig.)

  19. Exercise training effects on memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity in multiple sclerosis: a novel application of magnetic resonance elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandroff, Brian M.; Johnson, Curtis L.; Motl, Robert W.

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is common and debilitating among persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) and might be managed with exercise training. However, the effects of exercise training on viscoelastic brain properties in this population are unknown. The present pilot study adopted a single-blind randomized controlled trial (RCT) design and is the first to examine the effect of an aerobic exercise training intervention on learning and memory and hippocampal viscoelasticity using magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) in persons with MS. Eight fully ambulatory females with MS were randomly assigned into exercise training intervention or waitlist control conditions. The intervention condition involved 12 weeks of supervised, progressive treadmill walking exercise training. All participants underwent measures of learning and memory (i.e., California Verbal Learning Test-II; CVLT-II) and further underwent MRE scans for measurement of shear stiffness (μ) and damping ratio (ξ) of the hippocampus before and after the 12-week period. Overall, there were small-to-moderate intervention effects on CVLT-II performance (d = 0.34) and large intervention effects on hippocampal μ (d = 0.94) and hippocampal ξ (d = -1.20). Change in CVLT-II scores was strongly associated with change in μ (r = 0.93, p < 0.01) and ξ (r = -.96, p < 0.01) of the hippocampus. This small pilot RCT provides exciting proof-of-concept data supporting progressive treadmill walking exercise training for potentially improving learning and memory and underlying hippocampal viscoelastic properties in persons with MS. This is important given the high prevalence and burden of MS-related memory impairment. (orig.)

  20. Comparing the effects of eccentric training with eccentric training and static stretching exercises in the treatment of patellar tendinopathy. A controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrios, Stasinopoulos; Pantelis, Manias; Kalliopi, Stasinopoulou

    2012-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of eccentric training and eccentric training with static stretching exercises in the management of patellar tendinopathy. Controlled clinical trial. Rheumatology and rehabilitation centre. Forty-three patients who had patellar tendinopathy for at least three months. They were allocated to two groups by alternative allocation. Group A (n = 22) was treated with eccentric training of patellar tendon and static stretching exercises of quadriceps and hamstrings and Group B (n = 21) received eccentric training of patellar tendon. All patients received five treatments per week for four weeks. Pain and function were evaluated using the VISA-P score at baseline, at the end of treatment (week 4), and six months (week 24) after the end of treatment. At the end of treatment, there was a rise in VISA-P score in both groups compared with baseline (Peccentric training and static stretching exercises produced the largest effect (PEccentric training and static stretching exercises is superior to eccentric training alone to reduce pain and improve function in patients with patellar tendinopathy at the end of the treatment and at follow-up.

  1. Effects of Exercise Training on Fat Loss and Lean Mass Gain in Mexican-American and Korean Premenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenghui Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effect of exercise training on body composition change in women. Nineteen Mexican-American and 18 Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women were randomized into one of the following groups: control, low-intensity training group (LI, and high-intensity training group (HI. Subjects completed 12 weeks of training at 50–56% maximal oxygen consumption (LI or 65–70% maximal oxygen consumption (HI. Body composition components were measured at baseline and after training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for Mexican-Americans, while whole-body composition was measured by the direct segmental multifrequency bioelectrical impedance analysis and abdominal fat was measured by single-slice computed tomography for Koreans. Data were analyzed using mixed-model repeated measures independent of age, ethnicity, and body mass index (BMI. Exercise training showed a significant effect on BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, lean mass, and visceral adipose tissue area. HI significantly decreased fat mass and fat percentage but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. LI significantly reduced BMI, fat mass, fat percentage, and visceral adipose tissue area but increased lean mass (all P<0.05. Exercise training had a beneficial effect on reducing BMI, fat percentage, fat mass, and visceral adipose tissue area but had no effect on increasing lean mass for Mexican-American and Korean premenopausal overweight/obese women.

  2. Effect of short-term heat acclimation training on kinetics of lactate removal following maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dileo, Tsavis D; Powell, Jeffrey B; Kang, Hyoung K; Roberge, Raymond J; Coca, Aitor; Kim, Jung-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Heat acclimation (HA) evokes numerous physiological adaptations, improves heat tolerance and has also been shown to enhance lactate (LA) responses during exercise, similar to that seen with endurance training. The purpose of this study was to examine whether HA improves the body's ability to remove LA during recovery following maximal exercise. Ten healthy men completed two trials of maximal treadmill exercise (pre- and post-HA) separated by 5 days of HA. Each day of HA consisted of two 45 minute periods of cycling at ~50% VO2max separated by a 15min rest period in an environmental chamber (T(db) 45° C, RH 20%). In pre-/post-HA trials, venous blood was collected during 60 minutes of recovery to determine LA concentrations and removal kinetics (A2: amplitude and y2: velocity constant) using bi-exponential curve fitting. Physiological adaptation to heat was significantly developed during HA, as evidenced by end-exercise T(re) (DAY1 vs. 5) (38.89±0.56 vs. 38.66±0.44° C), T(sk) (38.07±0.51 vs. 37.66±0.48° C), HR (175.0±9.9 vs. 165.0±18.5 beats·min(-1)), and sweat rate (1.24 ±.26 vs. 1.47 ±0.27 L·min(-1)) (PLA concentrations (LA(0min): 8.78±1.08 vs. 8.69±1.23; LA(peak): 10.97±1.77 vs. 10.95±1.46; and La(60min); 2.88±0.82 vs. 2.96±0.93 mmol·L(-1)) or removal kinetics (A2: -13.05±7.05 vs -15.59±7.90 mmol.L(-1) and y2: 0.02±0.01 vs. 0.03±.01 min(-1)). The present study concluded that, while effective in inducing thermo-physiological adaptations to heat stress, short-term HA does not improve the body's ability to remove LA following maximal exercise. Therefore, athletes and workers seeking faster LA recovery from intense physical activity may not benefit from short-term HA.

  3. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    das Neves, W; de Oliveira, L F; da Silva, R P; Alves, C R R; Lancha, A H

    2017-11-17

    Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET) in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1) untrained control rats, 2) untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3) rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks), the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks). After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all). Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (Pfasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  4. Fasting: a major limitation for resistance exercise training effects in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. das Neves

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Protocols that mimic resistance exercise training (RET in rodents present several limitations, one of them being the electrical stimulus, which is beyond the physiological context observed in humans. Recently, our group developed a conditioning system device that does not use electric shock to stimulate rats, but includes fasting periods before each RET session. The current study was designed to test whether cumulative fasting periods have some influence on skeletal muscle mass and function. Three sets of male Wistar rats were used in the current study. The first set of rats was submitted to a RET protocol without food restriction. However, rats were not able to perform exercise properly. The second and third sets were then randomly assigned into three experimental groups: 1 untrained control rats, 2 untrained rats submitted to fasting periods, and 3 rats submitted to RET including fasting periods before each RET session. While the second set of rats performed a short RET protocol (i.e., an adaptation protocol for 3 weeks, the third set of rats performed a longer RET protocol including overload (i.e., 8 weeks. After the short-term protocol, cumulative fasting periods promoted loss of weight (P0.05 for all. Despite no effects on EDL mass, soleus muscle displayed significant atrophy in the fasting experimental groups (P<0.01. Altogether, these data indicate that fasting is a major limitation for RET in rats.

  5. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial investigating the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crossman David C

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise training has been shown to reduce angina and promote collateral vessel development in patients with coronary artery disease. However, the mechanism whereby exercise exerts these beneficial effects is unclear. There has been increasing interest in the use of whole genome peripheral blood gene expression in a wide range of conditions to attempt to identify both novel mechanisms of disease and transcriptional biomarkers. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effect of a structured exercise programme on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with stable angina, and correlate this with changes in angina level, anxiety, depression, and exercise capacity. Methods/Design Sixty patients with stable angina will be recruited and randomised 1:1 to exercise training or conventional care. Patients randomised to exercise training will attend an exercise physiology laboratory up to three times weekly for supervised aerobic interval training sessions of one hour in total duration. Patients will undergo assessments of angina, anxiety, depression, and peripheral blood gene expression at baseline, after six and twelve weeks of training, and twelve weeks after formal exercise training ceases. Discussion This study will provide comprehensive data on the effect of exercise training on peripheral blood gene expression in patients with angina. By correlating this with improvement in angina status we will identify candidate peripheral blood transcriptional markers predictive of improvements in angina level in response to exercise training. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01147952

  6. The effects of resistance exercise training on arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVallance, E; Fournier, S; Lemaster, K; Moore, C; Asano, S; Bonner, D; Donley, D; Olfert, I M; Chantler, P D

    2016-05-01

    Arterial stiffness is a strong independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is elevated in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Resistance training is a popular form of exercise that has beneficial effects on muscle mass, strength, balance and glucose control. However, it is unknown whether resistance exercise training (RT) can lower arterial stiffness in patients with MetS. Thus, the aim of this study was to examine whether a progressive RT program would improve arterial stiffness in MetS. A total of 57 subjects (28 healthy sedentary subjects; 29 MetS) were evaluated for arterial structure and function, including pulse wave velocity (cfPWV: arterial stiffness), before and after an 8-week period of RT or continuation of sedentary lifestyle. We found that 8 weeks of progressive RT increased skeletal muscle strength in both Con and MetS, but did not change arterial stiffness in either MetS (cfPWV; Pre 7.9 ± 0.4 m/s vs. Post 7.7 ± 0.4 m/s) or healthy controls (cfPWV; Pre 6.9 ± 0.3 m/s vs. Post 7.0 ± 0.3 m/s). However, when cfPWV is considered as a continuous variable, high baseline measures of cfPWV tended to show a decrease in cfPWV following RT. Eight weeks of progressive RT did not decrease the group mean values of arterial stiffness in individuals with MetS or healthy controls.

  7. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... inclinometers. Results Training machines and elastic resistance showed similar high levels of muscle activity (biceps femoris and semitendinosus peak normalized EMG >80%). EMG during the concentric phase was higher than during the eccentric phase regardless of exercise and muscle. However, compared with machine.......001) during hamstring curl performed with elastic resistance (7.58 +/- 0.08) compared with hamstring curl performed in a machine (5.92 +/- 0.03). Conclusions Hamstring rehabilitation exercise performed with elastic resistance induces similar peak hamstring muscle activity but slightly lower EMG values at more...

  8. EFFECT OF AEROBIC EXERCISE, RESISTANCE TRAINING OR COMBINED TRAINING ON GLYCAEMIC CONTROL AND CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mobasseri

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity has been proven as a useful intervention for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. The purpose of this article was to compare the effects of aerobic exercise alone and resistance training alone as well as the combination of aerobic plus resistance training on glycaemic control, cardiovascular risk factors, and body composition in patients with T2DM. Eighty T2DM participants (37 men, 43 women, aged 33-69 years, were randomly divided in equal numbers (n=20 into one of four groups (aerobic, resistance, combined training, and control. Exercise training was performed three times per week for 52 weeks. After one year, 60 subjects (15 subjects in each group were entered into the statistical analysis. Seventeen parameters were evaluated. Mean HbA1c showed statistically significant reductions in the three training groups. All subjects of training groups experienced improvement in postprandial glucose, blood pressure, VO2max, and muscular percentage. Furthermore, the reduced concentration of plasma triglycerides was significant in both aerobic exercise and combined training groups. Also, a significant reduction was observed in body fat percentage in resistance and combined groups. Combination of two forms of exercise training led to an additional improvement in some of the parameters such as A1c and triglycerides compared with aerobic alone or resistance training alone. In general, the reported results in previous studies were not obtained for whole lipid profile and BMI. Both aerobic and resistance training are effective interventions for the management of T2DM complications, but combined training is associated with greater positive changes.

  9. Effect of Exercise Training on Cardiac Biomarkers in At-Risk Populations: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenney, Susan Sullivan; Brockemer, Derrick Paul; Ng, Andy C; Smolewski, Michael A; Smolgovskiy, Vladimir M; Lepley, Adam S

    2017-12-01

    Studies have demonstrated beneficial effects of exercise on cardiovascular disease biomarkers for healthy individuals; however, a comprehensive review regarding the effect of exercise on cardiovascular disease biomarkers in at-risk populations is lacking. A literature search was performed to identify studies meeting the following criteria: randomized controlled study, participants with pathology/activity limitations, biomarker outcome (total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, C-reactive protein, insulin, triglycerides, or glucose), and exercise intervention. Means and standard deviations from each biomarker were used to calculate standardized Cohen's d effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals. In total, 37 articles were included. The majority (44/57; 77%) of data points demonstrated moderate to strong effects for the reduction in total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein, and elevation in high-density lipoprotein following exercise. The majority of data points demonstrated strong effects for reductions in blood glucose (24/30; 80%) and insulin (23/24; 96%) levels following exercise intervention. Evidence is heterogeneous regarding the influence of exercise on cardiovascular disease biomarkers in at-risk patients, which does not allow a definitive conclusion. Favorable effects include reductions in triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, glucose, and insulin, and elevation in high-density lipoprotein following exercise intervention. The strongest evidence indicates that exercise is favorable for the reduction in glucose and cholesterol levels among obese patients, and reduction of insulin regardless of population.

  10. Effect of lifelong resveratrol supplementation and exercise training on skeletal muscle oxidative capacity in aging mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringholm, Stine; Olesen, Jesper; Pedersen, Jesper Thorhauge

    2013-01-01

    The present study tested the hypothesis that lifelong resveratrol (RSV) supplementation counteracts an age-associated decrease in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator (PGC)-1α and that RSV combined with lifelong exercise training (ET...

  11. Effects of Progressive Resistance Exercise Training on Low Back Pain Conditions of Miners in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monday Omoniyi MOSES

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: The low back pain conditions of miners were significantly improved using PRE, especially pain intensity, pain scale and pain frequency. Hence, exercise and physical activity that followed PRE training patterns should be majorly incorporated into the lifestyles of the miners.

  12. Effect of a combination of whole body vibration exercise and squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osugi, Tomohiro; Iwamoto, Jun; Yamazaki, Michio; Takakuwa, Masayuki

    2014-01-01

    A randomized controlled trial was conducted to clarify the beneficial effect of whole body vibration (WBV) exercise plus squat training on body balance, muscle power, and walking ability in the elderly with knee osteoarthritis and/or spondylosis. Of 35 ambulatory patients (14 men and 21 women) who were recruited at our outpatient clinic, 28 (80.0%, 12 men and 16 women) participated in the trial. The subjects (mean age 72.4 years) were randomly divided into two groups (n=14 in each group), ie, a WBV exercise alone group and a WBV exercise plus squat training group. A 4-minute WBV exercise (frequency 20 Hz) was performed 2 days per week in both groups; squat training (20 times per minute) was added during the 4-minute WBV training session in the WBV exercise plus squat training group. The duration of the trial was 6 months. The exercise and training program was safe and well tolerated. WBV exercise alone improved indices of body balance and walking velocity from baseline values. However, WBV exercise plus squat training was more effective for improving tandem gait step number and chair-rising time compared with WBV exercise alone. These results suggest the benefit and safety of WBV exercise plus squat training for improving physical function in terms of body balance and muscle power in the elderly.

  13. Effects of aging and Parkinson's disease on motor unit remodeling: influence of resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Neil A; Hammond, Kelley G; Bickel, C Scott; Windham, Samuel T; Tuggle, S Craig; Bamman, Marcas M

    2018-04-01

    Aging muscle atrophy is in part a neurodegenerative process revealed by denervation/reinnervation events leading to motor unit remodeling (i.e., myofiber type grouping). However, this process and its physiological relevance are poorly understood, as is the wide-ranging heterogeneity among aging humans. Here, we attempted to address 1) the relation between myofiber type grouping and molecular regulators of neuromuscular junction (NMJ) stability; 2) the impact of motor unit remodeling on recruitment during submaximal contractions; 3) the prevalence and impact of motor unit remodeling in Parkinson's disease (PD), an age-related neurodegenerative disease; and 4) the influence of resistance exercise training (RT) on regulators of motor unit remodeling. We compared type I myofiber grouping, molecular regulators of NMJ stability, and the relative motor unit activation (MUA) requirement during a submaximal sit-to-stand task among untrained but otherwise healthy young (YA; 26 yr, n = 27) and older (OA; 66 yr, n = 91) adults and OA with PD (PD; 67 yr, n = 19). We tested the effects of RT on these outcomes in OA and PD. PD displayed more motor unit remodeling, alterations in NMJ stability regulation, and a higher relative MUA requirement than OA, suggesting PD-specific effects. The molecular and physiological outcomes tracked with the severity of type I myofiber grouping. Together these findings suggest that age-related motor unit remodeling, manifested by type I myofiber grouping, 1) reduces MUA efficiency to meet submaximal contraction demand, 2) is associated with disruptions in NMJ stability, 3) is further impacted by PD, and 4) may be improved by RT in severe cases. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Because the physiological consequences of varying amounts of myofiber type grouping are unknown, the current study aims to characterize the molecular and physiological correlates of motor unit remodeling. Furthermore, because exercise training has demonstrated neuromuscular benefits in aged

  14. The effects of a single bout of exercise on motor memory interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauber, Benedikt; Franke, Steffen; Taube, Wolfgang; Gollhofer, Albert

    2017-04-07

    Increasing evidence suggests that cardiovascular exercise has positive effects on motor memory consolidation. In this study, we investigated whether a single session of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) mitigates the effects of practicing an interfering motor task. Furthermore, learning and interference effects were assessed in the actively trained and untrained limb as it is known that unilateral motor learning can cause bilateral adaptations. Subjects performed a ballistic training and then the HIIT either before (HIIT_before) or after (HIIT_after) practicing an interfering accuracy task (AT). The control group (No_HIIT) did not participate in the HIIT but rested instead. Performance in the ballistic task (BT) was tested before and after the ballistic training, after the exercise and practice of the AT and 24h later. After ballistic training, all groups showed comparable increases in performance in the trained and untrained limb. Despite the practice of the AT, HIIT_before maintained their BT performance after the high-intensity interval training whereas HIIT_after (trend) & No_HIIT showed prominent interference effects. After 24h, HIIT_before still did not show any interference effects but further improved ballistic motor performance. HIIT_after counteracted the interference resulting in a comparable BT performance after 24h than directly after the ballistic training while No_HIIT had a significantly lower BT performance in the retention test. The results were similar in the trained and untrained limb. The current results imply that a single session of cardiovascular exercise can prevent motor interference in the trained and untrained hemisphere. Overall learning was best, and interference least, when HIIT was performed before the interfering motor task. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtes, V.A.; Becher, J.G.; Janssen-Potten, Y.J.; Dekkers, H.; Smallenbroek, L.; Dallmeijer, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of functional progressive resistance exercise (PRE) training on walking ability in children with cerebral palsy (CP).Fifty-one ambulant children with spastic CP (mean age 10 years 5 months, 29 boys) were randomized to an intervention (n=

  16. Effects of Cognitive Training with and without Aerobic Exercise on Cognitively-Demanding Everyday Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Mark A.; Binder, Ellen F.; Bugg, Julie M.; Waldum, Emily R.; Dufault, Carolyn; Meyer, Amanda; Johanning, Jennifer; Zheng, Jie; Schechtman, Kenneth B.; Kudelka, Chris

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the potential benefits of a novel cognitive training protocol and an aerobic exercise intervention, both individually and in concert, on older adults’ performances in laboratory simulations of select real-world tasks. The cognitive training focused on a range of cognitive processes, including attentional coordination, prospective memory, and retrospective-memory retrieval, processes that are likely involved in many everyday tasks, and that decline with age. Primary outcome measures were three laboratory tasks that simulated everyday activities: Cooking Breakfast, Virtual Week, and Memory for Health Information. Two months of cognitive training improved older adults’ performance on prospective memory tasks embedded in Virtual Week. Cognitive training, either alone or in combination with six months of aerobic exercise, did not significantly improve Cooking Breakfast or Memory for Health Information. Although gains in aerobic power were comparable to previous reports, aerobic exercise did not produce improvements for the primary outcome measures. Discussion focuses on the possibility that cognitive training programs that include explicit strategy instruction and varied practice contexts may confer gains to older adults for performance on cognitively challenging everyday tasks. PMID:25244489

  17. The effects of Pilates exercise training on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hee Sung; Kim, You Lim; Lee, Suk Min

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of Pilates exercise on static and dynamic balance in chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Nineteen individuals with unilateral chronic hemiparetic stroke (age, 64.7 ± 6.9 years; height, 161.7 ± 7.9 cm; weight, 67.0 ± 11.1 kg) were randomly allocated to either a Pilates exercise group (PG, n=10) or a control group (CG, n=9). The PG attended 24 exercise sessions conducted over an 8-week period (3 sessions/week). Center of pressure (COP) sway and COP velocity were measured one week before and after the exercise program and compared to assess training effects. [Results] Pilates exercise positively affected both static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. For static balance, COP sway and velocity in the medial-lateral (M-L) and anterior-posterior (A-P) directions were significantly decreased in the PG after training while no significant differences were found in the CG. For dynamic balance, measured during treadmill walking, the PG showed significantly reduced COP sway and velocity in the M-L and A-P directions for both the paretic and non-paretic leg. [Conclusions] The findings provide initial evidence that Pilates exercise can enhance static and dynamic balance in patients with chronic stroke. PMID:27390424

  18. The beneficial effect of regular endurance exercise training on blood pressure and quality of life in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Jen-Chen; Yang, Hung-Yu; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiung; Chen, Pei-Ti; Kao, Ching-Chiu; Kao, Pai-Feng; Wang, Chia-Hui; Chan, Paul

    2004-04-01

    Regular aerobic exercise can reduce blood pressure and is recommended as part of the lifestyle modification to reduce high blood pressure and cardiovascular risk. Hypertension itself, or/and pharmacological treatment for hypertension is associated with adverse effects on some aspects of quality of life. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of regular endurance exercise training on quality of life and blood pressure. Patients with mild to moderate hypertension (systolic blood pressure 140-180 or diastolic blood pressure 90-110 mm Hg) were randomized to a moderate-intensity aerobic exercise group training for 3 sessions/week over 10 weeks or to a non-exercising control group. Health-related quality of life was assessed with the Short Form 36-item Health Survey (SF-36) at baseline and after 6 and 10 weeks. In the 102 subjects (47 male, mean age 47 years) who completed the study, reductions in blood pressure in the exercise group at 10 weeks (-13.1/-6.3 mm Hg) were significant (P endurance training improves both blood pressure and quality of life in hypertensive patients and should be encouraged more widely.

  19. Severe exercise and exercise training exert opposite effects on human neutrophil apoptosis via altering the redox status.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guan-Da Syu

    Full Text Available Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis, a process crucial for immune regulation, is mainly controlled by alterations in reactive oxygen species (ROS and mitochondria integrity. Exercise has been proposed to be a physiological way to modulate immunity; while acute severe exercise (ASE usually impedes immunity, chronic moderate exercise (CME improves it. This study aimed to investigate whether and how ASE and CME oppositely regulate human neutrophil apoptosis. Thirteen sedentary young males underwent an initial ASE and were subsequently divided into exercise and control groups. The exercise group (n = 8 underwent 2 months of CME followed by 2 months of detraining. Additional ASE paradigms were performed at the end of each month. Neutrophils were isolated from blood specimens drawn at rest and immediately after each ASE for assaying neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis (annexin-V binding on the outer surface along with redox-related parameters and mitochondria-related parameters. Our results showed that i the initial ASE immediately increased the oxidative stress (cytosolic ROS and glutathione oxidation, and sequentially accelerated the reduction of mitochondrial membrane potential, the surface binding of annexin-V, and the generation of mitochondrial ROS; ii CME upregulated glutathione level, retarded spontaneous apoptosis and delayed mitochondria deterioration; iii most effects of CME were unchanged after detraining; and iv CME blocked ASE effects and this capability remained intact even after detraining. Furthermore, the ASE effects on neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis were mimicked by adding exogenous H(2O(2, but not by suppressing mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, while ASE induced an oxidative state and resulted in acceleration of human neutrophil apoptosis, CME delayed neutrophil apoptosis by maintaining a reduced state for long periods of time even after detraining.

  20. The effects of adding single-joint exercises to a multi-joint exercise resistance training program on upper body muscle strength and size in trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de França, Henrique Silvestre; Branco, Paulo Alexandre Nordeste; Guedes Junior, Dilmar Pinto; Gentil, Paulo; Steele, James; Teixeira, Cauê Vazquez La Scala

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was compare changes in upper body muscle strength and size in trained men performing resistance training (RT) programs involving multi-joint plus single-joint (MJ+SJ) or only multi-joint (MJ) exercises. Twenty young men with at least 2 years of experience in RT were randomized in 2 groups: MJ+SJ (n = 10; age, 27.7 ± 6.6 years) and MJ (n = 10; age, 29.4 ± 4.6 years). Both groups trained for 8 weeks following a linear periodization model. Measures of elbow flexors and extensors 1-repetition maximum (1RM), flexed arm circumference (FAC), and arm muscle circumference (AMC) were taken pre- and post-training period. Both groups significantly increased 1RM for elbow flexion (4.99% and 6.42% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), extension (10.60% vs 9.79%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), FAC (1.72% vs 1.45%, for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively), and AMC (1.33% vs 3.17% for MJ and MJ+SJ, respectively). Comparison between groups revealed no significant difference in any variable. In conclusion, 8 weeks of RT involving MJ or MJ+SJ resulted in similar alterations in muscle strength and size in trained participants. Therefore, the addition of SJ exercises to a RT program involving MJ exercises does not seem to promote additional benefits to trained men, suggesting MJ-only RT to be a time-efficient approach.

  1. The effects of 12 weeks Pilates-inspired exercise training on functional performance in older women: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Natália Donzeli; Testa, Daniela; Ruas, Paula Cristine; Salvini, Tânia de Fátima; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Melo, Ruth Caldeira

    2017-04-01

    Recent scientific evidence supports the benefits of Pilates exercises on postural balance and muscle strength of older persons. However, their effects on other aspects of physical fitness, which are also important for independent living in older age, are still unknown. To investigate the effects of a 12-week Pilates-inspired exercise program on the functional performance of community-dwelling older women. Forty community-dwelling older women were randomly enrolled in a Pilates-inspired exercise training (2 times/week, 60 min/session) (PG, n = 21, 66.0 ± 1.4yrs) or kept in the control group (CG; n = 19, 63.3 ± 0.9yrs). The Pilates exercises were conducted in small groups and performed on mats (using accessories such as exercise rubber bands, swiss and exercise balls). The functional performance on one-leg stance (OLS), timed up and go (TUG), five-times-sit-to-stand (STS) and 6-min walk (6 MW) tests was evaluated before and after the 12-week Pilates training or control follow-up period. After 12 weeks, time effects were observed for STS (p = 0.03) and 6 MW tests (p Pilates-inspired exercises improved dynamic balance, lower-extremity strength and aerobic resistance in community-dwelling older women. Therefore, it may be a potentially effective exercise regimen to maintain physical fitness in old age. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The effects of antioxidant vitamin supplementation on resistance exercise induced lipid peroxidation in trained and untrained participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaVoie Norm

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The theoretical benefits of using antioxidant vitamin supplements to quench oxygen free radicals appear large. High intensity aerobic-type exercise produces oxygen free radicals that can cause damage to lipid membranes (lipid peroxidation that may lead to many problems such as the inactivation of cell membrane enzymes, the progression of degenerative diseases (cardiovascular disease and cancer and lessening of the effectiveness of the immune system. The major function of vitamin E is to work as a chain-breaking antioxidant in a fat soluble environment. Little research has examined lipid peroxidation associated with high intensity resistance exercise or possible protective effects of antioxidant supplementation or the effects of training state. Results There were no significant group (trained vs untrained or treatment (vitamin E vs placebo effects found between the 4 groups assessed. There was only one significant difference found and that was in the main effect for time (F = 22.41, p Conclusions The Resistance Exercise Test caused a significant increase in malondialdehyde in all 4 groups at 6 hours post exercise. There was no evidence that vitamin E supplementation was effective in reducing oxidative damage in comparison to the placebo group. As well, there was no difference between the trained and untrained groups with respect to their impact on lipid peroxidation measures.

  3. [Effect of 3-month exercise training on daily energy expenditure in formerly obese women with reduced and stable weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemann, B; Astrup, A V

    1993-06-14

    Predisposition to obesity has been suggested to be related to a low energy expenditure (EE). This condition could be counteracted by physical exercise. In the present study we wanted to elucidate if aerob training could increase sedentary 24-hour energy expenditure in formerly obese subjects. Seven reduced-obese premenopausal women were studied in a respiration chamber before and after a three month period of aerobic training. No significant effects of training were seen on daytime, sleeping or total 24-hour EE. However, the change in daytime EE was positively correlated to the change in VO2max. Sleeping and 24-hour respiratory quotients were slightly increased after the training period. In order to reveal a possible role of the sympathetic nervous system in the observed effect of training, additional experiments were performed with beta blockade. However, no interactions between training and beta blockade were found.

  4. Hypertrophic effect of inhaled beta -agonist with and without concurrent exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Søren; Onslev, Johan; Lemminger, Anders

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Due to a high prevalence of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes, there is a high use of beta2 -adrenoceptor agonists (beta2 -agonists) in the athletic population. While anabolic in rodents, no study has been able to detect hypertrophy in humans after...... chronic beta2 -agonist inhalation. METHODS: We investigated if inhaled beta2 -agonist, terbutaline, alters body composition and metabolic rate with and without concurrent exercise training in healthy young men. Sixty-seven participants completed a four-week intervention of daily terbutaline (8×0.5 mg...

  5. New Approach in Fibromyalgia Exercise Program: A Preliminary Study Regarding the Effectiveness of Balance Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibar, Sibel; Yıldız, Hatice Ecem; Ay, Saime; Evcik, Deniz; Ergin, Emine Süreyya

    2015-09-01

    To determine the effectiveness of balance exercises on the functional level and quality of life (QOL) of patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and to investigate the circumstances associated with balance disorders in FMS. Randomized controlled trial. Physical medicine and rehabilitation clinic. Patients (N=57) (age range, 18-65y) with FMS were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Group 1 was given flexibility and balance exercises for 6 weeks, whereas group 2 received only a flexibility program as the control group. Functional balance was measured by the Berg Balance Scale (BBS), and dynamic and static balance were evaluated by a kinesthetic ability trainer (KAT) device. Fall risk was assessed with the Hendrich II fall risk model. The Nottingham Health Profile, Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) were used to determine QOL and functional and depression levels, respectively. Assessments were performed at baseline and after the 6-week program. In group 1, statistically significant improvements were observed in all parameters (P.05). When comparing the 2 groups, there were significant differences in group 1 concerning the KAT static balance test (P=.017) and FIQ measurements (P=.005). In the correlation analysis, the BDI was correlated with the BBS (r=-.434) and Hendrich II results (r=.357), whereas body mass index (BMI) was correlated with the KAT static balance measurements (r=.433), BBS (r=-.285), and fall frequency (r=.328). A 6-week balance training program had a beneficial effect on the static balance and functional levels of patients with FMS. We also observed that depression deterioration was related to balance deficit and fall risk. Higher BMI was associated with balance deficit and fall frequency. Copyright © 2015 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Different Exercise Training Programs on Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Overweight/Obese Adults With Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurio-Iriarte, Borja; Maldonado-Martín, Sara

    2018-05-01

    The goal of the study was to compare the effects of two supervised aerobic exercise programs (moderate-intensity continuous training [MICT] vs. high-intensity interval training [HIIT]) after 8-, 12-, and 16-week intervention periods on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in overweight/obese adults diagnosed with hypertension. Participants ( N = 64) were divided into three intervention cohorts (control group [CG], MICT, and HIIT) and each of these, in turn, into three intervention length cohorts (8, 12, and 16 weeks). Supervised groups exercised twice a week. There were no statistical changes in postintervention periods in CG ( g HIIT, 4.2 ± 4.7, g = 0.7). The effect of exercise interventions compared with CG was substantial ( p .8) and mostly consequence of HIIT-related effects. The improvements on CRF occurred after 12 and 16 weeks in exercise interventions, rather than in the 8-week group or CG, where Hedges's g index indicated small effect. This study may suggest that both MICT and HIIT exert cardioprotector effects on hypertension in the overweight/obese population. However, short-term training duration (HIIT intervention might generate higher aerobic capacity, which seems to grow as intervention lengthens.

  7. Physical exercise training for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radtke, Thomas; Nevitt, Sarah J; Hebestreit, Helge; Kriemler, Susi

    2017-11-01

    Physical exercise training may form an important part of regular care for people with cystic fibrosis. This is an update of a previously published review. To assess the effects of physical exercise training on exercise capacity by peak oxygen consumption, pulmonary function by forced expiratory volume in one second, health-related quality of life and further important patient-relevant outcomes in people with cystic fibrosis. We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Trials Register which comprises references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 04 May 2017.We searched ongoing trials registers (clinicaltrials.gov and the WHO ICTRP). Date of most recent search: 10 August 2017. All randomised and quasi-randomised controlled clinical trials comparing exercise training of any type and a minimum duration of two weeks with conventional care (no training) in people with cystic fibrosis. Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed methodological quality and extracted data. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Of the 83 studies identified, 15 studies which included 487 participants, met the inclusion criteria. The numbers in each study ranged from nine up to 72 participants; two studies were in adults, seven were in children and adolescents and six studies included all age ranges. Four studies of hospitalised participants lasted less than one month and 11 studies were outpatient-based, lasting between two months and three years. The studies included participants with a wide range of disease severity and employed differing levels of supervision with a mixture of types of training. There was also wide variation in the quality of the included studies.This systematic review shows very low- to low-quality evidence from both short- and long-term studies that in people

  8. Effects of macro- and micronutrients on exercise-induced hepcidin response in highly trained endurance athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlquist, Dylan T; Stellingwerff, Trent; Dieter, Brad P; McKenzie, Donald C; Koehle, Michael S

    2017-10-01

    Iron deficiency has ergolytic effects on athletic performance. Exercise-induced inflammation impedes iron absorption in the digestive tract by upregulating the expression of the iron regulatory protein, hepcidin. Limited research indicates the potential of specific macro- and micronutrients on blunting exercise-induced hepcidin. Therefore, we investigated the effects of postexercise supplementation with protein and carbohydrate (CHO) and vitamins D 3 and K 2 on the postexercise hepcidin response. Ten highly trained male cyclists (age: 26.9 ± 6.4 years; maximal oxygen uptake: 67.4 ± 4.4 mL·kg -1 ·min -1 completed 4 cycling sessions in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blinded, triple-crossover study. Experimental days consisted of an 8-min warm-up at 50% power output at maximal oxygen uptake, followed by 8 × 3-min intervals at 85% power output at maximal oxygen uptake with 1.5 min at 60% power output at maximal oxygen uptake between each interval. Blood samples were collected pre- and postexercise, and at 3 h postexercise. Three different drinks consisting of CHO (75 g) and protein (25 g) with (VPRO) or without (PRO) vitamins D 3 (5000 IU) and K 2 (1000 μg), or a zero-calorie control drink (PLA) were consumed immediately after the postexercise blood sample. Results showed that the postexercise drinks had no significant (p ≥ 0.05) effect on any biomarker measured. There was a significant (p < 0.05) increase in hepcidin and interleukin-6 following intense cycling intervals in the participants. Hepcidin increased significantly (p < 0.05) from baseline (nmol·L -1 : 9.94 ± 8.93, 14.18 ± 14.90, 10.44 ± 14.62) to 3 h postexercise (nmol·L -1 : 22.27 ± 13.41, 25.44 ± 11.91, 22.57 ± 15.57) in VPRO, PRO, and PLA, respectively. Contrary to our hypothesis, the drink compositions used did not blunt the postexercise hepcidin response in highly trained athletes.

  9. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The combination of high physical work demands and low physical capacity has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular disease and musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the physical capacity of construction workers and evaluate the effect of individually...... tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  10. Effect of Sling Exercise Training on Balance in Patients with Stroke: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lianghua; Chen, Junqi; Peng, Qiyuan; Chen, Jingjie; Zou, Yucong; Liu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effect of sling exercise training (SET) on balance in patients with stroke. PubMed, Cochrane Library, Ovid LWW, CBM, CNKI, WanFang, and VIP databases were searched for randomized controlled trials of the effect of SET on balance in patients with stroke. The study design and participants were subjected to metrological analysis. Berg balance Scale (BBS), Barthel index score (BI), and Fugl-Meyer Assessment (FMA) were used as independent parameters for evaluating balance function, activities of daily living(ADL) and motor function after stroke respectively, and were subjected to meta-analysis by RevMan5.3 software. Nine studies with 460 participants were analyzed. Results of meta-analysis showed that the SET treatment combined with conventional rehabilitation was superior to conventional rehabilitation treatments, with increased degrees of BBS (WMD = 3.81, 95% CI [0.15, 7.48], P = 0.04), BI (WMD = 12.98, 95% CI [8.39, 17.56], P risk of bias. Therefore, more multi-center and large-sampled randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm its clinical applications.

  11. Virtual Exercise Training Software System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vu, L.; Kim, H.; Benson, E.; Amonette, W. E.; Barrera, J.; Perera, J.; Rajulu, S.; Hanson, A.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and evaluate a virtual exercise training software system (VETSS) capable of providing real-time instruction and exercise feedback during exploration missions. A resistive exercise instructional system was developed using a Microsoft Kinect depth-camera device, which provides markerless 3-D whole-body motion capture at a small form factor and minimal setup effort. It was hypothesized that subjects using the newly developed instructional software tool would perform the deadlift exercise with more optimal kinematics and consistent technique than those without the instructional software. Following a comprehensive evaluation in the laboratory, the system was deployed for testing and refinement in the NASA Extreme Environment Mission Operations (NEEMO) analog.

  12. Effect of Exercise Training on Striatal Dopamine D2/D3 Receptors in Methamphetamine Users during Behavioral Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Chelsea L; Ishibashi, Kenji; Chudzynski, Joy; Mooney, Larissa J; Rawson, Richard A; Dolezal, Brett A; Cooper, Christopher B; Brown, Amira K; Mandelkern, Mark A; London, Edythe D

    2016-05-01

    Methamphetamine use disorder is associated with striatal dopaminergic deficits that have been linked to poor treatment outcomes, identifying these deficits as an important therapeutic target. Exercise attenuates methamphetamine-induced neurochemical damage in the rat brain, and a preliminary observation suggests that exercise increases striatal D2/D3 receptor availability (measured as nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND)) in patients with Parkinson's disease. The goal of this study was to evaluate whether adding an exercise training program to an inpatient behavioral intervention for methamphetamine use disorder reverses deficits in striatal D2/D3 receptors. Participants were adult men and women who met DSM-IV criteria for methamphetamine dependence and were enrolled in a residential facility, where they maintained abstinence from illicit drugs of abuse and received behavioral therapy for their addiction. They were randomized to a group that received 1 h supervised exercise training (n=10) or one that received equal-time health education training (n=9), 3 days/week for 8 weeks. They came to an academic research center for positron emission tomography (PET) using [(18)F]fallypride to determine the effects of the 8-week interventions on striatal D2/D3 receptor BPND. At baseline, striatal D2/D3 BPND did not differ between groups. However, after 8 weeks, participants in the exercise group displayed a significant increase in striatal D2/D3 BPND, whereas those in the education group did not. There were no changes in D2/D3 BPND in extrastriatal regions in either group. These findings suggest that structured exercise training can ameliorate striatal D2/D3 receptor deficits in methamphetamine users, and warrants further evaluation as an adjunctive treatment for stimulant dependence.

  13. The combined effects of physical exercise training and detraining on adiponectin in overweight and obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Jeon

    2013-12-01

    Conclusion: These findings suggest that combined physical training is a useful tool in the management of MS markers in the training periods. Moreover, there was an additive effect even after the 6-weeks detraining period.

