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Sample records for exercise related transient

  1. Transient myocardial ischemia after a first acute myocardial infarction and its relation to clinical characteristics, predischarge exercise testing and cardiac events at one-year follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R

    1993-01-01

    recording 11 +/- 5 days after AMI 23 patients (19%) had 123 ischemic episodes (group 1), whereas 100 patients demonstrated no ischemia (group 2). Exercise-induced ST-segment depression was more prevalent in group 1 (83%) than in group 2 (47%) (p ... as judged from a shorter exercise duration before significant ST-segment depression (5.5 +/- 2.4 vs 7.7 +/- 4.1 minutes; p depression on exercise testing (4.1 +/- 2.6 vs 2.6 +/- 1.6 mm; p exercise test results revealed an impaired hemodynamic......The relation between early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST-segment monitoring, clinical characteristics, predischarge maximal exercise testing and cardiac events was determined in 123 consecutive men (age 55 +/- 8 years) with a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). During 36 hours of ambulatory...

  2. Intense Resistance Exercise Promotes the Acute and Transient Nuclear Translocation of Small Ubiquitin-Related Modifier (SUMO-1 in Human Myofibres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein sumoylation is a posttranslational modification triggered by cellular stress. Because general information concerning the role of small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO proteins in adult skeletal muscle is sparse, we investigated whether SUMO-1 proteins will be subjected to time-dependent changes in their subcellular localization in sarcoplasmic and nuclear compartments of human type I and II skeletal muscle fibers in response to acute stimulation by resistance exercise (RE. Skeletal muscle biopsies were taken at baseline (PRE, 15, 30, 60, 240 min and 24 h post RE from 6 male subjects subjected to a single bout of one-legged knee extensions. SUMO-1 localization was determined via immunohistochemistry and confocal laser microscopy. At baseline SUMO-1 was localized in perinuclear regions of myonuclei. Within 15 and up to 60 min post exercise, nuclear SUMO-1 localization was significantly increased (p < 0.01, declining towards baseline levels within 240 min post exercise. Sarcoplasmic SUMO-1 localization was increased at 15 min post exercise in type I and up to 30 min post RE in type II myofibres. The changing localization of SUMO-1 proteins acutely after intense muscle contractions points to a role for SUMO proteins in the acute regulation of the skeletal muscle proteome after exercise.

  3. Impact of exercise programs among helicopter pilots with transient LBP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Knut; Baardsen, Roald; Dalen, Ingvild; Larsen, Jan Petter

    2017-06-20

    Flight related low back pain (LBP) among helicopter pilots is frequent and may influence flight performance. Prolonged confined sitting during flights seems to weaken lumbar trunk (LT) muscles with associated secondary transient pain. Aim of the study was to investigate if structured training could improve muscular function and thus improve LBP related to flying. 39 helicopter pilots (35 men and 4 women), who reported flying related LBP on at least 1 of 3 missions last month, were allocated to two training programs over a 3-month period. Program A consisted of 10 exercises recommended for general LBP. Program B consisted of 4 exercises designed specifically to improve LT muscular endurance. The pilots were examined before and after the training using questionnaires for pain, function, quality of health and tests of LT muscular endurance as well as ultrasound measurements of the contractility of the lumbar multifidus muscle (LMM). Approximately half of the participants performed the training per-protocol. Participants in this subset group had comparable baseline characteristics as the total study sample. Pre and post analysis of all pilots included, showed participants had marked improvement in endurance and contractility of the LMM following training. Similarly, participants had improvement in function and quality of health. Participants in program B had significant improvement in pain, function and quality of health. This study indicates that participants who performed a three months exercise program had improved muscle endurance at the end of the program. The helicopter pilots also experienced improved function and quality of health. Identifier: NCT01788111 Registration date; February 5th, 2013, verified April 2016.

  4. Rat muscle microvascular PO2 kinetics during the exercise off-transient.

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    McDonough, P; Behnke, B J; Kindig, C A; Poole, D C

    2001-05-01

    Dependent upon the relative speed of pulmonary oxygen consumption (VO2) and blood flow (Q) kinetics, the exercise off-transient may represent a condition of sub- or supra-optimal perfusion. To date, there are no direct measurements of the dynamics of the VO2/Q relationship within the muscle at the onset of the work/recovery transition. To address this issue, microvascular PO2 (PO2,m) dynamics were studied in the spinotrapezius muscles of 11 female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight approximately 220 g) during and following electrical stimulation (1 Hz) to assess the adequacy of Q. relative to VO2 post exercise. The exercise blood flow response (radioactive microspheres: muscle Q increased approximately 240 %), and post-exercise arterial blood pH (7.40 +/- 0.02) and blood lactate (1.3 +/- 0.4 mM x l(-1)) values were consistent with moderate-intensity exercise. Recovery PO2,m (i.e. off-transient) rose progressively until baseline values were achieved ((Delta)end-recovery exercise PO2,m, 14.0 +/- 1.9 Torr) and at no time fell below exercising PO2,m. The off-transient PO2,m was well fitted by a dual exponential model with both fast (tau = 25.4 +/- 5.1 s) and slow (tau = 71.2 +/- 34.2 s) components. Furthermore, there was a pronounced delay (54.9 +/- 10.7 s) before the onset of the slow component. These data, obtained at the muscle microvascular level, support the notion that muscle VO2 falls with faster kinetics than muscle Q during the off-transient, such that PO2,m increases systematically, though biphasically, during recovery.

  5. Transient trimethylaminuria related to menstruation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Makiko; Cashman, John R; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Background Trimethylaminuria, or fish odor syndrome, includes a transient or mild malodor caused by an excessive amount of malodorous trimethylamine as a result of body secretions. Herein, we describe data to support the proposal that menses can be an additional factor causing transient trimethylaminuria in self-reported subjects suffering from malodor and even in healthy women harboring functionally active flavin-containing monooxygenase 3 (FMO3). Methods FMO3 metabolic capacity (conversion of trimethylamine to trimethylamine N-oxide) was defined as the urinary ratio of trimethylamine N-oxide to total trimethylamine. Results Self-reported Case (A) that was homozygous for inactive Arg500stop FMO3, showed decreased metabolic capacity of FMO3 (i.e., ~10% the unaffected metabolic capacity) during 120 days of observation. For Case (B) that was homozygous for common [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] FMO3 polymorphisms, metabolic capacity of FMO3 was almost ~90%, except for a few days surrounding menstruation showing 90%) metabolic capacity, however, on days around menstruation the FMO3 metabolic capacity was decreased to ~60–70%. Conclusion Together, these results indicate that abnormal FMO3 capacity is caused by menstruation particularly in the presence, in homozygous form, of mild genetic variants such as [Glu158Lys; Glu308Gly] that cause a reduced FMO3 function. PMID:17257434

  6. The walking-induced transient hack concept is valid & relies on a transient early-exercise hypoxemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoine Bruneau

    Full Text Available Decreased arterial oxygen pressure obtained at peak exercise is strong evidence of walking-induced hypoxemia, assuming that the lower pressure occurs just before exercise is stopped. Using empirical predefined models and transcutaneous oximetry, we have shown that some patients reporting exercise intolerance show a minimal value at the onset of walking and a post-exercise overshoot. These changes are referred to as transcutaneous "walking-induced transient hacks".In 245 patients, walking-induced transcutaneous oxygen pressure changes in the chest were analyzed using observer-independent clustering techniques. Clustering classes were compared to the profile types previously proposed with the cross-correlation technique. The classifications of patients according to both approaches were compared using kappa statistics. In 10 patients showing a hack on transcutaneous oximetry, we analyzed the results of direct iterative arterial sampling recorded during a new walking treadmill test.Clustering analysis resulted in 4 classes that closely fit the 4 most frequently proposed empirical models (cross-correlation coefficients: 0.93 to 0.97. The kappa between the two classifications was 0.865. In 10 patients showing transcutaneous hacks, the minimal direct arterial oxygen pressure value occurred at exercise onset, and these patients exhibited a recovery overshoot reaching a maximum at two minutes of recovery, confirming the walking-induced transient hypoxemia.In patients reporting exercise intolerance, transcutaneous oximetry could help to detect walking-induced transient hypoxemia, while peak-exercise arterial oximetry might be normal.

  7. Exercise-mimetic AICAR transiently benefits brain function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrieri, Davide; van Praag, Henriette

    2015-01-01

    Exercise enhances learning and memory in animals and humans. The role of peripheral factors that may trigger the beneficial effects of running on brain function has been sparsely examined. In particular, it is unknown whether AMP-kinase (AMPK) activation in muscle can predict enhancement of brain plasticity. Here we compare the effects of running and administration of AMPK agonist 5-Aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide 1-β-D-ribofuranoside (AICAR, 500 mg/kg), for 3, 7 or 14 days in one-month-old male C57BL/6J mice, on muscle AMPK signaling. At the time-points where we observed equivalent running- and AICAR-induced muscle pAMPK levels (7 and 14 days), cell proliferation, synaptic plasticity and gene expression, as well as markers of oxidative stress and inflammation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus and lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) were evaluated. At the 7-day time-point, both regimens increased new DG cell number and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels. Furthermore, microarray analysis of DG and LEC tissue showed a remarkable overlap between running and AICAR in the regulation of neuronal, mitochondrial and metabolism related gene classes. Interestingly, while similar outcomes for both treatments were stable over time in muscle, in the brain an inversion occurred at fourteen days. The compound no longer increased DG cell proliferation or neurotrophin levels, and upregulated expression of apoptotic genes and inflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β. Thus, an exercise mimetic that produces changes in muscle consistent with those of exercise does not have the same sustainable positive effects on the brain, indicating that only running consistently benefits brain function. PMID:26286955

  8. Transient left ventricular apical ballooning and exercise induced hypertension during treadmill exercise testing: is there a common hypersympathetic mechanism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oh Jae K

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To describe two cases of Takotsubo like myocardial contractile pattern during exercise stress test secondary to hypertensive response. Background Treadmill exercise testing is known to cause sympathetic stimulation, leading to increased levels of catecholamine, resulting in alteration in vascular tone. Hypertensive response during exercise testing can cause abnormal consequences, resulting in false positive results. Cases We present the cases of two patients experiencing apical and basal akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography, in whom normal wall motion response was observed on subsequent pharmacologic stress testing. The first patient developed transient left ventricular (LV apical akinesis during exercise stress echocardiography. Due to high suspicion that this abnormality might be secondary to hypertensive response, pharmacologic stress testing was performed after three days, which was completely normal and showed no such wall motion abnormality. Qualitative assessment of myocardial perfusion using contrast was also performed, which showed good myocardial blood flow, indicating low probability for significant obstructive coronary artery disease. The second patient developed LV basal akinesis as a result of hypertensive response during exercise testing. Coronary angiogram was not performed in either patient due to low suspicion for coronary artery disease, and subsequently negative stress studies. Results Transient stress induced cardiomyopathy can develop secondary to hypertensive response during exercise stress testing. Conclusion These cases provide supporting evidence to the hyper-sympathetic theory of left ventricular ballooning syndrome.

  9. Transient hypofrontality as a mechanism for the psychological effects of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich, Arne

    2006-11-29

    Although exercise is known to promote mental health, a satisfactory understanding of the mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not yet been achieved. A new mechanism is proposed that is based on established concepts in cognitive psychology and the neurosciences as well as recent empirical work on the functional neuroanatomy of higher mental processes. Building on the fundamental principle that processing in the brain is competitive and the fact that the brain has finite metabolic resources, the transient hypofrontality hypothesis suggests that during exercise the extensive neural activation required to run motor patterns, assimilate sensory inputs, and coordinate autonomic regulation results in a concomitant transient decrease of neural activity in brain structures, such as the prefrontal cortex, that are not pertinent to performing the exercise. An exercise-induced state of frontal hypofunction can provide a coherent account of the influences of exercise on emotion and cognition. The new hypothesis is proposed primarily on the strength of its heuristic value, as it suggests several new avenues of research.

  10. Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. ... African Health Sciences ... Currently, physical activity is an important lifestyle factor that has the potential to modify inflammatory ...

  11. Transient activation of mTOR following forced treadmill exercise in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elfving, Betina; Christensen, Tina; Ratner, Cecilia

    2013-01-01

    , while the induction of neurogenesis requires signaling through the VEGF receptor, Flk-1 (VEGFR-2). VEGF expression is believed to be regulated by two distinct mTOR (mammalian Target of Rapamycin)-containing multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2, respectively. This study was initiated to investigate...... of mTOR was regulated after a single bout of exercise. In conclusion, the effect of treadmill exercise on the VEGF system is acute rather than chronic and there is a transient activation of mTOR. More studies are needed to understand whether this could be beneficial in the treatment of neuropsychiatric...

  12. Acute effects of exercise posture on executive function in transient ischemic attack patients.

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    Faulkner, James; Stoner, Lee; Grigg, Rebecca; Fryer, Simon; Stone, Keeron; Lambrick, Danielle

    2017-08-01

    In patients with stroke or transient ischemic attacks (TIA), a decline in executive function may limit an individual's ability to process motor tasks and relearn motor skills. The purpose of this study was to assess the acute effect of exercise posture (seated vs. supine cycle ergometry) on executive function and prefrontal cortex perfusion in patients with TIA. Eleven TIA patients (65 ± 10 years) and 15 age-matched, healthy controls (HC; 62 ± 7 years) completed two exercise tests to maximal capacity (one seated, one supine) and two 30-min submaximal exercise tests (one seated, one supine). Executive function was assessed prior to and following (1.5 min post, 15 min post) the submaximal exercise tests using a Stroop task. Prefrontal cortex perfusion (total hemoglobin) was continuously recorded using near-infrared spectroscopy. There was no Posture (seated, supine) × Group (TIA, HC) interaction for the Stroop task (p > .05). HC completed Stroop tasks significantly faster than TIA (51.9[SD = 10.3] vs. 64.2[8.5] s, respectively), while Stroop completion time significantly improved between baseline and 1.5 min post (61.3[10] vs. 58.1[9.4] s, respectively) and 1.5 min post and 15 min post (54.8[8.9] s). Posture and group had no significant influence on prefrontal cortex perfusion (p > .05). In summary, executive function improves to a similar extent in TIA and age-matched, healthy controls following an acute bout of exercise, regardless of exercise posture. As acute improvements in executive function were maintained for 15 min, there could be an important window of opportunity for assigning executive tasks following exercise rehabilitation for patients with TIA. © 2017 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  13. Comparison of exercise and pharmacological stress gated SPECT in detecting transient left ventricular dysfunction.

