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Sample records for exercise related transient

  1. The effect of transversus abdominis activation on exercise-related transient abdominal pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mole, Jason L; Bird, Marie-Louise; Fell, James W

    2014-05-01

    Exercise-related transient abdominal pain (ETAP) affects 40-60% of the physically active population, is detrimental to performance but of unknown aetiology. Excessive movement of abdominal peritoneum is one proposed mechanism. Transversus abdominis (TrA) function may play a role reducing in the incidence of Exercise-related transient abdominal pain via the tensioning of the thoracolumbar fascia or increasing intra-abdominal pressure. The aim of this study is to identify any relationship between transversus abdominis function and exercise-related transient abdominal pain, hypothesing that those with stronger transversus abdominis will have lower incidence of exercise-related transient abdominal pain. Observational study design. Trunk muscle strength was measured clinically using the functional Sahrmann test. Contraction of transversus abdominis was measured by ultrasound imaging of resting muscle size and calculating the change in thickness with a voluntary contraction. Participants completed questionnaires describing any exercise-related transient abdominal pain symptoms, and were divided into four groups dependent upon frequency of any symptoms (never, yearly, monthly and weekly). Between group differences were analysed using analysis of covariance, with Bonferroni correction adjusting for age and training of participants using STATA. Poisson regression determined incident rate ratios for relevant variables. Data was obtained from fifty runners (28 male, 25.8 ± 7.0 years). Sahrmann test score and frequency of Exercise-related transient abdominal pain were significantly different between groups (p=0.002) with asymptomatic runners having significantly higher Sahrmann test scores (stronger muscles) than weekly and yearly Exercise-related transient abdominal pain groups (p=0.001, p=0.02). There were significant between group differences for resting transversus abdominis thickness (p=0.034) but not for transversus abdominis thickness change (p=0.555). Participants who

  2. Transient myocardial ischemia after a first acute myocardial infarction and its relation to clinical characteristics, predischarge exercise testing and cardiac events at one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1993-01-01

    recording 11 +/- 5 days after AMI 23 patients (19%) had 123 ischemic episodes (group 1), whereas 100 patients demonstrated no ischemia (group 2). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression was more prevalent in group 1 (83%) than in group 2 (47%) (p ... as judged from a shorter exercise duration before significant ST-segment depression (5.5 +/- 2.4 vs 7.7 +/- 4.1 minutes; p depression on exercise testing (4.1 +/- 2.6 vs 2.6 +/- 1.6 mm; p exercise test results revealed an impaired hemodynamic......The relation between early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST-segment monitoring, clinical characteristics, predischarge maximal exercise testing and cardiac events was determined in 123 consecutive men (age 55 +/- 8 years) with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). During 36 hours of ambulatory...

  3. The SCEC geodetic transient detection validation exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohman, Rowena B.; Murray, Jessica R.

    2013-01-01

    Over the past decade the number and size of continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) networks has grown substantially worldwide. A steadily increasing volume of freely available GPS measurements, combined with the application of new approaches for mining these data for signals of interest, has led to the identification of a large and diverse collection of time‐varying Earth processes. One phenomenon that has been observed is transient fault slip (also termed slow slip events or silent earthquakes) occurring over time spans of days to years (e.g., Linde et al., 1996; Hirose et al., 1999; Dragert et al., 2001; Miller et al., 2002; Kostoglodov et al., 2003; Douglas et al., 2005; Shelly et al., 2006; Ide et al., 2007; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Schwartz and Rokosky, 2007; Szeliga et al., 2008). Such events have been widely observed in subduction zones but are also found in other tectonic settings (Linde et al., 1996; Cervelli et al., 2002; Murray and Segall, 2005; Lohman and McGuire, 2007; Montgomery‐Brown et al., 2009; Shelly, 2010; and references therein). Although retrospective study of slow‐slip events using geodetic observations is driving the formulation of new models for fault‐zone behavior and constitutive laws (e.g., Lapusta et al., 2000; Liu and Rice, 2007; Lapusta and Liu, 2009; Segall and Bradley, 2012a), much of the research on near‐real‐time detection and characterization of anomalous behaviors along fault zones has focused solely on the use of seismic tremor (e.g., Rogers and Dragert, 2003; Shelly et al., 2006; Ito et al., 2007).

  4. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434

  5. Transient exercise-induced water intoxication and rhabdomyolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putterman, C; Levy, L; Rubinger, D

    1993-02-01

    Water loading only rarely results in adverse effects due to the high efficiency of the kidney in excreting free water. However, when renal diluting ability is impaired, such as in inappropriate vasopressin secretion, water intoxication can occur in otherwise normal individuals. We report the case of a 19-year-old man with acute voluntary water intoxication following exercise, which resulted in a transient defect in renal diluting capability. Hyponatremia was further complicated by rhabdomyolysis. We review the literature regarding other cases of hyponatremia following excessive water intake, and discuss the possible association between hyponatremia and rhabdomyolysis. We conclude that monitoring of muscle enzymes is indicated in acute hyponatremia, to allow for timely intervention intended to prevent rhabdomyolysis-associated acute renal failure.

  6. The walking-induced transient hack concept is valid & relies on a transient early-exercise hypoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Bruneau

    Full Text Available Decreased arterial oxygen pressure obtained at peak exercise is strong evidence of walking-induced hypoxemia, assuming that the lower pressure occurs just before exercise is stopped. Using empirical predefined models and transcutaneous oximetry, we have shown that some patients reporting exercise intolerance show a minimal value at the onset of walking and a post-exercise overshoot. These changes are referred to as transcutaneous "walking-induced transient hacks".In 245 patients, walking-induced transcutaneous oxygen pressure changes in the chest were analyzed using observer-independent clustering techniques. Clustering classes were compared to the profile types previously proposed with the cross-correlation technique. The classifications of patients according to both approaches were compared using kappa statistics. In 10 patients showing a hack on transcutaneous oximetry, we analyzed the results of direct iterative arterial sampling recorded during a new walking treadmill test.Clustering analysis resulted in 4 classes that closely fit the 4 most frequently proposed empirical models (cross-correlation coefficients: 0.93 to 0.97. The kappa between the two classifications was 0.865. In 10 patients showing transcutaneous hacks, the minimal direct arterial oxygen pressure value occurred at exercise onset, and these patients exhibited a recovery overshoot reaching a maximum at two minutes of recovery, confirming the walking-induced transient hypoxemia.In patients reporting exercise intolerance, transcutaneous oximetry could help to detect walking-induced transient hypoxemia, while peak-exercise arterial oximetry might be normal.

  7. The walking-induced transient hack concept is valid & relies on a transient early-exercise hypoxemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruneau, Antoine; Feuilloy, Mathieu; Dussaussoy, Corinne; Gagnadoux, Frédéric; Leftheriotis, Georges; Abraham, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Decreased arterial oxygen pressure obtained at peak exercise is strong evidence of walking-induced hypoxemia, assuming that the lower pressure occurs just before exercise is stopped. Using empirical predefined models and transcutaneous oximetry, we have shown that some patients reporting exercise intolerance show a minimal value at the onset of walking and a post-exercise overshoot. These changes are referred to as transcutaneous "walking-induced transient hacks". In 245 patients, walking-induced transcutaneous oxygen pressure changes in the chest were analyzed using observer-independent clustering techniques. Clustering classes were compared to the profile types previously proposed with the cross-correlation technique. The classifications of patients according to both approaches were compared using kappa statistics. In 10 patients showing a hack on transcutaneous oximetry, we analyzed the results of direct iterative arterial sampling recorded during a new walking treadmill test. Clustering analysis resulted in 4 classes that closely fit the 4 most frequently proposed empirical models (cross-correlation coefficients: 0.93 to 0.97). The kappa between the two classifications was 0.865. In 10 patients showing transcutaneous hacks, the minimal direct arterial oxygen pressure value occurred at exercise onset, and these patients exhibited a recovery overshoot reaching a maximum at two minutes of recovery, confirming the walking-induced transient hypoxemia. In patients reporting exercise intolerance, transcutaneous oximetry could help to detect walking-induced transient hypoxemia, while peak-exercise arterial oximetry might be normal.

  8. Sweat Rate Prediction Equations for Outdoor Exercise with Transient Solar Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    clothing, aerobic fitness, and progressive dehydration . J Therm Biol 22: 331–342, 1997. 25. Matthew WT, Santee WR, Berglund LG. Solar Load Inputs for...code) Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation Richard R. Gonzalez,1 Samuel N. Cheuvront,2 Brett R. Ely,2...Moran DS, Hadid A, Endrusick TL, Sawka MN. Sweat rate prediction equations for outdoor exercise with transient solar radiation. J Appl Phys- iol 112

  9. Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid 2 Regulates Myocardial Response to Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindi Naticchioni

    Full Text Available The myocardial response to exercise is an adaptive mechanism that permits the heart to maintain cardiac output via improved cardiac function and development of hypertrophy. There are many overlapping mechanisms via which this occurs with calcium handling being a crucial component of this process. Our laboratory has previously found that the stretch sensitive TRPV2 channels are active regulators of calcium handling and cardiac function under baseline conditions based on our observations that TRPV2-KO mice have impaired cardiac function at baseline. The focus of this study was to determine the cardiac function of TRPV2-KO mice under exercise conditions. We measured skeletal muscle at baseline in WT and TRPV2-KO mice and subjected them to various exercise protocols and measured the cardiac response using echocardiography and molecular markers. Our results demonstrate that the TRPV2-KO mouse did not tolerate forced exercise although they became increasingly exercise tolerant with voluntary exercise. This occurs as the cardiac function deteriorates further with exercise. Thus, our conclusion is that TRPV2-KO mice have impaired cardiac functional response to exercise.

  10. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  11. Food related, exercise induced anaphylaxis.

    OpenAIRE

    Caffarelli, C.; TERZI V.; Perrone, F.; Cavagni, G.

    1996-01-01

    Four children under 12 years of age with food dependent, exercise induced anaphylaxis (EIAn) were investigated. These children and five controls performed exercise challenges when fasting and one hour after a meal without food suspected to predispose to the reaction. Patients then performed exercise tests after intake of each suspected food. Three out of 15 food-exercise combination challenges were positive, but no reactions were provoked after exercise without prior intake of suspected foods...

  12. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-fold; P trained leg. The present data demonstrate that exercise induces a dramatic transient increase in PGC-1a transcription and mRNA content in human skeletal muscle. Consistent with its role as a transcriptional coactivator...

  13. Perceptions of exercise consistency: Relation to exercise-related cognitive errors and cognitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, Sean R; Brawley, Lawrence R

    2017-04-01

    This study examined psychological differences between individuals (1) with varying perceptions of their exercise adherence pattern and (2) who do and do not make exercise-related cognitive errors. A total of 364 adults completed an exercise pattern and cognitive errors questionnaire. Individuals perceiving themselves as consistent exercisers reported more adaptive social cognitive outcomes (e.g. higher self-regulatory efficacy) than those perceiving themselves as inconsistent. Individuals expressing stronger exercise-related cognitive errors exercised less and reported problematic cognitions (e.g. more struggle with exercise decisions). These results link inconsistent adherence perceptions to weaker social cognitions and exercise-related cognitive errors, a novel form of bias related to limited exercise engagement.

  14. Irisin in blood increases transiently after single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Nygaard

    Full Text Available Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced hormone that increases energy expenditure, at least in rodents. The main purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Irisin increases acutely in blood after singular sessions of intense endurance exercise (END and heavy strength training (STR. Secondary, we wanted to explore the relationship between body composition and exercise-induced effects on irisin, and the effect of END and STR on muscular expression of the irisin gene FNDC5.Nine moderately trained healthy subjects performed three test days using a randomized and standardized crossover design: one day with 60 minutes of END, one day with 60 minutes of STR, and one day without exercise (CON. Venous blood was sampled over a period of 24h on the exercise days.Both END and STR led to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood, peaking immediately after END and one hour after STR, before gradually returning to baseline. Irisin responses to STR, but not END, showed a consistently strong negative correlation with proportions of lean body mass. Neither END nor STR affected expression of FNDC5, measured 4h after training sessions, though both protocols led to pronounced increases in PGC-1α expression, which is involved in transcriptional control of FNDC5.The results strongly suggest that single sessions of intense endurance exercise and heavy strength training lead to transient increases in irisin concentrations in blood. This was not accompanied by increased FNDC5 expression, measured 4h post-exercise. The results suggest that irisin responses to resistance exercise are higher in individuals with lower proportions of lean body mass.

  15. Transient hypofrontality as a mechanism for the psychological effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2006-11-29

    Although exercise is known to promote mental health, a satisfactory understanding of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been achieved. A new mechanism is proposed that is based on established concepts in cognitive psychology and the neurosciences as well as recent empirical work on the functional neuroanatomy of higher mental processes. Building on the fundamental principle that processing in the brain is competitive and the fact that the brain has finite metabolic resources, the transient hypofrontality hypothesis suggests that during exercise the extensive neural activation required to run motor patterns, assimilate sensory inputs, and coordinate autonomic regulation results in a concomitant transient decrease of neural activity in brain structures, such as the prefrontal cortex, that are not pertinent to performing the exercise. An exercise-induced state of frontal hypofunction can provide a coherent account of the influences of exercise on emotion and cognition. The new hypothesis is proposed primarily on the strength of its heuristic value, as it suggests several new avenues of research.

  16. Lunging Exercise Potentiates a Transient Improvement in Neuromuscular Performance in Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, Sean A; Watson, Steven L; Lambert, Conor; Weeks, Benjamin K

    2015-09-01

    High-load resistance-based exercise is a common approach to facilitating improved neuromuscular performance via postactivation potentiation. Popular field-based warm-up activities, however, have been largely overlooked despite their specificity and practicality for sports performance. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of repeated bouts of alternating lunges on neuromuscular performance determined by a maximal vertical jump (VJ). Forty-three healthy young adults (24 women and 19 men: age, 25.6 ± 4.4 years) participated in the study. Maximal VJ performance was quantified by jump height (in centimeters), relative impulse (in N·s·kg), flight time (in seconds), and normalized peak vertical ground reaction force (GRFz, bodyweight [BW]) at baseline and after each of 6 sets of 20 alternate split lunges. A rating of perceived exertion (1-10 scale) was recorded from participants before each VJ. Jump height was greater than baseline for the first 4 trials (3.1-3.8%, p ≤ 0.05), but no difference to baseline was observed on subsequent trials. Although there were no improvements for relative impulse over repeated trials, the sixth trial was significantly smaller than baseline (2.35 ± 0.38 vs. 2.26 ± 0.35 N·s·kg; p ≤ 0.001). Similarly, no improvements were observed for flight time, although the first, fourth, fifth, and sixth trials were reduced compared with baseline performance (p ≤ 0.01). No differences were observed for peak vertical GRFz (p > 0.05). In conclusion, a regimen of lunging exercise resulted in a transient improvement in maximal VJ performance. However, measures of flight time, impulse, and GRFz did not mirror the performance gain in jump height.

  17. Transient effect of core stability exercises on postural sway during quiet standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaji, Ayuko; Sasagawa, Shun; Kubo, Takahiro; Kanehisa, Hiroaki

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed to examine the transient effect of core stability exercises on the motion of the center of pressure (COP) during quiet standing. Seventeen healthy young adults (7 women and 10 men) were required to perform elbow-toe and hand-heel exercises for 30 seconds in both cases. Before and 1 minute after the execution of the 2 exercises, the subjects repeated 30 seconds of quiet standing with eyes closed 3 times on a force platform with intervals of 10 seconds between trials. The intervention of the 2 exercises induced significant decreases in the maximal range of mediolateral sway (34.7 +/- 7.0 mm to 30.2 +/- 6.1 mm, p = 0.0001), standard deviation of mediolateral sway (6.4 +/- 1.2 mm to 5.8 +/- 1.0 mm, p = 0.0006), the mean speed of anteroposterior sway (14.1 +/- 2.5 mm per second to 13.2 +/- 2.3 mm per second, p = 0.004), mean speed of mediolateral sway (22.8 +/- 2.8 mm per second to 20.9 +/- 2.3 mm per second, p = 0.004), sway speed (29.3 +/- 3.9 mm per second to 27.0 +/- 3.2 mm per second, p = 0.002), and sweep speed (73.2 +/- 23.4 mm per second to 62.0 +/- 19.7 mm per second, p = 0.005) of the COP trajectory, calculated from the force platform data. This result indicates that the practice of core stability exercises transiently decreases the area of the COP trajectory and its mediolateral and total excursions during quiet standing with the eyes closed. Performing core stability exercises as part of warm-up programs may be useful for temporarily improving postural control during standing in main exercise programs.

  18. Aquatic Exercise and Heat-Related Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sova, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Heat-related injuries in aquatics classes are possible, though 100 percent preventable. The article discusses heat-related syndromes; how bodies generate and dissipate heat; how elevated heart rates that burn calories differ from those that dissipate heat; and modification of exercise intensity to provide calorie-burning workouts without…

  19. Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Depression is a highly prevalent co-morbidity in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) which was shown to be ... Conclusion: Aerobic exercise is an effective treatment policy to improve depression related to systemic inflammation in patients ... serotonin reuptake inhibitor) for the treatment of depres-.

  20. Exercise, sleep and cancer-related fatigue: Are they related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medysky, Mary E; Temesi, John; Culos-Reed, Susan Nicole; Millet, Guillaume Y

    2017-04-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a commonly reported and debilitating side effect of cancer and/or cancer treatment. Sleep disorders are also highly reported in the cancer population; however it is unknown if sleep is associated with fatigue. In the general population, exercise has been shown to improve sleep, however in the cancer population this idea is under investigation. The primary purposes of this review were to: (i) review the prevalence and causes of sleep disorders in cancer patients and survivors, (ii) examine the relationship between sleep and CRF and (iii) review the impact of exercise interventions on sleep in cancer patients and survivors. A scoping review of the literature was conducted regarding exercise interventions in cancer patients and survivors with sleep as at least one outcome measure. A search of the literature revealed limited studies (n=21) assessing the effect of exercise on sleep disorders in the cancer population. Methodological issues are evident because assessing sleep is often not the main outcome of interest. The reviewed studies revealed that exercise positively impacts sleep quality and quantity. There seems to be possible relationship between sleep disorders, exercise and CRF. Further investigation of this relationship is necessary, specifically using objective measurement tools, in large, controlled studies, focusing on sleep as the primary outcome. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of Exercise Intensity on Spatial Memory Performance and Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity in Transient Brain Ischemic Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Pei-Cheng Shih; Yea-Ru Yang; Ray-Yau Wang

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is commonly noted in stroke survivors, and can lead to delay of functional recovery. Exercise has been proved to improve memory in adult healthy subjects. Such beneficial effects are often suggested to relate to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which is important for memory processing. Previous evidence showed that in normal rats, low intensity exercise can improve synaptic plasticity better than high intensity exercise. However, the effects of exercise intensities on hippoc...

  2. A transient elevated irisin blood concentration in response to prolonged, moderate aerobic exercise in young men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, R R; Shockett, P; Webb, N D; Shah, U; Castracane, V D

    2014-02-01

    Irisin, a newly discovered, PGC-1α dependent myokine, has recently been shown to increase in circulation in response to sprint exercise. This study examined the effect of prolonged exercise on irisin concentrations in young men (n=7) as well as in young women (n=5) during different stages of the menstrual cycle. Seven young men completed 90 min of treadmill exercise at 60% of VO2max and a resting control trial. Five women completed the same exercise protocol in two different trials: during the early follicular phase and mid-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Blood samples were collected and analyzed for irisin concentrations immediately before exercise, at 54 and 90 min of exercise, and at 20 min of recovery (R20). Findings revealed that by 54 min of a 90 min treadmill exercise protocol at 60% of VO2max, irisin concentrations significantly increased 20.4% in young men and 20.3% as well as 24.6% in young women during the early follicular and mid-luteal phases of the menstrual cycle, respectively. However, by 90 min of exercise as well as R20, irisin concentrations were no longer elevated. Stage of the menstrual cycle did not affect responses in young women. Findings indicate that prolonged aerobic exercise produces a transient increase in irisin concentrations during the first hour of exercise for both genders and suggest that this form of moderate exercise may be helpful in improving fat metabolism. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Transient ischemic dilation ratio (TID) correlates with HbA(1c) in patients with diabetes type 2 with proven myocardial ischemia according to exercise myocardial SPECT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamikova, Alena; Bakala, Jiri; Bernatek, Jaromir; Rybka, Jaroslav; Svacina, Stepan

    2006-11-01

    Abnormal values of the transient ischemic dilation ratio (TID) according to an exercise myocardial SPECT are linked to severe coronary artery disease. The authors investigated the relationship between TID and the levels of VCAM, ICAM, E-selectin, microalbuminuria, intima-media thickness and HbA(1c) of diabetic subjects. We observed 38 subjects with diabetes type 2 (10 women, 28 men), of average age 56.08 +/- 8.24 years, with no past history of cardiovascular disease. All subjects were examined using an exercise myocardial SPECT. Transient ischemic dilation, summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and stress total severity score (STSS) were determined to quantify myocardial ischemia. The average IMT value was 1.05 +/- 0.31 mm. The TID value was 1.02 +/- 0.154, VCAM 795.24 +/- 163.25 mg/l, ICAM 516.55 +/- 164.07, E-selectin 63.82 +/- 38.89, HbA(1c) 7.09 +/- 1.68%, microalbuminuria 68.01 +/- 55.21 mg/l. When ascertaining the relation of TID to the other factors we used Pearson's correlation at the level of significance p TID and glycosylated hemoglobin HbA(1c) (p = 0.035); the other factors did not show any significant correlation. Diabetes and its long- term unsatisfactory compensation can be one of the factors which affect left ventricular transient ischemic dilation.

  4. Assessment of transient dilation of the left ventricular cavity in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy by exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugihara, Hiroki; Shiga, Kouji; Umamoto, Ikuo (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-11-01

    Exercise Tl scintigraphy (EX-Tl) provides a noninvasive means of identifying myocardial perfusion abnormalities in patients (pts) with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). We have noted that some pts with HCM have a pattern of transient dilation of the left ventricle (LV) on the immediate post exercise images as compared with 3 hour redistribution images. We presumed that left ventricular dilation was caused by subendocardial hypoperfusion. So we studied transient dilation of the LV in 50 pts with HCM and 20 controls (C). Initial and delayed conventional short tomographic images were obtained after reconstruction of 30 projections acquired over 180 degrees. Thirty six radii every 10 degrees were generated from the center of the middle myocardial images of the short axis. An area surrounded by the thirty six points of maximal count on each radius was calculated in initial and delayed images. Transient dilation index (TDI) as an index of dilation was determined by dividing an area in initial image by an area in delayed image. TDI in pts with HCM was larger than that in C. Pts with HCM were classified into the two groups, Group A: TDI>1.11 (mean+2 SD in C), 24 pts, Group B: TDI>1.11, 26 pts. Frequency of pts with history of chest pain in Group A was higher than that in Group B, and frequency of pts with positive exercise ECG in Group A was higher than that in Group B. End diastolic volume in Group B did not change 10 minutes after exercise by radionuclide ventriculography. In conclusion, transient dilation of the LV in pts with HCM by Ex-Tl is in appearance, and may reflect subendocardial ischemia. (author).

  5. Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and the Kinetics of Heart Rate Responses in the On- and Off-Transient during Exercise in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. B. E. Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses.Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35–55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19 and a control group (CG, n = 17. R-R intervals (RRi and heart rate variability (HRV were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET.Results: MSG showed lower aerobic capacity and lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest compared with CG. HR values in on-transient phase were significantly lower in MSG compared with CG. The exponential amplitudes “amp” and the parameters “τ” [speed of heart rate recovery (HRR] were lower in MSG. MSG exhibited higher HR values in comparison to CG during the off-transient indicating a slower HRR. In MSG, there was an inverse and significant correlation between fasting plasma vs. ΔF and glucose vs. exponential “τ” of HRR dynamics.Conclusion: MS is associated with poor heart rate kinetics. The altered HR kinetics seems to be related to alterations in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, and glucose metabolism seems to be the major determinant.

  6. Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and the Kinetics of Heart Rate Responses in the On- and Off-Transient during Exercise in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Lucas R. B. E.; Zamunér, Antonio R.; Gentil, Paulo; Alves, Fagner M.; Leal, Acácia G. F.; Soares, Viviane; Silva, Maria S.; Vieira, Marcus F.; Simões, Karina; Pedrino, Gustavo R.; Rebelo, Ana C. S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS) have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses. Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35–55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19) and a control group (CG, n = 17). R-R intervals (RRi) and heart rate variability (HRV) were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR) at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). Results: MSG showed lower aerobic capacity and lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest compared with CG. HR values in on-transient phase were significantly lower in MSG compared with CG. The exponential amplitudes “amp” and the parameters “τ” [speed of heart rate recovery (HRR)] were lower in MSG. MSG exhibited higher HR values in comparison to CG during the off-transient indicating a slower HRR. In MSG, there was an inverse and significant correlation between fasting plasma vs. ΔF and glucose vs. exponential “τ” of HRR dynamics. Conclusion: MS is associated with poor heart rate kinetics. The altered HR kinetics seems to be related to alterations in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, and glucose metabolism seems to be the major determinant. PMID:28798697

  7. Swimming exercise reverses aging-related contractile abnormalities of female heart by improving structural alterations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Er, Hakan; Kucuk, Murathan; Ozdemir, Semir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C. NOX-4 levels, aconitase activity, glutathione measurements and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy were conducted in heart tissue. Swimming exercise reversed the reduced shortening and slowed kinetics of aged cardiomyocytes. Although the current density was similar for all groups, Ca2+ transients were higher in SO and Ex-O myocytes with respect to the SY group. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and the integrated NCX current were lower in cardiomyocytes of SY rats compared with other groups, suggesting an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in an aged heart. Aging led to upregulated cardiac NOX-4 along with declined aconitase activity. Although it did not reverse these oxidative parameters, swimming exercise achieved a significant increase in glutathione levels and improved structural alterations of old rats' hearts. We conclude that swimming exercise upregulates antioxidant defense capacity and improves structural abnormalities of senescent female rat heart, although it does not change Ca2+ handling alterations further. Thereby, it improves contractile function of aged myocardium by mitigating detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

  8. Exercise-related hypoglycemia in diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Younk, Lisa M.; Mikeladze, Maia; Tate, Donna; Davis, Stephen N

    2011-01-01

    Current recommendations are that people with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus exercise regularly. However, in cases in which insulin or insulin secretagogues are used to manage diabetes, patients have an increased risk of developing hypoglycemia, which is amplified during and after exercise. Repeated episodes of hypoglycemia blunt autonomic nervous system, neuroendocrine and metabolic defenses (counter-regulatory responses) against subsequent episodes of falling blood glucose levels during...

  9. Exercise-related complications in sickle cell trait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripette, Julien; Hardy-Dessources, Marie-Dominique; Romana, Marc; Hue, Olivier; Diaw, Mor; Samb, Abdoulaye; Diop, Saliou; Connes, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    This review presents the epidemiological data regarding the exercise-related complication in exercising sickle cell trait carriers, and focuses on the different potential mechanisms that could be involved in these adverse events, such as hemorheological alterations, inflammation, vascular adhesion of circulating blood cells, oxidative stress and impaired nitric oxide metabolism. We also discuss the effects of different modulating factors such as vascular function, environment (hot temperature), hydration status, physical fitness, exercise intensity and genetic factors.

  10. Effects of exercise intensity on spatial memory performance and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in transient brain ischemic rats

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shih, Pei-Cheng; Yang, Yea-Ru; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2013-01-01

    .... Exercise has been proved to improve memory in adult healthy subjects. Such beneficial effects are often suggested to relate to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which is important for memory processing...

  11. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia Friis

    2013-01-01

    the effect of exercise on the expression of VEGF, cognate receptors, HIF1a, mTORC1, and mTORC2 in hippocampus and frontal cortex. To this end, we measured messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in rat brain using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time qPCR) after forced treadmill exercise for 1 day...

  12. Transient post-exercise hyper-perspiration of forehead area | Reza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about sweating responses during exercise recovery is insufficient and mostly controversial. In the present study, particular attention is given to sweating behavior at forehead area immediately after exercise. Simultaneous changes of some underlying factors are also addressed. Eight healthy young males ...

  13. Transmitter modulation of spike-evoked calcium transients in arousal related neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S

    2006-01-01

    -evoked intracellular calcium transients dampen excitability and stimulate NO production in these neurons. In this study, we investigated the action of several arousal-related neurotransmitters and the role of specific calcium channels in these LDT Ca(2+)-transients by simultaneous whole-cell recording and calcium...

  14. A comparative overview of exercise and health related professions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The numerous employment opportunities being advertised internationally in exercise and health related professions are actively being pursued by many South African biokineticists. Therefore, the overlap in the scope of practice among the professions of athletic training, clinical exercise physiology and biokinetics needs to ...

  15. Exercise-related respiratory symptoms and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in industrial bakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minov, Jordan B; Karadzinska-Bislimovska, Jovanka D; Vasilevska, Kristin V; Stoleski, Saso B; Mijakoski, Dragan G

    2013-01-01

    In order to assess prevalence and characteristics of exercise-related respiratory symptoms (ERRS) and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) in industrial bakery, the authors performed a cross-sectional study including 57 bakers and an equal number of office workers studied as a control. Evaluation of examined subjects included completion of a questionnaire, skin prick tests to common inhalant and occupational allergens, spirometry, and exercise and histamine challenge. The authors found a similar prevalence of ERRS and EIB in both bakers and controls. EIB was significantly associated with atopy, asthma, family history of asthma, and positive histamine challenge in either group, whereas in bakers it was closely related to sensitization to occupational allergens (p = .032). Bronchial reaction to exercise was significantly higher in bakers with EIB (25.7% vs 19.2%; p = .021). These findings suggest that occupational exposure in industrial bakery may accentuate bronchoconstrictive response to exercise.

  16. Effects of exercise intensity on spatial memory performance and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in transient brain ischemic rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Pei-Cheng; Yang, Yea-Ru; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2013-01-01

    Memory impairment is commonly noted in stroke survivors, and can lead to delay of functional recovery. Exercise has been proved to improve memory in adult healthy subjects. Such beneficial effects are often suggested to relate to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which is important for memory processing. Previous evidence showed that in normal rats, low intensity exercise can improve synaptic plasticity better than high intensity exercise. However, the effects of exercise intensities on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory after brain ischemia remain unclear. In this study, we investigated such effects in brain ischemic rats. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) procedure was used to induce brain ischemia. After the MCAO procedure, rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (Sed), low-intensity exercise (Low-Ex), or high-intensity exercise (High-Ex) group. Treadmill training began from the second day post MCAO procedure, 30 min/day for 14 consecutive days for the exercise groups. The Low-Ex group was trained at the speed of 8 m/min, while the High-Ex group at the speed of 20 m/min. The spatial memory, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), synapsin-I, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95), and dendritic structures were examined to document the effects. Serum corticosterone level was also quantified as stress marker. Our results showed the Low-Ex group, but not the High-Ex group, demonstrated better spatial memory performance than the Sed group. Dendritic complexity and the levels of BDNF and PSD-95 increased significantly only in the Low-Ex group as compared with the Sed group in bilateral hippocampus. Notably, increased level of corticosterone was found in the High-Ex group, implicating higher stress response. In conclusion, after brain ischemia, low intensity exercise may result in better synaptic plasticity and spatial memory performance than high intensity exercise; therefore, the intensity is suggested to be considered

  17. Effects of exercise intensity on spatial memory performance and hippocampal synaptic plasticity in transient brain ischemic rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Cheng Shih

    Full Text Available Memory impairment is commonly noted in stroke survivors, and can lead to delay of functional recovery. Exercise has been proved to improve memory in adult healthy subjects. Such beneficial effects are often suggested to relate to hippocampal synaptic plasticity, which is important for memory processing. Previous evidence showed that in normal rats, low intensity exercise can improve synaptic plasticity better than high intensity exercise. However, the effects of exercise intensities on hippocampal synaptic plasticity and spatial memory after brain ischemia remain unclear. In this study, we investigated such effects in brain ischemic rats. The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO procedure was used to induce brain ischemia. After the MCAO procedure, rats were randomly assigned to sedentary (Sed, low-intensity exercise (Low-Ex, or high-intensity exercise (High-Ex group. Treadmill training began from the second day post MCAO procedure, 30 min/day for 14 consecutive days for the exercise groups. The Low-Ex group was trained at the speed of 8 m/min, while the High-Ex group at the speed of 20 m/min. The spatial memory, hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF, synapsin-I, postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD-95, and dendritic structures were examined to document the effects. Serum corticosterone level was also quantified as stress marker. Our results showed the Low-Ex group, but not the High-Ex group, demonstrated better spatial memory performance than the Sed group. Dendritic complexity and the levels of BDNF and PSD-95 increased significantly only in the Low-Ex group as compared with the Sed group in bilateral hippocampus. Notably, increased level of corticosterone was found in the High-Ex group, implicating higher stress response. In conclusion, after brain ischemia, low intensity exercise may result in better synaptic plasticity and spatial memory performance than high intensity exercise; therefore, the intensity is suggested to be

  18. Methods of prescribing relative exercise intensity: physiological and practical considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Theresa; Lamberts, Robert Patrick; Lambert, Michael Ian

    2013-07-01

    Exercise prescribed according to relative intensity is a routine feature in the exercise science literature and is intended to produce an approximately equivalent exercise stress in individuals with different absolute exercise capacities. The traditional approach has been to prescribe exercise intensity as a percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) or maximum heart rate (HRmax) and these methods remain common in the literature. However, exercise intensity prescribed at a %VO2max or %HRmax does not necessarily place individuals at an equivalent intensity above resting levels. Furthermore, some individuals may be above and others below metabolic thresholds such as the aerobic threshold (AerT) or anaerobic threshold (AnT) at the same %VO2max or %HRmax. For these reasons, some authors have recommended that exercise intensity be prescribed relative to oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R), heart rate reserve (HRR), the AerT, or the AnT rather than relative to VO2max or HRmax. The aim of this review was to compare the physiological and practical implications of using each of these methods of relative exercise intensity prescription for research trials or training sessions. It is well established that an exercise bout at a fixed %VO2max or %HRmax may produce interindividual variation in blood lactate accumulation and a similar effect has been shown when relating exercise intensity to VO2R or HRR. Although individual variation in other markers of metabolic stress have seldom been reported, it is assumed that these responses would be similarly heterogeneous at a %VO2max, %HRmax, %VO2R, or %HRR of moderate-to-high intensity. In contrast, exercise prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would be expected to produce less individual variation in metabolic responses and less individual variation in time to exhaustion at a constant exercise intensity. Furthermore, it would be expected that training prescribed relative to the AerT or AnT would provide a more homogenous training

  19. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Reinking, Mark F.

    2007-01-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as “shin splints” has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities – medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular patholog...

  20. Immersible ergocycle prescription as a function of relative exercise intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Mauricio Garzon; Mathieu Gayda; Anil Nigam; Alain-Steve Comtois; Martin Juneau

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to establish the relationship between various expressions of relative exercise intensity percentage of maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2max), percentage of maximal heart rate (%HRmax), %VO2 reserve (%VO2R), and %HR reserve (%HRR)) in order to obtain the more appropriate method for exercise intensity prescription when using an immersible ergocycle (IE) and to propose a prediction equation to estimate oxygen consumption (VO2) based on IE pedaling rate (rpm) for ...

  1. Exercise and osteoporosis-related fractures: perspectives and recommendations of the sports and exercise scientist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2011-02-01

    Osteoporosis-related fractures represent a major health concern, particularly in elderly populations. Direct and indirect costs (amounting to nearly $17 billion in 2005), increased morbidity, and loss of independence place substantial burden on the health care system. Observational studies have shown that a physically active lifestyle is associated with a 30% to 50% decrease in vertebral or hip fractures, and a recent meta-analysis that determined the effects of exercise on fracture incidence further confirmed these results. However, because no randomized controlled exercise trials have selected fractures as a primary endpoint, causality between a sedentary lifestyle and fractures may be potentially confounded by participants' poor health status. With regard to fall reduction and bone strength as the main surrogates for fracture risk, many randomized controlled trials and corresponding meta-analyses have reported significant positive outcomes. Interestingly, no study that has assessed fall-related injuries has focused specifically on interventions that aimed to reduce fall impact. There is ongoing debate as to which factor, osteoporosis or falls, is more important for fracture prevention. This may be dependent on the region prone to fracture and the subjects' health status. In randomized controlled trials on exercise, the type, mode, and composition of exercise parameters are predictors of study outcome. Unfortunately, many exercise trials on fall prevention have not adequately described the exercise protocol used, which makes it difficult to determine which fall prevention protocol was most effective. A recent meta-analysis recommended Tai Chi and/or a mix of balance and resistance exercises for fall prevention. More sophisticated protocols are required to impact bone strength. Corresponding state-of-the-art protocols have focused on periodized high-impact/high-intensity resistance protocols performed at least twice per week. In the frail elderly, high

  2. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Transient giant R-wave, right axis deviation, and intraventricular conduction delay during exercise treadmill testing: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim, Man-Hong; Siu, Chung-Wah; Lee, Stephen Wai-Luen; Lam, Linda; Chan, Raymond Hon-Wah

    2004-01-01

    A 53 year old man complained of chest pain during an exercise treadmill test. Electrocardiogram revealed transient giant R-wave, right-axis deviation, intraventricular conduction delay, and ST-segment elevation in the inferolateral leads. Subsequent coronary angiography showed an 80% lesion in mid part of a nondominant left circumflex artery, whereas the other coronary arteries had mild atherosclerosis only. Percutaneous coronary intervention and stenting was performed on the left circumflex artery lesion. A follow-up exercise thallium scan 3 months later still showed an intermediate-sized, mild reversible perfusion defect in the inferior and lateral wall but the giant R-wave ECG pattern was not inducible anymore. Restudy coronary angiography showed no in-stent restenosis, but there was disease progression in the midpart of the right coronary artery. The initial electrocardiographic pattern is typical of the "giant R-wave syndrome." Severe coronary spasm superimposed on the underlying mild atherosclerotic lesion of the right coronary artery is hypothesized to be the cause of the initial event. Ad hoc direct stenting was performed on the right coronary artery lesion. The patient remained symptom-free with a normal thallium scan 9 months later.

  4. Exercising with reserve: exercise regulation by perceived exertion in relation to duration of exercise and knowledge of endpoint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swart, J; Lamberts, R P; Lambert, M I; Lambert, E V; Woolrich, R W; Johnston, S; Noakes, T D

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and performance during repetitive maximal effort 40 km time trials as well as after an intervention that aimed to decrease certainty about the remaining distance of the exercise bout. In addition, we examined the RPE during exercise bouts of markedly different duration. Part 1: 12 well-trained, competitive-level cyclists completed five 40 km time trials. During the final time trial all feedback was withheld until the final kilometre. In addition, to cause confusion about the remaining distance, they were asked to report their RPE at random intervals from 18 km to 38 km. Part 2: 6 well-trained, recreation-level cyclists randomly completed a 5 km, 10 km, 40 km and 100 km time trial. Part 1: Mean RPE increased during the first four trials and decreased during the final trial. The rate of RPE progression increased in linearity during the first four trials and became more conservative in the final trial. These changes were directly related to performance. Part 2: Mean RPE for longer duration trials (40 km, 100 km) were lower during the first half of trial duration but matched those of shorter trials in the final 20%. Increased familiarity of the exercise bout and certainty about its endpoint are associated with a more aggressive RPE strategy that produces a superior exercise performance. Certainty about the endpoint and the duration of exercise affect both the RPE strategy and performance.

  5. Distinct features of auditory steady-state responses as compared to transient event-related potentials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhang

    Full Text Available Transient event-related potentials (ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs have been popularly employed to investigate the function of the human brain, but their relationship still remains a matter of debate. Some researchers believed that SSRs could be explained by the linear summation of successive transient ERPs (superposition hypothesis, while others believed that SSRs were the result of the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the periodic repetition of a sensory stimulus (oscillatory entrainment hypothesis. In the present study, taking auditory modality as an example, we aimed to clarify the distinct features of SSRs, evoked by the 40-Hz and 60-Hz periodic auditory stimulation, as compared to transient ERPs, evoked by a single click. We observed that (1 SSRs were mainly generated by phase synchronization, while late latency responses (LLRs in transient ERPs were mainly generated by power enhancement; (2 scalp topographies of LLRs in transient ERPs were markedly different from those of SSRs; (3 the powers of both 40-Hz and 60-Hz SSRs were significantly correlated, while they were not significantly correlated with the N1 power in transient ERPs; (4 whereas SSRs were dominantly modulated by stimulus intensity, middle latency responses (MLRs were not significantly modulated by both stimulus intensity and subjective loudness judgment, and LLRs were significantly modulated by subjective loudness judgment even within the same stimulus intensity. All these findings indicated that high-frequency SSRs were different from both MLRs and LLRs in transient ERPs, thus supporting the possibility of oscillatory entrainment hypothesis to the generation of SSRs. Therefore, SSRs could be used to explore distinct neural responses as compared to transient ERPs, and help us reveal novel and reliable neural mechanisms of the human brain.

  6. A healthy lifestyle for the ostomist in relation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varma, Sarah

    Stoma surgery results in significant changes for the patient. These are both physical and psychological. Not only must the patient get used to the loss of control over elimination, but they must adapt to their altered physiology and may lack confidence in participating in everyday and sporting activities. Such surgery can have a profound effect on their pyschosocial wellbeing. In today's society, we are encouraged to maintain a healthy lifestyle, which includes exercise. As healthcare professionals, we should be encouraging the ostomist to resume a healthy lifestyle as part of their rehabilitation and adaption to their new stoma, as well as encouraging social interaction; however, their is a lack of clarity in the literature as to how appropriate sport and exercise are for the ostomist. To date, evidence-based literature relating to ostomists and stoma-related injuries is sparse, and anecdotal evidence from healthcare professionals may be discouraging ostomists from taking part in sport and exercise. This article explores sporting and exercise issues among ostomists. A variety of strategies are offered, which the stoma nurse can use to encourage ostomists to engage in gentle exercise and to participate or return to physical sports that they once enjoyed prior to their surgery.

  7. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A Laboratory Exercise with Related Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sworder, Steven C.

    A laboratory experiment, based on a simple electric circuit that can be used to demonstrate the existence of real-world "related rates" problems, is outlined and an equation for voltage across the capacitor terminals during discharge is derived. The necessary materials, setup methods, and experimental problems are described. A student laboratory…

  9. A Laboratory Exercise Relating Soil Energy Budgets to Soil Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Richard T.; Cerny-Koenig, Teresa; Kotuby-Amacher, Janice; Grossl, Paul R.

    2008-01-01

    Enrollment by students in degree programs other than traditional horticulture, agronomy, and soil science has increased in basic plant and soil science courses. In order to broaden the appeal of these courses to students from majors other than agriculture, we developed a hands-on laboratory exercise relating the basic concepts of a soil energy…

  10. Effect of exercise intervention on vestibular related impairments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-07

    ... the efficacy of exercise interventions in the treatment of vestibular-related deficits in hearing-impaired children. Sources: Extensive search of computerized bibliographic databases (MEDLINE, CINHAL, EMBASE, SCOPUS, ISI of web science, Cochrane Library, and AMED) was performed from earliest to February 7, 2011.

  11. Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to inflammatory cytokines in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. ... Measurements of fatigue symptoms and markers of systemic inflammation were assessed before and at the end of the study for all participants in both groups. Results: The mean values of inflammatory ...

  12. Exercise Related Leg Pain (ERLP): a Review of The Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, Mark F

    2007-08-01

    Exercise related leg pain (ERLP) is a regional pain syndrome described as pain between the knee and ankle which occurs with exercise. Indiscriminant use of terminology such as "shin splints" has resulted in ongoing confusion regarding the pathoanatomic entities associated with this pain syndrome. Each of the pathoanatomic entities - medial tibial stress syndrome, chronic exertional compartment syndrome, tibial and fibular stress fractures, tendinopathy, nerve entrapment, and vascular pathology - which manifest as ERLP are each described in terms of relevant anatomy, epidemiology, clinical presentation, associated pathomechanics, and intervention strategies. Evidence regarding risk factors for ERLP general and specific pathoanatomic entities are presented in the context of models of sports injury prevention.

  13. Exercise and comorbidity: the i3-S strategy for developing comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Joost; de Rooij, Mariëtte; van der Leeden, Marike

    2016-01-01

    Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. We previously developed comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in osteoarthritis. We now broaden this approach into a general strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. The i3-S strategy consists of four steps. The first three steps involve creating an inventory of comorbid disease, an inventory of contraindications and restrictions on exercise therapy, and an inventory of potential adaptations to exercise therapy. In the fourth step, this information is synthesized into guidance on comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in the index disease. The adaptations concern physiological, behavioural and environmental factors. In view of the general effectiveness of exercise therapy and the high prevalence of comorbidity in older people, there is a great need for comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy. We recommend to use and evaluate the i3-S strategy in future research. Exercise therapy is effective in a wide range of chronic diseases. Comorbid disease necessitates adaptations to exercise therapy. Guidance on how to develop such adaptations is currently not available. We present an innovative strategy for the development of comorbidity-related adaptations to exercise therapy in an index disease. Researchers and clinicians can use this strategy to develop guidance on the adaptation of exercise therapy to comorbidity.

  14. Explore spatial-temporal relations: transient super-resolution with PMD sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chaosheng; Lin, Xing; Lin, Jingyu; Yan, Chenggang; Dai, Qionghai

    2014-11-01

    Transient imaging provides a direct view of how light travel in the scene, which leads to exciting applications such as looking around corners. Low-budget transient imagers, adapted from Time-of-Fight (ToF) cameras, reduce the barrier of entry for performing research of this new imaging modality. However, the image quality is far from satisfactory due to the limited resolution of PMD sensors. In this paper, we improve the resolution of transient images by modulating the illumination. We capture the scene under three linearly independent lighting conditions, and derive a theoretical model for the relationship between the time-profile and the corresponding 3D details of each pixel. Our key idea is that the light flight time in each pixel patch is proportional to the cross product of the illuminating direction and the surface normal. First we capture and reconstruct transient images by Fourier analysis at multiple illumination locations, and then fuse the data of acquired low-spatial resolution images to calculate the surface normal. Afterwards, we use an optimization procedure to split the pixels and finally enhance the image quality. We show that we can not only reveal the fine structure of the object but may also uncover the reflectance properties of different materials. We hope the idea of utilizing spatial-temporal relations will give new insights to the research and applications of transient imaging.

  15. Review - Selenium - Its metabolism and relation to exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Akil, Mustafa; Bicer, Mursel

    2016-09-01

    Selenium (Se), which is commonly found in nature, is one of the essential trace elements necessary for the normal development of human and animal organisms. Selenium was first defined in 1818 by the Swedish chemist Berzelius in sulfuric acid residues. At the end of 1960s, the role of selenium in human health began to attract attention and human diseases that resembled animal diseases responding to selenium was started to be investigated. Selenium, which is highly important for human health, is necessary for a variety of metabolic processes, including thyroid hormone metabolism, protection against oxidative stress and immunity functions. Selenium is a molecule that activates glutathione peroxidase, and thus, it is involved in the antioxidant mechanisms that prevent oxidant damage. Exhaustive physical exercise is known to cause oxidant damage, probably by promoting free radical production in many tissues, including muscle, liver, heart and lungs in animals. The increase in oxidative stress during exercise and recognition of selenium's stimulation of antioxidant activity inevitably suggest a relation between selenium and exercise. The present review aims to provide information on selenium metabolism and the relation between selenium and exercise.

  16. Intense resistance exercise induces early and transient increases in ryanodine receptor 1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1 critically contributes to skeletal muscle contraction abilities by mediating Ca²⁺ion oscillation between sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar compartments, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK senses contraction-induced energetic stress by phosphorylation at Thr¹⁷². Phosphorylation of RyR1 at serine²⁸⁴³ (pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ results in leaky RyR1 channels and impaired Ca²⁺homeostasis. Because acute resistance exercise exerts decreased contraction performance in skeletal muscle, preceded by high rates of Ca²⁺-oscillation and energetic stress, intense myofiber contractions may induce increased RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation. However, no data are available regarding the time-course and magnitude of early RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation in human myofibers in response to acute resistance exercise. PURPOSE: Determine the effects and early time-course of resistance exercise on pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² in type I and II myofibers. METHODS: 7 male subjects (age 23±2 years, height: 185±7 cm, weight: 82±5 kg performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions of maximum eccentric knee extensions. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 15, 30 and 60 min post exercise. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² levels were determined by western blot and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry techniques. RESULTS: While total RyR1 and total AMPK levels remained unchanged, RyR1 was significantly more abundant in type II than type I myofibers. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ increased 15 min and peaked 30 min (p<0.01 post exercise in both myofiber types. Type I fibers showed relatively higher increases in pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ levels than type II myofibers and remained elevated up to 60 min post resistance exercise (p<0.05. pAMPKThr¹⁷² also increased 15 to 30 min post exercise (p<0.01 in type I and II myofibers and in whole skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise induces acutely increased pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and

  17. Unusual exercise-related stress fractures. Two case reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink-Bennett, D.M.; Benson, M.T.