  14. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  15. Effects of Exercise Training on Heart Rate Variability in Chagas Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Ramos Nascimento

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Heart rate variability (HRV is a marker of autonomic dysfunction severity. The effects of physical training on HRV indexes in Chagas heart disease (CHD are not well established. Objective: To evaluate the changes in HRV indexes in response to physical training in CHD. Methods: Patients with CHD and left ventricular (LV dysfunction, physically inactive, were randomized either to the intervention (IG, N = 18 or control group (CG, N = 19. The IG participated in a 12-week exercise program consisting of 3 sessions/week. Results: Mean age was 49.5 ± 8 years, 59% males, mean LVEF was 36.3 ± 7.8%. Baseline HRV indexes were similar between groups. From baseline to follow-up, total power (TP: 1653 (IQ 625 - 3418 to 2794 (1617 - 4452 ms, p = 0.02 and very low frequency power: 586 (290 - 1565 to 815 (610 - 1425 ms, p = 0.047 increased in the IG, but not in the CG. The delta (post - pre HRV indexes were similar: SDNN 11.5 ± 30.0 vs. 3.7 ± 25.1 ms. p = 0.10; rMSSD 2 (6 - 17 vs. 1 (21 - 9 ms. p = 0.43; TP 943 (731 - 3130 vs. 1780 (921 - 2743 Hz. p = 0.46; low frequency power (LFP 1.0 (150 - 197 vs. 60 (111 - 146 Hz. p = 0.85; except for high frequency power, which tended to increase in the IG: 42 (133 - 92 vs. 79 (61 - 328 Hz. p = 0.08. Conclusion: In the studied population, the variation of HRV indexes was similar between the active and inactive groups. Clinical improvement with physical activity seems to be independent from autonomic dysfunction markers in CHD.

  16. Effect of exercise training intensity on mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy in post myocardial infarction rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Ebadi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial infarction (MI is the most common type of heart disease. According to recent studies, mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a central player in cardiac disease and evidences point out the association of mitochondrial morphology with development of heart diseases. Exercise training plays a protective role against cardiovascular disease. However, the role of exercise training on proteins involved in mitochondrial dynamics and mitophagy system are not well understood. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate these on cardiac mitochondrial dynamic and mitophagy proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. The present study was post-test design experiment with the control group. after MI with ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD and ensuring the creation of MI by echocardiography, male rats were subjected to high intensity interval training (HIIT, moderate (MIIT, low (LIIT, sedentary myocardial infarction (SED-MI and healthy control groups. After six weeks exercise, the levels of MFN2, DRP1, Parkin, P62 and PGC-1α proteins were measured by ELISA method. Data analysis showed that proteins levels of MFN2, PGC-1α, Parkin and P62 decreased significantly in SED-MI group compared to healthy control while DRP1 protein levels increased significantly (P≤0.05. Also, MFN2 and PGC-1α proteins increased in MIIT group compared with SED-MI group and DRP1 protein levels were significantly decreased (P≤0.05. Moderate-intensity interval training (MIIT resulted to improve mitochondrial fusion and fusion proteins in rats with myocardial infarction. While high and low intensity interval training (HIIT, LIIT, despite increasing MFN2 and PGC-1α and reducing DRP1, failed to improve fusion and mitochondrial fission

  17. Effects of training status and exercise intensity on phase II VO2 kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppo, Katrien; Bouckaert, Jacques; Jones, Andrew M

    2004-02-01

    To test the hypotheses that: 1) the time constant for the fast component of .VO2 kinetics (tau1) at exercise onset would be faster in trained than in untrained subjects for both moderate and heavy exercise, and that 2) tau1 would become progressively slower in untrained subjects at higher power outputs but be invariant in trained subjects. Eight untrained subjects (.VO2peak: 42.9 +/- 5.1 mL.kg-1.min-1) and seven trained cyclists (.VO2peak: 66.6 +/- 2.5 mL.kg-1.min-1) completed square-wave transitions to power outputs requiring 60% and 80% of gas exchange threshold (GET), and 50% of the difference between GET and .VO2 peak (50%Delta) from a baseline of "unloaded" cycling. .VO2 was measured breath-by-breath and individual responses were modeled using nonlinear regression techniques. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that the tau1 was significantly smaller (i.e., the kinetics were faster) in the trained compared with the untrained subjects and that tau1 became significantly greater (i.e., the kinetics were slowed) at higher power outputs both in the untrained (60%GET: 17.8 +/- 3.8 s, 80%GET: 21.5 +/- 6.6 s, and 50%Delta: 23.5 +/- 2.8 s) and the trained (60%GET: 8.9 +/- 1.3 s, 80%GET: 11.7 +/- 2.5 s, and 50%Delta: 15.2 +/- 2.0 s) subjects (P exercise intensity domain (recruitment of higher threshold motor units.

  18. The Effects of Music on High-intensity Short-term Exercise in Well Trained Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarraya, Mohamed; Chtourou, Hamdi; Aloui, Asma; Hammouda, Omar; Chamari, Karim; Chaouachi, Anis; Souissi, Nizar

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the effects of listening to music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances during the 30-s Wingate test in highly trained athletes. Twelve young male athletes (20.6±1.8 yrs, 177±4.4 cm and 72.3±5.3 kg) underwent two Wingate tests in separate sessions with a recovery period of 48 h in-between, either after a 10 min of warm-up with (MWU) or without (NMWU) music. High tempo music (>120 to 140bpm) was selected for the study. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded after the warm-up (for HR = average of warm-up) and immediately after the Wingate test. HR, RPE and the fatigue index during the Wingate test are not affected by the incorporation of music during warm-up. However, power output (P(peak) and P(mean)) was significantly higher after MWU than NMWU (Peffect of music during warm-up on short-term supramaximal performances. As it's a legal method and an additional aid, music may be used during warm-up before performing activities requiring powerful lower limbs' muscles contractions during short-term supramaximal exercises.

  19. Effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii and treadmill walking exercise on balance and walking for stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Yo-Soon; Son, Kyung Hyun; Kim, Hyun Jin

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of virtual reality training using Nintendo Wii on balance and walking for stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Forty stroke patients with stroke were randomly divided into two exercise program groups: virtual reality training (n=20) and treadmill (n=20). The subjects underwent their 40-minute exercise program three times a week for eight weeks. Their balance and walking were measured before and after the complete program. We measured the left/right weight-bearing and the anterior/posterior weight-bearing for balance, as well as stance phase, swing phase, and cadence for walking. [Results] For balance, both groups showed significant differences in the left/right and anterior/posterior weight-bearing, with significant post-program differences between the groups. For walking, there were significant differences in the stance phase, swing phase, and cadence of the virtual reality training group. [Conclusion] The results of this study suggest that virtual reality training providing visual feedback may enable stroke patients to directly adjust their incorrect weight center and shift visually. Virtual reality training may be appropriate for patients who need improved balance and walking ability by inducing their interest for them to perform planned exercises on a consistent basis.

  20. Effects of exercise training and a hypocaloric diet on female monozygotic twins in free-living conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenigstorfer, Joerg; Schmidt, Walter F J

    2011-10-24

    This paper aims to examine the similarities in effects of exercise training and a hypocaloric diet within overweight female monozygotic twin pairs and to assess differences in twin partners' responses depending on the timing of exercise bouts and main meals. Six previously untrained twin pairs (aged 20-37 years, body fat 35.8±6.3%) performed an identical exercise program (12 bouts endurance and 8 bouts resistance training) and took part in a nutrition counseling program for a period of 28 days. They pursued one identical goal: to lose body weight and fat. Each twin partner was randomly assigned to one of the two intervention groups: "exercise after dinner" (A) and "exercise before dinner" (B). Subjects followed a hypocaloric diet, supervised by a nutritionist, in free-living conditions. Reductions in body weight, waist and hip circumference, glucose tolerance, mean daily %fat intake, changes in morning resting energy rate and resting metabolic rate showed great variation between twin pairs, but only small variation within twin pairs. Thus, the genetic influence on the changes in most of the examined anthropometric and physiological variables was high. There was no influence of the specific timing on the dependent variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Soy versus whey protein bars: Effects on exercise training impact on lean body mass and antioxidant status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babaknia Ari

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although soy protein may have many health benefits derived from its associated antioxidants, many male exercisers avoid soy protein. This is due partly to a popular, but untested notion that in males, soy is inferior to whey in promoting muscle weight gain. This study provided a direct comparison between a soy product and a whey product. Methods Lean body mass gain was examined in males from a university weight training class given daily servings of micronutrient-fortified protein bars containing soy or whey protein (33 g protein/day, 9 weeks, n = 9 for each protein treatment group. Training used workouts with fairly low repetition numbers per set. A control group from the class (N = 9 did the training, but did not consume either type protein bar. Results Both the soy and whey treatment groups showed a gain in lean body mass, but the training-only group did not. The whey and training only groups, but not the soy group, showed a potentially deleterious post-training effect on two antioxidant-related related parameters. Conclusions Soy and whey protein bar products both promoted exercise training-induced lean body mass gain, but the soy had the added benefit of preserving two aspects of antioxidant function.

  2. Randomized, blinded, controlled trial on effectiveness of photobiomodulation therapy and exercise training in the fibromyalgia treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Mariana Moreira; Albertini, Regiane; de Tarso Camillo de Carvalho, Paulo; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Bussadori, Sandra Kalil; Vieira, Stella Sousa; Bocalini, Danilo Sales; de Oliveira, Luis Vicente Franco; Grandinetti, Vanessa; Silva, José Antonio; Serra, Andrey Jorge

    2018-02-01

    This study evaluated the role of the phototherapy and exercise training (EXT) as well as the combined treatment in general symptoms, pain, and quality of life in women suffering from fibromyalgia (FM). A total of 160 women were enrolled and measures were carried out in two sets: it was sought to identify the acute effect for a single phototherapy and EXT session (Set 1); long-term effect (10 weeks) of the interventions (Set 2). Phototherapy irradiation was performed at 11 locations in their bodies, employing a cluster with nine diodes (one super-pulsed infrared 905 nm, four light-emitting diodes [LEDs] of 640 nm, and four LEDs of 875 nm, 39.3 J per location). Algometry and VAS instrument were applied to evaluate pain. The FM symptoms were evaluated with Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) and Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) instruments. Quality of life was assessed through SF-36 survey. Set 1: pain threshold was improved with the phototherapy, and EXT improved the pain threshold for temporomandibular joint (right and left body side) and occipital site (right body side). Set 2: there was improved pain threshold in several tender points with the phototherapy and EXT. There was an overlap of therapies to reduce the tender point numbers, anxiety, depression, fatigue, sleep, and difficulty sleeping on FIQ/RDC scores. Moreover, quality of life was improved with both therapies. The phototherapy and EXT improved the pain threshold in FM women. A more substantial effect was noticed for the combined therapy, in which pain relief was accomplished by improving VAS and FIQ scores as well as quality of life.

  3. Effects of a 16-week Pilates exercises training program for isometric trunk extension and flexion strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliziene, Irina; Sipaviciene, Saule; Vilkiene, Jovita; Astrauskiene, Audrone; Cibulskas, Gintautas; Klizas, Sarunas; Cizauskas, Ginas

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of Pilates exercises designed to improve isometric trunk extension and flexion strength of muscles in women with chronic low back pain (cLBP). Female volunteers with cLBP were divided into an experimental group (EG; n = 27) and a control group (CG; n = 27). Pilates exercises were performed twice per week by the EG; the duration of each session was 60 min. The program lasted for 16 weeks; thus patients underwent a total of 32 exercise sessions. The maximum isometric waist bending strength of the EG had improved significantly (p = 0.001) after 16 weeks of the Pilates program. The results of trunk flexion muscle endurance tests significantly depended on the trunk extension muscle endurance before the intervention, and at 1 month (r = 0.723, p Pilates exercise program. At the end of the 16-week exercise program, cLBP intensity decreased by 2.01 ± 0.8 (p Pilates exercise program the pain intensified and the functional state deteriorated much faster than the maximum trunk muscle strength. Therefore, it can be concluded that, to decrease pain and improve functional condition, regular exercise (and not only improved strength and endurance) is required. We established that, although the 16-week lumbar stabilization exercise program increased isometric trunk extension and flexion strength and this increase in strength persisted for 2 months, decreased LBP and improved functional condition endured for only 1 month. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of resistance or aerobic exercise training on total and regional body composition in sedentary overweight middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donges, Cheyne E; Duffield, Rob

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of 10 weeks of aerobic endurance training (AET), resistance exercise training (RET), or a control (CON) condition on absolute and relative fat mass (FM) or fat-free mass (FFM) in the total body (TB) and regions of interest (ROIs) of sedentary overweight middle-aged males and females. Following prescreening, 102 subjects underwent anthropometric measurements, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and strength and aerobic exercise testing. Randomized subjects (male RET, n = 16; female RET, n = 19; male AET, n = 16; and female AET, n = 25) completed supervised and periodized exercise programs (AET, 30-50 min cycling at 70%-75% maximal heart rate; RET, 2-4 sets × 8-10 repetitions of 5-7 exercises at 70%-75% 1 repetition maximum) or a nonexercising control condition (male CON, n = 13 and female CON, n = 13). Changes in absolute and relative TB-FM and TB-FFM and ROI-FM and ROI-FFM were determined. At baseline, and although matched for age and body mass index, males had greater strength, aerobic fitness, body mass, absolute and relative TB-FFM and ROI-FFM, but reduced absolute and relative TB-FM and ROI-FM, compared with females (p FFM and reduced TB-FM more than did the female exercise groups (p FFM, thus resulting in a greater enhancement of relative FFM. Despite equivalent or greater responses to RET or AET by female subjects, the corresponding respective increases in FFM or reductions in FM were lower than those in males, indicating that a biased dose-response relationship exists between sexes following 10 weeks of exercise training.

  5. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and efficacy of strength training and aerobic exercise

  6. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    metabolic adaptations, such as increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation, which is detrimental in GSDs. Training has not been studied systematically in any FAODs and in just a few GSDs. However, studies on single bouts of exercise in most metabolic myopathies show......Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...

  7. Endurance exercise training and diferuloyl methane supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roshan, Valiollah Dabidi; Hosseinzadeh, Somayeh; Mahjoub, Soleiman

    2013-01-01

    For many years it has been known that lead is life-threatening, not only as an air pollutant but also because of it has been associated with several conditions including degenerative disease of the nervous system. In the current study we investigated neuroprotection effects of exercise training a...

  8. Short term effects of exercise training on exercise capacity and quality of life in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension: protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gain Kevin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in the understanding and management of pulmonary arterial hypertension have enabled earlier diagnosis and improved prognosis. However, despite best available therapy, symptoms of exertional dyspnoea and fatigue are commonly reported and result in a reduced capacity to perform daily activities and impaired quality of life. Exercise training has demonstrated efficacy in individuals with other respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. Historically, however, exercise training has not been utilised as a form of therapy in pulmonary arterial hypertension due to the perceived risk of sudden cardiac death and the theoretical possibility that exercise would lead to worsening pulmonary vascular haemodynamics and deterioration in right heart function. Now, with the advances in pharmaceutical management, determining the safety and benefits of exercise training in this population has become more relevant. Only three studies of supervised exercise training in pulmonary arterial hypertension have been published. These studies demonstrated improvements in exercise capacity and quality of life, in the absence of adverse events or clinical deterioration. However, these studies have not utilised an outpatient-based, whole body exercise training program, the most common format for exercise programs within Australia. It is uncertain whether this form of training is beneficial and capable of producing sustained benefits in exercise capacity and quality of life in this population. Design/Methods This randomised controlled trial will determine whether a 12 week, outpatient-based, supervised, whole body exercise training program, followed by a home-based exercise program, is safe and improves exercise capacity and quality of life in individuals with pulmonary arterial hypertension. This study aims to recruit 34 subjects who will be randomly allocated to the exercise group (supervised exercise training 3 times a week for 12 weeks, followed by

  9. Effects of a 12-week exercise training on insulin sensitivity, quality of life, and depression status in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chia-Huei Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exercise is one of the optimal and alternative treatments for type 2 diabetes (T2DM. Although the effect of a single bout of exercise on insulin sensitivity is reported to persist only for 2–3 days, effects remain unclear of a 12-week aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity, quality of life (QOL, and depression status over time as exercise training duration increases in patients with T2DM. Objectives: To investigate the effects over time in patients with T2DM of a 12-week aerobic exercise training on insulin sensitivity, QOL, and depression status. Materials and Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit 17 T2DM patients. Participants underwent a 12-week, supervised, moderate-intensity aerobic exercise training three times per week, 30 min per session. Outcome indicators including insulin sensitivity (measured by a 2-h oral glucose tolerance test [OGTT] and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance [HOMA-IR], QOL (Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36, and depression status (beck depression inventory scale were evaluated at baseline and at 4-week intervals. Results: A final 13 eligible participants completed the study. For every 4-week increase in duration of exercise training, there was an increase over time in insulin sensitivity, including a decrease over time in OGTT glucose area under the curve of 66.92 min/mmol/L. Glucose concentrations decreased over time at 60, 90, and 120 min after an oral glucose challenge. Further, the HOMA-IR decreased over time as the duration of exercise training increased. QOL and depression status improved significantly during the training. Conclusions: Moderate-intensity exercise training improves insulin sensitivity, QOL, and depression status in T2DM patients, particularly over time within a 12-week exercise training course.

  10. ISOMETRIC EXERCISE AND ITS EFFECT ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND HEART RATE, BEFORE AND AFTER TRAINING IN YOUNG HEALTHY MALES

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    Mohammed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Isometric exercise is a normal part of everyday activities and many occupational tasks. Preventive services are important as they give physicians an opportunity and responsibility to promote regular physical activity, reduc e high blood pressure, and help in weight control. Physical inactivity is recognized as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Regular aerobic physical activity increases exercise capacity and plays a role in both primary and secondary prevention of ca rdiovascular disease. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of isometric handgrip training on Blood pressure and Heart rate in healthy young males in the age group of 18 - 22 years. MATERIALS AND METHOD : Study subjects consisted of 30 healthy adult males in the age group of 18 - 22 yrs. Age and sex matched adults who were not active in sports or in physical activities constituted the control group (n=30. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded and eval uated after a defined protocol of handgrip sustained static (isometric contractions performed with the handgrip dynamometer at Rest and Post Exercise. BP and HR were recorded with the help of automated blood pressure monitor and power lab 8/30 series inst rument available in the Department of Physiology , Navodaya Medical college, Raichur. RESULTS: There was no change in Resting Blood pressure and Heart rate between the subject and control group before the training sessions. There was significant decrease in resting Blood pressure and Heart rate in trained subject group when compared to untrained control group after 5 weeks of training sessions. CONCLUSION : Isometric hand grip training is effective in lowering arterial pressure in normotensive subjects. Isome tric training may be an effective intervention in the prevention and treatment of hypertension

  11. Cardiovascular adaptations to exercise training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Nyberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training leads to cardiovascular changes that markedly increase aerobic power and lead to improved endurance performance. The functionally most important adaptation is the improvement in maximal cardiac output which is the result of an enlargement in cardiac dimension, improved...... and peripheral cardiovascular adaptations with a focus on humans, but also covers animal data. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1-32, 2016....

  12. Effect of maturation on hemodynamic and autonomic control recovery following maximal running exercise in highly-trained young soccer players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBuchheit

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of maturation on post-exercise hemodynamic and autonomic responses. Fifty-five highly-trained young male soccer players (12-18 yr classified as pre-, circum- or post-peak height velocity (PHV performed a graded running test to exhaustion on a treadmill. Before (Pre and after (5th-10th min, Post exercise, heart rate (HR, stroke volume (SV, cardiac ouput (CO, arterial pressure (AP and total peripheral resistance (TPR were monitored. Parasympathetic (high-frequency [HFRR] of HR variability (HRV and baroreflex sensitivity [Ln BRS] and sympathetic activity (low-frequency [LFSAP] of systolic AP variability were estimated. Post-exercise blood lactate [La]b, the HR recovery (HRR time constant and parasympathetic reactivation (time varying HRV analysis were assessed. In all three groups, exercise resulted in increased HR, CO, AP and LFSAP (P<0.001, decreased SV, HFRR and Ln BRS (all P<0.001, and no change in TPRI (P=0.98. There was no ‘maturation x time’ interaction for any of the hemodynamic or autonomic variables (all P>0.22. After exercise, pre-PHV players displayed lower SV, CO and [La]b, faster HRR and greater parasympathetic reactivation compared with circum- and post-PHV players. Multiple regression analysis showed that lean muscle mass, [La]b and Pre parasympathetic activity were the strongest predictors of HRR (r2=0.62, P<0.001. While pre-PHV players displayed a faster HRR and greater post-exercise parasympathetic reactivation, maturation had little influence on the hemodynamic and autonomic responses following maximal running exercise. HRR relates to lean muscle mass, blood acidosis and intrinsic parasympathetic function, with less evident impact of post-exercise autonomic function.

  13. Effect of the low- versus high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and GLP-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Soo; Yoo, Jae Ho; So, Yong Seok

    2015-10-01

    [Purpose] The primary objective of this study was to investigate the effect of low-intensity exercise training compare with high-intensity exercise training on endoplasmic reticulum stress and glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus. [Subjects and Methods] The low-intensity exercise training group performed aerobic exercise training at an intensity of ≤ 45% of the heart rate reserve. The high-intensity interval exercise training group performed interval exercise training at an intensity of ≥ 80% of the heart rate reserve. The exercise-related energy consumption was determined for both groups on a per-week basis (1,200 kcal/week). [Results] Both groups showed improvement in the glucose-regulated protein 78 and dipeptidyl peptidase-4, but the size of the between-group effect was not statistically significant. The high-intensity interval exercise training group showed a significant reduction in percentage body fat. The C-peptide level increased after the 12-weeks programs and was significantly different, between the groups. Fasting glucose, insulin resistance in the fasting state according to homeostasis model assessment, and leptin decreased after the 12-weeks exercise program and were significantly different between the groups, and glucagon-like peptide-1 increased after the 12-week exercise programs and was significantly different between the groups. [Conclusion] In conclusion high-intensity interval exercise training, as defined in this study, may lead to improvements in body composition, glycemic control, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and the glucagon-like peptide-1 in adolescents with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. The effects of an exercise training program on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in Tunisian obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofien Regaieg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The prevalence of children obesity is rising alarmingly in both developed and developing countries. Developing effective exercise programs is a strategy for decreasing this prevalence and limiting obesity-associated long-term comorbidities. Objectives: To determine whether a 16-week training program; in addition to the school physical education and without dietary intervention; could have beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity of obese children. Materials and Methods: Twenty-eight obese children (16 boys, 12 girls; aged 12-14 years were enrolled and were divided into either the exercise group (EG, n = 14 or the control group (CG, n = 14. EG participated in a 16-week aerobic exercises (four 60-min sessions per week at 70-85% of HRmax (maximum heart rate, in addition to the school physical education. Fat-Free Mass (FFM and Fat Mass (FM were assessed with bioelectrical impedance equipment. To assess aerobic capacity, maximal metabolic equivalent of task (METmax and maximal workload (Wmax were estimated with an electronically braked cycle ergometer (type Ergoline 500® . Results: At baseline, there were no differences between the two groups. After the training program, only the EG showed significant reduction in BMI (body mass index and waist circumference compared with the baseline values (P < 0.001. Exercise training significantly decreased FM only in the EG. A significant increase in FFM was seen in both groups; more marked in the EG. There was a significant increase in METmax (P < 0.05 and Wmax (P = 0.02 in the EG, and no significant changes in these parameters were seen in the CG. HRmax significantly decreased only in the EG (P < 0.05. Conclusion: This training program has beneficial effects on body composition and aerobic capacity parameters in obese children. Our intervention has the advantage of providing a sustainable and reproducible school and community approach for the management of children obesity.

  15. Effect of flaxseed supplementation and exercise training on lipid profile, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with myocardial ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nounou, Howaida A; Deif, Maha M; Shalaby, Manal A

    2012-10-05

    Flaxseed has recently gained attention in the area of cardiovascular disease primarily because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA), lignans, and fiber. Although the benefits of exercise on any single risk factor are unquestionable, the effect of exercise on overall cardiovascular risk, when combined with other lifestyle modifications such as proper nutrition, can be dramatic.This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of flaxseed and exercise on cardiac markers, lipids profile and inflammatory markers in isoproterenol (ISO)-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. The research was conducted on 40 male albino rats, divided into 4 groups (n=10): group I served as control, group II has acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol, groups III and IV have acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol pretreated with flaxseed supplementation orally for 6 weeks, additionally group IV practiced muscular exercise through swimming. Alterations of lipid profile, cardiac and inflammatory markers (Il-1β, PTX 3 and TNF- α) were observed in myocardial ischemia group. Flaxseed supplementation combined with exercise training showed significant increase of HDL and PON 1, on the other hand cardiac troponin, Il- 1β and TNF- α levels significantly decreased as compared to myocardial ischemic group. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) analysis of cTnI, PTX 3, Il-1β and TNF- α revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Regular exercise enhances the improvement in plasma lipoprotein levels and cardiovascular protection that results from flaxseed supplementation by mitigating the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Elevation of HDL, the antioxidant PON 1 and the cardioprotective marker PTX 3 emphasizes the protective effects of flaxseed and muscular exercise mutually against the harmful effects of acute myocardial ischemia.

  16. Effect of flaxseed supplementation and exercise training on lipid profile, oxidative stress and inflammation in rats with myocardial ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nounou Howaida A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flaxseed has recently gained attention in the area of cardiovascular disease primarily because of its rich contents of α-linolenic acid (ALA, lignans, and fiber. Although the benefits of exercise on any single risk factor are unquestionable, the effect of exercise on overall cardiovascular risk, when combined with other lifestyle modifications such as proper nutrition, can be dramatic. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective role of flaxseed and exercise on cardiac markers, lipids profile and inflammatory markers in isoproterenol (ISO-induced myocardial ischemia in rats. Methods The research was conducted on 40 male albino rats, divided into 4 groups (n=10: group I served as control, group II has acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol, groups III and IV have acute myocardial ischemia induced by isoproterenol pretreated with flaxseed supplementation orally for 6 weeks, additionally group IV practiced muscular exercise through swimming. Results Alterations of lipid profile, cardiac and inflammatory markers (Il-1β, PTX 3 and TNF- α were observed in myocardial ischemia group. Flaxseed supplementation combined with exercise training showed significant increase of HDL and PON 1, on the other hand cardiac troponin, Il- 1β and TNF- α levels significantly decreased as compared to myocardial ischemic group. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC analysis of cTnI, PTX 3, Il-1β and TNF- α revealed a satisfactory level of sensitivity and specificity. Conclusion Regular exercise enhances the improvement in plasma lipoprotein levels and cardiovascular protection that results from flaxseed supplementation by mitigating the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Elevation of HDL, the antioxidant PON 1 and the cardioprotective marker PTX 3 emphasizes the protective effects of flaxseed and muscular exercise mutually against the harmful effects of acute myocardial ischemia.

  17. The effect of aerobic exercise training on work ability of midwives working in health care centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Abedian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Maintaining and improving the work ability are important social goals, which challenge the health care and rehabilitation systems as well as health providers. The physical and mental health status affect the work ability. Regarding this, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of aerobic training on the work ability of the midwives in the health care centers of Mashhad, Iran in 2013. Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 midwives working in the health centers of Mashhad, Iran, using purposeful sampling method. The health care centers were selected randomly, and then assigned into the intervention and control groups. Subsequently, the intervention group performed aerobic exercise for 24 sessions. Data collection was performed using the work ability index and the Bruce test (to compare the fitness of the participants at the pre- and post-intervention stages. For data analysis, the two-way ANOVA, Mann-Whitney U, and Chi-square tests as well as independent and paired sample t-tests were employed, using SPSS version 19. The P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: According to the results of the study, the mean score of work ability was significantly higher in the intervention group than that in the control group (40.5±4.9 vs. 36.4± 5.3, respectively; P=0.004. Furthermore, there was a significant difference between the two groups regarding the two variables including work ability compared with life time best (P

  18. Effects of Caloric Restriction and Exercise Training on Skeletal Muscle Histochemistry in Aging Fischer 344 Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Lowenthal

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of calorie restriction and exercise on hindlimb histochemistry and fiber type in Fischer 344 rats as they advanced from adulthood through senescence. At 10 months of age, animals were divided into sedentary fed ad libitum, exercise (18 m/min, 8% grade, 20 min/day, 5 days/week fed ad libitum, and calorie restricted by alternate days of feeding. Succinic dehydrogenase, myosin adenosine triphosphatase (mATPase at pH 9.4, nicotine adenonine dinucleotide reductase, and Periodic Acid Shiff histochemical stains were performed on plantaris and soleus muscles. The results indicated that aging resulted in a progressive decline in plantaris Type I muscle fiber in sedentary animals, while exercise resulted in maintenance of these fibers. The percent of plantaris Type II fibers increased between 10 and 24 months of age. Exercise also resulted in a small, but significant, increase in the percentage of plantaris Type IIa fibers at 24 months of age. The soleus fiber distribution for Type I fibers was unaffected by increasing age in all groups of animals. The implications of these results suggest the implementation of exercise as a lifestyle modification as early as possible.

  19. Aerobic circuit exercise training: effect on adolescents with well-controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosher, P E; Nash, M S; Perry, A C; LaPerriere, A R; Goldberg, R B

    1998-06-01

    To test the safety and effects of exercise conditioning on cardiorespiratory fitness, body composition, muscle strength, glucose regulation, and lipid/cholesterol levels. Ten male adolescents with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and 10 adolescent nondiabetic (ND) subjects. Pretest, posttest intervention trial with control group. University-based human performance laboratory. Mixed endurance and calisthenic/strength activities performed at a rapid pace three times weekly for 12 weeks. Only one subject with IDDM experienced hypoglycemia after a single exercise session. Both subject groups improved their cardiorespiratory endurance (p diabetics.

  20. Effects of endurance training and competition on exercise tests in relatively untrained people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, F T; Janssen, G M; Does, R J

    1989-10-01

    One hundred fourteen subjects (34 +/- 8 years) without any competition background took part in an endurance training study to be completed after 1.5 years with running a marathon. Ultimately, 60 males and 18 females achieved that goal. The training program, carefully supervised, was divided into three phases with a maximum of 45, 70, and 110 km/week training volume and concluded with a performance race of 15, 25, and 42.195 km, respectively. Three days before and 3 and 5 days after each race, 35 subjects were selected to perform a progressive treadmill test and the remaining subjects participated in performing field tests of running 400 and 1000 m. The maximal velocity achieved in the treadmill test was 4.75 +/- 0.36 m.s-1 for males and 4.18 +/- 0.28 m.s-1 for females; it remained constant throughout the study. However, the running velocity at 4 mmol.1(-1) plasma lactate concentration increased about 10% from phase 1 to 3. In the females this rise already appeared to be completed in phase 2. Heart rate showed a tendency to increase at both submaximal and maximal exercise from training phase 1 to 2 and 3, whereas plasma lactate concentration showed a decreasing tendency. Three days after the 25 km and the marathon race the maximal running velocity in the exercise test was 2%-4% lower compared with the pre-race test (P less than 0.05). Five days after the race this difference again faded away. This small decline in running performance was not reflected in changes of physiologic responses such as heart rate or plasma lactate concentration.

  1. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Krzemiński

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factoralpha (TNF-IX as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 3011.0 years participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF, fractional shortening (FS, ratio of early (E to late (A mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A, ratio of early (E' to late (A' diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E‘/A’ and E-wave deceleration time (DT were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-or and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-or correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73 and DT (r=-0.73. It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-or might be involved in this effect.

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome: a randomized controlled trial on pregnant women in Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghodsi, Z.; Asltoghiri, M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effect of aerobic exercise training on maternal and neonatal outcome. Methods: The case-control study was conducted between January and July, 2011. It was approved by the Research Ethics Committee of Toyserkan Azad University, and data was collected at prenatal clinics and delivery centres located in Hamedan, Iran. It comprised 80 pregnant women between 20-26 weeks of gestation randomly assigned to two equal and matching groups of cases and controls. The intervention group did exercise continuously on a bicycle ergometre for 15 minutes, three times a week; the intensity being 50-60% of maximal heart rate. The control group did not do any exercise training. All information was obtained from the clinics, delivery centres, and from the reports of delivery room midwives. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups in gestational weight gain, pregnancy length, mode of delivery, first and second stage of labour, perineal tear, and 1st and 5th min Apgar score. Mean neonatal weight was significantly less in the intervention group than the control group (p<0.001). Conclusion: Exercising on a bicycle ergometer during pregnancy seems to be safe for the mother and the neonate. (author)

  3. Effects of resistance training exercise on cognitive performance in elderly individuals with memory impairment: results of a controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Leopold Busse

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To detect the effects of a resistance training programon cognitive performance and muscle strength in sedentaryelderly individuals with memory impairment. Methods: Thirty-onesedentary elderly persons with no dementia or depression wererandomly distributed into two groups: Physical Activity Group andControl Group. The resistance training exercise program lastednine months and consisted of three series of six exercises persession, carried out on lever-type equipment for approximatelyone hour, twice a week. Every three months, both groups weresubmitted to the following cognitive tests: Rivermead BehavioralMemory Test (RBMT, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAISDirect and Indirect Digit Span, Memory Complaints Scale, andCambridge Cognitive Test (CAMCOG. Results: After nine months,the group that did resistance exercises showed a significantincrease in the standardized RBMT score (p = 0.021 and in musclestrength (p < 0.001, with no significant difference in the otherparameters evaluated. Conclusions: These results indicate thatsupervised resistance exercises can improve memory performancein sedentary elderly individuals with prior memory compromise,besides increasing muscle strength.

  4. The Effects of Exercise Training on Tumor Vascularity and Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy in Operable Breast Cancer: A Phase I-II Study (Idea Award)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Lee W; Peterson, Bercedis; Blackwell, Kimberly; Dewhirst, Mark W; Marcom, P. K; Kraus, WIlliam; Baker, Jay; Allen, Jason D

    2006-01-01

    .... Participants assigned to combined exercise training and chemotherapy will perform an individualized exercise training program consisting of three cycle ergometry sessions per week at approximately 60-80...

  5. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonu Punia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. High blood pressure (BP is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian subcontinent. Objective. Our objective is to systematically review and report the articles from India in aerobic exercise on blood pressure. Methodology. Study was done in March 2016 in Google Scholar using search terms “Aerobic exercise” AND “Training” AND “Blood pressure” AND “India.” This search produced 3210 titles. Results. 24 articles were identified for this review based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Total of 1107 subjects participated with median of 25 subjects. Studies vary in duration from +3 weeks to 12 months with each session lasting 15–60 minutes and frequency varies from 3 to 8 times/week. The results suggest that there was mean reduction of −05.00 mmHg in SBP and −03.09 mmHg in DBP after aerobic training. Conclusion. Aerobic training reduces the blood pressure in Indians.

  6. Effects of high altitude training on exercise capacity: fact or myth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Paula; Niebauer, Josef

    2012-03-01

    High altitude training has become a mainstay in endurance sports, with live high-train low as the current protocol of choice. Athletes either live or sleep in artificial or natural hypoxic conditions with the aim to increase serum erythropoietin concentrations, which are thought to improve maximum oxygen uptake and thus exercise performance. Changes, however, are not very striking and only apparent in so-called responders, who are not a well-defined group and may be as little as 50% of the trained study population. Whereas some studies show minor improvement, others report no change or even worsening. Furthermore, the mechanisms behind the proposed beneficial changes remain obscure and are far from being proven. There is an evident lack of sufficiently powered randomized, double-blinded studies, with training protocols that are identical for all groups and groups that are indeed comparable. Several studies discriminate between responders and non-responders, without clearly assessing the characteristics of the so-called responders. Until this has been done, it remains unclear if such a group really exists and how these subjects are characterized. This, however, would be of immense value, so protocols could be tailored to athletes' needs. Taken together, the current literature on natural or artificial hypoxia somewhat documents improved performance at high but not low altitude.

  7. Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gleeson

    2014-09-01

    [Gleeson M, Sherrington C, Keay L (2014 Exercise and physical training improve physical function in older adults with visual impairments but their effect on falls is unclear: a systematic review. Journal of Physiotherapy 60: 130–135

  8. A controlled clinical trial investigating the effects of cycle ergometry training on exercise tolerance, balance and quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lauhoff, Paula

    2013-03-01

    To establish the effect of a 6-week programme of cycle ergometry training on exercise tolerance, balance, activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life in individuals with Parkinson\\'s disease (PD).

  9. Effects of volume-based overload plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, Cesar; Nakamura, Fabio Y; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare maximal-intensity exercise adaptations in young basketball players (who were strong individuals at baseline) participating in regular basketball training versus regular plus a volume-based plyometric training program in the pre-season period. Young basketball players were recruited and assigned either to a plyometric with regular basketball training group (experimental group [EG]; N.=8), or a basketball training only group (control group [CG]; N.=8). The athletes in EG performed periodized (i.e., from 117 to 183 jumps per session) plyometric training for eight weeks. Before and after the intervention, players were assessed in vertical and broad jump, change of direction, maximal strength and a 60-meter sprint test. No significant improvements were found in the CG, while the EG improved vertical jump (effect size [ES] 2.8), broad jump (ES=2.4), agility T test (ES=2.2), Illinois agility test (ES=1.4), maximal strength (ES=1.8), and 60-m sprint (ES=1.6) (Ptraining in addition to regular basketball practice can lead to meaningful improvements in maximal-intensity exercise adaptations among young basketball players during the pre-season.

  10. The effect of exercise training modality on serum brain derived neurotrophic factor levels in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damon L Swift

    Full Text Available Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has been implicated in memory, learning, and neurodegenerative diseases. However, the relationship of BDNF with cardiometabolic risk factors is unclear, and the effect of exercise training on BDNF has not been previously explored in individuals with type 2 diabetes.Men and women (N = 150 with type 2 diabetes were randomized to an aerobic exercise (aerobic, resistance exercise (resistance, or a combination of both (combination for 9 months. Serum BDNF levels were evaluated at baseline and follow-up from archived blood samples.Baseline serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures (all, p>0.05. Similarly, no significant change in serum BDNF levels was observed following exercise training in the aerobic (-1649.4 pg/ml, CI: -4768.9 to 1470.2, resistance (-2351.2 pg/ml, CI:-5290.7 to 588.3, or combination groups (-827.4 pg/ml, CI: -3533.3 to 1878.5 compared to the control group (-2320.0 pg/ml, CI: -5750.8 to 1110.8. However, reductions in waist circumference were directly associated with changes in serum BDNF following training (r = 0.25, p = 0.005.Serum BDNF was not associated with fitness, body composition, anthropometry, glucose control, or strength measures at baseline. Likewise, serum BDNF measures were not altered by 9 months of aerobic, resistance, or combination training. However, reductions in waist circumference were associated with decreased serum BDNF levels. Future studies should investigate the relevance of BDNF with measures of cognitive function specifically in individuals with type-2 diabetes.

  11. Cardiovascular disease markers in type 2 diabetes: the effects of a moderate home-based exercise training programme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheede-Bergdahl, Celena; Benee Olsen, David; Reving, Danny

    2009-01-01

    -based exercise training program improves biomarker levels and insulin sensitivity. Patients with T2DM (n=12), IGT (n=4) and healthy control subjects (n=9) were studied before and after eight weeks of exercise training by rowing ergometry at 65-70% of peak oxygen uptake. Conclusions: 1) patients with T2DM have...... elevated plasma concentrations of CVD biomarkers compared to the matched control and IGT groups; 2) a moderate to vigorous intensity home-based training program did not reduce plasma concentrations of these CVD markers; 3) insulin sensitivity improved as a result of exercise training in the control group...