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    Demir, Hakan; Tan, Yusuf Z; Isgoren, Serkan; Gorur, Gozde D; Kozdag, Guliz; Ural, Ertan; Berk, Fatma

    2008-06-01

    Transient left ventricular contractile dysfunction (TLVD) is observed owing to post-exercise stunning in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Pharmacological stimulation differs from exercise stress because it does not cause demand ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLVD could also be seen after pharmacological stress (dipyridamole). Of the patients in whom gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) was performed in our institution from January 2004 to April 2007, 439 subjects with known or suspected CAD were included in the study. GSPECT was performed for all patients following exercise (group I, n = 220) or pharmacological stress (group II, n = 219) according to a 2-day (stress-rest) protocol after injection of Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI). Stress, rest, and difference (stress-rest value) left ventricular ejection fractions (SLVEF, RLVEF, and DLVEF) and transient ischemic dilatation (TID) ratio were derived automatically. Summed stress score, summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) for myocardial perfusion were calculated using a 20-segment model and a five-point scoring system. An SDS > 3 was considered as ischemic. On the basis of the perfusion findings, patients were subdivided into a normal (group A, n = 216) and ischemia group (group B, n = 223). DLVEF and perfusion scores of all groups were compared. Relationships between DLVEF and perfusion, and between TID ratio and DLVEF were also evaluated. Stress-induced ischemia was observed in 223 of 439 patients (50.8%). In group A, the difference between stress and rest LVEF values was not significant (P = 0.670 and P = 0.200 for groups IA and IIA, respectively). However, LVEF was significantly decreased after stress compared with rest values for group B (P good correlations between TID ratios and DLVEF values in four subgroups (r = -0.55, r = -0.62, r = -0.59, and r = -0.41; for groups IA, IB, IIA, and IIB, respectively, P stress was observed

  14. Comparison of exercise and pharmacological stress gated SPECT in detecting transient left ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Hakan; Tan, Yusuf Z.; Isgoren, Serkan; Gorur, Gozde D.; Kozdag, Guliz; Ural, Ertan; Berk, Fatma

    2008-01-01

    Transient left ventricular contractile dysfunction (TLVD) is observed owing to post-exercise stunning in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Pharmacological stimulation differs from exercise stress because it does not cause demand ischemia. The aim of this study was to determine whether TLVD could also be seen after pharmacological stress (dipyridamole). Of the patients in whom gated single-photon emission computed tomography (GSPECT) was performed in our institution from January 2004 to April 2007, 439 subjects with known or suspected CAD were included in the study. GSPECT was performed for all patients following exercise (group I, n=220) or pharmacological stress (group II, n=219) according to a 2-day (stress-rest) protocol after injection of Tc-99m methoxyisobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI). Stress, rest, and difference (stress-rest value) left ventricular ejection fractions (SLVEF, RLVEF, and DLVEF) and transient ischemic dilatation (TID) ratio were derived automatically. Summed stress score, summed rest score, and summed difference score (SDS) for myocardial perfusion were calculated using a 20-segment model and a five-point scoring system. An SDS >3 was considered as ischemic. On the basis of the perfusion findings, patients were subdivided into a normal (group A, n=216) and ischemia group (group B, n=223). DLVEF and perfusion scores of all groups were compared. Relationships between DLVEF and perfusion, and between TID ratio and DLVEF were also evaluated. Stress-induced ischemia was observed in 223 of 439 patients (50.8%). In group A, the difference between stress and rest LVEF values was not significant (P=0.670 and P=0.200 for groups IA and IIA, respectively). However, LVEF was significantly decreased after stress compared with rest values for group B (P<0.0001 for groups IB and IIB). TLVD (≤-5% for DLVEF) was observed in 20 of 216 (9%) and 81 of 223 subjects (36%) in patients in groups A and B, respectively (P<0.0001). In group I, we found TLVD in 46 of

  15. Models for Type Ia Supernovae and Related Astrophysical Transients

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    Röpke, Friedrich K.; Sim, Stuart A.

    2018-06-01

    We give an overview of recent efforts to model Type Ia supernovae and related astrophysical transients resulting from thermonuclear explosions in white dwarfs. In particular we point out the challenges resulting from the multi-physics multi-scale nature of the problem and discuss possible numerical approaches to meet them in hydrodynamical explosion simulations and radiative transfer modeling. We give examples of how these methods are applied to several explosion scenarios that have been proposed to explain distinct subsets or, in some cases, the majority of the observed events. In case we comment on some of the successes and shortcoming of these scenarios and highlight important outstanding issues.

  16. Transient ischemic dilation ratio (TID) correlates with HbA1c in patients with diabetes type 2 with proven myocardial ischemia according to exercise myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamikova, A.; Rybka, J.; Bakala, J.; Bernatek, J.; Svacina, S.

    2006-01-01

    Abnormal values of the transient ischemic dilation ratio (TID) according to an exercise myocardial single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are linked to severe coronary artery disease. The authors investigated the relationship between TID and the levels of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), E-selectin, microalbuminuria, intimamedia thickness and HbA 1c of diabetic subjects. We observed 38 subjects with diabetes type 2 (10 women, 28 men), of average age 56.08±8.24 years, with no past history of cardiovascular disease. All subjects were examined using an exercise myocardial SPECT. Transient ischemic dilation, summed stress score (SSS), summed rest score (SRS) and stress total severity score (STSS) were determined to quantify myocardial ischemia. The average IMT value was 1.05±0.31 mm. The TID value was 1.02±0.154, VCAM 795.24±163.25 mg/l, ICAM 516.55±164.07, E-selectin 63.82±38.89, HbA 1c 7.09±1.68%, microalbuminuria 68.01±55.21 mg/l. When ascertaining the relation of TID to the other factors we used Pearson's correlation at the level of significance p 1c (p=0.035); the other factors did not show any significant correlation. Diabetes and its long term unsatisfactory compensation can be one of the factors which affect left ventricular transient ischemic dilation. (author)

  17. Swimming exercise reverses aging-related contractile abnormalities of female heart by improving structural alterations.

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    Ozturk, Nihal; Olgar, Yusuf; Er, Hakan; Kucuk, Murathan; Ozdemir, Semir

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of swimming exercise on aging-related Ca2+ handling alterations and structural abnormalities of female rat heart. For this purpose, 4-month and 24-month old female rats were used and divided into three following groups: sedentary young (SY), sedentary old (SO), and exercised old (Ex-O). Swimming exercise was performed for 8 weeks (60 min/day, 5 days/week). Myocyte shortening, L-type Ca2+ currents and associated Ca2+ transients were measured from ventricular myocytes at 36 ± 1°C. NOX-4 levels, aconitase activity, glutathione measurements and ultrastructural examination by electron microscopy were conducted in heart tissue. Swimming exercise reversed the reduced shortening and slowed kinetics of aged cardiomyocytes. Although the current density was similar for all groups, Ca2+ transients were higher in SO and Ex-O myocytes with respect to the SY group. Caffeine-induced Ca2+ transients and the integrated NCX current were lower in cardiomyocytes of SY rats compared with other groups, suggesting an increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ content in an aged heart. Aging led to upregulated cardiac NOX-4 along with declined aconitase activity. Although it did not reverse these oxidative parameters, swimming exercise achieved a significant increase in glutathione levels and improved structural alterations of old rats' hearts. We conclude that swimming exercise upregulates antioxidant defense capacity and improves structural abnormalities of senescent female rat heart, although it does not change Ca2+ handling alterations further. Thereby, it improves contractile function of aged myocardium by mitigating detrimental effects of oxidative stress.

  18. Effects of Biggest Loser exercise depictions on exercise-related attitudes.

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    Berry, Tanya R; McLeod, Nicole C; Pankratow, Melanie; Walker, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    To examine whether participants who watched an exercise-related segment of The Biggest Loser television program would have different explicit and implicit affective exercise-related attitudes than those of control participants. University students (N=138) watched a clip of The Biggest Loser or American Idol, then completed a Go/No-go Association Task, a thought-listing task, and questionnaires measuring explicit attitudes, activity level, and mood. Participants who watched The Biggest Loser had significantly lower explicit, but not implicit, attitudes towards exercise than did control participants. There is a need to examine the influence of popular media depictions of exercise.

  19. Exercise and food compensation: exploring diet-related beliefs and behaviors of regular exercisers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohle, Simone; Wansink, Brian; Zehnder, Lorena

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this qualitative study is to identify common beliefs and behaviors related to exercise and diet. Data were collected in focus group discussions with regular exercisers who were physically active between 1 and 5 h per week. Exercise objectives, beliefs and behaviors regarding food intake before, during, and after exercise, consumption of sport supplements, and dietary patterns on sedentary days were explored. All focus groups were audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analyzed using a grounded theory approach. Participants reported that they reward themselves for being active by consuming food. Other exercisers had specific beliefs about dietary needs and how to compensate for exercise-induced losses along with exercise-related food likes and dislikes. The participants' food intake also depended on their personal exercise objectives, such as the goal of performing well in competitions. External and physiological factors also played a role in determining participants' dietary patterns. Results of this study show that exercising and dietary patterns are closely intertwined. In addition, we articulate new hypotheses and outline a research agenda that can help improve how regular exercisers eat.

  20. Gamma-ray transients and related astrophysical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingenfelter, R.E.; Hudson, H.S.; Worrall, D.M.

    1982-01-01

    The workshop covered the study of the explosive phenomena responsible for the various gamma ray transients. X-ray burster observations and theories were also reviewed with emphasis on their relationship to gamma ray bursts. Recent observational data, particularly from the SMM, HEAO, and VENERA satellites made the workshop especially timely. Major headings include: gamma-ray transients, x-ray bursts, solar transients, and instrumental concepts. Individual items from the workshop were prepared separately for the data base

  1. Exercise alleviates depression related systemic inflammation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shown to be associated with a worse course of disease, including reduced quality of life and increased symptoms burden, .... muscle cramp and soreness due to lack of exercise toler- .... an anti-inflammatory nutrition combined with the low-.

  2. Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and the Kinetics of Heart Rate Responses in the On- and Off-Transient during Exercise in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas R. B. E. Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses.Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35–55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19 and a control group (CG, n = 17. R-R intervals (RRi and heart rate variability (HRV were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET.Results: MSG showed lower aerobic capacity and lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest compared with CG. HR values in on-transient phase were significantly lower in MSG compared with CG. The exponential amplitudes “amp” and the parameters “τ” [speed of heart rate recovery (HRR] were lower in MSG. MSG exhibited higher HR values in comparison to CG during the off-transient indicating a slower HRR. In MSG, there was an inverse and significant correlation between fasting plasma vs. ΔF and glucose vs. exponential “τ” of HRR dynamics.Conclusion: MS is associated with poor heart rate kinetics. The altered HR kinetics seems to be related to alterations in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, and glucose metabolism seems to be the major determinant.

  3. Exercise induces transient transcriptional activation of the PGC-1a gene in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Saltin, Bengt; Neufer, P. Darrell

    2003-01-01

    Endurance exercise training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in skeletal muscle. The peroxisome proliferator activated receptor co-activator 1a (PGC-1a) has recently been identified as a nuclear factor critical for coordinating the activation of genes required for mitochondrial biogenesis in cell...... culture and rodent skeletal muscle. To determine whether PGC-1a transcription is regulated by acute exercise and exercise training in human skeletal muscle, seven male subjects performed 4 weeks of one-legged knee extensor exercise training. At the end of training, subjects completed 3 h of two......-legged knee extensor exercise. Biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of both the untrained and trained legs before exercise and after 0, 2, 6 and 24 h of recovery. Time to exhaustion (2 min maximum resistance), as well as hexokinase II (HKII), citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl...

  4. Transient post-exercise hyper-perspiration of forehead area | Reza ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information about sweating responses during exercise recovery is insufficient and mostly controversial. In the present study, particular attention is given to sweating behavior at forehead area immediately after exercise. Simultaneous changes of some underlying factors are also addressed. Eight healthy young males ...

  5. Transient increase in homocysteine but not hyperhomocysteinemia during acute exercise at different intensities in sedentary individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Iglesias-Gutiérrez

    Full Text Available Considering that hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the purpose of this study was to determine the kinetics of serum homocysteine (tHcy and the vitamins involved in its metabolism (folates, B(12, and B(6 in response to acute exercise at different intensities. Eight sedentary males (18-27 yr took part in the study. Subjects were required to complete two isocaloric (400 kcal acute exercise trials on separate occasions at 40% (low intensity, LI and 80% VO(2peak (high intensity, HI. Blood samples were drawn at different points before (pre4 and pre0 h, during (exer10, exer20, exer30, exer45, and exer60 min, and after exercise (post0, post3, and post19 h. Dietary, genetic, and lifestyle factors were controlled. Maximum tHcy occurred during exercise, both at LI (8.6 (8.0-10.1 µmol/L, 9.3% increase from pre0 and HI (9.4 (8.2-10.6 µmol/L, 25.7% increase from pre0, coinciding with an accumulated energy expenditure independent of the exercise intensity. From this point onwards tHcy declined until the cessation of exercise and continued descending. At post19, tHcy was not different from pre-exercise values. No values of hyperhomocysteinemia were observed at any sampling point and intensity. In conclusion, acute exercise in sedentary individuals, even at HI, shows no negative effect on tHcy when at least 400 kcal are spent during exercise and the nutritional status for folate, B(12, and B(6 is adequate, since no hyperhomocysteinemia has been observed and basal concentrations were recovered in less than 24 h. This could be relevant for further informing healthy exercise recommendations.

  6. Feelings of energy, exercise-related self-efficacy, and voluntary exercise participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seok; Buckworth, Janet; Focht, Brian; Ko, Bomna

    2013-12-01

    This study used a path analysis approach to examine the relationship between feelings of energy, exercise-related self-efficacy beliefs, and exercise participation. A cross-sectional mailing survey design was used to measure feelings of physical and mental energy, task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs, and voluntary moderate and vigorous exercise participation in 368 healthy, full-time undergraduate students (mean age = 21.43 ± 2.32 years). The path analysis revealed that the hypothesized path model had a strong fit to the study data. The path model showed that feelings of physical energy had significant direct effects on task and scheduling self-efficacy beliefs as well as exercise behaviors. In addition, scheduling self-efficacy had direct effects on moderate and vigorous exercise participation. However, there was no significant direct relationship between task self-efficacy and exercise participation. The path model also revealed that scheduling self-efficacy partially mediated the relationship between feelings of physical energy and exercise participation.

  7. Impact of obesity and exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue.

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    Herath, Kanchana; Peswani, Namrata; Chitambar, Christopher R

    2016-10-01

    Breast cancer patients undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy often develop fatigue from their treatment that may persist for months. While the positive effects of physical activity in cancer patients are increasingly recognized, the impact of obesity on chemotherapy-induced fatigue has not been well studied. Female age 35-75 years with stage I-III breast cancer receiving adjuvant chemotherapy were enrolled in an IRB-approved study. Patient fatigue was self-reported using a 14-question fatigue symptom inventory. Patients were queried about fatigue and their level of exercise before, during, and after completion of chemotherapy. BMI was measured prior to their first cycle of chemotherapy. Of the 47 evaluable patients, 37 reported performing exercise on a regular basis. Following chemotherapy, 53 % of the exercise group and 80 % of the non-exercise group displayed a worsening of their FS. In patients with a BMI exercise group versus 40.5 in the non-exercise group. In patients with a BMI > 25, the FS after chemotherapy was 25.96 in the exercise group versus 32.6 in the non-exercise group. Our study indicates a trend towards fatigue reduction with exercise even in patients who are overweight. Thus, an elevated BMI at diagnosis does not preclude a breast cancer patient from experiencing the same positive effects from exercise on chemotherapy-related fatigue as patients with normal BMIs. This indicates an important role of physicians in the primary care setting to encourage patients to initiate physical activity when offering cancer-screening services.