    1984-08-01

    We describe two unusual exercise-related stress fractures, one in the sacroiliac joint of a long distance runner, the other in the body of the scapulae of an above-knee amputee. Each were detected on a 2-hour delay bone scan. To our knowledge, neither have been described scintigraphically. The bilateral scapular fracture is an unreported entity, and the fractured SI joint is a very uncommon site for an overuse injury.

  18. Effect of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivika Govindbhai Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, selected biologic response modifiers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in patients of the solid tumor after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods: After screening for cancer-related fatigue, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusive criteria and were assigned into two groups (n = 17 recruited in the intervention group and n = 17 in control group. The intervention group received aerobic exercise program which included treadmill walking with low to moderate intensity (50%–70% of maximum heart rate, for 20–40 min/day for 5 days/week. Control group were taught stretching exercises of hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus (to be done at home and were encouraged to remain active. Outcome measures such as brief fatigue inventory (BFI, 6-min walk test, and functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G were taken at baseline and after 6-weeks. Results: The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for within group and Mann–Whitney U-test for between group comparisons. The results of this study showed that there was a significant reduction in cancer-related fatigue BFI score (P < 0.0001,, also there was significant improvement in the physical performance as in 6-min walk distance (P < 0.0001 and quality of life, FACT-G score (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 6 weeks has beneficial effects on cancer-related fatigue in patients with solid tumor after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  19. Transient evolution of inter vessel gap pressure due to relative thermal expansion between two vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natesan, K.; Selvaraj, P.; Chellapandi, P.; Chetal, S. C.

    2002-08-01

    In a typical liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), a cylindrical sodium filled main vessel, which carries the internals such as reactor core, pumps, intermediate heat exchangers etc. is surrounded by another vessel called safety vessel. The inter vessel gap is filled with nitrogen. During a thermal transient in the pool sodium, because of the relative delay involved in the thermal diffusion between MV and SV, they are subjected to relative thermal expansion or contraction between them. This in turn results in pressurisation and depressurisation of inter vessel gap nitrogen respectively. In order to obtain the external pressurization for the buckling design of MV, transient thermal models for obtaining the evolutions of MV, SV and inter gap nitrogen temperatures and hence their relative thermal expansion and inter vessel gap pressure have been developed. This paper gives the details of the mathematical model, assumptions made in the calculation and the results of the analysis.

  20. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  1. Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Middle-aged adults (N = 202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (P(trend) health but with reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). High exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (P(trend) exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance.

  2. Proteome Profiles of Longissimus and Biceps femoris Porcine Muscles Related to Exercise and Resting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Young, J.F.; Oksbjerg, N.; Kruijt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects. The

  3. Effect of Exercise Preconditioning on Memory Deficits and Neuronal Cell Death in the CA3 Pyramidal Cells of the Rat Hippocampus Following Transient Global Cerebral Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Shamsaei

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Brain ischemia leads to irreversible functional and structural damage in various regions of the brain, especially in the hippocampus. There is an evidence indicating the physical exercise has neuroprotective effects and may decrease the cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion injury in rats. The purpose of this study was the study of the effect of exercise preconditioning on memory deficits and neuronal cell death in CA3 pyramidal cells of the rat hippocampus following transient global ischemia.   Methods: 21 male rats weighing 260-300g were randomly selected and allocated into three groups (sham, ischemia and exercise+ischemia. The rats in exercise group were trained to run on a treadmill 5 days a week for 4 weeks. Ischemia induced by occlusion both common carotid arteries (CCA for 20 minutes. The passive avoidance memory test using a Shuttle box used to assess the impairment of memory. The amount of cell death was measured using cresyl violet staining method.   Results: The results showed that cerebral ischemia is associated with memory impairment, and physical activity before ischemia improves ischemia-induced memory impairments significantly (p<0.05. In addition, ischemia leads to cell death in hippocampal CA3 area neurons and exercise also reduces ischemia-induced cell death significantly (p<0.05.   Conclusion: This study showed that exercise, when is used as a preconditioning stimulant , has a neuroprotective effects against brain ischemia.

  4. Relative logic cell placement for mitigation of charge sharing-induced transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiddie, Bradley T.; Robinson, William H.

    2016-10-01

    Design of modern integrated circuits increasingly requires consideration of radiation effects, especially in space and other high-risk environments. With fabrication technologies scaling down both feature sizes and critical charge, a radiation strike in sub-100 nm technologies may affect multiple, physically adjacent nodes. With increasing clock speeds, transient errors in the processing datapath also increase in risk. Modeling single-event multiple-transients (SEMT) for pre-fabrication reliability characterization has become a more common design step, and this work adds to the state-of-the-art by providing a fast and physically-informed characterization flow that captures the effects of single-event multiple-node charge collection through experimentally observed transport mechanisms. Beyond characterization, the study of SEMT vulnerabilities reveals the electronic design automation (EDA) step of standard logic cell placement as a design space for hardening against SEMT-induced errors. This work: (1) analyzes the vulnerability of benchmark circuits against SEMT errors, (2) evaluates the impact of logic on transient propagation, (3) explores EDA placement techniques, and (4) builds an automated design flow for relative placement of cells to mask transient errors, while maintaining compatibility with other radiation hardening techniques. Zero cost to area and marginal impact on timing enable this new cell placement algorithm that masks 30% of SEMT-induced errors.

  5. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial): a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay-Lyons, Marilyn; Gubitz, Gordon; Giacomantonio, Nicholas; Wightman, Howard; Marsters, David; Thompson, Kara; Blanchard, Chris; Eskes, Gail; Thornton, Marianne

    2010-12-08

    Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS) and transient ischemic attack (TIA) have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress). In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT) or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE). Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be compared. Ethical approval for the trial has been

  6. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial: a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS and transient ischemic attack (TIA have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress. In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. Methods/Design A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE. Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be

  7. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P < 0.001); this effect was not shown for the rest of the study population. EiA was related to higher prevalence of MS (13.8% vs. 27.1%, P < 0.001), higher metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Orthorexic eating behaviors related to exercise addiction and internal motivations in a sample of university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Crystal D; Watkins, Ryan S; Burkot, Andrew J

    2017-12-20

    This research explored the exercise tendencies and motivations of individuals varying in orthorexia symptomatology. Participants were 411 university students, who completed the Eating Habits Questionnaire alongside measures of exercise activity and addiction in Study 1 (a modified version of the Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire, the Exercise Addiction Inventory, and the Compulsive Exercise Test) and various exercise motivations in Study 2 (the Behavioural Regulations in Exercise Questionnaire and the Exercise Motivations Inventory-2). Orthorexia symptomatology was positively correlated with aerobic and strength-training exercise levels; all measures of exercise addiction; all measures of internal exercise motivation; and nearly all measures of exercise motivation for the purposes of psychological, social, health, and body improvement. Symptomatology was not significantly related to either measure that specifically assessed external motivation to exercise. Individuals high in orthorexia symptomatology are internally driven to exercise for the purposes of improving their physical and mental health, but these strong motivations also lead to exercise addiction characterized by a compulsive need to follow a rigid schedule of intensive exercise even in the face of injury, illness, or other problems. Level V, descriptive cross-sectional study.

  9. Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy

    OpenAIRE

    A. F. Adeniyi; O. O. Ogwumike; Bamikefa, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participa...

  10. Immersible ergocycle prescription as a function of relative exercise intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Garzon

    2017-06-01

    Conclusion: The %HRR–%VO2R relationship appears to be the most accurate for exercise training prescription on IE. This study offers new tools to better prescribe, control, and individualize exercise intensity on IE.

  11. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects....... The objective of this research was to develop potential protein biomarkers that predict the optimal resting time after exercise related to optimal pork quality. Ten litters of four female pigs were within litter allocated to the four treatment groups: exercise by running on a treadmill for 27 minutes followed...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  12. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer

  14. The impact of automatically activated motivation on exercise-related outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banting, Lauren K; Dimmock, James A; Grove, J Robert

    2011-08-01

    This study examined the effect of motivational primes on participants (N = 171) during a cycling task. Relative to participants primed with a controlled motivational orientation, it was hypothesized that participants primed for autonomous motivation would report greater feelings of enjoyment, effort, and choice in relation to the cycling activity and report greater exercise intentions. Members of the autonomous prime group were expected to exercise for longer, at a greater percentage of their heart rate maximum, and report lower levels of perceived exertion than those in the controlled prime condition. It was found that, relative to participants in the controlled prime group, those who received the autonomous prime enjoyed the exercise more, exercised at a greater percentage of heart rate maximum, and reported a lower rating of perceived exertion. Furthermore, participants experiencing the controlled prime exercised for less time and had lower intentions to exercise than did other participants. Results highlight the importance of automatic processes in activating motivation for exercise.

  15. The energetics response to a warmer climate: relative contributions from the transient and stationary eddies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Hernández-Deckers

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available We use the Lorenz Energy Cycle (LEC to evaluate changes in global energetic activity due to CO2-doubling in the coupled atmosphere-ocean ECHAM5/MPI-OM model. Globally, the energetic activity – measured as the total conversion rate of available potential energy into kinetic energy – decreases by about 4 %. This weakening results from a dual response that consists of a strengthening of the LEC in the upper-troposphere and a weakening in the lower and middle troposphere. This is fully consistent with results from a coarser resolution version of the same coupled model. We further use our experiments to investigate the individual contributions of the transient and stationary eddy components to the main energetics response.

    The transient eddy terms have a larger contribution to the total energetic activity than the stationary ones. We find that this is also true in terms of their 2 × CO2-response. Changes in the transient eddy components determine the main energetics response, whereas the stationary eddy components have very small contributions. Hence, the dual response – strengthening in the upper troposphere and weakening below – concerns mainly the transient eddy terms. We can relate qualitatively this response to the two main features of the 2 × CO2 warming pattern: (a the tropical upper-tropospheric warming increases the pole-to-equator temperature gradient – strengthening the energetic activity above – and enhances static stability – weakening the energetic activity below; and (b the high-latitude surface warming decreases the pole-to-equator temperature gradient in the lower troposphere – weakening the energetic activity below. Despite the small contribution from the stationary eddies to the main energetics response, changes in stationary eddy available potential energy (Pse reflect some features of the warming pattern: stronger land-sea contrasts at the subtropics

  16. A review of the content, criterion-related, and construct-related validity of assessment center exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Brian J; Kennedy, Colby L; LoPilato, Alexander C; Monahan, Elizabeth L; Lance, Charles E

    2015-07-01

    This study uses meta-analysis and a qualitative review of exercise descriptions to evaluate the content, criterion-related, construct, and incremental validity of 5 commonly used types of assessment center (AC) exercises. First, we present a meta-analysis of the relationship between 5 types of AC exercises with (a) the other exercise types, (b) the 5-factor model of personality, (c) general mental ability (GMA), and (d) relevant criterion variables. All 5 types of exercises were significantly related to criterion variables (ρ = .16-.19). The nomological network analyses suggested that the exercises tend to be modestly associated with GMA, Extraversion and, to a lesser extent, Openness to Experience but largely unrelated to Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Emotional Stability. Finally, despite sparse reporting in primary studies, a content analysis of exercise descriptions yielded some evidence of complexity, ambiguity, interpersonal interaction, and fidelity but not necessarily interdependence. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  17. Ambulatory electrocardiogram monitoring devices for evaluating transient loss of consciousness or other related symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ritsuko Kohno, MD, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Capturing electrocardiograms (ECGs during spontaneous events is the most powerful available tool to identify or exclude an arrhythmic cause of symptoms, and often can elucidate the definite diagnosis for different conditions, such as transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC, lightheadedness, or palpitations. Current ambulatory ECG monitoring technologies include 24-hour Holter, wearable event recorder, external loop recorder (ELR, and insertable cardiac monitoring (ICM. Of them, Holter ECG is most frequently used in daily practice in Japan, while ELR and ICM are less frequently used. However, the appropriate monitor choice should be based on the expected frequency of symptoms. Frequent events may be adequately detected by Holter ECG, but less frequent symptoms are more effectively assessed by longer-term monitoring (i.e., ELR or ICM. In this report, based on our clinical experience, we review the usefulness of ambulatory ECG monitoring devices, especially of ELR, for evaluating T-LOC and other potentially arrhythmia-related symptoms. Specifically, we focus on the use of ELR and ICM for evaluating Japanese patients with T-LOC. Keywords: Transient loss of consciousness, Syncope, Insertable cardiac monitoring, External loop recorder, Holter electrocardiogram

  18. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  19. Exercise Is Positively Related to Adolescents' Relationships and Academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Tiffany; Diego, Miguel; Sanders, Christopher E.

    2001-01-01

    High school seniors were surveyed on their exercise habits; relationships with parents and peers; depressive tendencies; sports involvement; drug use; and academic performance. Students with high levels of exercise had better family relationships; were less depressed; were more involved in sports; used drugs less; and had better grades than…

  20. Exercise-related cardiac cardiac rehabilitation arrest In

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    most important being myocardial infarction and cardiac arrest. (CA).1,2. 'Normal' ... myocardial infarction and CA in cardiac rehabilitation pro- ..... The acute risk of. Strenuous exercise.JAMA 1980; 244: 1799-1801. 5. Siscovick DS, Weiss NS, Fletcber RH et al. The incidence of primary cardiac arrest during vigorous exercise.

  1. Relation between exercise, depression and body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vasconcelos-Raposo

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between physical exercise, depression, and body mass index (BMI. The sample of the study consisted of 175 participants (43 male and 132 female with ages between the 18 and 27 years. The used instruments were: an adapted and validated Portuguese version of the Beck Depressive Inventory (BDI and an adaptation of the physical exercise scale developed by Prochaska, Sallis and Long (2001. The results suggested a negative correlation between the physical exercise and depression, with statistical significance. The group that does not reach the recommended level of physical exercise presents higher scores of depression in comparison with the group that reaches. This study corroborates previous studies that suggested positive effects of physical exercise on depression.

  2. Pathological motivations for exercise and eating disorder specific health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Engel, Scott; Crosby, Ross; Hausenblas, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen; Mitchell, James

    2014-04-01

    To examine associations among pathological motivations for exercise with eating disorder (ED) specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Survey data assessing ED severity (i.e., Eating Disorder Diagnostic Survey), ED specific HRQOL (i.e., Eating Disorders Quality of Life Instrument), and pathological motivations for exercise (i.e., Exercise Dependence Scale) were collected from female students (N = 387) at seven universities throughout the United States. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among exercise dependence, ED-specific HRQOL and ED severity, and the interaction of exercise dependence and ED severity on HRQOL scores. The overall model examining the impact of ED severity and exercise dependence (independent variables) on HRQOL (dependent variable) was significant and explained 16.1% of the variance in HRQOL scores. Additionally, the main effects for ED severity and exercise dependence and the interaction among ED severity and exercise dependence were significant, suggesting that the combined effects of ED severity and exercise dependence significantly impacts HRQOL. Our results suggest that pathological motivations for exercise may exacerbate ED's detrimental impact on HRQOL. Our results offer one possible insight into why exercise may be associated with deleterious effects on ED HRQOL. Future research is needed to elucidate the relationship among psychological aspects of exercise, ED, and HRQOL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (polder adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...... that an aerobic exercise intervention among cleaners leads to reduced levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and an unaltered level of fibrinogen. The aerobic exercise seems to improve inflammatory levels and lipoprotein profile among cleaners, with no signs...

  5. Exercise is positively related to adolescents' relationships and academics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, T; Diego, M; Sanders, C E

    2001-01-01

    Eighty-nine high school seniors were administered a questionnaire that gathered information on their exercise habits (ranging from rarely to daily), relationships with parents and peers, depressive tendencies, sports involvement, drug use, and academic performance. Students with a high level of exercise had better relationships with their parents (including greater intimacy and more frequent touching), were less depressed, spent more time involved in sports, used drugs less frequently, and had higher grade point averages than did students with a low level of exercise.

  6. Tacrolimus Triggers Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1-Dependent Relapse of Pancreatitis-Related Pain in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Yuka; Tsubota, Maho; Sugo, Hiiragi; Wakitani, Kohei; Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Wada, Kyoichi; Takada, Mitsutaka; Oita, Akira; Kawabata, Atsufumi

    2017-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) expressed in nociceptors is directly phosphorylated and activated by protein kinase C, and involved in the signaling of pancreatic pain. On the other hand, Cav3.2 T-type Ca2+ channels expressed in nociceptors are functionally upregulated by phosphorylation with protein kinase A and also play a role in pancreatitis-related pain. Calcineurin, a phosphatase, negatively regulates various channel functions including TRPV1, and calcineurin inhibitor-induced pain syndrome by tacrolimus, a calcineurin inhibitor, used as an immunosuppressant, has been a clinical problem. We thus examined the effect of tacrolimus on pancreatitis-related pain in mice. Repeated treatment with cerulein caused referred hyperalgesia accompanying acute pancreatitis, which was unaffected by tacrolimus. Pancreatitis-related symptoms disappeared in 24 h, whereas the referred hyperalgesia recurred following the administration of tacrolimus, which was abolished by the blockers of TRPV1 but not T-type Ca2+ channels. Thus, tacrolimus appears to cause the TRPV1-dependent relapse of pancreatitis-related pain, suggesting the involvement of calcineurin in the termination of pancreatic pain. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  7. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can lead to weakness of muscles, decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs to fit the capabilities and limitations ...

  8. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40...... was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did...... not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children's BMI or risk of overweight....

  9. Understanding Why Undergraduate Students Declare and Continue to Study an Exercise Science-Related Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaartstra, Matthew B; Kercher, Vanessa M; Start, Amanda; Brown, Amber N; Peterson, Mark D; McGrath, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to a student's selection of an exercise science-related major is important to student success, higher education and industry. This study sought to 1) better understand why undergraduate students study an exercise science-related major, 2) determine whether positive influences to study an exercise science-related major differ by academic classification, and 3) identify what student's aspirations are after graduation. Department administrators from four-year colleges and universities offering an exercise science-related major in the Northwest Region of the United States (i.e., Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) were contacted. Cooperating department administrators were given self-reported questionnaires for students to complete using a snowball sampling method. A total of 388 participants completed the questionnaire. Interest in the subject and potential job opportunities were the most common reasons to study an exercise science-related major. Self-reported Holland's codes identified that realistic and social personalities were most prevalent among participants. Seniors rated a friend's influence and college advisors as stronger influences to study an exercise science-related major compared to freshmen. Pay in the field was a stronger influence for freshmen to study an exercise science-related major than for fifth-year seniors, whereas freshmen were less influenced by introductory courses to study an exercise-science related major than fifth-year seniors. The majority of undergraduate students studying an exercise science-related major planned on attending graduate school after completing their baccalaureate degree. These findings can be used to help guide undeclared students and better serve undergraduates enrolled in an exercise science-related major.

  10. Prediction of posthepatectomy liver failure using transient elastography in patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jie-Wen; Ji, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Jun-Feng; Li, Wan-Bin; Chen, Yan; Pan, Yan; Guo, Jia

    2017-12-29

    It is essential to accurately predict Postoperative liver failure (PHLF) which is a life-threatening complication. Liver hardness measurement (LSM) is widely used in non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The aims of this study were to explore the application of preoperative liver stiffness measurements (LSM) by transient elastography in predicting postoperative liver failure (PHLF) in patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. The study included 247 consecutive patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatectomy between May 2015 and September 2015. Detailed preoperative examinations including LSM were performed before hepatectomy. The endpoint was the development of PHLF. All of the patients had chronic hepatitis B defined as the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for more than 6 months and 76 (30.8%) had cirrhosis. PHLF occurred in 37 (14.98%) patients. Preoperative LSM (odds ratio, OR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.13-1.29; P hepatocellular carcinoma.

  11. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangas, J.L.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.; Rethorst, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms

  12. Transient Receptor Potential Canonical Type 3 Channels - Their Evolving Role in Hypertension and Its Related Complications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Peijian; Liu, Daoyan; Tepel, Martin

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Recent studies indicate that transient receptor potential canonical type 3 (TRPC3) channels contribute to the regulation of blood pressure, vascular and renal function. Several studies show that TRPC3 dysfunction is associated with hypertension, atherosclerosis, cardiac hypertrophy...

  13. Genetics Home Reference: 6q24-related transient neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... E, Bellanné-Chantelot C, Robert JJ. Genetic and epigenetic defects at the 6q24 imprinted locus in a ... on PubMed Central Temple IK. Imprinting in human disease with special reference to transient neonatal diabetes and ...

  14. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...... and treatment of cancer in humans....

  15. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360 or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817 and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659. Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p=0.022. Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p=0.82 and different contrast agents (p=0.619. Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography.

  16. Dependence of relational colour constancy on the extraction of a transient signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnell, K J; Foster, D H

    1996-01-01

    Human observers can correctly attribute changes in the appearance of a scene either to changes in the incident light or to changes in the spectral-reflectance properties of the scene. This ability was assessed as a function of the time course of illuminant and spectral-reflectance changes. Observers were presented with computer simulations of Mondrian patterns of 49 randomly selected Munsell papers. On each trial a Mondrian pattern was presented for 1 s; the pattern then changed either instantaneously or gradually into another Mondrian pattern, also presented for 1 s, which was related to the first either by an illuminant change or by an illuminant change accompanied by additional changes in the spectral-reflectance functions of the individual papers. Illuminant and spectral-reflectance change were applied linearly in time (with respect to CIE coordinates) over intervals ranging from 0 to 7 s. Observers indicated whether there was a spectral-reflectance change. They were able to make reliable discriminations between illuminant and spectral-reflectance changes both when the changes were applied instantaneously and when they were applied gradually over time, but performance worsened progressively as the duration of the changes increased, that is, as their rate decreased. It is suggested that discrimination in this task depends on the extraction of a low-level transient signal which is generated in response to rapid changes in scene appearance and which is progressively attenuated as changes occur more and more gradually.

  17. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  18. Exercise to reduce work-related fatigue among employees : A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.D. de Vries (Juriena); M.L.M. van Hooff (Madelon); S.A.E. Geurts (Sabine); M.A.J. Kompier (Michiel)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objectives__ The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness

  19. Exercise to reduce work-related fatigue among employees: A randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The present study evaluated the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). The effects of exercise on self-efficacy, sleep, work ability, cognitive functioning and aerobic fitness (secondary

  20. Efeito transiente de exercícios de flexibilidade na articulação do quadril sobre a marcha de idosas Transient effect of flexibility exercises in the hip joint on the gait of older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Cristopoliski

    2008-04-01

    verify the transient effect of a single session of hip extensor and flexor muscles stretching exercises over gait in elderly subjects. Five elderly ladies (67.0 ± 3.8 years 1.59 ± 0.07 m; 64.3 ± 15.3 Kg volunteered to participate in the study. Gait analysis was performed before and after stretching exercises. The stretching protocol was applied in a single session and consisted of three static stretching exercises conducted during 30s for the hip joint flexor and extensor muscles. After the stretching session, participants' gait showed reduced pelvic anterior tilt peak, greater hip range of motion and extension peak, greater knee range of motion, greater knee peak flexion angle during the mid swing and greater toe clearance (28.6%. Results showed that immediately after a stretching session, the elderly women presented alterations in the gait pattern in which some variables suggest a reduced risk of fall. The effects of ageing over some variables were partially reversed and the participants presented a gait pattern more similar to young adults than before stretching.

  1. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  2. Regular exercise and related factors in patients with Parkinson's disease: Applying zero-inflated negative binomial modeling of exercise count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Park, Chang Gi; Choi, Moonki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify risk factors that influence regular exercise among patients with Parkinson's disease in Korea. Parkinson's disease is prevalent in the elderly, and may lead to a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise can enhance physical and psychological health. However, patients with Parkinson's disease are less likely to exercise than are other populations due to physical disability. A secondary data analysis and cross-sectional descriptive study were conducted. A convenience sample of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease was recruited at an outpatient neurology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Korea. Demographic characteristics, disease-related characteristics (including disease duration and motor symptoms), self-efficacy for exercise, balance, and exercise level were investigated. Negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression for exercise count data were utilized to determine factors involved in exercise. The mean age of participants was 65.85 ± 8.77 years, and the mean duration of Parkinson's disease was 7.23 ± 6.02 years. Most participants indicated that they engaged in regular exercise (80.19%). Approximately half of participants exercised at least 5 days per week for 30 min, as recommended (51.9%). Motor symptoms were a significant predictor of exercise in the count model, and self-efficacy for exercise was a significant predictor of exercise in the zero model. Severity of motor symptoms was related to frequency of exercise. Self-efficacy contributed to the probability of exercise. Symptom management and improvement of self-efficacy for exercise are important to encourage regular exercise in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuai-Chun; Wang, Sophia Y; Pasquale, Louis R; Singh, Kuldev; Lin, Shan C

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample. Population-based, cross-sectional study. A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week), frequency (days per week), and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking) as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis. Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Overall, 336 (2.7%) subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54). High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM), was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33). There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94) but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97). A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  4. The relation between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuai-Chun Lin

    Full Text Available To investigate the association between exercise and glaucoma in a South Korean population-based sample.Population-based, cross-sectional study.A total of 11,246 subjects, 40 years and older who underwent health care assessment as part of the 2008-2011 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.Variables regarding the duration (total minutes per week, frequency (days per week, and intensity of exercise (vigorous, moderate exercise and walking as well as glaucoma prevalence were ascertained for 11,246 survey participants. Demographic, comorbidity, and health-related behavior information was obtained via interview. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the association between the exercise-related parameters and odds of a glaucoma diagnosis.Glaucoma defined by International Society for Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria.Overall, 336 (2.7% subjects met diagnostic criteria for glaucomatous disease. After adjustment for potential confounding variables, subjects engaged in vigorous exercise 7 days per week had higher odds of having glaucoma compared with those exercising 3 days per week (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.33, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.16-9.54. High intensity of exercise, as categorized by the guidelines of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM, was also associated with greater glaucoma prevalence compared with moderate intensity of exercise (OR 1.55, 95% CI 1.03-2.33. There was no association between other exercise parameters including frequency of moderate exercise, walking, muscle strength exercise, flexibility training, or total minutes of exercise per week, and the prevalence of glaucoma. In sub-analyses stratifying by gender, the association between frequency of vigorous exercise 7 days per week and glaucoma diagnosis remained significant in men (OR 6.05, 95% CI 1.67-21.94 but not in women (OR 0.96 95% CI: 0.23-3.97. A U-shaped association between exercise intensity and

  5. Exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest in London: incidence, survival and bystander response

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, Melanie J; Fothergill, Rachael T

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study aimed to (1) establish the incidence of exercise-related sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) in London, (2) investigate survival from exercise-related SCA and (3) examine factors related to survival. Method This retrospective observational study examined 2 years’ data from the London Ambulance Service (LAS) cardiac arrest registry for patients in whom resuscitation was attempted following an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA), a cardiac cause was presumed and the arrest occurre...

  6. Effect of low-intensity training on transient kinetics of pulmonary oxygen uptake during moderate-intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamasaki, A; Arima, S; Mitsuzono, R; Hirakoba, K

    2015-10-01

    It is unclear whether the slowed time constant of phase II in pulmonary oxygen uptake on-kinetics (V̇O2τ) in unfit and inactive men would be shortened by low exercise intensity (low-intensity) walking training. We therefore tested the hypothesis that the slowed V̇O2τ in sedentary population would speed up due to low-intensity walking training with high volume. Ten unfit and inactive male subjects (aged 26 to 50 yrs) underwent a low-intensity (30-40% of V̇O2max), long-duration (>60 min) training in the form of walking exercise 3-4 times a week for 12 weeks. We prospectively collected data on anthropometric, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), time constant of heart rate (HRτ) and V̇O2τ before training (0 wk; Pre) and every six weeks (6 wk; Mid, 12 wk; Post) from the beginning of the training. Anthropometric variables and V̇O2max showed no significant changes throughout the training program, whereas HRτ showed a tendency to be shortened with a progress of the training with no significant change. The slowed V̇O2τ at Pre (47.6±5.6 s) remained almost unchanged at Mid (48.8±4.9 s), but had a significant decrease at Post (40.5±7.9 s, Pintensity walking training is thought to occur presumably owing to an improved matching of oxygen delivery to oxygen utilization at the site of gas exchange in active muscle tissue. We concluded that low-intensity walking training at beginning stage of training could contribute to the acceleration of the slowed V̇O2τ in unfit and inactive subjects.

  7. The relation of physical activity and exercise to mental health.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, C B; Sallis, J F; Needle, R.

    1985-01-01

    Mental disorders are of major public health significance. It has been claimed that vigorous physical activity has positive effects on mental health in both clinical and nonclinical populations. This paper reviews the evidence for this claim and provides recommendations for future studies. The strongest evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise probably alleviate some symptoms associated with mild to moderate depression. The evidence also suggests that physical activity and exercis...

  8. Factors related to immediate response to symptoms in patients with stroke or transient ischaemic attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ruiz, R; Silva Fernández, J; García Ruiz, R M; Recio Bermejo, M; Arias Arias, Á; Santos Pinto, A; Lomas Meneses, A; Botía Paniagua, E; Abellán Alemán, J

    2017-12-23

    Despite recent advances in the management of acute stroke, fewer than 10% of patients receive reperfusion therapy. One of the main reasons for such a low rate of administration is the delay on the part of patients and their families in seeking medical attention. This study aimed to analyse this delay. A prospective observational study was conducted on consecutive stroke or transient ischaemic attack. Data on sociodemographic and clinical parameters, decision delay, pre-hospital delay, and first medical contact were collected. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine factors associated with seeking medical attention within the first 15minutes of stroke or TIA occurrence. A total of 382 patients were included, 24.9% of whom had a decision delay of 15minutes or less. Stroke severity (OR 1.08; 95% CI, 1.04-1.13; P<.001), patient's son/daughter witnessing the event (OR 3.44; 95% CI, 1.88-6.27; P<.001), and insulin treatment (OR 2.89; 95% CI, 1.35-6.20; P=.006) were related to an immediate reaction. Lacunar infarcts (OR 0.41; 95% CI, 0.17-0.97; P=.042), partial anterior circulation infarcts (OR 0.43; 95% CI, 0.22-0.85; P=.015), and monosymptomatic events not involving limb paresis or aphasia (OR 0.15; 95% CI, 0.033-0.724; P=.018) favoured delays longer than 15minutes. Severity of the event and presence of a son/daughter are the factors most frequently associated with an immediate response to stroke. Future interventions should emphasise the need for an immediate response irrespective of severity and include a wider spectrum of symptoms. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. The Prevalence of Exercise Prescription-Related Course Offerings in United States Pharmacy School Curricula: Exercise is Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.; Griffiths, Carrie L.; Gibson, Jacob L.; Luu, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is…

  10. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  11. Exercise boosts hippocampal volume by preventing early age-related gray matter loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuss, Johannes; Biedermann, Sarah V; Falfán-Melgoza, Claudia; Auer, Matthias K; Zheng, Lei; Steinle, Jörg; Hörner, Felix; Sartorius, Alexander; Ende, Gabriele; Weber-Fahr, Wolfgang; Gass, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Recently, a larger hippocampus was found in exercising mice and men. Here we studied the morphological underpinnings in wheel running mice by longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that running increases hippocampal volume by inhibiting an early age-related gray matter loss. Disruption of neurogenesis-related neuroplasticity by focalized irradiation is sufficient to block positive effects of exercise on macroscopic brain morphology. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes: the influence of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinking, Mark F

    2006-09-01

    Exercise-related leg pain is a common complaint among athletes, but there is little evidence regarding risk factors for this condition in female collegiate athletes. To examine prospectively the effect of selected extrinsic and intrinsic factors on the development of exercise-related leg pain in female collegiate athletes. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 2. Subjects were 76 female collegiate athletes participating in fall season sports, including cross-country running, field hockey, soccer, and volleyball. Athletes were seen for a pre-season examination that included measures of height, weight, foot pronation, and calf muscle length as well as a questionnaire for disordered eating behaviors. Body mass index was calculated from height and weight (kg/m(2)). Those athletes who developed exercise-related leg pain during the season were seen for follow-up. All athletes who developed the condition and a matched group without such leg pain underwent bone mineral density and body composition testing. Statistical analyses of differences and relationships were conducted. Of the 76 athletes, 58 (76%) reported a history of exercise-related leg pain, and 20 (26%) reported occurrence of exercise-related leg pain during the season. A history of this condition was strongly associated with its occurrence during the season (odds ratio, 13.2). Exercise-related leg pain was most common among field hockey and cross-country athletes and least common among soccer players. There were no differences between athletes with and without such leg pain regarding age, muscle length, self-reported eating behaviors, body mass index, menstrual function, or bone mineral density. Athletes with exercise-related leg pain had significantly (P sport, and a history of this condition, that are associated with an increased risk of exercise-related leg pain.

  13. Transformational and transactional leadership and exercise-related self-efficacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the self-efficacy ofparticipants involved in a structured 10-week exercise program. Three weeksinto their exercise classes 174 females (M age = 25.36 years, SD = 8.48) provided ratings of their exercise instructor's leadership behaviors as well as their personal efficacy related to scheduling, over-coming barriers and within-class capabilities. Results revealed that for exercise initiates, contingent rewards behaviors were able to explain unique variation in scheduling self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy, but not within-class self-efficacy. For experienced exercisers, none of the leadership behaviors assessed in this study were associated with participant self-efficacy.

  14. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (Ptrained...... after exercise at 85% of VO2 peak. Likewise, PDK4 and HKII mRNA expression were only increased (Ptrained subjects. HIF2alpha mRNA only increased (Ptrained, with no difference between the 70% and 85% of VO2 peak...

  15. Nodalization effects on RELAP5 results related to MTR research reactor transient scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the anal y sis of RELAP5 results obtained from the evaluation study of the total loss of flow transient with the deficiency of the heat removal system in a research reactor using two different nodalizations. It focuses on the effect of nodalization on the thermal-hydraulic evaluation of the re search reactor. The analysis of RELAP5 results has shown that nodalization has a big effect on the predicted scenario of the postulated transient. There fore, great care should be taken during the nodalization of the reactor, especially when the avail able experimental or measured data are insufficient for making a complete qualification of the nodalization. Our analysis also shows that the research reactor pool simulation has a great effect on the evaluation of natural circulation flow and on other thermal-hydraulic parameters during the loss of flow transient. For example, the on set time of core boiling changes from less than 2000 s to 15000 s, starting from the beginning of the transient. This occurs if the pool is simulated by two vertical volumes in stead of one vertical volume.

  16. On the Relation Between Transient Elastic Softening and Permeability Increase in fractured shale and granite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riviere, J.; Madara, B.; Elsworth, D.; Johnson, P. A.; Marone, C.

    2016-12-01

    Dynamic stressing of rocks is known to transiently increase permeability, and has potential application to improve the efficiency of geothermal energy production and oil/gas recovery. At larger scale, teleseismic waves have been observed to transiently increase permeability of aquifer systems. Seismic waves are also known to transiently decrease elastic moduli near fault zones. However, it remains unclear which parameters control the magnitude of permeability increase and how this magnitude can be predicted. We report on laboratory studies that monitor both permeability evolution and elastic properties in fractured granite and shale. We use L-shaped samples that are loaded with triaxial stresses of order 10 MPa and fractured in a triaxial cell. Deionized water is forced to flow along the resulting fracture path by applying a differential pore pressure along the shear direction. Dynamic stressing is applied via pore pressure or normal stress oscillations (20 s-duration, up to 1 Hz-frequency and 1 MPa-amplitude), while measuring flow rates and elastic wave velocities. Our observations enable transient increases in permeability to be determined following dynamic stressing and constrained via measurements of ultrasonic velocity. In particular, these preliminary results are discussed with former results suggesting that permeability enhancement is dictated by flow rate.

  17. Examining the Moderating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relation Between Exercise and Self-Efficacy During the Initiation of Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L.; Baldwin, Austin S.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rethorst, Chad D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with depressive symptoms typically report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect people’s exercise self-efficacy. Among potential sources of self-efficacy, engaging in the relevant behavior is the strongest (Bandura, 1997). Thus, we sought to clarify how depressive symptoms affect the same-day relation between engaging in exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise. Methods Participants (N=116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments of exercise minutes and self-efficacy for four weeks. We tested whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, and (b) the difference was moderated by depressive symptoms. Mixed linear models were used to examine these relations. Results An interaction between exercise occurrence and depressive symptoms (pexercise occurred, but this difference was significantly larger for people with high depressive symptoms. People with high depressive symptoms had lower self-efficacy than those with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p=.03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p=.34). Conclusions During the critical period of initiating regular exercise, daily self-efficacy for people with high depressive symptoms is more sensitive to whether they exercised than for people with low depressive symptoms. This may partially explain why people with depression tend to have difficulty maintaining regular exercise. PMID:25110850

  18. The Pathophysiology and Care of Exercise Related Muscle Cramps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Kumar Pandey

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cramps are major concerns to competing athletes occurring during or after exercise, are common yet, poorly understood phenomena. Pain alone is not object of treatment as serious musculophysiologic and metabolic disturbance of fluid and electrolyte deserve correction. Acute muscle pain and stiffness may cause soreness for longer time. Based on observations, two etiological theories are construed, i.e. the muscle fatigue theory and sodium-water deficit theory. Either has supporting and contradicting facts, but these are relevant to guide prevention and management interventions. Cramps may be different in kind based on different local and/or general causes. Occurrence of cramps in varied situations, environmental conditions and populations, suggests of pleural causal determinents. These include neuromuscular and fluid-electrolyte disturbance factors directly responsible under specific circumstances of individual sports person. Degree of conditioning to particular kind of physical exertion appears most significant factor. Prevention exercises target theorised physiology of muscle tendon and golgi organ receptors, toward delaying fatigability and cramp risk. Occurrence of cramps mostly in hot environments emphasizes support to dehydration-electrolyte imbalance theory. Maintenance of hydration and adequate electrolyte levels in cramp-prone individuals thus makes sense. Worth of variety of measures empirically employed for cramp relief can be judged by scientific understanding. Drugs found useful may not be the best match to pathophysiologic proprieties and thus irrational. The pathophysiological details and relevant clinical information is presented and discussed as first hand understanding for the sports persons and their care givers.

  19. Exercise reduces inflammation and oxidative stress in obesity-related liver diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sechang; Tanaka, Kiyoji; Warabi, Eiji; Shoda, Junichi

    2013-12-01

    Weight reduction remains the most common therapy advocated for the treatment of obesity-related liver diseases. Recently, a beneficial effect of exercise regimens for liver dysfunction, independent of weight reduction, has been reported. Therefore, a retrospective analysis was conducted to determine whether exercise training without dietary restriction in obese, middle-age men influences the pathophysiology of abnormal liver function. A total of 108 subjects who completed a 12-wk exercise training program without any dietary restriction were analyzed in this study; these results were compared with those of 104 subjects who completed a 12-wk dietary restriction program. Furthermore, 42 of these subjects (from both groups) who had abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis by nonalcoholic fatty liver disease fibrosis score were analyzed to obtain a more concrete outcome for exercise-training effects. In exercise training, although the magnitude of body-weight reduction (-3.1% vs -8.5%), waist circumference (-4.0% vs -7.1%), and visceral adipose tissue area (-12.2% vs -22.5%) was significantly more modest than that achieved by dietary restriction, exercise training elicited equivalent reductions in serum alanine aminotransferase and gamma glutamyl transpeptidase levels (-20.6% vs -16.1% and -25.7% vs -34.0%) and equivalent improvement of insulin resistance (-29.7% vs -26.9%). Moreover, exercise training remarkably increased the serum adiponectin level (+33.4% vs +15.1%). Importantly, for subjects with abnormal liver function and suspicious liver fibrosis, exercise training was effective in reducing the serum levels of inflammation and oxidative stress markers: ferritin and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (-25.0% vs +1.1% and -33.5% vs -10.5%). Exercise training benefits the management of obesity-related liver diseases independent of detectable weight reduction. Particularly, these effects seem to be acquired through an improvement in the hepatic

  20. The Relation of Arm Exercise Peak Heart Rate to Stress Test Results and Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Hong; Liu, Weijian; Marshall, Cynthia; Chandiramani, Pooja; Bainter, Emily; Martin, Wade H

    2016-09-01

    Arm exercise is an alternative to pharmacologic stress testing for >50% of patients unable to perform treadmill exercise, but no data exist regarding the effect of attained peak arm exercise heart rate on test sensitivity. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to characterize the relationship of peak arm exercise heart rate responses to abnormal stress test findings, coronary revascularization, and mortality in patients unable to perform leg exercise. From 1997 until 2002, arm cycle ergometer stress tests were performed in 443 consecutive veterans age 64.1 yr (11.0 yr) (mean (SD)), of whom 253 also underwent myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). Patients were categorized by frequency distributions of quartiles of percentage age-predicted peak heart rate (APPHR), heart rate reserve (HRR), and peak heart rate-systolic blood pressure product (PRPP). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression, abnormal MPI findings, coronary revascularization, and 12.0-yr (1.3 yr) Kaplan-Meier all-cause and cardiovascular mortality plots were then characterized by quartiles of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP. A reduced frequency of abnormal arm exercise ECG results was associated only with the lowest quartile of APPHR (≤69%) and HRR (≤43%), whereas higher frequency of abnormal MPI findings exhibited an inverse relationship trend with lower APPHR (P = 0.10) and HRR (P = 0.12). There was a strong inverse association of APPHR, HRR, and PRPP with all-cause (all P ≤ 0.01) and cardiovascular (P Arm exercise ECG stress test sensitivity is only reduced at ≤69% APPHR or ≤43% HRR, whereas arm exercise MPI sensitivity and referral for coronary revascularization after arm exercise stress testing are not adversely affected by even a severely blunted peak heart rate. However, both all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality are strongly and inversely related to APPHR and HRR.

  1. [Exercise-related risk at anaerobic threshold in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Q F; Yuan, W; Zhao, X J; Li, B; Wang, H Y

    2016-02-01

    To investigate the exercise-related risk at anaerobic threshold(AT) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD). Sixty two patients [men 56, women 6, aged (66±8) yr] with stable COPD in Beijing Friendship Hospital during 2013-2014, participated in this study. Incremental symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed on cycle ergometer. The AT was determined using the V-Slope technique and ventilatory equivalents for carbon dioxide and oxygen. Symptoms, 10-lead electrocardiogram, oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry(SpO(2)) were monitored during exercise. The AT, detectable in 53 patients, occurred at (68±10)% of peak oxygen uptake(peak VO(2)). The SpO(2) was in the safe range (94±2) % and the respiratory reserve was relatively high at AT (i.e. 48%). High-intensity exercise training can be performed in patients with moderate-to- severe COPD without resting oxygen desaturation.

  2. Exercise training as a preventive tool for age-related disorders: a brief review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aging populations are a worldwide phenomenon affecting both developed and developing countries. This issue raises serious concerns for both governments and the general population. Regular participation in physical activity and/or exercise training programs can minimize the physiological alterations that occur during aging and may contribute to improvements in health and well-being. The present review will discuss the role of regular exercise training in preventing age-related physiological decline and, consequently, associated chronic diseases. Compelling evidence that regular exercise and/or physical activity can improve quality of life, prevent or control the development of chronic disease and increase life expectancy is shown. In summary, regular exercise training and/or physical activity has an important influence on aging and may help to prevent age-related disorders.

  3. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  4. Health-related quality of life, handgrip strength and falls during detraining in elderly habitual exercisers

    OpenAIRE

    Esain, Izaro; Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana María

    2017-01-01

    Background The effects of regular exercise on physical functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, little is known about the changes which occur following cessation of activity (detraining). Here, we have investigated the effect of a 3 month detraining period on HRQOL and on handgrip strength in elderly people who had regularly exercised, and examined the association of these variables with falls. Methods Thirty-eight women and 11 men (mea...

  5. Changes in the leukocyte methylome and its effect on cardiovascular-related genes after exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denham, Joshua; O'Brien, Brendan J; Marques, Francine Z; Charchar, Fadi J

    2015-02-15

    Physical exercise has proven cardiovascular benefits, yet there is no clear understanding of the related molecular mechanisms leading to this. Here we determined the beneficial epigenetic effects of exercise after sprint interval training, a form of exercise known to improve cardiometabolic health. We quantified genome-wide leukocyte DNA methylation of 12 healthy young (18-24 yr) men before and after 4 wk (thrice weekly) of sprint interval training using the 450K BeadChip (Illumina) and validated gene expression changes in an extra seven subjects. Exercise increased subjects' cardiorespiratory fitness and maximal running performance, and decreased low-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration in conjunction with genome-wide DNA methylation changes. Notably, many CpG island and gene promoter regions were demethylated after exercise, indicating increased genome-wide transcriptional changes. Among genes with DNA methylation changes, epidermal growth factor (EGF), a ligand of the epidermal growth factor receptor known to be involved in cardiovascular disease, was demethylated and showed decreased mRNA expression. Additionally, we found that in microRNAs miR-21 and miR-210, gene DNA methylation was altered by exercise causing a cascade effect on the expression of the mature microRNA involved in cardiovascular function. Our findings demonstrate that exercise alters DNA methylation in circulating blood cells in microRNA and protein-coding genes associated with cardiovascular physiology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. A novel outlier detection method for identifying torque-related transient patterns of in vivo muscle behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng Han; Xin Chen; Sheng Zhong; Yongjin Zhou; Zhiguo Zhang

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposed a novel outlier detection method, named l1-regularized outlier isolation and regression (LOIRE), to examine torque-related transient patterns of in vivo muscle behavior from multimodal signals, including electromyography (EMG), mechanomyography (MMG) and ultrasonography (US), during isometric muscle contraction. Eight subjects performed isometric ramp contraction of knee up to 90% of the maximal voluntary contraction, and EMG, MMG and US were simultaneously recorded from the rectus femoris muscle. Five features, including two root mean square amplitudes from EMG and MMG, muscle cross sectional area, muscle thickness and width from US were extracted. Then, local polynomial regression was used to obtain the signal-to-torque relationships and their derivatives. By assuming the signal-to-torque functions are basically quadratic, the LOIRE method is applied to identify transient torque-related patterns of EMG, MMG and US features as outliers of the linear derivative-to-torque functions. The results show that the LOIRE method can effectively reveal transient patterns in the signal-to-torque relationships (for example, sudden changes around 20% MVC can be observed from all features), providing important information about in vivo muscle behavior.

  8. Exercise for breast cancer survival: the effect on cancer risk and cancer-related fatigue (CRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, Jennifer A; Mokbel, Kefah; van Someren, Ken A; Jewell, Andrew P; Garrod, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    To date, all epidemiological research in this area has focused on the relationship between physical activity level and the risk of breast cancer in healthy women, or more recently, those who have recovered from the disease. Most of this research highlights the fact that those women who are physically active are at a reduced risk of the disease. Although physical activity is similar to exercise, it lacks the specificity of a prescribed exercise training program. Consequently, such research can only be viewed as a promising indicator of the beneficial effect that regular exercise may have for breast cancer survivors. Furthermore, due to the nature of such research, there has been a failure to provide specific evidence concerning the most suitable modality, duration, intensity, and frequency of training for risk reduction in breast cancer survivors. Thus, evidence aiding the correct prescription of exercise for this population has been lacking. More promising evidence is provided by randomized controlled trials, which examine the effect of exercise on specific risk factors and provide convincing scientific rationale for the use of exercise among breast cancer survivors. These studies not only provide understanding of the physiological mechanisms by which exercise can be effective at aiding a reduction in breast cancer risk, but also allow conclusions on the correct prescription to be drawn. Additionally, exercise has proven to be effective in combating cancer-related fatigue (CRF), significantly improving both quality of life outcomes (QOL) and physiological capacity in women who have survived breast cancer. In order to promote a wider understanding of the beneficial effect that exercise holds for this population regarding reduction of breast cancer risk and CRF, this review discusses this research, making conclusions regarding the necessary training prescription to elicit such benefits.

  9. Effect of exercise programs with aerobic exercise sessions of similar intensity but different frequency and duration on health-related measures in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthou, Eirini; Gill, Jason M; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated health-related effects of exercise programs with exercise sessions of similar intensity but different frequency and duration. Thirty-four overweight women were randomized into either long-bout (LB) or short-bout (SB) exercise groups. Participants performed an 8-week supervised program, with the LB group exercising for 75 minutes twice per week, and the SB group for 30 minutes on 5 days of the week. The LB group completed 16 sessions at a heart rate (HR) of 127 ± 1 beat·min-1 and the SB group completed 40 sessions at a HR of 126 ± 1 beat·min-1. Weekly energy expenditure of exercise was not different between groups (LB group, 5.64 ± 0.34 MJ; SB group, 5.83 ± 0.23 MJ). Training significantly (P exercise training did not differ between the SB and LB groups. Health-related outcomes of exercise programs with similar energy expenditure are independent of frequency and duration of exercise sessions. This provides individuals with a degree of flexibility in exercise program planning.