  12. Supervised exercise training counterbalances the adverse effects of insulin therapy in overweight/obese subjects with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Stefano; Zanuso, Silvano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Salerno, Gerardo; Fallucca, Sara; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    To examine the effect of supervised exercise on traditional and nontraditional cardiovascular risk factors in sedentary, overweight/obese insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes from the Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES). The study randomized 73 insulin-treated patients to twice weekly supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (EXE) or to counseling alone (CON) for 12 months. Clinical and laboratory parameters were assessed at baseline and at the end of the study. The volume of physical activity was significantly higher in the EXE versus the CON group. Values for hemoglobin A(1c), BMI, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and the coronary heart disease risk score were significantly reduced only in the EXE group. No major adverse events were observed. In insulin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes, supervised exercise is safe and effective in improving glycemic control and markers of adiposity and inflammation, thus counterbalancing the adverse effects of insulin on these parameters.

  13. The effect of long-term, high-volume aerobic exercise training on postprandial lipemia and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomer, Richard J; Fisher-Wellman, Kelsey H; Bell, Heather K

    2010-04-01

    We have previously found no effect of moderate-volume aerobic exercise training (approximately 3 hrs*wk(-1)) on postprandial oxidative stress. It is possible that a higher volume of exercise is needed to impact postprandial oxidative stress in young, otherwise healthy individuals. Our purpose was to compare blood triglycerides (TAGs) and oxidative stress biomarkers in 10 healthy untrained and 10 healthy highly aerobically trained (eg, >or= 40 miles running*wk(-1) or >or= 150 miles cycling*wk(-1)) men and women following ingestion of a lipid meal. Blood samples were collected before (in a 10-hour fasted state), and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after ingestion of a lipid load (heavy whipping cream at 1 g*kg(-1)). Blood samples were analyzed for TAGs, malondialdehyde (MDA), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), and nitrate/nitrite (NOx). No training status or interaction effects were noted for TAGs, MDA, H2O2, or NOx (P > 0.05). However, a time effect was noted for TAGs (P = 0.01), with values higher at 2 hours (67 +/- 6 mg*dL(-1)) compared with premeal (41 +/- 6 mg*dL(-1)). A time effect was also noted for H2O2 (P = 0.0001), with values higher at 2 hours (24 +/- 3 micromol*L(-1)), 4 hours (23 +/- 3 micromol*L(-1)), and 6 hours (21 +/- 3 mumol.L(-1)) compared with premeal (7 +/- 2 micromol*L(-1)). The time effect for MDA approached significance (P = 0.07), with values peaking at 4 hours post-meal (1.59 +/- 0.16 micromol*L(-1)) compared with premeal (0.99 +/- 0.15 micromol*L(-1)). These data indicate that aerobic exercise training (even when performed at a relatively high volume) does not attenuate postprandial lipemia or oxidative stress as compared with no exercise when healthy men and women consume a lipid load in the form of heavy whipping cream. Fasting TAG values may be most important in this regard. It is possible that long-term exercise may be capable of attenuating postprandial lipemia or oxidative stress in older individuals, those with chronic disease, or those with

  14. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, R J H M; Maessen, M F H; Green, D J; Hermus, A R M M; Hopman, M T E; Thijssen, D H T

    2016-08-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the effects of exercise or diet on VAT (quantified by radiographic imaging). Relevant databases were searched through May 2014. One hundred seventeen studies (n = 4,815) were included. We found that both exercise and diet cause VAT loss (P diet versus training, diet caused a larger weight loss (P = 0.04). In contrast, a trend was observed towards a larger VAT decrease in exercise (P = 0.08). Changes in weight and VAT showed a strong correlation after diet (R(2)  = 0.737, P diet showed virtually no change (1.1%). In conclusion, both exercise and diet reduce VAT. Despite a larger effect of diet on total body weight loss, exercise tends to have superior effects in reducing VAT. Finally, total body weight loss does not necessarily reflect changes in VAT and may represent a poor marker when evaluating benefits of lifestyle-interventions. © 2016 World Obesity.

  15. In Vivo Effects of Quercetin in Association with Moderate Exercise Training in Improving Streptozotocin-Induced Aortic Tissue Injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina C. Chis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes mellitus (DM is a chronic endocrine-metabolic disorder associated with endothelial dysfunction. Hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia and abnormal nitric oxide-mediated vasodilatation are the major causal factors in the development of endothelial dysfunction in DM. The prevention of endothelial dysfunction may be a first target against the appearance of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. We have investigated the synergistic protective effects of quercetin administration and moderate exercise training on thoracic aorta injuries induced by diabetes. Methods: Diabetic rats that performed exercise training were subjected to a swimming training program (1 h/day, 5 days/week, 4 weeks. The diabetic rats received quercetin (30 mg/kg body weight/day for 4 weeks. At the end of the study, the thoracic aorta was isolated and divided into two parts; one part was immersed in 10% formalin for histopathological evaluations and the other was frozen for the assessment of oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, MDA and protein carbonyls groups, PC, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT, nitrite plus nitrate (NOx production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS protein expression. Results: Diabetic rats showed significantly increased MDA and PC levels, NOx production and iNOS expression and a reduction of SOD and CAT activity in aortic tissues. A decrease in the levels of oxidative stress markers, NOx production and iNOS expression associated with elevated activity of antioxidant enzymes in the aortic tissue were observed in quercetin-treated diabetic trained rats. Conclusions: These findings suggest that quercetin administration in association with moderate exercise training reduces vascular complications and tissue injuries induced by diabetes in rat aorta by decreasing oxidative stress and restoring NO bioavailability.

  16. The Effect of Exercise Training on Resting Concentrations of Peripheral Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF: A Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Dinoff

    Full Text Available The mechanisms through which physical activity supports healthy brain function remain to be elucidated. One hypothesis suggests that increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF mediates some cognitive and mood benefits. This meta-analysis sought to determine the effect of exercise training on resting concentrations of BDNF in peripheral blood.MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, Rehabilitation & Sports Medicine Source, and CINAHL databases were searched for original, peer-reviewed reports of peripheral blood BDNF concentrations before and after exercise interventions ≥ 2 weeks. Risk of bias was assessed using standardized criteria. Standardized mean differences (SMDs were generated from random effects models. Risk of publication bias was assessed using funnel plots and Egger's test. Potential sources of heterogeneity were explored in subgroup analyses.In 29 studies that met inclusion criteria, resting concentrations of peripheral blood BDNF were higher after intervention (SMD = 0.39, 95% CI: 0.17-0.60, p < 0.001. Subgroup analyses suggested a significant effect in aerobic (SMD = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.33-0.99, p < 0.001 but not resistance training (SMD = 0.07, 95% CI: -0.15-0.30, p = 0.52 interventions. No significant difference in effect was observed between males and females, nor in serum vs plasma.Aerobic but not resistance training interventions increased resting BDNF concentrations in peripheral blood.

  17. Effects of diet and exercise training on neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.C. Tonacio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Since neurovascular control is altered in obese subjects, we hypothesized that weight loss by diet (D or diet plus exercise training (D + ET would improve neurovascular control during mental stress in obese women. In a study with a dietary reduction of 600 kcal/day with or without exercise training for 4 months, 53 obese women were subdivided in D (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 34 ± 1 kg/m², D + ET (N = 22, 33 ± 1 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m², and nonadherent (NA, N = 9, 35 ± 2 years, BMI 33 ± 1 kg/m² groups. Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA was measured by microneurography and forearm blood flow by venous occlusion plethysmography. Mental stress was elicited by a 3-min Stroop color word test. Weight loss was similar between D and D + ET groups (87 ± 2 vs 79 ± 2 and 85 ± 2 vs 76 ± 2 kg, respectively, P < 0.05 with a significant reduction in MSNA during mental stress (58 ± 2 vs 50 ± 2, P = 0.0001, and 59 ± 3 vs 50 ± 2 bursts/100 beats, P = 0.0001, respectively, although the magnitude of the response was unchanged. Forearm vascular conductance during mental stress was significantly increased only in D + ET (2.74 ± 0.22 vs 3.52 ± 0.19 units, P = 0.02. Weight loss reduces MSNA during mental stress in obese women. The increase in forearm vascular conductance after weight loss provides convincing evidence for D + ET interventions as a nonpharmacologic therapy of human obesity.

  18. Exercise training effects on hypoxic and hypercapnic ventilatory responses in mice selected for increased voluntary wheel running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Scott A; Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Kolb, Erik M; Malisch, Jessica L; Rhodes, Justin S; Mitchell, Gordon S; Garland, Theodore

    2014-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We used experimental evolution to determine how selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running and exercise training (7-11 weeks) affect ventilatory chemoreflexes of laboratory mice at rest. What is the main finding and its importance? Selective breeding, although significantly affecting some traits, did not systematically alter ventilation across gas concentrations. As with most human studies, our findings support the idea that endurance training attenuates resting ventilation. However, little evidence was found for a correlation between ventilatory chemoreflexes and the amount of individual voluntary wheel running. We conclude that exercise 'training' alters respiratory behaviours, but these changes may not be necessary to achieve high levels of wheel running. Ventilatory control is affected by genetics, the environment and gene-environment and gene-gene interactions. Here, we used an experimental evolution approach to test whether 37 generations of selective breeding for high voluntary wheel running (genetic effects) and/or long-term (7-11 weeks) wheel access (training effects) alter acute respiratory behaviour of mice resting in normoxic, hypoxic and hypercapnic conditions. As the four replicate high-runner (HR) lines run much more than the four non-selected control (C) lines, we also examined whether the amount of exercise among individual mice was a quantitative predictor of ventilatory chemoreflexes at rest. Selective breeding and/or wheel access significantly affected several traits. In normoxia, HR mice tended to have lower mass-adjusted rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production. Chronic wheel access increased oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production in both HR and C mice during hypercapnia. Breathing frequency and minute ventilation were significantly reduced by chronic wheel access in both HR and C mice during hypoxia. Selection history, while significantly affecting some traits

  19. Astragalus membranaceus Improves Exercise Performance and Ameliorates Exercise-Induced Fatigue in Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzu-Shao Yeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Astragalus membranaceus (AM is a popular “Qi-tonifying” herb with a long history of use as a Traditional Chinese Medicine with multiple biological functions. However, evidence for the effects of AM on exercise performance and physical fatigue is limited. We evaluated the potential beneficial effects of AM on ergogenic and anti-fatigue functions following physiological challenge. Male ICR strain mice were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10 per group for treatment: (1 sedentary control and vehicle treatment (vehicle control; (2 exercise training with vehicle treatment (exercise control; and (3 exercise training with AM treatment at 0.615 g/kg/day (Ex-AM1 or (4 3.075 g/kg/day (Ex-AM5. Both the vehicle and AM were orally administered for 6 weeks. Exercise performance and anti-fatigue function were evaluated by forelimb grip strength, exhaustive swimming time, and levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase after 15-min swimming exercise. Exercise training combined with AM supplementation increased endurance exercise capacity and increased hepatic and muscle glycogen content. AM reduced exercise-induced accumulation of the byproducts blood lactate and ammonia with acute exercise challenge. Moreover, we found no deleterious effects from AM treatment. Therefore, AM supplementation improved exercise performance and had anti-fatigue effects in mice. It may be an effective ergogenic aid in exercise training.

  20. The effect of exercise training on left ventricular function in young elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Luca Alessio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Regular training, in particular endurance exercise, induces structural myocardial adaptation, so-called "athlete's heart". In addition to the 2D standard echo parameters, assessment of myocardial function is currently possible by deformation parameters (strain, rotation and twist. Aim of study is to assess the role of rotation and twist parameters for better characterize the heart performance in trained elite young athletes from different kind of sports. Eventually, verify early on any possible impact due to the regular sport activity not revealed by the standard parameters. Methods 50 young athletes (16 cyclists, 17 soccer players, 17 basket players regularly trained at least three times a week for at least 9 months a year and 10 young controls (mean age 18.5 ± 0.5 years were evaluated either by to 2D echocardiography or by a Speckle Tracking (ST multi-layer approach to calculate Left Ventricle (LV endocardial and epicardial rotation, twist, circumferential strain (CS and longitudinal strain (LS. Data were compared by ANOVA test. Results All the found values were within the normal range. Left Ventricle Diastolic Diameter (LVDD 51.7 ± 2.6 mm, Cardiac Mass index (CMi 114.5 ± 18.5 g/m2, epi-CS, epi-LS, epicardial apex rotation and the Endo/Epi twist were significantly higher only in cyclists. In all the groups, a physiological difference of the Endo/Epi basal circumferential strain and twist values have been found. A weak but not significant relationship between the Endo and twist values and LVDD (r2 = 0.44, p = .005 and CMi was also reported in cyclists. Conclusions Progressive increase of apical LV twist may represent an important component of myocardial remodelling. This aspect is particularly evident in the young cyclists group where the CMi and the LVDD are higher. ST multilayer approach completes the LV performance evaluation in young trained athletes showing values similar to adults.

  1. [Comparison of the psychological effects of standard exercises with those of space exercises in autogenic training: from the perspective of passive concentration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Ikuyo; Koshikawa, Fusako

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the psychological effects of the heaviness and the warmth Standard Exercises (SE) with those of the first Space Exercises (SP) in Autogenic Training (AT) on college students. This study was conducted by the repeated practice of two experimental groups (SE, SP) and one control group (CT). The participants in the experimental groups practiced once a week, for three weeks. All the participants were assessed with State-Trait Anxiety Inventory-Trait Anxiety (STAI-T), Autogenic Training Clinical Effectiveness Scale (ATCES), and Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale. The results showed that the SE group showed more decreases in STAI-T and more increases in ATCES than the SP group, while the more neurotic, showed more increases in self-esteem in both the SE and SP groups. It is possible that non-clinical adults with high neuroticism might be able to enhance their STAI-T and ATCES in the SE group than in the SP group if their SE trainers respected their bodily abilities in readily responding to changes in sensations.

  2. Exercise training in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abela, Mark

    2018-05-04

    Exercise training (ET) in heart failure (HF) has long been established as an important part of HF care. ET is known to improve quality of life and functional capacity in a number of ways. Despite its proposed benefits, evidence supporting its routine inclusion in standard rehabilitation programme is at times conflicting, partly because of the significant heterogeneity present in available randomised controlled trials. There is lack of evidence with regard to the duration of the overall benefit, the optimal exercise regimen and whether certain types of HF aetiologies benefit more than others. The aim of this review is to provide an update to date literature review of the positive and negative evidence surrounding ET in HF, while proposing an efficient novel in-hospital exercise-based rehabilitation programme for patients with HF in addition to a pre-existing HF clinic. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Aerobic exercise training for adults with fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; Schachter, Candice L; Overend, Tom J; Kim, Soo Y; Góes, Suelen M; Boden, Catherine; Foulds, Heather Ja

    2017-06-21

    of 8% (16% improvement to 0.4% worse). Pooled analysis resulted in a risk ratio (RR) of moderate quality for withdrawals (17 per 100 and 20 per 100 in control and intervention groups, respectively; eight studies; N = 456; RR 1.25, 95%CI 0.89 to 1.77; absolute change of 5% more withdrawals with exercise (3% fewer to 12% more).Three trials provided low-quality evidence on long-term effects (24 to 208 weeks post intervention) and reported that benefits for pain and function persisted but did not for HRQL or fatigue. Withdrawals were similar, and investigators did not assess stiffness and adverse events.We are uncertain about the effects of one aerobic intervention versus another, as the evidence was of low to very low quality and was derived from single trials only, precluding meta-analyses. Similarly, we are uncertain of the effects of aerobic exercise over active controls (ie, education, three studies; stress management training, one study; medication, one study) owing to evidence of low to very low quality provided by single trials. Most studies did not measure adverse events; thus we are uncertain about the risk of adverse events associated with aerobic exercise. When compared with control, moderate-quality evidence indicates that aerobic exercise probably improves HRQL and all-cause withdrawal, and low-quality evidence suggests that aerobic exercise may slightly decrease pain intensity, may slightly improve physical function, and may lead to little difference in fatigue and stiffness. Three of the reported outcomes reached clinical significance (HRQL, physical function, and pain). Long-term effects of aerobic exercise may include little or no difference in pain, physical function, and all-cause withdrawal, and we are uncertain about long-term effects on remaining outcomes. We downgraded the evidence owing to the small number of included trials and participants across trials, and because of issues related to unclear and high risks of bias (performance, selection

  4. Effect of aerobic exercise training followed by a low-calorie diet on metabolic syndrome risk factors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T; So, R; Shimojo, N; Tanaka, K

    2015-09-01

    Whether low-volume, high-intensity, interval training (HIIT) is an adequate exercise method for improving metabolic risk factors is controversial. Moreover, it is not known if performing a short-term, low-calorie diet intervention (LCDi) after a HIIT program affects risk factors. This study investigated how an 8-week, 3 times/week exercise intervention (EXi) incorporating either HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) followed by a 4-week LCDi affects risk factors. Twenty-six male workers with metabolic risk factors (47.4 ± 7.1 years; cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2peak) of 28.5 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min) were randomly assigned to either the HIIT (3 sets of 3-min cycling with a 2-min active rest between sets, 180 kcal) or MICT (45 min, 360 kcal) group. After the EXi, all subjects participated in a 4-week LCDi (4 counseling sessions). During the EXi, VO2peak improved more (P exercise volume than MICT, but this advantage of HIIT promptly disappeared through detraining. An intervention strategy consisting of 8 weeks of either HIIT or MICT followed by a 4-week LCDi has a positive effect on metabolic risk factors. UMIN11352. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. No Additive Effects of Polyphenol Supplementation and Exercise Training on White Adiposity Determinants of High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Insulin-Resistant Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Lambert

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the major insulin resistance instigators is excessive adiposity and visceral fat depots. Individually, exercise training and polyphenol intake are known to exert health benefits as improving insulin sensitivity. However, their combined curative effects on established obesity and insulin resistance need further investigation particularly on white adipose tissue alterations. Therefore, we compared the effects on different white adipose tissue depot alterations of a combination of exercise and grape polyphenol supplementation in obese insulin-resistant rats fed a high-fat diet to the effects of a high-fat diet alone or a nutritional supplementation of grape polyphenols (50 mg/kg/day or exercise training (1 hr/day to 5 days/wk consisting of treadmill running at 32 m/min for a 10% slope, for a total duration of 8 weeks. Separately, polyphenol supplementation and exercise decreased the quantity of all adipose tissue depots and mesenteric inflammation. Exercise reduced adipocytes’ size in all fat stores. Interestingly, combining exercise to polyphenol intake presents no more cumulative benefit on adipose tissue alterations than exercise alone. Insulin sensitivity was improved at systemic, epididymal, and inguinal adipose tissues levels in trained rats thus indicating that despite their effects on adipocyte morphological/metabolic changes, polyphenols at nutritional doses remain less effective than exercise in fighting insulin resistance.

  6. Effect of Bronchodilation and Exercise Training with Behavior Modification on Exercise Tolerance and Downstream Effects on Symptoms and Physical Activity in COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troosters, Thierry; Maltais, François; Leidy, Nancy; Lavoie, Kim L; Sedeno, Maria; Janssens, Wim; Garcia-Aymerich, Judith; Erzen, Damijan; De Sousa, Dorothy; Korducki, Lawrence; Hamilton, Alan; Bourbeau, Jean

    2018-04-17

    Bronchodilation and exercise training (ExT) improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, behavior modification is required to impact on daily physical activity (PA). To assess whether tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, would improve exercise endurance time (EET) and PA compared with placebo in patients participating in a self-management behavior-modification (SMBM) program. A 12-week, randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in patients with COPD (PHYSACTO®; NCT02085161). All patients were enrolled into SMBM and randomized 1:1:1:1 to once-daily placebo, tiotropium 5 µg, tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg, or tiotropium/olodaterol 5/5 µg plus 8 weeks ExT. EET, measured by endurance shuttle walk test after 8 weeks, was the primary endpoint. Additional endpoints assessed downstream effects on PA (measured via accelerometry), and activity-related dyspnea and difficulty (using validated patient-reported questionnaires). SMBM + tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, significantly improved EET at Week 8 versus SMBM + placebo (treatment ratio versus placebo: with ExT 1.46 [95% CI: 1.20, 1.78]; P=0.0002; without ExT 1.29 [1.06, 1.57]; P=0.0109). No significant increases in steps per day from baseline were observed over SMBM + placebo at Week 12 (increase of 1,098) when other therapies were added. Adding tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, to SMBM reduced activity-related dyspnea versus placebo, while adding tiotropium/olodaterol + ExT reduced activity-related difficulty. Tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, improved EET in patients with COPD taking part in an SMBM program. Combination bronchodilation, ±ExT, did not provide additional increases in objective PA compared with SMBM alone, but did reduce physical activity-related dyspnea and difficulty. Clinical trial registration available at www.clinicaltrials.gov, ID NCT02085161.

  7. Exercise-trained men and women: role of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Manore, Melinda M

    2014-11-10

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals.

  8. Exercise-Trained Men and Women: Role of Exercise and Diet on Appetite and Energy Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of appetite and energy intake is influenced by numerous hormonal and neural signals, including feedback from changes in diet and exercise. Exercise can suppress subjective appetite ratings, subsequent energy intake, and alter appetite-regulating hormones, including ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide 1(GLP-1) for a period of time post-exercise. Discrepancies in the degree of appetite suppression with exercise may be dependent on subject characteristics (e.g., body fatness, fitness level, age or sex) and exercise duration, intensity, type and mode. Following an acute bout of exercise, exercise-trained males experience appetite suppression, while data in exercise-trained women are limited and equivocal. Diet can also impact appetite, with low-energy dense diets eliciting a greater sense of fullness at a lower energy intake. To date, little research has examined the combined interaction of exercise and diet on appetite and energy intake. This review focuses on exercise-trained men and women and examines the impact of exercise on hormonal regulation of appetite, post-exercise energy intake, and subjective and objective measurements of appetite. The impact that low-energy dense diets have on appetite and energy intake are also addressed. Finally, the combined effects of high-intensity exercise and low-energy dense diets are examined. This research is in exercise-trained women who are often concerned with weight and body image issues and consume low-energy dense foods to keep energy intakes low. Unfortunately, these low-energy intakes can have negative health consequences when combined with high-levels of exercise. More research is needed examining the combined effect of diet and exercise on appetite regulation in fit, exercise-trained individuals. PMID:25389897

  9. Benefits of Exercise Training in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motl, Robert W; Sandroff, Brian M

    2015-09-01

    Exercise training represents a behavioral approach for safely managing many of the functional, symptomatic, and quality of life consequences of multiple sclerosis (MS). This topical review paper summarizes evidence from literature reviews and meta-analyses, supplemented by recent individual studies, indicating that exercise training can yield small but important improvements in walking, balance, cognition, fatigue, depression, and quality of life in MS. The paper highlights limitations of research on exercise training and its consequences and future research directions and provides an overview for promotion of exercise training in MS based on recent prescriptive guidelines. Collectively, the evidence for the benefits of exercise training in MS suggests that the time is ripe for the promotion of exercise by healthcare providers, particularly neurologists as a central part of the clinical care and management of MS patients.

  10. Effect of Rebound Exercises and Circuit Training on Complications Associated with Type 2 Diabetes: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaka, Bashir; Maharaj, Sonill Sooknunan

    2018-05-07

    The incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus, a chronic lifestyle disease, and its complications are on the rise. Exercise has been documented as being effective in the management of musculoskeletal pain, depression, and reduction of hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. However, there is no consensus regarding the types of exercise that reduce musculoskeletal pain and depression and improve quality of life as well as respiratory function among individuals with type 2 diabetes. The objective of this study is to determine the effects of rebound and circuit training on musculoskeletal pain, blood glucose level, cholesterol level, quality of life, depression, and respiratory parameters in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 70 participants are expected to be recruited in this single blind randomized controlled trial. Computer-generated random numbers will be used to randomize the participants into 3 groups, namely, the rebound exercise group, the circuit exercise group, and the control group. Measurements will be taken at baseline and at the end of the 8 weeks of the study. Participants' musculoskeletal pain will be assessed using the visual analog scale, quality of life will be assessed using the SF 12 Health Survey Questionnaire, depression using the Beck Depression Inventory, respiratory parameters using the spirometer, and biochemical parameters such as glucose level and cholesterol level using the glucometer. Data will be analyzed using descriptive statistics and inferential statistics of multivariate analysis of variance between the groups and paired t test within the group. Alpha will be set at .05. The results of this study will identify the effectiveness of rebound exercise and circuit training, compared with the control, in the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus and on quality of life, musculoskeletal pain, depression, glycemic control, cholesterol level, as well as improvement in respiratory function. Though different additional strategies

  11. Effects of exercise training on glucose control, lipid metabolism, and insulin sensitivity in hypertriglyceridemia and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampman, R M; Schteingart, D E

    1991-06-01

    Exercise training has potential benefits for patients with hyperlipidemia and/or non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. In nondiabetic, nonobese subjects with hypertriglyceridemia, exercise training alone increased insulin sensitivity, improved glucose tolerance, and lowered serum triglyceride and cholesterol levels. These improvements did not occur when exercise training alone was given to similar patients with impaired glucose tolerance. In severely obese (X = 125 kg) subjects without diabetes melitus, a 600 calorie diet alone decreased glucose and insulin concentrations and improved glucose tolerance but did not increase insulin sensitivity. The addition of exercise training improved insulin sensitivity. Obese, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus subjects on sulfonylurea therapy alone increased insulin levels but failed to improve insulin sensitivity or glucose levels. In contrast, the addition of exercise training to this medication resulted in improved insulin sensitivity and lowered glucose levels. We conclude that exercise training has major effects on lowering triglyceride levels in hyperlipidemic subjects and can potentiate the effect of diet or drug therapy on glucose metabolism in patients with non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus.

  12. The effects of exercise training in addition to energy restriction on functional capacities and body composition in obese adults during weight loss: a systematic review.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clint T Miller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. RESULTS: Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. CONCLUSION: Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits.

  13. The Effects of Exercise Training in Addition to Energy Restriction on Functional Capacities and Body Composition in Obese Adults during Weight Loss: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Clint T.; Fraser, Steve F.; Levinger, Itamar; Straznicky, Nora E.; Dixon, John B.; Reynolds, John; Selig, Steve E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with impairments of physical function, cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength and the capacity to perform activities of daily living. This review examines the specific effects of exercise training in relation to body composition and physical function demonstrated by changes in cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength when obese adults undergo energy restriction. Methods Electronic databases were searched for randomised controlled trials comparing energy restriction plus exercise training to energy restriction alone. Studies published to May 2013 were included if they used multi-component methods for analysing body composition and assessed measures of fitness in obese adults. Results Fourteen RCTs met the inclusion criteria. Heterogeneity of study characteristics prevented meta-analysis. Energy restriction plus exercise training was more effective than energy restriction alone for improving cardiovascular fitness, muscle strength, and increasing fat mass loss and preserving lean body mass, depending on the type of exercise training. Conclusion Adding exercise training to energy restriction for obese middle-aged and older individuals results in favourable changes to fitness and body composition. Whilst weight loss should be encouraged for obese individuals, exercise training should be included in lifestyle interventions as it offers additional benefits. PMID:24409219

  14. The training and detraining effect of high-intensity interval training on post-exercise hypotension in young overweight/obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsu, Biggie; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2016-01-01

    Studies evaluating the response in blood pressure (BP) following high-intensity interval training (HIIT) are scant even though there has been extensive work done on the BP response following acute and chronic low- to moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise in both hypertensive and normotensive individuals. The present study sought to investigate the training and detraining effects of short-term HIIT on the post-exercise hypotension (PEH) response in overweight/obese young women. Twenty young untrained women volunteered for the study. Participants performed six HIIT sessions on a treadmill within 2 weeks (week 1: 10 × 1 min and week 2: 15 × 1 min intervals at 90-95% HRmax, separated by 1 min active recovery at 70% HRmax each session) and detrained for 2 weeks. Post-exercise BP was measured for 1 h following the first and last HIIT sessions. Participants were normotensive (SBP: 119.2 ± 5.60 mmHg; DBP: 78.8 ± 4.12 mmHg) and had a BMI greater than 25 kg m(-2). The magnitude of the systolic hypotensive response was slightly greater after the six sessions HIIT compared to pre-training (5.04 and 4.28 mmHg, respectively), and both would be considered clinically significant (>3 mmHg decrease). After 2 weeks, detraining the PEH response was not clinically significant (1.08 mmHg decrease). The magnitude of the DBP response was only clinically significant following post- and detraining (4.26 and 3.87 mmHg, respectively). The findings suggest that six HIIT sessions is sufficient to affect clinically significant PEH responses in young, overweight/obese women; however, the training effects are lost within 2 weeks of detraining.

  15. Effect of respiratory muscle training on exercise performance in healthy individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illi, Sabine K; Held, Ulrike; Frank, Irène; Spengler, Christina M

    2012-08-01

    Two distinct types of specific respiratory muscle training (RMT), i.e. respiratory muscle strength (resistive/threshold) and endurance (hyperpnoea) training, have been established to improve the endurance performance of healthy individuals. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in order to determine the factors that affect the change in endurance performance after RMT in healthy subjects. A computerized search was performed without language restriction in MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL and references of original studies and reviews were searched for further relevant studies. RMT studies with healthy individuals assessing changes in endurance exercise performance by maximal tests (constant load, time trial, intermittent incremental, conventional [non-intermittent] incremental) were screened and abstracted by two independent investigators. A multiple linear regression model was used to identify effects of subjects' fitness, type of RMT (inspiratory or combined inspiratory/expiratory muscle strength training, respiratory muscle endurance training), type of exercise test, test duration and type of sport (rowing, running, swimming, cycling) on changes in performance after RMT. In addition, a meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of RMT on endurance performance in those studies providing the necessary data. The multiple linear regression analysis including 46 original studies revealed that less fit subjects benefit more from RMT than highly trained athletes (6.0% per 10 mL · kg⁻¹ · min⁻¹ decrease in maximal oxygen uptake, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.8, 10.2%; p = 0.005) and that improvements do not differ significantly between inspiratory muscle strength and respiratory muscle endurance training (p = 0.208), while combined inspiratory and expiratory muscle strength training seems to be superior in improving performance, although based on only 6 studies (+12.8% compared with inspiratory muscle strength training, 95% CI 3

  16. The effect of three different exercise training modalities on cognitive and physical function in a healthy older population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetsee, Carla; Terblanche, Elmarie

    2017-01-01

    Older adults are encouraged to participate in regular physical activity to counter the age-related declines in physical and cognitive health. Literature on the effect of different exercise training modalities (aerobic vs resistance) on these health-related outcomes is not only sparse, but results are inconsistent. In general, it is believed that exercise has a positive effect on executive cognitive function, possibly because of the physiological adaptations through increases in fitness. Indications are that high-intensity interval training is a potent stimulus to improve cardiovascular fitness, even in older adults; however, its effect on cognitive function has not been studied before. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training, high-intensity aerobic interval training and moderate continuous aerobic training on the cognitive and physical functioning of healthy older adults. Sixty-seven inactive individuals (55 to 75 years) were randomly assigned to a resistance training (RT) group ( n  = 22), high-intensity aerobic interval training (HIIT) group ( n  = 13), moderate continuous aerobic training (MCT) group ( n  = 13) and a control (CON) group ( n  = 19) for a period of 16 weeks. Cognitive function was assessed with a Stroop task and physical function with the Timed-Up-and-Go (TUG) and submaximal Bruce treadmill tests. No significant GROUP x TIME interaction was found for Stroop reaction time ( P  > .05). The HIIT group showed the greatest practical significant improvement in reaction time on the information processing task, i.e. Stroop Neutral (ES = 1.11). MCT group participants had very large practical significant improvements in reaction time on the executive cognitive tasks, i.e. Stroop Incongruent and Interference (ES = 1.28 and 1.31, respectively). The HIIT group showed the largest practically significant increase in measures of physical function, i.e. walking endurance (ES = 0.91) and functional

  17. Dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids and oleate enhances exercise training effects in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Juan F; Morales-Palomo, Felix; Fernandez-Elias, Valentin; Hamouti, Nassim; Bernardo, Francisco J; Martin-Doimeadios, Rosa C; Nelson, Rachael K; Horowitz, Jeffrey F; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2016-08-01

    We studied the effects of exercise training alone or combined with dietary supplementation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (Ω-3PUFA) and oleate on metabolic syndrome (MSyn) components and other markers of cardiometabolic health. Thirty-six patients with MSyn underwent 24 weeks of high-intensity interval training. In a double-blind randomized design, half of the group ingested 500 mL/day of semi-skim milk (8 g of fat; placebo milk) whereas the other half ingested 500 mL/day of skim milk enriched with 275 mg of Ω-3PUFA and 7.5 g of oleate (Ω-3 + OLE). Ω-3 + OLE treatment elevated 30% plasma Ω-3PUFA but not significantly (P = 0.286). Improvements in VO2peak (12.8%), mean blood pressure (-7.1%), waist circumference (-1.8%), body fat mass (-2.9%), and trunk fat mass (-3.3%) were similar between groups. However, insulin sensitivity (measured by intravenous glucose tolerance test), serum concentration of C-reactive protein, and high-density lipoprotein improved only in the Ω-3 + OLE group by 31.5%, 32.1%, and 10.3%, respectively (all P exercise training in patients with MSyn. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  18. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level of the indiv...

  19. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary vessel muscularization and right ventricular function in an animal model of COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassel, Erlend; Berre, Anne Marie; Skjulsvik, Anne Jarstein; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2014-09-28

    Right ventricular dysfunction in COPD is common, even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on right ventricular (RV) function, as well as pulmonary blood vessel remodeling in a mouse model of COPD. 42 female A/JOlaHsd mice were randomized to exposure to either cigarette smoke or air for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks. Mice from both groups were further randomized to sedentariness or HIIT for 4 weeks. Cardiac function was evaluated by echocardiography and muscularization of pulmonary vessel walls by immunohistochemistry. Smoke exposure induced RV systolic dysfunction demonstrated by reduced tricuspid annular plane systolic excursion. HIIT in smoke-exposed mice reversed RV dysfunction. There were no significant effects on the left ventricle of neither smoke exposure nor HIIT. Muscularization of the pulmonary vessels was reduced after exercise intervention, but no significant effects on muscularization were observed from smoke exposure. RV function was reduced in mice exposed to cigarette smoke. No Increase in pulmonary vessel muscularization was observed in these mice, implying that other mechanisms caused the RV dysfunction. HIIT attenuated the RV dysfunction in the smoke exposed mice. Reduced muscularization of the pulmonary vessels due to HIIT suggests that exercise training not only affects the heart muscle, but also has important effects on the pulmonary vasculature.

  20. Effect of twenty minutes of aerobic exercise on in vivo platelet release in moderately trained females: radioimmunoassay of platelet factor 4 and beta-thromboglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudmann, S.V.

    1986-01-01

    Circulating blood platelets serve an important role in the physiological process of hemostasis. Physical exercise has been documented to result in alterations in many hemostatic parameters including platelet size, number and function. Most published research data support the hypotheses that both hemostasis and fibrinolysis become activated as a consequence of various levels of physical exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of twenty minutes aerobic exercise on platelet activation in vivo. Platelet activation in vivo is associated with the release of platelet granular contents. Platelet alpha granules contain two platelet specific proteins: platelet factor 4 (PF4) and beta-thromboglobulin (BTG). Elevated plasma levels of these proteins are a specific marker of in vivo platelet activation. Subjects were moderately trained female volunteers between the ages of 22 and 40 years. Subjects were exercised or twenty minutes on a bicycle ergometer at workloads that represented 65 to 75% of their functional capacity. Blood specimens were drawn within five minutes of exercise. Plasma samples from exercise and control subjects were assayed for PF4 and BTG using a sensitive competitive-binding radioimmunoassay procedure. The mean plasma levels of both proteins were significantly greater in the exercising subjects when compared with the non-exercising controls. Data from this study support the following research hypotheses: BTG plasma levels will be significantly higher in exercising subjects than in non-exercising controls, and PF4 plasma levels will be significantly higher in exercising subjects than in non-exercising controls

  1. The effect of exercise training in adults with multiple sclerosis with severe mobility disability: A systematic review and future research directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Thomas; Pilutti, Lara A

    2017-08-01

    There is evidence for the benefits of exercise training in persons with multiple sclerosis (MS). However, these benefits have primarily been established in individuals with mild-to-moderate disability (i.e., Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] scores 1.0-5.5), rather than among those with significant mobility impairment. Further, the approaches to exercise training that have been effective in persons with mild-to-moderate MS disability may not be physically accessible for individuals with mobility limitations. Therefore, there is a demand for an evidence-base on the benefits of physically accessible exercise training approaches for managing disability in people with MS with mobility impairment. To conduct a systematic review of the current literature pertaining to exercise training in individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) with severe mobility disability. Four electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, OvidMEDLINE, and PsychINFO) were searched for relevant articles published up until October 2016. The review focused on English-language studies that examined the effect of exercise training in people with MS with severe mobility disability, characterized as the need for assistance in ambulation or EDSS score ≥ 6.0. The inclusion criteria involved full-text articles that: (i) included participants with a diagnosis of MS; (ii) included primarily participants with a reported EDSS score ≥ 6.0 and/or definitively described disability consistent with this level of neurological impairment; and (iii) implemented a prospective, structured exercise intervention. Data were analyzed using a descriptive approach and summarized by exercise training modality (conventional or adapted exercise training), and by outcome (disability, physical fitness, physical function, and symptoms and participation). Initially, 1164 articles were identified and after removal of duplicates, 530 articles remained. In total, 512 articles did not meet the inclusion criteria. 19 articles were

  2. Effects of Training on the Estimation of Muscular Moment in Submaximal Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leverrier, Celine; Gauthier, Antoine; Nicolas, Arnaud; Molinaro, Corinne

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the effects of a submaximal isometric training program on estimation capacity at 25, 50, and 75% of maximal contraction in isometric action and at two angular velocities. The second purpose was to study the variability of isometric action. To achieve these purposes, participants carried out an isokinetic…

  3. Effects of exercise training on mitochondrial function in patients with type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Steen; Skaaby, Stinna; Helge, Jørn Wulff

    2014-01-01

    intensity training) improves insulin sensitivity in healthy humans and in patients with type 2 diabetes. Whether patients with type 2 diabetes have the same beneficial effects (same improvement) as control subjects, when it comes to regular physical activity in regard to mitochondrial function......, is not established in the literature. This review will focus only on the effect of physical activity on skeletal muscle (mitochondrial function) in patients with type 2 diabetes....

  4. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.; Verschuren, O.; Janssen, T.W.J.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  5. Exercise training programs to improve hand rim wheelchair propulsion capacity: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinkels, M.G.J.; Verschuren, O.W.; Janssen, T.; Ketelaar, M.; Takken, T.; Backx, F.J.G.; Groot, J.F. de; Smits, D.W.; Volman, MJM

    2014-01-01

    Objective: An adequate wheelchair propulsion capacity is required to perform daily life activities. Exercise training may be effective to gain or improve wheelchair propulsion capacity. This review investigates whether different types of exercise training programs are effective in improving

  6. Implementing intelligent physical exercise training at the workplace: health effects among office workers-a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike; Boyle, Eleanor; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2016-07-01

    The aim was to assess 1-year cardiovascular health effects of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training, IPET. Office workers from six companies were randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N = 194) or a control group, CG (N = 195). TG received 1-h supervised high intensity IPET every week within working hours for 1 year, and was recommended to perform 30-min of moderate intensity physical activity 6 days a week during leisure. The training program was based on baseline health check measures of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), body composition, blood pressure, blood profile, and musculoskeletal health. There were no baseline differences between groups. CRF assessed as VO2max in absolute values and relative to body weight was (mean ± SD): 3.0 ± 0.8 l/min and 35.4 ± 10.9 ml/min/kg for females, 3.9 ± 1.0 l/min and 37.9 ± 11.79 ml/min/kg for males. Intention to treat analysis demonstrated a significant almost 5 % increase in VO2max in TG compared with CG. A per protocol analysis of those with an adherence of ≥70 % demonstrated a significant increase in CRF of more than 10 % compared with CG, and a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure (-5.3 ± 13.7 mm Hg) compared with CG. High intensity IPET combined with the recommendations of moderate intensity physical activity demonstrated significant clinical relevant improvements in CRF and systolic blood pressure. This underlines the effectiveness of health promotion by implementing physical exercise training at the workplace.