  8. Artificial gravity exposure impairs exercise-related neurophysiological benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Tobias; Abeln, Vera; Strüder, Heiko K; Schneider, Stefan

    2014-01-17

    Artificial gravity (AG) exposure is suggested to counteract health deconditioning, theoretically complementing exercise during space habitations. Exercise-benefits on mental health are well documented (i.e. well-being, enhanced executive functions). Although AG is coherent for the integrity of fundamental physiological systems, the effects of its exposure on neurophysiological processes related to cognitive performance are poorly understood and therefore characterize the primary aim of this study. 16 healthy males participated in two randomly assigned sessions, AG and exercise (30minute each). Participants were exposed to AG at continuous +2Gz in a short-arm human centrifuge and performed moderate exercise (cycling ergometer). Using 64 active electrodes, resting EEG was recorded before (pre), immediately after (post), and 15min after (post15) each session. Alpha (7.5-12.5Hz) and beta frequencies (12.5-35.0Hz) were exported for analysis. Cognitive performance and mood states were assessed before and after each session. Cognitive performance improved after exercise (pexercise, however not after AG. Frontal alpha (post pexercise. Relaxed cortical states were indicated after exercise, but were less apparent after AG. Changes in mood states failed significance after both sessions. Summarized, the benefits to mental health, recorded after exercise, were absent after AG, indicating that AG might cause neurocognitive deconditioning. © 2013.

  9. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: 6q24-related transient neonatal diabetes mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is passed from the blood into cells for conversion to energy. People with 6q24-related transient neonatal ... Related Information What does it mean if a disorder seems to run in my family? What is ...

  11. Exercising self-control increases relative left frontal cortical activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeichel, Brandon J; Crowell, Adrienne; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2016-02-01

    Self-control refers to the capacity to override or alter a predominant response tendency. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, as revealed by patterns of electrical activity in the prefrontal cortex. Participants completed a writing task that did vs did not require them to exercise self-control. Then they viewed pictures known to evoke positive, negative or neutral affect. We assessed electroencephalographic (EEG) activity while participants viewed the pictures, and participants reported their trait levels of behavioral inhibition system (BIS) and behavioral activation system (BAS) sensitivity at the end of the study. We found that exercising (vs not exercising) self-control increased relative left frontal cortical activity during picture viewing, particularly among individuals with relatively higher BAS than BIS, and particularly during positive picture viewing. A similar but weaker pattern emerged during negative picture viewing. The results suggest that exercising self-control temporarily increases approach motivation, which may help to explain the aftereffects of self-control (i.e. ego depletion). © The Author (2015). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Serial right ventricle 201Tl imaging after exercise: relation to anatomy of the right coronary artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, K.A.; Boucher, C.A.; Okada, R.D.; Strauss, H.W.; McKusick, K.A.; Pohost, G.M.

    1982-01-01

    The relation of the appearance of the right ventricle on serium 201 Tl myocardial imaging to coronary artery anatomy was examined in 88 consecutive patients undergoing exercise 201 Tl testing and coronary angiography for the evaluation of chest pain. Transient defects in the right ventricle were found in 8 patients. All had high grade (greater than or equal to 90%) stenosis of the proximal right coronary artery. Nonvisualization of right ventricular (RV) activity occurred in 10 patients. Nine of the 10 (90%) had significant (greater than or equal to 50% stenosis) disease of the proximal right coronary artery and 7 (70%) had high grade stenosis. The right ventricle appeared normal in 70 patients. Twenty-nine (41%) of these patients had significant proximal right coronary artery disease. Right ventricular appearance was not affected by the presence or absence of disease of the left anterior descending or left circumflex artery or by the appearance of the left ventricle. Thus, with serial RV thallium-201 myocardial imaging after exercise, we found that (1) RV transient defects suggest the presence of high grade proximal right coronary artery stenosis, (2) non-visualization of RV activity also predicts significant proximal right coronary disease, and (3) the right ventricle frequently appears normal despite proximal right coronary artery disease and therefore this finding does not exclude such disease

  13. Delayed and transient increase of adult hippocampal neurogenesis by physical exercise in DBA/2 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rupert W Overall

    Full Text Available This study builds on the findings that physical activity, such as wheel running in mice, enhances cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus of the common mouse strain C57BL/6, and that the baseline level of neurogenesis varies by strain, being considerably lower in DBA/2. Because C57BL/6 and DBA/2 are important as the parental strains of the BXD recombinant inbred cross which allows the detection of genetic loci regulating phenotypes such as adult neurogenesis, we performed the current study to investigate the gene x environment interactions regulating neurogenesis. At equal distances and times run DBA/2J mice lacked the acute increase in precursor cell proliferation known from C57BL/6. In DBA/2J proliferation even negatively correlated with the distance run. This was neither due to a stress response (to running itself or single housing nor differences in estrous cycle. DBA/2 animals exhibited a delayed and weaker pro-neurogenic response with a significant increase in numbers of proliferating cells first detectable after more than a week of wheel running. The proliferative response to running was transient in both strains, the effect being undetectable by 6 weeks. There was also a small transient increase in the production of new neurons in DBA/2J, although these extra cells did not survive. These findings indicate that the comparison between C57BL/6 and DBA/2, and by extension the BXD genetic reference population derived from these strains, should provide a powerful tool for uncovering the complex network of modifier genes affecting the activity-dependent regulation of adult hippocampal neurogenesis. More generally, our findings also describe how the external physical environment interacts with the internal genetic environment to produce different responses to the same behavioral stimuli.

  14. Transient fluctuation relations for time-dependent particle transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altland, Alexander; de Martino, Alessandro; Egger, Reinhold; Narozhny, Boris

    2010-09-01

    We consider particle transport under the influence of time-varying driving forces, where fluctuation relations connect the statistics of pairs of time-reversed evolutions of physical observables. In many “mesoscopic” transport processes, the effective many-particle dynamics is dominantly classical while the microscopic rates governing particle motion are of quantum-mechanical origin. We here employ the stochastic path-integral approach as an optimal tool to probe the fluctuation statistics in such applications. Describing the classical limit of the Keldysh quantum nonequilibrium field theory, the stochastic path integral encapsulates the quantum origin of microscopic particle exchange rates. Dynamically, it is equivalent to a transport master equation which is a formalism general enough to describe many applications of practical interest. We apply the stochastic path integral to derive general functional fluctuation relations for current flow induced by time-varying forces. We show that the successive measurement processes implied by this setup do not put the derivation of quantum fluctuation relations in jeopardy. While in many cases the fluctuation relation for a full time-dependent current profile may contain excessive information, we formulate a number of reduced relations, and demonstrate their application to mesoscopic transport. Examples include the distribution of transmitted charge, where we show that the derivation of a fluctuation relation requires the combined monitoring of the statistics of charge and work.

  15. Exercise adherence, cardiopulmonary fitness and anthropometric changes improve exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imayama, Ikuyo; Alfano, Catherine M; Mason, Caitlin E; Wang, Chiachi; Xiao, Liren; Duggan, Catherine; Campbell, Kristin L; Foster-Schubert, Karen E; Wang, Ching-Yun; McTiernan, Anne

    2013-07-01

    Regular exercise increases exercise self-efficacy and health-related quality of life (HRQOL); however, the mechanisms are unknown. We examined the associations of exercise adherence and physiological improvements with changes in exercise self-efficacy and HRQOL. Middle-aged adults (N = 202) were randomized to 12 months aerobic exercise (360 minutes/week) or control. Weight, waist circumference, percent body fat, cardiopulmonary fitness, HRQOL (SF-36), and exercise self-efficacy were assessed at baseline and 12 months. Adherence was measured in minutes/day from activity logs. Exercise adherence was associated with reduced bodily pain, improved general health and vitality, and reduced role-emotional scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.05). Increased fitness was associated with improved physical functioning, bodily pain and general health scores (P(trend) ≤ 0.04). Reduced weight and percent body fat were associated with improved physical functioning, general health, and bodily pain scores (P(trend) exercise adherence, increased cardiopulmonary fitness and reduced weight, waist circumference and percent body fat were associated with increased exercise self-efficacy (P(trend) exercise programs to induce changes in cardiopulmonary fitness and body composition may lead to greater improvements in HRQOL and self-efficacy that could promote exercise maintenance.

  16. Effect of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaivika Govindbhai Patel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common side effect of cancer treatment with chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy, selected biologic response modifiers. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the effects of aerobic exercise on cancer-related fatigue in patients of the solid tumor after chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Methods: After screening for cancer-related fatigue, 34 patients fulfilled the inclusive criteria and were assigned into two groups (n = 17 recruited in the intervention group and n = 17 in control group. The intervention group received aerobic exercise program which included treadmill walking with low to moderate intensity (50%–70% of maximum heart rate, for 20–40 min/day for 5 days/week. Control group were taught stretching exercises of hamstrings, gastrocnemius, and soleus (to be done at home and were encouraged to remain active. Outcome measures such as brief fatigue inventory (BFI, 6-min walk test, and functional assessment of cancer therapy-general (FACT-G were taken at baseline and after 6-weeks. Results: The data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank test for within group and Mann–Whitney U-test for between group comparisons. The results of this study showed that there was a significant reduction in cancer-related fatigue BFI score (P < 0.0001,, also there was significant improvement in the physical performance as in 6-min walk distance (P < 0.0001 and quality of life, FACT-G score (P = 0.0001. Conclusion: Aerobic exercise for 6 weeks has beneficial effects on cancer-related fatigue in patients with solid tumor after chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  17. Transient shock waves in heliosphere and Sun-Earth relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroes, Z.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of shock waves, caused by solar activity in the Earth's magnetosphere and its magnetic field, is discussed. All types of shock waves have their origin either in solar corona effects or in solar eruptions. Ionospheric and magnetospheric effects, such as X and gamma radiation, particle production, geomagnetic storms and shock waves, caused by solar activity, are dealt with and attempts are made to explain their interdependence. The origin and propagation of coronal shock waves, interplanetary shock waves and geomagnetic field disorders are described and their relations discussed. The understanding of the solar corona and wind phenomena seems to allow prediction of geomagnetic storms. The measurement and analysis of solar activity and its effects could yield useful information about shock waves physics, geomagnetosphere structure and relations between the Earth and the Sun. (J.J.). 7 figs., 1 tab., 37 refs

  18. Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, A. F.; Ogwumike, O. O.; Bamikefa, T. R.

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participants, while the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale assessed their exercise self-efficacy. About two-third (61.0%) of the participants were not aware that they could undertake physical exercise to enhance postpartum health, and 109 (47.8%) were not engaged in any exercise. Those who exercised did so for less than three days/week, and 89% of the women did not belong to any exercise support group. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly (P exercise programme, age, employment, work hours/week, monthly income, and number of pregnancies. Most of the women were not aware they could engage in postpartum exercise, and about half were not undertaking it. More women with high compared to moderate exercise self-efficacy undertook the exercise. Efforts at increasing awareness, improving exercise self-efficacy and adoption of postpartum exercise are desirable among the Nigerian women. PMID:23844290

  19. Proteome Profiles of Longissimus and Biceps femoris Porcine Muscles Related to Exercise and Resting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pas, te M.F.W.; Keuning, E.; Wiel, van de D.F.M.; Young, J.F.; Oksbjerg, N.; Kruijt, L.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects. The

  20. Postpartum Exercise among Nigerian Women: Issues Relating to Exercise Performance and Self-Efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeniyi, A F; Ogwumike, O O; Bamikefa, T R

    2013-01-01

    Physical exercise during postpartum period is beneficial to mothers, and the health gains are abundantly reported. This study characterises the postpartum exercise profile of a group of Nigerian women and reports how their exercise self-efficacies are influenced by sociodemographic characteristics. Participants were women attending the two largest postnatal clinics in Ibadan, south-western Nigeria. A self-developed questionnaire assessed the socio-demographic and exercise profile of participants, while the Exercise Self-Efficacy Scale assessed their exercise self-efficacy. About two-third (61.0%) of the participants were not aware that they could undertake physical exercise to enhance postpartum health, and 109 (47.8%) were not engaged in any exercise. Those who exercised did so for less than three days/week, and 89% of the women did not belong to any exercise support group. Exercise self-efficacy was significantly (P work hours/week, monthly income, and number of pregnancies. Most of the women were not aware they could engage in postpartum exercise, and about half were not undertaking it. More women with high compared to moderate exercise self-efficacy undertook the exercise. Efforts at increasing awareness, improving exercise self-efficacy and adoption of postpartum exercise are desirable among the Nigerian women.

  1. Simple exercise test for the prediction of relative heat tolerance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenney, W.L.; Lewis, D.A.; Anderson, R.K.; Kamon, E.