  10. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  11. Does chronic exercise attenuate age-related physiological decline in males?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Lawrence D; Grace, Fergal M; Sculthorpe, Nick; Herbert, Peter; Kilduff, Liam P; Baker, Julien S

    2013-01-01

    Alteration in body composition, physical function, and substrate metabolism occur with advancing age. These changes can be attenuated by exercise. This study evaluated whether master athletes (MA [n = 20]) would have improved exercise capabilities, anthropometry, and hormone profiles when compared with age-matched sedentary counterparts (S [n = 28]). The MA group was predominantly aerobically trained with some resistance exercise incorporated in their routine. The VO(2max), peak power output, and salivary testosterone was significantly higher (p group, while diastolic blood pressure, systolic blood pressure, and body fat percentage were lower (p different between groups. Salivary testosterone correlated positively with VO(2max) (r² = .320), suggesting that increased aerobic capacity is linked with higher concentrations of testosterone. These results suggest that life-long exercise is associated with favorable body composition and attenuation of the age related decline in testosterone.

  12. A theoretical derivation of the transients related to partial discharges in ellipsoidal voids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crichton, George C; Karlsson, A.; Pedersen, Aage

    1988-01-01

    Transients associated with partial discharges in ellipsoidal and spheroidal voids are derived in terms of the induced charges on the electrode. The relationship between the induced charge and the properties which are usually measured are discussed. Formulas are obtained from which conclusions can...... be drawn about the effects of the gas within the void as well as the size, shape, and location of voids. The method is illustrated by applying it to a spheroidal void in a simple disk-type gas-insulated-substation (GIS) spacer. It is found that the nonattaching gas generates an induced charge...

  13. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simony Lira Nascimento

    Full Text Available To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy.For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR, with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI, followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%.Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1% (p = 0.01. Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6% and third trimesters (13.4%. Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%. Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60, primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07, exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96, and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57. Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women.The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt

  14. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt an

  15. Steady-state visual evoked potentials can be explained by temporal superposition of transient event-related responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almudena Capilla

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: One common criterion for classifying electrophysiological brain responses is based on the distinction between transient (i.e. event-related potentials, ERPs and steady-state responses (SSRs. The generation of SSRs is usually attributed to the entrainment of a neural rhythm driven by the stimulus train. However, a more parsimonious account suggests that SSRs might result from the linear addition of the transient responses elicited by each stimulus. This study aimed to investigate this possibility. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recorded brain potentials elicited by a checkerboard stimulus reversing at different rates. We modeled SSRs by sequentially shifting and linearly adding rate-specific ERPs. Our results show a strong resemblance between recorded and synthetic SSRs, supporting the superposition hypothesis. Furthermore, we did not find evidence of entrainment of a neural oscillation at the stimulation frequency. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study provides evidence that visual SSRs can be explained as a superposition of transient ERPs. These findings have critical implications in our current understanding of brain oscillations. Contrary to the idea that neural networks can be tuned to a wide range of frequencies, our findings rather suggest that the oscillatory response of a given neural network is constrained within its natural frequency range.

  16. Transient Splenial Lesion of the Corpus Callosum Related to Migraine with Aura in a Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ünver, Olcay; Kutlubay, Büşra; Besci, Tolga; Ekinci, Gazanfer; Baltacıoğlu, Feyyaz; Türkdoğan, Dilşad

    Transient splenial lesions of the corpus callosum are rare radiological findings first described in association with epilepsy, antiepileptic drugs and viral encephalitis. However, subsequently more cases were described associated with diverse clinical conditions. We describe a 13-year-old girl suffering from migraine with aura presenting with headache, right-sided hemiparesis and encephalopathy. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed an ovoid lesion in the splenium of the corpus callosum. The patient's neurological symptoms resolved within 3 days without therapy and the lesion disappeared in follow up magnetic resonance images obtained 3 weeks after the onset of the symptoms. Migraine with aura was considered to be the cause of the lesion. To our knowledge the present case is the first report of a pediatric patient with a diagnosis of migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A diagnosis of transient lesion of the corpus callosum should be suspected in patients with migraine with aura presenting with hemiparesis and encephalopathy. A mild course and a good prognosis might be expected in the presence of a splenial lesion of the corpus callosum.

  17. Increasing suppression of saccade-related transients along the human visual hierarchy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golan, Tal; Davidesco, Ido; Meshulam, Meir; Groppe, David M; Mégevand, Pierre; Yeagle, Erin M; Goldfinger, Matthew S; Harel, Michal; Melloni, Lucia; Schroeder, Charles E; Deouell, Leon Y; Mehta, Ashesh D; Malach, Rafael

    2017-08-29

    A key hallmark of visual perceptual awareness is robustness to instabilities arising from unnoticeable eye and eyelid movements. In previous human intracranial (iEEG) work (Golan et al., 2016) we found that excitatory broadband high-frequency activity transients, driven by eye blinks, are suppressed in higher-level but not early visual cortex. Here, we utilized the broad anatomical coverage of iEEG recordings in 12 eye-tracked neurosurgical patients to test whether a similar stabilizing mechanism operates following small saccades. We compared saccades (1.3°-3.7°) initiated during inspection of large individual visual objects with similarly-sized external stimulus displacements. Early visual cortex sites responded with positive transients to both conditions. In contrast, in both dorsal and ventral higher-level sites the response to saccades (but not to external displacements) was suppressed. These findings indicate that early visual cortex is highly unstable compared to higher-level visual regions which apparently constitute the main target of stabilizing extra-retinal oculomotor influences.

  18. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI)P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF)P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF)P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI)P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF)P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF)P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF)E (p = 0

  19. Body-related envy: a social comparison perspective in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pila, Eva; Stamiris, Angela; Castonguay, Andree; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2014-02-01

    These three studies sought to better understand experiences of body-related envy and to examine the association with motivation and exercise behavior in young adult males and females. In an interview study, participants (N = 11) discussed body-related envy within a framework of social comparison. In Study 2, a thematic content analysis was conducted on self-reported narratives of body-related envy experiences reported by 288 participants. Themes of body-related envy triggers, cognitions, and cognitive and behavioral outcomes were identified. Findings from Studies 1 and 2 highlighted the possible link between body-related envy and exercise motivation and behavior. Study 3 tested these associations with males and females (N = 595) who completed a self-report questionnaire. In the structural equation model, body-related envy was positively associated with external, introjected, and identified regulations, and identified regulation was positively associated with exercise behavior. Taken together, the importance of body-related envy in the experience of cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes related to sport and exercise contexts is highlighted.

  20. Exercise for improving age-related hyperkyphotic posture: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bansal, Symron; Katzman, Wendy B; Giangregorio, Lora M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate previous research to determine if exercise can improve preexisting hyperkyphosis by decreasing the angle of thoracic kyphosis in adults aged ≥45 years. PubMed, Embase, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature databases were searched for studies related to posture, exercise, and age ≥45 years. Online conference proceedings of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research, American Physical Therapy Association, and Gerontological Society of America were also searched. Two independent reviewers screened the titles and abstracts and selected studies that tested the effect of exercise on measures of kyphosis, or forward head posture, in individuals with hyperkyphosis at baseline (defined as angle of kyphosis ≥40°). Reviews, letters, notes, and non-English language studies were excluded. A pilot-tested abstraction form was used by each reviewer to extract data from each study regarding details of exercise intervention, participant characteristics, safety, adherence, and results. The Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used to assess methodologic quality. Discrepancies on the abstraction forms between the 2 reviewers were resolved by a third reviewer. A formal meta-analysis was not performed. Thirteen studies were abstracted and included in the review; of these, 8 studies saw improvements in ≥1 measure of posture. The main sources of bias were related to blinding participants and incomplete outcome data. The adherence reported across studies suggests that exercise is an acceptable intervention for individuals with age-related hyperkyphosis. The scarcity and quality of available data did not permit a pooled estimate of the effect of exercise on hyperkyphotic posture; however, the positive effects observed in high-quality studies suggest some benefit and support the need for an adequately designed randomized controlled trial examining the effect of exercise on hyperkyphosis. Copyright © 2014

  1. Effects of Exercise on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus-Related Cognitive Impairment and Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callisaya, Michele; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive impairment and dementia are common contributors to institutionalization and loss of quality of life in older people. Both type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and physical inactivity are prevalent and important modifiable risk factors for developing dementia. Physical activity is recommended in the management of T2DM, and there is growing evidence that exercise, a subgroup of physical activity, is also beneficial for maintaining and improving brain structure and function. This paper reviews the evidence for a benefit of exercise on T2DM related cognitive impairment and dementia. In addition, the type (e.g., aerobic, resistance), intensity, duration, and frequency of exercise are discussed. This review shows that although exercise has known benefits on the mechanisms linking T2DM to dementia, there are very few randomized controlled trials examining whether this is the case. It is concluded that the uptake of exercise for the brain has great potential to improve quality of life and provide significant cost savings, but further research is warranted to clarify the effects of exercise on T2DM and those on dementia.

  2. Exercise as an intervention for the age-related decline in brain metabolic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging.

  3. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction.

  4. A highly efficient maize nucellus protoplast system for transient gene expression and studying programmed cell death-related processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiang; Yi, Qiang; Song, Qiaoheng; Gu, Yong; Zhang, Junjie; Hu, Yufeng; Liu, Hanmei; Liu, Yinghong; Yu, Guowu; Huang, Yubi

    2015-07-01

    Conditions for the isolation and transfection of maize nucellus protoplasts were established. We demonstrated its utilization for protein expression, localization, protein-protein interaction, and the investigation of PCD-related processes. Plant protoplasts are an important and versatile cell system that is widely used in the analysis of gene characterization and diverse signaling pathways. Programmed cell death (PCD) occurs throughout the life of plants from embryogenesis to fertilization. The maize nucellus undergoes typical PCD during development of the embryo sac. The nucellus protoplast shows potential for use in research of PCD-related processes. No studies have reported previously the isolation and transfection of nucellus protoplasts. In this study, conditions for the isolation and transfection of maize nucellus protoplasts were established. The maize protoplast system can be used for protein expression, localization, and protein-protein interaction. We applied this system to investigate PCD-related processes. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis revealed that transient expression of MADS29 in the maize nucellus protoplast increases Cys-protease gene transcript level. In addition, β-glucuronidase and luciferase activity assays showed that MADS29 could enhance the promoter activities of the Cys-protease gene. Thus, we demonstrated the potential of a highly efficient maize nucellus protoplast system for transient gene expression and investigation of PCD-related processes.

  5. Exercise stereotypes and health-related outcomes in French people living with HIV: development and validation of an HIV Exercise Stereotypes Scale (HIVESS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Laura; Falzon, Charlène; Bergamaschi, Alessandro; Schuft, Laura; Durant, Jacques; Rosenthal, Eric; Pradier, Christian; Duracinsky, Martin; Rouanet, Isabelle; Colson, Serge S; d'Arripe-Longueville, Fabienne

    2016-11-14

    The main objective of the current study was to develop and validate a French exercise stereotype scale for people living with HIV (PLHIV) in order to gain visibility to the possible barriers and facilitators for exercise in PLHIV and thus enhance their quality of life. A series of four complementary studies was carried out with a total sample of 524 participants to: (a) develop a preliminary version of the HIV Exercise Stereotype Scale (HIVESS) (Stage 1), (b) confirm the factorial structure of the instrument (Stage 2), (c) evaluate the stability of the instrument (Stage 3), and (d) examine the construct and divergent validity of the scale (Stage 4). Results provided support for a 14-item scale with three sub-scales reporting stereotypes related to exercise benefits, exercise risks and lack of capacity for exercise with Cronbach's alphas of .77, .69 and .76 respectively. Results showed good factorial structure, strong reliability and indicators of convergent validity relating to self-efficacy, exercise and quality of life. The HIVESS presented satisfactory psychometric properties, constitutes a reliable and valid instrument to measure exercise stereotypes among PLHIV and has applications for future research and clinical practice.

  6. Effects of an endurance and resistance exercise program on persistent cancer-related fatigue after treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, F; Schwartz, S; Wesel, N; Voigt, A; Thiel, E

    2008-08-01

    Fatigue is a relevant problem of cancer patients during and after treatment. Several studies have shown that exercise can improve quality of life and functional status of cancer patients undergoing chemo- or radiotherapy. However, there is a lack of information about the effects of this intervention on persistent cancer-related fatigue. Therefore, we assessed the effects of an exercise program on cancer-related fatigue after treatment. A consecutive series of 32 cancer patients with mild to severe persistent fatigue [scores on the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI) > 25] participated in a 3-week exercise program consisting of endurance (30 min walking on a treadmill) and resistance/coordination exercises for the major muscle groups. Fatigue, mood, and anxiety were assessed with questionnaires and physical performance with a stress test before and after the program. At the end of the program, we observed a significant increase of physical performance (workload at the anaerobic threshold pre 61 +/- 26 W, post 78 +/- 31 W, P fatigue (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy: pre 45.7 +/- 13.4, post 52.6 +/- 12.4, P fatigue or reduction of anxiety was observed. A 3-week exercise program leads to a substantial improvement of physical performance and reduction of mental and physical fatigue in cancer patients after treatment. However, this intervention does not affect depression, anxiety, or cognitive fatigue.

  7. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    . The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l......Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  8. Relationship between functional assessments and exercise-related changes during static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Harrison, Blain C; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is currently used for injury risk prediction, although researchers have not studied its relationships to injury risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare FMS scores at rest to changes in static balance after exercise. Second, we examined FMS scores pre and post exercise. Twenty-five participants performed center of pressure (COP) measures and FMS testing. An acclimatization session for the FMS occurred on day 1, whereas day 2 involved COP measures for static balance and FMS testing before and after a 36-minute exercise protocol. Center of pressure standard deviations in the frontal (COPML-SD) and sagittal (COPAP-SD) planes, center of pressure velocity (COP-Velocity), center of pressure area (COP-Area), and FMS scores were recorded. No significant correlations occurred between preexercise FMS scores and change in COP measures. Preexercise hurdle step scores related to preexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46), COPAP-SD (p = -0.43), and COP-Area (p = -0.50). Preexercise in-line lunge scores related to postexercise COPAP-SD (p = -0.44) and COP-Velocity (p = -0.39), whereas preexercise active straight leg raise (ASLR) scores related to postexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46). Functional Movement Screen scores were not related to changes in static balance after exercise and may therefore not be useful to predict who will experience greater static balance deficits after exercise. Additionally, FMS scores did not differ before and after exercise. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a general static balance standpoint may find the hurdle step, in-line lunge, and ASLR useful. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a change in static balance standpoint may need to explore other screening tools.

  9. Effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Li; Lu, Hui J; Lin, Lu; Hu, Yan

    2016-02-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is the most commonly reported and most distressing symptom in cancer patients. Currently, there are no effective strategies for managing this condition. The purpose of this study is to compare the effects of aerobic exercise on CRF with the standard of care. A systematic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was performed using the Cochrane Library, JBI Library, Embase, MEDLINE, Web of Science, China Biology Medicine (CBM), and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). The risk of bias was critically evaluated, and data were independently extracted by two reviewers. All of the analyses were performed using Review Manager 5. A total of 26 qualified studies that included 2830 participants (aerobic exercise, 1426; control, 1404) were included in the meta-analysis. Cancer patients who completed adjuvant therapy in the aerobic exercise group reported reduced CRF levels relative to patients undergoing the standard of care. Aerobic exercise had a moderate effect on CRF for patients not currently undergoing anticancer treatment. Supervised aerobic exercise, exercise for 20–30 min/session, or exercise three times/week had a small effect on CRF. Exercise for 50 min/session or exercise two sessions/week had a significant effect on patient CRF, whereas 8 weeks of exercise had a moderate effect. Aerobic exercise is effective for the management of CRF, especially for patients who have completed adjuvant therapy. Cancer patients can make more informed choices regarding their cancer-related fatigue management based on the best available evidence.

  10. Therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have focused on evidence-based interventions to prevent mobility decline and enhance physical performance in older adults. Several modalities, in addition to traditional strengthening programs, have been designed to manage age-related functional decline more effectively. In this study, we reviewed the current relevant literatures to assess the therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia). Age-related changes in human skeletal muscle, ...

  11. Thiacyclophane cages and related bi- and tripodal molecules via transient polysulfenic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversa, Maria Chiara; Barattucci, Anna; Bonaccorsi, Paola; Faggi, Cristina; Papalia, Teresa

    2007-06-08

    A series of bis- and tris-bridged thiacyclophane S-oxides, as racemates or meso products, have been synthesized with a new procedure. Starting from the corresponding thiols, in three steps, transient polyarene- and polyarylmethane-sulfenic acids were generated in the presence of di- and triethynylbenzenes. The thermal syn-addition of these sulfenic acids onto the triple bonds of the unsaturated acceptors was conducted in CH2Cl2 at 40 degrees C. The concentration of sulfoxide precursors of sulfenic acid and the sulfoxide/acceptor molar ratio addressed the syn-addition toward open-chain benzene sulfoxides or thiacyclophane S-oxides. Complete stereochemical control was observed in some reactions between polysulfenic acids and ethynylbenzenes, where the meso dithiacyclophane S,S'-dioxides were obtained exclusively, whereas 1:1 mixtures of meso/rac dithiacyclophanes S,S'-dioxides were isolated as products of other reactions. In almost all the cases, the obtained compounds were separated by column chromatography. The structure assignment of the new heterophanes was done on the basis of their diagnostic NMR spectra and X-ray crystallographic analysis of some of them. Open-chain polysulfinyl and polysulfinylmethyl benzenes, obtained as meso/rac mixtures, were separated and the products were fully characterized. Both synthesized cages, including trithia[3(3)](1,3,5)cyclophane S,S',S' '-trioxides, and bi- and tripodal benzene sulfoxides, appear promising in the field of coordination and material chemistry.

  12. Motor performance, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children on dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsermans, RM; Creemers, DG; Helders, PJ; Schroder, CH

    2004-01-01

    In contrast to the adult population, little is known regarding health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. We designed a pilot study to investigate whether research into this area is indicated.

  13. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  14. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  15. Decomposing executive stock option exercises: relative information and incentives to manage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, D.; Hodgson, A.; van Praag, B.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the information content of stock option exercises versus regular insider share trades by corporate executives. We argue that the asymmetric payoff structure of options makes managerial wealth - compared to holdings of shares - relatively more sensitive to stock price changes and

  16. Exercise therapy for Stress-related mental disorder, a randomised controlled trial in primary care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quartero, A. Otto; Burger, Huib; Donker, Marieke; de Wit, Niek J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: to investigate whether a structured physical exercise programme (PEP) improves the recovery of general health in patients suffering from Stress-related Mental Disorder (SMD). Method: Study design: randomised open trial in general practice. Patients from two regions in the Netherlands

  17. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nielsen, Jannie; Overgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate...

  18. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    OpenAIRE

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel; Calbet, José A. L.

    2014-01-01

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion bre...

  19. Muscle Activation During Exercise in Severe Acute Hypoxia: Role of Absolute and Relative Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Peralta, Rafael; Losa-Reyna, José; González-Izal, Miriam; Perez-Suarez, Ismael; Calle-Herrero, Jaime; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Torres-Peralta, Rafael, José Losa-Reyna, Miriam González-Izal, Ismael Perez-Suarez, Jaime Calle-Herrero, Mikel Izquierdo, and José A.L. Calbet. Muscle activation during exercise in severe acute hypoxia: Role of absolute and relative intensity. High Alt Med Biol 15:472–482, 2014.—The aim of this study was to determine the influence of severe acute hypoxia on muscle activation during whole body dynamic exercise. Eleven young men performed four incremental cycle ergometer tests to exhaustion breathing normoxic (FIo2=0.21, two tests) or hypoxic gas (FIo2=0.108, two tests). Surface electromyography (EMG) activities of rectus femoris (RF), vastus medialis (VL), vastus lateralis (VL), and biceps femoris (BF) were recorded. The two normoxic and the two hypoxic tests were averaged to reduce EMG variability. Peak Vo2 was 34% lower in hypoxia than in normoxia (p<0.05). The EMG root mean square (RMS) increased with exercise intensity in all muscles (p<0.05), with greater effect in hypoxia than in normoxia in the RF and VM (p<0.05), and a similar trend in VL (p=0.10). At the same relative intensity, the RMS was greater in normoxia than in hypoxia in RF, VL, and BF (p<0.05), with a similar trend in VM (p=0.08). Median frequency increased with exercise intensity (p<0.05), and was higher in hypoxia than in normoxia in VL (p<0.05). Muscle contraction burst duration increased with exercise intensity in VM and VL (p<0.05), without clear effects of FIo2. No significant FIo2 effects on frequency domain indices were observed when compared at the same relative intensity. In conclusion, muscle activation during whole body exercise increases almost linearly with exercise intensity, following a muscle-specific pattern, which is adjusted depending on the FIo2 and the relative intensity of exercise. Both VL and VM are increasingly involved in power output generation with the increase of intensity and the reduction in FIo2. PMID:25225839

  20. Maintained exercise-enhanced brain executive function related to cerebral lactate metabolism in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Takenaka, Saki

    2018-01-01

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. This investigation examined whether improved EF after exercise relates to brain lactate uptake....... Fourteen healthy, male subjects performed 2 HIIE protocols separated by 60 min of rest. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular venous bulb and from the brachial artery to determine differences across the brain for lactate (a-v difflactate), glucose (diffglucose), oxygen (diffoxygen...

  1. Left Ventricular Function After Prolonged Exercise in Equine Endurance Athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flethøj, M.; Schwarzwald, C. C.; Haugaard, M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Prolonged exercise in human athletes is associated with transient impairment of left ventricular (LV) function, known as cardiac fatigue. Cardiac effects of prolonged exercise in horses remain unknown. Objectives :To investigate the effects of prolonged exercise on LV systolic...... function. Reduced ventricular filling persisted for 7–21 hours despite normalization of biochemical indicators of hydration status, indicating that the observed changes were not entirely related to altered preload conditions. The clinical relevance of cardiac fatigue in horses remains uncertain....

  2. Acute circuit-resistance exercise increases expression of lymphocyte agouti-related protein in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Saghebjoo, Marziyeh; Rashid-Lamir, Amir; Fathi, Rozita; Kraemer, Robert R

    2010-03-01

    Exercise-induced leukocytosis and lymphocytosis is accompanied by up-regulation and down-regulation of hundreds of genes in white blood cells (WBCs). Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an orexigenic peptide secreted predominantly from the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. AgRP affects feeding behavior and plays a role in energy and glucose homeostasis and adiposity. The purpose of the study was to determine effects of circuit resistance exercise (CRE) (9 exercises, 25 s per exercise) at different intensities on peripheral blood lymphocyte (PBL) AgRP mRNA expression and its concentrations in lymphocytes and plasma. Twenty-five young female college students were randomly divided into five groups: control, 40% 1-repetition maximum (1-RM), 60% 1-RM, 80% 1-RM and combined (40 + 60 + 80% 1-RM) loads. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated by a lymphocyte density gradient centrifugation method for AgRP mRNA expression. Lymphocyte ATP, glycogen, AgRP, growth hormone (GH), and plasma AgRP, GH and glucose concentrations were measured. CRE increased AgRP mRNA lymphocyte expression significantly (P exercise stress.

  3. Physiological benefits of exercise in artificial gravity: A broadband countermeasure to space flight related deconditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica L.; Jarchow, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2008-07-01

    Current countermeasures to space flight related physiological deconditioning have not been sufficiently effective. We believe that a comprehensive countermeasure is the combination of intermittent centrifugation (artificial gravity) and exercise. We aim to test the long-term effectiveness of this combination in terms of fitness benefits. As a first-order determination of effectiveness, subjects participated in an eight-week exercise program. Three times per week, they exercised using a stair-stepper on a short-radius (2 m) centrifuge spinning at 30 RPM, maintaining a target heart rate that was systematically increased over the exercise period. During the sessions, foot forces and stepping cadence, heart rate, and perceived exertion were measured. Before and after the eight-week exercise program, measurements included: body fat percentage, bone mineral content, quadriceps extension strength, push-ups endurance, stepping cadence for a given heart rate, and maximum stepping endurance. We find that stair-stepping on a centrifuge is safe and comfortable. Preliminary fitness results indicate that stair-stepping on a centrifuge may be effective in improving aerobic fitness, body composition, and strength. These results indicate that such a combination may also be effective as a countermeasure to space flight deconditioning.

  4. Vivo-morpholinos induced transient knockdown of physical activity related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Ferguson

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with disease prevention and overall wellbeing. Additionally there has been evidence that physical activity level is a result of genetic influence. However, there has not been a reliable method to silence candidate genes in vivo to determine causal mechanisms of physical activity regulation. Vivo-morpholinos are a potential method to transiently silence specific genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate the use of Vivo-morpholinos in a mouse model for voluntary physical activity with several sub-objectives. We observed that Vivo-morpholinos achieved between 60-97% knockdown of Drd1-, Vmat2-, and Glut4-protein in skeletal muscle, the delivery moiety of Vivo-morpholinos (scramble did not influence physical activity and that a cocktail of multiple Vivo-morpholinos can be given in a single treatment to achieve protein knockdown of two different targeted proteins in skeletal muscle simultaneously. Knocking down Drd1, Vmat2, or Glut4 protein in skeletal muscle did not affect physical activity. Vivo-morpholinos injected intravenously alone did not significantly knockdown Vmat2-protein expression in the brain (p = 0.28. However, the use of a bradykinin analog to increase blood-brain-barrier permeability in conjunction with the Vivo-morpholinos significantly (p = 0.0001 decreased Vmat2-protein in the brain with a corresponding later over-expression of Vmat2 coincident with a significant (p = 0.0016 increase in physical activity. We conclude that Vivo-morpholinos can be a valuable tool in determining causal gene-phenotype relationships in whole animal models.

  5. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test.RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet.CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  6. Cardiovascular responses to exercise as functions of absolute and relative work load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, S. F.; Taylor, W. F.; Graham, R. M.; Pettinger, W. A.; Schutte, J. E.; Blomqvist, C. G.

    1983-01-01

    The roles of absolute and relative oxygen uptake (VO2 and percent of muscle group specific VO2-max) as determinants of the cardiovascular and ventilatory responses to exercise over a wide range of active muscle mass are investigated. Experiments were conducted using four types of dynamic exercise: one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one and two-leg cycling at four different relative work loads (25, 50, 75, and 100 percent of VO2-max) for the corresponding muscle group. Results show that VO2 during maximal one-arm curl, one-arm cranking, and one-leg cycling averaged 20, 50, and 75 percent, respectively, of that for maximal two-leg cycling. Cardiac output was determined to be linearly related to VO2 with a similar slope and intercept for each type of exercise, and the heart rate at a given percent VO2-max was higher with larger active muscle mass. It is concluded that the cardiovascular responses to exercise was determined to a large extent by the active muscle mass and the absolute oxygen uptake, with the principal feature appearing to be the tight linkage between systematic oxygen transport and utilization.

  7. Simulation Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tansey, Pat

    1976-01-01

    Describes five simulation exercises: a problem for a student teacher, an industrial relations game, a series of student problems; an international relations crisis, and a sociological exercise on public and private opinions. (LS)

  8. Interactions between immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems following strenuous physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menicucci, Danilo; Piarulli, Andrea; Mastorci, Francesca; Sebastiani, Laura; Laurino, Marco; Garbella, Erika; Castagnini, Cinzia; Pellegrini, Silvia; Lubrano, Valter; Bernardi, Giulio; Metelli, Maria; Bedini, Remo; L'abbate, Antonio; Pingitore, Alessandro; Gemignani, Angelo

    2013-09-01

    Physical exercise represents a eustress condition that promotes rapid coordinated adjustments in the immune, stress-related hormonal and cardiovascular systems, for maintaining homeostasis in response to increased metabolic demands. Compared to the tight multisystem coordination during exercise, evidence of between-systems cross talk in the early post exercise is still lacking. This study was aimed at identifying possible interactions between multiple systems following strenuous physical exercise (Ironman race) performed by twenty well-trained triathletes. Cardiac hemodynamics, left ventricle systolic and diastolic function and heart rate variability were measured along with plasma concentrations of immune messengers (cytokines and C-reactive protein) and stress-related hormones (catecholamines and cortisol) both 24h before and within 20 min after the race. Observed changes in antiinflammatory pathways, stress-related hormones and cardiovascular function were in line with previous findings; moreover, correlating parameters' changes (post versus pre-race) highlighted a dependence of cardiovascular function on the post-race biohumoral milieu: in particular, individual post-race variations of heart rate and diastolic function were strongly correlated with individual variations of anti-inflammatory cytokines, while individual baroreflex sensitivity changes were linked to IL-8 increase. Multiple correlations between anti-inflammatory cytokines and catecholamines were also found according with the autonomic regulation of immune function. Observed post-race cytokine and hormone levels were presumptively representative of the increases reached at the effort end while the cardiovascular parameters after the race were measured during the cardiovascular recovery; thus, results suggest that sustained strenuous exercise produced a stereotyped cardiovascular early recovery, whose speed could be conditioned by the immune and stress-related hormonal milieu.

  9. Recreational Exercise Before and During Pregnancy in Relation to Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations in Pregnant Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Cupul-Uicab, Lea A; Rogan, Walter J; Eggesbo, Merete; Travlos, Gregory; Wilson, Ralph; Longnecker, Matthew P

    2015-06-01

    Pregnant women who are physically active have a lower risk of preeclampsia and gestational diabetes than women who are less active. One possible mechanism is a reduction in low-grade inflammation, as measured by plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP). The association between exercise and CRP in pregnant women, however, has not been adequately investigated. A total of 537 pregnant women, enrolled around the 17th week of gestation in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study in 2003 to 2004, were studied. Self-reported recreational exercise was recalled for both 3 months before pregnancy and early pregnancy. The total energy expenditure from recreational exercise (total recreational exercise, metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-hr/week) was estimated, and low-, moderate- and vigorous-intensity exercise was defined. Plasma CRP concentrations were measured during pregnancy. In adjusted linear regression models, mean CRP concentration was 1.0% lower [95% CI = -1.9% to 0.2%] with each 1 MET-hr/week of total recreational exercise before pregnancy. In addition, vigorous-intensity exercise before pregnancy was more strongly related to a reduction in CRP levels than low- or moderate-intensity exercise. However, we observed no association between recreational exercise during pregnancy and plasma CRP levels. Recreational exercise before pregnancy, especially vigorous exercise, may reduce the risk of maternal inflammation during pregnancy.

  10. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence.

  11. Maintained exercise-enhanced brain executive function related to cerebral lactate metabolism in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Takenaka, Saki; Olesen, Niels D; Petersen, Lonnie G; Sørensen, Henrik; Nielsen, Henning B; Secher, Niels H; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2018-01-03

    High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. This investigation examined whether improved EF after exercise relates to brain lactate uptake. Fourteen healthy, male subjects performed 2 HIIE protocols separated by 60 min of rest. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular venous bulb and from the brachial artery to determine differences across the brain for lactate (a-v diff lactate ), glucose (diff glucose ), oxygen (diff oxygen ), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; diff BDNF ). EF was evaluated by the color-word Stroop task. The first HIIE improved EF for 40 min, whereas the second HIIE improved EF only immediately after exercise. The a-v diff glucose was unchanged, whereas the a-v diff BDNF increased similarly after both HIIEs, and the a-v diff lactate increased, but the increase was attenuated after the second HIIE, compared with the first HIIE ( P Hashimoto, T., Tsukamoto, H., Takenaka, S., Olesen, N. D., Petersen, L. G., Sørensen, H., Nielsen, H. B., Secher, N. H., Ogoh, S. Maintained exercise-enhanced brain executive function related to cerebral lactate metabolism in men.

  12. Exercise training to improve exercise capacity and quality of life in people with non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Marita T; McKeough, Zoe J; Troosters, Thierry; Bye, Peter; Alison, Jennifer A

    2015-11-05

    Non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases, such as asbestosis and silicosis, are similar to other chronic respiratory diseases and may be characterised by breathlessness, reduced exercise capacity and reduced health-related quality of life. Some non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases are a global health issue and very few treatment options, including pharmacological, are available. Therefore, examining the role of exercise training is particularly important to determine whether exercise training is an effective treatment option in non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases. To assess the effects of exercise training for people with non-malignant dust-related respiratory diseases compared with control, placebo or another non-exercise intervention on exercise capacity, health-related quality of life and levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, CINAHL, PEDro and AMED (all searched from inception until February 2015), national and international clinical trial registries, reference lists of relevant papers and we contacted experts in the field for identification of suitable studies. We included only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that compared exercise training of at least four weeks duration with no exercise training, placebo or another non-exercise intervention. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias, and extracted data. We employed the GRADE approach to assess the overall quality of evidence for each outcome and to interpret findings. We synthesized study results using a random-effects model based on the assessment of heterogeneity. We conducted subgroup analyses on participants with dust-related interstitial lung diseases (ILDs) and participants with asbestos related pleural disease (ARPD). Two RCTs including a combined total of 40 participants (35 from

  13. Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-01-01

    A novel automatic escalator was designed, constructed and used in the present investigation. The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men. Twenty males participated and were randomly divided into two equal-sized groups: a stair descending group (muscle-damaging group) and a stair ascending group (non-muscle-damaging group). Each group performed two sessions of stair descending or stair ascending exercise on the automatic escalator while a three week period was elapsed between the two exercise sessions. Indices of muscle function, insulin sensitivity, blood lipid profile and redox status were assessed before and immediately after, as well as at day 2 and day 4 after both exercise sessions. It was found that the first bout of stair descending exercise caused muscle damage, induced insulin resistance and oxidative stress as well as affected positively blood lipid profile. However, after the second bout of stair descending exercise the alterations in all parameters were diminished or abolished. On the other hand, the stair ascending exercise induced only minor effects on muscle function and health-related parameters after both exercise bouts. The results of the present investigation indicate that stair descending exercise seems to be a promising way of exercise that can provoke positive effects on blood lipid profile and antioxidant status.

  14. Using social learning theory to assess the exercise related health education needs of post-retirement adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, C; Petosa, R

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the exercise related health education needs of post-retirement adults. Social Learning Theory (SLT) was used as the conceptual framework. The target population for this study was post-retirement adults aged sixty years and over living in Columbus, Ohio. Results revealed a serious lack of knowledge regarding the benefits and attributes of exercise. Overall it appeared that few older adults received social support for exercise. Approximately one-half of the sample reported high levels of exercise self-efficacy. Over 50 percent of the sample reported to exercise for health-related benefits. Based on the results, specific recommendations for the promotion of exercise in post-retirement adults are offered.

  15. Promoting graded exercise as a part of multimodal treatment in patients diagnosed with stress-related exhaustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Jonsdottir, Ingibjörg H; Arvidson, Elin; Lindwall, Magnus; Lindegård, Agneta

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine, by using patient cohort data, the changes in exercise habits during a 12-month multimodal treatment period, in patients seeking specialist care for stress-related exhaustion. Randomised controlled trials have greatly contributed to the fact that both physicians and patients regard regular exercise participation as a highly valuable and effective treatment for mental health disorders. Nevertheless, little is known about the adherence to physical activity recommendations for patients with stress-related mental problems in a clinical setting. Knowledge about what can be achieved within the clinical context, and how current treatments can be improved, is crucial for clinicians, researchers, educators, managers and policy makers involved in nursing practice. Longitudinal analysis of patient cohort data. The sample consisted of 169 patients (79% women; mean age = 42·7 years) who were referred to a stress clinic due to stress-related exhaustion. All patients received multimodal treatment with similar components. Two different approaches to promote exercise were used in the clinical work (general comprehensive instruction either with or without an 18-week coached exercise programme). The self-reported overall exercise level was assessed at baseline and at three, six and 12 months after the first visit. Group by time effects were examined with repeated measures analyses of variance. The frequency, duration and intensity of exercise increased substantially during the first three months of multimodal treatment. Although exercise levels tended to decrease thereafter, there was still a significant time effect at the 12-month follow-up showing that follow-up exercise levels were higher than at baseline. Both general exercise instructions and coached exercise were effective in promoting exercise involvement. Exercise can be successfully promoted as a part of multimodal treatment in patients with stress-related exhaustion. © 2015 John

  16. Exercise therapy for Stress-related mental disorder, a randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donker Marieke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background to investigate whether a structured physical exercise programme (PEP improves the recovery of general health in patients suffering from Stress-related Mental Disorder (SMD. Method Study design: randomised open trial in general practice. Patients from two regions in the Netherlands were included between September 2003 and December 2005, and followed up for 12 weeks. Intervention: the patients were referred to a physical therapist for instruction in and monitoring of physical exercise of an intermediate intensity. Following the Dutch Guidelines for Healthy Physical Exercise, the patients were instructed to exercise at least five times a week, for at least 30 minutes per day. Control group: usual care from the GP Outcome Primary: improvement of general health after 6 weeks according to the 'general health' dimension of the Short-Form 36. Secondary: total days off work, percentage that resumed work after 6 and 12 weeks, change in distress score and change in remaining SF36 dimensions after 6 and 12 weeks. Results out of 102 randomised patients (mean age 43, 60 (59% female, 70 (68% completed the trial, of whom 31 were in the intervention group. After 6 weeks, the mean (SD general health score was 54.6 (22.1 for the intervention group and 57.5 (19.2 for the controls. The corresponding effect size (Cohen's d with 95% confidence interval from analysis of covariance was -0.06 (-0.41, 0.30 indicating no effect on general health. No significant effects of the intervention were detected for any secondary outcome parameter either. Conclusion Notwithstanding the relatively high drop-out rate, our results suggest that referral to a physical therapist for structured physical exercise is not likely to be very effective in improving recovery from SMD. Trial registry Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15609105

  17. Therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy

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    Jae-Young Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on evidence-based interventions to prevent mobility decline and enhance physical performance in older adults. Several modalities, in addition to traditional strengthening programs, have been designed to manage age-related functional decline more effectively. In this study, we reviewed the current relevant literatures to assess the therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia. Age-related changes in human skeletal muscle, and their relationship with physical performance, are discussed with reference to in vitro physiologic and human biomechanics studies. An overview of issues relevant to sarcopenia is provided in the context of the recent consensus on the diagnosis and management of the condition. A decline in mobility among the aging population is closely linked with changes in the muscle force–velocity relationship. Interventions based specifically on increasing velocity and eccentric strength can improve function more effectively compared with traditional strengthening programs. Eccentric strengthening programs are introduced as a specific method for improving both muscle force and velocity. To be more effective, exercise interventions for older adults should focus on enhancing the muscle force–velocity relationship. Exercises that can be performed easily, and that utilize eccentric strength (which is relatively spared during the aging process, are needed to improve both muscle force and velocity.

  18. Perceptions of issues relating to exercise and joint health in rheumatoid arthritis: a UK-based questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca-Jane; Markland, David A; Jones, Jeremy G; Maddison, Peter J; Thom, Jeanette M

    2013-09-01

    This questionnaire study investigated the perceptions of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients across the UK in relation to exercise and joint health. The validity of the measure was also assessed. Members of the National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society (NRAS) with self-reported RA completed the questionnaire online. Items related to five factors that emerged from previous qualitative research. Participants responded using a five-point Likert-style scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) assessed physical activity. The model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.8); statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A total of 247 responses were collected over 47 days (88% females; age: 18-77 years; disease duration: Health professionals show exercise knowledge' (19%); 'Knowing what exercise should be done' (43%); 'Having to exercise because it is helpful' (72%); 'Worry about causing harm to joints' (44%); and 'Not wanting to exercise as joints hurt' (52%). Patient concerns about joint pain, joint harm and how to exercise were significantly associated with lower physical activity (p exercise as beneficial. However, concerns about how to exercise, joint pain, causing harm to joints and a perceived lack of exercise knowledge among health professionals remain. Addressing these concerns may have implications for increasing physical activity within the RA population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Eating habits, obesity related behaviors, and effects of Danhak exercise in elderly Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Ae Wha; Kim, Jong Hyun; Shin, Dong Joo; Choi, Dal Woong; Park, Soo Jin; Kang, Nam-E; Kim, Young Soon

    2010-08-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate obesity-related dietary behaviors and to determine long-term exercise effects on obesity and blood lipid profiles in elderly Korean subjects. A total of 120 subjects, aged 60-75 yr, were recruited, and obesity-related dietary behaviors were determined. An exercise intervention was conducted with 35 qualified elderly females for 6 months, and body composition and blood lipids were measured 6 times at 4 week intervals. At baseline, mean BMI (kg/m(2)) was 24.8 for males and 23.1 for females. The females had better eating habits than the males and were more concerned with reading nutrition labels on food products (P stress-relief (18.9%), and depression (13.2%). In conclusion, elderly females had better eating habits and were more concerned with nutrition information and healthy diets compared to elderly males. However, misperceptions of weight and obesity-related stress tended to be very high in females who were overweight and obese, which can be a barrier to maintain normal weight. Long-term Danhak practice, a traditional Korean exercise, was effective at reducing body fat (%) and abdominal obesity, and improved lipid profiles, self-confidence, and stress.

  20. Health-related quality of life, handgrip strength and falls during detraining in elderly habitual exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esain, Izaro; Rodriguez-Larrad, Ana; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, Iraia; Gil, Susana María

    2017-11-21

    The effects of regular exercise on physical functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) have been thoroughly studied. In contrast, little is known about the changes which occur following cessation of activity (detraining). Here, we have investigated the effect of a 3 month detraining period on HRQOL and on handgrip strength in elderly people who had regularly exercised, and examined the association of these variables with falls. Thirty-eight women and 11 men (mean age, 75.5±5.7 years) took part in a supervised physical exercise program for 9 months, followed by a 3 month detraining period. Participants completed the SF-36 HRQOL questionnaire at the beginning of detraining (baseline) and 3 months later. Handgrip strength and number of falls were also recorded. Participants had been exercising for 12.1±8.7 years. After the detraining period, we found a significant (p detraining period, 18.4% participants had a fall incident. HRQOL declined in both fallers and non-fallers during detraining. Interestingly, fallers already had at baseline significantly lower values in physical functioning (p detraining period, particularly in women. In contrast, strength of the upper limb was not affected by the detraining. The prior lower HRQOL values of those who will subsequently fall suggest that this criterion should be studied as a candidate risk factor for falls. Efforts should be made to encourage the elderly to continue with exercise activities and/or to shorten holiday break periods, in order to maintain their quality of life. The protocol was registered as a clinical trial in the ANZCTR (trial ID: ACTRN12617000716369 ).

  1. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  2. Relation between contemplative exercises and an enriched psychology students' experience in a neuroscience course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit Binnun, Nava; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relation of contemplative exercises with enhancement of students' experience during neuroscience studies. Short contemplative exercises inspired by the Buddhist tradition of self-inquiry were introduced in an undergraduate neuroscience course for psychology students. At the start of the class, all students were asked to participate in short “personal brain investigations” relevant to the topic presented. These investigations were aimed at bringing stable awareness to a specific perceptual, emotional, attentional, or cognitive process and observing it in a non-judgmental, non-personal way. In addition, students could choose to participate, for bonus credit, in a longer exercise designed to expand upon the weekly class activity. In the exercise, students continued their “personal brain investigations” for 10 min a day, 4 days a week. They wrote “lab reports” on their daily observations, obtained feedback from the teacher, and at the end of the year reviewed their reports and reflected upon their experiences during the semester. Out of 265 students, 102 students completed the bonus track and their final reflections were analyzed using qualitative methodology. In addition, 91 of the students answered a survey at the end of the course, 43 students participated in a quiz 1 year after course graduation, and the final grades of all students were collected and analyzed. Overall, students reported satisfaction from the exercises and felt they contributed to their learning experience. In the 1-year follow-up, the bonus-track students were significantly more likely than their peers to remember class material. The qualitative analysis of bonus-track students' reports revealed that the bonus-track process elicited positive feelings, helped students connect with class material and provided them with personal insights. In addition, students acquired contemplative skills, such as increased awareness and attention, non-judgmental attitudes, and

  3. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

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    Karsten eMueller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training three days per week over a period of three months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI, reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing.

  4. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Karsten; Möller, Harald E; Horstmann, Annette; Busse, Franziska; Lepsien, Jöran; Blüher, Matthias; Stumvoll, Michael; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2015-01-01

    Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training twice a week over a period of 3 months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI), reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing.

  5. Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Effects of Exercise for Those With Cancer-Related Lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ben; Disipio, Tracey; Peake, Jonathan; Hayes, Sandra C

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of exercise on cancer-related lymphedema and related symptoms, and to determine the need for those with lymphedema to wear compression during exercise. CINAHL, Cochrane, EBSCOhost, MEDLINE, PubMed, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete, ProQuest Nursing and Allied Health Source, ScienceDirect, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for trials published before January 1, 2015. Randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials and single-group pre-post studies published in English were included. Twenty-one (exercise) and 4 (compression and exercise) studies met inclusion criteria. Data were extracted into tabular format using predefined data fields by 1 reviewer and assessed for accuracy by a second reviewer. Study quality was evaluated using the Effective Public Health Practice Project Quality Assessment Tool. Data were pooled using a random-effects model to assess the effects of acute and long-term exercise on lymphedema and lymphedema-associated symptoms, with subgroup analyses for exercise mode and intervention length. There was no effect of exercise (acute or intervention) on lymphedema or associated symptoms, with standardized mean differences from all analyses ranging between -0.2 and 0.1 (P values ≥.22). Findings from subgroup analyses for exercise mode (aerobic, resistance, mixed, other) and intervention duration (>12wk or ≤12wk) were consistent with these findings-that is, no effect on lymphedema or associated symptoms. There were too few studies evaluating the effect of compression during regular exercise to conduct a meta-analysis. Individuals with secondary lymphedema can safely participate in progressive, regular exercise without experiencing a worsening of lymphedema or related symptoms. However, there is insufficient evidence to support or refute the current clinical recommendation to wear compression garments during regular exercise. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc

  6. Strength training and older women: a cross-sectional study examining factors related to exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Economos, Christina D; Palombo, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recognized health benefits, few older women participate in strength-training exercises. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to older women's adherence to strength training after participation in the StrongWomen Program, a nationally disseminated community program. Adherence was defined as > or =4 months of twice-weekly strength training. Surveys were sent to 970 program participants from 23 states and to participants' corresponding program leaders. Five-hundred fifty-seven participants responded (57%). Of respondents who completed surveys (527), 79% (415) adhered to strength training; adherers reported a mean of 14.1 +/- 9.1 months of strength training. Logistic-regression analysis revealed that exercise adherence was positively associated with age (p = .001), higher lifetime physical activity levels (p = .045), better perceived health (p = .003), leader's sports participation (p = .028), and leader's prior experience leading programs (p = .006). These data lend insight to factors that may be related to exercise adherence among midlife and older women.

  7. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1 %) (p TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:  · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is

  8. Exercise-training in young Drosophila melanogaster reduces age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Piazza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Declining mobility is a major concern, as well as a major source of health care costs, among the elderly population. Lack of mobility is a primary cause of entry into managed care facilities, and a contributing factor to the frequency of damaging falls. Exercise-based therapies have shown great promise in sustaining mobility in elderly patients, as well as in rodent models. However, the genetic basis of the changing physiological responses to exercise during aging is not well understood. Here, we describe the first exercise-training paradigm in an invertebrate genetic model system. Flies are exercised by a mechanized platform, known as the Power Tower, that rapidly, repeatedly, induces their innate instinct for negative geotaxis. When young flies are subjected to a carefully controlled, ramped paradigm of exercise-training, they display significant reduction in age-related decline in mobility and cardiac performance. Fly lines with improved mitochondrial efficiency display some of the phenotypes observed in wild-type exercised flies. The exercise response in flies is influenced by the amount of protein and lipid, but not carbohydrate, in the diet. The development of an exercise-training model in Drosophila melanogaster opens the way to direct testing of single-gene based genetic therapies for improved mobility in aged animals, as well as unbiased genetic screens for loci involved in the changing response to exercise during aging.

  9. Every exercise bout matters: linking systemic exercise responses to breast cancer control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Hojman, Pernille

    2017-04-01

    Cumulative epidemiological evidence shows that regular exercise lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence. The causality underlying this relation has not been fully established, and the exercise recommendations for breast cancer patients follow the general physical activity guidelines, prescribing 150 min of exercise per week. Thus, elucidations of the causal mechanisms are important to prescribe and implement the most optimal training regimen in breast cancer prevention and treatment. The prevailing hypothesis on the positive association within exercise oncology has focused on lowering of the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. However, another rather overlooked systemic exercise response is the marked acute increases in several potential anti-cancer components during each acute exercise bout. Here, we review the evidence of the exercise-mediated changes in systemic components with the ability to influence breast cancer progression. In the first part, we focus on systemic risk factors for breast cancer, i.e., sex hormones, insulin, and inflammatory markers, and their adaptation to long-term training. In the second part, we describe the systemic factors induced acutely during exercise, including catecholamines and myokines. In conclusion, we propose that the transient increases in exercise factors during acute exercise appear to be mediating the positive effect of regular exercise on breast cancer progression.

  10. Impact of exercise with TheraBite device on trismus and health-related quality of life: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Charlotte; Finizia, Caterina; Pauli, Nina; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Andréll, Paulin

    2017-01-01

    Trismus is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer that affects many aspects of daily life negatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device TheraBite on trismus, trismus-related symptomatology, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with head and neck cancer. Fifteen patients with trismus (maximum interincisal opening [MIO] ≤35 mm) after oncologic treatment for head and neck cancer, underwent a 10-week exercise program with the TheraBite device and were followed regularly. Time between oncologic treatment and start of TheraBite exercise ranged from 0.7 to 14.8 years (average 6.2 years). MIO, trismus-related symptoms, and HRQL was assessed before and after exercise and after 6 months. A significant improvement in MIO was observed post-exercise (3.5 mm, 15.3%, p = 0.0002) and after 6-month of follow-up (4.7 mm, 22.1%, p = 0.0029). A statistically significant correlation was found between increased MIO and fewer trismus-related symptoms. In conclusion, exercise with TheraBite improved MIO and trismus-related symptoms in patients with trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. Structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device seems to be beneficial for patients with trismus independent of time since oncologic treatment.