  7. Exercise training and the progression of chronic renal failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eidemak, I; Haaber, A B; Feldt-Rasmussen, B

    1997-01-01

    The possible beneficial effect of regular exercise training on the progression of chronic renal failure was studied in a prospective randomized controlled study. Thirty patients with a median glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 25 ml/(min.1.73 m2) (range 10-43) were randomized to physical training...... the rate of progression judged by the slope of GFR versus time plot was equal in the two groups. Hence, the beneficial effect of exercise training, earlier observed in rat studies, could not be reproduced in our patients. Physical exercise had no untoward effect on progression of renal disease....

  8. Effects of oxygen delivery, dietary nitrate, intensified training and prior exercise on oxygen uptake kinetics and performance in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Møller

    benefits from supplementing with nitrate to improve exercise efficiency and performance in endurance trained subjects. Furthermore it appears difficult to improve VO2 kinetics with intensified training in trained athletes; however intense exercise can amplify the VO2 response during subsequent high......In response to an increase in the metabolic demand the oxygen uptake (VO2) increases in an exponential fashion in exercising muscles and stabilizes after 1-2 min eventually reaching a plateau or steady state where the energy demand is matched by the l vel of VO2. VO2 kinetics describes the distinct...... phases of the VO2 response at the onset of exercise. Fast VO2 kinetics are considered to be beneficial in intense endurance sports with competitions lasting ~2-8 min, whereas low VO2 at steady state (high efficiency) is considered beneficial especially in events of longer duration. To improve...

  9. Effects of 7 days of exercise training on insulin sensitivity and responsiveness in type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirwan, John P; Solomon, Thomas; Wojta, Daniel M

    2009-01-01

    sensitivity and responsiveness and 2) short-term exercise training results in improved suppression of hepatic glucose production by insulin. Fourteen obese patients with type 2 diabetes, age 64 +/- 2 yr, underwent a two-stage hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp procedure, first stage 40 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin......The objectives of this study were to determine whether 1) the improvement in insulin action induced by short-term exercise training in patients with type 2 diabetes is due to an improvement in insulin sensitivity, an improvement in insulin responsiveness, or a combination of improved insulin...... infusion, second stage 1,000 mU.m(-2).min(-1) insulin infusion, together with a [3-(3)H]glucose infusion, before and after 7 days of exercise. The training consisted of 30 min of cycling and 30 min of treadmill walking at approximately 70% of maximal aerobic capacity daily for 7 days. The exercise program...

  10. Effects of exercise training on fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life among adults with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review to inform guideline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Pilutti, Lara A; Hicks, Audrey L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Fenuta, Alyssa M; MacKibbon, K Ann; Motl, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    To conduct a systematic review of evidence surrounding the effects of exercise training on physical fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The databases included EMBASE, 1980 to 2011 (wk 12); Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid OLDMEDLINE, 1947 to March (wk 3) 2011; PsycINFO, 1967 to March (wk 4) 2011; CINAHL all-inclusive; SPORTDiscus all-inclusive; Cochrane Library all-inclusive; and Physiotherapy Evidence Database all-inclusive. The review was limited to English-language studies (published before December 2011) of people with MS that evaluated the effects of exercise training on outcomes of physical fitness, mobility, fatigue, and/or health-related quality of life. One research assistant extracted data and rated study quality. A second research assistant verified the extraction and quality assessment. From the 4362 studies identified, 54 studies were included in the review. The extracted data were analyzed using a descriptive approach. There was strong evidence that exercise performed 2 times per week at a moderate intensity increases aerobic capacity and muscular strength. The evidence was not consistent regarding the effects of exercise training on other outcomes. Among those with mild to moderate disability from MS, there is sufficient evidence that exercise training is effective for improving both aerobic capacity and muscular strength. Exercise may improve mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Therapeutic effect of continuous exercise training program on serum creatinine concentration in men with hypertension: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikiru, L; Okoye, G C

    2014-09-01

    Creatinine (Cr) has been implicated as an independent predictor of hypertension and exercise has been reported as adjunct therapy for hypertension. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of continuous training programme on blood pressure and serum creatinine concentration in black African subjects with hypertension. Three hundred and fifty seven male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure [SBP] between 140-180 & diastolic blood pressure [DBP] between 90-109 mmHg) essential hypertension were age matched and randomly grouped into continuous & control groups. The continuous group involved in an 8 weeks continuous training (60-79% HR reserve) of between 45 minutes to 60 minutes, 3 times per week, while the control group remain sedentary. SBP, DBP, VO2max, serum Cr, body mass index (BMI), waist hip ratio (WHR) and percent (%) body fat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis. Findings of the study revealed significant decreased effects of continuous training programme on SBP, DBP, Cr, BMI, WHR, % body fat and significant increase in VO2max at pexercise training as a multi-therapy in the down regulation of blood pressure, serum Cr, body size and body fat in hypertension.

  12. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  13. Exercise training program based on minimum weekly frequencies: effects on blood pressure and physical fitness in elderly hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Wilson M De; Souza, Pamella R M; Pinheiro, Mônica H N P; Irigoyen, Maria C; Medeiros, Alessandra; Koike, Marcia K

    2012-04-01

    Exercise training (ET) can reduce blood pressure (BP) and prevent functional disability. However, the effects of low volumes of training have been poorly studied, especially in elderly hypertensive patients. To investigate the effects of a multi-component ET program (aerobic training, strength, flexibility, and balance) on BP, physical fitness, and functional ability of elderly hypertensive patients. Thirty-six elderly hypertensive patients with optimal clinical treatment underwent a multi-component ET program: two 60-minute sessions a week for 12 weeks at a Basic Health Unit. Compared to pre-training values, systolic and diastolic BP were reduced by 3.6% and 1.2%, respectively (ptest and elbow flexor test; ptest (unipedal stance test; ptest; ptest). Moreover, there was a reduction in the time required to perform two functional ability tests: "put on sock" and "sit down, stand up, and move around the house" (p<0.001). Lower volumes of ET improved BP, metabolic parameters, and physical fitness and reflected in the functional ability of elderly hypertensive patients. Trial Registration RBR-2xgjh3.

  14. Spill exercise 1980: an LLNL emergency training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morse, J.L.; Gibson, T.A.; Vance, W.F.

    1981-01-01

    An emergency training exercise at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrated that off-hours emergency personnel can respond promptly and effecively to an emergency situation involving radiation, hazardous chemicals, and injured persons. The exercise simulated an explosion in a chemistry laboratory and a subsequent toxic-gas release

  15. Evaluating the Training Effects of Two Swallowing Rehabilitation Therapies Using Surface Electromyography--Chin Tuck Against Resistance (CTAR) Exercise and the Shaker Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sze, Wei Ping; Yoon, Wai Lam; Escoffier, Nicolas; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the efficacy of two dysphagia interventions, the Chin Tuck against Resistance (CTAR) and Shaker exercises, were evaluated based on two principles in exercise science-muscle-specificity and training intensity. Both exercises were developed to strengthen the suprahyoid muscles, whose contractions facilitate the opening of the upper esophageal sphincter, thereby improving bolus transfer. Thirty-nine healthy adults performed two trials of both exercises in counter-balanced order. Surface electromyography (sEMG) recordings were simultaneously collected from suprahyoid muscle group and sternocleidomastoid muscle during the exercises. Converging results using sEMG amplitude analyses suggested that the CTAR was more specific in targeting the suprahyoid muscles than the Shaker exercise. Fatigue analyses on sEMG signals further indicated that the suprahyoid muscle group were equally or significantly fatigued (depending on metric), when participants carried out CTAR compared to the Shaker exercise. Importantly, unlike during Shaker exercise, the sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly less activated and fatigued during CTAR. Lowering the chin against resistance is therefore sufficiently specific and intense to fatigue the suprahyoid muscles.

  16. Apollo 11 Earth Training Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-01-01

    In preparation of the nation's first lunar landing mission, Apollo 11 crew members underwent training to practice activities they would be performing during the mission. In this photograph, taken at the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, an engineer, Bob Mason, donned in a space suit, goes through some of those training exercises on the mock lunar surface. He performed activites similar to those planned for astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin during their moon walk. The Apollo 11 mission launched from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida via the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. (Buzz) Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, 'Columbia', piloted by Collins, remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin, landed on the Moon. On July 20, 1969, Armstrong was the first human to ever stand on the lunar surface, followed by Aldrin. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. With the success of Apollo 11, the national objective to land men on the Moon and return them safely to Earth had been accomplished.

  17. Positive effect of combined exercise training in a model of metabolic syndrome and menopause: autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Malfitano, Christiane; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana Francisca; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-12-15

    It is now well established that after menopause cardiometabolic disorders become more common. Recently, resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement to aerobic (combined training, CT) for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CT in hypertensive ovariectomized rats undergoing fructose overload in blood pressure variability (BPV), inflammation, and oxidative stress parameters. Female rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8/group): sedentary normotensive Wistar rats (C), and sedentary (FHO) or trained (FHOT) ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats undergoing and fructose overload. CT was performed on a treadmill and ladder adapted to rats in alternate days (8 wk; 40-60% maximal capacity). Arterial pressure (AP) was directly measured. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured on cardiac and renal tissues. The association of risk factors (hypertension + ovariectomy + fructose) promoted increase in insulin resistance, mean AP (FHO: 174 ± 4 vs. C: 108 ± 1 mmHg), heart rate (FHO: 403 ± 12 vs. C: 352 ± 11 beats/min), BPV, cardiac inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α-FHO: 65.8 ± 9.9 vs. C: 23.3 ± 4.3 pg/mg protein), and oxidative stress cardiac and renal tissues. However, CT was able to reduce mean AP (FHOT: 158 ± 4 mmHg), heart rate (FHOT: 303 ± 5 beats/min), insulin resistance, and sympathetic modulation. Moreover, the trained rats presented increased nitric oxide bioavailability, reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (FHOT: 33.1 ± 4.9 pg/mg protein), increased IL-10 in cardiac tissue and reduced lipoperoxidation, and increased antioxidant defenses in cardiac and renal tissues. In conclusion, the association of risk factors promoted an additional impairment in metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters and combined exercise training was able to attenuate these dysfunctions. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  18. Effect of Exercise and Cognitive Training on Falls and Fall-Related Factors in Older Adults With Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipardo, Donald S; Aseron, Anne Marie C; Kwan, Marcella M; Tsang, William W

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of exercise and cognitive training on falls reduction and on factors known to be associated with falls among community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Seven databases (PubMed, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ProQuest, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, Digital Dissertation Consortium) and reference lists of pertinent articles were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the effect of exercise, cognitive training, or a combination of both on falls and factors associated with falls such as balance, lower limb muscle strength, gait, and cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults with MCI were included. Data were extracted using the modified Joanna Briggs Institute Meta-Analysis of Statistics Assessment and Review Instrument (JBI-MAStARI) tool. Study quality was assessed using the JBI-MAStARI appraisal instrument. Seventeen RCTs (1679 participants; mean age ± SD, 74.4±2.4y) were included. Exercise improved gait speed and global cognitive function in MCI; both are known factors associated with falls. Cognitive training alone had no significant effect on cognitive function, while combined exercise and cognitive training improved balance in MCI. Neither fall rate nor the number of fallers was reported in any of the studies included. This review suggests that exercise, and combined exercise and cognitive training improve specific factors associated with falls such as gait speed, cognitive function, and balance in MCI. Further research on the direct effect of exercise and cognitive training on the fall rate and incidence in older adults with MCI with larger sample sizes is highly recommended. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance on purchase price of Thoroughbreds at 2-year-old in-training sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie A; Brown, Murray P; Chmielewski, Terese L; Trumble, Troy N; Zimmel, Dana N; Hernandez, Jorge A

    2012-12-01

    To determine the effects of yearling sale purchase price, exercise history, lameness, and athletic performance (speed) on purchase price of 2-year-old in-training Thoroughbreds and to compare the distance exercised within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales between horses with high yearling sale purchase prices versus those with low yearling sale purchase prices and between horses with lameness during training and those without lameness during training. Prospective study. 51 Thoroughbreds. Thoroughbreds purchased at a yearling sale were trained prior to resale at 2-year-old in-training sales. Amount of exercise and lameness status during training and speed of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales were determined. Data were analyzed via the Wilcoxon rank sum test and ANOVA. Median purchase price of horses at 2-year-old in-training sales was $37,000. The 2-year-old in-training sale purchase price was associated with yearling sale purchase price and distance galloped within 60 days prior to and speed recorded at 2-year-old in-training sales. Horses with high yearling sale purchase prices typically had high 2-year-old in-training sale purchase prices, had low distances galloped within 60 days prior to 2-year-old in-training sales, and were classified as fast at 2-year-old in-training sales. Lameness alone was not associated with 2-year-old in-training sales purchase price. However, lameness was associated with a low distance galloped before 2-year-old in-training sales, particularly for horses with a high yearling sale purchase price; this finding suggested that yearling sale purchase price can affect training management decisions for horses with lameness.

  20. Effect of exercise training on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with complex congenital heart disease: the moderating effect of health behavior and disease knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; Blom, Nico A; van Dijk, Arie P J; Helbing, Wim A; Verhulst, Frank C; Utens, Elisabeth M W J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a standardized exercise program on sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in adolescents with congenital heart disease and to know what the moderating impact of their baseline health behavior and disease knowledge is. Included were 93 patients, aged 10 to 25, with surgical repair for tetralogy of Fallot or with a Fontan circulation for single-ventricle physiology, of 5 participating centers of pediatric cardiology in The Netherlands. They were randomly allocated, stratified for age, gender, and type of congenital heart disease to a 12-week period with either: (1) three times per week standardized exercise training or (2) care as usual (randomization ratio 2:1). At baseline and after 12 weeks, participants completed Web-based questionnaires and were interviewed by phone. Primary analyses tested changes from baseline to follow-up in sports enjoyment and leisure-time spending in the exercise group vs. control group. Secondary analyses concerned the moderating influence of baseline health behavior and disease knowledge on changes from baseline to follow-up, and comparison with normative data. At follow-up, the exercise group reported a decrease in passive leisure-time spending (watching television and computer usage) compared with controls. Exercise training had no effect on sports enjoyment and active leisure-time spending. Disease knowledge had a moderating effect on improvement in sports enjoyment, whereas health behavior did not. Compared with normative data, patients obtained similar leisure time scores and lower frequencies as to drinking alcohol and smoking. Exercise training decreased passive, but not active, leisure-time spending. It did not influence sports enjoyment. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The effect of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health and function in older adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniak, Anneka Elizabeth; Greig, Carolyn A

    2017-07-20

    In older adults, there is a blunted responsiveness to resistance training and reduced muscle hypertrophy compared with younger adults. There is evidence that both exercise training and vitamin D supplementation may benefit musculoskeletal health in older adults, and it is plausible that in combination their effects may be additive. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the effectiveness of combined resistance exercise training and vitamin D 3 supplementation on musculoskeletal health in older adults. A comprehensive search of electronic databases, including Science Direct, Medline, PubMed, Google Scholar and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (Cochrane CENTRAL accessed by Wiley Science) was conducted. Eligible studies were randomised controlled trials including men and women (aged ≥65 years or mean age ≥65 years); enlisting resistance exercise training and vitamin D 3 supplementation; including outcomes of muscle strength, function, muscle power, body composition, serum vitamin D/calcium status or quality of life comparing results with a control group. The review was informed by a preregistered protocol (http://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/display_record.asp?ID=CRD42015020157). Seven studies including a total of 792 participants were identified. Studies were categorised into two groups; group 1 compared vitamin D 3 supplementation and exercise training versus exercise alone (describing the additive effect of vitamin D 3 supplementation when combined with resistance exercise training) and group 2 compared vitamin D 3 supplementation and exercise training versus vitamin D 3 supplementation alone (describing the additive effect of resistance exercise training when combined with vitamin D 3 supplementation).Meta-analyses for group 1 found muscle strength of the lower limb to be significantly improved within the intervention group (0.98, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.24, pexercise and vitamin D 3 supplementation for the improvement of muscle strength in

  2. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A.; Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R.; Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M.; Felix, L.B.; Cruz, J.S.; Mill, J.G.; Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N.

    2014-01-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca 2+ ) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca 2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca 2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca 2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F 0 ), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca 2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F 0 , full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes

  3. Effect of exercise training on Ca{sup 2+} release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M.A. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Quintão-Júnior, J.F.; Drummond, L.R.; Lavorato, V.N.; Drummond, F.R. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Amadeu, M.A.; Oliveira, E.M. [Universidade de São Paulo, Laboratório de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular do Exercício, Escola de Educação Física e Esportes, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Felix, L.B. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Engenharia Elétrica, Viçosa, MG (Brazil); Cruz, J.S. [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Laboratório de Membranas Excitáveis e Biologia Cardiovascular, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Mill, J.G. [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Vitória, ES (Brazil); Natali, A.J.; Prímola-Gomes, T.N. [Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Laboratório de Biologia do Exercício, Departamento de Educação Física, Viçosa, MG (Brazil)

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca{sup 2+}) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca{sup 2+} release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca{sup 2+} sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca{sup 2+} sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F{sub 0}, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of

  4. Effect of exercise training on Ca²⁺ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Quintão-Júnior, J F; Drummond, L R; Lavorato, V N; Drummond, F R; Amadeu, M A; Oliveira, E M; Felix, L B; Cruz, J S; Mill, J G; Natali, A J; Prímola-Gomes, T N

    2014-11-01

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca²⁺) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca²⁺ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca²⁺ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks (HC=7.61 ± 0.26 vs NC=4.79 ± 0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260 ± 0.08 vs NC=0.324 ± 0.10 ΔF/F0), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05 ± 0.08 vs NC=1.26 ± 0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51 ± 0.12 vs NC=14.97 ± 0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84 ± 0.06 vs NC=6.31 ± 0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68 ± 0.12 vs NC=10.21 ± 0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca²⁺ sparks=6.26 ± 0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282 ± 0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14 ± 0.01 µm, total duration=13.34 ± 0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43 ± 0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43 ± 0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release

  5. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Carneiro-Júnior

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca2+ release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC and hypertensive control (HC, and normotensive (NT and hypertensive trained (HT animals (7 rats per group. NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2 and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6 increased (270% and decreased (88%, respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230% and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%. Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm, total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms, time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms, and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms. These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms. Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes.

  6. Effect of exercise training on Ca2+ release units of left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro-Júnior, M A; Quintão-Júnior, J F; Drummond, L R; Lavorato, V N; Drummond, F R; Amadeu, M A; Oliveira, E M; Felix, L B; Cruz, J S; Mill, J G; Natali, A J; Prímola-Gomes, T N

    2014-08-29

    In cardiomyocytes, calcium (Ca2+) release units comprise clusters of intracellular Ca2+ release channels located on the sarcoplasmic reticulum, and hypertension is well established as a cause of defects in calcium release unit function. Our objective was to determine whether endurance exercise training could attenuate the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release unit components and Ca2+ sparks in left ventricular myocytes of spontaneously hypertensive rats. Male Wistar and spontaneously hypertensive rats (4 months of age) were divided into 4 groups: normotensive (NC) and hypertensive control (HC), and normotensive (NT) and hypertensive trained (HT) animals (7 rats per group). NC and HC rats were submitted to a low-intensity treadmill running protocol (5 days/week, 1 h/day, 0% grade, and 50-60% of maximal running speed) for 8 weeks. Gene expression of the ryanodine receptor type 2 (RyR2) and FK506 binding protein (FKBP12.6) increased (270%) and decreased (88%), respectively, in HC compared to NC rats. Endurance exercise training reversed these changes by reducing RyR2 (230%) and normalizing FKBP12.6 gene expression (112%). Hypertension also increased the frequency of Ca2+ sparks (HC=7.61±0.26 vs NC=4.79±0.19 per 100 µm/s) and decreased its amplitude (HC=0.260±0.08 vs NC=0.324±0.10 ΔF/F0), full width at half-maximum amplitude (HC=1.05±0.08 vs NC=1.26±0.01 µm), total duration (HC=11.51±0.12 vs NC=14.97±0.24 ms), time to peak (HC=4.84±0.06 vs NC=6.31±0.14 ms), and time constant of decay (HC=8.68±0.12 vs NC=10.21±0.22 ms). These changes were partially reversed in HT rats (frequency of Ca2+ sparks=6.26±0.19 µm/s, amplitude=0.282±0.10 ΔF/F0, full width at half-maximum amplitude=1.14±0.01 µm, total duration=13.34±0.17 ms, time to peak=5.43±0.08 ms, and time constant of decay=9.43±0.15 ms). Endurance exercise training attenuated the deleterious effects of hypertension on calcium release units of left ventricular myocytes.

  7. Effects of aging and exercise training on leg hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann; Jørgensen, Tue Smith; Egelund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise engaging the knee-extensor muscles in young (n=15, 25{plus minus}1 years) and older (n=15, 72{plus minus}1 years) subjects before and after a period of aerobic high-intensity exercise training. To enhance cGMP signaling....... The rate of increase in leg VO2 was, however, similar in the two groups as a result of higher ( PGMP signaling did not affect the rate of increase in blood flow or VO2 in either group. Exercise training augmented ( P.... A lower blood flow response in aging does not appear to be a result of reduced cGMP signaling....

  8. Comparison the effects of one session aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of the coagulation markers of healthy young women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Habibian

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical training is a useful method to reduce disease of cardiovascular, but the effect of exercise on the coagulation system is under investigation. The aim of this study was to determine the response of one bout exhaustive aerobic exercise and resistance training on some of coagulation markers in healthy young women.Materials and Method: This quasi-experimental research was performed in 2009. Twenty trained volunteer female students of physical education Sari Azad university were selected objectively and availability. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups of aerobic (n=10 and resistance training (n=10. Aerobic group performed an exhaustive workout program on treadmill intensity 65 to75% Vo2max on treadmill. The resistance group completed three sets of 5-7 repetitions of six exercises at an intensity corresponding to 80% of 1RM. Following 12 to 14 hours of nightly fasting, venous blood samples (5 cc were collected pre, immediately after exercise and after 60 min of recovery and analyzed for PT, aPTT and fibrinogen. Participants were matched according to anthropometric measurements, age and Vo2max. Hypothesizes were tested by using independent t, repeated measures and post-hoc test (p 0.05. Results: Both the aerobic and resistance training groups, PT time (p<0.001 and aPTT time significantly decreased (p=0.006, p<0.001 respectively times between the two groups and the effect of resistant training on fibrinogen level immediately after exercise. Also aPTT time higher increased after recovery in comparison with baseline levels in aerobic (p=0.006 and resistance training groups (p<0.001. There were no significant differences in PT and aPTT was higher than aerobic training (p=0.0035.Conclusion: The results show that both of acute aerobic and or anaerobic exercise lead to small and transit coagulation system and increase in coagulation times

  9. Effects of cluster vs. traditional plyometric training sets on maximal-intensity exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Abbas; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of 6-week cluster versus traditional plyometric training sets on jumping ability, sprint and agility performance. Thirteen college students were assigned to a cluster sets group (N=6) or traditional sets group (N=7). Both training groups completed the same training program. The traditional group completed five sets of 20 repetitions with 2min of rest between sets each session, while the cluster group completed five sets of 20 [2×10] repetitions with 30/90-s rest each session. Subjects were evaluated for countermovement jump (CMJ), standing long jump (SLJ), t test, 20-m and 40-m sprint test performance before and after the intervention. Both groups had similar improvements (Psets methods resulted in greater adaptations in sprint performance, while the cluster sets method resulted in greater jump and agility adaptations. Copyright © 2016 The Lithuanian University of Health Sciences. Production and hosting by Elsevier Urban & Partner Sp. z o.o. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on heart function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise in male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badalzadeh, Reza; Shaghaghi, Mehrnoush; Mohammadi, Mustafa; Dehghan, Gholamreza; Mohammadi, Zeynab

    2014-12-01

    Regular training is suggested to offer a host of benefits especially on cardiovascular system. In addition, medicinal plants can attenuate oxidative stress-mediated damages induced by stressor insults. In this study, we investigated the concomitant effect of cinnamon extract and long-term aerobic training on cardiac function, biochemical alterations and lipid profile following exhaustive exercise. Male Wistar rats (250-300 g) were divided into five groups depending on receiving regular training, cinnamon bark extraction, none or both of them, and then encountered with an exhausted exercise in last session. An 8-week endurance training program was designed with a progressive increase in training speed and time. Myocardial hemodynamics was monitored using a balloon-tipped catheter inserted into left ventricles. Blood samples were collected for analyzing biochemical markers, lipid profiles and lipid-peroxidation marker, malondealdehyde (MDA). Trained animals showed an enhanced cardiac force and contractility similar to cinnamon-treated rats. Co-application of regular training and cinnamon had additive effect in cardiac hemodynamic (Ptraining and supplementation with cinnamon significantly decreased serum levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL) level and HDL/LDL ratio as compared to control group (Ptraining significantly reduced MDA level elevation induced by exhausted exercise (Ptraining improved cardiac hemodynamic through an additive effect. The positive effects of cinnamon and regular training on cardiac function were associated with a reduced serum MDA level and an improved blood lipid profile.

  11. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  12. Benefits of lifelong exercise training on left ventricular function after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maessen, M.F.H.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Stevens, G.G.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2017-01-01

    Background Endurance exercise training induces cardio-protective effects, but athletes are not exempted from a myocardial infarction. Evidence from animal studies suggests that exercise training attenuates pathological left ventricular remodelling following myocardial infarction. We tested the

  13. Randomised controlled trial: Effects of aerobic exercise training programme on indices of adiposity and metabolic markers in hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamina, S.; Okoye, C.G.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of interval training programme on blood pressure, maximal oxygen consumption, indices of adiposity and metabolic markers in black African men with essential hypertension. Methods: The study was conducted at Murtala Muhammed Specialist Hospital, Kano, Nigeria, from October 24, 2007 to February 24, 2009. It comprised 245 male patients with mild to moderate (systolic blood pressure 140-179 and diastolic blood pressure 90-109 mmHg) essential hypertension who were age-matched and grouped into experimental and control groups. The experimental group was involved in an 8-week training programme of between 45 and 60 minutes, while the controls remained sedentary during the period. Cardiovascular parameters, maximal oxygen consumption, per cent body fat, waist-to-hip ratio, body mass index, fasting blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein, low density lipoprotein and artherogenic index were assessed. Analysis of co-variance and Pearson correlation tests were used in data analysis which was done using SPSS 16. Results: The study had 140 (57.1%) cases with a mean age of 58.90+-7.35 years, and 105 (42.9%) controls with a mean age of 58.27+-6.24 years. It revealed significant increased effect of interval training programme on maximal oxygen consumption and high-density lipoprotein. There was significant reduction in on all the other controls. Changes in maximal oxygen consumption as a result of interval training significantly and negatively correlated with the other variables except high-density lipoprotein. Conclusions: The therapeutic role of interval exercise training on blood pressure reduction may be mediated through elevation of high-density lipoprotein, reduction of other markers of metabolism, and reduction in bodyweight and fatness. (author)

  14. Moderate Load Eccentric Exercise; A Distinct Novel Training Modality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppeler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Over the last 20 years a number of studies have been published using progressive eccentric exercise protocols on motorized ergometers or similar devices that allow for controlled application of eccentric loads. Exercise protocols ramp eccentric loads over an initial 3 weeks period in order to prevent muscle damage and delayed onset muscle soreness. Final training loads reach 400–500 W in rehabilitative settings and over 1200 W in elite athletes. Training is typically carried out three times per week for durations of 20–30 min. This type of training has been characterizes as moderate load eccentric exercise. It has also been denoted RENEW (Resistance Exercise via Negative Eccentric Work by LaStayo et al., 2014). It is distinct from plyometric exercises (i.e., drop jumps) that impose muscle loads of several thousand Watts on muscles and tendons. It is also distinct from eccentric overload training whereby loads in a conventional strength training setting are increased in the eccentric phase of the movement to match concentric loads. Moderate load eccentric exercise (or RENEW) has been shown to be similarly effective as conventional strength training in increasing muscle strength and muscle volume. However, as carried out at higher angular velocities of joint movement, it reduces joint loads. A hallmark of moderate load eccentric exercise is the fact that the energy requirements are typically 4-fold smaller than in concentric exercise of the same load. This makes moderate load eccentric exercise training the tool of choice in medical conditions with limitations in muscle energy supply. The use and effectiveness of moderate load eccentric exercise has been demonstrated mostly in small scale studies for cardiorespiratory conditions, sarcopenia of old age, cancer, diabetes type 2, and neurological conditions. It has also been used effectively in the prevention and rehabilitation of injuries of the locomotor system in particular the rehabilitation after anterior

  15. High-intensity training versus traditional exercise interventions for promoting health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training.......The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of brief intense interval training as exercise intervention for promoting health and to evaluate potential benefits about common interventions, that is, prolonged exercise and strength training....

  16. Effect of Resistance Exercise Training Associated with Skeletal Muscle Hypertrophy on Serum Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines in STZ-induced Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahdieh Molanouri Shamsi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type 1 diabetes. Effects of resistance exercise training associated with skeletal muscle hypertrophy on serum inflammatory cytokines was exactly not clarified. Protein levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-6, TNF-α, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β in serum of healthy and streptozotocin (STZ- induced diabetic rats subjected to resistance exercise training were assessed in this study. Rats were divided into the control, training, control diabetic and diabetic training groups. Training groups performed the resistance training consisted of climbing a 1 m ladder with increasing weight added to the tail. Proteins levels of IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β in serum were measured by the ELIZA method. The results of this study indicated that resistance training induced skeletal muscle hypertrophy in diabetic samples (P<0.05. Also, Resistance training decrease IL-6 protein levels in serum. Inflammatory cytokines could act as stress factors in diabetes. It seems that this kind of exercise training individually could not change cytokines levels in serum.

  17. Effects of two aerobic exercise training protocols on parameters of oxidative stress in the blood and liver of obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delwing-de Lima, Daniela; Ulbricht, Ariene Sampaio Souza Farias; Werlang-Coelho, Carla; Delwing-Dal Magro, Débora; Joaquim, Victor Hugo Antonio; Salamaia, Eloise Mariani; de Quevedo, Silvana Rodrigues; Desordi, Larissa

    2017-12-08

    We evaluated the effects of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) protocols on the alterations in oxidative stress parameters caused by a high-fat diet (HFD), in the blood and liver of rats. The HFD enhanced thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBA-RS) and protein carbonyl content, while reducing total sulfhydryl content and catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities in the blood. Both training protocols prevented an increase in TBA-RS and protein carbonyl content, and prevented a reduction in CAT. HIIT protocol enhanced SOD activity. In the liver, HFD didn't alter TBA-RS, total sulfhydryl content or SOD, but increased protein carbonyl content and CAT and decreased GSH-Px. The exercise protocols prevented the increase in protein carbonyl content and the MICT protocol prevented an alteration in CAT. In conclusion, HFD elicits oxidative stress in the blood and liver and both protocols prevented most of the alterations in the oxidative stress parameters.

  18. The Effect of Endurance Swimming Exercise Training on Structural Remodeling and Apoptotic Index of Adrenal Cortex in Pregnant Rats Exposed to Cadmium Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Dabagh Nikukheslat

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Exercise training in determined intensity increased the structural and morphological complications of cadmium toxicity in the adrenal gland of pregnant rats. So, pregnant mothers are advised to use low-intensity exercises and trainings.

  19. The effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, resistance or combination exercise training on cardiovascular risk factors in the overweight and obese in a randomized trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Suleen S

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evidence suggests that exercise training improves CVD risk factors. However, it is unclear whether health benefits are limited to aerobic training or if other exercise modalities such as resistance training or a combination are as effective or more effective in the overweight and obese. The aim of this study is to investigate whether 12 weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic, resistance, or combined exercise training would induce and sustain improvements in cardiovascular risk profile, weight and fat loss in overweight and obese adults compared to no exercise. Methods Twelve-week randomized parallel design examining the effects of different exercise regimes on fasting measures of lipids, glucose and insulin and changes in body weight, fat mass and dietary intake. Participants were randomized to either: Group 1 (Control, n = 16; Group 2 (Aerobic, n = 15; Group 3 (Resistance, n = 16; Group 4 (Combination, n = 17. Data was analysed using General Linear Model to assess the effects of the groups after adjusting for baseline values. Within-group data was analyzed with the paired t-test and between-group effects using post hoc comparisons. Results Significant improvements in body weight (−1.6%, p = 0.044 for the Combination group compared to Control and Resistance groups and total body fat compared to Control (−4.4%, p = 0.003 and Resistance (−3%, p = 0.041. Significant improvements in body fat percentage (−2.6%, p = 0.008, abdominal fat percentage (−2.8%, p = 0.034 and cardio-respiratory fitness (13.3%, p = 0.006 were seen in the Combination group compared to Control. Levels of ApoB48 were 32% lower in the Resistance group compared to Control (p = 0.04. Conclusion A 12-week training program comprising of resistance or combination exercise, at moderate-intensity for 30 min, five days/week resulted in improvements in the cardiovascular risk profile in overweight and obese

  20. Effects of exercise training and resveratrol on vascular health in aging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gliemann, Lasse; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Hellsten, Ylva

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the western world with aging being one of the strongest predictors of cardiovascular events. Aging is associated with impaired vascular function due to endothelial dysfunction and altered redox balance, partly caused by an increased formation ...... effects of physical activity. Regular physical activity remains the most effective way of maintaining and improving vascular health status and caution should be taken regarding potential interference of supplements on training adaptations....... of the observed detrimental effects of aging on vascular function. The effects of aging and physical activity on vascular function are, in part, related to alterations in cellular signaling through sirtuin-1, AMPK and the estrogen receptor. The polyphenol resveratrol can activate these same pathways and has......, in animals and in vitro models, been shown to act as a partial mimetic of physical activity. However, support for beneficial effects of resveratrol in human is weak and studies even show that resveratrol supplementation, similarly to supplementation with other antioxidants, can counteract the positive...

  1. Effects of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Heijden, M M P; van Dooren, F E P; Pop, V J M; Pouwer, F

    2013-06-01

    Psychological problems are relatively common in people with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether exercise training exerts an effect on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to conduct a systematic review to assess the effects of exercise training on these outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes. MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov databases were searched. The review included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of at least 4 weeks' duration in people with type 2 diabetes that evaluated the effect of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and/or emotional well-being compared with usual care. Of 1,261 retrieved articles, 20 RCTs were included with a total of 1,719 participants. Quality of life was assessed in 16 studies. Between-group comparisons showed no significant results for aerobic training with the exception of one study, and mixed results for resistance and combined training. Symptoms of depression were assessed in four studies. In only one study did the intervention decrease symptoms of depression. Emotional well-being was evaluated in four studies, which also showed conflicting results. Symptoms of anxiety were evaluated in one study, which showed a significant improvement. The effects of exercise training on psychological outcomes in people with type 2 diabetes are conflicting. Therefore, there is a need for further high-quality RCTs in order to gain greater insight into the role of exercise training in people with type 2 diabetes.

  2. Effects of exercise training on stress-induced vascular reactivity alterations: role of nitric oxide and prostanoids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruder-Nascimento

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical exercise may modify biologic stress responses. Objective: To investigate the impact of exercise training on vascular alterations induced by acute stress, focusing on nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase pathways. Method: Wistar rats were separated into: sedentary, trained (60-min swimming, 5 days/week during 8 weeks, carrying a 5% body-weight load, stressed (2 h-immobilization, and trained/stressed. Response curves for noradrenaline, in the absence and presence of L-NAME or indomethacin, were obtained in intact and denuded aortas (n=7-10. Results: None of the procedures altered the denuded aorta reactivity. Intact aortas from stressed, trained, and trained/stressed rats showed similar reduction in noradrenaline maximal responses (sedentary 3.54±0.15, stressed 2.80±0.10*, trained 2.82±0.11*, trained/stressed 2.97± 0.21*, *P<0.05 relate to sedentary. Endothelium removal and L-NAME abolished this hyporeactivity in all experimental groups, except in trained/stressed rats that showed a partial aorta reactivity recovery in L-NAME presence (L-NAME: sedentary 5.23±0,26#, stressed 5.55±0.38#, trained 5.28±0.30#, trained/stressed 4.42±0.41, #P<0.05 related to trained/stressed. Indomethacin determined a decrease in sensitivity (EC50 in intact aortas of trained rats without abolishing the aortal hyporeactivity in trained, stressed, and trained/stressed rats. Conclusions: Exercise-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial vasodilator prostaglandins and nitric oxide. Stress-induced vascular adaptive response involved an increase in endothelial nitric oxide. Beside the involvement of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway, the vascular response of trained/stressed rats involved an additional mechanism yet to be elucidated. These findings advance on the understanding of the vascular processes after exercise and stress alone and in combination.

  3. Effects of short-term heated water-based exercise training on systemic blood pressure in patients with resistant hypertension: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Guilherme V; Cruz, Lais G B; Tavares, Aline C; Dorea, Egidio L; Fernandes-Silva, Miguel M; Bocchi, Edimar A

    2013-12-01

    High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases, and its control is a clinical challenge. Regular exercise lowers BP in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension. No data are available on the effects of heated water-based exercise in hypertensive patients. Our objective was to evaluate the effects of heated water-based exercise on BP in patients with resistant hypertension. We tested the effects of 60-min heated water-based exercise training three times per week in 16 patients with resistant hypertension (age 55±6 years). The protocol included walking and callisthenic exercises. All patients underwent 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) before and after a 2-week exercise program in a heated pool. Systolic office BP was reduced from 162 to 144 mmHg (Pexercise training during 24-h ABPM, systolic BP decreased from 135 to 123 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 83 to 74 mmHg (P=0.001), daytime systolic BP decreased from 141 to 125 mmHg (P=0.02), diastolic BP decreased from 87 to 77 mmHg (P=0.009), night-time systolic BP decreased from 128 to 118 mmHg (P=0.06), and diastolic BP decreased from 77 to 69 mmHg (P=0.01). In addition, BP cardiovascular load was reduced significantly during the 24-h daytime and night-time period after the heated water-based exercise. Heated water-based exercise reduced office BP and 24-h daytime and night-time ABPM levels. These effects suggest that heated water-based exercise may have a potential as a new therapeutic approach to resistant hypertensive patients.