    1986-01-01

    A medical screening exercise test is presented which accurately predicts relative heat tolerance during work in very hot environments. The test consisted of 15-20 min of exercise at a standard absolute intensity of about 600 kcal/hr (140W) with the subject wearing a vapor-barrier suit. Five minutes after the subject exercised, recovery heart rate was measured. When this heart rate is used, a physiological limit (+/- approximately 5 min) can be predicted with 95% confidence for the most intense work-heat conditions found in nuclear power stations. In addition, site health and safety personnel can establish qualification criteria for work on hot jobs, based on the test results. The test as developed can be performed in an office environment with the use of a minimum of equipment by personnel with minimal expertise and training. Total maximal test duration is about 20-25 min per person and only heart rate need be monitored (simple pulse palpation will suffice). Test modality is adaptable to any ergometer, the most readily available and least expensive of which is bench-stepping. It is recommended that this test be available for use for those persons who, based upon routine medical examination or past history, are suspected of being relatively heat intolerant

  2. Intense resistance exercise induces early and transient increases in ryanodine receptor 1 phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gehlert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1 critically contributes to skeletal muscle contraction abilities by mediating Ca²⁺ion oscillation between sarcoplasmatic and myofibrillar compartments, AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK senses contraction-induced energetic stress by phosphorylation at Thr¹⁷². Phosphorylation of RyR1 at serine²⁸⁴³ (pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ results in leaky RyR1 channels and impaired Ca²⁺homeostasis. Because acute resistance exercise exerts decreased contraction performance in skeletal muscle, preceded by high rates of Ca²⁺-oscillation and energetic stress, intense myofiber contractions may induce increased RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation. However, no data are available regarding the time-course and magnitude of early RyR1 and AMPK phosphorylation in human myofibers in response to acute resistance exercise. PURPOSE: Determine the effects and early time-course of resistance exercise on pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² in type I and II myofibers. METHODS: 7 male subjects (age 23±2 years, height: 185±7 cm, weight: 82±5 kg performed 3 sets of 8 repetitions of maximum eccentric knee extensions. Muscle biopsies were taken at rest, 15, 30 and 60 min post exercise. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and pAMPKThr¹⁷² levels were determined by western blot and semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry techniques. RESULTS: While total RyR1 and total AMPK levels remained unchanged, RyR1 was significantly more abundant in type II than type I myofibers. pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ increased 15 min and peaked 30 min (p<0.01 post exercise in both myofiber types. Type I fibers showed relatively higher increases in pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ levels than type II myofibers and remained elevated up to 60 min post resistance exercise (p<0.05. pAMPKThr¹⁷² also increased 15 to 30 min post exercise (p<0.01 in type I and II myofibers and in whole skeletal muscle. CONCLUSION: Resistance exercise induces acutely increased pRyR1Ser²⁸⁴³ and

  3. Effects of prior heavy exercise on VO(2) kinetics during heavy exercise are related to changes in muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnley, Mark; Doust, Jonathan H; Ball, Derek; Jones, Andrew M

    2002-07-01

    We hypothesized that the elevated primary O(2) uptake (VO(2)) amplitude during the second of two bouts of heavy cycle exercise would be accompanied by an increase in the integrated electromyogram (iEMG) measured from three leg muscles (gluteus maximus, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis). Eight healthy men performed two 6-min bouts of heavy leg cycling (at 70% of the difference between the lactate threshold and peak VO(2)) separated by 12 min of recovery. The iEMG was measured throughout each exercise bout. The amplitude of the primary VO(2) response was increased after prior heavy leg exercise (from mean +/- SE 2.11 +/- 0.12 to 2.44 +/- 0.10 l/min, P exercise (491 +/- 108 vs. 604 +/- 151% increase above baseline values, P exercise is related to a greater recruitment of motor units at the onset of exercise.

  4. Transient insomnia versus chronic insomnia: a comparison study of sleep-related psychological/behavioral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chien-Ming; Lin, Shih-Chun; Cheng, Chung-Ping

    2013-10-01

    Vulnerability to transient insomnia is regarded as a predisposing factor for chronic insomnia. However, most individuals with transient insomnia do not develop chronic insomnia. The current study investigated the differential contributing factors for these two conditions to further the understanding of this phenomenon. Chronic insomnia patients and normal sleepers with high and low vulnerability to transient insomnia completed measures of pre-sleep arousal, dysfunctional sleep beliefs, and sleep-related safety behaviors. Both cognitive and somatic pre-sleep arousals were identified as significant predictors for transient insomnia. Dysfunctional beliefs regarding worry about insomnia and cognitive arousal were predictors for chronic insomnia. Sleep-related safety behavior, although correlated with insomnia severity, was not a significant predictor for both conditions. Dysfunctional beliefs associated with worry and losing control over sleep are the most critical factors in differentiating chronic insomnia from transient insomnia. These factors should be addressed to help prevent individuals with high sleep vulnerability from developing chronic sleep disturbance. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasch, Kyle W.; Ferré, Ty P.A.; Hoffmann, John P.; Fleming, John B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse‐grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin‐fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5‐m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse‐grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge.

  7. Aerobic exercise reduces biomarkers related to cardiovascular risk among cleaners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Ravn, Marie Højbjerg; Holtermann, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Blue-collar workers have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, elevated levels of biomarkers related to risk of cardiovascular disease, such as high-sensitive C-reactive protein, have been observed among blue-collar workers. The objective was to examine whether...... an aerobic exercise worksite intervention changes the level of inflammation biomarkers among cleaners. METHODS: The design was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with 4-month worksite intervention. Before the 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were randomized, they signed an informed consent form...

  8. Program of rehabilitative exercise and education to avert vascular events after non-disabling stroke or transient ischemic attack (PREVENT Trial: a multi-centred, randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thompson Kara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite lack of outward signs, most individuals after non-disabling stroke (NDS and transient ischemic attack (TIA have significant cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and are at high risk of a major stroke, hospitalization for other vascular events, or death. Most have multiple modifiable risk factors (e.g., hypertension, physical inactivity, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, tobacco consumption, psychological stress. In addition, accelerated rates of depression, cognitive decline, and poor quality of sleep have been reported following TIA, which correlate with poor functional outcomes and reduced quality of life. Thus, NSD and TIA are important warning signs that should not be overlooked. The challenge is not unlike that facing other 'silent' conditions - to identify a model of care that is effective in changing people's current behaviors in order to avert further morbidity. Methods/Design A single blind, randomized controlled trial will be conducted at two sites to compare the effectiveness of a program of rehabilitative exercise and education versus usual care in modifying vascular risk factors in adults after NDS/TIA. 250 adults within 90 days of being diagnosed with NDS/TIA will be randomly allocated to a 12-week program of exercise and education (PREVENT or to an outpatient clinic assessment and discussion of secondary prevention recommendations with return clinic visits as indicated (USUAL CARE. Primary outcome measures will include blood pressure, waist circumference, 12-hour fasting lipid profile, and 12-hour fasting glucose/hemoglobin A1c. Secondary measures will include exercise capacity, walking endurance, physical activity, cognitive function, depression, goal attainment and health-related quality of life. Outcome assessment will be conducted at baseline, post-intervention, and 6- and 12-month follow-ups. Direct health care costs incurred over one year by PREVENT versus USUAL CARE participants will also be

  9. Comparison of transient arterial occlusion and muscle exercise provocation for assessment of perfusion reserve in skeletal muscle with real-time contrast-enhanced ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krix, Martin; Krakowski-Roosen, Holger; Armarteifio, Erick; Fuerstenberger, Susanne; Delorme, Stefan; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich; Weber, Marc-Andre

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is able to quantify muscle perfusion and changes in perfusion due to muscle exercise in real-time. However, reliable measurement of standardized muscle exercise is difficult to perform in clinical examinations. We compared perfusion reserve assessed by CEUS after transient arterial occlusion and exercise to find the most suitable measurement for clinical application. Methods: Contrast pulse sequencing (7 MHz) during continuous IV infusion of SonoVue (4.8 mL/300 s) was used in 8 healthy volunteers to monitor muscle perfusion of the gastrocnemius muscle during transient (1 min) arterial occlusion produced by a thigh cuff of a venous occlusion plethysmograph. Isometric muscle exercise (50% of individual maximum strength for 20 s) was subsequently performed during the same examination, and several CEUS parameters obtained from ultrasound-signal-intensity-time curves and its calculation errors were compared. Results: The mean maximum local blood volume after occlusion was 13.9 [∼mL] (range, 4.5-28.8 [∼mL]), and similar values were measured after sub-maximum exercise 13.8 [∼mL], (range, 4.6-22.2 [∼mL]. The areas under the curve during reperfusion vs. recovery were also similar (515.2 ± 257.5 compared to 482.2 ± 187.5 [∼mL s]) with a strong correlation (r = 0.65), as were the times to maximum (15.3 s vs. 15.9 s), with a significantly smaller variation for the occlusion method (±2.1 s vs. ±9.0 s, p = 0.03). The mean errors for all calculated CEUS parameters were lower for the occlusion method than for the exercise test. Conclusions: CEUS muscle perfusion measurements can be easily performed after transient arterial occlusion. It delivers data which are comparable to CEUS measurements after muscle exercise but with a higher robustness. This method can be easily applied in clinical examination of patients with e.g. PAOD or diabetic microvessel diseases to assess perfusion reserve.

  10. Decreases in left atrial compliance during early-stage exercise are related to exercise intolerance in asymptomatic significant mitral stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Mi-Hyang; Jung, Hae Ok; Lee, Jung-Won; Youn, Ho-Joong

    2017-11-01

    Doppler-driven net atrioventricular compliance (C n ), which represents left atrial (LA) compliance, is an important determinant of pulmonary hypertension in mitral stenosis (MS). We hypothesized that decreases in C n during early-stage exercise underlie exercise intolerance in patients with MS. Thirty-three asymptomatic patients with significant MS (valve area 1.24 ± 0.16 cm 2 ) underwent resting and bicycle exercise echocardiography. LA compliance and conventional parameters were assessed at each workload. The patients were classified into two groups based on whether they developed dyspnea during exercise: an exercise-intolerance group (n = 22) and an exercise-tolerance group (n = 11). Moreover, "50 W" was defined as an early exercise stage. Although the groups had similar resting characteristics, there were striking differences in their echocardiographic parameters from the early stages of exercise. The relative C n decrease at 50 W (expressed as a percentage of the resting C n ) was significantly greater in the exercise-intolerance group (70.3 ± 15.4% vs 49.7 ± 9.7%, P intolerance group (P = .0005). Furthermore, differences in the trends in this parameter were observed between the two groups (P intolerance (adjusted OR 1.105, 95% CI 1.030-1.184) after adjustment for other conventional parameters. Decreases in C n during early-stage exercise are an important mechanism underlying exercise intolerance in MS. © 2017, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Proteome profiles of longissimus and biceps femoris porcine muscles related to exercise and resting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    F.W.Te Pas, Marinus; Keuning, Els; Van der Wiel, Dick J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Exercise affects muscle metabolism and composition in the untrained muscles. The proteome of muscle tissue will be affected by exercise and resting. This is of economic importance for pork quality where transportation relates to exercise of untrained muscles. Rest reverses exercise effects....... The objective of this research was to develop potential protein biomarkers that predict the optimal resting time after exercise related to optimal pork quality. Ten litters of four female pigs were within litter allocated to the four treatment groups: exercise by running on a treadmill for 27 minutes followed...... by rest for 0, 1, or 3 h; control pigs without exercise. Proteome profiles and biochemical traits measuring energy metabolism and meat quality traits expected to be related to exercise were determined in the Longissimus and the Biceps femoris of the pigs. The results indicated associations between protein...

  12. Supervised exercise reduces cancer-related fatigue: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José F Meneses-Echávez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Question: Does supervised physical activity reduce cancer-related fatigue? Design: Systematic review with meta-analysis of randomised trials. Participants: People diagnosed with any type of cancer, without restriction to a particular stage of diagnosis or treatment. Intervention: Supervised physical activity interventions (eg, aerobic, resistance and stretching exercise, defined as any planned or structured body movement causing an increase in energy expenditure, designed to maintain or enhance health-related outcomes, and performed with systematic frequency, intensity and duration. Outcome measures: The primary outcome measure was fatigue. Secondary outcomes were physical and functional wellbeing assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Fatigue Scale, European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire, Piper Fatigue Scale, Schwartz Cancer Fatigue Scale and the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory. Methodological quality, including risk of bias of the studies, was evaluated using the PEDro Scale. Results: Eleven studies involving 1530 participants were included in the review. The assessment of quality showed a mean score of 6.5 (SD 1.1, indicating a low overall risk of bias. The pooled effect on fatigue, calculated as a standardised mean difference (SMD using a random-effects model, was –1.69 (95% CI –2.99 to –0.39. Beneficial reductions in fatigue were also found with combined aerobic and resistance training with supervision (SMD = –0.41, 95% CI –0.70 to –0.13 and with combined aerobic, resistance and stretching training with supervision (SMD = –0.67, 95% CI –1.17 to –0.17. Conclusion: Supervised physical activity interventions reduce cancer-related fatigue. These findings suggest that combined aerobic and resistance exercise regimens with or without stretching should be included as part of rehabilitation programs for people who have been diagnosed with cancer

  13. VVER-1000 coolant transient benchmark. Phase 1 (V1000CT-1). Vol. 3: summary results of exercise 2 on coupled 3-D kinetics/core thermal-hydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    In the field of coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics computation there is a need to enhance scientific knowledge in order to develop advanced modelling techniques for new nuclear technologies and concepts, as well as current applications. (authors) Recently developed best-estimate computer code systems for modelling 3-D coupled neutronics/thermal-hydraulics transients in nuclear cores and for the coupling of core phenomena and system dynamics need to be compared against each other and validated against results from experiments. International benchmark studies have been set up for this purpose. The present volume is a follow-up to the first two volumes. While the first described the specification of the benchmark, the second presented the results of the first exercise that identified the key parameters and important issues concerning the thermal-hydraulic system modelling of the simulated transient caused by the switching on of a main coolant pump when the other three were in operation. Volume 3 summarises the results for Exercise 2 of the benchmark that identifies the key parameters and important issues concerning the 3-D neutron kinetics modelling of the simulated transient. These studies are based on an experiment that was conducted by Bulgarian and Russian engineers during the plant-commissioning phase at the VVER-1000 Kozloduy Unit 6. The final volume will soon be published, completing Phase 1 of this study. (authors)

  14. Prevalence of silent myocardial ischaemia during exercise stress testing. Its relation to effort tolerance and myocardial perfusion abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, G; Sciammarella, M G; Rossetti, E E; Xuereb, R G; Xuereb, M; Bonetti, F; Carandente, O M; Margonato, A; Chierchia, S L

    1992-07-01

    The number of underperfused myocardial segments, the extent of coronary artery disease and the severity of impairment of coronary flow reserve were compared in 147 consecutive patients exhibiting painful or painless ischaemic ST segment depression on exercise testing. Of 147 patients, only 61 (41%) experienced angina (group 1) whilst 86 (59%) did not (group 2). In the two groups coronary disease was comparable for both extent and distribution, and neither the location of transient perfusion defects nor their relation to areas of old myocardial necrosis appeared to influence the presence or absence of chest pain. However, exercise duration, exercise time and rate-pressure product at the beginning of ischaemia were lower in group 1. Furthermore, a greater proportion of asymptomatic patients had only one ischaemic segment on 99mTc-MIBI perfusion scintigraphy. We conclude that: (1) in patients with effort angina and coronary disease, the incidence of electrocardiographic silent ischaemic events induced by exercise is similar to that observed in studies based on continuous ECG monitoring. (2) Exertional angina is more frequently associated with greater ischaemic areas and with more severe degrees of impairment of residual coronary flow reserve. (3) The presence of an old myocardial infarction does not appear to influence the incidence of ischaemic cardiac pain.

  15. Aerobic exercises alleviate symptoms of fatigue related to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Non-insulin dependent diabetic patients frequently suffer from fatigue symptoms that result from chronic systemic inflammation. Aerobic exercise was proved to modulate ... in obese patients with type 2 diabetes. Keywords: Aerobic exercise, inflammatory cytokines, obesity, Type 2 diabetes, fatigue syndrome.

  16. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs ... and-Soul (Feb. 2013 issue) (.pdf) Download Document Rehabilitation: Recommendations for Persons with MS (.pdf) Download Brochure ...