  11. Transient receptor potential canonical channel-1 (TRPC1) KO mice that exercise are protected from high-fat diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Transient receptor potential canonical channel-1 (TRPC1) is a major class of calcium permeable channels found in key metabolic tissues, including the hypothalamus, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle, making them likely candidates for the regulation of cellular energy metabolism. The exac...

  12. Conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Matheus O; Silva, Brenda N G; Andriolo, Régis B; Atallah, Alvaro N; Peccin, Maria S

    2013-06-06

    Musculoskeletal, ligamentous and osseous groin injuries are common in athletes and may result in a delay of several months to resume sports. Even then, this may not be at the former level of sport activity. The treatment of exercise-related groin pain is mainly conservative (non-surgical), using interventions such as exercises, electrotherapy, manual therapy and steroid injections. To assess the effects (benefits and harms) of conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain. We searched the Cochrane Bone, Joint and Muscle Trauma Group Specialised Register (December 2011); the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 4); MEDLINE (1948 to November week 3 2011); EMBASE (1980 to Week 49 2011); CINAHL (1982 to December 2011); LILACS (1982 to December 2011); PEDro (1929 to December 2011), SPORTDiscus (1985 to December 2011), OTseeker (to December 2011), reference lists of papers and conference proceedings (2000 to 2011). Randomized controlled trials and quasi-randomized controlled trials evaluating conservative interventions for treating exercise-related musculotendinous, ligamentous and osseous groin pain were included. Studies comparing conservative with surgical treatments were excluded. Two review authors independently extracted data and conducted risk of bias assessments. There was no pooling of data. Two studies, involving a total of 122 participants who had experienced adductor-related groin pain for at least two months, were included in this review. All but one of the participants were male athletes aged between 18 and 50 years old. Both studies were assessed as 'high risk of bias' for at least one source of bias domain. The 'successful treatment' outcome reported in both studies was based primarily on pain measures.One study, based on an intention-to-treat analysis, found a significant difference favouring exercise therapy (strengthening with an

  13. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  14. Effort Thrombosis of the Upper Extremities Related to an Arm Stretching Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Wen Liang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “Effort” axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome is an uncommon deep venous thrombosis due to repetitive activity of the upper limbs. Most cases of this condition are related to strenuous or prolonged sport or occupational activities, while others are associated with endogenous or exogenous risk factors. We report the case of a 43-year-old, previously healthy, male who developed right axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis, which was possibly associated with an exercise involving arm extension and shaking in a posture of shoulder abduction and outstretched for 10 minutes on 2 consecutive days. The condition improved but returned with increased severity when he resumed the exercise after a 2-day break, when he presented with a swollen and bluish arm at the emergency department. Sonographic examination showed moderate thrombotic stenosis of the right axillary vein. Effort thrombosis was diagnosed after ruling out associated coagulopathy or concomitant malignancy. External compression of the accessory ribs or lymph nodes were not detected. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin, followed by oral anticoagulant therapy for 6 months. Only partial resolution of thrombosis was achieved after 6 months of anticoagulant therapy, but pulmonary embolism did not occur during 18 months of follow-up. This case illustrates that, although unusual, Paget-Schroetter syndrome can occur in a healthy patient as a result of mild to moderate exercise.

  15. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  16. Stair descending exercise using a novel automatic escalator: effects on muscle performance and health-related parameters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Paschalis, Vassilis; Theodorou, Anastasios A; Panayiotou, George; Kyparos, Antonios; Patikas, Dimitrios; Grivas, Gerasimos V; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S

    2013-01-01

    .... The aim of the present investigation was to compare the effect of two repeated sessions of stair descending versus stair ascending exercise on muscle performance and health-related parameters in young healthy men...

  17. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (peconomy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  18. [Athletes with exercise-related pain at the medial side of the lower leg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgens, F; Hoogeveen, A R; Brink, P R G

    2008-08-16

    Two patients were diagnosed with exercise-related pain at the medial side of the lower leg. The first patient, an 18-year-old woman who had expanded her athletic activities extensively, had developed pain at the inner side of the distal third portion of the left lower leg. She showed over-pronation of the ankle during running. A 3-phase bone scintigram revealed diffuse uptake of the tracer covering a large portion of the medial tibia margin. Based on this evidence, a diagnosis of periostalgia was made. She recovered after a period of relative calf massages and used insoles. The second patient was a 28-year-old male endurance runner who developed pain at the medial shin after intensifying his training regimen. The periods without pain during running became increasingly shorter, and the medial side of the lower leg became sore and tense. Intracompartmental pressure measurements indicated exercise-related posterior deep compartment syndrome of the calf. The patient recovered after fasciotomy. In athletes, exercise-related symptoms of the medial side of the lower leg can be usually attributed to the tibial periosteum or tendons of the deep calfmusculature, tibial stress reaction or fracture, or a compartment syndrome of the deep calf. Surgery is indicated for chronic compartment syndrome, but conservative therapy provides favourable outcomes in the other types of disorders. The optimal conservative therapeutic approach is unknown, but it is advisable to temporary reduce symptom-provoking athletic activity and modify any risk factors present. Ankle over-pronation during running is considered a very relevant intrinsic risk factor.

  19. Unsupervised exercise in survivors of human papillomavirus related head and neck cancer: how many can go it alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Joshua; Kim, Jiyoung; Zhang, Xiaochen; Aggarwal, Charu; Cohen, Roger B; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer (HNC) have a better prognosis relative to other types of HNC, making survivorship an emerging and critical issue. Exercise is a core component of survivorship care, but little is known about how many survivors of HPV-related HNC can safely be advised to start exercising on their own, as opposed to needing further evaluation or supervised exercise. We utilized guidelines to identify health issues that would indicate value of further evaluation prior to being safely prescribed unsupervised exercise. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with HPV-related HNC to assess health issues 6 months after completing definitive therapy. Patients with at least one health issue were deemed appropriate to receive further evaluation prior to prescription for unsupervised exercise. We utilized logistic regression to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with the need for further evaluation, likely performed by outpatient rehabilitation clinicians. In this cohort of patients, 39.3% could safely be prescribed unsupervised exercise 6 months after completing definitive therapy. On multivariable regression, older age, BMI >30, and receipt of radiation were associated with an increased likelihood for requiring further evaluation or supervised exercise. Over half of patients with HPV-related HNC would benefit from referral to physical therapy or an exercise professional for further evaluation to determine the most appropriate level of exercise supervision, based upon current guidelines. Development of such referral systems will be essential to enhance survivorship outcomes for patients who have completed treatment.

  20. Effects of moderate exercise over different phases on age-related physiological dysfunction in testes of SAMP8 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiujun; Bian, Yanqing; Sun, Yichong; Li, Li; Wang, Lixuan; Zhao, Chunfang; Shen, Yongqing; Song, Qingliang; Qu, Yine; Niu, Siyun; Wu, Wenshuang; Gao, Fulu

    2013-09-01

    Oxidative stress and chronic inflammation have been implicated in the testicular aging process. Different types and moderate-intensity of regular exercise may reduce age-related physiological dysfunction associated with inflammation and oxidative stress, but such effects of moderate-intensity of exercise over different phases of life in testes have not been reported. In this study, male SAMP8 mice, a senescence-accelerated strain, were maintained as sedentary (sed) or subjected to daily 15-min periods of swimming exercise between ages of 2-7 months (lifelong), 2-4 months (earlier) or 5-7 months (late). Age-related changes, including serum testosterone levels and biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress were analyzed at the end of the experiment. All exercise groups showed significantly greater serum testosterone levels and decreased age-related inflammation and oxidative stress compared with the sedentary group. Exercise also increased expression and activity of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2), a transcriptional regulator of the cellular anti-oxidant system, and decreased expression and activity of nuclear factor kappa beta (NF-κB), a mediator of inflammatory molecules, in the nucleus of testicular cells. However, lifelong and earlier groups generally showed significantly better protective effects than the late group against age-related physiological dysfunction in testes. Thus, lifelong exercise and earlier phase exercise were most effective in counteracting oxidative stress and inflammation and in preserving testes function through regulation of Nrf2 and NF-κB. These results advocate the benefits of lifelong exercise and emphasize a greater protection against male aging by instituting exercise earlier rather than late in life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Exercise-induced lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue is mainly related to natriuretic peptides in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Cedric; Pillard, Fabien; de Glisezinski, Isabelle; Klimcakova, Eva; Crampes, Francois; Thalamas, Claire; Harant, Isabelle; Marques, Marie-Adeline; Lafontan, Max; Berlan, Michel

    2008-08-01

    Involvement of sympathetic nervous system and natriuretic peptides in the control of exercise-induced lipid mobilization was compared in overweight and lean men. Lipid mobilization was determined using local microdialysis during exercise. Subjects performed 35-min exercise bouts at 60% of their maximal oxygen consumption under placebo or after oral tertatolol [a beta-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonist]. Under placebo, exercise increased dialysate glycerol concentration (DGC) in both groups. Phentolamine (alpha-AR antagonist) potentiated exercise-induced lipolysis in overweight but not in lean subjects; the alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect was only functional in overweight men. After tertatolol administration, the DGC increased similarly during exercise no matter which was used probe in both groups. Compared with the control probe under placebo, lipolysis was reduced in lean but not in overweight men treated with the beta-AR blocker. Tertatolol reduced plasma nonesterified fatty acids and insulin concentration in both groups at rest. Under placebo or tertatolol, the exercise-induced changes in plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, and insulin concentrations were similar in both groups. Exercise promoted a higher increase in catecholamine and ANP plasma levels after tertatolol administration. In conclusion, the major finding of our study is that in overweight men, in addition to an increased alpha(2)-antilipolytic effect, the lipid mobilization in subcutaneous adipose tissue that persists during exercise under beta-blockade is not dependent on catecholamine action. On the basis of correlation findings, it seems to be related to a concomitant exercise-induced rise in plasma ANP when exercise is performed under tertatolol intake and a decrease in plasma insulin.

  2. Distribution profiles of transient receptor potential melastatin- and vanilloid-related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilin; Wang, Xinghuan; Ye, Haixia; Gao, Weicheng; Pu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Zhonghua

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)- and vanilloid (TRPV)- related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa were obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of all TRPM and TRPV channel members with specific primers. Western blot analysis was applied for detecting the expression of TRPM and TRPV channel proteins. Immunohistochemistry staining for TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 was also performed in rat testis. The mRNAs of TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 were detected in the spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa in rat. Western blot analysis verified the expression of TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 in the rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Immunocytochemistry staining for TRPM and TRPV channel families indicated that TRPM4 and TRPM7 proteins were highly expressed in different stages of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa, while TRPV5 protein was lowly expressed in these cells. Our results demonstrate that mRNAs or proteins for TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 exist in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. These data presented here may assist in elucidating the possible physiological function of TRPM and TRPV channels in spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa.

  3. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Scherer, Roberta W; Geigle, Paula M; Berlanstein, Debra R; Topaloglu, Ozlem; Gotay, Carolyn C; Snyder, Claire

    2012-08-15

    Cancer survivors experience numerous disease and treatment-related adverse outcomes and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Exercise interventions are hypothesized to alleviate these adverse outcomes. HRQoL and its domains are important measures for cancer survivorship. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise on overall HRQoL and HRQoL domains among adult post-treatment cancer survivors. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO, LILACS, SIGLE, SportDiscus, OTSeeker, and Sociological Abstracts from inception to October 2011 with no language or date restrictions. We also searched citations through Web of Science and Scopus, PubMed's related article feature, and several websites. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and other reviews in the field. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing exercise interventions with usual care or other nonexercise intervention to assess overall HRQoL or at least one HRQoL domain in adults. Included trials tested exercise interventions that were initiated after completion of active cancer treatment. We excluded trials including people who were terminally ill, or receiving hospice care, or both, and where the majority of trial participants were undergoing active treatment for either the primary or recurrent cancer. Five paired review authors independently extracted information on characteristics of included trials, data on effects of the intervention, and assessed risk of bias based on predefined criteria. Where possible, meta-analyses results were performed for HRQoL and HRQoL domains for the reported difference between baseline values and follow-up values using standardized mean differences (SMD) and a random-effects model by length of follow-up. We also reported the SMDs between mean follow-up values of exercise and control group. Because investigators used many different

  4. Work capacity, exercise responses and body composition of professional pilots in relation to age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeppky, J A; Luft, U C

    1989-11-01

    Body composition and submaximal and maximal cardiorespiratory responses during a progressive upright bicycle ergometer test were measured in 410 professional male pilots, aged 20 to 68 years, and divided into four groups (30, 39, 49, and 59 years). Fat-free weight by hydrostatic weighing was not significantly different between groups and fat increased linearly with age, while height was lower and weight levelled off in the oldest group. Aerobic work capacity (VO2max) fell at a rate of 0.25 ml.min-1.kg-1 per year in this unique population of healthy, but generally sedentary men. A subgroup of 10 pilots, tested annually from age 31 to 47, demonstrated a reversal of the age-related decline in VO2max. This was attributable to regular physical activity, short of athletic training, and changes in personal health habits stimulated by self-assessment available from the repeated tests incorporated into the medical prevention program. These data considered in relation to more recent reports of stroke volume during similar maximal exercise protocols suggest that VO2max is limited during aging by a reduction in tissue diffusing capacity or increased maldistribution of perfusion in relation to O2 uptake in muscle and this can be partially prevented by training. Reference standards for heart rate, blood pressure and ventilation during submaximal and maximal exercise levels are presented in relation to energy requirements and work intensity at various ages.

  5. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  6. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  7. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  8. Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Chul; Ding, Dalian; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Zhang, Yanping; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Hyo-Jin; White, Karessa; Kim, Yong Hwan; Linser, Paul; Tanokura, Masaru; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V; Salvi, Richard J; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-11-02

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and disability and is associated with longer lifespan expectancy (Taylor et al., 2004; Pahor et al., 2014; Anton et al., 2015; Arem et al., 2015). In contrast, decreased physical function is associated with hearing loss among older adults (Li et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running (WR) on age-related hearing loss (AHL) in CBA/CaJ mice, a well established model of AHL (Zheng et al., 1999). WR activity peaked at 6 months of age (12,280 m/d) and gradually decreased over time. At 24 months of age, the average WR distance was 3987 m/d. Twenty-four-month-old runners had less cochlear hair cell and spiral ganglion neuron loss and better auditory brainstem response thresholds at the low and middle frequencies compared with age-matched, non-WR controls. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of inner ear tissues from 6-month-old controls and runners revealed that WR resulted in a marked enrichment for GO gene sets associated with immune response, inflammatory response, vascular function, and apoptosis. In agreement with these results, there was reduced stria vascularis (SV) atrophy and reduced loss of capillaries in the SV of old runners versus old controls. Given that SV holds numerous capillaries that are essential for transporting oxygen and nutrients into the cochlea, our findings suggest that long-term exercise delays the progression of AHL by reducing age-related loss of strial capillaries associated with inflammation. Nearly two-thirds of adults aged 70 years or older develop significant age-related hearing loss (AHL), a condition that can lead to social isolation and major communication difficulties. AHL is also associated with decreased physical function among older adults. In the current study, we show that regular exercise slowed AHL and cochlear degeneration significantly in a well established murine model. Our data

  9. Effects of Long-Term Exercise on Age-Related Hearing Loss in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Han, Chul; Ding, Dalian; Lopez, Maria-Cecilia; Manohar, Senthilvelan; Zhang, Yanping; Kim, Mi-Jung; Park, Hyo-Jin; White, Karessa; Kim, Yong Hwan; Linser, Paul; Tanokura, Masaru; Leeuwenburgh, Christiaan; Baker, Henry V.; Salvi, Richard J.; Someya, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Regular physical exercise reduces the risk for obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and disability and is associated with longer lifespan expectancy (Taylor et al., 2004; Pahor et al., 2014; Anton et al., 2015; Arem et al., 2015). In contrast, decreased physical function is associated with hearing loss among older adults (Li et al., 2013; Chen et al., 2015). Here, we investigated the effects of long-term voluntary wheel running (WR) on age-related hearing loss (AHL) in CBA/CaJ mice, a well estab...

  10. [Exercise for prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia (hyperlipidemia) and diabetes increases with aging, and all these conditions are risk factors of arteriosclerotic diseases such as cerebrovascular event (stroke) and myocardial infarction. The term "metabolic domino" has been used to describe the collective concept of the development and progression of these lifestyle-related diseases, the sequence of events, and the progression process of complications. Like the first tile of a domino toppling game, undesirable lifestyle such as overeating and underexercising first triggers obesity, and is followed in succession by onset of an insulin resistance state (underlied by a genetic background indigenous to Japanese) , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and further postprandial hyperglycemia (the pre-diabetic state) , the so-called metabolic syndrome, at around the same time. On the other hand, apart from the other lifestyle-related diseases, the prevalence of osteoporosis also increases rapidly accompanying aging. Osteoporosis is known to be strongly related to disorders due to the metabolic domino such as arteriosclerosis and vascular calcification, and a new disease category called "osteo-vascular interaction" has attracted attention recently. Regarding "osteo-vascular interaction" , a close relation between bone density loss or osteoporotic changes and vascular lesion-associated lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes has been reported. Therefore, as a common preventive factor for bone mass loss or osteoporosis and lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (osteo-vascular interaction) , exercise has been recognized anew as an important non-pharmaceutical therapy that should take top priority. This article overviews the evidence of exercise therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases, from the viewpoint of health promotion, especially of

  11. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Methods Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO2peak: 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HRmax – HRrest] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Results Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing and completed figures (Five-Point test at pre and post testing (0.002 < p < 0.05, 0.16 < ɳp 2 < 0.38. These differences notably declined when comparing day 2 and 3. Absolute between days variability (CoV dropped from 10 to 5% when comparing day 2 vs. day 3 instead of day 1 vs. day 2. Also ICC ranges increased from day 1 vs. day 2 (0.65 < ICC < 0.87 to day 2 vs. day 3 (0.40 < ICC < 0.93. Interestingly, reliability measures for pre-post change scores were low (0.02 < ICC < 0.71. These data did not improve when comparing day 2 with day 3. During inhibition tests, reaction times showed excellent reliability values compared to the poor to fair reliability of

  12. Transient severe motion artifact related to gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI. Frequency and risk evaluation at a German institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2017-07-15

    Varying frequencies (5 - 18%) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p>0.05). We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM.

  13. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Situational bandwidth and the criterion-related validity of assessment center ratings: is cross-exercise convergence always desirable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speer, Andrew B; Christiansen, Neil D; Goffin, Richard D; Goff, Maynard

    2014-03-01

    This research examines the relationship between the construct and criterion-related validity of assessment centers (ACs) based on how convergence of dimension ratings across AC exercises affects their ability to predict managerial performance. According to traditional multitrait-multimethod perspective, a high degree of convergence represents more reliable measurement and has the potential for better validity. In contrast, the concept of situational bandwidth suggests that behavior assessed under a dissimilar set of circumstances should result in a more comprehensive assessment of a candidate's tendencies even though ratings are less likely to show high convergence. To test these opposing viewpoints, data from 3 operational ACs were obtained along with experts' evaluations of exercise characteristics and supervisors' ratings of candidates' managerial performance. Across the 3 samples, AC ratings taken from exercises with dissimilar demands had higher estimates of criterion-related validity than ratings taken from similar exercises, even though the same dimension-different exercise correlations were substantially higher between similar exercises. Composites of ratings high in convergence did not emerge as better predictors of managerial performance, and validity particularly suffered when derived from ratings that converged as a result of exercises with similar demands. Implications for AC design are discussed.

  15. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  16. Brain Network Modularity Predicts Exercise-Related Executive Function Gains in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L. Baniqued

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the brain can be conceptualized as a network comprised of groups of sub-networks or modules. The extent of segregation between modules can be quantified with a modularity metric, where networks with high modularity have dense connections within modules and sparser connections between modules. Previous work has shown that higher modularity predicts greater improvements after cognitive training in patients with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older and young adults. It is not known, however, whether modularity can also predict cognitive gains after a physical exercise intervention. Here, we quantified modularity in older adults (N = 128, mean age = 64.74 who underwent one of the following interventions for 6 months (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov: (1 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking (Walk, (2 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking plus nutritional supplement (Walk+, (3 stretching, strengthening and stability (SSS, or (4 dance instruction. After the intervention, the Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups showed gains in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, with larger effects in both walking groups compared to the SSS and Dance groups. The Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups also improved in executive function (EF as measured by reasoning, working memory, and task-switching tests. In the Walk, Walk+, and SSS groups that improved in EF, higher baseline modularity was positively related to EF gains, even after controlling for age, in-scanner motion and baseline EF. No relationship between modularity and EF gains was observed in the Dance group, which did not show training-related gains in CRF or EF control. These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that individuals with a more modular brain network organization are more responsive to cognitive training. These findings suggest that the predictive power of modularity may be generalizable across interventions aimed to enhance aspects of cognition and

  17. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p DHEA after awakening. Overall, diurnal decline for both adrenal steroids was observed on resting and exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  18. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: "Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?" Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods with

  19. [Transient epileptic amnesia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muramatsu, Kazuhiro; Yoshizaki, Takahito

    2016-03-01

    Transient amnesia is one of common clinical phenomenon of epilepsy that are encountered by physicians. The amnestic attacks are often associated with persistent memory disturbances. Epilepsy is common among the elderly, with amnesia as a common symptom and convulsions relatively uncommon. Therefore, amnesia due to epilepsy can easily be misdiagnosed as dementia. The term 'transient epileptic amnesia (TEA)' was introduced in the early 1990s by Kapur, who highlighted that amnestic attacks caused by epilepsy can be similar to those occurring in 'transient global amnesia', but are distinguished by features brevity and recurrence. In 1998, Zeman et al. proposed diagnostic criteria for TEA.

  20. Aerobic exercise training in the treatment of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease related fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A; Sheldon, Ryan D; Meers, Grace M; Ortinau, Laura C; Morris, E Matthew; Booth, Frank W; Kanaley, Jill A; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J; Sowers, James R; Ibdah, Jamal A; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold; Rector, R Scott

    2016-09-15

    Physiologically relevant rodent models of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that resemble the human condition are limited. Exercise training and energy restriction are first-line recommendations for the treatment of NASH. Hyperphagic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima fatty rats fed a western diet high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 24 weeks developed a severe NASH with fibrosis phenotype. Moderate intensity exercise training and modest energy restriction provided some improvement in the histological features of NASH that coincided with alterations in markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix remodelling. The present study highlights the importance of lifestyle modification, including exercise training and energy restriction, in the regulation of advanced liver disease. The incidence of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rising but the efficacy of lifestyle modifications to improve NASH-related outcomes remain unclear. We hypothesized that a western diet (WD) would induce NASH in the Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and that lifestyle modification would improve this condition. Eight-week-old Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L) and OLETF (O) rats consumed a control diet (10% kcal fat, 3.5% sucrose) or a WD (45% kcal fat, 17% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, additional WD-fed OLETFs were randomized to sedentary (O-SED), food restriction (O-FR; ∼25% kcal reduction vs. O-SED) or exercise training (O-EX; treadmill running 20 m min(-1) with a 15% incline, 60 min day(-1) , 5 days week(-1) ) conditions for 12 weeks. WD induced a NASH phenotype in OLETFs characterized by hepatic fibrosis (collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline content), as well as elevated inflammation and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, and hepatic stellate cell activation (α-smooth muscle actin) compared to Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. FR and EX modestly improved NASH-related fibrosis markers (FR

  1. Aerobic exercise training in the treatment of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease related fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Meers, Grace M.; Ortinau, Laura C.; Morris, E. Matthew; Booth, Frank W.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Vieira‐Potter, Victoria J.; Sowers, James R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Thyfault, John P.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiologically relevant rodent models of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that resemble the human condition are limited.Exercise training and energy restriction are first‐line recommendations for the treatment of NASH.Hyperphagic Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima fatty rats fed a western diet high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 24 weeks developed a severe NASH with fibrosis phenotype.Moderate intensity exercise training and modest energy restriction provided some improvement in the histological features of NASH that coincided with alterations in markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix remodelling.The present study highlights the importance of lifestyle modification, including exercise training and energy restriction, in the regulation of advanced liver disease. Abstract The incidence of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rising but the efficacy of lifestyle modifications to improve NASH‐related outcomes remain unclear. We hypothesized that a western diet (WD) would induce NASH in the Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and that lifestyle modification would improve this condition. Eight‐week‐old Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L) and OLETF (O) rats consumed a control diet (10% kcal fat, 3.5% sucrose) or a WD (45% kcal fat, 17% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, additional WD‐fed OLETFs were randomized to sedentary (O‐SED), food restriction (O‐FR; ∼25% kcal reduction vs. O‐SED) or exercise training (O‐EX; treadmill running 20 m min–1 with a 15% incline, 60 min day–1, 5 days week–1) conditions for 12 weeks. WD induced a NASH phenotype in OLETFs characterized by hepatic fibrosis (collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline content), as well as elevated inflammation and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, and hepatic stellate cell activation (α‐smooth muscle actin) compared to Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. FR and EX modestly

  2. Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Eman M; Omran, Dalia A; El Beshlawey, Mohamad L; Abdo, Mahmoud; El Askary, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV). This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves. All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests. Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  3. Surgery-related thrombosis critically affects the brain infarct volume in mice following transient middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojie Lin

    Full Text Available Transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO model is widely used to mimic human focal ischemic stroke in order to study ischemia/reperfusion brain injury in rodents. In tMCAO model, intraluminal suture technique is widely used to achieve ischemia and reperfusion. However, variation of infarct volume in this model often requires large sample size, which hinders the progress of preclinical research. Our previous study demonstrated that infarct volume was related to the success of reperfusion although the reason remained unclear. The aim of present study is to explore the relationship between focal thrombus formation and model reproducibility with respect to infarct volume. We hypothesize that suture-induced thrombosis causes infarct volume variability due to insufficient reperfusion after suture withdrawal. Seventy-two adult male CD-1 mice underwent 90 minutes of tMCAO with or without intraperitoneal administration of heparin. Dynamic synchrotron radiation microangiography (SRA and laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI were performed before and after tMCAO to observe the cerebral vascular morphology and to measure the cerebral blood flow in vivo. Infarct volume and neurological score were examined to evaluate severity of ischemic brain injury. We found that the rate of successful reperfusion was much higher in heparin-treated mice compared to that in heparin-free mice according to the result of SRA and LSCI at 1 and 3 hours after suture withdrawal (p<0.05. Pathological features and SRA revealed that thrombus formed in the internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery or anterior cerebral artery, which blocked reperfusion following tMCAO. LSCI showed that cortical collateral circulation could be disturbed by thrombi. Our results demonstrated that suture-induced thrombosis was a critical element, which affects the success of reperfusion. Appropriate heparin management provides a useful approach for improving reproducibility of reperfusion

  4. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  5. The effects of a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention during chemotherapy on cancer-related fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Rørth, Mikael; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common problem for cancer patients across diagnoses during chemotherapy and is associated with physical inactivity, lower functional level and lack of energy. Few RCT exercise intervention studies have included cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The objective...... of this study is to evaluate whether a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention, adjunct to chemotherapy and standard care, can reduce the patient's CRF level....

  6. Effects of Quadriceps Strengthening Exercise on Quadriceps Muscle Strength and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Lean Mass

    OpenAIRE

    Istingadah Desiana; Marina Annette Moeliono; Tertianto Prabowo

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To discover whether quadriceps resistance exercise could increase quadriceps strength as well as its relation to lower extremity lean mass. Methods: This study was a pre- and post- experimental study in which 36 participants with knee OA grade 2 and 3 were recruited. Assesment of leg lean mass and quadriceps strength was taken before and after intervention. Participants practiced quadriceps isotonic resistance exercise 3 times a week for 8 weeks. This study was conducted ...

  7. Aerobic Exercise Training and Incentive Spirometry Can Control Age-related respiratory muscles performance Changes in Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    El-Kader, Shehab Mahmoud Abd; Ashmawy, Eman Mohamed Salah El-Den

    2013-01-01

    As aging occurs, the respiratory system undergoes a measurable decline in physiological functions. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of walking exercise and incentive spirometry in controlling age related respiratory muscles function changes in elderly. Forty elderly subjects of both sexes their age ranged from 65 to 74 years and included into two equal groups; group (A) received walking exercise and incentive spirometery three times a week for 3 months, where group (B) receiv...

  8. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Sch?ttin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on...

  9. Relation between exercise central haemodynamic response and resting cardiac structure and function in young healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, Matthew C; Lefferts, Wesley K; Heffernan, Kevin S

    2017-07-01

    Left ventricular (LV) structure and function are predictors of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality and are related to resting peripheral haemodynamic load in older adults. The central haemodynamic response to exercise may reveal associations with LV structure and function not detected by traditional peripheral (brachial) measures in a younger population. To examine correlations between acute exercise-induced changes in central artery stiffness and wave reflections and measures of resting LV structure and function. Sixteen healthy men (age 26 ± 6 year; BMI 25·3 ± 2·7 kg m-2 ) had measures of central haemodynamic load measured before/after a 30-s Wingate anaerobic test (WAT). Common carotid artery stiffness and reflected wave intensity were assessed via wave intensity analysis as a regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and negative area (NA), respectively. Resting LV structure (LV mass) and function [midwall fractional shortening (mFS)] were assessed using M-mode echocardiography in the parasternal short-axis view. There was a significant association between mFS and WAT-mediated change in carotid systolic BP (r = -0·57, P = 0·011), logNA (r = -0·58, P = 0·009) and PWV (r = -0·44, P = 0·045). There were no significant associations between resting mFS and changes in brachial systolic BP (r = -0·26, P>0·05). There were no associations between resting LV mass and changes in any haemodynamic variable (P>0·05). Exercise-induced increases in central haemodynamic load reveal associations with lower resting LV function in young healthy men undetected by traditional peripheral haemodynamics. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  11. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  12. Exercise prevents age-related decline in nitric-oxide-mediated vasodilator function in cutaneous microvessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Mark A; Green, Daniel J; Cable, N Timothy

    2008-07-15

    Ageing is associated with impaired endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) function in human microvessels. We investigated the impact of cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise training on physiological and pharmacological NO-mediated microvascular responses in older subjects. NO-mediated vasodilatation was examined in young, older sedentary and older fit subjects who had two microdialysis fibres embedded into the skin on the ventral aspect of the forearm and laser Doppler probes placed over these sites. Both sites were then heated to 42 degrees C, with Ringer solution infused in one probe and N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) through the second. In another study, three doses of ACh were infused in the presence or absence of L-NAME in similar subjects. The older sedentary subjects then undertook exercise training, with repeat studies at 12 and 24 weeks. The NO component of the heat-induced rise in cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was diminished in the older sedentary subjects after 30 min of prolonged heating at 42 degrees C (26.9 +/- 3.9%CVC(max)), compared to older fit (46.2 +/- 7.0%CVC(max), P < 0.05) and young subjects (41.2 +/- 5.2%CVC(max), P < 0.05), whereas exercise training in the older sedentary group enhanced NO-vasodilator function in response to incremental heating (P < 0.05). Similarly, the NO contribution to ACh responses was impaired in the older sedentary versus older fit subjects (low dose 3.2 +/- 1.3 versus 6.6 +/- 1.3%CVC(max); mid dose 11.4 +/- 2.4 versus 21.6 +/- 4.5%CVC(max); high dose 35.2 +/- 6.0 versus 52.6 +/- 7.9%CVC(max), P < 0.05) and training reversed this (12 weeks: 13.7 +/- 3.6, 28.9 +/- 5.3, 56.1 +/- 3.9%CVC(max), P < 0.05). These findings indicate that maintaining a high level of fitness, or undertaking exercise training, prevents age-related decline in indices of physiological and pharmacological microvascular NO-mediated vasodilator function. Since higher levels of NO confer anti-atherogenic benefit, this study has

  13. Changes in cognition and mortality in relation to exercise in late life: a population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Middleton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On average, cognition declines with age but this average hides considerable variability, including the chance of improvement. Here, we investigate how exercise is associated with cognitive change and mortality in older people and, particularly, whether exercise might paradoxically increase the risk of dementia by allowing people to live longer. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA, of 8403 people who had baseline cognition measured and exercise reported at CSHA-1, 2219 had died and 5376 were re-examined at CSHA-2. We used a parametric Markov chain model to estimate the probabilities of cognitive improvement, decline, and death, adjusted for age and education, from any cognitive state as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. High exercisers (at least three times per week, at least as intense as walking, n = 3264 had more frequent stable or improved cognition (42.3%, 95% confidence interval: 40.6-44.0 over 5 years than did low/no exercisers (all other exercisers and non exercisers, n = 4331 (27.8% (95% CI 26.4-29.2. The difference widened as baseline cognition worsened. The proportion whose cognition declined was higher amongst the high exercisers but was more similar between exercise groups (39.4% (95% CI 37.7-41.1 for high exercisers versus 34.8% (95% CI 33.4-36.2 otherwise. People who did not exercise were also more likely to die (37.5% (95% CI 36.0-39.0 versus 18.3% (95% CI 16.9-19.7. Even so, exercise conferred its greatest mortality benefit to people with the highest baseline cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise is strongly associated with improving cognition. As the majority of mortality benefit of exercise is at the highest level of cognition, and declines as cognition declines, the net effect of exercise should be to improve cognition at the population level, even with more people living longer.

  14. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

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    Stefan eBerti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.

  15. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video, to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel

  16. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller) with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel) yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video), to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel visuomotor perturbation, whereas

  17. No adverse effects of statins on muscle function and health-related parameters in the elderly: an exercise study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, G; Paschalis, V; Nikolaidis, M G; Theodorou, A A; Deli, C K; Fotopoulou, N; Fatouros, I G; Koutedakis, Y; Sampanis, M; Jamurtas, A Z

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on health-related parameters and muscle performance on subjects undergoing atorvastatin therapy. Twenty-eight elderly men participated in the investigation and were assigned either in a control (n = 14) or in a statin therapy group (n = 14). All participants performed two isokinetic eccentric exercise bouts separated by 3 weeks. Muscle damage indices, resting energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein profile, as well as insulin sensitivity, were evaluated before and after eccentric. No differences in muscle function were observed between the two groups either at rest or after exercise. Eccentric exercise increased resting energy expenditure, increased fat oxidation, improved lipid profile, and increased insulin resistance 2 days after both eccentric exercise bouts. However, these changes appeared to lesser extent after the second bout. No differences were observed in the responses in the health-related parameters in the control and in the statin therapy group. Eccentric exercise affected similarly the control and the atorvastatin-treated individuals. The present results indicate that atorvastatin-treated elderly individuals may participate in various physical activities, even high-intensity muscle-damaging activities, without negative impact on muscle function and adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effect of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Myung-Jun; Kim, Suhn-Yeop

    2015-04-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of thorax correction exercises on flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis. [Subjects and Methods] The study participants included 41 elderly women who were divided into a thorax correction exercise group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 21). Participants in the exercise group completed a specific exercise program that included breathing correction, thorax mobility, thorax stability, and thorax alignment training performed twice per week, 1 hour each session, for 8 weeks. Outcome measures included the flexed posture (thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head posture) and chest function (vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in a second, and chest expansion length). [Results] Participants in the thorax correction exercise group demonstrated significantly greater improvements in thoracic kyphosis angle, forward head, and chest expansion than those in the control group. [Conclusion] This study provides a promising exercise intervention that may improve flexed posture and chest function in older women with age-related hyperkyphosis.

  19. Exercise interventions to reduce fall-related fractures and their risk factors in individuals with low bone density: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kam, D; Smulders, E; Weerdesteyn, V; Smits-Engelsman, B C M

    2009-12-01

    Exercise can reduce falls and fall-related fractures in healthy individuals; however, evidence for individuals with low BMD is limited. The results from this systematic review indicate that exercise interventions for individuals with low BMD to reduce falls and fractures should include balance, muscle strengthening, and weight-bearing exercises. The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate which exercise interventions are effective in individuals with low bone mineral density (BMD; osteopenia or osteoporosis) in reducing (1) falls and fractures and (2) risk factors for falls and fractures. Databases were searched for relevant studies between 1996 and June 2008. Methodological quality was assessed with the Jadad score and the PEDro scale. Of the 1,369 publications found, 23 met the inclusion criteria. Five additional articles were included after checking reference lists and searching author's names and related articles. Interventions with balance exercises reduced falls or fall-related fractures and improved balance in the majority of the studies. Muscle strengthening exercises were effective in improving lower extremity strength and back extensor strength; however, not all RCT's reported positive effects. Bone strength was improved by weight-bearing aerobic exercise with or without muscle strengthening exercise when the duration of the intervention was at least a year. Exercise can reduce falls, fall-related fractures, and several risk factors for falls in individuals with low BMD. Exercise interventions for patients with osteoporosis should include weight-bearing activities, balance exercise, and strengthening exercises to reduce fall and fracture risk.

  20. The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J; Bolam, Kate A; Wright, Olivia R L; Skinner, Tina L

    2017-09-12

    Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature. The study characteristics and results were summarized in accordance with the review's Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome (PICO) criteria. A total of 20 articles (one diet only, two combined diet and exercise, and seventeen exercise only studies) were included in the review. Soy supplementation improved quality of life, but resulted in several adverse effects. Prescribing healthy eating guidelines with combined resistance training and aerobic exercise improved cancer-related fatigue, yet its effect on quality of life was inconclusive. Combined resistance training with aerobic exercise showed improvements in cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. In isolation, resistance training appears to be more effective in improving cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than aerobic exercise. Studies that utilised an exercise professional to supervise the exercise sessions were more likely to report improvements in both cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than those prescribing unsupervised or partially supervised sessions. Neither exercise frequency nor duration appeared to influence cancer-related fatigue or quality of life, with further research required to explore the potential dose-response effect of exercise intensity. Supervised moderate-hard resistance training with or without moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise appears to improve cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. Targeted physiological pathways suggest

  1. Putting the benefits and risks of aerobic exercise in perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Barry A; Billecke, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Although considerable epidemiologic and clinical evidence suggests that structured exercise, increased lifestyle activity, or both are cardioprotective, the absolute and relative risk of cardiovascular and musculoskeletal complications appear to increase transiently during vigorous physical activity. The estimated relative risk of exercise-related cardiac events ranges from 2.1 to 56 and is highest among habitually sedentary individuals with underlying cardiovascular disease who were performing unaccustomed vigorous physical exertion. Moreover, an estimated 7 million Americans receive medical attention for sports and recreation-related injuries each year. These risks, and their modulators, should be considered when endorsing strenuous leisure time or exercise interventions. If the current mantra "exercise is medicine" is embraced, underdosing and overdosing are possible. Thus, exercise may have a typical dose-response curve with a plateau in benefit or even adverse effects, in some individuals, at more extreme levels.

  2. Eye and Ear Temperature using Infrared Thermography are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Michael Zanghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectal body temperature (BT has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye and ear (BTear temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT were compared to rectal (BTrec temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N=16 and Beagles (N=16 while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise. Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by ANOVA for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p<0.0001, BTear (p<0.0001, and BTeye (p=0.06 with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8oC higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p<0.0001 and BTear (p<0.0001, but not for BTrec (p=0.63 for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min activity counts did not differ (p=0.53 between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p=0.035 and p=0.005, respectively, with a marginal interaction (p=0.09 for BTeye. All 3 methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p<0.0001 related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r=0.674 versus measures at rest (r=0.381, whereas BTear was significantly related to BTrec regardless of activity (r=0.615-0.735. Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias (p<0

  3. Spinal manipulation and home exercise with advice for subacute and chronic back-related leg pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronfort, Gert; Hondras, Maria; Schulz, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is often disabling and costly, and there is a paucity of research to guide its management. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) plus home exercise and advice (HEA) compared with HEA alone reduces leg pain in the short and long...... of SMT plus HEA or HEA alone. MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was patient-rated BRLP at 12 and 52 weeks. Secondary outcomes were self-reported low back pain, disability, global improvement, satisfaction, medication use, and general health status at 12 and 52 weeks. Blinded objective tests were done...... at 12 weeks. RESULTS: Of the 192 enrolled patients, 191 (99%) provided follow-up data at 12 weeks and 179 (93%) at 52 weeks. For leg pain, SMT plus HEA had a clinically important advantage over HEA (difference, 10 percentage points [95% CI, 2 to 19]; P = 0.008) at 12 weeks but not at 52 weeks...

  4. Exercise before breakfast increases 24-h fat oxidation in female subjects.

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    Kaito Iwayama

    Full Text Available Exercise performed in a postprandial state does not increase 24-h fat oxidation of male and female subjects. Conversely, it has been shown in male subjects that exercise performed in a postabsorptive state increases 24-h fat oxidation compared with that in sedentary control and that with exercise trials performed after breakfast, lunch, or dinner. There is a paucity of study evaluating the effect of exercise performed in a postabsorptive state in female subjects.Nine young female subjects participated in indirect calorimetry measurement over 24-h using a room-size metabolic chamber in which subjects remained sedentary or performed 60 min exercise before breakfast at 50% of [Formula: see text]. Exercise was accompanied by an increase in energy intake to ensure that subjects were in a similar state of energy balance over 24 h for the two trials.Compared with the sedentary condition, exercise performed before breakfast increased 24-h fat oxidation (519 ± 37 vs. 400 ± 41 kcal/day. Time courses of relative energy balance differed between trials with transient negative energy balance observed before breakfast. The lowest values of relative energy balance observed during the 24-h calorimetry, i.e., transient energy deficit, were greater in exercise trials than in sedentary trials. The transient deficit in carbohydrate balance was also observed before breakfast, and magnitude of the deficit was greater in exercise trial compared to that of sedentary trial.Under energy-balanced conditions, exercise performed in a post-absorptive state increases 24-h fat oxidation in female subjects. The effect of exercise performed before breakfast can be attributed to nutritional state: a transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate at the end of exercise.

  5. The Effect of Acute Exercise on Serum Vaspin Level and Its Relation to Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Elderly Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jabbar Bashiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaspin is a new discovered adipocytokine which is a member of serine protease inhibitor family secreted from adipose tissue and might play a role in insulin sensitivity. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of acute exercise on serum vaspin levels and its relation to insulin sensitivity in overweight elderly men. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 12 healthy elderly men volunteers randomly selected and performed one session aerobic exercise including 30 minutes of cycling at 70-75% of HRmax, which was followed by 30 minutes of recovery. Three blood samples were taken before exercise, immediately after exercise and after 30 minutes of recovery. Data were analyzed by repeated measure ANOVA and Bonferroni test and Pearson’s correlations were performed to identify possible relationship among the assessed variables. Statistical significance was set at p≤0.05. Results: There were no significant differences for vaspin across time. Insulin and glucose concentration and insulin resistance decreased immediately after exercise. However insulin concentration and insulin resistance returned to pre-exercise level at the end of recovery. Furthermore, no significant correlations were observed among the variables assessed except for the expected between insulin level and insulin resistance. Conclusion: These results indicate that a sub-maximal aerobic workout does not result in significant changes in vaspin levels in elderly men. Furthermore, we observed that vaspin is not associated with insulin sensitivity in this study.

  6. Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael

    2018-01-16

    Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in

  7. Effect of exercise intensity, duration and mode on post-exercise oxygen consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Børsheim, Elisabet; Bahr, Roald

    2003-01-01

    In the recovery period after exercise there is an increase in oxygen uptake termed the 'excess post-exercise oxygen consumption' (EPOC), consisting of a rapid and a prolonged component. While some studies have shown that EPOC may last for several hours after exercise, others have concluded that EPOC is transient and minimal. The conflicting results may be resolved if differences in exercise intensity and duration are considered, since this may affect the metabolic processes underlying EPOC. Accordingly, the absence of a sustained EPOC after exercise seems to be a consistent finding in studies with low exercise intensity and/or duration. The magnitude of EPOC after aerobic exercise clearly depends on both the duration and intensity of exercise. A curvilinear relationship between the magnitude of EPOC and the intensity of the exercise bout has been found, whereas the relationship between exercise duration and EPOC magnitude appears to be more linear, especially at higher intensities. Differences in exercise mode may potentially contribute to the discrepant findings of EPOC magnitude and duration. Studies with sufficient exercise challenges are needed to determine whether various aerobic exercise modes affect EPOC differently. The relationships between the intensity and duration of resistance exercise and the magnitude and duration of EPOC have not been determined, but a more prolonged and substantial EPOC has been found after hard- versus moderate-resistance exercise. Thus, the intensity of resistance exercise seems to be of importance for EPOC. Lastly, training status and sex may also potentially influence EPOC magnitude, but this may be problematic to determine. Still, it appears that trained individuals have a more rapid return of post-exercise metabolism to resting levels after exercising at either the same relative or absolute work rate; however, studies after more strenuous exercise bouts are needed. It is not determined if there is a sex effect on EPOC

  8. Exercise proteinuria and hematuria: current knowledge and future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shephard, Roy J

    2016-09-01

    Transient proteinuria and hematuria are apparently benign sequelae of intensive physical activity. However, there is a need to establish underlying causes and reasons for progression to chronic renal damage, as well as effects of training in healthy individuals and in those with microalbuminuria. The Ovid/Health Star database was searched from 1994 to November 2014. Terms for the kidneys (adverse effects, blood supply, epidemiology, injuries, pathology, physiology and secretion) and proteinuria (classification, complications, epidemiology, etiology, mortality, physiopathology, prevention and control) with terms related to physical activity (physical activity/motor activity, exercise/exercise therapy, fitness/physical fitness, physical education/physical education and training, and rehabilitation). Review of 519 abstracts yielded 194 relevant hits, supplemented by 70 items from other sources. This material related to both healthy adults (125 items) and renal disease (139 items). The prevalence (18-100%) and duration (1-6 days) of exercise proteinuria varied widely, with risks affected by exercise intensity, posture, age, heat load, altitude and disease. Moderate training reduced exercise proteinuria in healthy individuals and in chronic renal disease. Factors contributing to exercise proteinuria may include vascular changes, hypoxia, lactate accumulation, oxidant stress, hormonal changes and sepsis. Exercise hematuria is frequent; some potential causes are similar to those for proteinuria, but foot-strike and bladder trauma are probably more important. Progression to permanent renal damage is rare. Exercise proteinuria and hematuria are generally transient. However, there remains a need to clarify causation and factors leading to permanent renal damage.

  9. Exercise and Health-Related Risks of Physical Deconditioning After Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maher, Jennifer L; McMillan, David W; Nash, Mark S

    2017-01-01

    A sedentary lifestyle occurring soon after spinal cord injury (SCI) may be in contrast to a preinjury history of active physical engagement and is thereafter associated with profound physical deconditioning sustained throughout the lifespan. This physical deconditioning contributes in varying degrees to lifelong medical complications, including accelerated cardiovascular disease, insulin resistance, osteopenia, and visceral obesity. Unlike persons without disability for whom exercise is readily available and easily accomplished, exercise options for persons with SCI are more limited. Depending on the level of injury, the metabolic responses to acute exercise may also be less robust than those accompanying exercise in persons without disability, the training benefits more difficult to achieve, and the risks of ill-considered exercise both greater and potentially irreversible. For exercise to ultimately promote benefit and not impose additional impairment, an understanding of exercise opportunities and risks if exercise is undertaken by those with SCI is important. The following monograph will thus address common medical challenges experienced by persons with SCI and typical modes and benefits of voluntary exercise conditioning.

  10. Exercise type and intensity in relation to coronary heart disease in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanasescu, Mihaela; Leitzmann, Michael F; Rimm, Eric B; Willett, Walter C; Stampfer, Meir J; Hu, Frank B

    Studies have shown an inverse relationship between exercise and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD), but data on type and intensity are sparse. To assess the amount, type, and intensity of physical activity in relation to risk of CHD among men. A cohort of 44 452 US men enrolled in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study, followed up at 2-year intervals from 1986 through January 31, 1998, to assess potential CHD risk factors, identify newly diagnosed cases of CHD, and assess levels of leisure-time physical activity. Incident nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal CHD occurring during the follow-up period. During 475 755 person-years, we documented 1700 new cases of CHD. Total physical activity, running, weight training, and rowing were each inversely associated with risk of CHD. The RRs (95% confidence intervals [CIs]) corresponding to quintiles of metabolic equivalent tasks (METs) for total physical activity adjusted for age, smoking, and other cardiovascular risk factors were 1.0, 0.90 (0.78-1.04), 0.87 (0.75-1.00), 0.83 (0.71-0.96), and 0.70 (0.59-0.82) (Pexercise intensity was associated with reduced CHD risk independent of the total volume of physical activity. The RRs (95% CIs) corresponding to moderate (4-6 METs) and high (6-12 METs) activity intensities were 0.94 (0.83-1.04) and 0.83 (0.72-0.97) compared with low activity intensity (brisk walking was associated with an 18% risk reduction (RR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.67-1.00). Walking pace was associated with reduced CHD risk independent of the number of walking hours. Total physical activity, running, weight training, and walking were each associated with reduced CHD risk. Average exercise intensity was associated with reduced risk independent of the number of MET-hours spent in physical activity.