  4. The effect of cumulative endurance exercise on leptin and adiponectin and their role as markers to monitor training load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SC Voss

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Leptin and adiponectin play an essential role in energy metabolism. Leptin has also been proposed as a marker for monitoring training load. So far, no studies have investigated the variability of these hormones in athletes and how they are regulated during cumulative exercises This study monitored leptin and adiponectin in 15 endurance athletes twice daily in the days before, during and after a 9-day simulated cycling stage race. Adiponectin significantly increased during the race (p=0.001 and recovery periods (p=0.002 when compared to the baseline, while leptin decreased significantly during the race (p<0.0001 and returned to baseline levels during the recovery period. lntra-individual variability was substantially lower than inter-individual variability for both hormones (leptin 34.1 vs. 53.5%, adiponectin 19% vs. 37.2%. With regards to exercise, this study demonstrated that with sufficient, sustained energy expenditure, leptin concentrations can decrease within the first 24 hours. Under the investigated conditions there also appears to be an optimal leptin concentration which ensures stable energy homeostasis, as there was no significant decrease over the subsequent race days. ln healthy endurance athletes the recovery of leptin takes 48-72 hours and may even show a supercompensation- like effect. For adiponectin, significant increases were observed within 5 days of commencing racing, with these elevated values failing to return to baseline levels after 3 days of recovery. Additionally, when using leptin and adiponectin to monitor training loads, establishing individual threshold values improves their sensitivity.

  5. Differential effects of high-frequency versus low-frequency exercise training in rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwland, W.; Berkhuysen, M.A.; van Veldhuisen, D.J.; Brugemann, J.; Landsman, M.L.J.; van Sonderen, E.; Lie, K.I.; Crijns, H.J.G.M.; Rispens, P.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES We sought to study the influence of frequency of exercise training during cardiac rehabilitation on functional capacity (i.e., peak oxygen consumption [VO2] and ventilatory anaerobic threshold [VAT]) and quality of life (QoL). BACKGROUND Although the value of cardiac rehabilitation is now

  6. Effect of high-intensity training on exercise-induced gene expression specific to ion homeostasis and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during recovery from high-intensity, intermittent, one-legged exercise were studied before and after 5.5 wk of training. Genes related to metabolism, as well as Na+, K+, and pH homeostasis, were selected for analyses. After the same work was performed before and after...

  7. Effects of dietary heme iron and exercise training on abdominal fat accumulation and lipid metabolism in high-fat diet-fed mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsumura, Masanori; Takagi, Shoko; Oya, Hana; Tamura, Shohei; Saneyasu, Takaoki; Honda, Kazuhisa; Kamisoyama, Hiroshi

    2017-08-01

    Animal by-products can be recycled and used as sources of essential nutrients. Water-soluble heme iron (WSHI), a functional food additive for supplementing iron, is produced by processing animal blood. In this study, we investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of 3% WSHI and exercise training for 4 weeks on the accumulation of abdominal fat and lipid metabolism in mice fed high-fat diet. Exercise-trained mice had significantly less perirenal adipose tissue, whereas WSHI-fed mice tended to have less epididymal adipose tissue. In addition, total weight of abdominal adipose tissues was significantly decreased in the Exercise + WSHI group. Dietary WSHI significantly increased the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels of lipoprotein lipase and hormone-sensitive lipase. WSHI-fed mice also tended to show increased mRNA levels of adipose triglyceride lipase in their epididymal adipose tissue. Dietary WSHI also significantly decreased the mRNA levels of fatty acid oxidation-related enzymes in the liver, but did not influence levels in the Gastrocnemius muscle. Exercise training did not influence the mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related enzymes in the epididymal adipose tissue, liver or the Gastrocnemius muscle. These findings suggest that the accumulation of abdominal fat can be efficiently decreased by the combination of dietary WSHI and exercise training in mice fed high-fat diet. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  8. Core Muscle Activation in Suspension Training Exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cugliari, Giovanni; Boccia, Gennaro

    2017-02-01

    A quantitative observational laboratory study was conducted to characterize and classify core training exercises executed in a suspension modality on the base of muscle activation. In a prospective single-group repeated measures design, seventeen active male participants performed four suspension exercises typically associated with core training (roll-out, bodysaw, pike and knee-tuck). Surface electromyographic signals were recorded from lower and upper parts of rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, lower and upper parts of erector spinae muscles using concentric bipolar electrodes. The average rectified values of electromyographic signals were normalized with respect to individual maximum voluntary isometric contraction of each muscle. Roll-out exercise showed the highest activation of rectus abdominis and oblique muscles compared to the other exercises. The rectus abdominis and external oblique reached an activation higher than 60% of the maximal voluntary contraction (or very close to that threshold, 55%) in roll-out and bodysaw exercises. Findings from this study allow the selection of suspension core training exercises on the basis of quantitative information about the activation of muscles of interest. Roll-out and bodysaw exercises can be considered as suitable for strength training of rectus abdominis and external oblique muscles.

  9. Effects of exercise training on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in type 2 diabetes mellitus : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, M.M.P.; van Dooren, F.E.; Pop, V.J.M.; Pouwer, F.

    2013-01-01

    Aims/hypothesis Psychological problems are relatively common in people with type 2 diabetes. It is unclear whether exercise training exerts an effect on quality of life, symptoms of depression, symptoms of anxiety and emotional well-being in people with type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to

  10. The Effects of Group Relaxation Training/Large Muscle Exercise, and Parental Involvement on Attention to Task, Impulsivity, and Locus of Control among Hyperactive Boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Sally S.; Omizo, Michael M.

    1984-01-01

    The study examined the effects of group relaxation training/large muscle exercise and parental involvement on attention to task, impulsivity, and locus of control among 34 hyperactive boys. Following treatment both experimental groups recorded significantly higher attention to task, lower impulsivity, and lower locus of control scores. (Author/CL)

  11. Effect of Aerobic Exercise Training on Blood Pressure in Indians: Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Punia, Sonu; Kulandaivelan, Sivachidambaram; Singh, Varun; Punia, Vandana

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. High blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases, which accounts for one in every eight deaths worldwide. It has been predicted that, by 2020, there would be 111% increase in cardiovascular deaths in India. Aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking, jogging, running, and cycling would result in reduction in BP. Many meta-analytical studies from western world confirm this. However, there is no such review from Indian su...

  12. Effects of high-altitude exercise training on contractile function of rat skinned cardiomyocyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazorla, O; Aït Mou, Y; Goret, L; Vassort, G; Dauzat, M; Lacampagne, A; Tanguy, S; Obert, P

    2006-09-01

    Previous studies have questioned whether there is an improved cardiac function after high-altitude training. Accordingly, the present study was designed specifically to test whether this apparent blunted response of the whole heart to training can be accounted for by altered mechanical properties at the cellular level. Adult rats were trained for 5 weeks under normoxic (N, NT for sedentary and trained animals, respectively) or hypobaric hypoxic (H, HT) conditions. Cardiac morphology and function were evaluated by echocardiography. Calcium Ca2+ sensitivity of the contractile machinery was estimated in skinned cardiomyocytes isolated from the left ventricular (LV) sub-epicardium (Epi) and sub-endocardium (Endo) at short and long sarcomere lengths (SL). Cardiac remodelling was harmonious (increase in wall thickness with chamber dilatation) in NT rats and disharmonious (hypertrophy without chamber dilatation) in HT rats. Contrary to NT rats, HT rats did not exhibit enhancement in global cardiac performance evaluated by echocardiography. Stretch- dependent Ca2+ sensitization of the myofilaments (cellular index of the Frank-Starling mechanism) increased from Epi to Endo in N rats. Training in normoxic conditions further increased this stretch-dependent Ca2+ sensitization. Chronic hypoxia did not significantly affect myofibrilar Ca2+ sensitivity. In contrast, high-altitude training decreased Ca2+ sensitivity of the myofilaments at both SL, mostly in Endo cells, resulting in a loss of the transmural gradient of the stretch-dependent Ca2+ sensitization. Expression of myosin heavy chain isoforms was affected both by training and chronic hypoxia but did not correlate with mechanical data. Training at sea level increased the transmural gradient of stretch-dependent Ca2+ sensitization of the myofilaments, accounting for an improved Frank-Starling mechanism. High-altitude training depressed myofilament response to Ca2+, especially in the Endo layer. This led to a reduction in

  13. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes - a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-03-31

    This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. RBC (4.499×10(5) cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity.

  14. The effects of altitude/hypoxic training on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity in elite athletes – a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-young; Hwang, Hyejung; Park, Jonghoon; Lee, Seongno; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study was designed as a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing effectiveness of altitude/hypoxic training (experimental) versus sea-level training (control) on oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity of elite athletes in Korea. [Methods] Databases (Research Information Service System, Korean studies Information Service System, National Assembly Library) were for randomized controlled trials comparing altitude/hypoxic training versus sea-level training in elite athletes. Studies published in Korea up to December 2015 were eligible for inclusion. Oxygen delivery capacity of the blood was quantified by red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct), erythropoietin (EPO); and aerobic exercise capacity was quantified by maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). RBC, Hb, Hct, VO2max represented heterogeneity and compared post-intervention between altitude/hypoxic training and sea-level training in elite athletes by a random effect model meta-analysis. EPO represented homogeneity and meta-analysis performed by a fixed effect model. Eight independent studies with 156 elite athletes (experimental: n = 82, control: n = 74) were included in the metaanalysis. [Results] RBC (4.499×105 cell/ul, 95 % CI: 2.469 to 6.529), Hb (5.447 g/dl, 95 % CI: 3.028 to 7.866), Hct (3.639 %, 95 % CI: 1.687 to 5.591), EPO (0.711 mU/mL, 95% CI: 0.282 to 1.140), VO2max (1.637 ml/kg/min, 95% CI: 0.599 to 1.400) showed significantly greater increase following altitude/hypoxic training, as compared with sea-level training. [Conclusion] For elite athletes in Korea, altitude/ hypoxic training appears more effective than sea-level training for improvement of oxygen delivery capacity of the blood and aerobic exercise capacity. PMID:27298808

  15. Beneficial effects of exercise training (treadmill on insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in high-fat fed C57BL/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M.M. Marques

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available C57BL/6 mice develop signs and symptoms comparable, in part, to the human metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of exercise training on carbohydrate metabolism, lipid profile, visceral adiposity, pancreatic islet alterations, and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease in C57BL/6 mice. Animals were fed one of two diets during an 8-week period: standard (SC, N = 12 or very high-fat (HF, N = 24 chow. An exercise training protocol (treadmill was then established and mice were divided into SC and HF sedentary (SC-Sed, HF-Sed, exercised groups (SC-Ex, HF-Ex, or switched from HF to SC (HF/SC-Sed and HF/SC-Ex. HF/HF-Sed mice had the greatest body mass (65% more than SC/SC-Sed; P < 0.0001, and exercise reduced it by 23% (P < 0.0001. Hepatic enzymes ALP (+80%, ALT (+100% and AST (+70% were higher in HF/HF mice than in matched SC/SC. Plasma insulin was higher in both the HF/HF-Sed and HF/SC-Sed groups than in the matched exercised groups (+85%; P < 0.001. Pancreatic islets, adipocytes and liver structure were greatly affected by HF, ultimately resulting in islet β-cell hypertrophy and severe liver steatosis. The HF group had larger islets than the SC/SC group (+220%; P < 0.0001, and exercise significantly reduced liver steatosis and islet size in HF. Exercise attenuated all the changes due to HF, and the effects were more pronounced in exercised mice switched from an HF to an SC diet. Exercise improved the lipid profile by reducing body weight gain, visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, islet alterations, and fatty liver, contributing to obesity and steatohepatitis control.

  16. Beneficial effects of training at the anaerobic threshold in addition to pharmacotherapy on weight loss, body composition, and exercise performance in women with obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozcelik O

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Oguz Ozcelik,1 Yusuf Ozkan,2 Sermin Algul,1 Ramis Colak2,3 1Department of Physiology, 2Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Firat University, Elazig, 3Department of Endocrinology and Metabolic Disease, Faculty of Medicine, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun, Turkey Objective: The aim of this study was to determine and compare the effects of weight loss achieved through orlistat therapy alone or a combination of orlistat and an aerobic exercise training program on aerobic fitness and body composition in obese females.Methods: Twenty-eight obese patients were randomly assigned to receive 12-week treatment with hypocaloric diet–orlistat or diet–orlistat–exercise. Each participant performed an incremental ramp exercise test every 4 weeks to measure aerobic fitness. Fourteen participants performed continuous exercise (approximately 45 minutes per session at a work rate corresponding to the anaerobic threshold three times per week.Results: A decrease in the fat mass to body weight ratio of 3.8% (P=0.006 was observed at the end of the 12 weeks in the orlistat group, while a decrease of 9.5% (P=0.001 was seen in the orlistat–exercise group. Maximal exercise capacity increased by 46.5% in the orlistat–exercise group and by 19.5% in the orlistat group.Conclusion: While orlistat therapy resulted in an improvement in body composition and aerobic fitness at the end of the 12-week period, its combination with exercise training provided improvements in the same parameters within the first 4 weeks of the study. These additional beneficial effects of combining aerobic exercise with orlistat therapy are important with regards to obesity-associated risk factors. Keywords: obesity, orlistat, body mass index, anaerobic threshold, aerobic fitness

  17. Quick Tips for Weight Training Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Saul

    2004-01-01

    Weight training is one of the single most popular types of fitness activities in the United States. One of the reasons for its popularity is that it dramatically contributes to improved strength, muscle tone, body composition, health and appearance. Weight training is a progressive resistance exercise in which resistance is gradually increased as…

  18. Effects of Exercise Training and Weight Loss on Plasma Fetuin-A Levels and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob B. Blumenthal

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL improves insulin sensitivity in overweight adults; however, the underlying pathways are incompletely understood. Fetuin-A, a hepatokine that inhibits insulin signaling, may be involved in the salutary effects of AEX+WL. Therefore, we examined the effects of 6-month AEX+WL on plasma fetuin-A levels (36–48 hours after the last bout of exercise, aerobic capacity (VO2max, body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity (M in 16 sedentary, overweight-obese older men (age = 60 ± 2 years, BMI = 31 ± 1 kg/m2 with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. At baseline, fetuin-A levels correlated directly with adiposity and had a borderline inverse correlation with M. After AEX+WL, body weight decreased by ~10 kg, while both VO2max and M increased by 16% (P<0.005 for all. Contrary to our hypothesis, plasma fetuin-A levels increased after AEX+WL (1.16 ± 0.10 g/L versus 1.70 ± 0.19 g/L, P=0.006. This increase was unrelated to changes in body composition or glucose metabolism, but directly correlated with changes in VO2max (r=0.57, P<0.05. Thus, in overweight-to-obese older men, AEX+WL appears to increase plasma fetuin-A levels. Although not associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity, this increase in fetuin-A was related to improvements in aerobic capacity and could be representative of the cardioprotective effects of AEX+WL in older men.

  19. Effects of Exercise Training and Weight Loss on Plasma Fetuin-A Levels and Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Older Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumenthal, Jacob B; Gitterman, Anna; Ryan, Alice S; Prior, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic exercise training and weight loss (AEX+WL) improves insulin sensitivity in overweight adults; however, the underlying pathways are incompletely understood. Fetuin-A, a hepatokine that inhibits insulin signaling, may be involved in the salutary effects of AEX+WL. Therefore, we examined the effects of 6-month AEX+WL on plasma fetuin-A levels (36-48 hours after the last bout of exercise), aerobic capacity (VO 2max ), body composition, glucose tolerance, and insulin sensitivity (M) in 16 sedentary, overweight-obese older men (age = 60 ± 2 years, BMI = 31 ± 1 kg/m 2 ) with no history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes. At baseline, fetuin-A levels correlated directly with adiposity and had a borderline inverse correlation with M. After AEX+WL, body weight decreased by ~10 kg, while both VO 2max and M increased by 16% ( P < 0.005 for all). Contrary to our hypothesis, plasma fetuin-A levels increased after AEX+WL (1.16 ± 0.10 g/L versus 1.70 ± 0.19 g/L, P = 0.006). This increase was unrelated to changes in body composition or glucose metabolism, but directly correlated with changes in VO 2max ( r = 0.57, P < 0.05). Thus, in overweight-to-obese older men, AEX+WL appears to increase plasma fetuin-A levels. Although not associated with improvements in insulin sensitivity, this increase in fetuin-A was related to improvements in aerobic capacity and could be representative of the cardioprotective effects of AEX+WL in older men.

  20. Effect of exercise training on in vivo lipolysis in intra-abdominal adipose tissue in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Stallknecht, B; Fluckey, J D

    2000-01-01

    Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitonea...... be beneficial in alleviating intra-abdominal obesity by enhancing lipolysis in intra-abdominal fat depots.......Intra-abdominal obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and physical training has been suggested to alleviate these conditions. We compared epinephrine-stimulated lipolysis in vivo in three intra-abdominal adipose tissues (ATs: retroperitoneal......: 73 +/- 12 (trained) vs. 14 +/- 4 (sedentary) ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), P abdominal than in subcutaneous AT in both trained...

  1. Effects of exercise training using resistance bands on glycaemic control and strength in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Samantha K; Armstrong, Marni J; Boulé, Normand G; Sigal, Ronald J

    2015-04-01

    Resistance exercise using free weights or weight machines improves glycaemic control and strength in people with type 2 diabetes. Resistance band training is potentially less expensive and more accessible, but the effects of resistance band training on glycaemic control and strength in this population are not well understood. This paper aims to systematically review and meta-analyse the effect of resistance band training on haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and strength in adults with type 2 diabetes. Database searches were performed in August 2013 (MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, and CINAHL). Reference lists of eligible articles were hand-searched for additional studies. Randomised trials evaluating the effects of resistance band training in adults with type 2 diabetes on HbA1c or objectively measured strength were selected. Baseline and post-intervention HbA1c and strength were extracted for the intervention and control groups. Details of the exercise interventions and methodological quality were collected. Seven trials met inclusion criteria. Post-intervention-weighted mean HbA1c was nonsignificantly lower in exercise groups compared to control groups [weighted mean difference (WMD) = -0.18 percentage points (-1.91 mmol/mol); P = 0.27]. Post-intervention strength was significantly higher in the exercise groups compared to the control groups in the lower extremities (WMD = 21.90 kg; P diabetes.

  2. The peculiarities of acrobat exercises usage in the handballers training process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serdyuk Dmitrii Georgievich

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Special complexes of acrobatic exercises for training handballers are developed. The level of efficiency of effect of exercises on development of coordination abilities is determined. During application of exercises of the given type it is necessary to take into account a period and a cycle of preparation, personalities of handballers, a general orientation of training process. It allows avoidance of negative effect of acrobatic exercises on special exercises of competitive character.

  3. Aerobic exercise training promotes additional cardiac benefits better than resistance exercise training in postmenopausal rats with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinteiro, Hugo; Buzin, Morgana; Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Figueroa, Diego; Llesuy, Susana; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; Sanches, Iris Callado; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise training or resistance exercise training on cardiac morphometric, functional, and oxidative stress parameters in rats with ovarian hormone deprivation and diabetes. Female Wistar rats (200-220 g) were divided into a sham-operated group (euglycemic sham-operated sedentary [ES]; n = 8) and three ovariectomized (bilateral removal of ovaries) and diabetic (streptozotocin 50 mg/kg IV) groups as follows: diabetic ovariectomized sedentary (DOS; n = 8), diabetic ovariectomized undergoing aerobic exercise training (DOTA; n = 8), and diabetic ovariectomized undergoing resistance exercise training (DOTR; n = 8). After 8 weeks of resistance (ladder) or aerobic (treadmill) exercise training, left ventricle function and morphometry were evaluated by echocardiography, whereas oxidative stress was evaluated at the left ventricle. The DOS group presented with increased left ventricle cavity in diastole and relative wall thickness (RWT), and these changes were attenuated in both DOTA and DOTR groups. Systolic and diastolic function was impaired in the DOS group compared with the ES group, and only the DOTA group was able to reverse this dysfunction. Lipoperoxidation and glutathione redox balance were improved in both trained groups compared with the DOS group. Glutathione peroxidase and superoxide dismutase were higher in the DOTA group than in the other studied groups. Correlations were observed between lipoperoxidation and left ventricle cavity in diastole (r = 0.55), between redox balance and RWT (r = 0.62), and between lipoperoxidation and RWT (r = -0.60). Aerobic exercise training and resistance exercise training promote attenuation of cardiac morphometric dysfunction associated with a reduction in oxidative stress in an experimental model of diabetes and menopause. However, only dynamic aerobic exercise training is able to attenuate systolic and diastolic dysfunction under this condition.

  4. Lessons learned from the quench-11 training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    16 organizations in 12 countries are participating in a RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise based on the Quench 11 experiment performed at Karlsruhe (Germany) in 2005. This exercise is being conducted in parallel to an International Standard Problem (ISP). Both the ISP and the RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise included a 'semi-blind' portion that was completed in the fall of 2006 and an 'open' portion that is to be completed in the summer of 2007. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise is coordinated by Innovative Systems Software with support by the International SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). The Quench-11 experiment is based on an electrically heated fuel rod bundle representative of a PWR design. The bundle was subjected to a boil down transient, heat-up, and quenching with peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the Zircaloy cladding. This experiment was chosen by the European Union as an International Benchmark exercise to compare the effectiveness of quenching models in the severe accident computer codes used today for accident analysis. This paper briefly describes (a) RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, (b) the Quench facility and experiments used in the training exercise, and (c) the training guidelines provided to the participants followed by a more detailed description of the lessons learned from the initial 'semi-blind' portion. The representative results demonstrate that good analysts can still have a difficult time predicting the thermal hydraulic response of a relative simple transient in a complex system

  5. Effects of exercise training and coronary ablation on swimming performance, heart size, and cardiac enzymes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FARRELL, AP; JOHANSEN, JA; STEFFENSEN, JF

    1990-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were exercise trained for 28-52 days. Trained fish were 13% larger and swam 12% faster in an aerobic swimming test. Training induced cardiac growth that was isometric with body growth, since ventricle mass relative to body mass was constant. The proportions...... of compact and spongy myocardia in the ventricle were also unchanged by training. Trained fish had significantly higher levels of citrate synthase, ß-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, and hexokinase in both compact and spongy myocardium. Ligation of a 0.5- to 1.0-cm section of the coronary artery produced only...... a temporary interruption of coronary flow to the compact myocardium because new vessels grew around the ligation site in the majority of fish during the 28- to 52-day experiment. Nonetheless, coronary ligation resulted in a significantly smaller (17%) proportion of compact myocardium with lower levels...

  6. Effect of Combined Exercise Versus Aerobic-Only Training on Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in a Rodent Model of Type1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzert, Michelle S; McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Nickels, J Zachary; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2017-12-04

    Abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes. Although lipid metabolism is restored with aerobic exercise training, the risk for postexercise hypoglycemia is increased with this modality. Integrating resistance and aerobic exercise is associated with reduced hypoglycemic risk; however, the effects of this exercise modality on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance remain unknown. We compared the effects of combined (aerobic + resistance) versus aerobic exercise training on oxidative capacity and muscle lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 1 diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary control + diabetes (CD), diabetes + high-intensity aerobic exercise (DAE) and diabetes + combined aerobic and resistance exercise (DARE). Following diabetes induction (20 mg/kg streptozotocin over five days), DAE rats ran for 12 weeks (5 days/week for 1 hour) on a motorized treadmill (27 m/min at a 6-degree grade), and DARE rats alternated daily between running and incremental weighted ladder climbing. After training, DAE showed reduced muscle CD36 protein content and lipid content compared to CD (p≤0.05). DAE rats also had significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity compared to CD (p≤0.05). DARE rats showed reduced CD36 protein content compared to CD and increased CS activity compared to CD and DAE rats (p≤0.05). DARE rats demonstrated increased skeletal muscle lipid staining, elevated lipin-1 protein content and insulin sensitivity (p≤0.05). Integration of aerobic and resistance exercise may exert a synergistic effect, producing adaptations characteristic of the "athlete's paradox," including increased capacity to store and oxidize lipids. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Long-term effects of a 12-week exercise training program on clinical outcomes in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vainshelboim, Baruch; Oliveira, Jose; Fox, Benjamin Daniel; Soreck, Yafit; Fruchter, Oren; Kramer, Mordechai Reuven

    2015-06-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a chronic, devastating, lung disease, with few therapeutic options. Data are limited with respect to the long-term effect of exercise training (ET) in IPF. This study sought to evaluate the long-term effects of a 12-week ET program on clinical outcomes in IPF patients. Thirty-four IPF patients were randomly allocated to ET or control groups. ET group participated in a 12-week supervised exercise program, while the control group continued with regular medical treatment alone. Exercise capacity, 30 s-chair-stand test for leg strength, dyspnea, and Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) for quality of life (QOL) were assessed at baseline and re-evaluated at 11 months from baseline. In addition, at 30-month time point from baseline, the impact of the 12-week intervention was analyzed with respect to survival and cardio-respiratory-related hospitalizations. Thirty-two patients completed the 12-week intervention and 28 patients (14 in each group) were re-evaluated. At 11-month follow-up, no significant differences between the groups and time effect were demonstrated for most outcomes. ET group showed preserved values at the baseline level while the control group showed a trend of deterioration. Only the 30 s-chair-stand test (mean difference 3 stands, p = 0.01) and SGRQ (mean difference -6 units, p = 0.037) were significantly different between the groups. At 30 months, the survival analysis showed three deaths, eight hospitalizations occurred in the control group versus one death, one lung transplantation and seven hospitalizations in the ET group, with no significant differences between groups. At 11-month follow-up, the 12-week ET program showed clinical outcomes were preserved at baseline levels with some maintenance of improvements in leg strength and QOL in the ET group. The control group showed a trend of deterioration in the outcomes. At 30 months, the 12-week ET program did not show benefits in prognosis although

  8. EXERCISE IN RESISTANCE-TRAINED MEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RD Calixto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8 and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8. Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric (1RMecc test, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The eccentric velocity was controlled to 3 seconds per range of motion for SEV and 0.5 seconds for the FEV group. There was a significant difference (P < 0.001 in the kinetics of blood lactate removal (at 3, 6, 9, 15, and 20 min and higher mean values for peak blood lactate (P = 0.001 for the SEV group (9.1 ± 0.5 mM compared to the FEV group (6.1 ± 0.4 mM. Additionally, serum GH concentrations were significantly higher (P < 0.001 at 15 minutes after bench press exercise in the SEV group (1.7 ± 0.6 ng · mL-1 relative to the FEV group (0.1 ± 0.0 ng · mL-1. In conclusion, the velocity of eccentric muscle action influences acute responses following bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men using a slow velocity resulting in a greater metabolic stress and hormone response.

  9. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Yongqin Li; Mengchao Yao; Qiulian Zhou; Yan Cheng; Lin Che; Jiahong Xu; Junjie Xiao; Zhongming Shen; Yihua Bei

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response ...

  10. The effects of a high-intensity free-weight back-squat exercise protocol on postural stability in resistance-trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, R M; Conchola, E C; Palmer, T B; DeFreitas, J M; Thompson, B J

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a high-intensity free-weight back-squat exercise on postural stability characteristics in resistance-trained males. Eighteen college-aged (mean ± SD: age = 22.9 ± 2.9 years; height = 175.8 ± 6.4 cm; mass = 86.3 ± 9.3 kg), resistance-trained males performed postural stability testing before and after completing five sets of eight repetitions of back-squat exercises at 80% of one-repetition maximum. A commercial balance testing device was used to assess sway index at pre- and at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Each balance assessment consisted of four, 20-s static stance conditions: eyes-open firm surface, eyes-closed firm surface, eyes-open soft surface and eyes-closed soft surface. Sway index was greater (P = 0.001-0.020) at Post 0 than at all other time points. No differences (P > 0.05) were observed between any other time phases. Sway index was greater (P squat; however, sway index recovered within 5 min of exercise. Higher sway index values as a result of neuromuscular fatigue induced by a back-squat exercise may have performance and injury risk consequences to subsequent activities that rely on postural stability. However, these findings suggest balance impairments may recover in ~5 min following high-intensity lower body resistance exercise.

  11. Eccentric exercise training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooyackers, J.M.; Berkeljon, D.A.; Folgering, H.T.M.

    2003-01-01

    The oxygen cost of eccentric exercise is lower than that of concentric exercise at similar work-loads. In this study, the response to eccentric cycle exercise training (EET) in addition to general exercise training (GET) on exercise performance and quality of life was investigated in 24 patients

  12. Differential Effects of Acute (Extenuating and Chronic (Training Exercise on Inflammation and Oxidative Stress Status in an Animal Model of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edite Teixeira de Lemos

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compares the effects of a single bout of exercise (acute extenuating with those promoted by an exercise training program (chronic, focusing on low-grade chronic inflammation profile and on oxidative stress status, using the obese ZDF rats as a model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. Animals were sacrificed after 12 weeks of a swimming training program and after a single bout of acute extenuating exercise. Glycaemic, insulinemic, and lipidic profile (triglycerides, total-cholesterol were evaluated, as well as inflammatory (serum CRPhs, TNF-α, adiponectin and oxidative (lipidic peroxidation and uric acid status. When compared to obese diabetic sedentary rats, the animals submitted to acute exercise presented significantly lower values of glycaemia and insulinaemia, with inflammatory profile and oxidative stress significantly aggravated. The trained animals showed amelioration of glycaemic and lipidic dysmetabolism, accompanied by remarkable reduction of inflammatory and oxidative markers. In conclusion, the results presented herein suggessted that exercise pathogenesis-oriented interventions should not exacerbate underlying inflammatory stress associated with T2DM.

  13. Influence of aerobic exercise training on post-exercise responses of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuhiko eAkazawa

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Central arterial blood pressure (BP is more predictive of future cardiovascular events than is brachial BP because it reflects the BP load imposed on the left ventricle with greater accuracy. However, little is known about the effects of exercise training on central hemodynamic response to acute exercise. The purpose of the present study was to determine the influence of an aerobic exercise regimen on the response of aortic BP after a single aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women. Nine healthy postmenopausal women (age: 61 ± 2 years participated in a 12-week aerobic exercise training regimen. Before and after the training, each subjects performed a single bout of cycling at ventilatory thresholds for 30 min. We evaluated the post-exercise aortic BP response, which was estimated via the general transfer function from applanation tonometry. After the initial pre-training aerobic exercise session, aortic BP did not change significantly: however, aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure were significantly attenuated after the single aerobic exercise session following the 12-week training regimen. The present study demonstrated that a regular aerobic exercise training regimen induced the post-exercise reduction of aortic pulse pressure and augmentation pressure. Regular aerobic exercise training may enhance post-exercise reduction in aortic BP.

  14. Effect of early supervised progressive resistance training compared to unsupervised home-based exercise after fast-track total hip replacement applied to patients with preoperative functional limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, L R; Mechlenburg, I; Søballe, K

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine if 2 weekly sessions of supervised progressive resistance training (PRT) in combination with 5 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise is more effective than 7 weekly sessions of unsupervised home-based exercise in improving leg-extension power of the operated leg...... 10 weeks after total hip replacement (THR) in patients with lower pre-operative function. METHOD: A total of 73 patients scheduled for THR were randomised (1:1) to intervention group (IG, home based exercise 5 days/week and PRT 2 days/week) or control group (CG, home based exercise 7 days...... of the operated leg, at the primary endpoint 10 weeks after surgery in THR patients with lower pre-operative function. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT01214954....

  15. Adaptations with intermittent exercise training in post- and premenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seidelin, Kåre; Nyberg, Michael Permin; Piil, Peter Bergmann

    2017-01-01

    of approximately one training session per week. RESULTS: In PM, the body fat percentage decreased (P training period, with no changes in PRM. In both PM and PRM, lean body mass and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) were higher, and Yo......INTRODUCTION: The purposes of the present study was to examine the effect of intermittent exercise training on musculoskeletal and metabolic health in postmenopausal (PM) and premenopausal (PRM) women and, furthermore, to evaluate whether the adaptations can be maintained with a reduced training...... frequency. METHODS: Eighteen PM (51 ± 1 yr, mean ± SEM) and 12 PRM (48 ± 1 yr) women participated in floorball training approximately two times per week for 12 wk. In a subgroup (n = 9) of PM women (PM40), exercise training was performed for an additional 40 wk with a reduced training frequency...

  16. A HEMATOBIOCHEMICAL EVALUATION TO COMPARE THE EFFECTS OF HIGH INTENSITY INTERVAL TRAINING AND AEROBIC EXERCISE TO CONTROL DIABETES MALLITIS AND ITS COMPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muneeb Iqbal

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Diabetes has become a very common disease all over the world since last few decades and is now perceived as a global health disorder. Diabetes mellitus is identified on the basis of constant high concentration of blood glucose level and it mainly occurs due to deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin. High-intensity interval training (HIIT is an improved form of interval trainings, and exercise strategies which alternate the periods of small intense anaerobic exercise by less-intense regaining periods. The study aimed to compare the hematological parameters associated with diabetes and muscle activity between healthy humans and diabetic type-1 patients when subjected to HIIT and regular aerobic exercises. Methods: A convenience sample of total 60 participants was taken it comprised of thirty healthy individuals taken from the department of Physical Therapy, University of Sargodha, Lahore campus and thirty diabetic type-1 individuals of age 15-30 years taken from Akhuwat health services clinic Township, Lahore. Participants were divided into four groups of fifteen individuals each. Group one was the diabetic HIIT (DH group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to HIIT. Group two was the diabetic aerobic (DA group with diabetic type-1 patients subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Group three was control High intensity interval training (HH that consisted of fifteen healthy individuals to be subjected to High intensity interval training exercises (HIIT. Group four (HA was the control aerobic group with fifteen healthy individuals of average lifestyles subjected to regular aerobic exercises. Results: Aerobic exercise was found to be more effective in reducing glucose level, lowering exogenous insulin and glycated hemoglobin, however HIIT proved to be more effective in lowering blood cholesterol level and decrease LDL level and increase HDL level. Conclusion: It was concluded that aerobic exercise program in comparison to high

  17. [Effects of shadow boxing training on exercise endurance and quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Gang; Zhou, Yu-min; Wang, Da-li; Chen, Lian; Zhong, Nan-shan; Ran, Pi-xin

    2012-04-10

    To evaluate the effects of shadow boxing training on the exercise endurance and quality of life of Chinese patients with COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease). From May 2010 to March 2011, a total of 70 COPD patients in stable phases were recruited from Liwan, Yuexiu and Haizhu districts of Guangzhou. There were 35 patients in the shadow boxing exercise group and 35 patients in the control group. And they were matched by gender and age. The patients in the shadow boxing group exercised for 3 months while those in the control group received the conventional out-hospital management only. Their demographic, medical history, smoking status, medicinal use, spirometric data, clinical COPD questionnaire (CCQ) scores, 6-minute walking distance and Borg scores were collected before and after trial. A total of 63 COPD patients (33 in shadow boxing group vs. 30 in control group) completed the study. There was an average dropout rate of 5.7% (2/35) in shadow boxing group and 14.3% (5/35) in control group. No differences existed between two groups in age (67 ± 8 vs 69 ± 9 yr), male proportion (84.8% vs 86.7%), body mass index (22.8 ± 2.6 vs 22.7 ± 3.0), usage proportion of medicine (42.4% vs 33.3%), duration of disease (4.0 ± 7.5 vs 5.5 ± 7.3), percentage of smokers (78.8% vs 80.0%), 6-minute walking distance (447 ± 94 vs 414 ± 100), CCQ total score (15.0 ± 9.4 vs 14.1 ± 8.8), CCQ symptom score (9.2 ± 5.6 vs 8.3 ± 5.0) and activity score (5.8 ± 4.5 vs 5.8 ± 4.4) at baseline (all P > 0.05). At the end of study, the 6-minute walking distance of patients had statistical differences between two groups (P boxing group increased by (51 ± 55) m while the control dropped by (19 ± 58) m. The total score, symptom score and activity score of clinical COPD questionnaire had statistical differences between two groups. They decreased significantly in the shadow boxing group as compared with the baseline data while there was no significant change in the control group

  18. Exercise Training Reverses Extrapulmonary Impairments in Smoke-exposed Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, T Scott; Aakerøy, Lars; Eisenkolb, Sophia; Kunth, Patricia; Bakkerud, Fredrik; Wohlwend, Martin; Ormbostad, Anne Marie; Fischer, Tina; Wisloff, Ulrik; Schuler, Gerhard; Steinshamn, Sigurd; Adams, Volker; Bronstad, Eivind

    2017-05-01

    Cigarette smoking is the main risk factor for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and emphysema. However, evidence on the extrapulmonary effects of smoke exposure that precede lung impairments remains unclear at present, as are data on nonpharmacological treatments such as exercise training. Three groups of mice, including control (n = 10), smoking (n = 10), and smoking with 6 wk of high-intensity interval treadmill running (n = 11), were exposed to 20 wk of fresh air or whole-body cigarette smoke. Exercise capacity (peak oxygen uptake) and lung destruction (histology) were subsequently measured, whereas the heart, peripheral endothelium (aorta), and respiratory (diaphragm) and limb (extensor digitorum longus and soleus) skeletal muscles were assessed for in vivo and in vitro function, in situ mitochondrial respiration, and molecular alterations. Smoking reduced body weight by 26% (P 0.05). Smoking impaired exercise capacity by 15% while inducing right ventricular dysfunction by ~20%, endothelial dysfunction by ~20%, and diaphragm muscle weakness by ~15% (all P exercise training (P smoking mice had normal limb muscle and mitochondrial function (cardiac and skeletal muscle fibers); however, diaphragm measures of oxidative stress and protein degradation were increased by 111% and 65%, respectively (P exercise training (P smoking reduced exercise capacity concomitant with functional impairments to the heart, peripheral endothelium, and respiratory muscle that preceded the development of overt emphysema. However, high-intensity exercise training was able to reverse these smoke-induced extrapulmonary impairments.

  19. The Effects of Functional Training, Bicycle Exercise, and Exergaming on Walking Capacity of Elderly Patients With Parkinson Disease: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Single-blinded Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraz, Daniel Dominguez; Trippo, Karen Valadares; Duarte, Gabriel Pereira; Neto, Mansueto Gomes; Bernardes Santos, Kionna Oliveira; Filho, Jamary Oliveira

    2018-05-01

    To compare the effects of functional training, bicycle exercise, and exergaming on walking capacity of elderly with Parkinson disease (PD). A pilot randomized, controlled, single-blinded trial. A state reference health care center for elderly, a public reference outpatient clinic for the elderly. Elderly individuals (≥60 years of age; N=62) with idiopathic PD (stage 2 to 3 of modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale) according to the London Brain Bank. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups. Group 1 (G1) participated in functional training (n=22); group 2 (G2) performed bicycle exercise (n=20), and group 3 (G3) trained with Kinect Adventures (Microsoft, Redmond, WA) exergames (n=20). The primary outcome measure was the 6-minute walk test (6MWT); secondary outcome measures were the 10-m walk test (10MWT), sitting-rising test (SRT), body mass index, Parkinson Disease Questionnaire-39, World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule 2.0 (WHODAS 2.0), and 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale. All groups showed significant improvements in 6MWT (G1 P=.008; G2 P=.001; G3 P=.005), SRT (G1 Ptraining had similar outcomes compared with functional training and bicycle exercise. The three physical exercise modalities presented significant improvements on walking capacity, ability to stand up and sit, and functionality of the participants. Copyright © 2018 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of different modes of exercise training on body composition and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in middle-aged men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Reza Mohammadi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies have indicated that exercise training improves body composition and cardiovascular disease risk factors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of 12 weeks of aerobic, strength and combined training on body composition, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1, and C-reactive protein (CRP in sedentary middle-aged men. Methods: Forty-seven male aged 40–60 years voluntarily participated in this study and were divided in four groups: aerobic (n = 12, strength (n = 12, combined (n = 11, and control (n = 12 groups randomly. Body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP were measured before and after 12 weeks. Data were analyzed using paired t-test and analysis of variance statistical methods. Results: There were significant differences in body weight between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.004 and aerobic and control groups (P = 0.018, body mass index between combined and strength training (P = 0.004 and combined and control groups (P = 0.001, fat percentage between aerobic training and control group (P = 0.017 and combined training and control groups (P = 0.004, and finally, fat-free mass between aerobic and strength training (P = 0.024, aerobic and combined training (P = 0.0001, strength and control groups (P = 0.035, and combined and control groups (P = 0.0001. Conclusions: The results indicated that 12-week workout, 20–60 min/session, 3 days a week of moderate intensity exercise improved body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP compared to those who did not participate in any training. However, all three types of exercises had small benefits on body composition, ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and CRP in sedentary middle-aged men, and the importance of combined training required further investigations.