  17. Acute exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke are not related to expectation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, James Z; Cropley, Mark; Fife-Schaw, Chris

    2007-11-01

    Recent research has shown that 10 min of moderate intensity exercise reduce smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke in acutely abstinent smokers. The aim of the current study was to determine whether the reductions are related to participant expectation of these effects. Forty-five sedentary participants who had smoked ten or more cigarettes per day for at least 3 years reported their expectation of the effects of exercise on smoking withdrawal symptoms. Approximately 1 month later, participants were randomly assigned to one of three groups after 11-15 h of overnight smoking abstinence. Each group read either a positive, negative or neutral statement concerning exercise effects on smoking withdrawal symptoms. They rated their expectation again and then completed 10 min of moderate intensity exercise on a stationary bicycle ergometer. Using standardised scales, participants rated smoking withdrawal symptoms and desire to smoke at 10, 5 and 0 min before exercise, then at 5 and 10 min during exercise and 15 and 20 min post-exercise. Expectation of exercise effects on withdrawal were manipulated in the predicted directions. No significant group main effects were found for any symptom. Significant reductions in symptoms and desire to smoke occurred during and after exercise regardless of participant expectation. Ten minutes of moderate intensity exercise can lead to reductions in desire to smoke and smoking withdrawal symptoms, which are not due to the participant's expectation of exercise effects. These findings support the use of short periods of exercise as an aid to smoking cessation.

  18. Pathological motivations for exercise and eating disorder specific health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian; Engel, Scott; Crosby, Ross; Hausenblas, Heather; Wonderlich, Stephen; Mitchell, James

    2014-04-01

    To examine associations among pathological motivations for exercise with eating disorder (ED) specific health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Survey data assessing ED severity (i.e., Eating Disorder Diagnostic Survey), ED specific HRQOL (i.e., Eating Disorders Quality of Life Instrument), and pathological motivations for exercise (i.e., Exercise Dependence Scale) were collected from female students (N = 387) at seven universities throughout the United States. Regression analyses were conducted to examine the associations among exercise dependence, ED-specific HRQOL and ED severity, and the interaction of exercise dependence and ED severity on HRQOL scores. The overall model examining the impact of ED severity and exercise dependence (independent variables) on HRQOL (dependent variable) was significant and explained 16.1% of the variance in HRQOL scores. Additionally, the main effects for ED severity and exercise dependence and the interaction among ED severity and exercise dependence were significant, suggesting that the combined effects of ED severity and exercise dependence significantly impacts HRQOL. Our results suggest that pathological motivations for exercise may exacerbate ED's detrimental impact on HRQOL. Our results offer one possible insight into why exercise may be associated with deleterious effects on ED HRQOL. Future research is needed to elucidate the relationship among psychological aspects of exercise, ED, and HRQOL. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Transmitter modulation of spike-evoked calcium transients in arousal related neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohlmeier, Kristi Anne; Leonard, Christopher S

    2006-01-01

    Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) influence behavioral and motivational states through their projections to the thalamus, ventral tegmental area and a brainstem 'rapid eye movement (REM)-induction' site. Action potential-evoked intracel......Nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-containing cholinergic neurons in the laterodorsal tegmentum (LDT) influence behavioral and motivational states through their projections to the thalamus, ventral tegmental area and a brainstem 'rapid eye movement (REM)-induction' site. Action potential......-evoked intracellular calcium transients dampen excitability and stimulate NO production in these neurons. In this study, we investigated the action of several arousal-related neurotransmitters and the role of specific calcium channels in these LDT Ca(2+)-transients by simultaneous whole-cell recording and calcium...... of cholinergic LDT neurons and that inhibition of spike-evoked Ca(2+)-transients is a common action of neurotransmitters that also activate GIRK channels in these neurons. Because spike-evoked calcium influx dampens excitability, our findings suggest that these 'inhibitory' transmitters could boost firing rate...

  20. Transient Relative Age Effects across annual age groups in National level Australian Swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobley, Stephen; Abbott, Shaun; Dogramaci, Sera; Kable, Adam; Salter, James; Hintermann, Mirjam; Romann, Michael

    2017-12-29

    To determine the prevalence, magnitude and transient patterning of Relative Age Effects (RAEs) according to sex and stroke event across all age-groups at the Australian National age swimming Championships. Repeated years of cross-sectional participation data were examined. Participants were 6014 unique male (3185) and female (2829) swimmers (aged 12-18 years) who participated in Freestyle (50, 400m) and/or Breaststroke (100, 200m) at the National age swimming Championships between 2000-2014 (inclusive). RAE prevalence, magnitude and transience were determined using Chi-square tests and Cramer's V estimates for effect size. Odds Ratios (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) examined relative age quartile discrepancies. These steps were applied across age-groups and according to sex and each stroke event. Consistent RAEs with large-medium effect sizes were evident for males at 12-15 years of age respectively, and with large-medium effects for females at 12-14 respectively across all four swimming strokes. RAE magnitude then consistently reduced with age across strokes (e.g., Q1 vs. Q4 OR range 16year old males=0.94-1.20; females=0.68-1.41). With few exceptions, by 15-16 years RAEs had typically dissipated; and by 17-18 years, descriptive and significant inverse RAEs emerged, reflecting overrepresentation of relatively younger swimmers. Performance advantages associated with relative age (and thereby likely growth and maturation) are transient. Greater consideration of transient performance and participation in athlete development systems is necessary. This may include revising the emphasis of sport programmes according to developmental stages and delaying forms of athlete selection to improve validity. Copyright © 2018 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L; Baldwin, Austin S; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A J; Rethorst, Chad D

    2015-05-01

    People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms moderate the relations between exercise and same-day self-efficacy, and between self-efficacy and next-day exercise. Participants (n = 116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments for 4 weeks. Mixed linear models were used to test whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, (b) self-efficacy predicted next-day exercise, and (c) these relations were moderated by depressive symptoms. First, self-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was larger for people with high depressive symptoms (p self-efficacy than people with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p = .03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p = .34). Second, self-efficacy predicted greater odds of next-day exercise, OR = 1.12, 95% [1.04, 1.21], but depressive symptoms did not moderate this relation, OR = 1.00, 95% CI [.99, 1.01]. During exercise initiation, daily self-efficacy is more strongly related to exercise occurrence for people with high depressive symptoms than those with low depressive symptoms, but self-efficacy predicts next-day exercise regardless of depressive symptoms. The findings specify how depressive symptoms affect the relations between exercise and self-efficacy and underscore the importance of targeting self-efficacy in exercise interventions, particularly among people with depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  2. Exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions following transient cerebral ischemia induced by 4-vessel occlusion (4-VO) in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahamtan, Mahshid; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad; Abbasnejad, Mehdi; Roohbakhsh, Ali; Taghipour, Zahra; Taghavi, Mohsen; Khodadadi, Hassan; Shamsizadeh, Ali

    2013-12-01

    There is evidence that exercise decreases ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Since behavioral deficits are the main outcome in patients after stroke, our study was designed to investigate whether exercise preconditioning improves the acute behavioral functions and also brain inflammatory injury following cerebral ischemia. Male rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly allocated into five experimental groups. Exercise was performed on a treadmill 30min/day for 3 weeks. Ischemia was induced by 4-vessel occlusion method. Recognition memory was assessed by novel object recognition task (NORT) and step-through passive avoidance task. Sensorimotor function and motor movements were evaluated by adhesive removal test and ledged beam-walking test, respectively. Brain inflammatory injury was evaluated by histological assessment. In NORT, the discrimination ratio was decreased after ischemia (P test, a significant reduction in response latency was observed in the ischemic group. Exercise preconditioning significantly decreased the response latency in the ischemic rats (P test, latency to touch and remove the sticky labels from forepaw was increased following induction of ischemia (all P beam-walking test, the slip ratio was increased following ischemia (P < 0.05).  In the ischemia group, marked neuronal injury in hippocampus was observed. These neuropathological changes were attenuated by exercise preconditioning (P < 0.001). Our results showed that exercise preconditioning improves behavioral functions and maintains more viable cells in the dorsal hippocampus of the ischemic brain.

  3. Relations among exercise, coping, disordered eating, and psychological health among college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thome, Jennifer; Espelage, Dorothy L

    2004-11-01

    Researchers have long been interested in the coping styles of individuals who display disordered eating characteristics. Recently, exercise has been recognized as both a behavior and coping strategy that might be present among individuals with disordered eating. The present study evaluates the role of exercise as both a coping mechanism and as a health behavior in relation to eating pathology and other measures of psychological health in a nonclinical university population. Female (n=235) and male (n=86) undergraduate students completed questionnaires that assessed exercise behavior, coping strategies, eating attitudes, self-esteem, life satisfaction, affect, depression, and anxiety. The results indicate that the relations among exercise, coping, and eating pathology is complex. Exercise was related to positive psychological health in males, whereas exercise in females was associated with both positive and negative psychological health. For women with high Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26) scores, exercise was significantly associated with negative affect, and a trend existed in this group such that exercise was associated with higher levels of depression and anxiety. Conversely, for women with low EAT scores, exercise was associated with positive affect. This suggests that exercise might be differentially associated with mental health based on the presence or absence of eating pathology.

  4. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, Colleen Siobhan; Wilkinson, D.J.; Phillips, B.E.; Smith, K.; Etheridge, T.; Atherton, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cach...

  5. Aerobic exercise interventions reduce blood pressure in patients after stroke or transient ischaemic attack: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cheng; Redgrave, Jessica; Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Majid, Arshad; Kilner, Karen; Ali, Ali N

    2018-05-09

    Secondary vascular risk reduction is critical to preventing recurrent stroke. We aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise interventions on vascular risk factors and recurrent ischaemic events after stroke or transient ischaemic attack (TIA). Intervention systematic review and meta-analysis. OVID MEDLINE, PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, TRIP Database, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SCOPUS, UK Clinical Trials Gateway and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure were searched from 1966 to October 2017. Randomised controlled trials evaluating aerobic or resistance exercise interventions on vascular risk factors and recurrent ischaemic events among patients with stroke or TIA, compared with control. Twenty studies (n=1031) were included. Exercise interventions resulted in significant reductions in systolic blood pressure (SBP) -4.30 mm Hg (95% CI -6.77 to -1.83) and diastolic blood pressure -2.58 mm Hg (95% CI -4.7 to -0.46) compared with control. Reduction in SBP was most pronounced among studies initiating exercise within 6 months of stroke or TIA (-8.46 mm Hg, 95% CI -12.18 to -4.75 vs -2.33 mm Hg, 95% CI -3.94 to -0.72), and in those incorporating an educational component (-7.81 mm Hg, 95% CI -14.34 to -1.28 vs -2.78 mm Hg, 95% CI -4.33 to -1.23). Exercise was also associated with reductions in total cholesterol (-0.27 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.00), but not fasting glucose or body mass index. One trial reported reductions in secondary vascular events with exercise, but was insufficiently powered. Exercise interventions can result in clinically meaningful blood pressure reductions, particularly if initiated early and alongside education. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  6. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...

  7. [Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxation and the related esophageal motor activities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Seung Hyo; Hong, Su Jin

    2012-03-01

    Transient lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation (TLESR) is defined as LES relaxation without a swallow. TLESRs are observed in both of the normal individuals and the patients with gastroesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). However, TLESR is widely considered as the major mechanism of the GERD. The new equipments such as high resolution manometry and impedance pH study is helped to understand of TLESR and the related esophageal motor activities. The strong longitudinal muscle contraction was observed during development of TLESR. Most of TLESRs are terminated by TLESR related motor events such as primary peristalsis and secondary contractions. The majority of TLESRs are associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contraction is mainly associated with liquid reflux during recumbent position and UES relaxation predominantly related with air reflux during upright position. The frequency of TLESR in GERD patients seems to be not different compared to normal individuals, but the refluxate of GERD patients tend to be more acidic during TLESR.

  8. Examining the moderating effect of depressive symptoms on the relation between exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kangas, J.L.; Baldwin, A.S.; Rosenfield, D.; Smits, J.A.J.; Rethorst, C.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: People with depressive symptoms report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect the relation between exercise and self-efficacy. We sought to clarify whether depressive symptoms

  9. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (phealth conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Gender-related difference in arterial elastance during exercise in patients with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungha; Ha, Jong-Won; Shim, Chi Young; Choi, Eui-Young; Kim, Jin-Mi; Ahn, Jeong-Ah; Lee, Se-Wha; Rim, Se-Joong; Chung, Namsik

    2008-04-01

    Exercise intolerance and heart failure with preserved ejection fraction are common in females. Recently, arterial stiffness has been suggested to be a significant contributor in the development of heart failure. How gender difference affects arterial stiffening and its response to exercise is not well known. We hypothesized that arterial elastance index during exercise would be more abnormal in females with hypertension than males. Arterial elastance index was estimated as arterial end systolic pressure/stroke volume controlled for body surface area and was measured at rest and during graded supine bicycle exercise (25 watts, 3-minute increments) in 298 patients with hypertension (149 males; 149 females; mean age, 59). The subjects were divided into 2 groups by gender. Exercise duration was significantly shorter in females compared to males (692+/-222 versus 483+/-128 seconds, Pexercise being significantly higher in females compared to males (0.69+/-0.83 versus 0.43+/-0.69, P=0.018). Arterial elastance index at each stage of exercise up to 75 W was independently associated with decreased exercise duration. In conclusion, despite lower arterial elastance index at rest, the increase during exercise was steeper in women with hypertension, suggesting a gender-related difference in dynamic arterial stiffness. The arterial elastance index during exercise was significantly associated with exercise duration in patients with hypertension.

  11. Exercise training improves obesity-related lymphatic dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E; Kataru, Raghu P; Savetsky, Ira L; García Nores, Gabriela D; Torrisi, Jeremy S; Nitti, Matthew D; Gardenier, Jason C; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z; Jones, Lee W; Mehrara, Babak J

    2016-08-01

    Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction. Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells. Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti-inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene expression of lymphatic

  12. Exercise training improves obesity‐related lymphatic dysfunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespe, Geoffrey E.; Kataru, Raghu P.; Savetsky, Ira L.; García Nores, Gabriela D.; Torrisi, Jeremy S.; Nitti, Matthew D.; Gardenier, Jason C.; Zhou, Jie; Yu, Jessie Z.; Jones, Lee W.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Obesity results in perilymphatic inflammation and lymphatic dysfunction.Lymphatic dysfunction in obesity is characterized by decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping frequency, decreased lymphatic trafficking of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and changes in the gene expression patterns of lymphatic endothelial cells.Aerobic exercise, independent of weight loss, decreases perilymphatic inflammatory cell accumulation, improves lymphatic function and reverses pathological changes in gene expression in lymphatic endothelial cells. Abstract Although previous studies have shown that obesity markedly decreases lymphatic function, the cellular mechanisms that regulate this response remain unknown. In addition, it is unclear whether the pathological effects of obesity on the lymphatic system are reversible with behavioural modifications. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to analyse lymphatic vascular changes in obese mice and to determine whether these pathological effects are reversible with aerobic exercise. We randomized obese mice to either aerobic exercise (treadmill running for 30 min per day, 5 days a week, for 6 weeks) or a sedentary group that was not exercised and analysed lymphatic function using a variety of outcomes. We found that sedentary obese mice had markedly decreased collecting lymphatic vessel pumping capacity, decreased lymphatic vessel density, decreased lymphatic migration of immune cells, increased lymphatic vessel leakiness and decreased expression of lymphatic specific markers compared with lean mice (all P exercise did not cause weight loss but markedly improved lymphatic function compared with sedentary obese mice. Exercise had a significant anti‐inflammatory effect, resulting in decreased perilymphatic accumulation of inflammatory cells and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. In addition, exercise normalized isolated lymphatic endothelial cell gene

  13. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...... during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training....