  11. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P rehabilitation is an effective method of improving exercise capacity and dyspnea in officially acknowledged victims of air pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  12. Age-related differences in exercise and quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Sheree A; Hayes, Sandra C; Newman, Beth

    2010-01-01

    Physical activity has become a focus of cancer recovery research because it has the potential to reduce treatment-related burden and to optimize health-related quality of life (HRQoL). However, the potential for physical activity to influence recovery may be age dependent. This article describes physical activity levels and HRQoL among younger and older women after surgery for breast cancer and explores the correlates of physical inactivity. A population-based sample of breast cancer patients (n = 287) diagnosed in South-East Queensland, Australia, were assessed once every 3 months, from 6 to 18 months postsurgery. The Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast questionnaire and items from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System questionnaire were used to measure HRQoL and physical activity, respectively. Physical activity was assigned MET values and categorized as age stratification (or=3 MET x h x wk of physical activity reported a higher HRQoL at 18 months compared with their more sedentary counterparts (P age, being overweight or obese, and restricting use of the treated side at 6 months postsurgery increased the likelihood of sedentary behavior (odds ratio >or= 3, P Age influences the potential to observe HRQoL benefits related to physical activity participation. These results also provide relevant information for the design of exercise interventions for breast cancer survivors and highlight that some groups of women are at greater risk of long-term sedentary behavior.

  13. Relations of self-regulation and self-efficacy for exercise and eating and BMI change: A field investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annesi James J

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives This study aimed to assess relations of self-regulatory skill use with self-efficacy for exercise and appropriate eating, and the resulting change in weight associated with participation in a nutrition and exercise treatment supported by cognitive-behavioral methods. Methods Adults with severe obesity (N = 95; mean BMI = 40.5 ± 3.9 kg/m2 participated in a 6-month exercise and nutrition treatment emphasizing self-regulatory skills. Changes in self-regulatory skills usage, self-efficacy, overall mood, and BMI were measured. Relations of changes in self-regulatory skill use and self-efficacy, for both physical activity and appropriate eating, were assessed, as was the possibility of mood change being a mediator of these relationships. Indirect effects of the variables associated with the present treatment on BMI change were then estimated. Results For both exercise and appropriate eating, changes in self-regulation were associated with self-efficacy change. Mood change partially mediated the relationship between changes in self-regulation for appropriate eating and self-efficacy for appropriate eating. Self-efficacy changes for physical activity and controlled eating, together, explained a significant portion of the variance in BMI change (R2 = 0.26, p Conclusion Findings suggest that training in self-regulation for exercise and eating may benefit self-efficacy and weight-loss outcomes. Thus, these variables should be considered in both the theory and behavioral treatment of obesity.

  14. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children’s BMI at 7 Years of Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Schou Andersen

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children’s body mass index (BMI and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children’s weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children’s BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did not find exercise intensity or changes in exercise habits in pregnancy related to the children’s BMI or risk of overweight.

  15. The potential role of exercise in chronic stress-related changes in AMPA receptor phenotype underlying synaptic plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leem, Yea-Hyun

    2017-12-31

    Chronic stress can cause disturbances in synaptic plasticity, such as longterm potentiation, along with behavioral defects including memory deficits. One major mechanism sustaining synaptic plasticity involves the dynamics and contents of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) in the central nervous system. In particular, chronic stress-induced disruption of AMPARs includes it abnormal expression, trafficking, and calcium conductance at glutamatergic synapses, which contributes to synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses. Exercise has the effect of promoting synaptic plasticity in neurons. However, the contribution of exercise to AMPAR behavior under chronic stressful maladaptation remains unclear. The present article reviews the information about the chronic stress-related synaptic plasticity and the role of exercise from the previous-published articles. AMPAR-mediated synaptic transmission is an important for chronic stress-related changes of synaptic plasticity, and exercise may at least partly contribute to these episodes. The present article discusses the relationship between AMPARs and synaptic plasticity in chronic stress, as well as the potential role of exercise.

  16. Exercise Therapy for Parkinson's Disease: Pedaling Rate Is Related to Changes in Motor Connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Chintan; Beall, Erik B; Frankemolle, Anneke M M; Penko, Amanda; Phillips, Michael D; Lowe, Mark J; Alberts, Jay L

    2016-02-01

    Forced-rate lower-extremity exercise has recently emerged as a potential safe and low-cost therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). The efficacy is believed to be dependent on pedaling rate, with rates above the subjects' voluntary exercise rates being most beneficial. In this study, we use functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to further elucidate the mechanism underlying this effect. Twenty-seven PD patients were randomized to complete 8 weeks of forced-rate exercise (FE) or voluntary-rate exercise (VE). Exercise was delivered using a specialized stationary bicycle, which can augment patients' voluntary exercise rates. The FE group received assistance from the cycle. Imaging was conducted at baseline, end of therapy, and after 4 weeks of follow-up. Functional connectivity (FC) was determined via seed-based correlation analysis, using activation-based seeds in the primary motor cortex (M1). The change in FC after exercise was compared using linear correlation with pedaling rate. Results of the correlation analysis showed a strong positive correlation between pedaling rate and change in FC from the most affected M1 to the ipsilateral thalamus. This effect persisted after 4 weeks of follow-up. These results indicate that a plausible mechanism for the therapeutic efficacy of high-rate exercise in PD is that it improves thalamo-cortical connectivity.

  17. Eat now, exercise later: The relation between consideration of immediate and future consequences and healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.; Antonides, G.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the current obesity epidemic, individual choices for food and exercise should be understood better. Consideration of the immediate and future consequences of these choices (i.e., time orientation) can be an important predictor of eating and exercising behavior. The objective was to show

  18. Are improvements in assessment center construct-related validity paralleled by improvements in criterion-related validity? The effects of exercise similarity on assessment center validity

    OpenAIRE

    Wirz A. Melchers K. G. Schultheiss S. & Kleinmann M.

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have found that factors that improved assessment center (AC) construct related validity also had beneficial effects on criterion related validity. However some factors might have diverging effects on construct and criterion related validity. Accordingly we followed recent calls to evaluate construct and criterion related validity of ACs simultaneously by examining the effects of the factor exercise similarity on both aspects of validity within a single study. Data were coll...

  19. Intensity and Types of Physical Exercise in Relation to Dementia Risk Reduction in Community-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2015-10-01

    To systematically examine the amount and type of physical exercise that might reduce the future risk of dementia in community-living older people. Six-year observational study. All the Elderly Health Centers (EHCs) of the Department of Health in Hong Kong. A total of 15,589 community-living Chinese aged 65 years and older with no history of stroke, clinical dementia, or Parkinson disease when they completed health assessment at the EHCs in the first 6 months of 2005. Self-reported habitual physical exercise patterns, including the frequency, duration, and type of exercise, at baseline and Year 3 were analyzed. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Both the cognitively stable and incident groups reported exercising a median of 7 days per week and 45 minutes per day at baseline and Year 3. The former practiced aerobic and mind-body exercises more at baseline and Year 3, whereas the latter practiced stretching and toning exercises more. The odds ratio for dementia remained significant for aerobic (0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.95; P = .01) and mind-body exercises (0.76; 0.63-0.92; P = .004) after excluding participants who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for important potential confounders, such as age, gender, educational level, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities. Although physical exercise is widely promoted as a nonpharmacological intervention for dementia prevention, not all types of exercise appear to be useful in reducing risk of dementia in older people. Our findings suggest that daily participation in aerobic and mind-body but not stretching and toning exercises might protect community-living older adults from developing dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  20. Effects of Physical Exercise Combined with Nutritional Supplements on Aging Brain Related Structures and Functions: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schättin, Alexandra; Baur, Kilian; Stutz, Jan; Wolf, Peter; de Bruin, Eling D.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related decline in gray and white brain matter goes together with cognitive depletion. To influence cognitive functioning in elderly, several types of physical exercise and nutritional intervention have been performed. This paper systematically reviews the potential additive and complementary effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognition. The search strategy was developed for EMBASE, Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, CINAHL, and PsycInfo databases and focused on the research question: “Is the combination of physical exercise with nutrition/nutritional supplementation more effective than nutrition/nutritional supplementation or physical exercise alone in effecting on brain structure, metabolism, and/or function?” Both mammalian and human studies were included. In humans, randomized controlled trials that evaluated the effects of nutrition/nutritional supplements and physical exercise on cognitive functioning and associated parameters in healthy elderly (>65 years) were included. The systematic search included English and German language literature without any limitation of publication date. The search strategy yielded a total of 3129 references of which 67 studies met the inclusion criteria; 43 human and 24 mammalian, mainly rodent, studies. Three out of 43 human studies investigated a nutrition/physical exercise combination and reported no additive effects. In rodent studies, additive effects were found for docosahexaenoic acid supplementation when combined with physical exercise. Although feasible combinations of physical exercise/nutritional supplements are available for influencing the brain, only a few studies evaluated which possible combinations of nutrition/nutritional supplementation and physical exercise might have an effect on brain structure, metabolism and/or function. The reason for no clear effects of combinatory approaches in humans might be explained by the misfit between the combinations of nutritional methods

  1. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Reduced physical exercise and health-related quality of life after Fontan palliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedlund, Eva R; Lundell, Bo; Villard, Li; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2016-11-01

    A growing number of patients with Fontan circulation are reaching adulthood, and there is increasing concern about their physical performance and quality of life. This study compared self-reported exercise and measured activity with quality of life in patients after Fontan palliation and healthy controls. Physical exercise during an average school week was reported by 30 Fontan circulation patients aged eight to 20 years, and 25 healthy controls, followed by accelerometer recordings over seven days. All subjects and their parents answered a questionnaire on quality of life. Patients reported spending less time exercising each week than the controls (114 ± 66 minutes vs. 228 ± 147 minutes, p exercise than healthy controls and their quality of life was lower than the controls. We speculate that promoting structured regular physical exercise could improve the quality of life of Fontan patients. ©2016 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Important aspects in relation to patients' attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation - facilitators, barriers and physiotherapist's role: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Maria; Öberg, Birgitta; Krevers, Barbro

    2017-03-14

    In order to improve attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a greater insight into patients' perspectives is necessary. The aim of the study was to explore aspects that influence patients' attendance at exercise-based CR after acute coronary artery disease (CAD) and the role of the physiotherapist in patients' attendance at exercise-based CR. A total of 16 informants, (5 women; median age 64.5, range 47-79 years), diagnosed with CAD, were included in the study at the Cardiology Department, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed according to inductive content analysis. Four main categories were identified: (i) previous experience of exercise, (ii) needs in the acute phase, (iii) important prerequisites for attending exercise-based CR and (iv) future ambitions. The categories demonstrate that there are connections between the past, the present and the future, in terms of attitudes to facilitators, barriers and the use of strategies for managing exercise. An overall theme, defined as existential thoughts, had a major impact on the patients' attitudes to attending exercise-based CR. The interaction and meetings with the physiotherapists in the acute phase were described as important factors for attending exercise-based CR. Moreover, informants could feel that the physiotherapists supported them in learning the right level of effort during exercise and reducing the fear of exercise. This study adds to previous knowledge of barriers and facilitators for exercise-based CR that patients with CAD get existential thoughts both related to exercise during the rehabilitation process and for future attitudes to exercise. This knowledge might necessitate greater attention to the physiotherapist-patient interaction. To be able to tailor exercise-based CR for patients, physiotherapists need to be aware of patients' past experiences of exercise and previous phases of the rehabilitation process as these are

  4. An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ludyga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20 min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children

  5. Aerobic-synergized exercises may improve fall-related physical fitness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Ho-Cheng; Hu, Susan C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a synergistic exercise model based on aerobics with additional fall-preventive components could provide extra benefits compared with the same duration of aerobic-synergistic exercise alone. A total of 102 adults aged 65 years and over from three geographically separated communities were assigned to three groups: the general aerobic exercise (GAE) group (N.=44), the GAE plus ball game group (BG group; N.=30) and the GAE plus square-stepping exercise group (SSE group; N.=28). Each group participated in one hour of exercise intervention and two hours of leisure activities twice weekly for 12 weeks. Each exercise session consisted of one hour of combined exercises performed in the following order: 10 minutes of warm-up activities, 20 minutes of aerobics, 20 minutes of the respective exercise model, and 10 minutes of cool-down activities. Functional fitness tests, including aerobic endurance, leg strength, flexibility, reaction time, static balance and mobility, were measured before and after the intervention. Paired t-tests and mixed model analyses were conducted to compare the differences in each measurement within and among the groups. All of the groups exhibited significantly positive effects (Paerobic endurance, leg muscle strength, static balance, and mobility, after the intervention. There were no significant differences in these improvements in the other two groups compared with group GAE. However, group BG and group SSE showed significantly greater improvements in mobility compared with group GAE (Paerobics and selected fall-prevention exercises performed over a consistent period may improve mobility without compromising the fundamental benefits of aerobics. Future studies using randomized control trials with recorded fall events and a longer period of follow-up are indicated to validate the effects of fall prevention exercises.

  6. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-04-01

    Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12-14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R(2) = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R(2) = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  7. Derivation and validation of a simple exercise-based algorithm for prediction of genetic testing in relatives of LQTS probands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sy, Raymond W.; van der Werf, Christian; Chattha, Ishvinder S.; Chockalingam, Priya; Adler, Arnon; Healey, Jeffrey S.; Perrin, Mark; Gollob, Michael H.; Skanes, Allan C.; Yee, Raymond; Gula, Lorne J.; Leong-Sit, Peter; Viskin, Sami; Klein, George J.; Wilde, Arthur A.; Krahn, Andrew D.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic testing can diagnose long-QT syndrome (LQTS) in asymptomatic relatives of patients with an identified mutation; however, it is costly and subject to availability. The accuracy of a simple algorithm that incorporates resting and exercise ECG parameters for screening LQTS in asymptomatic

  8. Relation of Physical Activity, Cardiac Function, Exercise Capacity, and Quality of Life in Patients With a Systemic Right Ventricle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, Michiel M.; Bouma, Berto J.; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Groenink, Maarten; Nieuwkerk, Pythia T.; van der Plas, Mart N.; Sieswerda, Gertjan T.; Konings, Thelma C.; Mulder, Barbara J. M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is recommended in patients with left ventricular failure. Although right ventricular failure is common in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV), no data are available on the effect of physical activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of physical

  9. Relation of physical activity, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and quality of life in patients with a systemic right ventricle.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winter, M.M.; Bouma, B.J.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Groenink, M.; Nieuwkerk, P.T.; Plas, MN van der; Sieswerda, G.T.; Konings, T.C.; Mulder, B.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Exercise is recommended in patients with left ventricular failure. Although right ventricular failure is common in patients with a systemic right ventricle (RV), no data are available on the effect of physical activity in these patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of physical

  10. Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  11. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  12. The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Baguley, Brenton J.; Bolam, Kate A.; Wright, Olivia R. L.; Skinner, Tina L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. Methods: A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was ...

  13. Physiological and Psychological Responses during Exercise and Recovery in a Cold Environment Is Gender-Related Rather Than Fabric-Related

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Cernych

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated gender-specific effects of two types of undergarments on exercise-induced physiological and psychological stress and subsequent recovery in cold conditions for male and female participants. Ten healthy men and eleven healthy women (25.0 ± 1.5 versus 23.4 ± 1.2 years old, respectively completed the experimental session twice with two different types of undergarments: polyester or merino wool leggings and long-sleeve tops; specifically, merino fabric had greater thermal resistance and water absorbency, and less water vapor as well as air permeability than polyester. Experimental sessions involved performing 1 h of exercise on a cycle ergometer at 8°C ambient temperature and 55% relative humidity, holding at 70–80 revolutions per minute and 60% of each participant’s predetermined maximal power output (assessed by maximal oxygen uptake test, followed by 1 h recovery in the same environment. Every 5 min during exercise and every 10 min during recovery, rectal temperature, heart rate, subjective ratings for thermal, shivering/sweating and clothing wetness sensations, and clothing next-to-skin and outer side surface temperature and humidity on the chest, back and thigh were recorded. All participants experienced high physiological stress (assessed by physiological strain index during exercise. No significant gender differences were found in core temperature or heart rate changes during exercise, but women cooled down faster during recovery. Next-to-skin humidity was similar between genders and different garment sets during exercise and recovery, but such temperatures at the chest during exercise and at the thigh during exercise and recovery were lower in women with both sets of garments. Subjective thermal sensations were similar in all cases. In the last 20 min of cycling, women started to feel wetter than men (P < 0.05 for both garment sets. Shivering was reported as stronger in women in the last 10 min of recovery. Most of the

  14. Phasic-to-tonic shift in trunk muscle activity relative to walking during low-impact weight bearing exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplan, Nick; Gibbon, Karl; Hibbs, Angela; Evetts, Simon; Debuse, Dorothée

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of an exercise device, designed to improve the function of lumbopelvic muscles via low-impact weight-bearing exercise, on electromyographic (EMG) activity of lumbopelvic, including abdominal muscles. Surface EMG activity was collected from lumbar multifidus (LM), erector spinae (ES), internal oblique (IO), external oblique (EO) and rectus abdominis (RA) during overground walking (OW) and exercise device (EX) conditions. During walking, most muscles showed peaks in activity which were not seen during EX. Spinal extensors (LM, ES) were more active in EX. Internal oblique and RA were less active in EX. In EX, LM and ES were active for longer than during OW. Conversely, EO and RA were active for a shorter duration in EX than OW. The exercise device showed a phasic-to-tonic shift in activation of both local and global lumbopelvic muscles and promoted increased activation of spinal extensors in relation to walking. These features could make the exercise device a useful rehabilitative tool for populations with lumbopelvic muscle atrophy and dysfunction, including those recovering from deconditioning due to long-term bed rest and microgravity in astronauts.

  15. Inflammatory markers as related to disease severity in patients with chronic heart failure: limited effects of exercise training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrkjeland, Rune; Nilsson, Birgitta B; Westheim, Arne S; Arnesen, Harald; Seljeflot, Ingebjørg

    2011-11-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is associated with increased inflammation, and exercise training has in some studies been shown to have anti-inflammatory effect, although controversies exist. We investigated the effects of exercise training in CHF patients on markers of inflammation, and further explored any association between inflammation and the severity and etiology of the disease. Eighty patients in stable CHF were randomized to 4 months of group-based high intensity exercise training or to a control group. Physical capacity was measured by 6-minute walk test and cycle ergometer test. Blood samples were drawn at baseline, after 4 months and after 12 months follow-up for analyses of a range of biomarkers. Physical capacity was significantly inversely related to CRP, IL-6, VCAM-1 and TGF-β, and NT pro-BNP levels were significantly correlated to CRP, TNF-α, IL-6, VCAM-1, ICAM-1 and TGF-β (p markers of inflammation. We could not demonstrate over-all anti-inflammatory effect of exercise in this population of CHF patients. However, the etiology of CHF affected the inflammatory profile and the effect of exercise training.

  16. The prevalence and performance of resistance exercise training activities in an Australian population in relation to health authority guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, Brendan; Stanton, Rob; Scanlan, Aaron; Duncan, Mitch J

    2017-09-29

    Resistance training research highlights the importance of training intensity to resistance exercise training (RET) and the associated benefits to health and function for healthy and at-risk populations. The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) recommend specific intensities, frequencies, repetitions, and number of exercises of RET to be performed to maintain health. The primary aim of this study was to describe the prevalence of achieving recommended levels of RET in relation to ACSM guidelines for intensity, frequency, repetitions, and number of exercises in a regional Australian population. A Computer-Assisted-Telephone-Interview (CATI) survey (n=1237) was conducted to determine RET participation. Participants were 18 years plus, residing in Central Queensland, Australia. The prevalence of respondents performing 'No RET', 'insufficient RET' and 'sufficient RET' were 79.6.0%, 15.2% and 5.2% respectively. Significantly higher proportions of younger adults adhered to all RET guidelines for intensity (19.2 vs 8.1%), frequency (19.9 vs 11.6%), repetitions (17.8 vs 6.3%), and number of exercises (8.2 vs 3.6%) (p15 years), and individuals engaging in sufficient levels of aerobic exercise training (AET) engaged in sufficient levels of RET (pACSM guidelines for the quantity and quality of RET that is likely to provide health benefits. This has implications for public health policy and the future development and promotion of population-level RET guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life in patients with multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargarfard, Mehdi; Etemadifar, Masoud; Baker, Peter; Mehrabi, Maryam; Hayatbakhsh, Reza

    2012-10-01

    To examine the effectiveness of aquatic exercise training on fatigue and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with multiple sclerosis (MS). Randomized controlled trial, 4-week and 8-week follow-up. Referral center of a multiple sclerosis society. Women (N=32) diagnosed with relapsing-remitting MS (mean age ± SD, 32.6±8.0y) were recruited into this study. After undergoing baseline testing by a neurologist, participants were randomly assigned to either an intervention (aquatic exercise) or a control group. The intervention consisted of 8 weeks supervised aquatic exercise in a swimming pool (3 times a week, each session lasting 60min). At baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks, fatigue and HRQOL were assessed by a blind assessor using the Modified Fatigue Impact Scale and the Multiple Sclerosis Quality of Life-54 questionnaire, respectively. A mixed-model approach to repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to detect within- and between-subject effects. Findings are based on 21 patients (10 from the exercise group and 11 from the control group) who had data available on outcomes. There was no significant difference between the 2 groups at the baseline. Patients in the aquatic exercise group showed significant improvements in fatigue and subscores of HRQOL after 4 and 8 weeks compared with the control group. Results obtained from the intention-to-treat analysis were consistent with those of per-protocol analysis. The findings suggest that aquatic exercise training can effectively improve fatigue and HRQOL of patients with MS and should be considered in the management of this relatively common public health problem. Copyright © 2012 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. DHEA, DHEA-S and cortisol responses to acute exercise in older adults in relation to exercise training status and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Carroll, Douglas; Phillips, Anna C

    2013-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate resting measures of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEA-S) and cortisol, and the response and recovery of these hormones to acute exercise, in male and female older adults of different exercise training status. Participants were 49 community-dwelling older adults (23 females) aged between 60 and 77 years who were either sedentary (n=14), moderately active (n=14) or endurance trained (n=21). Participants undertook an acute bout of exercise in the form of an incremental submaximal treadmill test. The exercise lasted on average 23 min 49 s (SD=2 min 8 s) and participants reached 76.5% (SD=5.44) of the predicted maximal heart rate. Blood samples were collected prior to exercise, immediately, and 1 h post-exercise. DHEA levels significantly increased immediately post-exercise; however, DHEA-S levels only significantly increased in females. Cortisol significantly decreased immediately post-exercise and 1 h post-exercise compared to pre-exercise. There were no significant differences in resting hormone levels or hormonal responses to exercise between training status groups. The findings suggest that exercise can stimulate DHEA production in older adults and that hormonal responses to exercise differ between male and female older adults.

  19. High exercise levels are related to favorable sleep patterns and psychological functioning in adolescents: a comparison of athletes and controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Serge; Gerber, Markus; Beck, Johannes; Hatzinger, Martin; Pühse, Uwe; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith

    2010-02-01

    To investigate whether chronic vigorous exercising is related to improved sleep and psychological functioning, and whether this association varies with gender. Both lay and scientific opinions hold that physical activity is an efficient remedy and preventative measure for poor sleep. However, empirical evidence on adolescents is very limited. A total of 434 adolescents (258 athletes, 176 controls; mean age 17.2 years) took part in the study. Weekly hours spent exercising were 17.69 hours and 4.69 hours, respectively. To assess sleep patterns and psychological functioning, participants completed a sleep log for 7 consecutive days and several self-rating questionnaires. Compared with controls, athletes reported better sleep patterns including higher sleep quality, shortened sleep onset latency, and fewer awakenings after sleep onset, as well as less tiredness and increased concentration during the day. Athletes reported significantly lower anxiety and fewer depressive symptoms. Compared with males, females reported fewer variations in sleep. Male controls had particularly unfavorable scores related to sleep and psychological functioning. Findings suggest that chronic vigorous exercising is positively related to adolescents' sleep and psychological functioning. Results also indicate that males with low exercise levels are at risk for increased sleep complaints and poorer psychological functioning. Copyright 2010 Society for Adolescent Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of the Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program on Health-Related Fitness, Walking Capacity, and Health-Related Quality of Life.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, E.M.W.; Groot, J.F. de; Winkler, A.M.F.; Huijgen, B.C.H.; Sanders, L.; Takken, T.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Children with disabilities have an increased risk for reduced fitness and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fitkids, a nationwide exercise therapy program in the Netherlands, was developed to improve fitness and HRQoL in children with disabilities. Objective: The study

  1. Effects of the Fitkids Exercise Therapy Program on Health-Related Fitness, Walking Capacity, and Health-Related Quality of Life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kotte, Elles M. W.; de Groot, Janke F.; Winkler, Alexander M. F.; Huijgen, Barbara C. H.; Takken, Tim

    Background. Children with disabilities have an increased risk for reduced fitness and reduced health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Fitkids, a nationwide exercise therapy program in the Netherlands, was developed to improve fitness and HRQoL in children with disabilities. Objective. The study

  2. Knowledge on health and back care education related to physical activity and exercise in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miñana-Signes, V; Monfort-Pañego, M

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between the specific level of knowledge on health and back care-related physical activity practice and exercise with low back pain (LBP) in adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of a total of 576 adolescents aged 13-18 years (mean age 15.5, SD 1.4). Self-reported questionnaires were used to record specific knowledge on health and back care and LBP in healthy adolescents. The prevalence of LBP was 46.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 44.9-47.8]. Students with LBP scored slightly higher than non-sufferers, getting non-significant values. The level of specific knowledge increased with age (F = 7.308; p = 0.002). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that older girls group (>16 years old) was significantly associated with LBP odds ratio (OR) 2.9 (95% CI 1.77-4.74; p = 0.000). High school students have a low level of specific knowledge. Back care education in the school curriculum is recommended.

  3. Monitoring training activity during gait-related balance exercise in individuals with Parkinson's disease: a proof-of-concept-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsson, David; Nero, Håkan; Löfgren, Niklas; Hagströmer, Maria; Franzén, Erika

    2017-01-31

    Despite the benefits of balance exercise in clinical populations, balance training programs tend to be poorly described, which in turn makes it difficult to evaluate important training components and compare between programs. However, the use of wearable sensors may have the potential to monitor certain elements of balance training. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using wearable sensors to provide objective indicators of the levels and progression of training activity during gait-related balance exercise in individuals with Parkinson's disease. Ten individuals with Parkinson's disease participated in 10 weeks of group training (three sessions/week) addressing highly-challenging balance exercises. The training program was designed to be progressive by gradually increasing the amount of gait-related balance exercise exercises (e.g. walking) and time spent dual-tasking throughout the intervention period. Accelerometers (Actigraph GT3X+) were used to measure volume (number of steps/session) and intensity (time spent walking >1.0 m/s) of dynamic training activity. Training activity was also expressed in relation to the participants' total daily volume of physical activity prior to the training period (i.e. number of steps during training/the number of steps per day). Feasibility encompassed the adequacy of data sampling, the output of accelerometer data and the participants' perception of the level of difficulty of training. Training activity data were successfully obtained in 98% of the training sessions (n = 256) and data sampling did not interfere with training. Reflecting the progressive features of this intervention, training activity increased throughout the program, and corresponded to a high level of the participants' daily activity (28-43%). In line with the accelerometer data, a majority of the participants (n = 8) perceived the training as challenging. The findings of this proof-of-concept study support the feasibility

  4. Treatment-related cardiovascular late effects and exercise training countermeasures in testicular germ cell cancer survivorship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Jesper F; Bandak, Mikkel; Campbell, Anna

    2015-01-01

    -induced cardiovascular dysfunction to prevent premature onset of clinical cardiovascular disease in germ cell cancer survivors, with a view towards highlighting future directions of exercise-based survivorship research in the germ cell cancer setting. CONCLUSION: As exercise training may have the potential to ameliorate...... and/or reverse long-term cardiovascular disease sequelae in germ cell cancer survivors, a strong rationale exists for the promotion of exercise oncology research in this setting, in order to provide exercise recommendations for optimal germ cell cancer survivorship.......BACKGROUND: Treatment of testicular germ cell cancer constitutes a major success story in modern oncology. Today, the vast majority of patients are cured by a therapeutic strategy using one or more highly effective components including surgery (orchiectomy), radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy...

  5. Fatigue-related adaptations in muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise in humans

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Durand, Sylvain; Hug, François

    2011-01-01

    .... A possible strategy to counteract the effects of fatigue is to modify muscle coordination. We designed this study to quantify the effect of fatigue on muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise involving numerous muscles...

  6. Biochemical changes and catecholamine responses in Down's syndrome adolescents in relation to incremental maximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, Y; Eterradossi, J; Therminarias, A

    1991-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine biological responses in Down's syndrome subjects for an incremental exercise lasting 10 min. After a training programme specially adapted for children and adolescents with mental handicaps, 11 healthy Down's syndrome subjects, seven boys and four girls aged from 15 to 20 years, performed a progressive exercise until exhaustion on an ergometric bicycle. The results were compared with those taken from the literature for similar aged normal subjects. The results in our series of Down's syndrome subjects showed: (a) no differences in haematologic parameters, except for a high concentration of uric acid at rest which did not increase after the test; (b) a lower blood lactate level than in maximal exercise for this age range; (c) a late mobilization of FFA; and (d) a slightly lower maximal value of catecholamines. These results may suggest a reduced sympathetic response to maximal exercise.

  7. Are Your Cells Pregnant? Relating Biology Laboratory Exercises to Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, Simon J.; Banner, Lisa R.

    2001-01-01

    Presents a laboratory exercise that allows students to investigate the principles of hormone release from endocrine cells, which is highly relevant to students' everyday lives. (Contains 17 references.) (ASK)

  8. Creatine monohydrate ingestion-related placebo effects on brief anaerobic exercise performance. A laboratory investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A Szabo; R Szemerszky; Z Dömötör; R de la Vega; F Köteles

    2017-01-01

    .... In the current study the placebo effects of creatine monohydrate on a one-minute anaerobic step-exercise performance were examined in a double blind laboratory inquiry University students (n = 79, 64.5% women...

  9. Body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic exercise in adolescents: are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if boys and girls who practice exercises with aesthetic propose report higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to their inactive peers. A total of 199 adolescents (89 boys, mean age 16.1 years, completed measures of body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise. Results demonstrated that active boys presented lower dissatisfaction than their inactive peers; and active girls were significantly more dissatisfied than inactive ones. Active boys were more satisfied than active girls. The majority of active girls reported a desire for a slimmer silhouette; while active boys were equally divided between those who desired a heavier silhouette and those who were satisfied. Psychological commitment to exercise did not differ between satisfied and dissatisfied active adolescents. Thus, girls who practice aesthetic exercises must be looked at as a high risk population to the development of health harmful behaviors and eating disorders.

  10. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  11. Effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of cancer-related fatigue : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Vulpen, Jonna K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413986322; Peeters, Petra H M|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/074099655; Velthuis, Miranda J.; van der Wall, Elsken|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/142344532; May, Anne M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304818658

    2016-01-01

    Cancer-related fatigue has a multidimensional nature and complaints typically increase during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Physical exercise might prevent or reduce cancer-related fatigue. So far, no meta-analysis has investigated the effects of physical exercise on different dimensions of

  12. Soy protein diet and exercise training increase relative bone volume and enhance bone microarchitecture in a mouse model of uremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomayko, Emily J; Chung, Hae R; Wilund, Kenneth R

    2011-11-01

    Soy protein consumption and exercise training have been widely studied for their effects on the vasculature and bone in healthy populations, but little is known about the effectiveness of these interventions in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Cardiovascular disease and bone fracture risk are significantly elevated in CKD, and current pharmacological interventions have been unsuccessful in treating these conditions simultaneously. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of a soy protein diet and endurance exercise training, alone or in combination, on cardiovascular and bone health in a mouse model of renal insufficiency. At 8 weeks of age, 60 female apolipoprotein E(-/-) mice underwent a two-step surgical procedure to induce uremia. These mice were then randomized at 12 weeks of age to one of four treatment groups for the 16-week intervention period: sedentary, control diet (n = 16); sedentary, soy protein diet (n = 18); exercise, control diet (n = 14); and exercise, soy protein diet (n = 12). There were no significant treatment effects on atherosclerotic lesion areas or aortic calcium deposits. We demonstrated a significant main effect of both diet and exercise on relative bone volume, trabecular number, trabecular separation, and trabecular connective density in the proximal femur as measured by microcomputed tomography. There were no treatment effects on trabecular thickness. We also showed a main effect of diet on plasma urea levels. These data suggest that soy protein intake and exercise training exert beneficial effects on properties of bone and plasma urea levels in mice with surgically induced renal impairment. © The Japanese Society for Bone and Mineral Research and Springer 2011

  13. Physical activity, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness in adults with spina bifida: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crytzer, Theresa M; Dicianno, Brad E; Kapoor, Roohi

    2013-12-01

    Spina bifida (SB) is the most common birth defect in United States that results in permanent lifelong disability according to the Spina Bifida Association. Advancements in medical care have led to a longer life span and an increase in the risk of secondary conditions, for example, obesity, with age. The need to maintain a healthy and active lifestyle is even stronger in adults with SB than the general population. Our objective was to fill a gap in the literature by highlighting the current state of the literature on health-related measures of fitness, exercise, and physical activity (PA) in adults with SB. PubMed and Ovid were searched for articles by using the terms "spina bifida or myelomeningocele and exercise," published between January 1, 1988 and May 10, 2012. Results of studies showed that adults with SB had an inactive lifestyle, lower aerobic capacity, decreased level of daily PA, higher prevalence of obesity, and lower health-related quality of life compared with reference groups. Therapeutic interventions reduced pain, increased biomechanical efficiency during wheelchair propulsion, and improved PA and balance. Overall, the quality of the evidence on PA, exercise, and health-related measures of fitness is low in SB. Given misdistribution of adipose tissue, short stature, scoliosis, and joint contractures, future research should be conducted to determine the most reliable and low-cost methods of measuring body composition and to establish norms. Other reference standards, for example, aerobic capacity, require further development. Studies are needed to investigate lifestyle interventions that facilitate PA and exercise, and to determine the amount of exercise required to reduce secondary conditions as people with SB age. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Endothelial cell senescence with aging in healthy humans: prevention by habitual exercise and relation to vascular endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; McNamara, Molly N; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R; Donato, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Cellular senescence is emerging as a key mechanism of age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction, but evidence in healthy humans is lacking. Moreover, the influence of lifestyle factors such as habitual exercise on endothelial cell (EC) senescence is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EC senescence increases with sedentary, but not physically active, aging and is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Protein expression (quantitative immunofluorescence) of p53, a transcription factor related to increased cellular senescence, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 were 116%, 119%, and 128% greater (all P 0.05) in venous ECs from older exercising adults (57 ± 1 yr, n = 13). Furthermore, venous EC protein levels of p53 ( r  = -0.49, P = 0.003), p21 ( r  = -0.38, P = 0.03), and p16 ( r  = -0.58, P = 0.002) were inversely associated with vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation). Similarly, protein expression of p53 and p21 was 26% and 23% higher (both P 0.05) in older habitually exercising adults (59 ± 1 yr, n = 14). These data indicate that EC senescence is associated with sedentary aging and is linked to endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, these data suggest that prevention of EC senescence may be one mechanism by which aerobic exercise protects against endothelial dysfunction with age. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study provides novel evidence in humans of increased endothelial cell senescence with sedentary aging, which is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function. Furthermore, our data suggest an absence of age-related increases in endothelial cell senescence in older exercising adults, which is linked with preserved vascular endothelial function. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  15. Comparison of three methods for estimation of exercise-related ion losses in sweat of horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingston, J K; McCutcheon, L J; Geor, R J

    1999-10-01

    To quantify total fluid loss in sweat of Thoroughbreds during >3 hours of low-intensity exercise in controlled conditions and to calculate and compare estimated ion losses in sweat, according to 3 methods. 6 exercise-trained Thoroughbreds. Fluid and ion losses in sweat were measured in 6 horses exercising at 40% of the speed that elicited maximum oxygen consumption for 45 km. Horses were given a 15-minute rest period at the end of three 15-km exercise phases. Horses completed 2 exercise trials. Ion losses in sweat were calculated, using measurements of local sweating rate and sweat ion composition (SWT), change in net exchangeable cation content (CAT), and change in extracellular ion content (PLAS) derived from plasma total solids and ion concentrations. Measurement of SWT revealed a mean (+/- SEM) fluid loss in sweat during 45 km of exercise of 27.5 +/- 1.6 L. Total ion loss in sweat was approximately 241 g or 7.8 mol with higher sodium losses in the second and third phases of exercise compared with the first phase. Losses of sodium and potassium calculated by SWT or CAT were not significantly different from each other, whereas losses of these ions as determined by PLAS were significantly lower. Calculation of ion losses from a mean whole body sweating rate extrapolated from either local sweating rate and sweat ion composition or from change in net exchangeable cation content provide similar results, whereas ion losses determined by changes in extracellular ion content derived from plasma total solids and ion concentration results in underestimation of actual losses.

  16. Cortisol Secretory Parameters in Young Exercisers in Relation to LH Secretion and Bone Parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, Kathryn E.; Patel, Kamal T.; Guereca, Gabriela; Pierce, Lisa; Herzog, David B.; Misra, Madhusmita

    2012-01-01

    Objective Amenorrhoea and low bone density are common in excessive exercisers, yet endocrine factors that differentiate adolescent amenorrhoeic exercisers (AE) from eumenorrhoeic exercisers (EE) are unclear. We have previously reported that high ghrelin and low leptin predict lower LH secretion in AE. Leptin and ghrelin impact cortisol secretion, and hypercortisolaemia can inhibit LH pulsatility. We hypothesized that higher cortisol secretion in young endurance weight-bearing AE compared with EE and non-exercisers predicts lower LH secretion, lower levels of a bone formation marker and higher levels of a bone resorption marker. Design Cross-sectional Subjects We studied 21 AE, 18 EE and 20 non-exercisers 14–21 years (BMI 10th–90th%iles). Measurements Subjects underwent frequent sampling (11 p.m. to 7 a.m.) to assess cortisol, ghrelin, leptin and LH secretory dynamics. Fasting levels of a bone formation (P1NP) and bone resorption (CTX) marker were measured. Results BMI did not differ among groups. Cortisol pulse amplitude, mass, half-life and area under the curve (AUC) were highest in AE (p=0.04, 0.007, 0.04 and 0.003) and were associated inversely with fat mass (r=−0.29, −0.28 and −0.35, p=0.03, 0.04 and 0.007). We observed inverse associations between cortisol and LH AUC (r= −0.36, p=0.008), which persisted after controlling for fat mass, leptin and ghrelin AUC. Cortisol correlated positively with CTX in EE and inversely with P1NP in non-exercisers. Conclusions Higher cortisol secretion in AE compared with EE and non-exercisers is associated with lower LH secretion. Effects of leptin and ghrelin on LH secretion may be mediated by increased cortisol. PMID:22671919

  17. Age-related changes in mastication are not improved by tongue exercise in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Brittany N; Connor, Nadine P

    2017-01-01

    Aging results in progressive changes in deglutitive functions, which may be due in part to alterations in muscle morphology and physiology. Mastication is a critical component of bolus formation and swallowing, but aging effects on masticatory function have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify the effects of aging on mastication, and 2) determine the effects of tongue exercise on mastication in young adult and old rats. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mastication characteristics (number of bites, interval between bites, time to eat) as a function of age, and that tongue exercise would resolve preexercise differences between age groups. We expanded the established model of progressive, 8-week tongue exercise to include a mastication measurement: acoustic recordings of vermicelli pasta biting from 17 old and 17 young adult rats, randomized into exercise and control groups. We found the following: 1) Mastication characteristics were impacted by age. Specifically in older rats, there was an increase in time to eat and number of bites and intervals between bites decreased, suggesting increased oral motor-processing requirements for bolus formation. 2) tongue exercise did not impact mastication behaviors in young adult or old rats. Tongue exercise may not have been specific enough to result in behavioral changes in mastication or exercise dose may not have been sufficient. Nevertheless, results were noteworthy in expanding the established rat model of aging and have relevant clinical implications for future translation to human populations. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E29-E34, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  18. Home-based neuromuscular electrical stimulation improves exercise tolerance and health-related quality of life in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coquart JB

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Jérémy B Coquart,1 Jean-Marie Grosbois,2,3 Cecile Olivier,4 Frederic Bart,2 Ingrid Castres,1 Benoit Wallaert4 1Faculté des Sciences du Sport, Université de Rouen, CETAPS, EA 3832, Mont Saint Aignan, 2Service de Pneumologie, Centre Hospitalier de Béthune, Beuvry, 3Formaction Santé, Perenchies, 4Service de Pneumologie et Immunoallergologie, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Lille, Hôpital Calmette, Université de Lille 2, France Background: This retrospective, observational study of a routine clinical practice reports the feasibility and efficiency of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation (PR, including transcutaneous neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES or usual endurance physical exercise (UEPE, on exercise tolerance, anxiety/depression, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL in patients with COPD.Methods: Seventy-one patients with COPD participated in home-based PR with NMES (Group NMES [GNMES], while 117 patients participated in home-based PR with the UEPEs (Group UEPE [GUEPE]. NMES was applied for 30 minutes twice a day, every day. The endurance exercises in GUEPE began with a minimum 10-minute session at least 5 days a week, with the goal being 30–45 minutes per session. Three upper and lower limb muscle strengthening exercises lasting 10–15 minutes were also proposed to both the groups for daily practice. Moreover, PR in both the groups included a weekly 90-minute session based on an educational needs assessment. The sessions comprised endurance physical exercise for GUEPE, NMES for GNMES, resumption of physical daily living activities, therapeutic patient education, and psychosocial support to facilitate health behavior changes. Before and after PR, functional mobility and physical exercise capacity, anxiety, depression, and HRQoL were evaluated at home.Results: The study revealed that NMES significantly improved functional mobility (−18.8% in GNMES and −20.6% in GUEPE, exercise capacity (+20.8% in GNMES and +21

  19. The effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN-related brain regions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-Yi; Huang, Mao-Mao; Li, Shu-Zhen; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Chen, Li-Dian

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity may play a role in both the prevention and slowing of brain volume loss and may be beneficial in terms of improving the functional connectivity of brain regions. But much less is known about the potential benefit of aerobic exercise for the structure and function of the default mode network (DMN) brain regions. This systematic review examines the effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN brain regions in human adulthood. Seven electronic databases were searched for prospective controlled studies published up to April 2015. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. RevMan 5.3 software was applied for data analysis. Finally, 14 studies with 631 participants were identified. Meta-analysis revealed that aerobic exercise could significantly increase right hippocampal volume (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI 0.01-0.51, p = 0.04, I 2 = 7%, 4 studies), and trends of similar effects were observed in the total (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.41, p = 0.43, I 2 = 0%, 5 studies), left (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.37, p = 0.33, I 2 = 14%, 4 studies), left anterior (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.40, p = 0.41, I 2 = 74%, 2 studies) and right anterior (SMD = 0.10, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.38, p = 0.46, I 2 = 76%, 4 studies) hippocampal volumes compared to the no-exercise interventions. A few studies reported that relative to no-exercise interventions, aerobic exercise could significantly decrease the atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, slow the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume loss, increase functional connectivity within the hippocampus and improve signal activation in the cingulate gyrus and ACC. The current review suggests that aerobic exercise may have positive effects on the right hippocampus and potentially beneficial effects on the overall and other parts of the hippocampus, the cingulate cortex and the medial temporal areas of the DMN. Moreover, aerobic exercise may

  20. Health and exercise-related medical issues among 1,212 ultramarathon runners: baseline findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Martin D; Krishnan, Eswar

    2014-01-01

    Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1%) and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%), but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%), coronary artery disease (0.7%), seizure disorders (0.7%), diabetes (0.7%), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (0.2%). In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6%) reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days), but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each). The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5%) involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (pexercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving the foot, and it is the younger and less experienced ultramarathoners who appear most at risk for injury.

  1. Exercise, bodyweight perception and related weight loss behavior among adolescents in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babwah, Terence

    2016-02-01

    This study attempted to evaluate the real and perceived body weight, exercise habits and weight-altering dietary supplement use by adolescents attending schools in Trinidad and Tobago. A de novo questionnaire was administered prospectively to 15-19-year-old to determine their exercise habits, their perceived body weights, and their use of any weight gain or weight loss supplements. A subset of students had their actual height and weights recorded and BMI calculated. Five hundred and eighty-three students did the questionnaire (88% response rate), and 363 students had BMI calculated. Some 14.9% (54/363) of the students were overweight, and 15.4% (56/363) were obese, and more than 75% of the obese students had attempted weight loss in the past. These measures included exercise in the majority of the students and use of dietary supplements in the minority. Only 6% of the obese students exercised five or more times per week. About 28% of the students misclassified their body weights, and perception of body weight influenced weight loss behaviors more than actual body weights. Almost one third of the students were overweight or obese. Overweight students were motivated to lose weight, and these students need to have some structured health promotion program, which educates them on correct exercise habits, safe measures to lose weight, and which informs them of their actual body weight.

  2. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  3. Aerobic Exercise and Cancer-Related Fatigue in Adults: A Reexamination Using the IVhet Model for Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, George A; Kelley, Kristi S

    2017-02-01

    Although the results of a recent meta-analysis using the traditional random effects model yielded a statistically significant standardized mean difference (SMD) reduction in cancer-related fatigue (CRF) as a result of aerobic exercise, a recently developed inverse heterogeneity (IVhet) model has been shown to be more valid than the traditional random effects model. The purpose of this study was to compare these previous meta-analytic results using the IVhet model. Using data from a previous meta-analysis that included 36 SMD effect sizes (ES) representing 2,830 adults (1,426 exercise, 1,404 control), results were pooled using the IVhet model. Absolute and relative differences between the IVhet and random effects results for CRF were also calculated as well as influence analysis with each SMD ES deleted from the IVhet model. Nonoverlapping 95% confidence intervals (CI) were considered statistically significant. A statistically nonsignificant reduction in CRF fatigue was found as a result of aerobic exercise using the IVhet model (SMD, -0.08; 95% CI, -0.31-0.14; P = 0.46). The IVhet model yielded a SMD ES that was 0.14 (63.6%) smaller than the random effects model. With each study deleted from the IVhet model once, results remained statistically nonsignificant with SMD ESs ranging from -0.11 (95% CI, -0.33-0.11) to -0.06 (95% CI, -0.28-0.16). Insufficient evidence currently exists to support the use of aerobic exercise for reducing CRF in adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the certainty of aerobic exercise on CRF in adults. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 26(2); 281-3. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  4. A prospective study of work related factors and physical exercise as predictors of shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, H; Viikari-Juntura, E; Martikainen, R; Takala, E P; Riihimäki, H

    2001-08-01

    To evaluate the effects of work related and individual factors as well as physical activity and sports on the incidence and persistence of shoulder pain among forestry workers. Workers in a large Finnish forestry company replied to a questionnaire (a modified version of the Nordic questionnaire) on musculoskeletal pain and its possible risk factors for 4 consecutive years 1992-5. This 1 year follow up study covers the time 1994-5. Year 1994 was chosen as baseline because in that year the questionnaire contained for the first time more detailed questions about different sports. The response rate in 1995 was 90%. The effects of the predictors on 1 year incidence and persistence of shoulder pain were studied with multivariate logistic regression modelling. At baseline, 2094 subjects had been free of shoulder pain during the preceding 12 months. After 1 year, 14% (n=285) reported having mild or severe shoulder pain. Higher age, obesity, and mental stress as well as physically strenuous work and working with trunk forward flexed or with a hand above shoulder level increased the risk of incident shoulder pain. Of the different sports activities, dancing increased the risk of incident pain whereas jogging decreased the risk significantly. Of those 419 workers who had severe shoulder pain at baseline, 55% (n=230) still had severe pain 1 year later. Higher age, overload at work, and working with a hand above shoulder level increased the risk of persistent severe shoulder pain whereas cross country skiing and general sports activity decreased the risk. Our results support the current view that shoulder pain is the result of many factors, including occupational and individual factors. In this longitudinal study, physical work with a heavy load, awkward work postures, mental stress, and obesity were the risk factors at which preventive measures could be aimed. As a new finding, physical exercise had more protective than impairing effects on the shoulders.