  1. Effects of Exercise Training on Molecular Markers of Lipogenesis and Lipid Partitioning in Fructose-Induced Liver Fat Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siham Yasari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the impact of exercise training on lipogenic gene expression in liver and lipid partitioning following the ingestion of a high fructose load. Female rats were exercise-trained for 8 wk or kept sedentary before being submitted to a fasting/refeeding protocol. Rats were further subdivided as follow: rats were fasted for 24 h, refed a standard diet for 24 h, starved for another 24 h, and refed with a standard or a high-fructose diet 24 h before sacrifice. Fructose refeeding was associated with an increase in hepatic lipid content, endocannabinoid receptor 1, sterol regulatory element-binding protein1c, and stearoyl-CoA desaturase1 gene expression in both Sed and TR rats. However, desaturation indexes measured in liver (C16 : 1/C16 : 0 and C18 : 1/C18 : 0 and plasma (C18 : 1/C18 : 0 were higher (P<0.01 in TR than in Sed rats following fructose refeeding. It is concluded that exercise training does not significantly affect fat accumulation and the molecular expression of genes involved in lipogenesis after fasting and fructose refeeding but does modify the partitioning of lipids so as to provide more unsaturated fatty acids in liver without affecting liver fat content.

  2. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoli, Antonio; Gentil, Paulo; Moro, Tatiana; Marcolin, Giuseppe; Bianco, Antonino

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ) or multi-joint exercises (MJ) on VO 2 max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group ( n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years) exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc.) and MJ group ( n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years) with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.). The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load) was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO 2 max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO 2 max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ), bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ), knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ) and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ). In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  3. Effects of Physical Fitness Exercise, Mental Exercise and Mindfulness Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Elderly Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latifeh Ghasempour

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion The study showed that physical exercises, mindfulness and mental training have a significant effect on the improvement of static and dynamic balance in elderly women, though the association of cognitive practices (mindfulness and mental training with motor training (physical exercises could cause a lasting impact. So, it is recommended to use physical exercises with cognitive training to improve static and dynamic balance in elderly people.

  4. Expression of interleukin-15 and inflammatory cytokines in skeletal muscles of STZ-induced diabetic rats: effect of resistance exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molanouri Shamsi, M; Hassan, Z H; Gharakhanlou, R; Quinn, L S; Azadmanesh, K; Baghersad, L; Isanejad, A; Mahdavi, M

    2014-05-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy is associated with type-1 diabetes. Skeletal muscle is the source of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines that can mediate muscle hypertrophy and atrophy, while resistance exercise can modulate both muscle mass and muscle cytokine expression. This study determined the effects of a 5-week resistance exercise training regimen on the expression of muscle cytokines in healthy and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, with special emphasis on interleukin-15 (IL-15), a muscle-derived cytokine proposed to be involved in muscle hypertrophy or responses to stress. Induction of diabetes reduced muscle weight in both the fast flexor hallucis longus (FHL) and slow soleus muscles, while resistance training preserved FHL muscle weight in diabetic rats. IL-15 protein content was increased by training in both FHL and soleus muscles, as well as serum, in normal and diabetic rats. With regard to proinflammatory cytokines, muscle IL-6 levels were increased in diabetic rats, while training decreased muscle IL-6 levels in diabetic rats; training had no effect on FHL muscle IL-6 levels in healthy rats. Also, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and IL-1β levels were increased by diabetes, but not changed by training. In conclusion, we found that in diabetic rats, resistance training increased muscle and serum IL-15 levels, decreased muscle IL-6 levels, and preserved FHL muscle mass.

  5. Effects of 6 months of aerobic and resistance exercise training on carotid artery intima media thickness in overweight and obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jinkee; Park, Hyuntea

    2017-12-01

    We studied the effects of exercise on carotid intima-media thickness, luminal diameter, and flow velocity in overweight and obese older women, and the associations between carotid parameters changes and other variables. A total of 41 overweight and obese older women (aged 65-77 years, fat mass percent ≥ 32%), who were divided into a control group (n = 20) and a supervised combined exercise group (n = 21). The 24-week combined exercise program (aerobic and resistance exercise) consisted of sessions 40-80 min in length 5 days per week under the supervision of an exercise specialist. Body composition, blood pressure, physical function and carotid variables were assessed. The differences in all variables, and the relative changes between baseline and 24 weeks' follow up were evaluated. Carotid intima-media thickness, systolic carotid luminal diameter, peak systolic flow velocity and end diastolic flow velocity showed a significant group × time interaction. No interaction was observed for diastolic luminal diameter. In the exercise group, the change of carotid intima-media thickness was significantly associated with systolic blood pressure, maximal walking speed, 1-mile walking time and maximal oxygen uptake. Also, the change of peak systolic flow velocity was significantly associated with skeletal muscle mass, diastolic blood pressure and maximum walking speed. Combined exercise can effectively improve carotid intima-media thickness in overweight and obese older women. In addition, exercise training increases the systolic carotid luminal diameter and flow velocity in older women. Therefore, regular combined exercise might help prevent atherosclerotic disease by improving the carotid artery. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 2304-2310. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  6. Effective mechanic training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdge, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The need for the training of mechanics is discussed, and the increased interest within the utility industry of placing a similar importance on this training as it has traditionally placed on operator training, is expressed. Effective approaches and techniques are described. Fundamental mechanical maintenance concepts and their practical application are discussed, including the use of supporting video programs. The importance of follow-up practical shop exercise which reinforces classroom instruction is stressed, drawing from practical utility experience. Utilizing success in training as a measure of eligibility for advancement is discussed as well as the interface between training and the company bargaining unit

  7. The effect of intelligent physical exercise training on sickness absence and job performance among office workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jeanette Reffstrup; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Søgaard, Karen

    companies located across Denmark were allocated to a training group, TG, (N = 194) or a control group, CG, (N = 195). The TG received one-hour high intensity IPET every week within working hours, and was recommended to perform 30 minutes of moderate intensity physical activity six days a week during leisure...... at baseline mean 4,4 days in TG and 3,5 days in CG. Discussion One-hour high intensity IPET in working hours combined with recommendations of 30 minutes daily leisure time moderate intensity physical activity improved job performance and decreased sickness absence if adhering to the intervention protocol...... time. The principles of IPET have previously been described in details (Sjogaard, Justesen et al. 2014). Before and after the one-year intervention the office workers answered a questionnaire on work ability (ten-step ordinal scale), productivity (ten-step ordinal scale), and health (five–step ordinal...

  8. A systematic review and meta-analysis on the effects of exercise training versus hypocaloric diet: distinct effects on body weight and visceral adipose tissue.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheggen, R.J.; Maessen, M.F.; Green, D.J.; Hermus, A.R.M.M.; Hopman, M.T.E.; Thijssen, D.H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training ('exercise') and hypocaloric diet ('diet') are frequently prescribed for weight loss in obesity. Whilst body weight changes are commonly used to evaluate lifestyle interventions, visceral adiposity (VAT) is a more relevant and stronger predictor for morbidity and mortality. A

  9. Respiratory Muscle Training and Exercise Endurance at Altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfer, Samuel; Quackenbush, Joseph; Fletcher, Michael; Pendergast, David R

    2016-08-01

    Climbing and trekking at altitude are common recreational and military activities. Physiological effects of altitude are hypoxia and hyperventilation. The hyperventilatory response to altitude may cause respiratory muscle fatigue and reduce sustained submaximal exercise. Voluntary isocapnic hyperpnea respiratory muscle training (VIHT) improves exercise endurance at sea level and at depth. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that VIHT would improve exercise time at altitude [3600 m (11,811 ft)] compared to control and placebo groups. Subjects pedaled an ergometer until exhaustion at simulated altitude in a hypobaric chamber while noninvasive arterial saturation (Sao2), ventilation (VE), and oxygen consumption (Vo2) were measured. As expected, Sao2 decreased to 88 ± 4% saturation at rest and to 81 ± 2% during exercise, and was not affected by VIHT. VIHT resulted in a 40% increase in maximal training VE compared to pre-VIHT. Exercise endurance significantly increased 44% after VIHT (P = altitude post-VIHT increased more (49%) for longer (21 min) and decreased less (11% at 25.4 ± 6.7 min). VIHT improved exercise time at altitude and sustained VE. This suggests that VIHT reduced respiratory muscle fatigue and would be useful to trekkers and military personnel working at altitude. Helfer S, Quackenbush J, Fletcher M, Pendergast DR. Respiratory muscle training and exercise endurance at altitutde. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2016; 87(8):704-711.

  10. The effectiveness of combining inspiratory muscle training with manual therapy and a therapeutic exercise program on maximum inspiratory pressure in adults with asthma: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-de-Uralde-Villanueva, Ibai; Candelas-Fernández, Pablo; de-Diego-Cano, Beatriz; Mínguez-Calzada, Orcález; Del Corral, Tamara

    2018-06-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the addition of manual therapy and therapeutic exercise protocol to inspiratory muscle training was more effective in improving maximum inspiratory pressure than inspiratory muscle training in isolation. This is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial. In total, 43 patients with asthma were included in this study. The patients were allocated into one of the two groups: (1) inspiratory muscle training ( n = 21; 20-minute session) or (2) inspiratory muscle training (20-minute session) combined with a program of manual therapy (15-minute session) and therapeutic exercise (15-minute session; n = 22). All participants received 12 sessions, two days/week, for six weeks and performed the domiciliary exercises protocol. The main measures such as maximum inspiratory pressure, spirometric measures, forward head posture, and thoracic kyphosis were recorded at baseline and after the treatment. For the per-protocol analysis, between-group differences at post-intervention were observed in maximum inspiratory pressure (19.77 cmH 2 O (11.49-28.04), P < .05; F = 22.436; P < .001; η 2 p  = 0.371) and forward head posture (-1.25 cm (-2.32 to -0.19), P < .05; F = 5.662; P = .022; η 2 p  = 0.13). The intention-to-treat analysis showed the same pattern of findings. The inspiratory muscle training combined with a manual therapy and therapeutic exercise program is more effective than its application in isolation for producing short-term maximum inspiratory pressure and forward head posture improvements in patients with asthma.

  11. Effects of insulin and exercise training on FGF21, its receptors and target genes in obesity and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rikke Kruse; Vienberg, Sara Gry; Vind, Birgitte F

    2017-01-01

    obesity with and without type 2 diabetes led to reduced expression of KLB, but increased FGFR1c expression. However, the expression of most FGF21 target genes was unaltered except for reduced CIDEA expression in individuals with type 2 diabetes. CONCLUSIONS....../INTERPRETATION: Insulin-induced expression of muscle FGF21 correlates strongly with a rise in serum FGF21, and this response appears intact in overweight/obesity and type 2 diabetes. FGF21 resistance may involve reduced KLB expression in WAT. However, increased FGFR1c expression or other mechanisms seem to ensure...... that insulin and exercise increase FGF21 in plasma. Obesity and type 2 diabetes are potentially FGF21-resistant states, but to what extent FGF21 responses to insulin and exercise training are preserved, and whether FGF21, its receptors and target genes are altered, remains to be established. METHODS...

  12. Influence of Sequential vs. Simultaneous Dual-Task Exercise Training on Cognitive Function in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Jamie L; Duckham, Rachel L; Milte, Catherine M; Main, Luana C; Daly, Robin M

    2017-01-01

    Emerging research indicates that exercise combined with cognitive training may improve cognitive function in older adults. Typically these programs have incorporated sequential training, where exercise and cognitive training are undertaken separately. However, simultaneous or dual-task training, where cognitive and/or motor training are performed simultaneously with exercise, may offer greater benefits. This review summary provides an overview of the effects of combined simultaneous vs. sequential training on cognitive function in older adults. Based on the available evidence, there are inconsistent findings with regard to the cognitive benefits of sequential training in comparison to cognitive or exercise training alone. In contrast, simultaneous training interventions, particularly multimodal exercise programs in combination with secondary tasks regulated by sensory cues, have significantly improved cognition in both healthy older and clinical populations. However, further research is needed to determine the optimal characteristics of a successful simultaneous training program for optimizing cognitive function in older people.

  13. The effects of exercise training and caloric restriction on the cardiac oxytocin natriuretic peptide system in the diabetic mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broderick TL

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Tom L Broderick,1 Marek Jankowski,2 Jolanta Gutkowska2 1Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Diabetes and Exercise Metabolism, Midwestern University, Glendale, AZ, USA; 2Department of Medicine, Laboratory of Cardiovascular Biochemistry, Centre Hospitalier de l‘Université de Montréal-Hôtel-Dieu, Montréal, QC, Canada Background: Regular exercise training (ET and caloric restriction (CR are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT–natriuretic peptide (NP system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity. Methods: Five-week-old male db/db mice were assigned to the following groups: sedentary, ET, and ET + CR. Nonobese heterozygote littermates served as controls. ET was performed on a treadmill at moderate intensity, and CR was induced by reducing food intake by 30% of that consumed by sedentary db/db mice for a period of 8 weeks. Results: After 8 weeks, only ET + CR, but not ET, slightly improved body weight compared to sedentary db/db mice. Regardless of the treatment, db/db mice remained hyperglycemic. Hearts from db/db mice demonstrated reduced expression of genes linked to the cardiac OT–NP system. In fact, compared to control mice, mRNA expression of GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4, OT receptor, OT, brain NP, NP receptor type C, and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS was decreased in hearts from sedentary db/db mice. Both ET alone and ET + CR increased the mRNA expression of GATA4 compared to sedentary db/db mice. Only ET combined with CR produced increased eNOS mRNA and protein expression. Conclusion: Our data indicate that enhancement of eNOS by combined

  14. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang [Korea Institute of Nuclear Nonproliferation and Control, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command.

  15. Development of Training Aids for Nuclear Forensics Exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sangjun; Lee, Seungmin; Lim, Hobin; Hyung, Sangcheol; Kim, Jaekwang

    2015-01-01

    Current radioactive-related training has focused on the prevention of a radiation disaster. Procedures to recover nuclear and radiological materials have been simplified due to the lack of training tools to reproduce real conditions for security and staff at nuclear facilities. The process of recovering materials is crucial in order to collect evidence and secure the safety of response forces. Moreover, exercises for recovering lost or missing a low dose radiation sources, does not well match with explosive like RDD blast situations. Therefore KINAC has been developing training aids in order to closely reproduce conditions of an actual terrorist attack and enhance effectiveness of exercises. These tools will be applied to Nuclear Forensics Exercises in which evidence collection is important at the time of an incident. KINAC has been developing training aids to enhance the effectiveness of such exercises by providing simulated conditions of actual terrorist incidents. Simulated training aids, based on the beacon system, operate with electromagnetic waves. These tools are able to simulate environments close to actual conditions by supplying similar properties of radioactivity. Training aids will be helpful in giving experience to security personnel and staff in the event of a terrorist incident. This experience includes collecting evidence for nuclear forensics. KINAC also has a plan to hold drills using these tools this year with The Armed Force CBR Defense Command

  16. Effect of physical exercise training on muscle strength and body composition, and their association with functional capacity and quality of life in patients with atrial fibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osbak, Philip Samuel; Mourier, Malene; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Atrial fibrillation diminishes cardiac function, exercise tolerance and quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine whether exercise training in atrial fibrillation affects muscle strength, body composition, maximal exercise capacity and walking capacity positively......, thus improving quality of life. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Twelve weeks of physical exercise training or control. Patients: Forty-nine patients in permanent atrial fibrillation were randomized to training or control. Methods: Intervention consisted of aerobic training for 1 h 3 times per week...... at 70% of maximal exercise capacity vs control. Muscle strength, exercise capacity, 6-minute walk test, lean body mass, fat percentage, and quality of life were assessed. Results: Muscle strength increased in the training group (p = 0.01), but no change was observed in controls. Lean body mass...

  17. Impact of exercise training on arterial wall thickness in humans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thijssen, D.H.J.; Cable, N.T.; Green, D.J.

    2012-01-01

    Thickening of the carotid artery wall has been adopted as a surrogate marker of pre-clinical atherosclerosis, which is strongly related to increased cardiovascular risk. The cardioprotective effects of exercise training, including direct effects on vascular function and lumen dimension, have been

  18. ACUTE EFFECTS OF MOVEMENT VELOCITY ON BLOOD LACTATE AND GROWTH HORMONE RESPONSES AFTER ECCENTRIC BENCH PRESS EXERCISE IN RESISTANCE-TRAINED MEN

    OpenAIRE

    Calixto, RD; Verlengia, R; Crisp, AH; Carvalho, TB; Crepaldi, MD; Pereira, AA; Yamada, AK; da Mota, GR; Lopes, CR

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH) concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8) and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8). Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric...

  19. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  20. Effect of creatine supplementation and resistance-exercise training on muscle insulin-like growth factor in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Darren G; Candow, Darren G; Chilibeck, Philip D; MacNeil, Lauren G; Roy, Brian D; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Ziegenfuss, Tim

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare changes in muscle insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) content resulting from resistance-exercise training (RET) and creatine supplementation (CR). Male (n=24) and female (n=18) participants with minimal resistance-exercise-training experience (=1 year) who were participating in at least 30 min of structured physical activity (i.e., walking, jogging, cycling) 3-5 x/wk volunteered for the study. Participants were randomly assigned in blocks (gender) to supplement with creatine (CR: 0.25 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 7 days; 0.06 g/kg lean-tissue mass for 49 days; n=22, 12 males, 10 female) or isocaloric placebo (PL: n=20, 12 male, 8 female) and engage in a whole-body RET program for 8 wk. Eighteen participants were classified as vegetarian (lacto-ovo or vegan; CR: 5 male, 5 female; PL: 3 male, 5 female). Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before and after the intervention and analyzed for IGF-I using standard immunohistochemical procedures. Stained muscle cross-sections were examined microscopically and IGF-I content quantified using image-analysis software. Results showed that RET increased intramuscular IGF-I content by 67%, with greater accumulation from CR (+78%) than PL (+54%; p=.06). There were no differences in IGF-I between vegetarians and nonvegetarians. These findings indicate that creatine supplementation during resistance-exercise training increases intramuscular IGF-I concentration in healthy men and women, independent of habitual dietary routine.

  1. Comparing Effects of Medication Therapy and Exercise Training with Diet on Liver enzyme Levels and Liver Sonography in Patients with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Nabizadeh Haghighi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background & Objectives: Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, characterized by the deposition of fat in liver cells, can cause fibrosis, cirrhosis, and liver cell damage if not controlled. The aim of this study is to compare the effects of medication therapy and exercise training with diet on liver enzyme levels and liver sonography in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD. Materials & Methods :In this quasi-experimental study, female patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver were randomly divided into two groups: medication therapy (n = 10 and exercise therapy (n = 10 for 8 weeks. During this period, the exercise group performed exercise training three days a week for 90 minutes per session. The drug was given to the medication group. In both groups, the diet was 500 calories less than their daily energy. Before and after intervention, blood tests and liver sonography were executed. All statistical analyses were done using SPSS for Windows version 20. Comparisons between and within groups were performed by Student's t-test and Wilcoxon test on paired and unpaired data. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results :In both groups, liver enzyme levels and disease severity in sonography reduced significantly (p<0.05. Conclusion: The findings of the present research showed that both methods of therapy have the same effect on reducing the severity of NAFLD.

  2. Too old to benefit from sports? The cardiovascular effects of exercise training in elderly subjects treated for isolated systolic hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff, Timm H; Franke, Nadine; Schmidt, Sven; Vallbracht-Israng, Katja; Meissner, Romy; Yildirim, Havva; Schlattmann, Peter; Zidek, Walter; Dimeo, Fernando; van der Giet, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Hypertension in the elderly is commonly characterized by an elevation of pulse pressure. With regard to advanced arteriosclerosis and limited physical fitness, doubt was casted whether elderly patients still achieve relevant cardiovascular benefits by physical exercise. The present work examines the impact of pulse pressure as a footprint of vascular ageing on cardiovascular benefits of endurance training in elderly hypertensives. 54 patients > or =60 years with systolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) >140 mm Hg and/or antihypertensive treatment and diastolic ABP hypertensives with markedly increased arterial stiffness. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. The Effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training on Sickness Presenteeism and Absenteeism Among Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Just Bendix; Søgaard, Karen; Dalager, Tina

    2017-01-01

     = 193) or control group CG (N = 194). TG received 1-hour high-intensity IPET once a week within working hours, and was recommended to perform 30 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity (PA) 6 days a week during leisure-time. RESULTS: An intention-to-treat analysis showed no effect on absenteeism......, but a significant 4% increase in workability and 9% increase in general health in TG compared with CG. A per-protocol analysis [adherence of ≥70% (N = 89)] in addition showed a significant 6% increase in productivity and a 29% reduction in absenteeism compared with CG. CONCLUSION: IPET combined with recommendations...

  4. Effects of Aerobic Exercise and Resistance Training on Stage I and II Breast Cancer Survivors: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Dena; Erck, Elizabeth G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Lack of physical activity has been noted in breast cancer survivors and been attributed to decreased physical function. Purpose: This study assessed the effects of a moderate-to-vigorous physical exercise program on body fat percentage, maximal oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2] max), body mass index, and bone mineral density (BMD) of…

  5. Does 'altitude training' increase exercise performance in elite athletes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Carsten; Robach, Paul

    2016-07-01

    What is the topic of this review? The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of various altitude training strategies as investigated within the last few years. What advances does it highlight? Based on the available literature, the foundation to recommend altitude training to athletes is weak. Athletes may use one of the various altitude training strategies to improve exercise performance. The scientific support for such strategies is, however, not as sound as one would perhaps imagine. The question addressed in this review is whether altitude training should be recommended to elite athletes or not. © 2016 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  6. Strength training and aerobic exercise training for muscle disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voet, N.B.M.; Kooi, E.L. van der; Riphagen, I.I.; Lindeman, E.; Engelen, B.G.M. van; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Strength training or aerobic exercise programmes might optimise muscle and cardiorespiratory function and prevent additional disuse atrophy and deconditioning in people with a muscle disease. This is an update of a review first published in 2004. OBJECTIVES: To examine the safety and

  7. Effects of Exercise Modality During Additional "High-Intensity Interval Training" on Aerobic Fitness and Strength in Powerlifting and Strongman Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androulakis-Korakakis, Patroklos; Langdown, Louis; Lewis, Adam; Fisher, James P; Gentil, Paulo; Paoli, Antonio; Steele, James

    2018-02-01

    Androulakis-Korakakis, P, Langdown, L, Lewis, A, Fisher, JP, Gentil, P, Paoli, A, and Steele, J. Effects of exercise modality during additional "high-intensity interval training" on aerobic fitness and strength in powerlifting and strongman athletes. J Strength Cond Res 32(2): 450-457, 2018-Powerlifters and strongman athletes have a necessity for optimal levels of muscular strength while maintaining sufficient aerobic capacity to perform and recover between events. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) has been popularized for its efficacy in improving both aerobic fitness and strength but never assessed within the aforementioned population group. This study looked to compare the effect of exercise modality, e.g., a traditional aerobic mode (AM) and strength mode (SM), during HIIT on aerobic fitness and strength. Sixteen well resistance-trained male participants, currently competing in powerlifting and strongman events, completed 8 weeks of approximately effort- and volume-matched HIIT in 2 groups: AM (cycling, n = 8) and SM (resistance training, n = 8). Aerobic fitness was measured as predicted V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the YMCA 3 minutes step test and strength as predicted 1 repetition maximum from a 4-6RM test using a leg extension. Both groups showed significant improvements in both strength and aerobic fitness. There was a significant between-group difference for aerobic fitness improvements favoring the AM group (p ≤ 0.05). There was no between-group difference for change in strength. Magnitude of change using within-group effect size for aerobic fitness and strength was considered large for each group (aerobic fitness, AM = 2.6, SM = 2.0; strength, AM = 1.9, SM = 1.9). In conclusion, our results support enhanced strength and aerobic fitness irrespective of exercise modality (e.g., traditional aerobic and resistance training). However, powerlifters and strongman athletes wishing to enhance their aerobic fitness should consider HIIT using an

  8. Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents with Cystic Fibrosis: Theory into Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Williams

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity and exercise training play an important role in the clinical management of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF. Exercise training is more common and recognized as an essential part of rehabilitation programmes and overall CF care. Regular exercise training is associated with improved aerobic and anaerobic capacity, higher pulmonary function, and enhanced airway mucus clearance. Furthermore, patients with higher aerobic fitness have an improved survival. Aerobic and anaerobic training may have different effects, while the combination of both have been reported to be beneficial in CF. However, exercise training remains underutilised and not always incorporated into routine CF management. We provide an update on aerobic and anaerobic responses to exercise and general training recommendations in children and adolescents with CF. We propose that an active lifestyle and exercise training are an efficacious part of regular CF patient management.

  9. Impact of moderate versus mild aerobic exercise training on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Recently some plasma biomarkers of inflammation have been recognized as important cardiovascular risk factors. There is little information about the effects of aerobic exercise training on these biomarkers and the risk of metabolic complications in obese type 2 diabetes patients. Objective: To compare the ...

  10. Predictability of psychic outcome for exercise training and exercise training including relaxation therapy after myocardial infarction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J. Duivenvoorden (Hugo); J. van Dixhoorn (J.)

    1991-01-01

    markdownabstractAbstract Predictability of the psychic outcome for two cardiac rehabilitation programmes was investigated in 119 myocardial infarction patients. They were randomly assigned to either a five-week daily exercise training or to an identical training in combination with six sessions

  11. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  12. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  13. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure: Adherence, exercise capacity, inflammation and glycemic control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycerol, free fatty acids, HbA1c), inflammation and endothelial function (hsCRP, orosomucoid, interleukin 6, TNF-alpha, urine-orosomucoid and -albumin/creatinin), lipid metabolism, NT-proBNP or other regulatory hormones (cortisol, epinephrine and IGF-1......). There were no changes in quality of life. Conclusions. The effect of exercise training in these older CHF-patients was not as impressive as reported in younger and more selected patients. More studies on the efficiency of exercise training that reflect the age- and co-morbidity of the majority of CHF...

  14. High intensity interval exercise training in overweight young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijie, T; Hainai, Y; Fengying, Y; Jianxiong, W

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was intended to evaluate the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) program on the body composition, cardiac function and aerobic capacity in overweight young women. Sixty female university students (aged 19-20, BMI≥25kg/m2 and percentage body fat ≥ 30%) were chosen and then randomly assigned to each of the HIIT group, the moderate intensity continuous training (MICT) group and the non-training control group. The subjects in both the HIIT and MICT groups underwent exercise training five times per week for 12 weeks. In each of the training sessions, the HIIT group performed interval exercises at the individualized heart rate (HR) of 85% of VO2max and separated by brief periods of low intensity activity (HR at 50% of VO2max), while the MICT group did continuous walking and/or jogging at the individualized HR of 50% of VO2max. Both of these exercise training programs produced significant improvements in the subjects' body composition, left ventricular ejection fraction, heart rate at rest, maximal oxygen uptake and ventilatory threshold. However, the HIIT group achieved better results than those in the MICT group, as it was evaluated by the amount of the effect size. The control group did not achieve any change in all of the measured variables. The tangible results achieved by our relatively large groups of homogeneous subjects have demonstrated that the HIIT program is an effective measure for the treatment of young women who are overweight.

  15. Effects of aerobic interval training versus continuous moderate exercise programme on aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and blood lipid profile in collegate females

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzystof Mazurek

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available introduction. Regular physical activity has many positive health benefits, including reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and some cancers, as well as improving the quality of life. objectives. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of 8-week aerobic interval cycle exercise training (AIT compared to continuous cycle exercises of moderate intensity (CME on the aerobic and anaerobic capacity, somatic features and lipid profile. material and methods. The research was conducted in 88 volunteers aged 19.5±0.6 years, who were randomized to three groups of organized physical activity (OPA, who exercised 3 times per week in 47 min sessions: (I AIT (n=24 comprising 2 series of 6x10 s sprinting with maximal pedalling cadence and active rest pedalling with intensity 65%–75% HRmax, (II CME (n=22 corresponding to 65%-75% HRmax, (III regular collegiate physical education classes of programmed exercises (CON; n=42. Before and after OPA anthropometrics, aero- and anaerobic capacity and lipid profile indices were measured. results. In AIT, a significantly greater decrease of waist circumference and WHR was noted when compared to CON, and a significantly greater reduction of sum of skinfolds than in CON and CME. Improvement in relative and absolute VO2max (L/min and ml/kg/min was significantly higher in AIT than CON. Work output and peak power output in the anaerobic test improved significantly in AIT, CME and CON, but independently of training type. OPA was effective only in reducing triglyceride concentrations in CME and CON groups, without interaction effects in relation to training type. conclusion. It was found that 8 weeks of OPA was beneficial in improving somatic and aerobic capacity indices, but AIT resulted in the greatest improvement in somatic indices (waist circumference, WHR, sum of skinfolds and in VO[sub]2[/sub]max, compared to CME and CON programmes.

  16. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  17. Exercise training restores cardiac protein quality control in heart failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane C Campos

    Full Text Available Exercise training is a well-known coadjuvant in heart failure treatment; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying its beneficial effects remain elusive. Despite the primary cause, heart failure is often preceded by two distinct phenomena: mitochondria dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption. The objective of the study was to determine the contribution of exercise training in regulating cardiac mitochondria metabolism and cytosolic protein quality control in a post-myocardial infarction-induced heart failure (MI-HF animal model. Our data demonstrated that isolated cardiac mitochondria from MI-HF rats displayed decreased oxygen consumption, reduced maximum calcium uptake and elevated H₂O₂ release. These changes were accompanied by exacerbated cardiac oxidative stress and proteasomal insufficiency. Declined proteasomal activity contributes to cardiac protein quality control disruption in our MI-HF model. Using cultured neonatal cardiomyocytes, we showed that either antimycin A or H₂O₂ resulted in inactivation of proteasomal peptidase activity, accumulation of oxidized proteins and cell death, recapitulating our in vivo model. Of interest, eight weeks of exercise training improved cardiac function, peak oxygen uptake and exercise tolerance in MI-HF rats. Moreover, exercise training restored mitochondrial oxygen consumption, increased Ca²⁺-induced permeability transition and reduced H₂O₂ release in MI-HF rats. These changes were followed by reduced oxidative stress and better cardiac protein quality control. Taken together, our findings uncover the potential contribution of mitochondrial dysfunction and cytosolic protein quality control disruption to heart failure and highlight the positive effects of exercise training in re-establishing cardiac mitochondrial physiology and protein quality control, reinforcing the importance of this intervention as a non-pharmacological tool for heart failure therapy.

  18. The impact of duration on effectiveness of exercise, the implication for periodization of training and goal setting for individuals who are overfat, a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J E

    2016-12-01

    Given the assumption that all methods of exercise, e.g., endurance (ET), resistance (RT), or combination of both (E+R), can induce a beneficial effect size (ES) for changes in body composition and health status of individuals who are overfat. Thus the aim and purpose of this study is to evaluate the current body of knowledge to address the question as to the impact that the duration of exercise has on its relative effectiveness for inducing health and body compositional changes in individuals who are overfat to assist with developing periodized exercise protocols and establishing short and long term goals. A tiered meta-analysis of 92-studies and 200-exercise groupings were used for establishing pooled ES within and between groupings based on the increments of 4-week of duration and study designs of ≤8, 9-16, 17-23, 24-36, and ≥36 weeks. Analysis based on random-effect of response indicates a continuum of effectiveness within and between ET, RT and E+R based on duration. Where beneficial effectiveness is not indicated for any measures until after 8-weeks of continuous training with progressive effectiveness being noted in changes to cardiorespiratory fitness, inflammatory cytokines, and alteration of metabolic status from 12-weeks through 32-weeks of continuous training. Results indicate a greater ES for RT and E+R versus ET early in intervention that equalizes with longer durations. Supporting the use of RT and E+R within a periodized program. And secondarily, goals should be established first on performance gains and second body composition or health status modifications for the individual who is overfat.

  19. Effects of hypobaric Endurance Training on Graded Exercise Induced Lymphocyte Mobilization, Senescence and Their Surface Thiol Levels in Elite Male Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim - Azali Alamdari

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of each hypoxemic exercise session or overall training period still remains to be more elucidated in elite athletes. Therefore, we investigated the effects of hypobaric endurance training on lymphocytes mobilization and senescence and also their surface Thiol levels following to graded exercise test (GXT in elite male athletes. Fourty six volunteer subjects were randomized into normobaric control (NC, hypobaric control (HC, normobaric exercise (NE and hypobaric exercise (HE groups. The NE and HE groups were exposed to homeland (700 mmHg and 2800 meters above sea level (570 mmHg simulated barometric pressures respectively, while HC and NC groups were remained sedentary at the same conditions. The training was included on treadmill running for four weeks, five sessions/week, 45 min/ session. Each session was consisted of three-min warmed up period, three cycles of 10-min running at 65% maximal heart rate reserve (HRRmax interspersed with a three-min active recovery and three-min cool-down running period. Two GXTs were performed before (baseline and after the interventions and blood samples were collected three times at both occasions. In all groups, mobilization of CD8+lymphocytes and senescent phenotype population of their both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets were increased after both GXTs, however; these changes were reversed following to recovery period(P<0.05. Moreover, HE were decreased lymphocytes surface thiol levels before and after the second GXT (P<0.05.it can be concluded that HE has no additional benefits for elite athletes regarded to lymphocytes mobilization and senescence, however; it may render them to oxidative stress.  

  20. Effects of yoga versus hydrotherapy training on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Ewa; Hagerman, Inger; Dencker, Kerstin; Strömberg, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether yoga and hydrotherapy training had an equal effect on the health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure and to compare the effects on exercise capacity, clinical outcomes, and symptoms of anxiety and depression between and within the two groups. The design was a randomized controlled non-inferiority study. A total of 40 patients, 30% women (mean±SD age 64.9±8.9 years) with heart failure were randomized to an intervention of 12 weeks, either performing yoga or training with hydrotherapy for 45-60 minutes twice a week. Evaluation at baseline and after 12 weeks included self-reported health-related quality of life, a six-minute walk test, a sit-to-stand test, clinical variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Yoga and hydrotherapy had an equal impact on quality of life, exercise capacity, clinical outcomes, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Within both groups, exercise capacity significantly improved (hydrotherapy p=0.02; yoga p=0.008) and symptoms of anxiety decreased (hydrotherapy p=0.03; yoga p=0.01). Patients in the yoga group significantly improved their health as rated by EQ-VAS ( p=0.004) and disease-specific quality of life in the domains symptom frequency ( p=0.03), self-efficacy ( p=0.01), clinical summary as a combined measure of symptoms and social factors ( p=0.05), and overall summary score ( p=0.04). Symptoms of depression were decreased in this group ( p=0.005). In the hydrotherapy group, lower limb muscle strength improved significantly ( p=0.01). Yoga may be an alternative or complementary option to established forms of exercise training such as hydrotherapy for improvement in health-related quality of life and may decrease depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

  1. Intensive Exercise Training During Bed Rest Attenuates Deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, John E.

    1997-01-01

    Intensive exercise training during bed rest attenuates deconditioning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 29, No. 2, pp. 207-215, 1997. A 30-d 6 deg head-down bed rest project was conducted to evaluate variable high-intensity, short-duration, isotonic cycle ergometer exercise (ITE) training and high-intensity intermittent resistive isokinetic exercise (IKE) training regimens designed to maintain peak VO2 and muscle mass, strength, and endurance at ambulatory control levels throughout prolonged bed rest. Other elements of the deconditioning (adaptive) syndrome, such as proprioception, psychological performance, hypovolemia, water balance, body composition, and orthostatic tolerance, were also measured. Major findings are summarized in this paper. Compared with response during bed rest of the no exercise (NOE) control group: the ITE training regimen (a) maintained work capacity (peak VO2), (b) maintained plasma and red cell volumes, (c) induced positive body water balance, (d) decreased quality of sleep and mental concentration, and (e) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance; the IKE training regimen (f) attenuated the decrease in peak VO2 by 50%, (g) attenuated loss of red cell volume by 40% but had no effect on loss of plasma volume, (b) induced positive body water balance, (i) had no adverse effect on quality of sleep or concentration, and 0) had no effect on the decrease in orthostatic tolerance. These findings suggest that various elements of the deconditioning syndrome can be manipulated by duration and intensity of ITE or IKE training regimens and that several different training protocols will be required to maintain or restore physiological and psychological performance of individuals confined to prolonged bed rest.

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise training on cardiac renin-angiotensin system in an obese Zucker rat strain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Lopes Mendes Barretti

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Obesity and renin angiotensin system (RAS hyperactivity are profoundly involved in cardiovascular diseases, however aerobic exercise training (EXT can prevent obesity and cardiac RAS activation. The study hypothesis was to investigate whether obesity and its association with EXT alter the systemic and cardiac RAS components in an obese Zucker rat strain. METHODS: THE RATS WERE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING GROUPS: Lean Zucker rats (LZR; lean Zucker rats plus EXT (LZR+EXT; obese Zucker rats (OZR and obese Zucker rats plus EXT (OZR+EXT. EXT consisted of 10 weeks of 60-min swimming sessions, 5 days/week. At the end of the training protocol heart rate (HR, systolic blood pressure (SBP, cardiac hypertrophy (CH and function, local and systemic components of RAS were evaluated. Also, systemic glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and its LDL and HDL fractions were measured. RESULTS: The resting HR decreased (∼12% for both LZR+EXT and OZR+EXT. However, only the LZR+EXT reached significance (p<0.05, while a tendency was found for OZR versus OZR+EXT (p = 0.07. In addition, exercise reduced (57% triglycerides and (61% LDL in the OZR+EXT. The systemic angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE activity did not differ regardless of obesity and EXT, however, the OZR and OZR+EXT showed (66% and (42%, respectively, less angiotensin II (Ang II plasma concentration when compared with LZR. Furthermore, the results showed that EXT in the OZR prevented increase in CH, cardiac ACE activity, Ang II and AT2 receptor caused by obesity. In addition, exercise augmented cardiac ACE2 in both training groups. CONCLUSION: Despite the unchanged ACE and lower systemic Ang II levels in obesity, the cardiac RAS was increased in OZR and EXT in obese Zucker rats reduced some of the cardiac RAS components and prevented obesity-related CH. These results show that EXT prevented the heart RAS hyperactivity and cardiac maladaptive morphological alterations in obese Zucker rats.

  3. Resistance Training with Single vs. Multi-joint Exercises at Equal Total Load Volume: Effects on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory Fitness, and Muscle Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Paoli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to compare the effects of equal-volume resistance training performed with single-joint (SJ or multi-joint exercises (MJ on VO2max, muscle strength and body composition in physically active males. Thirty-six participants were divided in two groups: SJ group (n = 18, 182.1 ± 5.2, 80.03 ± 2.78 kg, 23.5 ± 2.7 years exercised with only SJ exercises (e.g., dumbbell fly, knee extension, etc. and MJ group (n = 18, 185.3 ± 3.6 cm, 80.69 ± 2.98 kg, 25.5 ± 3.8 years with only MJ exercises (e.g., bench press, squat, etc.. The total work volume (repetitions × sets × load was equated between groups. Training was performed three times a week for 8 weeks. Before and after the training period, participants were tested for VO2max, body composition, 1 RM on the bench press, knee extension and squat. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare post training values between groups, using baseline values as covariates. According to the results, both groups decreased body fat and increased fat free mass with no difference between them. Whilst both groups significantly increased cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal strength, the improvements in MJ group were higher than for SJ in VO2max (5.1 and 12.5% for SJ and MJ, bench press 1 RM (8.1 and 10.9% for SJ and MJ, knee extension 1 RM (12.4 and 18.9% for SJ and MJ and squat 1 RM (8.3 and 13.8% for SJ and MJ. In conclusion, when total work volume was equated, RT programs involving MJ exercises appear to be more efficient for improving muscle strength and maximal oxygen consumption than programs involving SJ exercises, but no differences were found for body composition.