  14. Exercise Self-Efficacy Moderates the Relation between Anxiety Sensitivity and Body Mass Index and Exercise Tolerance in Treatment-Seeking Smokers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Samantha G.; Davis, Michelle L.; Rosenfield, David; Kauffman, Brooke Y.; Baird, Scarlett O.; Powers, Mark B.; Otto, Michael W.; Marcus, Bess H.; Church, Timothy S.; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Zvolensky, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette smokers. Smokers (n = 72; 50% female; Mcpd = 19.3, SD = 10.65) were recruited to participate in a smoking cessation treatment trial. During medical screen, we measured weight, height, and exercise tolerance (functional capacity) employing a standardized maximal exercise testing protocol. After adjusting for participant sex and cigarettes per day, exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI, such that the positive association between anxiety sensitivity and BMI was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. The same pattern of results emerged for exercise tolerance. Exercise self-efficacy moderated the association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance, such that the negative association between anxiety sensitivity and exercise tolerance was significantly stronger when exercise self-efficacy was low. Among smokers, anxiety sensitivity may be a risk variable that, directly and indirectly in the context of low self-efficacy for exercise, causes or maintains higher body weight and lower exercise tolerance. PMID:27725844

  15. Stress-related factors in the emergence of transient global amnesia with hippocampal lesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane eDöhring

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The transient global amnesia (TGA is a rare amnesic syndrome that is characterized by an acute onset episode of an anterograde and retrograde amnesia. Its origin is still debated, but there is evidence for psychological factors involved in TGA. In neuroimaging, selective lesions in the CA1 fields of the hippocampus can be detected, a region that is particularly involved in the processing of memory, stress and emotion. The aim of this study was to assess the role of psychological stress in TGA by studying the prevalence of stress related precipitating events and individual stress-related personality profiles as well as coping strategies in patients. The hypothesis of a functional differentiation of the hippocampus in mnemonic and stress-related compartments was also evaluated. From all 113 patients, 18 % (n= 24 patients experienced emotional and psychological stress episodes directly before the TGA. In a cohort of 21 acute patients, TGA patients tend to cope with stress less efficiently and less constructively than controls. Patients who experienced a stress related precipitant event exhibited a higher level of anxiety in comparison to non-stress patients and controls. However, there was no difference between the general experience of stress and the number of stress inducing life events. The majority of patients (73% did show typical MRI lesions in the CA1 region of the hippocampal cornu ammonis. There was no clear association between stressful events, distribution of hippocampal CA1 lesions and behavioral patterns during the TGA. Disadvantageous coping strategies and an elevated anxiety level may increase the susceptibility to psychological stress which may facilitate the pathophysiological cascade in TGA. The findings suggest a role of emotional stress factors in the manifestation of TGA in a subgroup of patients. Stress may be one trigger involved in the emergence of transient lesions in the hippocampal CA1 region, which are thought to be the

  16. Motivation and body-related factors as discriminators of change in adolescents' exercise behavior profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillison, Fiona B; Standage, Martyn; Skevington, Suzanne M

    2011-01-01

    A prospective study was conducted to explore the relative contributions of weight-related self-perceptions and exercise-related motivation variables in predicting change in leisure-time exercise within a sample of adolescents in the United Kingdom. A cohort of 310 adolescents (51% male, Mean age = 14.08 ± .32 years at baseline) was classified into four groups on the basis of reported change in leisure-time exercise over 10-months: those who maintain, drop out from exercise, take up exercise, and those who were continually inactive. Discriminant function analyses were conducted to predict group membership from adolescents' profiles of motivational and weight-related perceptions at baseline. For boys, the first discriminant function (DF1) revealed that exercise maintainers reported higher identified regulation, introjected regulation, competence, relatedness, and body satisfaction than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .45). DF2 was more indicative of current exercise levels than change, indicating higher intrinsic motivation and lower amotivation for both active groups at baseline (between-group R(2) = .40). In girls, DF1 showed that exercise maintainers reported higher intrinsic motivation, identified regulation, autonomy, competence, relatedness, and lower external regulation than all other groups (between-group R(2) = .58). DF2 indicated that higher body mass index, and perceiving greater pressure to lose weight positively predicted drop out, and negatively predicted exercise uptake (between-group R(2) = .26). Fostering autonomous (self-determined) motivation seems a key determinant to maintaining leisure-time exercise for both boys and girls. Additionally, reducing perceptions of pressure to lose weight and promoting positive interactions with others during exercise may be particularly useful to prevent dropout in girls. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Workplace exercise for changing health behavior related to physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antonio José; Cieslak, Fabrício; Silva, Valter

    2015-01-01

    Physical Activity in the workplace has received special attention from researchers who are looking to promote lifelong health and well-being. The workplace is being investigated as a possible place to assess and create strategies to help people to become healthier. The transtheoretical model and stages of change has been adapted as a tool to assess the stages of behavioral change towards exercising. To assess the change in health behavior following a three-month exercise program based in the workplace. A quasi-experimental study design was used in which 165 employees participated in the study. An intervention program of workplace exercise was applied for three months. Participants were assessed through the transtheoretical model and stages of change questionnaire before and after intervention to understand changes in their position on the behavioral change continuum. The number of employees who were physically active increased after the workplace exercise intervention (13.9% , 95% CI 9.5 to 20.1; P = 0.009). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of employees in the pre-contemplation stage (-6.1% , 95% CI 3.3 to 10.8; P = 0.045) and contemplation stage (-11.5% , 95% CI 7.5 to 17.3; P = 0.017), and a significant increase in the action stage (10.9% , 95% CI 7.0 to 16.6; P = 0.003). Engaging in workplace exercise has a significant positive effect on health behavior and willingness to become more physically active.

  18. Regular exercise and related factors in patients with Parkinson's disease: Applying zero-inflated negative binomial modeling of exercise count data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, JuHee; Park, Chang Gi; Choi, Moonki

    2016-05-01

    This study was conducted to identify risk factors that influence regular exercise among patients with Parkinson's disease in Korea. Parkinson's disease is prevalent in the elderly, and may lead to a sedentary lifestyle. Exercise can enhance physical and psychological health. However, patients with Parkinson's disease are less likely to exercise than are other populations due to physical disability. A secondary data analysis and cross-sectional descriptive study were conducted. A convenience sample of 106 patients with Parkinson's disease was recruited at an outpatient neurology clinic of a tertiary hospital in Korea. Demographic characteristics, disease-related characteristics (including disease duration and motor symptoms), self-efficacy for exercise, balance, and exercise level were investigated. Negative binomial regression and zero-inflated negative binomial regression for exercise count data were utilized to determine factors involved in exercise. The mean age of participants was 65.85 ± 8.77 years, and the mean duration of Parkinson's disease was 7.23 ± 6.02 years. Most participants indicated that they engaged in regular exercise (80.19%). Approximately half of participants exercised at least 5 days per week for 30 min, as recommended (51.9%). Motor symptoms were a significant predictor of exercise in the count model, and self-efficacy for exercise was a significant predictor of exercise in the zero model. Severity of motor symptoms was related to frequency of exercise. Self-efficacy contributed to the probability of exercise. Symptom management and improvement of self-efficacy for exercise are important to encourage regular exercise in patients with Parkinson's disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nielsen, Jannie; Overgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to th...... indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor.......Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate...... of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced...

  20. The Prevalence of Exercise Prescription-Related Course Offerings in United States Pharmacy School Curricula: Exercise is Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirks-Naylor, Amie J.; Griffiths, Carrie L.; Gibson, Jacob L.; Luu, Jacqueline A.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise training has proven to be beneficial in the prevention of disease. In addition, exercise can improve the pathogenesis and symptoms associated with a variety of chronic disease states and can attenuate drug-induced adverse effects. Exercise is a drug-free polypill. Because the benefits of exercise are clear and profound, Exercise is…

  1. Examining the Moderating Effect of Depressive Symptoms on the Relation Between Exercise and Self-Efficacy During the Initiation of Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangas, Julie L.; Baldwin, Austin S.; Rosenfield, David; Smits, Jasper A. J.; Rethorst, Chad D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective People with depressive symptoms typically report lower levels of exercise self-efficacy and are more likely to discontinue regular exercise than others, but it is unclear how depressive symptoms affect people’s exercise self-efficacy. Among potential sources of self-efficacy, engaging in the relevant behavior is the strongest (Bandura, 1997). Thus, we sought to clarify how depressive symptoms affect the same-day relation between engaging in exercise and self-efficacy during the initiation of regular exercise. Methods Participants (N=116) were physically inactive adults (35% reported clinically significant depressive symptoms at baseline) who initiated regular exercise and completed daily assessments of exercise minutes and self-efficacy for four weeks. We tested whether (a) self-efficacy differed on days when exercise did and did not occur, and (b) the difference was moderated by depressive symptoms. Mixed linear models were used to examine these relations. Results An interaction between exercise occurrence and depressive symptoms (pself-efficacy was lower on days when no exercise occurred, but this difference was significantly larger for people with high depressive symptoms. People with high depressive symptoms had lower self-efficacy than those with low depressive symptoms on days when no exercise occurred (p=.03), but self-efficacy did not differ on days when exercise occurred (p=.34). Conclusions During the critical period of initiating regular exercise, daily self-efficacy for people with high depressive symptoms is more sensitive to whether they exercised than for people with low depressive symptoms. This may partially explain why people with depression tend to have difficulty maintaining regular exercise. PMID:25110850

  2. Acute supramaximal exercise increases the brain oxygenation in relation to cognitive workload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Seref Bediz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Single bout of exercise can improve the performance on cognitive tasks. However, cognitive responses may be controversial due to different type, intensity, and duration of exercise. In addition, the mechanism of the effect of acute exercise on brain is still unclear. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of supramaximal exercise on cognitive tasks by means of brain oxygenation monitoring. The brain oxygenation of Prefrontal cortex (PFC was measured on 35 healthy male volunteers via functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS system. Subjects performed 2-Back test before and after the supramaximal exercise (Wingate Anaerobic Test lasting 30-s on cycle ergometer. The PFC oxygenation change evaluation revealed that PFC oxygenation rise during post-exercise 2-Back task was considerably higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back task. In order to describe the relationship between oxygenation change and exercise performance, subjects were divided into two groups as high performers (HP and low performers (LP according to their peak power values (PP obtained from the supramaximal test. The oxy-hemoglobin (oxy-Hb values were compared between pre- and post-exercise conditions within subjects and also between subjects according to peak power. When performers were compared, in the HP group, the oxy-Hb values in post-exercise 2-Back test were significantly higher than those in pre-exercise 2-Back test. HP had significantly higher post-exercise oxy-Hb change (Δ than those of LP. In addition, peak power values of the total group were significantly correlated with Δoxy-Hb. The key findings of the present study revealed that acute supramaximal exercise has an impact on the brain oxygenation during a cognitive task. Also, the higher the anaerobic PP describes the larger the oxy-Hb response in post-exercise cognitive task. The current study also demonstrated a significant correlation between peak power (exercise load and post-exercise hemodynamic

  3. Colon cancer information as a source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Erin L; Prapavessis, Harry

    2010-12-01

    Using a Protection Motivation Theory (PMT) framework, this study examined whether factual colon cancer information is a meaningful source of exercise motivation for relatives of patients with colon cancer. One hundred sixty-six inactive relatives were randomly assigned to one of two treatment conditions: PMT group (intervention); and non-PMT group (attention control). At baseline (T1) participants completed demographic information, a questionnaire designed to assess their beliefs toward exercise and colon cancer as well as their exercise intentions. At T2 (one week following T1) participants watched one of two DVD videos that were created for the study. The intervention DVD contained exercise and colon cancer information that was yoked within the four major components of PMT: perceived vulnerability (PV); perceived severity (PS); response efficacy (RE); and self-efficacy (SE), while the attention control DVD contained general diet and cancer information. Immediately following watching the DVD, participants completed the same measures as in T1. Participants assigned to the PMT intervention group showed significant improvement in PV, RE, SE and exercise intentions, whereas participants assigned to the attention control group showed significant improvement only in RE. RE, SE, and PS made significant and unique contributions to prediction of exercise intention. Overall, the results of the present study demonstrate that a single exposure media intervention grounded in a PMT framework can change individuals' exercise and colon cancer beliefs, as well as change their exercise intentions. Implications of these findings and direction for future research are discussed.

  4. Exercise during pregnancy and gestational diabetes-related adverse effects: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ruben; Pelaez, Mireia; Lopez, Carmina; Lucia, Alejandro; Ruiz, Jonatan R

    2013-07-01

    To examine the effect of regular moderate-intensity exercise (three training sessions/week) on the incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM, primary outcome). We also examined if the exercise intervention modifies the association between GDM and birth weight and risk of macrosomia, gestational age, risk of caesarean delivery and maternal weight gain (secondary outcomes). We randomly assigned 510 healthy gravida to either an exercise intervention or a usual care (control) group (n=255 each). The exercise programme focused on moderate-intensity resistance and aerobic exercises (three times/week, 50-55 min/session). GDM diabetes was diagnosed according to the WHO criteria and the International Association for Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Group (IADPSG). The intervention did not reduce the risk of developing GDM (OR 0.84, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.40) when using the WHO criteria. We observed that the intervention reduced by 58% the GDM-related risk (WHO criteria) of having a newborn with macrosomia (OR 1.76, 95% CI 0.04 to 78.90 vs 4.22, 95% CI 1.35 to 13.19) in exercise and control groups, respectively), and by 34% the GDM-related risk of having acute and elective caesarean delivery (OR 1.30, 95% CI 0.44 to 3.84 vs 1.99, 95% CI 0.98 to 4.06 in exercise and control groups, respectively). Gestational age was similar across the treatment groups (control, exercise) and GDM category (GDM or non-GDM), and maternal weight gain was ∼12% lower in the exercise group independent of whether women developed GDM. The results were similar when the IADPSG criteria were used instead. Regular moderate-intensity exercise performed over the second-third trimesters of pregnancy can be used to attenuate important GDM-related adverse outcomes.