  5. Differences in Visuo-Motor Control in Skilled vs. Novice Martial Arts Athletes during Sustained and Transient Attention Tasks: A Motor-Related Cortical Potential Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A.; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and “automatic” or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise

  6. Differences in visuo-motor control in skilled vs. novice martial arts athletes during sustained and transient attention tasks: a motor-related cortical potential study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanchez-Lopez

    Full Text Available Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and "automatic" or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor

  7. Differences in visuo-motor control in skilled vs. novice martial arts athletes during sustained and transient attention tasks: a motor-related cortical potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and "automatic" or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise

  8. Physical Exercise and Cancer-Related Fatigue in Hospitalized Patients: Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader in Implementation of Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Katrina

    2016-02-01

    Guidelines suggest that aerobic endurance training and moderate resistance training lessen the effects of cancer-related fatigue (CRF). However, specifics regarding frequency, intensity, and type of physical activity required to alleviate fatigue are less specific. In addition, outcomes of these interventions during the initial stages of active treatment are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence-based literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on CRF and the role that the clinical nurse leader (CNL) can play in implementing interventions to address CRF and promote physical exercise to improve patient outcomes. A literature review of the effect of physical exercise on CRF was conducted using the CINAHL®, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. As leaders in health care, CNLs have the knowledge and skill to take an active role in managing CRF and to develop evidence-based interventions to address fatigue in this patient population. Interventions may include creating and evaluating individualized exercise plans for inpatients with cancer and/or developing educational programs for the inpatient setting that may be continued after discharge and during outpatient treatment.

  9. Impaired transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in age-related myocardial oxidative stress is reversible by moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellamuthu S Gounder

    Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.

  10. The effect of ladder-climbing exercise on atrophy/hypertrophy-related myokine expression in middle-aged male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Suryun; Ahn, Nayoung; Kim, Sanghyun; Byun, Jayoung; Joo, Youngsik; Kim, Sungwook; Jung, Yeunho; Park, Solee; Hwang, Ilseon; Kim, Kijin

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the change in myokine expression related to hypertrophy (IL-4, IL-6, IL-10) and atrophy (TNF-α, NFκB, IL-1β) in middle-aged rats after resistance exercise with ladder climbing. 50- and 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to two groups: the sedentary and exercise groups. The exercise groups underwent a ladder-climbing exercise for 8 weeks. While the tibialis anterior muscle mass in the young group significantly increased after the ladder-climbing exercise, the middle-aged group did not show any changes after undergoing the same exercise. To understand the molecular mechanism causing this difference, we analyzed the change in hypertrophy- and atrophy-related myokine levels from the tibialis anterior muscle. After 8 weeks of ladder-climbing exercise, the IL-4 and IL-10 protein levels did not change. However, the IL-6 level significantly increased after exercise training, but the amount of increase in the young training group was higher than in the middle-aged training group. IL-1β and TNF-α as well as NFκB protein levels were significantly higher in the middle-aged group than in the young group. Except for TNF-α, exercise training did not affect IL-1β and NFκB protein levels. The TNF-α level significantly decreased in the middle-aged exercise training group. AMPK and PGC-1α levels also significantly increased after exercise training, but there was no difference between age-related groups. Therefore, 8-week high-intensity exercise training using ladder climbing downregulates the skeletal muscle production of myokine involved in atrophy and upregulates hypertrophic myokine. However, the extent of these responses was lower in the middle-aged than young group.

  11. Metabolic effects of beta2-agonists in relation to exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    Beta2-agonists are frequently used in the treatment of asthma and exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in elite athletes. However, aside from a bronchodilatory effect, beta2-agonists have also been shown to improve exercise performance, which makes these substances subjected to misuse by elite...... athletes. The present PhD thesis is based on four manuscripts in which the acute effects of beta2-agonists on exercise performance were investigated. The aims were 1) to investigate whether supratherapeutic inhalation of beta2-agonists enhances muscle strength, anaerobic performance and aerobic performance......, 2) to uncover the mechanisms behind potential beta2-adrenergic improvements in anaerobic performance, 3) to investigate whether inhalation of beta2-agonists is ergogenic in elite athletes with or without airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Results from the studies of the thesis show...

  12. Relation of right ventricular mechanics to exercise tolerance in children after tetralogy of Fallot repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedberg, Mark K; Fernandes, Fernanda P; Roche, Susan L; Slorach, Cameron; Grosse-Wortmann, Lars; Manlhiot, Cedric; Fackoury, Cheryl; McCrindle, Brian W; Mertens, Luc; Kantor, Paul F

    2013-04-01

    Progressive right ventricular (RV) dysfunction and exercise intolerance are common problems after tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) repair. We investigated RV myocardial deformation and dyssynchrony in children after TOF repair and their association with exercise capacity. Asymptomatic children after TOF repair were investigated by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography, magnetic resonance, and metabolic exercise study. Patients with RV outflow obstruction were excluded. Peak RV longitudinal strain and strain rate (SR) and dyssynchrony (RV intraventricular delay) were compared with healthy controls. Associations between RV strain, dyssynchrony, and exercise capacity were analyzed. Thirty-nine (81%) of 48 TOF patients and 40 healthy controls had adequate RV strain imaging. The TOF patients had moderately dilated RVs and normal RV ejection fraction. Right ventricular peak systolic strain (-23.2% ± 5.1% vs -28.5% ± 8.5%, P Right ventricular intraventricular delay was higher in TOF patients (146.0 ± 159 vs 71.0 ± 92 milliseconds, P = .008). Decreased RV strain and SR were associated with increased RV dyssynchrony (strain parameter estimate [PE] 6.31 [2.30], P = .007; SR [PE] 11.32 [3.84], P = .004). Increased RV-left ventricular delay was associated with prolonged QRS duration (PE 0.13 [0.058], P = .03) and reduced RV ejection fraction (PE -2.95 [1.275], P = .02). Reduced RV peak SR was associated with decreased exercise peak oxygen uptake (PE 0.14 [0.07], P = .04). After repair of TOF, asymptomatic children have reduced RV deformation in association with RV dyssynchrony and reduced exercise tolerance. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Relation between Exercise Habits and School Life in High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    谷川, 尚己; 金森, 雅夫; 岩, 崇

    2014-01-01

     In order to investigate the impact that exercise habits have on the student’s school life, we conducted a survey targeting a total of 1,532 students in a Shiga Prefecture high school: 760 freshmen and 772 sophomores (786 males, 746 females). The survey consisted of 29 items, such as students’ awareness of the exercise and the time spent for it per day, excluding physical education classes, late arrivals, absences, concentration levels in class, worries and stress in school life, and physical...

  14. Age related blood flow around the Achilles tendon during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, J; Skovgaard, D

    2001-01-01

    Injuries due to the overuse of tendons increase with age, and it has been suggested that this correlates with hypovascularity of the tendon. In the present study, the peritendinous blood flow was determined using xenon-133 washout at rest and during standardised intermittent exercise of the calf...... that the peritendinous blood flow to the zone of the tendon with the highest incidence of injury from overuse is unaltered by age during exercise, and indicates that factors other than blood flow are important for the increased incidence with age of injuries from overuse....

  15. The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baguley, Brenton J.; Bolam, Kate A.; Wright, Olivia R. L.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. Methods: A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature. The study characteristics and results were summarized in accordance with the review’s Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome (PICO) criteria. Results: A total of 20 articles (one diet only, two combined diet and exercise, and seventeen exercise only studies) were included in the review. Soy supplementation improved quality of life, but resulted in several adverse effects. Prescribing healthy eating guidelines with combined resistance training and aerobic exercise improved cancer-related fatigue, yet its effect on quality of life was inconclusive. Combined resistance training with aerobic exercise showed improvements in cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. In isolation, resistance training appears to be more effective in improving cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than aerobic exercise. Studies that utilised an exercise professional to supervise the exercise sessions were more likely to report improvements in both cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than those prescribing unsupervised or partially supervised sessions. Neither exercise frequency nor duration appeared to influence cancer-related fatigue or quality of life, with further research required to explore the potential dose-response effect of exercise intensity. Conclusion: Supervised moderate-hard resistance training with or without moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise appears to improve cancer-related fatigue and quality of life

  16. The Effect of Nutrition Therapy and Exercise on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Quality of Life in Men with Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenton J. Baguley

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Improvements in diet and/or exercise are often advocated during prostate cancer treatment, yet the efficacy of, and optimal nutrition and exercise prescription for managing cancer-related fatigue and quality of life remains elusive. The aim of this study is to systematically review the effects of nutrition and/or exercise on cancer-related fatigue and/or quality of life. Methods: A literature search was conducted in six electronic databases. The Delphi quality assessment list was used to evaluate the methodological quality of the literature. The study characteristics and results were summarized in accordance with the review’s Population, Intervention, Control, Outcome (PICO criteria. Results: A total of 20 articles (one diet only, two combined diet and exercise, and seventeen exercise only studies were included in the review. Soy supplementation improved quality of life, but resulted in several adverse effects. Prescribing healthy eating guidelines with combined resistance training and aerobic exercise improved cancer-related fatigue, yet its effect on quality of life was inconclusive. Combined resistance training with aerobic exercise showed improvements in cancer-related fatigue and quality of life. In isolation, resistance training appears to be more effective in improving cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than aerobic exercise. Studies that utilised an exercise professional to supervise the exercise sessions were more likely to report improvements in both cancer-related fatigue and quality of life than those prescribing unsupervised or partially supervised sessions. Neither exercise frequency nor duration appeared to influence cancer-related fatigue or quality of life, with further research required to explore the potential dose-response effect of exercise intensity. Conclusion: Supervised moderate-hard resistance training with or without moderate-vigorous aerobic exercise appears to improve cancer-related fatigue and

  17. Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome in four related male English springer spaniels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrift E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Thrift,1 Justin A Wimpole,2 Georgina Child,2 Narelle Brown,1 Barbara Gandolfi,3 Richard Malik4 1Animal Referral Hospital, 2Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 4Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: This retrospective study describes the signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and mode of inheritance in four young male English springer spaniel dogs with presumptive canine stress syndrome.Materials and methods: Appropriate cases were located through medical searches of medical records of two large private referral centers. Inclusion criteria comprised of English springer spaniel dogs with tachypnea and hyperthermia that subsequently developed weakness or collapse, with or without signs of hemorrhage, soon after a period of mild-to-moderate exercise. The pedigrees of the four affected dogs, as well as eleven related English springer spaniels, were then analyzed to determine a presumptive mode of genetic inheritance.Results: Four dogs met the inclusion criteria. All four were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked heritable disorder. Pedigree analysis suggests that more dogs may be potentially affected, although these dogs may have never had the concurrent triggering drug/activity/event to precipitate the clinical syndrome. There was complete resolution of clinical signs in three of the four dogs with aggressive symptomatic and supportive therapy, with one dog dying during treatment.Conclusion: Dogs with canine stress syndrome have the potential for rapid recovery if treated aggressively and the complications of the disease (eg, coagulopathy are anticipated. All four dogs were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked mode of inheritance. Further genetic analyses should be strongly considered by those

  18. Relation of exercise capacity with lung volumes before and after 6-minute walk test in subjects with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-11-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise-induced variation in lung volumes is an important source of ventilatory limitation and is linked to exercise intolerance in COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the correlations of walk distance and lung volumes measured before and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in subjects with COPD. Forty-five subjects with stable COPD (mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1: 47 ± 18% predicted) underwent a 6MWT. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre- and post-6MWT. Correlations were generally stronger between 6-min walk distance and post-6MWT lung volumes than between 6-min walk distance and pre-6MWT lung volumes, except for FEV1. These differences in Pearson correlation coefficients were significant for residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.67 vs -0.58, P = .043), percent of predicted residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.68 vs -0.59, P = .026), inspiratory vital capacity (0.65 vs 0.54, P = .019), percent of predicted inspiratory vital capacity (0.49 vs 0.38, P = .037), and percent of predicted functional residual capacity (-0.62 vs -0.47, P = .023). In subjects with stable COPD, lung volumes measured immediately after 6MWT are more closely related to exercise limitation than baseline lung volumes measured before 6MWT, except for FEV1. Therefore, pulmonary function testing immediately after exercise should be included in future studies on COPD for the assessment of exercise-induced ventilatory constraints to physical performance that cannot be adequately assessed from baseline pulmonary function testing at rest. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  19. Effectiveness of behavioral techniques and physical exercise on psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life in breast cancer pateints and survivors: a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijts, S.F.A.; Faber, M.M.; Oldenburg, H.S.A.; van Beurden, M.; Aaronson, N.K.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of behavioral techniques and physical exercise on psychosocial functioning and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in breast cancer patients and survivors. Methods: A meta-analysis was carried out to quantify the effects of behavioral and exercise

  20. The Effect, Moderators, and Mediators of Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Long-Term Survivors of Prostate Cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buffart, L.M.; Newton, R.U.; Chin A Paw, M.J.M.; Taaffe, D.R.; Spry, N.A.; Denham, J.W.; Joseph, D.J.; Lamb, D.S.; Brug, J.; Galvao, D.A.

    2015-01-01

    American Cancer Society The effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on cancer-specific health-related quality of life appear to be stronger for older survivors of prostate cancer who are married, started exercising sooner after their diagnosis, and previously used bisphosphonates. The effects of

  1. Reactor transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menegus, R.L.

    1956-05-31

    The authors are planning a calculation to be done on the Univac at the Louviers Building to estimate the effect of xenon transients, a high reactor power. This memorandum outlines the reasons why they prefer to do the work at Louviers rather than at another location, such as N.Y.U. They are to calculate the response of the reactor to a sudden change in position of the half rods. Qualitatively, the response will be a change in the rooftop ratio of the neutron flux. The rooftop ratio may oscillate with high damping, or, instead, it may oscillate for many cycles. It has not been possible for them to determine this response by hand calculation because of the complexity of the problem, and yet it is important for them to be certain that high power operation will not lead us to inherently unstable operation. Therefore they have resorted to machine computation. The system of differential equations that describes the response has seven dependent variables; therefore there are seven equations, each coupled with one or more of the others. The authors have discussed the problem with R.R. Haefner at the plant, and it is his opinion that the IBM 650 cannot adequately handle the system of seven equations because the characteristic time constants vary over a range of about 10{sup 8}. The Univac located at the Louviers Building is said to be satisfactory for this computation.

  2. Recovery from Short Term Intense Exercise: Its Relation to Capillary Supply and Lactate Release,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    different from Report) IS. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES :.!-- To be published in Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on reverse side...an antecubital vein prior to exercise, during the short recovery period, immediately after the additional five contractions, and at each minute up to

  3. Factors Related to Stages of Exercise Behavior Change among University Students Based on the Transtheoretical Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Dae-Jung; Kim, Ki-Jong; Heo, Myoung

    2014-12-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify the distribution of stages of change in the exercise behavior of university students the transtheoretical model. [Subjects and Methods] Study subjects at four universities in G city were surveyed. A total of 1,000 questionnaires were distributed, and 959 responses were analyzed. The collected data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regression analysis. [Results] Factors that contributed to the transition from the pre-contemplation stage to the contemplation stage included change-experimental processes (C-EP) and change-behavioral processes (C-BP). Factors that contributed to the transition from the contemplation stage to the preparation stage were C-BP and decisional decisional balance-cons (DB-C). Self-efficacy was the factor that contributed to the transition from the preparation stage to the action stage. However, there was no factor that contributed to the transition from the action stage to the maintenance stage. [Conclusion] When exercise behavior change is low, strategies such as giving one-to-one training, having the subjects read relevant books, and providing information are needed. When exercise behavior change is high, it is necessary to heighten self-efficacy by having subjects select and freely conduct appropriate kinds of exercises.

  4. Suprathreshold Heat Pain Response Predicts Activity-Related Pain, but Not Rest-Related Pain, in an Exercise-Induced Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Simon, Corey B.; Valencia, Carolina; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Borsa, Paul A.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced injury models are advantageous for studying pain since the onset of pain is controlled and both pre-injury and post-injury factors can be utilized as explanatory variables or predictors. In these studies, rest-related pain is often considered the primary dependent variable or outcome, as opposed to a measure of activity-related pain. Additionally, few studies include pain sensitivity measures as predictors. In this study, we examined the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors, including pain sensitivity, for induced rest and activity-related pain following exercise induced muscle injury. The overall goal of this investigation was to determine if there were convergent or divergent predictors of rest and activity-related pain. One hundred forty-three participants provided demographic, psychological, and pain sensitivity information and underwent a standard fatigue trial of resistance exercise to induce injury of the dominant shoulder. Pain at rest and during active and resisted shoulder motion were measured at 48- and 96-hours post-injury. Separate hierarchical models were generated for assessing the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors on 48- and 96-hour rest-related and activity-related pain. Overall, we did not find a universal predictor of pain across all models. However, pre-injury and post-injury suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR), a pain sensitivity measure, was a consistent predictor of activity-related pain, even after controlling for known psychological factors. These results suggest there is differential prediction of pain. A measure of pain sensitivity such as SHPR appears more influential for activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, and may reflect different underlying processes involved during pain appraisal. PMID:25265560

  5. Suprathreshold heat pain response predicts activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, in an exercise-induced injury model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogelio A Coronado

    Full Text Available Exercise-induced injury models are advantageous for studying pain since the onset of pain is controlled and both pre-injury and post-injury factors can be utilized as explanatory variables or predictors. In these studies, rest-related pain is often considered the primary dependent variable or outcome, as opposed to a measure of activity-related pain. Additionally, few studies include pain sensitivity measures as predictors. In this study, we examined the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors, including pain sensitivity, for induced rest and activity-related pain following exercise induced muscle injury. The overall goal of this investigation was to determine if there were convergent or divergent predictors of rest and activity-related pain. One hundred forty-three participants provided demographic, psychological, and pain sensitivity information and underwent a standard fatigue trial of resistance exercise to induce injury of the dominant shoulder. Pain at rest and during active and resisted shoulder motion were measured at 48- and 96-hours post-injury. Separate hierarchical models were generated for assessing the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors on 48- and 96-hour rest-related and activity-related pain. Overall, we did not find a universal predictor of pain across all models. However, pre-injury and post-injury suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR, a pain sensitivity measure, was a consistent predictor of activity-related pain, even after controlling for known psychological factors. These results suggest there is differential prediction of pain. A measure of pain sensitivity such as SHPR appears more influential for activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, and may reflect different underlying processes involved during pain appraisal.

  6. Relation of Exercise Capacity to Risk of Development of Diabetes in Patients on Statin Therapy (the Henry Ford Exercise Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaya, Gabriel E; Juraschek, Stephen P; Feldman, David I; Brawner, Clinton A; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Keteyian, Steven J; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Blaha, Michael J

    2017-09-01

    High exercise capacity (EC) has been associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes, whereas statin therapy has been associated with a higher risk. We sought to investigate whether the association between EC and diabetes risk is modified by statin therapy. This retrospective cohort study included 47,337 patients without diabetes or coronary artery disease at baseline (age 53 ± 13 years, 48% women, 66% white) who underwent clinical treadmill stress testing within the Henry Ford Health System from January 1, 1991, to May 31, 2009. The patients were stratified by baseline statin use and estimated peak METs achieved during exercise testing. Hazard ratios for incident diabetes were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for demographic characteristics, co-morbidities, pertinent medications, and stress test indication. We observed 6,921 new diabetes cases (14.6%) over a median follow-up period of 5.1 years (interquartile interval of 2.6 to 8.2 years). Compared with the statin group, the no-statin group achieved higher mean METs (8.9 ± 2.7 vs 9.6 ± 3.0, respectively; p <0.001). After adjustment for covariates, a higher EC was associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes, irrespective of statin use (p-interaction = 0.15). Each 1-MET increment was associated with an 8%, 8%, and 6% relative risk reduction in the total cohort, the no-statin, and the statin groups, respectively (95% confidence interval, 0.91 to 0.93, 0.91 to 0.93, and 0.91 to 0.96, respectively; p <0.001 for all). We conclude that a higher EC is associated with a lower risk of incident diabetes regardless of statin use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Reduction of exercise capacity in sarcoidosis in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kallianos A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Anastasios Kallianos,1 Paul Zarogoulidis,2 Fotini Ampatzoglou,2 Georgia Trakada,2,3 Elias Gialafos,4 Georgia Pitsiou,2 Athanasia Pataka,2 Lemonia Veletza,2 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis,2 Wolfgang Hohenforst-Schmidt,5 Dimitris Petridis,6 Ioannis Kioumis,2 Aggeliki Rapti112nd Pulmonary Department, Sotiria Chest Diseases Hospital, Athens, 2Pulmonary Department-Oncology Unit, “G Papanikolaou” General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, 3Pulmonary Laboratory, Therapeutic Clinic Alexandra Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, 4Heart Diseases Department Aiginitio Hospital, University of Athens, Athens, Greece; 5Medical Clinic I, “Fuerth” Hospital, University of Erlangen, Fuerth, Germany; 6Department of Food Technology, School of Food Technology and Nutrition, Alexander Technological Educational Institute, Thessaloniki, GreeceIntroduction: Pulmonary function tests (PFTs do not always predict functional limitations during exercise in sarcoidosis. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET may facilitate the recognition of exercise intolerance in these patients.Aim: As relevant data in sarcoid patients are limited, the aim of the study reported here was to assess exercise capacity impairment during a maximal CPET and to evaluate potential correlations with PFT measurements and radiological stages of the disease.Method: A total of 83 sarcoid patients consecutively referred for evaluation of exertional dyspnea over a 3-year period were studied retrospectively with PFTs, including spirometry, diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO and lung volumes, and CPET using standard protocol. Patients were grouped according to their radiological stages: Stage I (n=43, Stages II–III (n=31, and Stage IV (n=9.Results: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and total lung capacity were mildly impaired only in Stage IV (means ± standard deviation: 72.44±28.00, 71.33±26.70, and 59.78±21

  8. Health-related quality of life and stages of behavioural change for exercise in overweight/obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, A J; Bernard, P; Attalin, V; Gernigon, C; Ninot, G; Avignon, A

    2012-10-01

    Stages of change in exercise behaviour have been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese adults. However, studies examining this relationship have not used questionnaires specifically designed for such a population. The present study assessed the impact of stages of change (SOC) for exercise, using the transtheoretical model, on the HRQoL, using the quality of life, obesity and dietetics (QOLOD) scale, an obesity-specific QoL questionnaire. Our hypothesis was that the more people are in the advanced stages of behavioural change, the better their HRQoL. A total of 214 consecutive obese individuals (148 women/66 men, mean age 47.4 ± 14.0 years, BMI 37.2 ± 8.4 kg/m2) were included in the cross-sectional study, and all completed SOC and QOLOD questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) established significant effects on the overall composite of the five dimensions of the QOLOD (P stages reporting better HRQoL. However, dimensions related to food showed no differences according to SOC, confirming the complexity of the relationship between exercise and nutrition, and the need for further studies to acquire a more complete understanding of their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Age-related changes in the brain antioxidant status: modulation by dietary supplementation of Decalepis hamiltonii and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravikiran, Tekupalli; Sowbhagya, Ramachandregowda; Anupama, Sindhghatta Kariyappa; Anand, Santosh; Bhagyalakshmi, Dundaiah

    2016-08-01

    The synergistic effects of physical exercise and diet have profound benefits on brain function. The present study was aimed to determine the effects of exercise and Decalepis hamiltonii (Dh) on age-related responses on the antioxidant status in discrete regions of rat brain. Male Wistar albino rats of 4 and 18 months old were orally supplemented with Dh extract and swim trained at 3 % intensity for 30 min/day, 5 days/week, for a period of 30 days. Supplementation of 100 mg Dh aqueous extract/kg body weight and its combination with exercise significantly elevated the antioxidant enzyme activities irrespective of age. Age-related and region-specific changes were observed in superoxide levels, and protein carbonyl and malondialdehyde contents, and were found to be decreased in both trained and supplemented groups. Levels of total thiols, protein, and nonprotein thiols decreased with age and significantly increased in the SW-T(+100 mg) groups. Our results demonstrated that the interactive effects of two treatments enhanced the antioxidant status and decreased the risk of protein and lipid oxidation in the rat brain.

  10. Transient tachypnea - newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    TTN; Wet lungs - newborns; Retained fetal lung fluid; Transient RDS; Prolonged transition; Neonatal - transient tachypnea ... Newborns with transient tachypnea have breathing problems soon after birth, most often within 1 to 2 hours. ...

  11. Effects of Quadriceps Strengthening Exercise on Quadriceps Muscle Strength and Its Relation to Lower Extremity Lean Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istingadah Desiana

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To discover whether quadriceps resistance exercise could increase quadriceps strength as well as its relation to lower extremity lean mass. Methods: This study was a pre- and post- experimental study in which 36 participants with knee OA grade 2 and 3 were recruited. Assesment of leg lean mass and quadriceps strength was taken before and after intervention. Participants practiced quadriceps isotonic resistance exercise 3 times a week for 8 weeks. This study was conducted in Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung from September 2014 to February 2015. Results: After the intervention, an increase in quadriceps strength was seen but not in the lower extremity lean mass. Statistical analysis showed that there was no correlation between lower extremity lean mass and quadriceps strength. Conclusions: Quadriceps strength is found to increase after intervention. No increase is found in the lower extremity lean mass.

  12. Expression of perilipins in human skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo in relation to diet, exercise and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, I M F; Haugen, F; Gulseth, H L

    2011-01-01

    , enhanced the expression of perilipin 2 and 3. Perilipin 1 mRNA correlated positively with body fat mass, whereas none of the perilipins were associated with insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, all perilipins mRNAs were expressed in human skeletal muscle. Diet as well as endurance exercise modulated......The perilipin proteins enclose intracellular lipid droplets. We describe the mRNA expression of the five perilipins in human skeletal muscle in relation to fatty acid supply, exercise and energy balance. We observed that all perilipins were expressed in skeletal muscle biopsies with the highest m......RNA levels of perilipin 2, 4 and 5. Cultured myotubes predominantly expressed perilipin 2 and 3. In vitro, incubation of myotubes with fatty acids enhanced mRNA expression of perilipin 1, 2 and 4. In vivo, low fat diet increased mRNA levels of perilipin 3 and 4. Endurance training, but not strength training...

  13. Plasma agouti-related protein (AGRP), growth hormone, insulin responses to a single circuit-resistance exercise in male college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbari-Niaki, Abbass; Nabatchian, Saeid; Hedayati, Mehdi

    2007-05-01

    The ability of acute exercise to stimulate appetite and food intake depends on intensity, duration, and agouti-related protein (AGRP) levels. Fasting, as well as any negative energy balance, has been reported to increase AGRP expression in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus and other extra-hypothalamic tissues in human and rats. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the response of plasma AGRP, GH and insulin to a single circuit-resistance exercise. Twenty volunteer male college students completed a single bout of circuit-resistance training (10 exercises at 35% of 1RM). Blood samples were collected before, immediately and 30 min following the exercise protocol. Plasma AGRP and GH levels showed a significant increase immediately after exercise and returned to pre exercise values during the recovery period. The data indicate that exercise protocol was able to increase plasma AGRP and GH levels. A higher plasma AGRP level might result in an acute exercise-induced hyperphagia and help to fuel post-exercise restoration processes.

  14. Fatigue-related adaptations in muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Nicolas A; Guével, Arnaud; Durand, Sylvain; Hug, François

    2011-10-01

    Muscle fatigue is an exercise-induced reduction in the capability of a muscle to generate force. A possible strategy to counteract the effects of fatigue is to modify muscle coordination. We designed this study to quantify the effect of fatigue on muscle coordination during a cyclic exercise involving numerous muscles. Nine human subjects were tested during a constant-load rowing exercise (mean power output: 217.9±32.4 W) performed until task failure. The forces exerted at the handle and the foot-stretcher were measured continuously and were synchronized with surface electromyographic (EMG) signals measured in 23 muscles. In addition to a classical analysis of individual EMG data (EMG profile and EMG activity level), a non-negative matrix factorization algorithm was used to identify the muscle synergies at the start and the end of the test. Among the 23 muscles tested, 16 showed no change in their mean activity level across the rowing cycle, five (biceps femoris, gluteus maximus, semitendinosus, trapezius medius and vastus medialis) showed a significant increase and two (gastrocnemius lateralis and longissimus) showed a significant decrease. We found no change in the number of synergies during the fatiguing test, i.e. three synergies accounted for more than 90% of variance accounted for at the start (92.4±1.5%) and at the end (91.0±1.8%) of the exercise. Very slight modifications at the level of individual EMG profiles, synergy activation coefficients and muscle synergy vectors were observed. These results suggest that fatigue during a cyclic task preferentially induces an adaptation in muscle activity level rather than changes in the modular organization of the muscle coordination.

  15. Relative Effects of Sleep Hygiene Behavior and Physical Exercise on Sleep Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Dopp, Austin

    2017-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the relationship between sleep and overall health. A common measure of sleep is sleep quality which has been shown to be influenced by a variety of factors such as physical activity, diet, stress, social engagement, cognitive stimulating, and sleep hygiene behaviors. Data was analyzed from a previous study to determine whether trying to change one’s sleep would improve sleep quality and if this was more effective than physical exercise. A group of 104 individuals, ...

  16. Menstrual abnormalities in school going girls - are they related to dietary and exercise pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani K, Rupa; K S, Veena; L, Subitha; Kumar V R, Hemanth; A, Bupathy

    2013-11-01

    Adolescence is the transitional phase of physical and mental development between childhood and adulthood and is characterized by immense hormonal changes.75% of girls experience some problems associated with menstruation. We tried to find out the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities in school going girls in Pondicherry and their association with dietary and exercise habits. A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in adolescent girls who attained menarche in four secondary schools of Pondicherry, India. All students who attained menarche and willing to participate in the study were invited to answer the questionnaire, which dealt with anthropometric data, socioeconomic data, menstrual history, and diet and exercise pattern. Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test was used to compare the dietary and exercise patterns among students having menstrual abnormalities and those who do not have menstrual abnormalities. A total of 853 students participated in the study. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were the most frequent problems encountered. Premenstrual symptoms were significantly more common among girls who were overweight, in girls who were eating junk food regularly, in girls who were eating less food (dieting) in order to lose weight and in those who were not doing regular physical activity. Dysmenorrhea was significantly more common in the girls who were dieting to lose weight. Passage of clots was also significantly high in the girls who were dieting. Lifestyle modifications like regular physical activity, decreasing the intake of junk food and promoting healthy eating habits should be emphasised in school health education programs to improve their menstrual health.

  17. Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis: A Case Related to Chickpea Ingestion and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Chet G

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA is recognized as a distinct category of exercise-induced anaphylaxis (EIA but is very likely underdiagnosed. This report describes a 41-year-old Indian woman who experienced two separate episodes of anaphylaxis while dancing after she had eaten chickpea-containing foods. The chickpea, a small legume, is a staple ingredient in culinary traditions from around the world, especially in India, the Middle East, and North Africa. Chickpea-containing dishes are also becoming more widespread in the Western world with the growing popularity of South Asian, Middle Eastern, and African cuisines. It is important to consider FDEIA in cases of unexplained anaphylaxis as reactions can occur several hours after ingesting the culprit food(s. Furthermore, no reaction occurs if a sensitized individual eats the culprit food(s without exercising afterward; therefore, triggering foods can easily be overlooked. Current ideas on the pathophysiology, predisposing factors, workup, and treatment of FDEIA are also summarized here.

  18. Modeling and Simulation of the Transient Response of Temperature and Relative Humidity Sensors with and without Protective Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Keller Sullivan Oliveira; Martins, José Helvecio; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Ferreira Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima; Saraz, Jairo Alexander Osorio; Filho, Adílio Flauzino Lacerda; Fernandes, Luiz Henrique Martins

    2014-01-01

    Based on the necessity for enclosure protection of temperature and relative humidity sensors installed in a hostile environment, a wind tunnel was used to quantify the time that the sensors take to reach equilibrium in the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. Two treatments were used: (1) sensors with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) enclosure protection, and (2) sensors with no enclosure protection. The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for analyzing the temperature and relative humidity distribution in a wind tunnel using sensors with PVC enclosure protection and sensors with no enclosure protection. A CFD simulation model was developed to describe the temperature distribution and the physics of mass transfer related to the airflow relative humidity. The first results demonstrate the applicability of the simulation. For verification, a sensor device was successfully assembled and tested in an environment that was optimized to ensure fast change conditions. The quantification setup presented in this paper is thus considered to be adequate for testing different materials and morphologies for enclosure protection. The results show that the boundary layer flow regime has a significant impact on the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that the CFD technique is a powerful tool which provides a detailed description of the flow and temperature fields as well as the time that the relative humidity takes to reach equilibrium with the environment in which the sensors are inserted. PMID:24851994

  19. Modeling and simulation of the transient response of temperature and relative humidity sensors with and without protective housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Keller Sullivan Oliveira; Martins, José Helvecio; Martins, Marcio Arêdes; Tinôco, Ilda de Fátima Ferreira; Saraz, Jairo Alexander Osorio; Lacerda Filho, Adílio Flauzino; Fernandes, Luiz Henrique Martins

    2014-01-01

    Based on the necessity for enclosure protection of temperature and relative humidity sensors installed in a hostile environment, a wind tunnel was used to quantify the time that the sensors take to reach equilibrium in the environmental conditions to which they are exposed. Two treatments were used: (1) sensors with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) enclosure protection, and (2) sensors with no enclosure protection. The primary objective of this study was to develop and validate a 3-D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for analyzing the temperature and relative humidity distribution in a wind tunnel using sensors with PVC enclosure protection and sensors with no enclosure protection. A CFD simulation model was developed to describe the temperature distribution and the physics of mass transfer related to the airflow relative humidity. The first results demonstrate the applicability of the simulation. For verification, a sensor device was successfully assembled and tested in an environment that was optimized to ensure fast change conditions. The quantification setup presented in this paper is thus considered to be adequate for testing different materials and morphologies for enclosure protection. The results show that the boundary layer flow regime has a significant impact on the heat flux distribution. The results indicate that the CFD technique is a powerful tool which provides a detailed description of the flow and temperature fields as well as the time that the relative humidity takes to reach equilibrium with the environment in which the sensors are inserted.

  20. Differential Impact of Acute Bout of Exercise on Redox- and Oxidative Damage-Related Profiles Between Untrained Subjects and Amateur Runners

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    S Falone; A Mirabilio; A Pennelli; M Cacchio; A Di Baldassarre; S Gallina; A Passerini; F Amicarelli

    2010-01-01

    ... reflect the condition of common people interested in achieving and maintaining good fitness levels. The present work aimed at investigating whether and how exercise-related habits in non-professional regular runners...

  1. The Effect, Moderators, and Mediators of Resistance and Aerobic Exercise on Health-Related Quality of Life in Older Long-Term Survivors of Prostate Cancer

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Buffart, L.M; Newton, R.U; Chin A Paw, M.J.M; Taaffe, D.R; Spry, N.A; Denham, J.W; Joseph, D.J; Lamb, D.S; Brug, J; Galvao, D.A

    2015-01-01

    American Cancer Society The effects of aerobic and resistance exercise on cancer-specific health-related quality of life appear to be stronger for older survivors of prostate cancer who are married...

  2. The influence of a pre-exercise sports drink (PRX on factors related to maximal aerobic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mooneyhan Andy

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pre-exercise sports drinks (PRX are commonly used as ergogenic aids in athletic competitions requiring aerobic power. However, in most cases, claims regarding their effectiveness have not been substantiated. In addition, the ingredients in PRX products must be deemed acceptable by the athletic governing bodies that regulate their use in training and competition. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a modified PRX formulation (known as EM·PACT™ from earlier investigations on factors related to maximal aerobic performance during a graded exercise test. The modification consisted of removing creatine to meet the compliance standards set forth by various athletic organizations that regulate the use of nutritional supplements. Methods Twenty-nine male and female college students varying in levels of aerobic fitness participated in a randomized crossover administration of PRX (containing 14 g/serving of fructose, medium-chain triglycerides, and amino acids mixed with 8 oz. of water and placebo (PL 30 minutes prior to performing a treadmill test with approximately one week separation between the trials. VO2max, maximal heart rate (HR, time to exhaustion (Time, and percentage estimated non-protein fat substrate utilization (FA during two a priori submaximal stages of a graded exercise testing were evaluated. Results The VO2max mean value of the PRX trial was significantly greater than the PL trial (P Conclusions The modified PRX formulation utilized in this investigation supports the findings of the previous investigation and its efficacy for enhancing indices of aerobic performance (specifically VO2max, Time, & FA during graded exercise testing.

  3. Improved Exercise-Related Skeletal Muscle Oxygen Consumption Following Uptake of Endurance Training Measured Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siana Jones

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle metabolic function is known to respond positively to exercise interventions. Developing non-invasive techniques that quantify metabolic adaptations and identifying interventions that impart successful response are ongoing challenges for research. Healthy non-athletic adults (18–35 years old were enrolled in a study investigating physiological adaptations to a minimum of 16 weeks endurance training prior to undertaking their first marathon. Before beginning training, participants underwent measurements of skeletal muscle oxygen consumption using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS at rest (resting muscleV˙O2 and immediately following a maximal exercise test (post-exercise muscleV˙O2. Exercise-related increase in muscleV˙O2 (ΔmV˙O2 was derived from these measurements and cardio-pulmonary peakV˙O2 measured by analysis of expired gases. All measurements were repeated within 3 weeks of participants completing following the marathon and marathon completion time recorded. MuscleV˙O2 was positively correlated with cardio-pulmonary peakV˙O2 (r = 0.63, p < 0.001. MuscleV˙O2 increased at follow-up (48% increase; p = 0.004 despite no change in cardio-pulmonary peakV˙O2 (0% change; p = 0.97. Faster marathon completion time correlated with higher cardio-pulmonary peakV˙O2 (rpartial = −0.58, p = 0.002 but not muscleV˙O2 (rpartial = 0.16, p = 0.44 after adjustment for age and sex [and adipose tissue thickness (ATT for muscleV˙O2 measurements]. Skeletal muscle metabolic adaptions occur following training and completion of a first-time marathon; these can be identified non-invasively using NIRS. Although the cardio-pulmonary system is limiting for running performance, skeletal muscle changes can be detected despite minimal improvement in cardio-pulmonary function.

  4. Is a threshold-based model a superior method to the relative percent concept for establishing individual exercise intensity? a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpern, Ali E; Burgos, Dara J; Janot, Jeffrey M; Dalleck, Lance C

    2015-01-01

    Exercise intensity is arguably the most critical component of the exercise prescription model. It has been suggested that a threshold based model for establishing exercise intensity might better identify the lowest effective training stimulus for all individuals with varying fitness levels; however, experimental evidence is lacking. The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two exercise training programs for improving cardiorespiratory fitness: threshold based model vs. relative percent concept (i.e., % heart rate reserve - HRR). Apparently healthy, but sedentary men and women (n = 42) were randomized to a non-exercise control group or one of two exercise training groups. Exercise training was performed 30 min/day on 5 days/week for 12weeks according to one of two exercise intensity regimens: 1) a relative percent method was used in which intensity was prescribed according to percentages of heart rate reserve (HRR group), or 2) a threshold based method (ACE-3ZM) was used in which intensity was prescribed according to the first ventilatory threshold (VT1) and second ventilatory threshold (VT2). Thirty-six men and women completed the study. After 12weeks, VO2max increased significantly (p method and change in VO2max values (F = 9.06, p method of exercise intensity prescription. In the HRR group 41.7 % (5/12) of individuals experienced a favorable change in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) and were categorized as responders. Alternatively, exercise training in the ACE-3ZM group elicited a positive improvement in relative VO2max (Δ > 5.9 %) in 100 % (12/12) of the individuals. A threshold based exercise intensity prescription: 1). elicited significantly (p < 0.05) greater improvements in VO2max, and 2). attenuated the individual variation in VO2max training responses when compared to relative percent exercise training. These novel findings are encouraging and provide important preliminary data for the design of

  5. Association Between Statin Use and Prevalence of Exercise-Related Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Amateur Runners in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bakker, EA; Timmers, S; Hopman, MTE; Thompson, PD; Verbeek, ALM; Eijsvogels, TMH

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the first-choice therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some maintain that statins cause adverse musculoskeletal outcomes in highly active individuals, but few studies have examined the effects of statins on exercise-related injuries. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the prevalence of exercise-related injuries between runners who do or do not use statins. METHODS: Amateur runners (n = 4460) completed an extensive online ...

  6. Menstrual Abnormalities in School Going Girls – Are They Related to Dietary and Exercise Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vani K., Rupa; K.S., Veena; L., Subitha; Kumar V.R., Hemanth; A., Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Context: Adolescence is the transitional phase of physical and mental development between childhood and adulthood and is characterized by immense hormonal changes.75% of girls experience some problems associated with menstruation. Aim: We tried to find out the prevalence of menstrual abnormalities in school going girls in Pondicherry and their association with dietary and exercise habits. Setting and Design: A cross-sectional questionnaire based study was conducted in adolescent girls who attained menarche in four secondary schools of Pondicherry, India. Material and Methods: All students who attained menarche and willing to participate in the study were invited to answer the questionnaire, which dealt with anthropometric data, socioeconomic data, menstrual history, and diet and exercise pattern. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test and Fisher’s exact test was used to compare the dietary and exercise patterns among students having menstrual abnormalities and those who do not have menstrual abnormalities. Results: A total of 853 students participated in the study. Dysmenorrhea and premenstrual symptoms were the most frequent problems encountered. Premenstrual symptoms were significantly more common among girls who were overweight, in girls who were eating junk food regularly, in girls who were eating less food (dieting) in order to lose weight and in those who were not doing regular physical activity. Dysmenorrhea was significantly more common in the girls who were dieting to lose weight. Passage of clots was also significantly high in the girls who were dieting. Conclusion: Lifestyle modifications like regular physical activity, decreasing the intake of junk food and promoting healthy eating habits should be emphasised in school health education programs to improve their menstrual health. PMID:24392394

  7. Effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of cancer-related fatigue: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Jonna K; Peeters, Petra H M; Velthuis, Miranda J; van der Wall, Elsken; May, Anne M

    2016-03-01

    Cancer-related fatigue has a multidimensional nature and complaints typically increase during adjuvant treatment for breast cancer. Physical exercise might prevent or reduce cancer-related fatigue. So far, no meta-analysis has investigated the effects of physical exercise on different dimensions of fatigue. The aim of the present meta-analysis was to investigate the effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on physical and psychosocial dimensions of fatigue. We performed a systematic literature search in PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library in June 2015. Randomised controlled trials reporting the effects of physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment on different dimensions of fatigue were included. Pooled effects of 6 exercise programmes (including 784 patients) showed significant beneficial exercise effects on general fatigue (ES: -0.22, 95% CI -0.38; -0.05) and physical fatigue (ES: -0.35, 95% CI -0.49; -0.21). Effects on fatigue subscales 'reduced activity' (ES: -0.22, 95% CI -0.38; -0.05) and 'reduced motivation' (ES: -0.18, 95% CI -0.35; -0.01) were also in favour of physical exercise. No effects were found on cognitive and affective fatigue. Including only the supervised exercise programmes (n=4 studies), slightly larger pooled effect estimates were found on general fatigue (ES: -0.25, 95% CI -0.47; -0.04) and physical fatigue (-0.39, 95% CI -0.56; -0.23). In conclusion, physical exercise during adjuvant breast cancer treatment has beneficial effects on general fatigue, physical fatigue, 'reduced activity' and 'reduced motivation', but did not show effects on cognitive and affective fatigue. Largest effect sizes are found for physical fatigue, suggesting that this is the fatigue dimension most sensitive to physical exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical exercise antagonizes clinical and anatomical features characterizing Lieber-DeCarli diet-induced obesity and related metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Inês O; Passos, Emanuel; Rocha-Rodrigues, Sílvia; Torrella, Joan R; Rizo, David; Santos-Alves, Estela; Portincasa, Piero; Martins, Maria J; Ascensão, António; Magalhães, José

    2015-04-01

    Lieber-DeCarli diet has been used to induce obesity and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). As scarce anatomical and clinical-related information on this diet model exists and being exercise an advised strategy to counteract metabolic diseases, we aimed to analyze the preventive (voluntary physical activity - VPA) and therapeutic (endurance training - ET) effect of exercise on clinical/anatomical features of rats fed with Lieber-DeCarli diet. In the beginning of the protocol, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into standard-diet sedentary (SS, n = 20), standard-diet VPA (SVPA, n = 10), high-fat diet sedentary (HS, n = 20) and high-fat diet VPA (HVPA, n = 10) groups. After 9-weeks, half (n = 10) of SS and HS groups were engaged in an ET program (8 wks/5 d/wk/60 min/day). At this time, a blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis. At the end of protocol (17-weeks) anatomic measures were assessed. Heart, liver, femur and visceral fat were weighted and blood was collected again. Liver section was used for histopathological examination. At 17-weeks, high-fat diet increased visceral adiposity (HS vs. SS), which was counteracted by both exercises. However, ET was the only intervention able to diminished obesity-related measures and the histological features of NASH. Moreover, blood analysis at 9 weeks showed that high-fat diet increased ALT, AST, cholesterol and HDL while VLDL and TG levels were decreased (HS vs. SS). Notably, although these parameters were counteracted after 9-weeks of VPA, they were transitory and not observed after 17-weeks. ET used as a therapeutic tool mitigated the clinical/anatomical-related features induced by Liber-DeCarli diet, thus possibly contributing to control obesity and metabolic disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  9. Transient increase in systemic interferences in the superficial layer and its influence on event-related motor tasks: a functional near-infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambu, Isao; Ozawa, Takuya; Sato, Takanori; Aihara, Takatsugu; Fujiwara, Yusuke; Otaka, Yohei; Osu, Rieko; Izawa, Jun; Wada, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a widely utilized neuroimaging tool in fundamental neuroscience research and clinical investigation. Previous research has revealed that task-evoked systemic artifacts mainly originating from the superficial-tissue may preclude the identification of cerebral activation during a given task. We examined the influence of such artifacts on event-related brain activity during a brisk squeezing movement. We estimated task-evoked superficial-tissue hemodynamics from short source-detector distance channels (15 mm) by applying principal component analysis. The estimated superficial-tissue hemodynamics exhibited temporal profiles similar to the canonical cerebral hemodynamic model. Importantly, this task-evoked profile was also observed in data from a block design motor experiment, suggesting a transient increase in superficial-tissue hemodynamics occurs following motor behavior, irrespective of task design. We also confirmed that estimation of event-related cerebral hemodynamics was improved by a simple superficial-tissue hemodynamic artifact removal process using 15-mm short distance channels, compared to the results when no artifact removal was applied. Thus, our results elucidate task design-independent characteristics of superficial-tissue hemodynamics and highlight the need for the application of superficial-tissue hemodynamic artifact removal methods when analyzing fNIRS data obtained during event-related motor tasks.

  10. Age-related changes in the distribution of transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 channel (TRPV4) in the central nervous system of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae Chul; Choe, Soo Young

    2014-10-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 4 (TRPV4) channels are expressed in the central nervous system, but their role in regulating the aging process under physiological and pathological conditions is still largely unknown. To identify age-related changes in the TRPV4 channel that contribute to the central nervous system, we investigated the distribution of TRPV4 in the brain and spinal cord regions of adult and aged rats. The expression of TRPV4 in the brain and spinal cord of adult and aged Sprague-Dawley rats was compared using immunohistochemistry performed with antibodies recognizing TRPV4 on free floating sections and western blotting analysis. TRPV4 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in the cerebral cortex, hippocampal formation, thalamus, basal nuclei, cerebellum and spinal cord of aged rats compared with adult control rats. In the cerebral cortex, TRPV4 immunoreactivity was significantly increased in pyramidal cells of aged rats. In addition, TRPV4 immunoreactivity was increased in the spinal cord, hippocampal formation, thalamus, basal nuclei and cerebellum of aged rats. This first demonstration of age-related increases in TRPV4 expression in the brain and spinal cord may provide useful data for investigating the pathogenesis of age-related neurodegenerative diseases. The exact regulatory mechanism and its functional significance require further elucidation.

  11. Which dimensions of impulsivity are related to problematic practice of physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotbagi, Gayatri; Morvan, Yannick; Romo, Lucia; Kern, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Problematic practice of physical exercise (PPPE) has been suggested to be a behavioral addiction. Impulsivity represents a core dimension of behavioral addictions. However, little is known about impulsivity facets in PPPE. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of impulsivity facets in PPPE. Methods A total of 684 students (between 18 and 25 years) took part in this study and filled up a battery of questionnaire, which consisted of following measures - Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, Exercise Dependence Scale - Revised, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Multiple regression analyses were utilized to investigate the predictive role of each impulsivity facet in PPPE. Results Age, the total level of physical activity per day, sex (male), negative urgency, and sensation seeking were found to be significant predictors of PPPE. A categorical analysis of PPPE revealed that negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were significantly higher in the dependent category of PPPE. Discussion and conclusions Associations to negative urgency and sensation seeking might indicate that PPPE serves to regulate or alleviate negative affect or aversive emotional states. Thus, PPPE could be conceptualized as a short-term coping strategy dedicated to relieving negative affective states, like other maladaptive behaviors such as binge eating, binge drinking, or compulsive buying.