  4. Effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on the functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD: a randomized and controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wada JT

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Juliano T Wada,1 Erickson Borges-Santos,1 Desiderio Cano Porras,1 Denise M Paisani,1 Alberto Cukier,2 Adriana C Lunardi,1 Celso RF Carvalho1 1Department of Physical Therapy, 2Department of Cardiopneumology, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil Background: Patients with COPD present a major recruitment of the inspiratory muscles, predisposing to chest incoordination, increasing the degree of dyspnea and impairing their exercise capacity. Stretching techniques could decrease the respiratory muscle activity and improve their contractile capacity; however, the systemic effects of stretching remain unknown.Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching on functional exercise capacity and thoracoabdominal kinematics in patients with COPD.Design: This study was a randomized and controlled trial.Participants: A total of 30 patients were allocated to a treatment group (TG or a control group (CG; n=15, each group.Intervention: The TG was engaged in respiratory muscle stretching and the CG in upper and lower limb muscle stretching. Both groups performed 24 sessions (twice a week, 12 weeks of aerobic training.Evaluations: Functional exercise capacity (6-minute walk test, thoracoabdominal kinematics (optoelectronic plethysmography, and respiratory muscle activity (surface electromyography were evaluated during exercise. Analysis of covariance was used to compare the groups at a significance level of 5%.Results: After the intervention, the TG showed improved abdominal (ABD contribution, compartmental volume, mobility, and functional exercise capacity with decreased dyspnea when compared with the CG (P<0.01. The TG also showed a decreased respiratory muscle effort required to obtain the same pulmonary volume compared to the CG (P<0.001.Conclusion: Our results suggest that aerobic training combined with respiratory muscle stretching increases the functional

  5. Effects of plyometric training and creatine supplementation on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in female soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; González-Jurado, José Antonio; Martínez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; Peñailillo, Luis; Meylan, Cesar M P; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; Moran, Jason; Alonso-Martínez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effects of a six-week plyometric training and creatine supplementation intervention on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during in-season training. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Young (age 22.9±2.5y) female players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to a plyometric training group receiving placebo (PLACEBO, n=10), a plyometric training group receiving creatine supplementation (CREATINE, n=10) or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric program (CONTROL, n=10). Athletes were evaluated for jumping, maximal and repeated sprinting, endurance and change-of-direction speed performance before and after six weeks of training. After intervention the CONTROL group did not change, whereas both plyometric training groups improved jumps (ES=0.25-0.49), sprint (ES=0.35-0.41), repeated sprinting (ES=0.48-0.55), endurance (ES=0.32-0.34) and change-of-direction speed performance (ES=0.46-0.55). However, the CREATINE group improved more in the jumps and repeated sprinting performance tests than the CONTROL and the PLACEBO groups. Adaptations to plyometric training may be enhanced with creatine supplementation. Copyright © 2015 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of vitamin D supplementation and exercise training on physical performance in Chilean vitamin D deficient elderly subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunout, Daniel; Barrera, Gladys; Leiva, Laura; Gattas, Vivien; de la Maza, María Pía; Avendaño, Marcelo; Hirsch, Sandra

    2006-08-01

    The aim was to assess the effects of resistance training and vitamin D supplementation on physical performance of healthy elderly subjects. Ninety-six subjects, aged 70 years or more with 25 OH vitamin D levels of 16 ng/ml or less, were randomized to a resistance training or control group. Trained and control groups were further randomized to receive in a double blind fashion, vitamin D 400 IU plus 800 mg of calcium per day or calcium alone. Subjects were followed for nine months. Serum 25 OH vitamin D increased from 12.4+/-2.2 to 25.8+/-6.5 ng/ml among subjects supplemented with vitamin D. Trained subjects had significant improvements in quadriceps muscle strength, the short physical performance test and timed up and go. The latter improved more in trained subjects supplemented with vitamin D. At the end of the follow up, gait speed was higher among subjects supplemented with vitamin (whether trained or not) than in non-supplemented subjects (838+/-147 and 768+/-127 m/12 min, respectively, p=0.02). Romberg ratio was lower among supplemented controls than non-supplemented trained subjects (128+/-40% and 144+/-37%, respectively, p=0.05). In conclusion, vitamin D supplementation improved gait speed and body sway, and training improved muscle strength.

  7. Prevalence of low-back pain in Danish office workers and the effect of Intelligent Physical Exercise Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Murray, Mike

    ) on musculoskeletal health. Methods: Office workers were randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high intensity IPET every week within working hours for one year and requested to exercise 30 minutes moderate intensity six days weekly during....... Results: Baseline mean±SD was for low back pain - past 3 mth: 3.2±1.8 and 7d: 2.4±1.7, muscle strength - back extension: 535±161 N and abdominal flexion: 459±143 N. In total, 54% (3mth) and 24% (7d) were categorized as pain cases (pain intensity ≥ 3) at baseline. An intention-to-treat analysis using...

  8. THE EFFECT OF TELE-MONITORING ON EXERCISE TRAINING ADHERENCE, FUNCTIONAL CAPACITY, QUALITY OF LIFE AND GLYCEMIC CONTROL IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE II DIABETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy Marios

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We used tele-monitoring to attempt to improve exercise adherence (number of hours of exercise completed, peak VO2, HbA1c% and quality of life in an unsupervised, home based exercise program in people with type II diabetes, a cost analysis was also conducted. Thirty-nine patients with type II diabetes were randomized to tele-monitoring (TELE or control (CON groups. All patients were asked to complete 6 months exercise training and complete an exercise activity diary. The TELE group was instructed to record their exercise heart rates using a monitor and received weekly telephone calls from an exercise physiologist. Six TELE patients and seven CON patients did not complete the 6 month testing. TELE patients completed a mean weekly volume of 138 minutes, moderate intensity exercise, while CON patients completed 58 minutes weekly (p < 0.02. Neither group achieved the American Heart Association statement guideline for weekly exercise volume of 150 minutes. TELE patients improved peak VO2 (5.5 %, but neither group improved HbA1c% or quality of life. The CON group showed a 4.9% reduction in peak VO2. While tele-monitored patients completed more hours of exercise and demonstrated improved peak VO2 compared to controls, the exercise volume completed was insufficient to improve glycemic control. There is the potential via tele-monitoring to enable people with diabetes to meet exercise training guidelines.

  9. Electrical stimulation in exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Walter

    1994-01-01

    muscle strength for over a century. Bigelow reported in 1894, for example, the use of electrical stimulation on a young man for the purpose of increasing muscle strength. Employing a rapidly alternating sinusoidal induced current and a dynamometer for strength testing, Bigelow reported that the total lifting capacity of a patient increased from 4328 pounds to 4639 pounds after only 25 minutes of stimulation. In 1965, Massey et al. reported on the use of an Isotron electrical stimulator that emitted a high frequency current. Interestingly enough, the frequencies used by Massey et al. and the frequencies used by Bigelow in 1894 were in the same range of frequencies reported by Kots as being the most effective in strength development. It would seem the Russian secret of high frequency electrical stimulation for strength development, then, is not a modern development at all.

  10. No effect of artificial gravity on lung function with exercise training during head-down bed rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Longxiang; Guo, Yinghua; Wang, Yajuan; Wang, Delong; Liu, Changting

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effectiveness of microgravity simulated by head-down bed rest (HDBR) and artificial gravity (AG) with exercise on lung function. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly divided into control and exercise countermeasure (CM) groups for 96 h of 6° HDBR. Comparisons of pulse rate, pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) and lung function were made between these two groups at 0, 24, 48, 72, 96 h. Compared with the sitting position, inspiratory capacity and respiratory reserve volume were significantly higher than before HDBR (0° position) (P function over the HDBR observation time. Postural changes can lead to variation in lung volume and ventilation function, but a HDBR model induced no changes in pulmonary function and therefore should not be used to study AG countermeasures.

  11. Core stability exercise is as effective as task-oriented motor training in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Mei K; Chan, Wai M; Lee, Lin; Chen, Tracy Mk; Chau, Rosanna Mw; Pang, Marco Yc

    2014-10-01

    To compare the effectiveness of a core stability program with a task-oriented motor training program in improving motor proficiency in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). Randomized controlled pilot trial. Outpatient unit in a hospital. Twenty-two children diagnosed with DCD aged 6-9 years were randomly allocated to the core stability program or the task-oriented motor program. Both groups underwent their respective face-to-face training session once per week for eight consecutive weeks. They were also instructed to carry out home exercises on a daily basis during the intervention period. Short Form of the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (Second Edition) and Sensory Organization Test at pre- and post-intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis revealed no significant between-group difference in the change of motor proficiency standard score (P=0.717), and composite equilibrium score derived from the Sensory Organization Test (P=0.100). Further analysis showed significant improvement in motor proficiency in both the core stability (mean change (SD)=6.3(5.4); p=0.008) and task-oriented training groups (mean change(SD)=5.1(4.0); P=0.007). The composite equilibrium score was significantly increased in the task-oriented training group (mean change (SD)=6.0(5.5); P=0.009), but not in the core stability group (mean change(SD) =0.0(9.6); P=0.812). In the task-oriented training group, compliance with the home program was positively correlated with change in motor proficiency (ρ=0.680, P=0.030) and composite equilibrium score (ρ=0.638, P=0.047). The core stability exercise program is as effective as task-oriented training in improving motor proficiency among children with DCD. © The Author(s) 2014.

  12. Effectiveness of balance training exercise in people with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease: protocol for a randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lautenschlager Nicola T

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Balance dysfunction and falls are common problems in later stages of dementia. Exercise is a well-established intervention to reduce falls in cognitively intact older people, although there is limited randomised trial evidence of outcomes in people with dementia. The primary objective of this study is to evaluate whether a home-based balance exercise programme improves balance performance in people with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease. Methods/design Two hundred and fourteen community dwelling participants with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease will be recruited for the randomised controlled trial. A series of laboratory and clinical measures will be used to evaluate balance and mobility performance at baseline. Participants will then be randomized to receive either a balance training home exercise programme (intervention group from a physiotherapist, or an education, information and support programme from an occupational therapist (control group. Both groups will have six home visits in the six months following baseline assessment, as well as phone support. All participants will be re-assessed at the completion of the programme (after six months, and again in a further six months to evaluate sustainability of outcomes. The primary outcome measures will be the Limits of Stability (a force platform measure of balance and the Step Test (a clinical measure of balance. Secondary outcomes include other balance and mobility measures, number of falls and falls risk measures, cognitive and behavioural measures, and carer burden and quality of life measures. Assessors will be blind to group allocation. Longitudinal change in balance performance will be evaluated in a sub-study, in which the first 64 participants of the control group with mild to moderate severity Alzheimer's disease, and 64 age and gender matched healthy participants will be re-assessed on all measures at initial assessment, and then at 6, 12

  13. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Acute effects of movement velocity on blood lactate and growth hormone responses after eccentric bench press exercise in resistance-trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calixto, Rd; Verlengia, R; Crisp, Ah; Carvalho, Tb; Crepaldi, Md; Pereira, Aa; Yamada, Ak; da Mota, Gr; Lopes, Cr

    2014-12-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of different velocities of eccentric muscle actions on acute blood lactate and serum growth hormone (GH) concentrations following free weight bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men. Sixteen healthy men were divided into two groups: slow eccentric velocity (SEV; n = 8) and fast eccentric velocity (FEV; n = 8). Both groups performed four sets of eight eccentric repetitions at an intensity of 70% of their one repetition maximum eccentric (1RMecc) test, with 2-minute rest intervals between sets. The eccentric velocity was controlled to 3 seconds per range of motion for SEV and 0.5 seconds for the FEV group. There was a significant difference (P bench press exercise in the SEV group (1.7 ± 0.6 ng · mL(-1)) relative to the FEV group (0.1 ± 0.0 ng · mL(-1)). In conclusion, the velocity of eccentric muscle action influences acute responses following bench press exercises performed by resistance-trained men using a slow velocity resulting in a greater metabolic stress and hormone response.

  15. Age-related effect of aerobic exercise training on antioxidant and oxidative markers in the liver challenged by doxorubicin in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadian, Mehdi; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Leicht, Anthony S

    2018-05-16

    The aims of the current study were to investigate the oxidant and antioxidant status of liver tissue challenged by doxorubicin and to examine the possible protective effects of aerobic exercise on doxorubicin-induced oxidative stress. Seventy-two rats were divided into three age groups (Young, Adult, and Elderly) with three treatment subgroups consisting of eight rats per age group: doxorubicin, aerobic exercise + doxorubicin, and aerobic exercise + saline. The experimental groups performed regular treadmill running for 3 weeks. Doxorubicin was administered by i.p. injection at a dosage of 20 mg kg -1 while the aerobic exercise + saline group received saline of a comparable volume. Heat shock protein 70, malondialdehyde, glutathione peroxidase, and protein carbonyl were determined from the liver homogenates following the intervention period. Treatment with doxorubicin induced hepatotoxicity in all groups with lower values of oxidative stress in young compared with the older groups. The inclusion of aerobic exercise training significantly increased heat shock protein 70 and antioxidant enzyme levels (glutathione peroxidase) whereas it decreased oxidative stress biomarkers (malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl) for all age groups. These results suggest that aerobic exercise training may be a potential, non-drug strategy to modulate doxorubicin-induced hepatotoxicity through its positive impact on antioxidant levels and oxidative stress biomarkers.

  16. Physiological and Neural Adaptations to Eccentric Exercise: Mechanisms and Considerations for Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nosratollah Hedayatpour

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Eccentric exercise is characterized by initial unfavorable effects such as subcellular muscle damage, pain, reduced fiber excitability, and initial muscle weakness. However, stretch combined with overload, as in eccentric contractions, is an effective stimulus for inducing physiological and neural adaptations to training. Eccentric exercise-induced adaptations include muscle hypertrophy, increased cortical activity, and changes in motor unit behavior, all of which contribute to improved muscle function. In this brief review, neuromuscular adaptations to different forms of exercise are reviewed, the positive training effects of eccentric exercise are presented, and the implications for training are considered.

  17. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Ming Chen

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public’s attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. Purpose: In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA-rich sake protein (SP to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Methods: Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC, and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP. Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. Results: four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alanine aminotransferase (ALT, creatinine, and uric acid (UA were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. Conclusion: The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  18. Sake Protein Supplementation Affects Exercise Performance and Biochemical Profiles in Power-Exercise-Trained Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Ming; Lin, Che-Li; Wei, Li; Hsu, Yi-Ju; Chen, Kuan-Neng; Huang, Chi-Chang; Kao, Chin-Hsung

    2016-02-20

    Exercise and fitness training programs have attracted the public's attention in recent years. Sports nutrition supplementation is an important issue in the global sports market. In this study, we designed a power exercise training (PET) program with a mouse model based on a strength and conditional training protocol for humans. We tested the effect of supplementation with functional branched-chain amino acid (BCAA)-rich sake protein (SP) to determine whether the supplement had a synergistic effect during PET and enhanced athletic performance and resistance to fatigue. Male ICR mice were divided into three groups (n = 8 per group) for four-week treatment: sedentary controls with vehicle (SC), and PET and PET groups with SP supplementation (3.8 g/kg, PET + SP). Exercise performance was evaluated by forelimb grip strength and exhaustive swimming time as well as changes in body composition and anti-fatigue activity levels of serum lactate, ammonia, glucose, and creatine kinase (CK) after a 15-min swimming exercise. The biochemical parameters were measured at the end of the experiment. four-week PET significantly increased grip strength and exhaustive swimming time and decreased epididymal fat pad (EFP) weight and area. Levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatinine, and uric acid (UA) were significantly increased. PET + SP supplementation significantly decreased serum lactate, ammonia and CK levels after the 15-min swimming exercise. The resting serum levels of AST, ALT, CREA and UA were all significantly decreased with PET + SP. The PET program could increase the exercise performance and modulate the body composition of mice. PET with SP conferred better anti-fatigue activity, improved biochemical profiles, and may be an effective ergogenic aid in strength training.

  19. Effect of High-Intensity Interval Versus Continuous Exercise Training on Functional Capacity and Quality of Life in Patients With Coronary Artery Disease: A RANDOMIZED CLINICAL TRIAL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaureguizar, Koldobika Villelabeitia; Vicente-Campos, Davinia; Bautista, Lorena Ruiz; de la Peña, Cesar Hernández; Gómez, María José Arriaza; Rueda, María José Calero; Fernández Mahillo, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that exercise training has beneficial health effects in patients with cardiovascular disease. Most studies have focused on moderate continuous training (MCT); however, a body of evidence has begun to emerge demonstrating that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) has significantly better results in terms of morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of MCT versus HIIT on functional capacity and quality of life and to assess safety. Seventy-two patients with ischemic heart disease were assigned to either HIIT or MCT for 8 weeks. We analyzed cardiopulmonary exercise test data, quality of life, and adverse events. High-intensity interval training resulted in a significantly greater increase in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2peak (4.5 ± 4.7 mL·kg·min) compared with MCT (2.5 ± 3.6 mL·kg·min) (P HIIT and 14% in MCT. Furthermore, there was a significant (P HIIT group (49.6 ± 6.3 m) when compared with the MCT group (29.6 ± 12.0 m). Both training protocols improved quality of life. No adverse events were reported in either of the groups. On the basis of the results of this study, HIIT should be considered for use in cardiac rehabilitation as it resulted in a greater increase in functional capacity compared with MCT. We also observed greater improvement in quality of life without any increase in cardiovascular risk.

  20. Autophagy Is a Promoter for Aerobic Exercise Performance during High Altitude Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Zhang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High altitude training is one of the effective strategies for improving aerobic exercise performance at sea level via altitude acclimatization, thereby improving oxygen transport and/or utilization. But its underlying molecular mechanisms on physiological functions and exercise performance of athletes are still vague. More recent evidence suggests that the recycling of cellular components by autophagy is an important process of the body involved in the adaptive responses to exercise. Whether high altitude training can activate autophagy or whether high altitude training can improve exercise performance through exercise-induced autophagy is still unclear. In this narrative review article, we will summarize current research advances in the improvement of exercise performance through high altitude training and its reasonable molecular mechanisms associated with autophagy, which will provide a new field to explore the molecular mechanisms of adaptive response to high altitude training.

  1. Effects of Plyometric Training and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Maximal-Intensity Exercise and Endurance in Female Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosas Fabián

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8, a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8, or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9. Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0, sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78, repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91, 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45, endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37, and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58, whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.

  2. Effects of Plyometric Training and Beta-Alanine Supplementation on Maximal-Intensity Exercise and Endurance in Female Soccer Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosas, Fabián; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Martínez, Cristian; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Cañas-Jamet, Rodrigo; McCrudden, Emma; Meylan, Cesar; Moran, Jason; Nakamura, Fábio Y; Pereira, Lucas A; Loturco, Irineu; Diaz, Daniela; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2017-09-01

    Plyometric training and beta-alanine supplementation are common among soccer players, although its combined use had never been tested. Therefore, a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted to compare the effects of a plyometric training program, with or without beta-alanine supplementation, on maximal-intensity and endurance performance in female soccer players during an in-season training period. Athletes (23.7 ± 2.4 years) were assigned to either a plyometric training group receiving a placebo (PLACEBO, n = 8), a plyometric training group receiving beta-alanine supplementation (BA, n = 8), or a control group receiving placebo without following a plyometric training program (CONTROL, n = 9). Athletes were evaluated for single and repeated jumps and sprints, endurance, and change-of-direction speed performance before and after the intervention. Both plyometric training groups improved in explosive jumping (ES = 0.27 to 1.0), sprinting (ES = 0.31 to 0.78), repeated sprinting (ES = 0.39 to 0.91), 60 s repeated jumping (ES = 0.32 to 0.45), endurance (ES = 0.35 to 0.37), and change-of-direction speed performance (ES = 0.36 to 0.58), whereas no significant changes were observed for the CONTROL group. Nevertheless, compared to the CONTROL group, only the BA group showed greater improvements in endurance, repeated sprinting and repeated jumping performances. It was concluded that beta-alanine supplementation during plyometric training may add further adaptive changes related to endurance, repeated sprinting and jumping ability.

  3. The effect of an advanced glycation end-product crosslink breaker and exercise training on vascular function in older individuals: a randomized factorial design trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oudegeest-Sander, M.H.; Olde Rikkert, M.G.M.; Smits, P.; Thijssen, D.H.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Levine, B.D.; Hopman, M.T.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aging leads to accumulation of irreversible advanced glycation end-products (AGEs), contributing to vascular stiffening and endothelial dysfunction. When combined with the AGE-crosslink breaker Alagebrium, exercise training reverses cardiovascular aging in experimental animals. This study is the

  4. The effect of exercise training on clinical outcomes in patients with the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, C; Smart, N A; Morcos, D; Duller, A; Ridley, W; Jewiss, D

    2017-08-30

    Purpose: to establish if exercise training improves clinical outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Registered with PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/Identifier:CRD42017055491 ). studies were identified through a MEDLINE search strategy (1985 to Jan 12, 2017), Cochrane controlled trials registry, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. prospective randomized or controlled trials of exercise training in humans with metabolic syndrome, lasting 12 weeks or more. We included 16 studies with 23 intervention groups; 77,000 patient-hours of exercise training. In analyses of aerobic exercise studies versus control: body mass index was significantly reduced, mean difference (MD) -0.29 (kg m -2 ) (95% CI -0.44, -0.15, p exercise versus control: waist circumference, MD -3.80 cm (95% CI -5.65, -1.95, p exercise interventions. Exercise training improves body composition, cardiovascular, and, metabolic outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome. For some outcome measures, isolated aerobic exercise appears optimal.

  5. The Effect of 12 Weeks Aerobic Exercise Training on Visfatin, Chemerin Serum Changes in 45-60 year old Obese Women with Type2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Seifi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adipocytokine including chemerin and visfatin have a key role in metabolic regulations, as well as obesity-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the 12-week exercise training on changes in levels of visfatin and chemerin in obese women with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this study, 30 overweight women with the age range of 45-60 years old were selected and ther were divided into the control group (n = 15, and the experimental group (n = 15 which had no significant differences based on the body fat percentage and the body mass index. Exercise program consisted of increasing aerobic exercise three times were for 12 weeks. To measure Chemerin and Visfatin, blood samples before and 24 hours after the last training session were collected. Data evaluation was performed using ANCOVA to compare the pre-test and post-test in each group. Results: According to the obtained results, there was no significant difference between weight, body mass index, lean body weight, fat mass and fat percentage, but the chemerin levels have been increased significantly (p=0.0001 and also visfatin and glucose levels have been decreased (respectively p=0.0001 and p=0.001. Conclusion: Aerobic activities are a stimulating factor for increasing in the chemerin hormone and also a stimulating factor for decreasing in the Visfatin hormone. It could be said that regular aerobic activities in 12 weeks are a good stimulating factor for creating changes in these hormones in women with diabetes and it is probably one of the contributing factors of physiologic changes resulted from these exercise activities is changes in these hormones.

  6. Effects of a cross-training exercise program in persons with osteoarthritis of the knee a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péloquin, L; Bravo, G; Gauthier, P; Lacombe, G; Billiard, J S

    1999-06-01

    This study was designed to evaluate, by means of a randomized controlled trial, the effects of a physical activity program incorporating aerobic, strength, and stretching exercises in individuals with osteoarthritis of the knee. We randomly assigned 137 volunteers ages >/=50 to an experimental group or a control group. The experimental group participated in three 1-hour sessions of supervised exercises per week over a 3-month period. The control participants were instructed to continue their usual daily activities, and they attended 1-hour education sessions twice a month. The effectiveness of the program was evaluated using repeated measurements of parameters related to self-reported health status, physical capacity, and joint tenderness.After 3 months, significantly greater improvements were observed in the experimental group than the control group in terms of: arthritis pain (p = 0.02), ability to walk and bend (p = 0.03), aerobic capacity (p hamstring and low back flexibility (p = 0.003), quadriceps and hamstring strength (p == 0.05), joint tenderness (p = 0.18), and health perception (p = 0.7). The overall results suggest that this program is effective for older persons with osteoarthritis of the knee and that it could contribute to maintaining their independence and improving their quality of life.

  7. The Effectiveness of Hands-on Health Informatics Skills Exercises in the Multidisciplinary Smart Home Healthcare and Health Informatics Training Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapci, A H; Sapci, H A

    2017-10-01

    This article aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of newly established innovative smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories, and a novel laboratory course that focuses on experiential health informatics training, and determine students' self-confidence to operate wireless home health monitoring devices before and after the hands-on laboratory course. Two web-based pretraining and posttraining questionnaires were sent to 64 students who received hands-on training with wireless remote patient monitoring devices in smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories. All 64 students completed the pretraining survey (100% response rate), and 49 students completed the posttraining survey (76% response rate). The quantitative data analysis showed that 95% of students had an interest in taking more hands-on laboratory courses. Sixty-seven percent of students had no prior experience with medical image, physiological data acquisition, storage, and transmission protocols. After the hands-on training session, 75.51% of students expressed improved confidence about training patients to measure blood pressure monitor using wireless devices. Ninety percent of students preferred to use a similar experiential approach in their future learning experience. Additionally, the qualitative data analysis demonstrated that students were expecting to have more courses with hands-on exercises and integration of technology-enabled delivery and patient monitoring concepts into the curriculum. This study demonstrated that the multidisciplinary smart home healthcare and health informatics training laboratories and the hands-on exercises improved students' technology adoption rates and their self-confidence in using wireless patient monitoring devices. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  8. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Method and System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S. (Inventor)

    1997-01-01

    The Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) method of the present invention is a combined application of physiologic and perceptual training techniques. such as autogenic therapy and biofeedback. This combined therapy approach produces a methodology that is appreciably more effective than either of the individual techniques used separately. The AFTE method enables sufficient magnitude of control necessary to significantly reduce the behavioral and physiologic reactions to severe environmental stressors. It produces learned effects that are persistent over time and are resistant to extinction and it can be administered in a short period of time. The AFTE method may be used efficiently in several applications, among which are the following: to improve pilot and crew performance during emergency flying conditions; to train people to prevent the occurrence of nausea and vomiting associated with motion and sea sickness, or morning sickness in early pregnancy; as a training method for preventing or counteracting air-sickness symptoms in high-performance military aircraft; for use as a method for cardiovascular training, as well as for multiple other autonomic responses, which may contribute to the alleviation of Space Motion Sickness (SMS) in astronauts and cosmonauts; training people suffering from migraine or tension headaches to control peripheral blood flow and reduce forehead and/or trapezius muscle tension; training elderly people suffering from fecal incontinence to control their sphincter muscles; training cancer patients to reduce the nauseagenic effects of chemotherapy; and training patients with Chronic Intestinal Pseudo-obstruction (CIP).

  9. The effects of aerobic exercise training at two different intensities in obesity and type 2 diabetes: implications for oxidative stress, low-grade inflammation and nitric oxide production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Mauricio; Rodrigues-Krause, Josianne; O'Hagan, Ciara; Medlow, Paul; Davison, Gareth; Susta, Davide; Boreham, Colin; Newsholme, Philip; O'Donnell, Mark; Murphy, Colin; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2014-02-01

    To investigate the effect of 16 weeks of aerobic training performed at two different intensities on nitric oxide (tNOx) availability and iNOS/nNOS expression, oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation in obese humans with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Twenty-five sedentary, obese (BMI > 30 kg/m2) males (52.8 ± 7.2 years); 12 controls versus 13 T2DM were randomly allocated to four groups that exercised for 30 min, three times per week either at low (Fat-Max; 30-40% VO(2max)) or moderate (T(vent); 55-65 % VO(2max)) intensity. Before and after training, blood and muscle samples (v. lateralis) were collected. Baseline erythrocyte glutathione was lower (21.8 ± 2.8 vs. 32.7 ± 4.4 nmol/ml) and plasma protein oxidative damage and IL-6 were higher in T2DM (141.7 ± 52.1 vs. 75.5 ± 41.6 nmol/ml). Plasma catalase increased in T2DM after T(vent) training (from 0.98 ± 0.22 to 1.96 ± 0.3 nmol/min/ml). T2DM groups demonstrated evidence of oxidative damage in response to training (elevated protein carbonyls). Baseline serum tNOx were higher in controls than T2DM (18.68 ± 2.78 vs. 12.34 ± 3.56 μmol/l). Training at T(vent) increased muscle nNOS and tNOx in the control group only. Pre-training muscle nNOS was higher in controls than in T2DMs, while the opposite was found for iNOS. No differences were found after training for plasma inflammatory markers. Exercise training did not change body composition or aerobic fitness, but improved OS markers, especially when performed at T(vent). Non-diabetics responded to T(vent) training by increasing muscle nNOS expression and tNOx levels in skeletal muscle while these parameters did not change in T2DM, perhaps due to higher insulin resistance (unchanged after intervention).

  10. Effects of exercise training and diet on lipid kinetics during free fatty acid-induced insulin resistance in older obese humans with impaired glucose tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Thomas; Haus, Jacob M; Marchetti, Christine M

    2009-01-01

    Elevated free fatty acids (FFA) are implicated with insulin resistance at the cellular level. However, the contribution of whole body lipid kinetics to FFA-induced insulin resistance is not well understood, and the effect of exercise and diet on this metabolic defect is not known. We investigated...... the effect of 12 wk of exercise training with and without caloric restriction on FFA turnover and oxidation (FFA(ox)) during acute FFA-induced insulin resistance. Sixteen obese subjects with impaired glucose tolerance were randomized to either a hypocaloric (n = 8; -598 +/- 125 kcal/day, 66 +/- 1 yr, 32.......8 +/- 1.8 kg/m(2)) or a eucaloric (n = 8; 67 +/- 2 yr, 35.3 +/- 2.1 kg/m(2)) diet and aerobic exercise (1 h/day at 65% of maximal oxygen uptake) regimen. Lipid kinetics ([1-(14)C]palmitate) were assessed throughout a 7-h, 40 mU x m(-2) x min(-1) hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp, during which insulin...

  11. Comparison of the Effects of Therapeutic exercise and Pilates Training on Function and Proprioception in Patients with Knee Osteoarthritis: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Mazloum

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Knee Osteoarthritis (OA as one of the most prevalent musculoskeletal disorders, leads to joint degeneration and consequent deterioration of function and proprioception. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Pilates exercise on knee OA. Materials & Methods: Forty-one male individuals were randomly categorized into three groups, including Pilates, conventional exercise therapy, and control. Proprioception, objective assessment of functional performance, and patients’ pain and disability were examined using Biodex system, aggregate time of four activities of daily living, and Lequesne Index. Descriptive statistical, One-Way ANOVA, and Scheffe test were utilized to analyze the data (P0.05 difference between the experimental groups in improving of functional status and angle reproduction error, they both resulted in more significant (P<0.001 influence than the control. However, significant improvement (P<0.001 in Lequesne Index was gained by participants who followed the exercise protocols, but the Pilates technique had more significant (P<0.05 effects. Conclusion: Pilates training can improve functional ability and proprioception in patients with knee OA. Further studies are required to find out the mechanism.

  12. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Vandoni

    Full Text Available Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (p<0.05. Consequently, the affective responses to vigorous session were less pleasant than those during moderate session (p<0.05. These results suggest that the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  13. The Effects of Exercise Training on Obesity-Induced Dysregulated Expression of Adipokines in White Adipose Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuya Sakurai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is recognized as a risk factor for lifestyle-related diseases such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. White adipose tissue (WAT is not only a static storage site for energy; it is also a dynamic tissue that is actively involved in metabolic reactions and produces humoral factors, such as leptin and adiponectin, which are collectively referred to as adipokines. Additionally, because there is much evidence that obesity-induced inflammatory changes in WAT, which is caused by dysregulated expression of inflammation-related adipokines involving tumor necrosis factor-α and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1, contribute to the development of insulin resistance, WAT has attracted special attention as an organ that causes diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases. Exercise training (TR not only leads to a decrease in WAT mass but also attenuates obesity-induced dysregulated expression of the inflammation-related adipokines in WAT. Therefore, TR is widely used as a tool for preventing and improving lifestyle-related diseases. This review outlines the impact of TR on the expression and secretory response of adipokines in WAT.

  14. High-intensity interval training using whole-body exercises: training recommendations and methodological overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alexandre F; Baker, Julien S; Figueira Junior, Aylton J; Bocalini, Danilo S

    2017-05-04

    HIIT whole body (HWB)-based exercise is a new calisthenics exercise programme approach that can be considered an effective and safe method to improve physical fitness and body composition. HWB is a method that can be applied to different populations and ages. The purpose of this study was to describe possible methodologies for performing physical training based on whole-body exercise in healthy subjects. The HWB sessions consist of a repeated stimulus based on high-intensity exercise that also include monitoring time to effort, time to recuperation and session time. The exercise intensity is related to the maximal number of movements possible in a given time; therefore, the exercise sessions can be characterized as maximal. The intensity can be recorded using ratings of perceived exertion. Weekly training frequency and exercise selection should be structured according to individual subject functional fitness. Using this simple method, there is potential for greater adherence to physical activity which can promote health benefits to all members of society. © 2017 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Aerobic Training Modulates the Effects of Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress on PON1 Activity: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Otocka-Kmiecik

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME on paraoxonase (PON and arylesterase (ARE activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S and physically active (PA. All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise.

  16. Aerobic training modulates the effects of exercise-induced oxidative stress on PON1 activity: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otocka-Kmiecik, Aneta; Lewandowski, Marek; Szkudlarek, Urszula; Nowak, Dariusz; Orlowska-Majdak, Monika

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effect of maximal exercise (ME) on paraoxonase (PON) and arylesterase (ARE) activity depending on lifestyle in respect to physical activity. The study was performed on 46 young men divided into two groups: sedentary (S) and physically active (PA). All participants performed ME on a treadmill. PON1 activities, FRAP, uric acid, bilirubin, TBARS, and lipid profile were determined in their blood before, at the bout of, and after ME. No significant differences in PON1 activities were found between S and PA subjects at baseline. Nearly all biochemicals increased at ME in both groups. Both PON and ARE activity increased at the bout of ME in PA subjects and only ARE activity in S subjects. ARE/HDL-C ratio increased at the bout of ME in PA and S subjects. The difference in PON1 activity response to ME between study groups may be a result of adaptation of PA subjects to regular physical activity. We suggest that PON1 activity may be a marker of antioxidant protection at ME and an indicator of adaptation to exercise.

  17. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingli Lu

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n=10 each: control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1 to 4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4, living and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4, and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1 to 4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4. Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined. Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P<0.05 to P<0.01, and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P<0.05 to P<0.01 in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  18. Oxidative stress and antioxidant responses to progressive resistance exercise intensity in trained and untrained males

    OpenAIRE

    H Çakır-Atabek; F Özdemir; R Çolak

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and some exercise components of resistance exercise (e.g. intensity, exercise volume) has not been clearly defined. Additionally, the oxidative stress markers may respond differently in various conditions. This study aims to determine the effects of progressive intensity of resistance exercise (RE) on oxidative stress and antioxidants in trained and untrained men, and also to investigate the possible threshold intensity required to evoke oxidative str...

  19. Effects of powdered Montmorency tart cherry supplementation on an acute bout of intense lower body strength exercise in resistance trained males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levers, Kyle; Dalton, Ryan; Galvan, Elfego; Goodenough, Chelsea; O'Connor, Abigail; Simbo, Sunday; Barringer, Nicholas; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U; Rasmussen, Christopher; Greenwood, Mike; Riechman, Steven; Crouse, Stephen; Kreider, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether short-term ingestion of a powdered tart cherry supplement prior to and following intense resistance-exercise attenuates muscle soreness and recovery strength loss, while reducing markers of muscle damage, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Twenty-three healthy, resistance-trained men (20.9 ± 2.6 yr, 14.2 ± 5.4% body fat, 63.9 ± 8.6 kg FFM) were matched based on relative maximal back squat strength, age, body weight, and fat free mass. Subjects were randomly assigned to ingest, in a double blind manner, capsules containing a placebo (P, n = 12) or powdered tart cherries [CherryPURE(®)] (TC, n = 11). Participants supplemented one time daily (480 mg/d) for 10-d including day of exercise up to 48-h post-exercise. Subjects performed ten sets of ten repetitions at 70% of a 1-RM back squat exercise. Fasting blood samples, isokinetic MVCs, and quadriceps muscle soreness ratings were taken pre-lift, 60-min, 24-h, and 48-h post-lift and analyzed by MANOVA with repeated measures. Muscle soreness perception in the vastus medialis (¼) (p = 0.10) and the vastus lateralis (¼) (p = 0.024) was lower in TC over time compared to P. Compared to pre-lift, TC vastus medialis (¼) soreness was significantly attenuated up to 48-h post-lift with vastus lateralis (¼) soreness significantly lower at 24-h post-lift compared to P. TC changes in serum creatinine (p = 0.03, delta p = 0.024) and total protein (p = 0.018, delta p = 0.006) were lower over time and smaller from pre-lift levels over time compared to P Significant TC group reductions from pre-lift levels were found for AST and creatinine 48-h post-lift, bilirubin and ALT 60-min and 48-h post-lift. No significant supplementation effects were observed for serum inflammatory or anti-inflammatory markers. None of the free radical production, lipid peroxidation, or antioxidant capacity markers (NT, TBARS, TAS, SOD) demonstrated significant changes with supplementation. Changes in TC

  20. Endurance exercise training in orthostatic intolerance: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winker, Robert; Barth, Alfred; Bidmon, Daniela; Ponocny, Ivo; Weber, Michael; Mayr, Otmar; Robertson, David; Diedrich, André; Maier, Richard; Pilger, Alex; Haber, Paul; Rüdiger, Hugo W

    2005-03-01

    Orthostatic intolerance is a syndrome characterized by chronic orthostatic symptoms of light-headedness, fatigue, nausea, orthostatic tachycardia, and aggravated norepinephrine levels while standing. The aim of this study was to assess the protective effect of exercise endurance training on orthostatic symptoms and to examine its usefulness in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance. 2768 military recruits were screened for orthostatic intolerance by questionnaire. Tilt-table testing identified 36 cases of orthostatic intolerance out of the 2768 soldiers. Subsequently, 31 of these subjects with orthostatic intolerance entered a randomized, controlled trial. The patients were allocated randomly to either a "training" (3 months jogging) or a "control" group. The influence of exercise training on orthostatic intolerance was assessed by determination of questionnaire scores and tilt-table testing before and after intervention. After training, only 6 individuals of 16 still had orthostatic intolerance compared with 10 of 11 in the control group. The Fisher exact test showed a highly significant difference in diagnosis between the 2 groups (P=0.008) at the end of the study. Analysis of the questionnaire-score showed significant interaction between time and group (P=0.001). The trained subjects showed an improvement in the average symptom score from 1.79+/-0.4 to 1.04+/-0.4, whereas the control subjects showed no significant change in average symptom score (2.09+/-0.6 and 2.14+/-0.5, respectively). Our data demonstrate that endurance exercise training leads to an improvement of symptoms in the majority of patients with orthostatic intolerance. Therefore, we suggest that endurance training should be considered in the treatment of orthostatic intolerance patients.