  5. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout. Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males) previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control). Randomised control trial design was employed. Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory. Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted. Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  6. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Judith Bretland

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness against well-being, perceived stress, and burnout.Design. Participants were 49 (36 females and 13 males previously inactive volunteers ranging in age from 19 to 68 that completed a four week exercise program of either cardiovascular, resistance, or no exercise (control. Randomised control trial design was employed.Method. Participants were measured against the Subjective Exercise Experience Scale, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Maslach Burnout Inventory.Results. After four weeks of exercise participants had greater positive well-being and personal accomplishment, and concomitantly less psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Cardiovascular exercise was found to increase well-being and decrease psychological distress, perceived stress, and emotional exhaustion. Resistance training was noticeably effective in increasing well-being and personal accomplishment and to reduce perceived stress. The present findings revealed large effect sizes suggesting that exercise may be an effective treatment for burnout. However, given a small sample size further research needs to be conducted.Conclusion. Exercise has potential to be an effective burnout intervention. Different types of exercise may assist employees in different ways. Organisations wishing to proactively reduce burnout can do so by encouraging their employees to access regular exercise programs.

  7. The Impact of Exercise on Cancer Mortality, Recurrence, and Treatment-Related Adverse Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormie, Prue; Zopf, Eva M; Zhang, Xiaochen; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-01-01

    The combination of an increasing number of new cancer cases and improving survival rates has led to a large and rapidly growing population with unique health-care requirements. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to help address the issues faced by cancer patients. Supported by a growing body of research, major health organizations commonly identify the importance of incorporating exercise in cancer care and advise patients to be physically active. This systematic review comprehensively summarizes the available epidemiologic and randomized controlled trial evidence investigating the role of exercise in the management of cancer. Literature searches focused on determining the potential impact of exercise on 1) cancer mortality and recurrence and 2) adverse effects of cancer and its treatment. A total of 100 studies were reviewed involving thousands of individual patients whose exercise behavior was assessed following the diagnosis of any type of cancer. Compared with patients who performed no/less exercise, patients who exercised following a diagnosis of cancer were observed to have a lower relative risk of cancer mortality and recurrence and experienced fewer/less severe adverse effects. The findings of this review support the view that exercise is an important adjunct therapy in the management of cancer. Implications on cancer care policy and practice are discussed. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. A case-crossover study on transient risk factors of work-related eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, S-Y; Fong, P-C; Lin, S-F; Chang, C-H; Chan, C-C

    2009-08-01

    To investigate modifiable risk and preventive factors of work-related eye injuries. A case-crossover study conducted to explore the associations between transient risk factors and work-related eye injuries. Patients seen at seven medical centres in Taiwan with work-related eye injuries over a 4-year period were enrolled in the study. Clinical information was collected from medical charts and detailed information on exposure to eight potentially modifiable factors during the 60 minutes prior to the occurrence of each injury, as well as during the same time interval on the last work day prior to the injury, were obtained using questionnaire surveys. Matched-pair interval analysis was adopted to assess the odds ratios (ORs) for work-related eye injuries given exposure to the eight modifiable factors. A total of 283 subjects were interviewed. Most of these injured workers were young, male, and self-employed or small enterprise workers. The most common injury type was photokeratitis (33.2%), mainly caused by welding (30.4%). The OR for a work-related eye injury was increased with the performance of an unfamiliar task (57.0), operation of a faulty tool or piece of equipment (48.5), distractions (24.0), being rushed (13.0), or fatigued (10.0), and a poor work environment (4.3). Wearing eye protection devices was found to have a significant protective effect on workers who might otherwise have been exposed to eye injuries (OR = 0.4; 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7). Potential modifiable risk and preventive factors for work-related eye injuries were identified using a case-crossover study. This information should be helpful in the development of preventive strategies.

  9. Prediction of posthepatectomy liver failure using transient elastography in patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Jie-Wen; Ji, Xiao-Yu; Hong, Jun-Feng; Li, Wan-Bin; Chen, Yan; Pan, Yan; Guo, Jia

    2017-12-29

    It is essential to accurately predict Postoperative liver failure (PHLF) which is a life-threatening complication. Liver hardness measurement (LSM) is widely used in non-invasive assessment of liver fibrosis. The aims of this study were to explore the application of preoperative liver stiffness measurements (LSM) by transient elastography in predicting postoperative liver failure (PHLF) in patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma. The study included 247 consecutive patients with hepatitis B related hepatocellular carcinoma who underwent hepatectomy between May 2015 and September 2015. Detailed preoperative examinations including LSM were performed before hepatectomy. The endpoint was the development of PHLF. All of the patients had chronic hepatitis B defined as the presence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) for more than 6 months and 76 (30.8%) had cirrhosis. PHLF occurred in 37 (14.98%) patients. Preoperative LSM (odds ratio, OR, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI: 1.13-1.29; P hepatocellular carcinoma.

  10. Statins are related to impaired exercise capacity in males but not females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahls, Martin; Groß, Stefan; Ittermann, Till; Busch, Raila; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Völzke, Henry; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2017-01-01

    Exercise and statins reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD). Exercise capacity may be assessed using cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Whether statin medication is associated with CPET parameters is unclear. We investigated if statins are related with exercise capacity during CPET in the general population. Cross-sectional data of two independent cohorts of the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) were merged (n = 3,500; 50% males). Oxygen consumption (VO2) at peak exercise (VO2peak) and anaerobic threshold (VO2@AT) was assessed during symptom-limited CPET. Two linear regression models related VO2peak with statin usage were calculated. Model 1 adjusted for age, sex, previous myocardial infarction, and physical inactivity and model 2 additionally for body mass index, smoking, hypertension, diabetes and estimated glomerular filtration rate. Propensity score matching was used for validation. Statin usage was associated with lower VO2peak (no statin: 2336; 95%-confidence interval [CI]: 2287-2,385 vs. statin 2090; 95%-CI: 2,031-2149 ml/min; P exercise capacity in males but not females. Sex specific effects of statins on cardiopulmonary exercise capacity deserve further research.

  11. Biochemical changes in relation to a maximal exercise test in patients with fibromyalgia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørregaard, J; Bülow, P M; Mehlsen, J

    1994-01-01

    Patients with fibromyalgia often complain of fatigue and pain during exercise and of worsening of pain days after exercise. The aim of the study described here was to determine if abnormal changes in potassium or lactate could be observed during an exercise test in fibromyalgia. Whether an abnormal...... incline in plasma creatine kinase or myoglobin could be observed days after the test was studied also. Fifteen female fibromyalgia patients and 15 age- and sex-matched controls performed a stepwise incremental maximal bicycle-ergometer test. Blood samples were collected from a catheter in a cubital vein......-1 was reached at a heart rate of 124 min-1 in the patients with fibromyalgia as compared to 140 min-1 in the controls (P = 0.02). In relation to workload, the patients scored higher on a Borg scale for perceived exertion during exercise, but if the Borg score was related to lactate no significant...

  12. Reducing workplace burnout: the relative benefits of cardiovascular and resistance exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Bretland, Rachel Judith; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The global burden of burnout cost is in excess of $300 billion annually. Locally, just under half of working Australians experience high levels of occupational burnout. Consequently, burnout interventions are paramount to organisational productivity. Exercise has the potential to provide a multilevel and cost effective burnout intervention. The current study aims to extend the literature by comparing cardiovascular with resistance exercise to assess their relative effectiveness ag...

  13. Effects of scheduled exercise on cancer-related fatigue in women with early breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Dyrstad, Sindre Mikal; Mjaaland, Ingvil; Søreide, Jon Arne; Bru, Lars Edvin

    2014-01-01

    The article was originally published in The Scientific World Journal; by Hindawi Publishing Corporation under the Creative Commons Attribution License; see http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/27182. While physical activity during cancer treatment is found beneficial for breast cancer patients, evidence indicates ambiguous findings concerning effects of scheduled exercise programs on treatment-related symptoms. This study investigated effects of a scheduled home-based exercise intervention i...

  14. Transient Global Amnesia following Neural and Cardiac Angiography May Be Related to Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongzhou Duan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Transient global amnesia (TGA following angiography is rare, and the pathogenesis has not been illustrated clearly till now. The aim of this research is to explore the pathogenesis of TGA following angiography by analyzing our data and reviewing the literature. Methods. We retrospectively studied 20836 cases with angiography in our hospital between 2007 and 2015 and found 9 cases with TGA following angiography. The data of these 9 cases were analyzed. Results. We found all 9 cases with TGA following neural angiography (5 in 4360 or cardiac angiography (4 in 8817 and no case with TGA following peripheral angiography (0 in 7659. Statistical difference was found when comparing the neural and cardiac angiography group with peripheral group (p=0.022. Two cases with TGA were confirmed with small acute infarctions in hippocampus after angiography. This might be related to the microemboli which were rushed into vertebral artery following blood flow during neural angiography or cardiac angiography. There was no statistical difference when comparing the different approaches for angiography (p=0.82 and different contrast agents (p=0.619. Conclusion. Based on the positive findings of imaging study and our analysis, we speculate that ischemia in the medial temporal lobe with the involvement of the hippocampus might be an important reason of TGA following angiography.

  15. Physical activity and exercise on diabetic foot related outcomes: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Monica; Mendes, Romeu; Silva, André B; Sousa, Nelson

    2018-05-01

    Diabetic foot is one of the most common complications of diabetes. It has the potential risk of pathologic consequences including infection, ulceration and amputation, but a growing body of evidence suggests that physical activity and exercise may improve diabetic foot outcomes. To analyze de effects of exercise and physical activity interventions on diabetic foot outcomes. A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted according to PRISMA recommendations. Only controlled clinical trials with patients with diabetes were included. Six studies, involving 418 patients with diabetes, were included. Two studies used only aerobic exercise; two studies combined aerobic, resistance and balance exercise; and two studies combined aerobic and balance exercise by Thai Chin Chuan methods. Physical activity and exercise significantly improved nerve velocity conduction, peripheral sensory function and foot peak pressure distribution. Moreover, the ulcers incidence rate per year was lower in the intervention groups, compared with the controls [0.02 vs. 0.12]. This review suggests evidence that physical activity and exercise is an effective non-pharmacological intervention to improve diabetic foot related outcomes. Combined multi-disciplinary treatments are more effective in the prevention of foot complications in patients with diabetes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Body-related sport and exercise motives and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maïano, Christophe; Morin, Alexandre J S; Lanfranchi, Marie-Christine; Therme, Pierre

    2015-07-01

    Motives underlying sport and exercise involvement have recently been hypothesized as potential factors influencing the positive association between sports/exercises involvement and disturbed eating attitudes and behaviours (DEAB) among adolescents. Nevertheless, very few studies have examined this hypothesis or the moderating role of gender, context of practice, performance levels and sport type on these relationships. In this study, these questions were addressed among 168 male and 167 female French adolescents involved in various types, contexts and performance levels of sport and exercise. Participants were asked to indicate their main motives for involvement in sport practice and to self-report DEAB (generic DEAB, vomiting-purging behaviours, and eating-related control) on a French adaptation of the Eating Attitudes Test-26. The results shared positive associations between body-related sport and exercise motives and most of the DEAB subscales. Furthermore, they show that the relationship between body-related sport and exercise motives and Vomiting-Purging Behaviours differs according to involvement in individual and competitive sports and exercises. Copyright ©2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  17. “Nutraceuticals” in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S.; Wilkinson, Daniel J.; Phillips, Bethan E.; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and “nutraceutical” compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. PMID:28143855

  18. Exercise self-efficacy moderates the relation between anxiety sensitivity and body mass index and exercise tolerance in treatment-seeking smokers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Farris, S.G.; Davis, M.L.; Rosenfield, D.; Kauffman, B.Y.; Baird, S.O.; Powers, M.B.; Otto, M.W.; Marcus, B.H.; Church, T.S.; Smits, J.A.J.; Zvolensky, M.J.

    2016-01-01

    There is little known about factors that contribute to the comorbidity of cigarette smoking and obesity. The current study sought to test whether exercise self-efficacy moderated the relation between anxiety sensitivity (fear of internal sensations) and BMI and exercise tolerance among cigarette

  19. Current interruption transients calculation

    CERN Document Server

    Peelo, David F

    2014-01-01

    Provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins, and the circuits involved, and how they can be calculated Current Interruption Transients Calculationis a comprehensive resource for the understanding, calculation and analysis of the transient recovery voltages (TRVs) and related re-ignition or re-striking transients associated with fault current interruption and the switching of inductive and capacitive load currents in circuits. This book provides an original, detailed and practical description of current interruption transients, origins,

  20. Automatic classification of transient ischaemic and transient non-ischaemic heart-rate related ST segment deviation episodes in ambulatory ECG records

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faganeli, J; Jager, F

    2010-01-01

    In ambulatory ECG records, besides transient ischaemic ST segment deviation episodes, there are also transient non-ischaemic heart-rate related ST segment deviation episodes present, which appear only due to a change in heart rate and thus complicate automatic detection of true ischaemic episodes. The goal of this work was to automatically classify these two types of episodes. The tested features to classify the ST segment deviation episodes were changes of heart rate, changes of the Mahalanobis distance of the first five Karhunen–Loève transform (KLT) coefficients of the QRS complex, changes of time-domain morphologic parameters of the ST segment and changes of the Legendre orthonormal polynomial coefficients of the ST segment. We chose Legendre basis functions because they best fit typical shapes of the ST segment morphology, thus allowing direct insight into the ST segment morphology changes through the feature space. The classification was performed with the help of decision trees. We tested the classification method using all records of the Long-Term ST Database on all ischaemic and all non-ischaemic heart-rate related deviation episodes according to annotation protocol B. In order to predict the real-world performance of the classification we used second-order aggregate statistics, gross and average statistics, and the bootstrap method. We obtained the best performance when we combined the heart-rate features, the Mahalanobis distance and the Legendre orthonormal polynomial coefficient features, with average sensitivity of 98.1% and average specificity of 85.2%

  1. Relative workload determines exercise-induced increases in PGC-1alpha mRNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai Baastrup; Lundby, Carsten; Leick, Lotte

    2010-01-01

    INTRODUCTION:: The hypothesis that brief intermittent exercise induced increases in human skeletal muscle metabolic mRNA is dependent on relative workload was investigated. METHODS:: Trained (n=10) and untrained (n=8) subjects performed exhaustive intermittent cycling exercise (4x4 min @ 85% of VO2...... peak, interspersed by 3 min). Trained subjects also performed the intermittent exercise at the same absolute workload as untrained, corresponding to 70% of VO2 peak (n=6). RESULTS:: Exercise at 85% of VO2 peak elevated (P... and untrained, respectively. PGC-1alpha mRNA expression was increased (Pelevated (3.1+/-0.7 mM) and PGC-1alpha mRNA content was less (P

  2. A prospective study of gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willems, T M; De Clercq, D; Delbaere, K; Vanderstraeten, G; De Cock, A; Witvrouw, E

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine prospectively gait related risk factors for exercise-related lower leg pain (ERLLP) in 400 physical education students. Static lower leg alignment was determined, and 3D gait kinematics combined with plantar pressure profiles were collected. After this evaluation, all sports injuries were registered by the same sports physician during the duration of the study. Forty six subjects developed ERLLP and 29 of them developed bilateral symptoms thus giving 75 symptomatic lower legs. Bilateral lower legs of 167 subjects who developed no injuries in the lower extremities served as controls. Cox regression analysis revealed that subjects who developed ERLLP had an altered running pattern before the injury compared to the controls and included (1) a significantly more central heel-strike, (2) a significantly increased pronation, accompanied with more pressure underneath the medial side of the foot, and (3) a significantly more lateral roll-off. These findings suggest that altered biomechanics play a role in the genesis of ERLLP and thus should be considered in prevention and rehabilitation.