  12. Can an exercise bicycle be safely used in the epilepsy monitoring unit?: An exercise method to provoke epileptic seizures and the related safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoung; Jung, Dae Soo; Hwang, Kyoung Jin; Seo, Ji-Hye; Na, Geon-Youb; Hong, Seung Bong; Joo, Eun Yeon; Seo, Dae-Won

    2015-05-01

    Long-term videoelectroencephalogram (video-EEG) monitoring is performed to diagnose an epileptic seizure and to investigate the differential diagnosis of paroxysmal events. To provoke an epileptic seizure, an exercise method is performed in some cases during long-term video-EEG recording in the epilepsy monitoring unit (EMU). The purpose of this study was two-fold: to assess the frequency and severity of adverse events associated with the use of an exercise bicycle and to find a way to safely use it in the EMU. A retrospective survey was performed on all epileptic seizure videos recorded in the EMU from January 2012 to December 2013. Three hundred and fifty patients were included in this study. Eleven patients experienced an epileptic seizure while riding the exercise bicycle in the EMU. One patient's foot got stuck between the cycling pedal and its strap, and one patient fell off the exercise bicycle during the epileptic seizure. However, there were no serious adverse events over two years. Epileptic seizures were not frequent while riding the exercise bicycle, and serious injuries did not occur. But, there is a need to improve the safety in the EMU to control the potentially dangerous factors associated with the use of the exercise bicycle and to continuously monitor the patients with help from the staff. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Transient Astrophysics Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan

    2017-08-01

    Transient Astrophysics Probe (TAP), selected by NASA for a funded Concept Study, is a wide-field high-energy transient mission proposed for flight starting in the late 2020s. TAP’s main science goals, called out as Frontier Discovery areas in the 2010 Decadal Survey, are time-domain astrophysics and counterparts of gravitational wave (GW) detections. The mission instruments include unique imaging soft X-ray optics that allow ~500 deg2 FoV in each of four separate modules; a high sensitivity, 1 deg2 FoV soft X-ray telescope based on single crystal silicon optics; a passively cooled, 1 deg2 FoV Infrared telescope with bandpass 0.6-3 micron; and a set of ~8 small NaI gamma-ray detectors. TAP will observe many events per year of X-ray transients related to compact objects, including tidal disruptions of stars, supernova shock breakouts, neutron star bursts and superbursts, and high redshift Gamma-Ray Bursts. Perhaps most exciting is TAP’s capability to observe X-ray and IR counterparts of GWs involving stellar mass black holes detected by LIGO/Virgo, and possibly X-ray counterparts of GWs from supermassive black holes, detected by LISA and Pulsar Timing Arrays.

  14. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juriena D de Vries

    Full Text Available Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery. Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning were also investigated.Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49 or wait list (no intervention, n = 48. All participants were measured before the intervention (T0, and immediately after the intervention (T1. Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2 and 12 weeks (T3 after the intervention.Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3. At 12-week follow up (T3, 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality.These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects that were found in this study imply

  15. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Juriena D; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2016-01-01

    Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery). Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning) were also investigated. Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49) or wait list (no intervention, n = 48). All participants were measured before the intervention (T0), and immediately after the intervention (T1). Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2) and 12 weeks (T3) after the intervention. Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery) as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3). At 12-week follow up (T3), 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality. These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects that were found in this study imply that

  16. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff’s Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils’ mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils’ academic achievement and well-being—assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement. PMID:25861553

  17. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  18. Physical exercise alters the activation of downstream proteins related to BDNF-TrkB signaling in male Wistar rats with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Gomes da Silva, Sérgio; Lopim, Glauber Menezes; Vannucci Campos, Diego; Fernandes, Jansen; Cabral, Francisco Romero; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2017-11-02

    There are a considerable number of studies concerning the behavioral effects of physical exercise on the epileptic brain; however, the intracellular signaling mechanisms involved remain unclear. We investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on hippocampal levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), expression of its receptor tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB), and activation of intracellular proteins related to BDNF-TrkB signaling in male Wistar rats with pilocarpine-induced epilepsy. Thirty days after the first spontaneous seizure, rats from the exercise group undertook a 30-day physical exercise program on the treadmill. Thereafter, BDNF levels, expression of TrkB, and activation of intracellular proteins were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blotting, and multiplex assay, respectively. Statistical analyses were conducted using nonparametric tests. Rats with epilepsy presented decreased BDNF levels compared with control rats. BDNF levels increased significantly in the exercise group compared with the epileptic and control groups. Expression of full-length and truncated TrkB was increased in rats with epilepsy, and physical exercise restored its expression to control levels. RAC-alpha serine/threonine-protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, and extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation were reduced in rats with epilepsy, and exercise increased activation compared with control and epilepsy groups. Increased cAMP response element binding protein activation was observed in the exercise group compared with the epilepsy group. Our findings indicate that the beneficial effects of exercise in the epileptic brain can be in part related to alterations in the activation of proteins related to the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An examination of the anxiolytic effects of exercise for people with anxiety and stress-related disorders: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Brendon; Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Firth, Joseph; Cosco, Theodore; Veronese, Nicola; Salum, Giovanni A; Schuch, Felipe B

    2017-03-01

    The literature regarding exercise for people with established anxiety disorders is equivocal. To address this issue, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis investigating the benefits of exercise compared to usual treatment or control conditions in people with an anxiety and/or stress-related disorders. Major electronic databases were searched from inception until December/2015 and a random effect meta-analysis conducted. Altogether, six randomized control trials (RCTs) including 262 adults (exercise n=132, 34.74 [9.6] years; control n=130, 37.34 [10.0] years) were included. Exercise significantly decreased anxiety symptoms more than control conditions, with a moderate effect size (Standardized Mean Difference=-0.582, 95%CI -1.0 to -0.76, p=0.02). Our data suggest that exercise is effective in improving anxiety symptoms in people with a current diagnosis of anxiety and/ or stress-related disorders. Taken together with the wider benefits of exercise on wellbeing and cardiovascular health, these findings reinforce exercise as an important treatment option in people with anxiety/stress disorders. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Is serum leptin related to physical function and is it modifiable through weight loss and exercise in older adults with knee osteoarthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G D; Nicklas, B J; Davis, C C; Ambrosius, W T; Loeser, R F; Messier, S P

    2004-11-01

    To determine the effect of weight loss and exercise interventions on serum leptin and to investigate the relationship of physical function and osteoarthritis (OA) severity with serum leptin in older overweight and obese adults with knee OA. In addition, the study examined if serum leptin predicts weight loss. Longitudinal, controlled clinical trial of weight loss and exercise interventions. Community dwelling, older, overweight and obese adults (n=316; >60 years of age; body mass index >/=28.0 kg m(-2)) with symptomatic knee OA and self-reported difficulty in performing selected physical activities were recruited. Participants were randomized into one of four groups for the 18-month study duration: Healthy Lifestyle Controls, Dietary Weight Loss (Diet), Exercise Training (Exercise), and a combination of Dietary Weight Loss and Exercise Training (Diet+Exercise). The weight loss goal for the two Diet groups was 5% from baseline at 18 months. Participants in the Exercise groups were trained for 3 days week(-1), 60 min day(-1). Body weight, body mass index, serum leptin, physical function, and OA severity were measured at baseline, 6 months, and 18 months. Diet and Diet+Exercise groups lost 5.3 and 6.1% of their weight, respectively, at 18 months with the Exercise group losing 2.9%. There was a significant main effect of weight loss on serum leptin with a decrease in serum leptin averaged across the 6- and 18-month time points for the Diet and Diet+Exercise groups compared to the other two groups (beta=0.245; Pleptin was related to self-reported physical function. In all participants, a mixed model analysis demonstrated that lower levels of baseline serum leptin predict larger weight loss (beta=-2.779; P=0.048). Decreases in serum leptin may be one mechanism by which weight loss improves physical function and symptoms in OA patients.

  1. Gene expression in mdx mouse muscle in relation to age and exercise: aberrant mechanical-metabolic coupling and implications for pre-clinical studies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Cannone, Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Massari, Ada Maria; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-11-01

    Weakness and fatigability are typical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and are aggravated in dystrophic mdx mice by chronic treadmill exercise. Mechanical activity modulates gene expression and muscle plasticity. Here, we investigated the outcome of 4 (T4, 8 weeks of age) and 12 (T12, 16 weeks of age) weeks of either exercise or cage-based activity on a large set of genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx and wild-type (WT) mice using quantitative real-time PCR. Basal expression of the exercise-sensitive genes peroxisome-proliferator receptor γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α) and Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was higher in mdx versus WT mice at both ages. Exercise increased Pgc-1α expression in WT mice; Pgc-1α was downregulated by T12 exercise in mdx muscles, along with Sirt1, Pparγ and the autophagy marker Bnip3. Sixteen weeks old mdx mice showed a basal overexpression of the slow Mhc1 isoform and Serca2; T12 exercise fully contrasted this basal adaptation as well as the high expression of follistatin and myogenin. Conversely, T12 exercise was ineffective in WT mice. Damage-related genes such as gp91-phox (NADPH-oxidase2), Tgfβ, Tnfα and c-Src tyrosine kinase were overexpressed in mdx muscles and not affected by exercise. Likewise, the anti-inflammatory adiponectin was lower in T12-exercised mdx muscles. Chronic exercise with minor adaptive effects in WT muscles leads to maladaptation in mdx muscles with a disequilibrium between protective and damaging signals. Increased understanding of the pathways involved in the altered mechanical-metabolic coupling may help guide appropriate physical therapies while better addressing pharmacological interventions in translational research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein....... The changes in heart rate, potassium levels, and haematocrit during the exercise test were similar in the two groups. The maximal obtained lactate concentration was 4.2 mmol l-1 (3.5-5.6) in the patients as compared to 4.9 mmol l-1 (3.9-5.9) in the controls (NS). The estimated anaerobic threshold of 2 mmol l...

  3. Growth hormone response to a standardised exercise test in relation to puberty and stature.

    OpenAIRE

    Greene, S A; Torresani, T; Prader, A.

    1987-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) was measured before and 10 minutes after a standardised bicycle exercise test (duration 15 minutes) in 37 short children (group 1: mean (SD) age 12.8 (3.5) years; mean (SD) bone age 10.4 (3.6) years; mean (SD) height standard deviation score (SDS) -2.8 (0.7], 16 tall children (group 2: mean age 12.9 (2.8) years; mean bone age 13.9 (1.4) years; mean height SDS 3.0 (0.8], and 30 normal children (group 3: mean age 13.3 (3.2) years; mean bone age 12.8 (3.4) years; mean height ...

  4. Soreness-related changes in three-dimensional running biomechanics following eccentric knee extensor exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquette, Max R; Peel, Shelby A; Schilling, Brian K; Melcher, Dan A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2017-06-01

    Runners often experience delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS), especially of the knee extensors, following prolonged running. Sagittal knee joint biomechanics are altered in the presence of knee extensor DOMS but it is unclear how muscle soreness affects lower limb biomechanics in other planes of motion. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of knee extensor DOMS on three-dimensional (3D) lower limb biomechanics during running. Thirty-three healthy men (25.8 ± 6.8 years; 84.1 ± 9.2 kg; 1.77 ± 0.07 m) completed an isolated eccentric knee extensor damaging protocol to elicit DOMS. Biomechanics of over-ground running at a set speed of 3.35 m s-1±5% were measured before eccentric exercise (baseline) and, 24 h and 48 h following exercise in the presence of knee extensor DOMS. Knee flexion ROM was reduced at 48 h (P = 0.01; d = 0.26), and peak knee extensor moment was reduced at 24 h (P = 0.001; d = 0.49) and 48 h (P biomechanics were unaffected by the presence of DOMS (P > 0.05). Peak positive ankle and knee joint powers and, peak negative knee joint power were all reduced from baseline to 24 h and 48 h (P biomechanics during running.

  5. Clinical physiology of exercise in pregnancy: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Larry A; Weissgerber, Tracey L

    2003-06-01

    To review the existing literature on the physiology of exercise in pregnancy as a basis for clinical practice guidelines for prenatal exercise prescription. MEDLINE search for English language abstracts and articles published between 1966 and 2003 related to physiological adaptations to pregnancy, effects of pregnancy on responses to acute exercise and aerobic conditioning, effects of acute maternal exercise on indexes of fetal well-being, impact of physical conditioning on birth weight and other pregnancy outcomes, and use of exercise to prevent or treat gestational diabetes mellitus and preeclampsia. Maximal aerobic power (VO(2)max, L/min) is well-preserved in pregnant women who remain physically active, but anaerobic working capacity may be reduced in late gestation. The increase in resting heart rate, reduction in maximal heart rate, and resulting smaller heart rate reserve render heart rate a less precise way of estimating exercise intensity. As rating of perceived exertion (RPE) is not altered by pregnancy, the use of revised pulse rate target zones along with Borg's RPE scale is recommended to prescribe exercise intensity during pregnancy. Responses to prolonged submaximal exercise (>30 min) in late gestation include a moderate reduction in maternal blood glucose concentration, which may transiently reduce fetal glucose availability. The normal response to sustained submaximal exercise is an increase in fetal heart rate (FHR) baseline. Transient reductions in FHR reactivity, fetal breathing movements, and FHR variability may also occur in association with more strenuous exercise. Controlled prospective studies have demonstrated that moderate prenatal exercise during the second and third trimesters is useful to improve aerobic fitness and maternal-fetal physiological reserve without affecting fetal growth. The Physical Activity Readiness Medical Examination for Pregnancy is recommended for use by physicians and midwives to provide medical clearance for

  6. Efficacy of an exercise intervention for employees with work-related fatigue: study protocol of a two-arm randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Juriena D; van Hooff, Madelon L M; Geurts, Sabine A E; Kompier, Michiel A J

    2015-11-12

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue. Exercise is a potentially effective intervention strategy to reduce work-related fatigue, since it may enhance employees' ability to cope with work stress and it helps to detach from work. However, based on available research, no clear causal inferences regarding its efficacy can be made. This RCT therefore investigates whether exercise is effective in reducing work-related fatigue, and in improving other indicators of employees' mental and physical well-being and performance. A two-arm parallel trial will be conducted. Participants (N = 108) who experience high levels of work-related fatigue will be randomized at a 1:1 ratio to a 6-week exercise intervention or wait list (control). The exercise intervention consists of three one-hour low-intensity outdoor running sessions a week. Each week, two sessions take place in a group under supervision of a trainer, and one session is completed individually. The running sessions will be carried out during leisure time. The primary outcome is work-related fatigue. Secondary outcomes include work ability, self-efficacy, sleep quality, cognitive functioning, and aerobic fitness. These data will be collected at pre-intervention, post-intervention, and at 6 weeks and 12 weeks after the intervention. In addition, weekly measures of employees' well-being, and exercise activities (i.e. type, frequency, and duration) and experiences (i.e. pleasure, effort, and detachment) will be collected during the intervention period. This study will compare an exercise intervention to a wait list. This enables us to examine the effect of exercise on work-related fatigue compared to the natural course of these symptoms. As such, this study contributes to a better understanding of the causal link between exercise and work-related fatigue. If the intervention is proven effective, the results could provide a basis for future

  7. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan, resistance training, balance, fall prevention, fall-related

  8. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety ...

  10. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  11. Too sick not to exercise: using a 6-week, home-based exercise intervention for cancer-related fatigue self-management for postsurgical non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Amy J; Brintnall, Ruth Ann; Brown, Jean K; Eye, Alexander von; Jones, Lee W; Alderink, Gordon; Ritz-Holland, Debbie; Enter, Mark; Patzelt, Lawrence H; Vanotteren, Glenn M

    2013-01-01

    Two prevalent unmet supportive care needs reported by the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) population include the need to manage fatigue and attain adequate exercise to meet the physical demands of daily living. Yet, there are no guidelines for routine rehabilitative support to address fatigue and exercise for persons with NSCLC during the critical transition from hospital to home after thoracotomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, safety, and changes in study end points of a home-based exercise intervention to enhance perceived self-efficacy for cancer-related fatigue (CRF) self-management for persons after thoracotomy for NSCLC transitioning from hospital to home. Guided by the principles of the Transitional Care Model and the Theory of Symptom Self-management, a single-arm design composed of 7 participants with early-stage NSCLC performed light-intensity walking and balance exercises in a virtual reality environment with the Nintendo Wii Fit Plus. Exercise started the first week after hospitalization for thoracotomy and continued for 6 weeks. The intervention positively impacted end points such as CRF severity; perceived self-efficacy for fatigue self-management, walking, and balance; CRF self-management behaviors (walking and balance exercises); and functional performance (number of steps taken per day). A home-based, light-intensity exercise intervention for patients after thoracotomy for NSCLC is feasible, safe, well tolerated, and highly acceptable showing positive changes in CRF self-management. Beginning evidence suggests that a light-intensity in-home walking and balance intervention after hospitalization for thoracotomy for NSCLC is a potentially effective rehabilitative CRF self-management intervention. Next steps include testing of this health-promoting self-management intervention in a larger-scale randomized controlled trial.

  12. Roles of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 in transient global ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shang-Der, E-mail: chensd@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tsu-Kung [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ding-I. [Institute of Brain Science and Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Su-Ying [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Shaw, Fu-Zen [Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liou, Chia-Wei [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Yao-Chung, E-mail: ycchuang@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies showed that increased mitochondrial fission is an early event of cell death during cerebral ischemia and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays an important role in mitochondrial fission, which may be regulated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and regulate mitochondrial fission. However, the roles of PINK1 and Drp1 in hippocampal injury caused by transient global ischemia (TGI) remain unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TGI may induce PINK1 causing downregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation to enhance hippocampal neuronal survival, thus functioning as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. We found progressively increased PINK1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 subfield1-48 h following TGI, reaching the maximal level at 4 h. Despite lack of changes in the expression level of total Drp1 and phosphor-Drp1 at Ser637, TGI induced a time-dependent increase of Drp1 phosphorlation at Ser616 that peaked after 24 h. Notably, PINK1-siRNA increased p-Drp1(Ser616) protein level in hippocampal CA1 subfield 24 h after TGI. The PINK1 siRNA also aggravated the TGI-induced oxidative DNA damage with an increased 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in hippocampal CA1 subfield. Furthermore, PINK1 siRNA also augmented TGI-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased numbers of TUNEL-positive staining and enhanced DNA fragmentation. These findings indicated that PINK1 is an endogenous protective mediator vital for neuronal survival under ischemic insult through regulating Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser616. - Highlights: • Transient global ischemia increases expression of PINK1 and p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA decreases PINK1 expression but increases p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA augments oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield.

  13. The effect of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and pain-related cellular reactions in the spinal cord and midbrain in a rat sciatic nerve injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumizono M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Sumizono,1,2 Harutoshi Sakakima,1 Shotaro Otsuka,1 Takuto Terashi,1 Kazuki Nakanishi,1,2 Koki Ueda,1,2 Seiya Takada,1,2 Kiyoshi Kikuchi3 1Course of Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan; 2Kirishima Orthopedics, Kirishima, Japan; 3Division of Brain Science, Department of Physiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group, CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group, CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group, and naive animals (control group. Rats ran on a treadmill, at a speed of 20 m/min, for 30 min, for 5 (HFE or 3 (LFE days a week, for a total of 5 weeks. The 50% withdrawal threshold was evaluated for mechanical sensitivity. The activation of glial cells (microglia and astrocytes, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and μ-opioid receptor in the spinal dorsal horn and endogenous opioid in the midbrain were examined using immunohistochemistry. Opioid receptor antagonists (naloxone were administered using intraperitoneal injection. Results: The development of neuropathic pain was related to the activation of glial cells, increased BDNF expression, and downregulation of the μ-opioid receptor in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. In the No-Ex group, neuropathic pain showed the highest level of mechanical hypersensitivity at 2 weeks, which improved slightly until 5 weeks after CCI. In both exercise groups, the alleviation of

  14. Aerobic exercise prevents age-dependent cognitive decline and reduces anxiety-related behaviors in middle-aged and old rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrelli, A; Lopez-Costa, J; Goñi, R; Brusco, A; Basso, N

    2012-01-27

    Recent research involving human and animals has shown that aerobic exercise of moderate intensity produces the greatest benefit on brain health and behavior. In this study we investigated the effects on cognitive function and anxiety-related behavior in rats at different ages of aerobic exercise, performed regularly throughout life. We designed an aerobic training program with the treadmill running following the basic principles of human training, and assuming that rats have the same physiological adaptations. The intensity was gradually adjusted to the fitness level and age, and maintained at 60-70% of maximum oxygen consumption (max.VO(2)). In middle age (8 months) and old age (18 months), we studied the cognitive response with the radial maze (RM), and anxiety-related behaviors with the open field (OF) and the elevated plus maze (EPM). Aerobically trained (AT) rats had a higher cognitive performance measured in the RM, showing that exercise had a cumulative and amplifier effect on memory and learning. The analysis of age and exercise revealed that the effects of aerobic exercise were modulated by age. Middle-aged AT rats were the most successful animals; however, the old AT rats met the criteria more often than the middle-aged sedentary controls (SC), indicating that exercise could reverse the negative effects of sedentary life, partially restore the cognitive function, and protect against the deleterious effects of aging. The results in the OF and EPM showed a significant decrease in key indicators of anxiety, revealing that age affected most of the analyzed variables, and that exercise had a prominent anxiolytic effect, particularly strong in old age. In conclusion, our results indicated that regular and chronic aerobic exercise has time and dose-dependent, neuroprotective and restorative effects on physiological brain aging, and reduces anxiety-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Factors relating to stages of change in walking exercise behavior among older adults living in a hilly, mountainous area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Kiyomi; Ninomiya, Kazue; Sakano, Junko

    2014-01-01

    We sought to identify factors relating to stages of change in walking exercise behavior among older adults living in a hilly, mountainous area in search of effective interventions to aid transitions. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey was conducted with all older adults aged between 60 and 74 years (n=752) living in Takahashi City in the district of Kawakami, Okayama Prefecture. Questionnaires were distributed by local volunteer staff to 752 older adults, who completed and mailed the questionnaires to the principal investigator. Data on participants' demographic characteristics (gender, age, family structure, etc.), stages of change in walking exercise behavior, self-efficacy, perceived physical environment, and perceived social environment were collected through the survey. The participants were divided into non-walking, preparation, and walking subgroups. The χ(2), Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, and Bonferroni's multiple comparison tests were performed. Significance was set at 0.05. of 325 returned questionnaires (response rate, 43.2%), 164 completed questionnaires were analyzed. Females were significantly more likely to be physically active than were males. The preparation group had the largest number of participants (n=69, 42.1%), while the walking group had the smallest (n=43, 26.2%). The Kruskal-Wallis test revealed differences between stages of change in walking exercise behavior in terms of self-efficacy, perceived physical environment (landscape), and perceived social environment (all items). Multiple comparisons revealed that there were significant differences between the non-walking and preparation groups in self-efficacy, landscape, and advice/guidelines, while there were significant differences between the preparation and walking groups in self-efficacy and understanding/empathy. Moving through the stages of change in walking exercise behavior was associated with gender, self-efficacy, the physical environment (landscape), and all

  16. Exercise Recommendations for Cancer-Related Fatigue, Cognitive Impairment, Sleep problems, Depression, Pain, Anxiety, and Physical Dysfunction: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustian, Karen M.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J.; Mohile, Supriya

    2013-01-01

    Cancer and its treatments produce a myriad of burdensome side effects and significantly impair quality of life (QOL). Exercise reduces side effects and improves QOL for cancer patients during treatment and recovery. Exercise prior to, during, and after completion of cancer treatments provides numerous beneficial outcomes. Exercise represents an effective therapeutic intervention for preparing patients to successfully complete treatments, for reducing acute, chronic and late side effects, and for improving QOL during and after treatments. This overview of exercise oncology and side-effect management summarizes existing evidence-based exercise guidelines for cancer patients and survivors. PMID:23667857

  17. Exercise Recommendations for Cancer-Related Fatigue, Cognitive Impairment, Sleep problems, Depression, Pain, Anxiety, and Physical Dysfunction: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustian, Karen M; Sprod, Lisa K; Janelsins, Michelle; Peppone, Luke J; Mohile, Supriya

    2012-01-01

    Cancer and its treatments produce a myriad of burdensome side effects and significantly impair quality of life (QOL). Exercise reduces side effects and improves QOL for cancer patients during treatment and recovery. Exercise prior to, during, and after completion of cancer treatments provides numerous beneficial outcomes. Exercise represents an effective therapeutic intervention for preparing patients to successfully complete treatments, for reducing acute, chronic and late side effects, and for improving QOL during and after treatments. This overview of exercise oncology and side-effect management summarizes existing evidence-based exercise guidelines for cancer patients and survivors.

  18. Exercise for health: a randomized, controlled trial evaluating the impact of a pragmatic, translational exercise intervention on the quality of life, function and treatment-related side effects following breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sandra C; Rye, Sheree; Disipio, Tracey; Yates, Patsy; Bashford, John; Pyke, Chris; Saunders, Christobel; Battistutta, Diana; Eakin, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Exercise for Health was a randomized, controlled trial designed to evaluate two modes of delivering (face-to-face [FtF] and over-the-telephone [Tel]) an 8-month translational exercise intervention, commencing 6-weeks post-breast cancer surgery (PS). Outcomes included quality of life (QoL), function (fitness and upper body) and treatment-related side effects (fatigue, lymphoedema, body mass index, menopausal symptoms, anxiety, depression and pain). Generalised estimating equation modelling determined time (baseline [5 weeks PS], mid-intervention [6 months PS], post-intervention [12 months PS]), group (FtF, Tel, Usual Care [UC]) and time-by-group effects. 194 women representative of the breast cancer population were randomised to the FtF (n = 67), Tel (n = 67) and UC (n = 60) groups. There were significant (p exercise as a form of adjuvant breast cancer therapy that can prevent declines in fitness and function during treatment and optimise recovery post-treatment.

  19. Nutrition Supplements to Stimulate Lipolysis: A Review in Relation to Endurance Exercise Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jisu; Park, Jonghoon; Lim, Kiwon

    2016-01-01

    Athletes make great efforts to increase their endurance capacity in many ways. Using nutrition supplements for stimulating lipolysis is one such strategy to improve endurance performance. These supplements contain certain ingredients that affect fat metabolism; furthermore, in combination with endurance training, they tend to have additive effects. A large body of scientific evidence shows that nutrition supplements increase fat metabolism; however, the usefulness of lipolytic supplements as ergogenic functional foods remains controversial. The present review will describe the effectiveness of lipolytic supplements in fat metabolism and as an ergogenic aid for increasing endurance exercise capacity. There are a number of lipolytic supplements available on the market, but this review focuses on natural ingredients such as caffeine, green tea extract, L-carnitine, Garcinia cambogia (hydroxycitric acid), capsaicin, ginseng, taurine, silk peptides and octacosanol, all of which have shown scientific evidence of enhancing fat metabolism associated with improving endurance performance. We excluded some other supplements owing to lack of data on fat metabolism or endurance capacity. Based on the data in this review, we suggest that a caffeine and green tea extract improves endurance performance and enhances fat oxidation. Regarding other supplements, the data on their practical implications needs to be gathered, especially for athletes.

  20. [TOBACCO CONSUMPTION AMONG ADULTS IN MONTERREY: RELATION TO EXERCISE REGULARLY AND FAMILY].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Juan, Francisco; Isorna-Folgar, Manuel; Ruiz-Risueño, Jorge; Vaquero-Cristóbal, Raquel

    2015-08-01

    determine the relationship among tobacco consumption, physical activity, sociodemographic variables and family behaviours in Mexican adults. 978 Mexican adults (483 males and 495 females) were interviewed by a random routes questionnaire. Multinomial logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratio (OR) and confidence interval (CI = 95%). men have a high risk factor of tobacco comsumption in frequency and/or amount. 18 to 45 years-old is the age range with high probability of tobacco comsumption, while the more age, the less comsumption. The tobacco consumption risk is significantly low in people who have less that a primary education. Participants who have never done physical exercise have a low possibility of tobacco consumption, while the consumption is high in the group of people who have abandoned physical activity. The family context is a risk factor of tobacco consumption in frequency. About alcohol consumption, it was found that people who drink alcohol have a high probability of smoke. tobacco consumption at high frequencies and amounts and physical activity are inversely relationship. It has been also detected a direct relationship between the frequency and the amount of tobacco and alcohol consumptions; and between the frequency and the amount of tobacco consumption and the family in the tobacco consumption. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  1. Association Between Statin Use and Prevalence of Exercise-Related Injuries: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Amateur Runners in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Esmée A; Timmers, Silvie; Hopman, Maria T E; Thompson, Paul D; Verbeek, André L M; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H

    2017-09-01

    HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) are the first-choice therapy for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some maintain that statins cause adverse musculoskeletal outcomes in highly active individuals, but few studies have examined the effects of statins on exercise-related injuries. We sought to compare the prevalence of exercise-related injuries between runners who do or do not use statins. Amateur runners (n = 4460) completed an extensive online questionnaire on their exercise patterns and health status. Participants replied to questions on the prevalence of exercise-related injuries in the previous year. Injuries were divided into general injuries, tendon- and ligament-related injuries, and muscle-related injuries. Participants were also queried about statin use: the type of statin, statin dose, and duration of treatment. Runners were divided into statin users, non-statin users with hypercholesterolemia, and controls for analysis. The crude odds ratios (ORs) for injuries, tendon- or ligament-related injuries, and muscle-related injuries in statin users compared with controls were 1.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.79-1.66), 1.10 (95% CI 0.71-1.72), and 1.15 (95% CI 0.69-1.91), respectively. After adjustment for age, sex, body mass index (BMI), and metabolic equivalent of task (MET) h/week of exercise, the ORs were 1.11 (95% CI 0.76-1.62), 1.06 (95% CI 0.68-1.66), and 0.98 (95% CI 0.58-1.64), respectively. Similar effect measures were found when comparing non-statin users with hypercholesterolemia and controls. We did not find an association between statin use and the prevalence of exercise-related injuries or tendon-, ligament-, and muscle-related injuries. Runners receiving statins should continue normal physical activity without concern for increased risk of injuries.

  2. Does a combination of physical training, specific exercises and pain education improve health-related quality of life in patients with chronic neck pain?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ris, I; Søgaard, Karen; Gram, B

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of combining pain education, specific exercises and graded physical activity training (exercise) compared with pain education alone (control) on physical health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in chronic neck pain patients. METHODS: A multicentre randomised...... anterior and cervical spine, Cranio-cervical Flexion, Cervical Extension muscle function, and oculomotion) were recorded at baseline and after 4 months. RESULTS: The exercise group showed statistically significant improvement in physical HR-QoL, mental HR-QoL, depression, cervical pressure pain threshold......, cervical extension movement, muscle function, and oculomotion. Per protocol analyses confirmed these results with additional significant improvements in the exercise group compared with controls. CONCLUSIONS: This multimodal intervention may be an effective intervention for chronic neck pain patients...

  3. Myocardial infarction is a frequent cause of exercise-related resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a general non-athletic population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søholm, Helle; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig

    2014-01-01

    performed (88% vs. 54%, ptime to ROSC was shorter (12 min (IQR: 5-19) vs. 15 (9-22), p=0.007) and the primary rhythm was more frequently shock-able (91% vs. 49%, pexercise patients. Cardiac etiology was the predominant cause of OHCA in both exercise and non-exercise patients...... (97% vs. 80%, pexercise patients (59% vs. 38%, pexercise was even after adjustment associated with a significantly lower mortality (HR=0.40 (95%CI: 0.23-0.72), p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS......: OHCA occurring during exercise was associated with a significantly lower mortality in successfully resuscitated patients even after adjusting for confounding factors. Acute coronary syndrome was more common among exercise-related cardiac arrest patients....

  4. Effects of Supervised Multimodal Exercise Interventions on Cancer-Related Fatigue: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Cancer-related fatigue (CRF is the most common and devastating problem in cancer patients even after successful treatment. This study aimed to determine the effects of supervised multimodal exercise interventions on cancer-related fatigue through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Design. A systematic review was conducted to determine the effectiveness of multimodal exercise interventions on CRF. Databases of PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, and OVID were searched between January and March 2014 to retrieve randomized controlled trials. Risk of bias was evaluated using the PEDro scale. Results. Nine studies n=772 were included in both systematic review and meta-analysis. Multimodal interventions including aerobic exercise, resistance training, and stretching improved CRF symptoms (SMD=-0.23; 95% CI: −0.37 to −0.09; P=0.001. These effects were also significant in patients undergoing chemotherapy P<0.0001. Nonsignificant differences were found for resistance training interventions P=0.30. Slight evidence of publication bias was observed P=0.04. The studies had a low risk of bias (PEDro scale mean score of 6.4 (standard deviation (SD ± 1.0. Conclusion. Supervised multimodal exercise interventions including aerobic, resistance, and stretching exercises are effective in controlling CRF. These findings suggest that these exercise protocols should be included as a crucial part of the rehabilitation programs for cancer survivors and patients during anticancer treatments.

  5. The Effect of Eight Weeks of Global Postural Corrective Exercises on Kyphosis and Forward Head Angle in Elderly Women with Age-Related Hyperkyphosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnaz Bahrekazemi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies reported that, thoracic Hyperkyphosis may have negative effects in health status and postures of elderly women. The aim or current research was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of global postural corrective exercises on kyphosis and forward head angle in elderly women with age-related hyperkyphosis. The mean age, height, and weight of the experimental group (n=16 were 68.5 years, 151.6 cm, and 55.4 kg respectively, whereas the values in the control group (n=16 were 69.1 years, 154.3 cm, and 54.6 kg, respectively, with no statistical differences between the groups. Forward head posture was measured lateral view photogrammetry and also thoracic kyphosis was measured using 2 gravity-dependent inclinometers placed over the spinal processes of T1 and T2 and over the T12 and L1 vertebrae before and after 8 weeks global postural corrective exercises. Results indicated that global postural corrective exercises significantly improved thoracic kyphosis (p=0.002 and forward head angle (p=0.003. It is concluded that the global postural corrective exercises developed in the present study can be recommended for improving the hyperkyphosis and forward head postures through specialized exercises focused on global postural corrective exercises in elderly women with age-related hyperkyphosis.

  6. Transient Global Amnesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sudden memory loss. Request an Appointment at Mayo Clinic Causes The underlying cause of transient global amnesia is unknown. There appears to be a link between transient global amnesia and a history of migraines, though the underlying factors that contribute ...

  7. Morning and evening exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, SungRyul; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Park, Byung Joo; Han, Jin

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has differen...

  8. Relation of Risk of Atrial Fibrillation With Systolic Blood Pressure Response During Exercise Stress Testing (from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing Project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neal, Wesley T; Qureshi, Waqas T; Blaha, Michael J; Ehrman, Jonathan K; Brawner, Clinton A; Nasir, Khurram; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-12-15

    Decreases in systolic blood pressure during exercise may predispose to arrhythmias such as atrial fibrillation (AF) because of underlying abnormal autonomic tone. We examined the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF in 57,442 (mean age 54 ± 13 years, 47% women, and 29% black) patients free of baseline AF who underwent exercise treadmill stress testing from the Henry Ford ExercIse Testing project. Exercise systolic blood pressure response was examined as a categorical variable across clinically relevant categories (>20 mm Hg: referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg, and ≤0 mm Hg) and per 1-SD decrease. Cox regression, adjusting for demographics, cardiovascular risk factors, medications, history of coronary heart disease, history of heart failure, and metabolic equivalent of task achieved, was used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between systolic blood pressure response and incident AF. Over a median follow-up of 5.0 years, a total of 3,381 cases (5.9%) of AF were identified. An increased risk of AF was observed with decreasing systolic blood pressure response (>20 mm Hg: HR 1.0, referent; 1 to 20 mm Hg: HR 1.09, 95% CI 0.99, 1.20; ≤0 mm Hg: HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.40). Similar results were obtained per 1-SD decrease in systolic blood pressure response (HR 1.08, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.12). The results were consistent when stratified by age, sex, race, hypertension, and coronary heart disease. In conclusion, our results suggest that a decreased systolic blood pressure response during exercise may identify subjects who are at risk for developing AF. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Transient drainage summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage.

  10. [Analysis on the relations between levels of change and the mental decisive factors on the physical exercise behavior among middle school students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Liangwen; Chen, Zhaojiao; Huang, Xianhong; Qu, Xuping; Gu, Fang; Ma, Haiyan; Liu, Tingjie; Wu, Xian; Fang, Mingzhu

    2014-02-01

    To study the situation of sports and its influencing factors among students in order to improve health related education and promotion programs. A multistage random sampling method was used on 3 600 students from three cities to understand their physical exercise behavior. Both t and χ(2) test were used to measure the scale of psychology and to describe the time spent on exercise. Single variance factor was used to measure the levels of change on behavior of physical activities, psychological and physical exercise behaviors. The weekly exercise time for students was 2.66 ± 1.801 days, with 81.4% of the students less than four days. Data showed that 37.3%, 23.6%, 20.5% of the high school students were in pre-contemplation stage, in contemplation stage, or in preparation stage respectively, with only 18.6 percent of the high school students in the action phase and maintaining phase. Students in the stages of change increase the amount of physical exercises. Scores with statistically significant differences were seen in the following areas: between five stages of behavior change on strategies (F = 77.442, P stage of front maintenance phase, positive effects on decision-making balance and self-efficacy scores were increasing along with the increasing stages of changing. The effect of balancing the negative effects increased when the change of phase decreased. Students were in lack of physical exercise per week. The differences related to the behavior on physical exercise did exist but most of the high school students were in the primary stage. Psychological factors played important role in the different stages of changing, suggesting that high school students should receive different health education and psychological intervention measures to enhance the effectiveness of physical exercise.

  11. The effects of an exercise programme during pregnancy on health-related quality of life in pregnant women: a Norwegian randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gustafsson, M K; Stafne, S N; Romundstad, P R; Mørkved, S; Salvesen, Kå; Helvik, A-S

    2016-06-01

    To investigate whether a customised exercise programme influences pregnant women's psychological wellbeing and general health perception reflecting health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in late pregnancy. A two-armed, two-centred randomised controlled trial. Trondheim and Stavanger University Hospitals, Norway. A total of 855 healthy Caucasian pregnant women. The intervention group was offered a 12-week exercise programme between 20 and 36 weeks of pregnancy. One weekly group session was led by physiotherapists, in addition women were encouraged to follow a home exercise programme at least twice a week. The exercise programme followed standard recommendations and included both aerobic and strength training. The control group received regular antenatal care. Pretests and post-tests were performed at 18-22 and 32-36 weeks of pregnancy. In the original study primary outcome was gestational diabetes mellitus, but in this report the primary outcome is HRQoL. The questionnaire Psychological General Wellbeing Index (PGWBI) was used to assess psychological wellbeing and self-perceived general health before and after the intervention. PGWBI contains six subscales and it is also possible to summarise all items to a global score. No association between antenatal exercise programme allocation and PGWBI (global score and subscales) was found. The study population was homogeneous and had high educational level. The results indicate that offering women an exercise programme during pregnancy does not seem to influence healthy pregnant women's psychological wellbeing and self-perceived general health. Further research is needed to investigate the effects of exercise in pregnancy on psychological wellbeing and self-perceived general health among women from different sociocultural subgroups. Exercise in pregnancy does not influence healthy pregnant women's health-related quality of life. © 2015 Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  12. Deep level transient spectroscopy of hole traps related to CdTe self-assembled quantum dots embedded in ZnTe matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielony, E; Placzek-Popko, E; Dyba, P; Gumienny, Z; Szatkowski, J; Dobaczewski, L; Karczewski, G

    2011-08-01

    The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) measurements have been made on a Schottky Ti-ZnTe (p-type) diode containing CdTe self-assembled quantum dots (QD) and control diode without dots. The C-V curve of the QD diode exhibits a characteristic step associated with the QD states whereas the reference diode shows ordinary bulk behavior. A quasistatic model based on the self-consistent solution of the Poisson's equation is used to simulate the capacitance. By comparison of the calculated C-V curve with the experimental one, hole binding energy at the QD states is found to be equal about 0.12 eV. The results of DLTS measurements for the sample containing QDs reveal the presence of a low-temperature peak which is not observed for the control diode. Analysis of its behavior at different bias conditions leads to the conclusion that this peak may be related to the hole emission from the QD states to the ZnTe valence band. Its thermal activation energy obtained from related Arrhenius plot equals to 0.12 eV in accordance with the energy obtained from the Poisson's equation. Thus based on the C-V and DLTS studies it may be concluded that the thermal activation energy of holes from the QD states to the ZnTe valence band in the CdTe/ZnTe QD system is equal about 0.12 eV.

  13. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N.; Smith, April R.; Fussner, Lauren M.; Dodd, Dorian R.; Clerkin, Elise M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives ”Fast” (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; “slow” (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. Design We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Method Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Results Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Conclusion Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence. PMID:26195916

  14. PSH Transient Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    PSH Transient Simulation Modeling presentation from the WPTO FY14 - FY16 Peer Review. Transient effects are an important consideration when designing a PSH system, yet numerical techniques for hydraulic transient analysis still need improvements for adjustable-speed (AS) reversible pump-turbine applications.

  15. Transient Ischemic Attack

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Transient Ischemic Attack TIA , or transient ischemic attack, is a "mini stroke" that occurs when a blood clot blocks an artery for a short time. The only ... TIA is that with TIA the blockage is transient (temporary). TIA symptoms occur rapidly and last a ...

  16. Muscle carnosine metabolism and beta-alanine supplementation in relation to exercise and training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derave, Wim; Everaert, Inge; Beeckman, Sam; Baguet, Audrey

    2010-03-01

    Carnosine is a dipeptide with a high concentration in mammalian skeletal muscle. It is synthesized by carnosine synthase from the amino acids L-histidine and beta-alanine, of which the latter is the rate-limiting precursor, and degraded by carnosinase. Recent studies have shown that the chronic oral ingestion of beta-alanine can substantially elevate (up to 80%) the carnosine content of human skeletal muscle. Interestingly, muscle carnosine loading leads to improved performance in high-intensity exercise in both untrained and trained individuals. Although carnosine is not involved in the classic adenosine triphosphate-generating metabolic pathways, this suggests an important role of the dipeptide in the homeostasis of contracting muscle cells, especially during high rates of anaerobic energy delivery. Carnosine may attenuate acidosis by acting as a pH buffer, but improved contractile performance may also be obtained by improved excitation-contraction coupling and defence against reactive oxygen species. High carnosine concentrations are found in individuals with a high proportion of fast-twitch fibres, because these fibres are enriched with the dipeptide. Muscle carnosine content is lower in women, declines with age and is probably lower in vegetarians, whose diets are deprived of beta-alanine. Sprint-trained athletes display markedly high muscular carnosine, but the acute effect of several weeks of training on muscle carnosine is limited. High carnosine levels in elite sprinters are therefore either an important genetically determined talent selection criterion or a result of slow adaptation to years of training. beta-Alanine is rapidly developing as a popular ergogenic nutritional supplement for athletes worldwide, and the currently available scientific literature suggests that its use is evidence based. However, many aspects of the supplement, such as the potential side effects and the mechanism of action, require additional and thorough investigation by the

  17. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  18. Effects of diet and exercise on weight-related outcomes for breast cancer survivors and their adult daughters: an analysis of the DAMES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tometich, Danielle B; Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Badr, Hoda J; Snyder, Denise C; Sloane, Richard J; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    Few trials have aimed to promote diet and exercise behaviors in both cancer survivors and their family members and examine their associations with weight-related outcomes. We conducted a secondary analysis to examine associations between change in diet and exercise behaviors and weight-related outcomes for overweight breast cancer survivors and their overweight adult daughters in the Daughters And MothErS Against Breast Cancer (DAMES) randomized trial. The DAMES trial assessed the impact of two iteratively tailored, mailed print diet and exercise interventions against standard brochures over a 12-month period. This analysis examined change in diet and exercise behaviors and weight-related variables from baseline to post-intervention for the 50 breast cancer survivors and their adult daughters randomized to the intervention arms. To reduce the potential for type II error in this pilot, p values exercise was not associated with weight-related outcomes in mothers or daughters. Findings support mail-based and other tailored interventions for weight loss in this population, with an emphasis on diet quality for breast cancer survivors and caloric intake for their adult daughters.

  19. Health and exercise-related medical issues among 1,212 ultramarathon runners: baseline findings from the Ultrarunners Longitudinal TRAcking (ULTRA Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin D Hoffman

    Full Text Available Regular exercise is associated with substantial health benefits; however, little is known about the health impact of extreme levels of exercise. This study examined the prevalence of chronic diseases, health-care utilization, and risk factors for exercise-related injuries among ultramarathon runners. Retrospective, self-reported enrollment data from an ongoing longitudinal observational study of 1,212 active ultramarathon runners were analyzed. The most prevalent chronic medical conditions were allergies/hay fever (25.1% and exercise-induced asthma (13.0%, but there was a low prevalence of serious medical issues including cancers (4.5%, coronary artery disease (0.7%, seizure disorders (0.7%, diabetes (0.7%, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection (0.2%. In the year preceding enrollment, most (64.6% reported an exercise-related injury that resulted in lost training days (median of 14 days, but little nonattendance of work or school due to illness, injury, or exercise-related medical conditions (medians of 0 days for each. The knee was the most common area of exercise-related injury. Prior year incidence of stress fractures was 5.5% with most (44.5% involving the foot. Ultramarathon runners who sustained exercise-related injuries were younger (p<0.001 and less experienced (p<0.01 than those without injury. Stress fractures were more common (p<0.01 among women than men. We conclude that, compared with the general population, ultramarathon runners appear healthier and report fewer missed work or school days due to illness or injury. Ultramarathon runners have a higher prevalence of asthma and allergies than the general population, and the prevalence of serious medical issues was nontrivial and should be recognized by those providing medical care to these individuals. Ultramarathon runners, compared with shorter distance runners, have a similar annual incidence of exercise-related injuries but higher proportion of stress fractures involving

  20. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms Linked to Exercise During Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Fisher-Wellman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases, in addition to the aging process. Although various stimuli exist, acute exercise is known to induce a transient increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, evident by several reports of increased oxidative damage following acute bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Although the results are somewhat mixed and appear disease dependent, individuals with chronic disease experience an exacerbation in oxidative stress following acute exercise when compared to healthy individuals. However, this increased oxidant stress may serve as a necessary “signal” for the upregulation in antioxidant defenses, thereby providing protection against subsequent exposure to prooxidant environments within susceptible individuals. Here we present studies related to both acute exercise-induced oxidative stress in those with disease, in addition to studies focused on adaptations resulting from increased RONS exposure associated with chronic exercise training in persons with disease.

  1. The effectiveness of a deep water aquatic exercise program in cancer-related fatigue in breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene; Fernández-Lao, Carolina; Cuesta-Vargas, Antonio I; Del Moral-Avila, Rosario; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César; Arroyo-Morales, Manuel

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of an 8-week aquatic program on cancer-related fatigue, as well as physical and psychological outcomes in breast cancer survivors. A randomized controlled trial. Outpatient clinic, urban, academic medical center, and a sport university swimming pool. Breast cancer survivors (N=68) were randomly assigned to either an experimental (aquatic exercise group in deep water pool) group or a control (usual care) group. The intervention group attended aquatic exercise sessions 3 times per week for 8 weeks in a heated deep swimming pool. Sessions lasted 60 minutes in duration: 10 minutes of warm-up, 40 minutes of aerobic and endurance exercises, and 10 minutes of cool-down exercises. Patients allocated to the usual care group followed the oncologist's recommendations in relation to a healthy lifestyle. Values for fatigue (Piper Fatigue Scale), mood state (Profile of Mood States), and abdominal (trunk curl static endurance test) and leg (multiple sit-to-stand test) strength were collected at baseline, after the last treatment session, and at a 6-month follow-up. Immediately after discharge, the aquatic exercise group showed a large effect size in total fatigue score (d=.87; 95% confidence interval, .48-1.26), trunk curl endurance (d=.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.97-3.83), and leg strength (d=1.10; .55-2.76), but negligible effects in vigor, confusion, and disturbance of mood (daquatic exercise group maintained large to small effect sizes in fatigue scores, multiple sit-to-stand test, and trunk curl static endurance (.25>d>.90) and negligible effects for the fatigue-severity dimension and different scales of the Profile of Mood States (daquatic exercise program conducted in deep water was effective for improving cancer-related fatigue and strength in breast cancer survivors. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Pilot testing a cognitive-behavioral protocol on psychosocial predictors of exercise, nutrition, weight, and body satisfaction changes in a college-level health-related fitness course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H; Porter, Kandice J

    2015-01-01

    Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented: Small Groups (n = 34) conditions. Repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) assessed overall and between-class changes in the behavioral/physiological factors of exercise, fruit/vegetable intake, and body mass index (BMI); and the psychosocial factors of self-regulation, exercise self-efficacy, mood, and body satisfaction. Dependent t tests evaluated within-class changes. Multiple regression analyses tested prediction of exercise by changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood. Significant improvements in self-regulation and fruit/vegetable intake were found in all classes. The Coach Approach-supplemented classes demonstrated significant increases in exercise. Significant improvements in BMI, self-efficacy, and body satisfaction were found in only The Coach Approach-supplemented: Small Groups class. Psychosocial changes predicted increased exercise. Self-regulation was the strongest contributor. Overall, results were positive and warrant more comprehensive testing.