  1. Is exercise training safe and beneficial in patients receiving left ventricular assist device therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsara, Osama; Perez-Terzic, Carmen; Squires, Ray W; Dandamudi, Sanjay; Miranda, William R; Park, Soon J; Thomas, Randal J

    2014-01-01

    Because a limited number of patients receive heart transplantation, alternative therapies, such as left ventricular assist device (LVAD) therapy, have emerged. Published studies have shown that LVAD implantation, by itself, improves exercise tolerance to the point where it is comparable to those with mild heart failure. The improvement in exercise capacity is maximally achieved 12 weeks after LVAD therapy and can continue even after explantation of the device. This effect varies, depending on the type of LVAD and exercise training. The available data in the literature on safety and benefits of exercise training in patients after LVAD implantation are limited, but the data that are available suggest that training trends to be safe and have an impact on exercise capacity in LVAD patients. Although no studies were identified on the role of cardiac rehabilitation programs in the management of LVAD patients, it appears that cardiac rehabilitation programs offer an ideal setting for the provision of supervised exercise training in this patient group.

  2. Citrus Flavonoid Supplementation Improves Exercise Performance in Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvera Overdevest, Jeroen A. Wouters, Kevin H.M. Wolfs, Job J.M. van Leeuwen, Sam Possemiers

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that polyphenol supplementation may be an effective strategy to improve exercise performance, due to their antioxidant character and ability to stimulate NO production. These properties may contribute to exercise performance, yet no conclusive research has been performed in exploring the direct effects of citrus flavonoids on human exercise performance. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess whether supplementation of a customized citrus flavonoid (CF extract for 4 weeks improves cycling time-trial performance in trained male athletes. In a double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 39 healthy, trained males were given a daily dose of either 500 mg of a customized citrus flavonoid extract (CF or a placebo for 4 weeks. Exercise performance was tested by means of a time-trial test on a cycle ergometer, during which participants had to generate as much power as possible for duration of 10 minutes. Absolute power output significantly increased with 14.9 ± 3.9 W after 4 weeks of CF supplementation, corresponding with a 5.0% increase, compared to 3.8 ± 3.2 W (1.3% increase in placebo (p < 0.05. In addition, oxygen consumption/power ratio significantly decreased in the CF group compared to placebo (p = 0.001, and a trend was found in the change in peak power output in CF (18.2 ± 23.2 W versus placebo (-28.4 ± 17.6 W; p = 0.116. The current study is the first convincing report that citrus flavonoid supplementation can improve exercise performance, as shown by a significant increase in power output during the exercise test.

  3. Synergistic effects of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognition, physiological markers, daily function, and quality of life in stroke survivors with cognitive decline: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Ting; Wu, Ching-Yi; Hsieh, Yu-Wei; Chang, Ku-Chou; Lee, Lin-Chien; Hung, Jen-Wen; Lin, Keh-Chung; Teng, Ching-Hung; Liao, Yi-Han

    2017-08-31

    Aerobic exercise and cognitive training have been effective in improving cognitive functions; however, whether the combination of these two can further enhance cognition and clinical outcomes in stroke survivors with cognitive decline remains unknown. This study aimed to determine the treatment effects of a sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training on cognitive function and clinical outcomes. Stroke survivors (n = 75) with cognitive decline will be recruited and randomly assigned to cognitive training, aerobic exercise, and sequential combination of aerobic exercise and cognitive training groups. All participants will receive training for 60 minutes per day, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. The aerobic exercise group will receive stationary bicycle training, the cognitive training group will receive cognitive-based training, and the sequential group will first receive 30 minutes of aerobic exercise, followed by 30 minutes of cognitive training. The outcome measures involve cognitive functions, physiological biomarkers, daily function and quality of life, physical functions, and social participation. Participants will be assessed before and immediately after the interventions, and 6 months after the interventions. Repeated measures of analysis of variance will be used to evaluate the changes in outcome measures at the three assessments. This trial aims to explore the benefits of innovative intervention approaches to improve the cognitive function, physiological markers, daily function, and quality of life in stroke survivors with cognitive decline. The findings will provide evidence to advance post-stroke cognitive rehabilitation. ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02550990 . Registered on 6 September 2015.

  4. Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE) Mitigates the Effects of Spatial Disorientation to Simulated Orion Spacecraft Re-Entry: Individual Differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowings, Patricia S.; Toscano, William B.; Reschke, Millard F.; Gebreyesus, Fiyori; Rocha, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    NASA has identified a potential risk of spatial disorientation to future astronauts during re-entry of the proposed Orion spacecraft. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 6-hour physiological training procedure, Autogenic-Feedback Training Exercise (AFTE), can mitigate these effects. Twenty subjects were assigned to two groups (AFTE and Control) matched for motion sickness susceptibility and gender. All subjects received a standard rotating chair test to determine motion sickness susceptibility; three training sessions on a manual performance task; and four exposures to a simulated Orion re-entry test in the rotating chair. Treatment subjects were given two hours of AFTE training before each Orion test. A diagnostic scale was used to evaluate motion sickness symptom severity. Results showed that 2 hours of AFTE significantly reduced motion sickness symptoms during the second Orion test. AFTE subjects were able to maintain lower heart rates and skin conductance levels and other responses than the control group subjects during subsequent tests. Trends show that performance was less degraded for AFTE subjects. The results of this study indicate that astronauts could benefit from receiving at least 2 hours of preflight AFTE. In addition, flight crews could benefit further by practicing physiologic self-regulation using mobile devices.

  5. Intelligent Physical Exercise Training proves effective in enhancing muscle strength and reducing musculoskeletal pain in a workplace setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalager, Tina; Justesen, Just Bendix; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    intensity IPET every week within working hours for one year. The training program was based on baseline health check measures of muscle strength, musculoskeletal pain (self-reported on a 0-9 numeric box scale), cardiorespiratory fitness and health risk indicators, as well as functional capacity including...... compared with REF (~ 20 %). Discussion: High intensity IPET during working hours significantly reduced musculoskeletal pain in neck and shoulders as well as increased muscle strength among office workers. Of note is the large proportion of employees in TG who had pain reductions of ≥1, which is considered...... workers based on health checks and to assess the effect on musculoskeletal health (Sjøgaard G et al. BMC Public Health 2014, 14:652). Methods: Office workers were at each of 6 companies randomized 1:1 to a training group, TG (N=194) or a reference group, REF (N=195). TG received one-hour supervised high...

  6. A randomised trial comparing the effect of exercise training and weight loss on microvascular function in coronary artery disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Pedersen, Lene Rørholm; Jürs, Anders

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Coronary microvascular function is associated with outcome and is reduced in coronary artery disease (CAD) and obesity. We compared the effect of aerobic interval training (AIT) and weight loss on coronary flow reserve (CFR) and peripheral vascular function in revascularised obese CAD...... patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Seventy non-diabetic patients (BMI 28-40 kg × m(-2), age 45-75 years) were randomised to 12 weeks' AIT (three weekly sessions lasting 38 min with ≈ 16 min at 85-90% of VO2peak) or low energy diet (LED, 800-1000 kcal/day). Per protocol adherence was defined by training......-attendance ≥ 60% and weight loss ≥ 5%, respectively. CFR was assessed by Doppler echocardiography of the LAD. Peripheral vascular function was assessed by arterial tonometry as reactive hyperaemia index (RHI) and augmentation index. Most participants had impaired CFR with a mean CFR of 2.38 (SD 0.59). Twenty...

  7. The effect of previous conditioning exercise on diaphyseal and metaphyseal bone to imposition and withdrawal of training in young Thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Elwyn C; Rogers, Christopher W; van Weeren, P Rene; Barneveld, Albert; McIlwraith, C Wayne; Kawcak, Christopher E; Goodship, Allen E; Smith, Roger K W

    2012-04-01

    This study recorded the response to training of the diaphysis of the proximal phalangeal bone and the third metacarpal bone (Mc3) and the Mc3 proximal metaphysis. Nineteen 2- and 3-year old horses in training were exposed either to spontaneous exercise at pasture (PASTEX group) or additional imposed exercise (CONDEX group) from a very young age. Quantitative computed tomography scans were analysed for bone mineral content, size, bone mineral density, periosteal and endosteal circumference, cortical thickness and an estimate of bone strength. The bones of the CONDEX horses were bigger and stronger than those of the PASTEX horses at the start of the observation period, and these differences were maintained after adjusting for training workload. Increase in the bone strength index was through size and not density increase. Density increased during training and decreased during paddock rest between the two training campaigns, during which time bone strength continued to increase because of the slow growth that was still occurring. The greatest variance in the response to the training exercise of diaphyseal bone mineral content, bone strength index or cortical thickness was associated with the cumulative workload index at the gallop, although statistically significant unexplained variances remained. There were no differences in bone response to training, with the exception of the endosteal circumference at 55% of the Mc3 length from the carpometacarpal joint space between CONDEX and PASTEX, which indicated that young horses may be able to be exercised slightly more vigorously than currently accepted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Exercisers' identities and exercise dependence: the mediating effect of exercise commitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Jing-Horng; Hsu, Eva Ya-Wen; Wang, Junn-Ming; Huang, Mei-Yao; Chang, Jo-Ning; Wang, Chien-Hsin

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations of exercise identity, exercise commitment, exercise dependence, and, particularly, the mediating effects of exercise commitment on the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. 253 Taiwanese regular exercisers completed measures, including the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised, the Exercise Identity Scale, the Exercise Commitment Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Results showed that exercise identity, exercise dependence, and two types of exercise commitment were moderately to highly correlated. Furthermore, structural equation modelling indicated that a "have to" commitment partially mediated the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. Based on the mediating role of a "have to" commitment, the findings are particularly informative to exercise instructors and for exercise program managers.

  9. Exercise training in older patients with systolic heart failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, Eva; Hjardem-Hansen, Rasmus; Dela, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF.......Training improves exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (CHF) but most evidence is on selected younger patients with systolic CHF....

  10. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise

  11. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano

    2014-01-01

    Background Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. Objective The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Methods Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. Results The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. Conclusion In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise. PMID:24270864

  12. Aerobic Interval Exercise Training Induces Greater Reduction in Cardiac Workload in the Recovery Period in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Juliana Pereira, E-mail: julipborges@gmail.com; Masson, Gustavo Santos; Tibiriçá, Eduardo; Lessa, Marcos Adriano [Instituto Oswaldo Cruz - FIOCRUZ, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2014-01-15

    Aerobic interval exercise training has greater benefits on cardiovascular function as compared with aerobic continuous exercise training. The present study aimed at analyzing the effects of both exercise modalities on acute and subacute hemodynamic responses of healthy rats. Thirty male rats were randomly assigned into three groups as follows: continuous exercise (CE, n = 10); interval exercise (IE, n = 10); and control (C, n = 10). Both IE and CE groups performed a 30-minute exercise session. The IE group session consisted of three successive 4-minute periods at 60% of maximal velocity (Max Vel), with 4-minute recovery intervals at 40% of Max Vel. The CE group ran continuously at 50% of Max Vel. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure(BP), and rate pressure product (RPP) were measured before, during and after the exercise session. The CE and IE groups showed an increase in systolic BP and RPP during exercise as compared with the baseline values. After the end of exercise, the CE group showed a lower response of systolic BP and RPP as compared with the baseline values, while the IE group showed lower systolic BP and mean BP values. However, only the IE group had a lower response of HR and RPP during recovery. In healthy rats, one interval exercise session, as compared with continuous exercise, induced similar hemodynamic responses during exercise. However, during recovery, the interval exercise caused greater reductions in cardiac workload than the continuous exercise.

  13. Effects of Exercise Training on Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Biomarkers of Cardiometabolic Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Xiaochen; Zhang, Xi; Guo, Jianjun; Roberts, Christian K; McKenzie, Steve; Wu, Wen-Chih; Liu, Simin; Song, Yiqing

    2015-01-01

    Background Guidelines recommend exercise for cardiovascular health, although evidence from trials linking exercise to cardiovascular health through intermediate biomarkers remains inconsistent. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials to quantify the impact of exercise on cardiorespiratory fitness and a variety of conventional and novel cardiometabolic biomarkers in adults without cardiovascular disease. Methods and Results Two researchers selected 160 randomized controlled trials (7487 participants) based on literature searches of Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central (January 1965 to March 2014). Data were extracted using a standardized protocol. A random-effects meta-analysis and systematic review was conducted to evaluate the effects of exercise interventions on cardiorespiratory fitness and circulating biomarkers. Exercise significantly raised absolute and relative cardiorespiratory fitness. Lipid profiles were improved in exercise groups, with lower levels of triglycerides and higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1. Lower levels of fasting insulin, homeostatic model assessment–insulin resistance, and glycosylated hemoglobin A1c were found in exercise groups. Compared with controls, exercise groups had higher levels of interleukin-18 and lower levels of leptin, fibrinogen, and angiotensin II. In addition, we found that the exercise effects were modified by age, sex, and health status such that people aged exercise significantly improved cardiorespiratory fitness and some cardiometabolic biomarkers. The effects of exercise were modified by age, sex, and health status. Findings from this study have significant implications for future design of targeted lifestyle interventions. PMID:26116691

  14. The Effect of an Eight Week Combined Exercise Training on Oxidative Stress and Lipid Peroxidation in Postmenopausal Women with Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Azamian Jazi

    2016-11-01

    years old, BMI 26.47±3.08 kg/m2 from Yazd city were purposefully selected and randomly divided into experimental (n=13 and control (n=14 groups. The experimental group participated in an eight week combined exercise training (three session per week, but during this period, the control group did not participate  in any exercise training program. Superoxide dismutase (SOD, catalase (CAT, malondialdehyde (MDA, fasting blood sugar (FBS and body fat percent were measured before and after the eight-week combined exercise training. Data were analyzed using paired and independent t-test. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: Serum SOD and CAT levels significantly increased (p = 0.000 and p = 0.001 respectively and the MDA levels decreased (P = 0.036 in the experimental group after 8 weeks of combined exercise training. Also, FBS (P=0.000 and body fat percent (P=0.005 decreased in the experimental group compared with the control group. Conclusions: It seems that oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation status in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes in the experimental group improve after eight weeks of combined exercise training, compared with the control group.

  15. Whole body vibration exercise training for fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidonde, Julia; Busch, Angela J; van der Spuy, Ina; Tupper, Susan; Kim, Soo Y; Boden, Catherine

    2017-09-26

    Exercise training is commonly recommended for adults with fibromyalgia. We defined whole body vibration (WBV) exercise as use of a vertical or rotary oscillating platform as an exercise stimulus while the individual engages in sustained static positioning or dynamic movements. The individual stands on the platform, and oscillations result in vibrations transmitted to the subject through the legs. This review is one of a series of reviews that replaces the first review published in 2002. To evaluate benefits and harms of WBV exercise training in adults with fibromyalgia. We searched the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PEDro, Thesis and Dissertation Abstracts, AMED, WHO ICTRP, and ClinicalTrials.gov up to December 2016, unrestricted by language, to identify potentially relevant trials. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in adults with the diagnosis of fibromyalgia based on published criteria including a WBV intervention versus control or another intervention. Major outcomes were health-related quality of life (HRQL), pain intensity, stiffness, fatigue, physical function, withdrawals, and adverse events. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, performed risk of bias assessments, and assessed the quality of evidence for major outcomes using the GRADE approach. We used a 15% threshold for calculation of clinically relevant differences. We included four studies involving 150 middle-aged female participants from one country. Two studies had two treatment arms (71 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise plus relaxation versus mixed exercise plus relaxation and placebo WBV versus control, and WBV plus mixed exercise versus mixed exercise and control; two studies had three treatment arms (79 participants) that compared WBV plus mixed exercise versus control and mixed relaxation placebo WBV. We judged the overall risk of bias as low for selection (random sequence generation), detection (objectively

  16. Moderators of Effects of Internet-Delivered Exercise and Pain Coping Skills Training for People With Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Analysis of the IMPACT Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawford, Belinda J; Hinman, Rana S; Kasza, Jessica; Nelligan, Rachel; Keefe, Francis; Rini, Christine; Bennell, Kim L

    2018-05-09

    Internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training is effective for people with knee osteoarthritis, yet it is not clear whether this treatment is better suited to particular subgroups of patients. The aim was to explore demographic and clinical moderators of the effect of an internet-delivered intervention on changes in pain and physical function in people with knee osteoarthritis. Exploratory analysis of data from 148 people with knee osteoarthritis who participated in a randomized controlled trial comparing internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training to internet-delivered education alone. Primary outcomes were changes in knee pain while walking (11-point Numerical Rating Scale) and physical function (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index function subscale) at 3 and 9 months. Separate regression models were fit with moderator variables (age, gender, expectations of outcomes, self-efficacy [pain], education, employment status, pain catastrophizing, body mass index) and study group as covariates, including an interaction between the two. Participants in the intervention group who were currently employed had significantly greater reductions in pain at 3 months than similar participants in the control group (between-group difference: mean 2.38, 95% CI 1.52-3.23 Numerical Rating Scale units; interaction P=.02). Additionally, within the intervention group, pain at 3 months reduced by mean 0.53 (95% CI 0.28-0.78) Numerical Rating Scale units per unit increase in baseline self-efficacy for managing pain compared to mean 0.11 Numerical Rating Scale units (95% CI -0.13 to 0.35; interaction P=.02) for the control group. People who were employed and had higher self-efficacy at baseline were more likely to experience greater improvements in pain at 3 months after an internet-delivered exercise, education, and pain coping skills training program. There was no evidence of a difference in the effect across

  17. Exercise training and weight loss, not always a happy marriage: single blind exercise trials in females with diverse BMI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew; Fatahi, Fardin; Alabduljader, Kholoud; Jelleyman, Charlotte; Moore, Jonathan P; Kubis, Hans-Peter

    2018-04-01

    Individuals show high variability in body weight responses to exercise training. Expectations and motivation towards effects of exercise on body weight might influence eating behaviour and could conceal regulatory mechanisms. We conducted 2 single-blind exercise trials (4 weeks (study 1) and 8 weeks (study 2)) with concealed objectives and exclusion of individuals with weight loss intention. Circuit exercise training programs (3 times a week (45-90 min), intensity 50%-90% peak oxygen uptake for 4 and 8 weeks) were conducted. Thirty-four females finished the 4-week intervention and 36 females the 8-week intervention. Overweight/obese (OV/OB) and lean female participants' weight/body composition responses were assessed and fasting and postprandial appetite hormone levels (PYY, insulin, amylin, leptin, ghrelin) were measured before and after the intervention for understanding potential contribution to individuals' body weight response to exercise training (study 2). Exercise training in both studies did not lead to a significant reduction of weight/body mass index (BMI) in the participants' groups; however, lean participants gained muscle mass. Appetite hormones levels were significantly (p training did not lead to weight loss in female participants, while a considerable proportion of variance in body weight response to training could be explained by individuals' appetite hormone levels and BMI.

  18. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqin Li

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise. Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise and AT VO2 (baseline. The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise were significantly correlated with AT VO2, peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches. Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  19. Dynamic Regulation of Circulating microRNAs During Acute Exercise and Long-Term Exercise Training in Basketball Athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqin; Yao, Mengchao; Zhou, Qiulian; Cheng, Yan; Che, Lin; Xu, Jiahong; Xiao, Junjie; Shen, Zhongming; Bei, Yihua

    2018-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates the beneficial effects of physical exercise on human health, which depends on the intensity, training time, exercise type, environmental factors, and the personal health status. Conventional biomarkers provide limited insight into the exercise-induced adaptive processes. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs, miRs) are dynamically regulated in response to acute exhaustive exercise and sustained rowing, running and cycling exercises. However, circulating miRNAs in response to long-term basketball exercise remains unknown. Here, we enrolled 10 basketball athletes who will attend a basketball season for 3 months. Specifically, circulating miRNAs which were involved in angiogenesis, inflammation and enriched in muscle and/or cardiac tissues were analyzed at baseline, immediately following acute exhaustive exercise and after 3-month basketball matches in competitive male basketball athletes. Circulating miR-208b was decreased and miR-221 was increased after 3-month basketball exercise, while circulating miR-221, miR-21, miR-146a, and miR-210 were reduced at post-acute exercise. The change of miR-146a (baseline vs. post-acute exercise) showed linear correlations with baseline levels of cardiac marker CKMB and the changes of inflammation marker Hs-CRP (baseline vs. post-acute exercise). Besides, linear correlation was observed between miR-208b changes (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) and AT VO 2 (baseline). The changes of miR-221 (baseline vs. after long-term exercise) were significantly correlated with AT VO 2 , peak work load and CK (after 3-month basketball matches). Although further studies are needed, present findings set the stage for defining circulating miRNAs as biomarkers and suggesting their physiological roles in long-term exercise training induced cardiovascular adaptation.

  20. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  1. Effects of exercise training on pulmonary vessel muscularization and right ventricular function in an animal model of COPD

    OpenAIRE

    Hassel, Erlend; Berre, Anne Marie; Skjulsvik, Anne Jarstein; Steinshamn, Sigurd

    2014-01-01

    Background Right ventricular dysfunction in COPD is common, even in the absence of pulmonary hypertension. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) on right ventricular (RV) function, as well as pulmonary blood vessel remodeling in a mouse model of COPD. Methods 42 female A/JOlaHsd mice were randomized to exposure to either cigarette smoke or air for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 14 weeks. Mice from both groups were further randomized t...

  2. The effects of acute branched-chain amino acid supplementation on recovery from a single bout of hypertrophy exercise in resistance-trained athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Mark; Whelan, Kieran; Jeffries, Owen; Burt, Dean; Howe, Louis; Patterson, Stephen David

    2017-06-01

    This study investigated the effects of acute branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation on recovery from exercise-induced muscle damage among experienced resistance-trained athletes. In a double-blind matched-pairs design, 16 resistance-trained participants, routinely performing hypertrophy training, were randomly assigned to a BCAA (n = 8) or placebo (n = 8) group. The BCAAs were administered at a dosage of 0.087 g/kg body mass, with a 2:1:1 ratio of leucine, isoleucine, and valine. The participants performed 6 sets of 10 full-squats at 70% 1-repetition maximum to induce muscle damage. All participants were diet-controlled across the study. Creatine kinase, peak isometric knee-extensor force, perceived muscle soreness, and countermovement jump (CMJ) height were measured immediately before (baseline) and at 1 h, 24 h, and 48 h postexercise. There were large to very large time effects for all measurements between baseline and 24-48 h. Between-group comparisons, expressed as a percentage of baseline, revealed differences in isometric strength at 24-h (placebo ∼87% vs. BCAA ∼92%; moderate, likely), CMJ at 24 h (placebo ∼93% vs. BCAA ∼96%; small, likely), and muscle soreness at both 24 h (placebo ∼685% vs. BCAA ∼531%; small, likely) and 48 h (placebo ∼468% vs. BCAA ∼350%; small, likely). Acute supplementation of BCAAs (0.087 g/kg) increased the rate of recovery in isometric strength, CMJ height, and perceived muscle soreness compared with placebo after a hypertrophy-based training session among diet-controlled, resistance-trained athletes. These findings question the need for longer BCAA loading phases and highlight the importance of dietary control in studies of this type.

  3. The effectiveness of physical exercise training in pain, mobility, and psychological well-being of older persons living in nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Mimi M Y; Tang, Shuk Kwan; Wan, Vanessa T C; Vong, Sinfia K S

    2014-12-01

    Pain is common in the aging population, particularly among older residents of nursing homes. It has been found that 50% of older people living in the community have been experiencing chronic pain, and the number increased to 80% for older residents of nursing homes. Exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention that can reduce pain and improve physical and psychological functions. A quasi-experimental study with a pretest-posttest control group designed was conducted to evaluate the effects of a physical exercise program (PEP) on older residents of nursing homes who have chronic pain. Three-hundred-ninety-six older residents with chronic pain were recruited from 10 nursing homes run by non-governmental organizations in Hong Kong. The average age of the older residents was 85.44 ± 6.29. Five nursing homes were randomized to the experimental group with PEP (n = 225, age = 85.45 ± 6.25); the other five nursing homes were randomized to the control group without the PEP (n = 171, age = 85.44 ± 6.35). PEP was an eight-week training program given by a physiotherapist and nurses once a week. It consisted of warm-up exercises, muscle strengthening, stretching, balancing, and self-administered massage to acupressure points. At the end of each PEP session, pamphlets with pictures illustrating the "exercise of the day" were given to the older residents of nursing homes as a tool to enhance their self-management skills. The control group received no training during the eight weeks. Upon completion of the PEP, the experimental group experienced a significantly greater reduction in pain intensity from 4.19 ± 2.25 (on an 11 point scale) to 2.67 ± 2.08, as compared to the control group (p Pain Management Nursing. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of a short-term exercise training program on aerobic fitness, fatigue, health perception and activity level of subjects with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostert, S; Kesselring, J

    2002-04-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) patients of an inpatient rehabilitation program have been randomly assigned to an exercise training (MS-ET) or nontraining group (MS-NI). Before and after 4 weeks of aerobic exercise training, a graded maximal exercise test with measurement of gas exchange and a lung function test was administered to all 26 patients fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Activity level, fatigue and health perception were measured by means of questionnaires. Twenty-six healthy persons served as control group and were matched in respect of age, gender and activity level. Training intervention consisted of 5x30 min sessions per week of bicycle exercise with individualised intensity. Compared with baseline, the MS training group demonstrated a significant rightward placement of the aerobic threshold (AT) (VO2+13%; work rate [WR])+11%), an improvement of health perception (vitality+46%; social interaction+36%), an increase of activity level (+17%) and a tendency to less fatigue. No changes were observed for the MS-NI group and the control groups. Maximal aerobic capacity and lung function were not changed by either training or nontraining in all four groups. Overall compliance to the training program was quite low (65%), whereas incidence of symptom exacerbation by physical activity has been lower than expected (6%).

  5. The effect of aerobic exercise training on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Yu, Li-Juan; Wang, Chuan; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8weeks at a water velocity of control (3cms(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl)s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4bls(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (PFI after long-term training; (3) and aerobic exercise training boosted the activity of digestive enzymes and maximum digestive metabolism, which could favor fast digestion and growth in juvenile S. sinensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hypoxic training methods for improving endurance exercise performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob A. Sinex

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Endurance athletic performance is highly related to a number of factors that can be altered through altitude and hypoxic training including increases in erythrocyte volume, maximal aerobic exercise capacity, capillary density, and economy. Physiological adaptations in response to acute and chronic exposure to hypoxic environments are well documented and range from short-term detrimental effects to longer-term adaptations that can improve performance at altitude and in sea-level competitions. Many altitude and hypoxic training protocols have been developed, employing various combinations of living and training at sea-level, low, moderate, and high altitudes and utilizing natural and artificial altitudes, with varying degrees of effectiveness. Several factors have been identified that are associated with individual responses to hypoxic training, and techniques for identifying those athletes most likely to benefit from hypoxic training continue to be investigated. Exposure to sufficiently high altitude (2000–3000 m for more than 12 h/day, while training at lower altitudes, for a minimum of 21 days is recommended. Timing of altitude training related to competition remains under debate, although general recommendations can be considered.

  7. A Scientific Rationale to Improve Resistance Training Prescription in Exercise Oncology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairman, Ciaran M; Zourdos, Michael C; Helms, Eric R; Focht, Brian C

    2017-08-01

    To date, the prevailing evidence in the field of exercise oncology supports the safety and efficacy of resistance training to attenuate many oncology treatment-related adverse effects, such as risk for cardiovascular disease, increased fatigue, and diminished physical functioning and quality of life. Moreover, findings in the extant literature supporting the benefits of exercise for survivors of and patients with cancer have resulted in the release of exercise guidelines from several international agencies. However, despite research progression and international recognition, current exercise oncology-based exercise prescriptions remain relatively basic and underdeveloped, particularly in regards to resistance training. Recent publications have called for a more precise manipulation of training variables such as volume, intensity, and frequency (i.e., periodization), given the large heterogeneity of a cancer population, to truly optimize clinically relevant patient-reported outcomes. Indeed, increased attention to integrating fundamental principles of exercise physiology into the exercise prescription process could optimize the safety and efficacy of resistance training during cancer care. The purpose of this article is to give an overview of the current state of resistance training prescription and discuss novel methods that can contribute to improving approaches to exercise prescription. We hope this article may facilitate further evaluation of best practice regarding resistance training prescription, monitoring, and modification to ultimately optimize the efficacy of integrating resistance training as a supportive care intervention for survivors or and patients with cancer.

  8. Psychophysiological Responses to Group Exercise Training Sessions: Does Exercise Intensity Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandoni, Matteo; Codrons, Erwan; Marin, Luca; Correale, Luca; Bigliassi, Marcelo; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklim

    2016-01-01

    Group exercise training programs were introduced as a strategy for improving health and fitness and potentially reducing dropout rates. This study examined the psychophysiological responses to group exercise training sessions. Twenty-seven adults completed two group exercise training sessions of moderate and vigorous exercise intensities in a random and counterbalanced order. The %HRR and the exertional and arousal responses to vigorous session were higher than those during the moderate session (psession were less pleasant than those during moderate session (ptraining sessions are intensity-dependent. From an adherence perspective, interventionists are encouraged to emphasize group exercise training sessions at a moderate intensity to maximize affective responses and to minimize exertional responses, which in turn may positively affect future exercise behavior.

  9. Protective Effect of Curcumin Supplementation and Light Resistance Exercises on Superoxide Dismutase Enzyme Activity and Malondialdehyde Levels in a Severe Endurance Training Period in Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Gorzi

    2017-07-01

    Background and aim: Extreme endurance exercises lead to oxidative stress in athletes. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of curcumin supplement supplementation and light resistance training on the activity of SOD and MDA levels of male Wistar rats during a 8-week endurance training. Methods: In the present experimental study, 36 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into one of six control groups, curcumin, endurance training, exercise, after one week of information (age 9 weeks and weight 255.62 ± 19.69 grams. Endurance + resistance, endurance training + curcumin and endurance training + curcumin + resistance. Incremental endurance training (8 weeks, 5 sessions per week was performed on a special treadmill. Speed ​​and running time in the last week reached 35 m / min and 70 minutes. Resistance training (8 weeks, 2 sessions per week was performed on vertical ladder by closing the rat's weight to the tail. Rats received supplemental curcumin by intraperitoneal injection (8 weeks, 3 sessions per week, 30 mg / kg body weight. SOD activity of the muscle was measured using ELISA kits and serum MDA levels using Tobartic acid (TBARS method. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA (ANOVA.   Results: The antioxidant enzyme activity of SOD in the endometrial muscle of endurance group (1.08 ± 0.222 μg / ml was significantly lower than control group (22.2 ± 0.481 kg (P = 0.043, and SOD activity in the endurance + resistance group (1.87 ± 0.172, p = 0.44, endurance + curcumin (2.24 ± 0.222; P = 0.039, and endurance + curcumin + resistance (0.202 ± 0.15, p = 0.029 was significantly higher than endurance group. The levels of malondialdehyde in the endurance group (4.27 ± 0.438 nmol / ml protein were significantly higher in comparison with the control group (3.42 ± 0.350 (0.331 and Also, serum MDA levels in endurance + resistance groups (± 3.03 ± 0.342, p = 0.003, endurance + curcumin (p = 0.001, p <0.001, and endurance + curcumin

  10. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on visual perceptual learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connell, Charlotte J W; Thompson, Benjamin; Green, Hayden; Sullivan, Rachel K; Gant, Nicholas

    2017-12-02

    This study investigated the influence of five days of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on the acquisition and consolidation of visual perceptual learning using a motion direction discrimination (MDD) task. The timing of exercise relative to learning was manipulated by administering exercise either before or after perceptual training. Within a matched-subjects design, twenty-seven healthy participants (n = 9 per group) completed five consecutive days of perceptual training on a MDD task under one of three interventions: no exercise, exercise before the MDD task, or exercise after the MDD task. MDD task accuracy improved in all groups over the five-day period, but there was a trend for impaired learning when exercise was performed before visual perceptual training. MDD task accuracy (mean ± SD) increased in exercise before by 4.5 ± 6.5%; exercise after by 11.8 ± 6.4%; and no exercise by 11.3 ± 7.2%. All intervention groups displayed similar MDD threshold reductions for the trained and untrained motion axes after training. These findings suggest that moderate daily exercise does not enhance the rate of visual perceptual learning for an MDD task or the transfer of learning to an untrained motion axis. Furthermore, exercise performed immediately prior to a visual perceptual learning task may impair learning. Further research with larger groups is required in order to better understand these effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of Community-Based Social Skills Training and Tai-Chi Exercise on Outcomes in Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Randomized, One-Year Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ruiying; Wu, Yeqing; Li, Zhiwu; Jiang, Jun; Gao, Qi; Yu, Yuncui; Gao, Keming; Yan, Yuxiang; He, Yan

    Antipsychotic drugs are limited in their ability to improve negative symptoms, quality of life, and medication adherence in patients with schizophrenia. The addition of nonpharmacological interventions like social skills training has a positive effect on medication adherence and decreases rehospitalization rates but is limited in improving patients' symptoms, aggressive behaviors, and quality of life. Aerobic exercise, especially Tai-chi, can potentially reduce psychopathological and negative symptoms, decrease aggressive behaviors, and improve quality of life. It is an ideal rehabilitation intervention for patients with schizophrenia. However, no study has investigated the effects of social skills training plus Tai-chi on outcomes among outpatients with schizophrenia. This study analyzes the effect of antipsychotics combined with community-based integrated interventions on outcomes of schizophrenia. In this study, a 24-session social skills training plus Tai-chi was used in community settings among patients with schizophrenia. A total of 244 patients were randomly assigned to medication treatment alone (MTA group) or community-based integrated intervention (CBII group), which accepted social skills training plus Tai-chi in addition to medication treatment. Generalized linear mixed models were used to evaluate the intervention effect (group effect), intervention effect over time (time effect), and interaction effect (group × time effect). t tests were used to evaluate between-group differences on clinical variables. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to analyze the differences between the intervention at 12 months and baseline for the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) negative symptoms and quality of life-social domain. Compared with the MTA group, the CBII group had lower scores on PANSS (F = 17.312, p social domain of the World Health Organization Quality of Life Scale-Brief version (WHOQOL-BREF) from baseline to 12 months were significant

  12. Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of 16 weeks of aerobic, resistance and combination exercise programmes on smoking. ... African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Abstract. Previous research on the cessation of smoking and the prevention of smoking recidivism using exercise training has mainly focused on aerobic training (AER).

  13. Aerobic exercise training performed by parents reduces mice offspring adiposity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, Paulo Vitor da Silva; Guariglia, Débora Alves; Da Rocha, Francielli Ferreira; Picoli, Caroline de Carvalho; Gilio, Gustavo Renan; Fabricio, Gabriel Sergio; Mathias, Paulo Cesar de Freitas; Moraes, Solange Marta Franzói de; Peres, Sidney Barnabé

    2018-07-01

    The present study aimed to determine the effects of physical training performed by parents on mice offspring adiposity. Male and female parents underwent an aerobic training protocol for 7 weeks. The trained and sedentary parents were allowed to mate and the resultant offspring divided in: S (Offspring from Sedentary Parents), T (Offspring from Trained Parents), ST (Offspring from Sedentary Father and Trained Mother) and TS (Offspring from Trained Father and Sedentary Mother). After weaning, offspring was euthanized, blood collected and samples of mesenteric and inguinal fat pads used to isolate adipocytes for morphologic and histological analyses. Lee index, mesenteric fat pad, sum of visceral fat and total fat weight of female T was reduced in comparison to the other groups (p < 0.05). Periepididymal and sum of visceral fat in male T group was also reduced when compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). The diameter of mesenteric and inguinal adipocytes of T group was smaller compared to all groups comparisons for both sexes (p < 0.05). In summary, exercise training performed by parents reduced visceral offspring adiposity, the diameter of subcutaneous adipocytes and improved metabolic parameters associated to metabolic syndrome.

  14. Changes in ventilatory threshold with exercise training in a sedentary population: the HERITAGE Family Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, S E; Walker, A J; Serfass, R A; Bouchard, C; Gagnon, J; Rao, D C; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Leon, A S

    2001-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of exercise training intensity relative to the ventilatory threshold (VT) on changes in work (watts) and VO2 at the ventilatory threshold and at maximal exercise in previously sedentary participants in the HERITAGE Family Study. We hypothesized that those who exercised below their VT would improve less in VO2 at the ventilatory threshold (VO2vt) and VO2max than those who trained at an intensity greater than their VT. Supervised cycle ergometer training was performed at the 4 participating clinical centers, 3 times a week for 20 weeks. Exercise training progressed from the HR corresponding to 55% VO2max for 30 minutes to the HR associated with 75% VO2max for 50 minutes for the final 6 weeks. VT was determined at baseline and after exercise training using standardized methods. 432 sedentary white and black men (n = 224) and women (n = 208), aged 17 to 65 years, were retrospectively divided into groups based on whether exercise training was initiated below, at, or above VT. 1) Training intensity (relative to VT) accounting for about 26% of the improvement in VO2vt (R2 = 0.26, p accounted for approximately 56% of the training effect at VT (R2 = 0.56, p 0.70). 3) Training intensity (relative to VT) had no effect on DeltaVO2max. These data clearly show that as a result of aerobic training both the VO2 and W associated with VT respond and become similar to the absolute intensity of sustained (3 x /week for 50 min) aerobic exercise training. Higher intensities of exercise, relative to VT, result in larger gains in VO2vt but not in VO2max.

  15. Comparable Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and Prolonged Continuous Exercise Training on Abdominal Visceral Fat Reduction in Obese Young Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haifeng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the effect of prolonged moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT on reducing abdominal visceral fat in obese young women with that of work-equivalent (300 kJ/training session high-intensity interval training (HIIT. Forty-three participants received either HIIT (n=15, MICT (n=15, or no training (CON, n=13 for 12 weeks. The abdominal visceral fat area (AVFA and abdominal subcutaneous fat area (ASFA of the participants were measured through computed tomography scans preintervention and postintervention. Total fat mass and the fat mass of the android, gynoid, and trunk regions were assessed through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Following HIIT and MICT, comparable reductions in AVFA (−9.1, −9.2 cm2, ASFA (−35, −28.3 cm2, and combined AVFA and ASFA (−44.7, −37.5 cm2, p>0.05 were observed. Similarly, reductions in fat percentage (−2.5%, −2.4%, total fat mass (−2.8, −2.8 kg, and fat mass of the android (−0.3, −0.3 kg, gynoid (−0.5, −0.7 kg, and trunk (−1.6, −1.2 kg, p>0.05 regions did not differ between HIIT and MICT. No variable changed in CON. In conclusion, MICT consisting of prolonged sessions has no quantitative advantage, compared with that resulting from HIIT, in abdominal visceral fat reduction. HIIT appears to be the predominant strategy for controlling obesity because of its time efficiency.

  16. Tailored cognitive-behavioural therapy and exercise training improves the physical fitness of patients with fibromyalgia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spillekom-van Koulil, S.; Lankveld, W.G.J.M. van; Kraaimaat, F.W.; Helmond, T. van; Vedder, A.; Hoorn, H. van; Donders, A.R.T.; Wirken, L.; Cats, H.; Riel, P.L.C.M. van; Evers, A.W.M.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with fibromyalgia have diminished levels of physical fitness, which may lead to functional disability and exacerbating complaints. Multidisciplinary treatment comprising cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) and exercise training has been shown to be effective in improving

  17. Time to adapt exercise training regimens in pulmonary rehabilitation – a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee AL

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Annemarie L Lee,1–4 Anne E Holland1–3 1Physiotherapy, Alfred Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 2Institute for Breathing and Sleep, Austin Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 3Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Melbourne, VIC, Australia; 4Westpark Healthcare Centre, ON, Canada Abstract: Exercise intolerance, exertional dyspnea, reduced health-related quality of life, and acute exacerbations are features