  3. High-intensity extended swimming exercise reduces pain-related behavior in mice: involvement of endogenous opioids and the serotonergic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Martins, Daniel F; Marcon, Rodrigo; Dos Santos, Ubirajara D; Speckhann, Breno; Gadotti, Vinícius M; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme A; Santos, Adair Roberto Soares

    2010-12-01

    The present study examined the hyponociceptive effect of swimming exercise in a chemical behavioral model of nociception and the mechanisms involved in this effect. Male mice were submitted to swimming sessions (30 min/d for 5 days). Twenty-four hours after the last session, we noticed that swimming exercise decreased the number of abdominal constriction responses caused by acetic acid compared with the nonexercised group. The hyponociception caused by exercise in the acetic acid test was significantly attenuated by intraperitoneal (i.p.) pretreatment of mice with naloxone (a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, 1 mg/kg), ρ-chlorophenylalanine methyl ester (PCPA, an inhibitor of serotonin synthesis, 100 mg/kg once a day for 4 consecutive days), and by bilateral adrenalectomy. Collectively, the present results provide experimental evidences indicating for the first time that high-intensity extended swimming exercise reduces pain-related behavior in mice. The mechanisms involve an interaction with opioid and serotonin systems. Furthermore, endogenous opioids released by adrenal glands probably are involved in this effect. Our results indicate that high-intensity extended exercise endogenously controls acute pain by activation of opioidergic and serotonergic pathways. Furthermore, these results support the use of exercise as a nonpharmacological approach for the management of acute pain. Copyright © 2010 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-labeled beta-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial scintigraphy and its relation to exercise-induced ischemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Masahiko [Shiga Univ. of Medical Science, Otsu (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Reversible thallium-201 ({sup 201}Tl) abnormalities during exercise stress have been used as markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are most likely to identify relatively underperfused myocardium. Although metabolic abnormalities in HCM were reported, the relationship between impaired energy metabolism and exercise-induced ischemia has not been fully elucidated as yet. To assess the relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities, 28 patients with HCM underwent exercise {sup 201}Tl and rest {sup 123}I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. Perfusion abnormalities were observed by exercise {sup 201}Tl in 19/28 patients with HCM. {sup 123}I-BMIPP uptake was decreased compared with delayed {sup 201}Tl in 106/364 (29%) of the total myocardial segments (p<0.01, McNemar symmetry test). Such disparity between {sup 123}I-BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl was observed more often in the 49/75 (65%) segments with reversible exercise {sup 201}Tl defects (p<0.001). Our results indicate that exercise-induced myocardial ischemia exists in HCM, resulting in metabolic abnormalities. The combination of {sup 123}I-BMIPP and {sup 201}Tl suggests that myocardial ischemia may play an important role in metabolic abnormalities in HCM. (author)

  5. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  6. [Evaluation of age-related characteristics of the adaptive reactions of a healthy child using a method of analyzing transient processes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirin, V A; Shiretorova, D Ch

    1986-01-01

    Examination with the use of transient analysis is an objective method helping to assess the quality of vegetative regulation in children and its age-specific characteristics. The data obtained from studying the transient processes in clinically healthy children of different age groups may be used as the reference criteria in clinical studies of vegetative disorders, for establishing scientifically-based age-differentiated regimens for children with regard to adaptive potentialities of the body, as well as for the development of age periodization.

  7. Creatine-Kinase- and Exercise-Related Muscle Damage Implications for Muscle Performance and Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne F. Baird

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine current evidence and opinion relating to the release of CK from skeletal muscle in response to physical activity and examine if elevated concentrations are a health concern.

  8. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Stefania-Alina DUMITRACHE

    2014-01-01

    According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to c...

  9. The efficacy of counseling and progressive resistance home-exercises on adherence, health-related quality of life and function after discharge from a geriatric day-hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brovold, Therese; Skelton, Dawn A; Bergland, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Loss of function and low exercise adherence is common among older people after hospitalization. The aim of this randomized-controlled trial was to evaluate the effects of a combined counseling- and exercise program on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQL) and physical function in patients attending a day hospital and continuing exercise at home. The exercise program consisted of counseling, balance- and progressive resistance training and support from the physical therapist at Geriatric Day-Hospital (GDH) and home for the Intervention-group. The Control-group received counseling, balance-training and support from the physical therapist. The sample was recruited from a GDH in Norway. 108 participants were randomized into the Intervention group (IT) (n=53) or the Control group (CT) (n=55). After 3 months 77 participants were tested. The intention to treat analysis showed that the program had significant benefits in terms of Health Related Quality of Life, measured by SF-36, on the domains vitality and bodily pain, in favor of the IT-group who performed the combined resistance exercises and balance program. All participants increased their scores on physical function, measured by Berg Balance Scale, Timed Up and Go, 5 times Sit-to-Stand, 6 Min Walk Test and Activities Balance Confidence Scale, no group differences. Both groups were adherent to the home exercise program The results show that it is possible to facilitate older people to increase their HRQL, physical function and level of physical activity through counseling, exercise and support from physical therapists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of two physical exercise protocols on physical performance related to falls in the oldest old: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansai, Juliana Hotta; Aurichio, Thais Rabiatt; Gonçalves, Raquel; Rebelatto, José Rubens

    2016-04-01

    To compare the effects of 16-week multicomponent and resistance training, and 6-week detraining on physical variables related to a higher risk of falls in very old people. A randomized, three-arm, controlled trial was carried out. A total of 69 community-dwelling older adults aged 80 years and older were allocated to three groups: control, multicomponent training and resistance training. They were assessed at baseline, after 16-week training and 6-week detraining. The control group did not perform any intervention. The multicomponent group performed protocol consisting of warm-up, aerobic, strength, balance and cool-down exercises. The resistance group underwent strength exercises using six adapted machines. The training sessions had progressive intensity, lasted 16 weeks and 12 included three 1-h sessions per week. The assessment consisted of anamneses, five-repetition sit-to-stand, one-leg standing, tandem and dual task tests. For statistical analysis, α = 0.05 was used. There were no significant differences between groups and assessments in any variable when analyzed by intention to treat. However, when analyzed, the older adults who adhered to the training, the multicomponent group, had a significant improvement in the sit-to-stand and the one-leg standing (right support) tests. There was a significant main effect between times on the one-leg standing (left support) test. In very old people, multicomponent training seems to be more beneficial and presents fewer adverse events when the adherence to protocol is higher. © 2015 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  11. Maximal exercise capacity is related to cardiovascular structure in patients with longstanding hypertension. A LIFE substudy. Losartan Intervention For Endpoint-Reduction in Hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Wachtell, K; Hermann, K L

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular hypertrophy and remodeling in patients with never-treated hypertension has been associated with impaired exercise capacity, but whether this relationship remains in patients with longstanding hypertension and target organ damage is less elucidated. METHODS: In 43...... the predicted maximal workload. This impaired exercise capacity was associated with lower common carotid distensibility and lower oxygen reserve. The latter was independently related to LV hypertrophy, low systemic vascular compliance and peripheral vascular remodeling, suggesting that cardiovascular......[129-163] v 162[146-179] Watt, P = .01). This impaired exercise capacity, calculated as the ratio between achieved and predicted maximal workload, was in simple regression analyses related to lower distensibility of the common carotid artery (r = 0.38, P = .01) and lower oxygen reserve (r = 0.68, P

  12. Lifestyle exercises for bone health and health-related quality of life among premenopausal women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babatunde, Opeyemi; Forsyth, Jacky

    2016-09-01

    Growing evidence supports engagement in physical exercise throughout life for optimal bone health. However, promotion of physical exercise among premenopausal women presents significant challenges, which are yet to be addressed in the design of many bone-health exercise regimes. As a deviation from traditional, facility-based, supervised, long-duration and intense exercise regimes, the efficacy of short-duration, practical, lifestyle physical exercises for improving bone health and quality of life was examined. Premenopausal women (N = 96, mean age 22.25 ± 3.5 years; mean BMI 23.43 ± 3.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a 6-month randomised trial of lifestyle physical exercises for the intervention group and sham exercises for the control group. The participants' scores on the outcome measure SF-36 was accessed pre- and post-intervention and compared with general population norms according to the SF-36 scoring manual. Paired t-tests were used to examine changes within trial arms from baseline to post-intervention, while analysis of covariance was performed to examine the effect of the lifestyle exercise programme on quality of life of premenopausal women. Compared to 51% at baseline, 63% of the participants were either at or above the general population norm for general health, and the percentage of participants who were below the population health norm for mental health was reduced from 46% at baseline to 38% post-exercise intervention. Comparable improvements in quality of life were found in both trial arms post-participation in the bone-health promotion programme. Bone-health exercises, when implemented as easily adoptable, lifestyle physical activity, may also enhance the quality of life of premenopausal women. Hence, a practical lifestyle approach to exercise may offer a much-needed public health strategy for bone-health promotion among women. © The Author(s) 2015.

  13. Chronic pain management in the obese patient: a focused review of key challenges and potential exercise solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdziarski LA

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Laura Ann Zdziarski, Joseph G Wasser, Heather K Vincent Department of Orthopaedics and Rehabilitation, Division of Research, Interdisciplinary Center for Musculoskeletal Training and Research, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA Abstract: In obese persons, general and specific musculoskeletal pain is common. Emerging evidence suggests that obesity modulates pain via several mechanisms such as mechanical loading, inflammation, and psychological status. Pain in obesity contributes to deterioration of physical ability, health-related quality of life, and functional dependence. We present the accumulating evidence showing the interrelationships of mechanical stress, inflammation, and psychological characteristics on pain. While acute exercise may transiently exacerbate pain symptoms, regular participation in exercise can lower pain severity or prevalence. Aerobic exercise, resistance exercise, or multimodal exercise programs (combination of the two types can reduce joint pain in young and older obese adults in the range of 14%–71.4% depending on the study design and intervention used. While published attrition rates with regular exercise are high (~50%, adherence to exercise may be enhanced with modification to exercise including the accumulation of several exercise bouts rather than one long session, reducing joint range of motion, and replacing impact with nonimpact activity. This field would benefit from rigorous comparative efficacy studies of exercise intensity, frequency, and mode on specific and general musculoskeletal pain in young and older obese persons. Keywords: exercise, inflammation, kinesiophobia, obese, pain

  14. Differential impact of acute bout of exercise on redox- and oxidative damage-related profiles between untrained subjects and amateur runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falone, S; Mirabilio, A; Pennelli, A; Cacchio, M; Di Baldassarre, A; Gallina, S; Passerini, A; Amicarelli, F

    2010-01-01

    Despite the demonstrated exercise-induced increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, growing epidemiological evidence indicates that habitual, moderate physical activity reduces the incidence of several oxidative stress-based diseases. This apparent paradox can be explained taking into account that ROS produced during repeated exercise bouts may act as mild stressors able to trigger physiological and biomolecular hormetic responses through a number of redox-sensitive transcription pathways. Unfortunately, much more limited information is available from general population-based research, which could better reflect the condition of common people interested in achieving and maintaining good fitness levels. The present work aimed at investigating whether and how exercise-related habits in non-professional regular runners (n=33) can affect the systemic anti-oxidative capacity, and the resting serum levels of typical lipid peroxidation-related by-products and oxidatively-damaged proteins, in comparison with untrained sedentary individuals (n=25). We also analyzed in both groups the redox response elicited by a modified Bruce-based maximal exercise test on the same parameters. Our findings indicated that long-term regular and moderate practice of aerobic physical activity can increase antioxidant defense systems, lower the resting protein oxidation processes and reduce the immediate up-regulation of lipid-targeting oxidative stress in response to an acute bout of exercise.

  15. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...

  16. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Alina Dumitrache

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to civil liability. The paper analyzes the objective basis of legal accountability, namely the illicit act causing damages committed in fulfilling labor duties or in connection tot hem, therewith the method detailed and comparative documentation of legislation in the field and relevant doctrine.

  17. Rowers' Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley; Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-08-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p exercise, competition, and increasing gestational age. Primary safety concerns were the risk of oar-induced abdominal trauma and physiological effects due to high intensities required by the sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes.

  18. Rowers’ Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p exercise, competition, and increasing gestational age. Primary safety concerns were the risk of oar-induced abdominal trauma and physiological effects due to high intensities required by the sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes. PMID:28983443

  19. Effects of long-term exercise and low-level inhibition of GABAergic synapses on motor control and the expression of BDNF in the motor related cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takahiro; Ninuma, Shuta; Hayashi, Masataka; Okuda, Akane; Asaka, Tadayoshi; Maejima, Hiroshi

    2018-01-01

    Objectives Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays important roles in neuroplasticity in the brain. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of long-term exercise combined with low-level inhibition of GABAergic synapses on motor control and the expression of BDNF in the motor-related cortex. Methods ICR mice were divided into four groups based on the factors exercise and GABA A receptor inhibition. We administered the GABA A receptor antagonist bicuculline intraperitoneally (0.25 mg/kg). Mice exercised on a treadmill 5 days/week for 4 weeks. Following behavioral tests, BDNF expression in the motor cortex and cerebellar cortex was assayed using RT-PCR and ELISA. Results Exercise increased BDNF protein in the motor cortex and improved motor coordination in the rotarod test either in the presence or absence of bicuculline. BDNF mRNA expression in the motor cortex and muscle coordination in the wire hang test decreased after administration of bicuculline, whereas bicuculline administration increased mRNA and protein expression of BDNF in the cerebellum. Discussion The present study revealed that long-term exercise increased BDNF expression in the motor cortex and facilitated a transfer of motor learning from aerobic exercise to postural coordination. Thus, aerobic exercise is meaningful for conditioning motor learning to rehabilitate patients with central nervous system (CNS) disorders. However, long-term inhibition of GABA A receptors decreased the expression of cortical BDNF mRNA and decreased muscle coordination, despite the increase of BDNF in the cerebellum, suggesting that we have to consider the term of the inhibition of the GABAergic receptor for future clinical application to CNS patients.

  20. Hypoxia-Related Hormonal Appetite Modulation in Humans during Rest and Exercise: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms. The present paper summarizes the up-to-date research on hypoxia/altitude-induced changes in the gut and adipose tissue derived peptides related to appetite regulation. Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexigenic peptides leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin have to-date been investigated as potential modulators of hypoxia-driven appetite alterations. Current evidence suggests that hypoxia can, especially acutely, lead to decreased appetite, most probably via reduction of acylated ghrelin concentration. Hypoxia-related short and long-term changes in other hormonal markers are more unclear although hypoxia seems to importantly modulate leptin levels, especially following prolonged hypoxic exposures. Limited evidence also suggests that different activity levels during exposures to hypoxia do not additively affect hormonal appetite markers. Although very few studies have been performed in obese/overweight individuals, the available data indicate that hypoxia/altitude exposures do not seem to differentially affect appetite regulation via hormonal pathways in this cohort. Given the lack of experimental data, future well-controlled acute and prolonged studies are warranted to expand our understanding of hypoxia-induced hormonal appetite modulation and its kinetics in health and disease.

  1. The Effect of School-Based Exercise Practices of 9-11 Year Old Girls Students on Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat; Demirci, Pervin Toptas; Demirci, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the effects of school-based exercise practices (SBEP) on obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 9-11 year old girls. Participants consist of girls students from 9-11 years old in two state schools in Kars. Intervention Group (n: 85) courses of games and physical activities (CGPA) and SBEP…

  2. Effects of exercise programs to prevent decline in health-related quality of life in highly deconditioned institutionalized elderly persons: a randomized controlled trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dechamps, A.A.; Diolez, P.; Thiaudiere, E.; Tulon, A.; Onifade, C.; Vuong, T.; Helmer, C.; Bourdel-Marchasson, I.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to assess the effects of targeted exercise programs on health-related quality of life compared with usual care based on the ability to perform activities of daily living (ADL) and the Neuropsychiatric Inventory scores in geriatric institutionalized persons. METHODS: A

  3. Pilot Testing a Cognitive-Behavioral Protocol on Psychosocial Predictors of Exercise, Nutrition, Weight, and Body Satisfaction Changes in a College-Level Health-Related Fitness Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J.; Howton, Amy; Johnson, Ping H.; Porter, Kandice J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Small-scale pilot testing of supplementing a required college health-related fitness course with a cognitive-behavioral exercise-support protocol (The Coach Approach). Participants: Three classes were randomly assigned to Usual processes (n = 32), Coach Approach-supplemented: Mid-size Groups (n = 32), and Coach Approach-supplemented:…

  4. Parental mental health moderates the efficacy of exercise training on health-related quality of life in adolescents with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, K.; Duppen, N.; Dijk, A.P.J. van; Kuipers, I.M.; Domburg, R.T. van; Verhulst, F.C.; Ende, J. van den; Helbing, W.A.; Utens, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the moderating influence of parental variables on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) or a Fontan circulation after participation in standardized exercise training. A multicenter randomized controlled trail in which 56 patients,

  5. Prolonged QRS duration in patients with heart failure: relation to exercise tolerance, diastolic function and aetiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strabuzyńska-Migaj, Ewa; Szyszka, Andrzej; Cieśliński, Andrzej

    2008-12-01

    In patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) QRS prolongation is a frequent finding and is related to increased morbidity and mortality. It is not clear if prolonged QRS in CHF of ischaemic origin (CAD) represents the same severity of the syndrome as in non-ischaemic (non-CAD) cardiomyopathy. To assess the relationship between QRS duration and BNP levels, diastolic function and peak VO2 in patients with CAD CHF and non-CAD CHF. In 70 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ECG were performed as well as BNP level was measured. Peak VO2 was significantly lower, BNP level higher in patients with LBBB than those without LBBB. In the non-CAD CHF peak VO2 was significantly lower, whereas BNP levels and restrictive filling pattern prevalence higher in the group with LBBB than without LBBB, which was not seen in the CAD CHF group. A significant correlation between peak VO2 and BNP levels (r=-0.31; p=0.02), QRS duration (r=-0.27; p=0.02), and diastolic function parameter - DTE (r=0.28; p=0.02) was found. Peak VO2 was significantly lower in the CAD CHF than in non-CAD CHF. In multivariate regression analysis, LVEF (r=-0.32; p=0.012) and LVEDD (r=0.30; p=0.015) were independently associated with QRS duration. In patients with CHF, QRS duration is independently related to LVEF and LVEDD. It seems that prolonged QRS may be a better predictor of more advanced CHF in patients with non-ischaemic rather than ischaemic cardiomyopathy.

  6. Effects of time of day on post-exercise blood pressure: circadian or sleep-related influences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Helen; George, Keith; Edwards, Ben; Atkinson, Greg

    2008-11-01

    Recently, we found that the reactivity of ambulatory blood pressure (BP) to everyday physical activities is highest in the morning. All participants in that study slept normally at night and freely chose their activity levels, which did not allow a separation of any circadian influence on the BP response from the effects of sleep per se. Therefore, the aims of the present study were to investigate whether there is circadian variation in the BP response to a controlled bout of exercise, and whether or not such variation is explained by the residual masking effects of nocturnal sleep. Following 4 h of nocturnal sleep, six normotensive males exercised on a cycle ergometer at 04:00, 06:00, 08:00, and 10:00 h. On a separate day, participants also slept for 4 h in the afternoon and then exercised at 16:00, 18:00, 20:00, and 22:00 h. Mean arterial BP, cardiac output (CO), heart rate (HR), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured for 5 min before and 5, 10, 15, and 20 min after each exercise bout. Post-exercise data were subtracted from pre-exercise baselines and analyzed using general linear modeling with repeated measures. Fifteen min after exercise at 04:00 h, mean arterial BP was 8-14 mm Hg higher (pexercise time at the other clock-hour trials, including the 16:00 h bout that immediately followed daytime sleep. Significantly (pexercise bout. We conclude that mean arterial BP shows highest reactivity to a controlled bout of exercise when performed in the morning. This phenomenon cannot be attributed simply to the residual effects of sleep, as it was not observed when participants exercised after a period of daytime sleep.

  7. Every exercise bout matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Hojman, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative epidemiological evidence shows that regular exercise lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence. The causality underlying this relation has not been fully established, and the exercise recommendations for breast cancer patients follow...... the general physical activity guidelines, prescribing 150 min of exercise per week. Thus, elucidations of the causal mechanisms are important to prescribe and implement the most optimal training regimen in breast cancer prevention and treatment. The prevailing hypothesis on the positive association within...... exercise oncology has focused on lowering of the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. However, another rather overlooked systemic exercise response is the marked acute increases in several potential anti-cancer components during each acute exercise bout. Here, we review...

  8. Morning and evening exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dae Yun; Lee, SungRyul; Kim, Nari; Ko, Kyung Soo; Rhee, Byoung Doo; Park, Byung Joo; Han, Jin

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has different outcomes, based on the exercise type, duration, and hormone adaptation. In the present review, we therefore briefly describe the type, duration, and adaptation of exercise performed in the morning and evening. In addition, we discuss the clinical considerations and indications for exercise training.

  9. Morning and evening exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dae Yun Seo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence suggests that exercise may contribute to preventing pathological changes, treating multiple chronic diseases, and reducing mortality and morbidity ratios. Scientific evidence moreover shows that exercise plays a key role in improving health-related physical fitness components and hormone function. Regular exercise training is one of the few strategies that has been strictly adapted in healthy individuals and in athletes. However, time-dependent exercise has different outcomes, based on the exercise type, duration, and hormone adaptation. In the present review, we therefore briefly describe the type, duration, and adaptation of exercise performed in the morning and evening. In addition, we discuss the clinical considerations and indications for exercise training.

  10. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  11. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  12. Exercise Physiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Occupational Outlook Handbook > Healthcare > Exercise Physiologists PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Exercise Physiologists Do About this section Exercise physiologists analyze ...

  13. Abuse of anabolic androgenic steroids and related substances in sport and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrke, Michael S; Yesalis, Charles E

    2004-12-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids are synthetic derivatives of testosterone, which is the primary male sex hormone. Anabolic androgenic steroids are used to enhance athletic performance and appearance. Adverse effects include those on the liver, serum lipids, psyche/behavior and reproductive system. Androstenedione is an anabolic androgenic steroid used to increase blood testosterone levels for the purposes of increasing strength, lean body mass and sexual performance. However, there is no research indicating that androstenedione, or its related compounds, significantly increases strength and/or lean body mass in humans by increasing testosterone levels. The long-term health effects of prolonged androstenedione supplementation are unknown. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a weak androgen also used to elevate testosterone levels, and is advertised as an anti-obesity and anti-aging supplement capable of improving libido, vitality and immunity levels. However, research demonstrates that DHEA supplementation does not increase serum testosterone concentrations or increase strength in men, and may acutely increase testosterone levels in women, thus producing a virilizing effect.

  14. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  15. Effects of exercise and diet interventions on obesity-related sleep disorders in men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xiao; Saarinen, Antti; Mikkola, Tuija M; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Martinmäki, Samu; Rahikainen, Aki; Cheng, Shumei; Eklund, Niklas; Pekkala, Satu; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Wen, Xinfei; Cong, Fengyu; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yajun; Tarkka, Ina; Sun, Yining; Partinen, Markku; Alen, Markku; Cheng, Sulin

    2013-07-26

    Sleep is essential for normal and healthy living. Lack of good quality sleep affects physical, mental and emotional functions. Currently, the treatments of obesity-related sleep disorders focus more on suppressing sleep-related symptoms pharmaceutically and are often accompanied by side effects. Thus, there is urgent need for alternative ways to combat chronic sleep disorders. This study will investigate underlying mechanisms of the effects of exercise and diet intervention on obesity-related sleep disorders, the role of gut microbiota in relation to poor quality of sleep and day-time sleepiness, as well as the levels of hormones responsible for sleep-wake cycle regulation. Participants consist of 330 (target sample) Finnish men aged 30 to 65 years. Among them, we attempt to randomize 180 (target sample) with sleep disorders into exercise and diet intervention. After screening and physician examination, 101 men with sleep disorders are included and are randomly assigned into three groups: exercise (n = 33), diet (n = 35), and control (n = 33). In addition, we attempt to recruit a target number of 150 healthy men without sleep disorders as the reference group. The exercise group undergoes a six-month individualized progressive aerobic exercise program based on initial fitness level. The diet group follows a six month specific individualized diet program. The control group and reference group are asked to maintain their normal activity and diet during intervention. Measurements are taken before and after the intervention. Primary outcomes include objective sleep measurements by polysomnography and a home-based non-contact sleep monitoring system, and subjective sleep evaluation by questionnaires. Secondary outcome measures include anthropometry, body composition, fitness, sleep disorder-related lifestyle risk factors, composition of gut microbiota and adipose tissue metabolism, as well as specific hormone and neurotranmitter levels and inflammatory biomarkers from

  16. Sports-related sudden cardiac death in Switzerland classified by static and dynamic components of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gräni, Christoph; Chappex, Nina; Fracasso, Tony; Vital, Cristina; Kellerhals, Christoph; Schmied, Christian; Saguner, Ardan M; Trachsel, Lukas D; Eser, Prisca; Michaud, Katarzyna; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Sports-related sudden cardiac deaths (SrSCDs) occur most frequently in highly dynamic and/or static sports. We aimed to assess the incidence and characteristics of SrSCDs in Switzerland and to compare SrSCD occurrence according to sports categories with the sports participation behaviour in the general population. Between 1999 and 2010, forensic reports of SrSCDs in young individuals (10-39 years of age) were retrospectively reviewed and categorised based on peak static (increasing from I to III) and dynamic sports components (increasing from A to C). Data were compared to the sports participation behaviour of the Swiss population. Sixty-nine SrSCDs were identified. Forty-eight (69.6%) occurred during recreational sports (REC) and 21 (30.4%) during competitive sports (COMP). Incidences (per 100,000 athlete person-years) for COMP and REC were 0.90 and 0.52, respectively (p = 0.001). Most SrSCDs occurred in IC (23 cases, 33.3%), followed by IIC (13, 18.9%), IIIA and IIIC (11 each, 15.9%), IIIB (6, 8.7%), IIA (4, 5.8%) and IB sports categories (1, 1.5%). No SrSCDs were found in IA and IIB sports categories. Incidences between sports categories (IIIA 0.25, IB 0.25, IC 0.18, IIC 0.33 and IIIC 0.25) were not significantly different except to IIA (0.94, p sports category. Coronary artery disease (CAD) was the most common underlying pathology of SrSCD. In this Swiss cohort, incidence of SrSCD was very low and similar in all sports categories classified by their static and dynamic components. However, the incidence was higher in COMP compared to REC, and CAD proved to be the most common underlying cause of SrSCD. © The European Society of Cardiology 2016.

  17. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Factors related to leader implementation of a nationally disseminated community-based exercise program: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economos Christina D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of community-based health programs are widely recognized. However, research examining factors related to community leaders' characteristics and roles in implementation is limited. Methods The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use a social ecological framework of variables to explore and describe the relationships between socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, programmatic, leadership, and community-level social and demographic characteristics as they relate to the implementation of an evidence-based strength training program by community leaders. Eight-hundred fifty-four trained program leaders in 43 states were invited to participate in either an online or mail survey. Corresponding community-level characteristics were also collected. Programmatic details were obtained from those who implemented. Four-hundred eighty-seven program leaders responded to the survey (response rate = 57%, 78% online and 22% by mail. Results Of the 487 respondents, 270 implemented the program (55%. One or more factors from each category – professional, socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, and leadership characteristics – were significantly different between implementers and non-implementers, determined by chi square or student's t-tests as appropriate. Implementers reported higher levels of strength training participation, current and lifetime physical activity, perceived support, and leadership competence (all p Conclusion Among this sample of trained leaders, several factors within the professional, socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, and leadership categories were related to whether they implemented a community-based exercise program. It may benefit future community-based physical activity program disseminations to consider these factors when selecting and training leaders.

  19. Factors related to leader implementation of a nationally disseminated community-based exercise program: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Palombo, Ruth; Economos, Christina D; Hyatt, Raymond; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E

    2008-12-04

    The benefits of community-based health programs are widely recognized. However, research examining factors related to community leaders' characteristics and roles in implementation is limited. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use a social ecological framework of variables to explore and describe the relationships between socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, programmatic, leadership, and community-level social and demographic characteristics as they relate to the implementation of an evidence-based strength training program by community leaders. Eight-hundred fifty-four trained program leaders in 43 states were invited to participate in either an online or mail survey. Corresponding community-level characteristics were also collected. Programmatic details were obtained from those who implemented. Four-hundred eighty-seven program leaders responded to the survey (response rate = 57%), 78% online and 22% by mail. Of the 487 respondents, 270 implemented the program (55%). One or more factors from each category - professional, socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, and leadership characteristics - were significantly different between implementers and non-implementers, determined by chi square or student's t-tests as appropriate. Implementers reported higher levels of strength training participation, current and lifetime physical activity, perceived support, and leadership competence (all p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis revealed a positive association between implementation and fitness credentials/certification (p = 0.003), program-specific self-efficacy (p = 0.002), and support-focused leadership (p = 0.006), and a negative association between implementation and educational attainment (p = 0.002). Among this sample of trained leaders, several factors within the professional, socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, and leadership categories were related to whether they implemented a community-based exercise program. It may benefit future community

  20. Blind Source Separation of Seismic Events with Independent Component Analysis: CTBT related exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhkov, Mikhail; Kitov, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    Blind Source Separation (BSS) methods used in signal recovery applications are attractive for they use minimal a priori information about the signals they are dealing with. Homomorphic deconvolution and cepstrum estimation are probably the only methods used in certain extent in CTBT applications that can be attributed to the given branch of technology. However Expert Technical Analysis (ETA) conducted in CTBTO to improve the estimated values for the standard signal and event parameters according to the Protocol to the CTBT may face problems which cannot be resolved with certified CTBTO applications and may demand specific techniques not presently used. The problem to be considered within the ETA framework is the unambiguous separation of signals with close arrival times. Here, we examine two scenarios of interest: (1) separation of two almost co-located explosions conducted within fractions of seconds, and (2) extraction of explosion signals merged with wavetrains from strong earthquake. The importance of resolving the problem related to case 1 is connected with the correct explosion yield estimation. Case 2 is a well-known scenario of conducting clandestine nuclear tests. While the first case can be approached somehow with the means of cepstral methods, the second case can hardly be resolved with the conventional methods implemented at the International Data Centre, especially if the signals have close slowness and azimuth. Independent Component Analysis (in its FastICA implementation) implying non-Gaussianity of the underlying processes signal's mixture is a blind source separation method that we apply to resolve the mentioned above problems. We have tested this technique with synthetic waveforms, seismic data from DPRK explosions and mining blasts conducted within East-European platform as well as with signals from strong teleseismic events (Sumatra, April 2012 Mw=8.6, and Tohoku, March 2011 Mw=9.0 earthquakes). The data was recorded by seismic arrays of the

  1. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ... © 2017 North American Spine Society | ...

  2. Muscle phosphocreatine post-exercise recovery rate is related to functional evaluation in hospitalized and community-living older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourdel-Marchasson, I; Biran, M; Dehail, P; Traissac, T; Muller, F; Jenn, J; Raffard, G; Franconi, J M; Thiaudiere, E

    2007-01-01

    to explore muscle mitochondria function with respect to age, functional status and nutrition in community-living and recovering hospitalized older subjects. subjects were assessed for nutrition, hand-grip strength, 10-meter gait time, a modified timed get-up-and-go test and activities of daily living score (ADL). 31P magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P MRS) was used to assess the initial rate of post-exercise phosphocreatine recovery (ViPCr) for mitochondrial function evaluation in 25 hospitalized older subjects (86.1 + 5.3 y) and in 25 community-living younger ones (74.5 + 6.2 y). in multiple linear regression, longer time on the get-up-and-go test was independently associated with lower values of ViPCr (p = 0.008). For all subjects and in the 8 patients unable to perform this test, ViPCr was negatively correlated with the ADL score (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.025). particularly in hospitalized and frail older subjects, muscle mitochondrial function was related to the global physical functional assessment.

  3. Impact of acute aerobic exercise and cardiorespiratory fitness on visuospatial attention performance and serum BDNF levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Chia-Liang; Chen, Fu-Chen; Pan, Chien-Yu; Wang, Chun-Hao; Huang, Tsang-Hai; Chen, Tzu-Chi

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore various behavioral and neuroelectric indices after acute aerobic exercise in young adults with different cardiorespiratory fitness levels when performing a cognitive task, and also to gain a mechanistic understanding of the effects of such exercise using the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) biochemical index. Sixty young adults were separated into one non-exercise-intervention and two exercise intervention (EI) (i.e., EIH: higher-fit and EIL: lower-fit) groups according to their maximal oxygen consumption. The participants' cognitive performances (i.e., behavioral and neuroelectric indices via an endogenous visuospatial attention task test) and serum BDNF levels were measured at baseline and after either an acute bout of 30min of moderate intensity aerobic exercise or a control period. Analyses of the results revealed that although acute aerobic exercise decreased reaction times (RTs) and increased the central Contingent Negative Variation (CNV) area in both EI groups, only the EIH group showed larger P3 amplitude and increased frontal CNV area after acute exercise. Elevated BDNF levels were shown after acute exercise for both EI groups, but this was not significantly correlated with changes in behavioral and neuroelectric performances for either group. These results suggest that both EI groups could gain response-related (i.e., RT and central CNV) benefits following a bout of moderate acute aerobic exercise. However, only higher-fit individuals could obtain particular cognition-process-related efficiency with regard to attentional resource allocation (i.e., P3 amplitude) and cognitive preparation processes (i.e., frontal CNV) after acute exercise, implying that the mechanisms underlying the effects of such exercise on neural functioning may be fitness dependent. However, the facilitating effects found in this work could not be attributed to the transient change in BDNF levels after acute exercise. Copyright

  4. Comparison of Abdominal Muscle Activity in Relation to Knee Angles during Abdominal Drawing-in Exercises Using Pressure Biofeedback

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lee, Jun-Cheol; Lee, Su-Kyoung; Kim, Kyoung

    2013-01-01

    [Purpose] The leg angles that are the most effective for abdominal muscle activation were investigated by performing abdominal drawing-in exercises at different leg angles with a biofeedback pressure unit. [Methods...

  5. Physical exercise can influence local levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in tendon-related connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, S O A; Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L

    2004-01-01

    Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon tissue during exercise or training can affect local synthesis and degradation of type I collagen. Degradation of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins is controlled by an interplay between matrix metalloproteinases ...

  6. The effect of the clinical pilates exercises on kinesiophobia and other symptoms related to osteoporosis: Randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksuz, Sevim; Unal, Edibe

    2017-02-01

    To investigate the effects of clinical pilates exercise on kinesiophobia, pain, functional status and quality of life of the osteoporosis patients. This study involved 40 females with osteoporosis. The subjects were randomly separated into two groups. Group 1 received specific Clinical Pilates exercises provided by a qualified Physiotherapies ×3 per week for a period of 6 weeks. Group 2 acted as a control group, receiving no intervention and continuing their usual daily activities of life over the same period. All patients' kinesiophobia, pain and quality of life level and functional status were re-assessed at the end of 6 weeks. According to the measurements exercise group patients' kinesiophobia, pain decreased, functional status and quality of life statistically improved (p kinesiophobia, pain, functional status and quality of life, it can be recommended to osteoporosis patients, as a safe exercise model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients in relation to structure and function of left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, Kurt; Gerdts, Eva; Wachtell, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise lowers blood pressure and improves cardiovascular function, but little is known about whether exercise impacts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and LV geometry. DESIGN: Observational analysis of prospectively obtained...... (never exercise), intermediate (30 min twice/week). During 4.8-year follow-up, 105 patients suffered the primary composite endpoint of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cardiovascular death. MI occurred in 39, stroke in 60, and cardiovascular death in 33 patients. RESULTS: Sedentary individuals (n...... echocardiographic data within the context of a randomized trial of antihypertensive treatment. METHODS: A total of 937 hypertensive patients with ECG LVH were studied by echocardiography in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study. Baseline exercise status was categorized as sedentary...

  8. Health-related quality of life factors associated with completion of a study delivering lifestyle exercise intervention for endometrial cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jaejoon; Karlsten, Melissa; Yamal, José-Miguel; Basen-Engquist, Karen

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to examine associations between participants' quality of life and study completion. This is a secondary analysis of an exercise intervention study for endometrial cancer survivors. We considered data for one-hundred post-treatment endometrial cancer survivors from a single-arm, six-month longitudinal exercise study. Participants received a home-based intervention consisting of exercise recommendations and telephone counseling sessions to encourage adherence. In addition to monitoring adherence to physical exercise recommendations, participants completed multiple psychological assessments, including health-related quality of life. Associations between study completion and health-related quality of life factors were analyzed using generalized additive models, to allow for possibly nonlinear associations. Measures of bodily pain contributed to the odds of study completion in a nonlinear way (p = 0.025), suggesting that improvements in these factors were associated with study completion, especially for individuals reporting very high levels of pain. In addition, association between participants' levels of anxiety and study completion showed an inverse U-shaped relation: Whereas increase in anxiety was associated with higher odds of completion for individuals with low anxiety score (0-4), increase in anxiety contributed to lower odds of study completion for individuals with anxiety scores of approximately 5-10 (p = 0.035). Results from this study indicate that baseline health-related quality of life factors may be associated with study completion in exercise intervention studies. In order to increase study completion rates, individually tailored study strategies may be prepared based on the baseline quality of life responses.

  9. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children’s BMI at 7 Years of Age

    OpenAIRE

    Camilla Schou Andersen; Mette Juhl; Michael Gamborg; Sørensen, Thorkild I. A.; Ellen Aagaard Nohr

    2012-01-01

    Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children’s body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children’s w...

  10. Effects of exercise and diet interventions on obesity-related sleep disorders in men: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Xiao; Saarinen, Antti; Mikkola, Tuija; Tenhunen, Jarkko; Martinmäki, Samu; Rahikainen, Aki; Cheng, Shumei; Eklund, Niklas; Pekkala, Satu; Wiklund, Petri; Munukka, Eveliina; Wen, Xinfei; Cong, Fengyu; Wang, Xi; Zhang, Yajun

    2013-01-01

    Background. Sleep is essential for normal and healthy living. Lack of good quality sleep affects physical, mental and emotional functions. Currently, the treatments of obesity-related sleep disorders focus more on suppressing sleep-related symptoms pharmaceutically and are often accompanied by side effects. Thus, there is urgent need for alternative ways to combat chronic sleep disorders. This study will investigate underlying mechanisms of the effects of exercise and diet intervention on...

  11. Higher incidence of bone stress injuries with increasing female athlete triad-related risk factors: a prospective multisite study of exercising girls and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrack, Michelle T; Gibbs, Jenna C; De Souza, Mary Jane; Williams, Nancy I; Nichols, Jeanne F; Rauh, Mitchell J; Nattiv, Aurelia

    2014-04-01

    Identifying the risk factors associated with a bone stress injury (BSI), including stress reactions and stress fractures, may aid in targeting those at increased risk and in formulating prevention guidelines for exercising girls and women. To evaluate the effect of single or combined risk factors as defined by the female athlete triad-a syndrome involving 3 interrelated spectrums consisting of energy availability, menstrual function, and bone mass-with the incidence of BSIs in a multicenter prospective sample of 4 cohorts of physically active girls and women. Cohort study; Level of evidence, 3. At baseline, participants' (N = 259; mean age, 18.1 ± 0.3 years) anthropometric characteristics, eating attitudes and behaviors, menstrual function, sports participation or exercise activity, and pathological weight control behaviors were assessed. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured the bone mass of the whole body, total hip, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and body composition. Participants were followed prospectively for the occurrence of injuries; those injuries confirmed by a physician were recorded. Twenty-eight participants (10.8%) incurred a BSI. Forty-six percent of those who had ≥12 h/wk of purposeful exercise, a bone mineral density (BMD) Z score sport exercise/activity at baseline, incurred a BSI during the prospective study period. Single factors significantly (P exercise (14.7%), BMI exercise, with 29.7% incurring a BSI (odds ratio [OR], 5.1; 95% CI, 2.2-12.1), and ≥12 h/wk of exercise + leanness sport/activity + dietary restraint, with 46.2% incurring a BSI (OR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.7-28.3). In the sample, which included female adolescents and young adults participating in competitive or recreational exercise activities, the risk of BSIs increased from approximately 15% to 20% for significant single risk factors to 30% to 50% for significant combined female athlete triad-related risk factor variables. These data support the notion that the cumulative

  12. Exercise contributes to the effects of DHA dietary supplementation by acting on membrane-related synaptic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chytrova, Gabriela; Ying, Zhe; Gomez-Pinilla, Fernando

    2009-01-01

    Dietary omega-3 fatty acid (i.e. docosohexaenoic acid (DHA)) and exercise are gaining recognition for supporting brain function under normal and challenging conditions. Here we evaluate the possibility that the interaction of DHA and exercise can involve specific elements of the synaptic plasma membrane. We found that voluntary exercise potentiated the effects of a 12-day DHA dietary supplementation regimen on increasing the levels of syntaxin 3 (STX-3) and the growth-associated protein (GAP-43) in the adult rat hippocampus region. STX-3 is a synaptic membrane-bound protein involved in the effects of DHA on membrane expansion. The DHA diet and exercise also elevated levels of the NMDA receptor subunit NR2B, which is important for synaptic function underlying learning and memory. The actions of exercise and DHA dietary supplementation reflected on enhanced learning performance in the Morris water maze as learning ability was associated with higher levels of STX-3 and NR2B. The overall findings reveal a mechanism by which exercise can interact with the function of DHA dietary enrichment to elevate the capacity of the adult brain for axonal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cognitive function. PMID:19446534

  13. Serum levels of fatty acid binding protein 4 and fat metabolic markers in relation to catecholamines following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Tatsuya; Sunaga, Hiroaki; Matsui, Hiroki; Kasama, Shu; Oshima, Naomi; Haruyama, Hikari; Furukawa, Nozomi; Nakajima, Kiyomi; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami; Yokoyama, Tomoyuki; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2017-11-01

    Lipolysis is stimulated by activation of adrenergic inputs to adipose tissues. Our recent study showed that serum concentrations of fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) are robustly elevated in patients with acute myocardial infarction and ventricular tachyarrhythmia, that display a marked activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). However, it remains unknown whether circulating FABP4 concentrations are associated with exercise-induced SNS activation. Thirty one healthy volunteers underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing on a cycle ergometer up to the workload levels below and above anaerobic threshold, low- and high-intensity exercise, respectively. Serial blood samplings were performed before and after exercise. High-intensity exercise significantly increased serum concentrations of FABP4 and catecholamines, and their concentrations declined fast thereafter in a similar fashion. These changes were accompanied by little, if any, changes in other metabolic markers. Regardless of adiposity, percent change from baseline to peak FABP4 levels (%FABP4) was comparable in all subjects. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that %FABP4 was highly correlated with that in norepinephrine. Our study reveals the significant correlation between circulating FABP4 and norepinephrine levels during exercise testing. Together with the fact that FABP4 is secreted from adipocytes via β-adrenergic-mediated lipolytic mechanisms, this study suggests FABP4 as a potential biomarker for adrenergic overdrive. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. A Feasibility Study Related To Inactive Cancer Survivors Compared with Non-Cancer Controls during Aerobic Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drum, Scott N.; Klika, Riggs J.; Carter, Susan D.; Sprod, Lisa K.; Donath, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Cancer survivors (CA) tend to demonstrate metabolic, cardiac, and ventilatory alterations due to previous chemotherapy and radiation that may impair adaptability following aerobic exercise training. Exercise training adaptations of CA finished with primary treatment compared to non-cancer participants (NC) have not yet been extensively elucidated. Thus, the present study compared physiologic responses of CA versus NC following a low-to-moderate intensity, 8-wk aerobic training program. Thirty-seven previously sedentary participants (CA: n = 14, 12 females; NC: n = 23, 19 females) with no heart or metabolic disease did not differ in age, height, weight, and body mass index (51 ± 2 y, 1.66 ± 0.02 m, 83.8 ± 3.2 kg, and 30.5 ± 1 kg·m-2). Each participant underwent baseline, 3-, 6-, and 8-wk VO2peak treadmill testing using the USAFSAM protocol and walked on a treadmill three times per week at 80-90% of ventilatory threshold (VT) for approximately 40-min·session-1. Variables obtained on the VO2peak tests included: HR at stage 2 (HR@stage2), rating of perceived exertion at stage 2 (RPE@stage2), lactate threshold (LT), ventilatory threshold (VT), salivary cortisol at 30-min post VO2peak test (SC@30-minPost),VO2peak level, time of fatigue (TOF), and maximal heart rate (HRmax). NC had significantly (p exercise capacity during 8 weeks of aerobic training and did not show altered adaptability compared to NC. We suggest prescribing aerobic exercise training at low/moderate intensity and duration initially, with progressive increases in duration and intensity after approximately 8-weeks. If available and supported, we advise clinicians to utilize submaximal threshold concepts obtained from cardiopulmonary exercise testing to prescribe more precise aerobic exercise training parameters. Key points Cancer survivors will most likely begin an exercise program after cancer therapy with a diminished functional capacity whereby baseline cardiopulmonary testing is recommended. By

  15. Exercise and Renal Function

    OpenAIRE

    Masato, SUZUKI; Japan Society of Exercise and Sports Physiology; Department of Laboratory Medicine, The Jikeidai University School of Medicine

    1996-01-01

    Research on renal function during exercise is very rare in the sports medicine area because it has no direct bearing on the performance of exercise. However, the kidneys play an important role in maintaining a constant internal state, which, when disturbed by exercise in a hot environment, is normalized by means of enhanced conservation of water and electrolytes by the kidneys. It is the purpose of this article to review the previous literature, to relate some of our findings on renal functio...

  16. Criterion-related validity of the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire against exercise capacity in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papathanasiou, George; Georgoudis, George; Georgakopoulos, Dimitris; Katsouras, Christos; Kalfakakou, Vasiliki; Evangelou, Angelos

    2010-08-01

    Self-reported physical activity (PA) is well associated with cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise capacity. The short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-short) is a frequently used instrument for cross-national assessments of PA in adults. The purpose of this study was to validate IPAQ-short against exercise capacity in Greek young adults. One hundred and thirteen men and 105 women, aged 20-29 years, were randomly selected from a larger population of young health-science students. A Greek version of IPAQ-short (IPAQ-Gr) was administered to all participants before their exercise capacity evaluation with a maximal Bruce treadmill test. Multiple regression and correlation analyses were used to examine the associations between all IPAQ-Gr outcomes with exercise capacity based on maximal treadmill time. Spearman's correlations for total and vigorous PA against maximal treadmill time were significant in all groups examined, ranging from 0.35 to 0.43. Moderate and walking PA correlations were poor and nonsignificant, ranging from near-zero values to 0.19. In multiple linear regression analysis, only sex, smoking, and vigorous PA from all personal and log-transformed IPAQ-Gr data were significantly associated with maximal treadmill time. Partial correlation analysis for the overall population, adjusted for sex and smoking, showed that total PA (r=0.37) and vigorous PA (r=0.47) were significantly associated with exercise capacity. IPAQ-Gr was tested against exercise capacity and showed acceptable validity properties in Greek young adults. Total and vigorous weekly PA expenditure were well associated with exercise capacity, presenting significant validity correlations against maximal treadmill time.

  17. Relation of resting heart rate to risk for all-cause mortality by gender after considering exercise capacity (the Henry Ford exercise testing project).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aladin, Amer I; Whelton, Seamus P; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H; Blaha, Michael J; Keteyian, Steven J; Juraschek, Stephen P; Rubin, Jonathan; Brawner, Clinton A; Michos, Erin D

    2014-12-01

    Whether resting heart rate (RHR) predicts mortality independent of fitness is not well established, particularly among women. We analyzed data from 56,634 subjects (49% women) without known coronary artery disease or atrial fibrillation who underwent a clinically indicated exercise stress test. Baseline RHR was divided into 5 groups with mortality, major adverse cardiovascular events, myocardial infarction, or revascularization after sequential adjustment for demographics, cardiovascular disease risk factors, medications, and fitness (metabolic equivalents). The mean age was 53 ± 12 years and mean RHR was 73 ± 12 beats/min. More than half of the participants were referred for chest pain; 81% completed an adequate stress test and mean metabolic equivalents achieved was 9.2 ± 3. There were 6,255 deaths over 11.0-year mean follow-up. There was an increased risk of all-cause mortality with increasing RHR (p trend mortality even after adjustment for fitness (hazard ratio 1.22, 95% confidence interval 1.10 to 1.35). This relationship remained significant for men, but not significant for women after adjustment for fitness (p interaction mortality in men but not women, suggesting gender differences in the utility of RHR for risk stratification. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RELAP4/MOD5: a computer program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors and related systems. User's manual. Volume I. RELAP4/MOD5 description. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    RELAP4 is a computer program written in FORTRAN IV for the digital computer analysis of nuclear reactors and related systems. It is primarily applied in the study of system transient response to postulated perturbations such as coolant loop rupture, circulation pump failure, power excursions, etc. The program was written to be used for water-cooled (PWR and BWR) reactors and can be used for scale models such as LOFT and SEMISCALE. Additional versatility extends its usefulness to related applications, such as ice condenser and containment subcompartment analysis. Specific options are available for reflood (FLOOD) analysis and for the NRC Evaluation Model.

  19. Exercise Prescription.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribisl, Paul M.

    If exercise programs are to become effective in producing the desired results, then the correct exercise prescription must be applied. Four variables should be controlled in the prescription of exercise: (a) type of activity, (b) intensity, (c) duration, and (d) frequency. The long-term prescription of exercise involves the use of a (a) starter…

  20. Exercise for Your Bone Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in turn helps to prevent falls and related fractures. This is especially important for older adults and people who have been diagnosed with osteoporosis. The Best Bone Building Exercise The best exercise for your bones is the ...