  3. The Effects of the Nintendo Wii Exercise Program on Chronic Work-related Low Back Pain in Industrial Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hyuk; Lee, Sang-Heon; Ko, Dae-Sik

    2013-08-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a Nintendo Wii exercise program on chronic work-related LBP compared with stability exercise. [Methods] Twenty-four workers participated in this study. All of the participants were diagnosed with chronic LBP by a physician. Participants were randomly assigned to three groups: a control group (CG), lumbar stabilization exercise group (LSE), and Nintendo Wii exercise group (NWE). Participants were treated 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Each session lasted 30 minutes. [Results] The results demonstrated that exercise programs improved significantly physical functions related to LBP. In health-related QOL, the Nintendo Wii exercise program significantly improved both the mental and physical health composites, but other groups had significant improvement only in the physical health composite. [Conclusion] The Nintendo Wii exercise program could be a biopsychosocial intervention for work-related LBP in factory workers.

  4. Exercise in claudicants increase or decrease walking ability and the response relates to mitochondrial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Schaardenburgh, Michel; Wohlwend, Martin; Rognmo, Øivind; Mattsson, Erney J R

    2017-06-07

    Exercise of patients with intermittent claudication improves walking performance. Exercise does not usually increase blood flow, but seems to increase muscle mitochondrial enzyme activities. Although exercise is beneficial in most patients, it might be harmful in some. The mitochondrial response to exercise might therefore differ between patients. Our hypothesis was that changes in walking performance relate to changes in mitochondrial function after 8 weeks of exercise. At a subgroup level, negative responders decrease and positive responders increase mitochondrial capacity. Two types of exercise were studied, calf raising and walking (n = 28). We wanted to see whether there were negative and positive responders, independent of type of exercise. Measurements of walking performance, peripheral hemodynamics, mitochondrial respiration and content (citrate synthase activity) were obtained on each patient before and after the intervention period. Multiple linear regression was used to test whether changes in peak walking time relate to mitochondrial function. Subgroups of negative (n = 8) and positive responders (n = 8) were defined as those that either decreased or increased peak walking time following exercise. Paired t test and analysis of covariance was used to test changes within and between subgroups. Changes in peak walking time were related to changes in mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.004), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.003), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.037) and OXPHOS coupling efficiency (p = 0.046) in the whole group. Negative responders had more advanced peripheral arterial disease. Mitochondrial respiration supported by electron transferring flavoprotein (ETF + CI) P (p = 0.0013), complex I (CI + ETF) P (p = 0.0005), complex I + complex II (CI + CII + ETF) P (p = 0.011) and electron transfer system capacity (CI + CII + ETF) E (p

  5. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Huang, Fu-Chen; Yu, Hong-Ren; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Yang, Ya-Ling; Sheen, Jiunn-Ming; Li, Sung-Chou; Kuo, Hsing-Chun

    2016-01-01

    Kawasaki disease (KD) is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC) were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively) while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001) were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001) prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001). Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045). These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase. PMID:27187366

  6. Hepcidin-Induced Iron Deficiency Is Related to Transient Anemia and Hypoferremia in Kawasaki Disease Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Hsien Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Kawasaki disease (KD is a type of systemic vasculitis that primarily affects children under the age of five years old. For sufferers of KD, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG has been found to successfully diminish the occurrence of coronary artery lesions. Anemia is commonly found in KD patients, and we have shown that in appropriately elevated hepcidin levels are related to decreased hemoglobin levels in these patients. In this study, we investigated the time period of anemia and iron metabolism during different stages of KD. A total of 100 patients with KD and 20 control subjects were enrolled in this study for red blood cell and hemoglobin analysis. Furthermore, plasma, urine hepcidin, and plasma IL-6 levels were evaluated using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 20 KD patients and controls. Changes in hemoglobin, plasma iron levels, and total iron binding capacity (TIBC were also measured in patients with KD. Hemoglobin, iron levels, and TIBC were lower (p < 0.001, p = 0.009, and p < 0.001, respectively while plasma IL-6 and hepcidin levels (both p < 0.001 were higher in patients with KD than in the controls prior to IVIG administration. Moreover, plasma hepcidin levels were positively and significantly correlated with urine hepcidin levels (p < 0.001 prior to IVIG administration. After IVIG treatment, plasma hepcidin and hemoglobin levels significantly decreased (both p < 0.001. Of particular note was a subsequent gradual increase in hemoglobin levels during the three weeks after IVIG treatment; nevertheless, the hemoglobin levels stayed lower in KD patients than in the controls (p = 0.045. These findings provide a longitudinal study of hemoglobin changes and among the first evidence that hepcidin induces transient anemia and hypoferremia during KD’s acute inflammatory phase.

  7. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  8. Exercise as an intervention for the age-related decline in brain metabolic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging.

  9. Effects of sensorimotor exercise on swallowing outcomes relative to age and age-related disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kays, Stephanie; Robbins, JoAnne

    2006-11-01

    Parallel to the growing number of adults over age 65 years and the increasing use of exercise in geriatric medicine to improve function and decrease fall risk, recent advances in the treatment of geriatric dysphagia have focused on rehabilitating swallowing function with active exercise. Specific changes in central neural pathways as well as peripheral end organs (muscles) that occur with natural aging may predispose older adults to an increased risk for dysphagia when faced with chronic medical conditions. Research to date primarily has focused on the utility of nonswallow motor exercises to increase muscle strength and range of motion in oropharyngeal structures. Future directions in the field of dysphagia rehabilitation demand evidence-based investigations into the ability of exercise to affect neural plasticity, representing long-lasting alterations in neural organization.

  10. Effect of exercise intervention on vestibular related impairments in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Venkadesan Rajendran

    2012-11-09

    Nov 9, 2012 ... related impairments in hearing-impaired children. Venkadesan ..... referenced vision, fixed support; (4) eyes open, sway-referenced support; (5) eyes ..... Canada: Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research;. 1997. 29.

  11. Nodalization effects on RELAP5 results related to MTR research reactor transient scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khedr Ahmed

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the anal y sis of RELAP5 results obtained from the evaluation study of the total loss of flow transient with the deficiency of the heat removal system in a research reactor using two different nodalizations. It focuses on the effect of nodalization on the thermal-hydraulic evaluation of the re search reactor. The analysis of RELAP5 results has shown that nodalization has a big effect on the predicted scenario of the postulated transient. There fore, great care should be taken during the nodalization of the reactor, especially when the avail able experimental or measured data are insufficient for making a complete qualification of the nodalization. Our analysis also shows that the research reactor pool simulation has a great effect on the evaluation of natural circulation flow and on other thermal-hydraulic parameters during the loss of flow transient. For example, the on set time of core boiling changes from less than 2000 s to 15000 s, starting from the beginning of the transient. This occurs if the pool is simulated by two vertical volumes in stead of one vertical volume.

  12. Physical exercise during pregnancy and its related factors: An observational study in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megumi Haruna

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the exercise habits of pregnant women in the third trimester (N = 303. We assessed participation in physical activities, including exercise or sports, using the Japanese version of the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire. A total of 183 (60.4% pregnant Japanese women participated in some form of exercise and 87 (28.7% exercised for 2 hours or more, per week, in the third trimester. Multiple logistic regression analyses indicated that women who set themselves a gestational weight gain target (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 8.10, 95% CI [2.82, 23.4], p< .001, were more likely to participate in exercise or sports. In contrast, multiparous women (AOR = 0.44, 95% CI [0.26, 0.72], p = .001, and those whose pre-pregnancy body weights suggested obesi-ty (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.30 0.87], p = .013 were less likely to participate in such activities. We found a relation-ship between non-participation for 2 hours or more, per week, to being multiparous (AOR = 0.33, 95% CI [0.18, 0.94], p< .001 and the presence of anemia in the second trimester (AOR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.28, 0.94], p = .031. Working status, seasonal differences, concerns about being overweight, and individual dietary nutritional guidance were not related to participation in exercise or sports. While setting a target for gestational weight gain may motivate participation in exercise or sports, women who were multiparous and those who perceived themselves as obese be-fore pregnancy, showed a negative association with participation.

  13. Relationship between functional assessments and exercise-related changes during static balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clifton, Daniel R; Harrison, Blain C; Hertel, Jay; Hart, Joseph M

    2013-04-01

    The Functional Movement Screen (FMS) is currently used for injury risk prediction, although researchers have not studied its relationships to injury risk factors. The purpose of this study was to compare FMS scores at rest to changes in static balance after exercise. Second, we examined FMS scores pre and post exercise. Twenty-five participants performed center of pressure (COP) measures and FMS testing. An acclimatization session for the FMS occurred on day 1, whereas day 2 involved COP measures for static balance and FMS testing before and after a 36-minute exercise protocol. Center of pressure standard deviations in the frontal (COPML-SD) and sagittal (COPAP-SD) planes, center of pressure velocity (COP-Velocity), center of pressure area (COP-Area), and FMS scores were recorded. No significant correlations occurred between preexercise FMS scores and change in COP measures. Preexercise hurdle step scores related to preexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46), COPAP-SD (p = -0.43), and COP-Area (p = -0.50). Preexercise in-line lunge scores related to postexercise COPAP-SD (p = -0.44) and COP-Velocity (p = -0.39), whereas preexercise active straight leg raise (ASLR) scores related to postexercise COPML-SD (p = -0.46). Functional Movement Screen scores were not related to changes in static balance after exercise and may therefore not be useful to predict who will experience greater static balance deficits after exercise. Additionally, FMS scores did not differ before and after exercise. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a general static balance standpoint may find the hurdle step, in-line lunge, and ASLR useful. Clinicians aiming to identify injury risk from a change in static balance standpoint may need to explore other screening tools.

  14. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Karlas, Thomas; Neuschulz, Marie; Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patient...

  15. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik [Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-02-15

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI.

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Transient Left Ventricular Apical Ballooning Related to Emotional Stress: a Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mu Sook; Choi, Byoung Wook; Choe, Kyu Ok; Chung, Namsik

    2007-01-01

    Transient left ventricular apical ballooning is characterized by transient wall motion abnormalities involving the left ventricular apex and mid-ventricle in the absence of coronary arterial occlusion. A 66-year-old woman presented to the emergency department with chest pain that mimicked acute myocardial infarction. An aortogram showed akinesis from the mid to apical left ventricle with sparing of the basal segments. Four days later, she underwent MRI, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction, the same as the aortogram, without evidence of myocardial infarction on the MRI. Two weeks later, her symptoms were resolved and follow-up echocardiography showed normal ventricular function. We suggest that MRI might be an integrated imaging diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of this syndrome, which demonstrated characteristic apical contractile dysfunction with performing cine MRI, the absence of significant coronary artery stenosis with performing coronary MR angiography and the absence of myocardial infarction with performing contrast enhanced delayed MRI

  17. The Joint Effects of Smoking and Alcohol Drinking on Lipid-Related Indices among Chinese Males-Comparing Exercise and Non-Exercise Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Ye, Jun; Guo, Qiao; Sun, Yining; Zheng, Yansong; Zhang, Yongliang

    2018-06-11

    Smoking and drinking are two predisposing factors for dyslipidemia. Exercise has been proposed as a strategy to improve the blood lipids. However, it remains unclear how smoking and drinking jointly affect blood lipids and whether exercise influences their effects. To evaluate the effects of smoking and drinking, either alone or in combination, on lipid-related indices in both exercise and non-exercise groups among Chinese men. This study was conducted in a health examination center between 2015 and 2016. A sample of 6,179 male subjects was divided into exercise and non-exercise groups. Logistic and linear regression analyses were used to calculate the odds ratios for abnormal lipid-related indices and correlation coefficients between smoking/drinking and lipid-related indices. In the study population, the percentage of stable smokers and stable drinkers was 46.3% (2,860/6,179) and 77.6% (4,795/6,179), respectively. An increased smoking amount was significantly associated with an elevated triglyceride (TG) level and a decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) level. Heavier smokers had higher odds ratios for high TG and low HDL-C. Heavier drinkers had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), TG, and HDL-C and higher odds ratios for high TC and high TG but lower odds ratio for low HDL-C. The exercise group had lower TG levels and higher HDL-C levels than did the non-exercise group. Both heavier smoking and heavier drinking were associated with poorer TG levels, and the results suggest that drinking may be helpful for HDL-C. Exercise may relieve the negative effects of smoking and drinking.

  18. Transient detection of eccentricity-related components in induction motors through the Hilbert-Huang Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonino-Daviu, J.; Rodriguez, P. Jover; Riera-Guasp, M.; Arkkio, A.; Roger-Folch, J.; Perez, R.B.

    2009-01-01

    The identification and extraction of characteristic patterns are proposed in this work for the diagnosis and evaluation of mixed eccentricities in induction electrical machines with parallel stator branches. Whereas the classical diagnosis approaches, deeply spread in the industrial environment, are based on the Fourier analysis of the steady-state current, the basis of the proposed methodology consist of analysing the current demanded by the machine during the connection process (startup transient); the objective is to extract the characteristic evolution during the transient of some harmonic components created by the fault; this evolution is caused by the dependence of these components on the slip (s), a quantity varying during the startup transient from 1 to almost 0. For this feature extraction, the Hilbert-Huang Transform (HHT) is proposed. An analysis of the behaviour of this transform in comparison with another time-frequency approach used in other works, the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), is also presented in the paper. The results show the usefulness of the methodology for the reliable diagnosis of the mixed eccentricity fault and for the correct discrimination against other types of failures.

  19. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise: A Figurational Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Webb, Louisa; Cale, Lorraine

    2012-01-01

    This paper uses figurational sociology to explain why Secondary Physical Education teachers' engagement with Health Related Exercise (HRE) is often limited. Historically-rooted concerns surround the teaching of HRE, and these have recently been linked to teachers' limited continuing professional development (CPD) in HRE (HRE-CPD). A two-phase,…

  20. Physical Education Teachers' Continuing Professional Development in Health-Related Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfrey, Laura; Cale, Lorraine; Webb, Louisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: As a component of the physical education curriculum, Health-Related Exercise (HRE) has been subject to intensive critique in terms of its status, organisation and expression in schools. Concerns and questions have also been raised about physical education teachers' professional knowledge of health and the extent to which HRE features…

  1. Decomposing executive stock option exercises: relative information and incentives to manage earnings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenman, D.; Hodgson, A.; van Praag, B.; Zhang, W.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the information content of stock option exercises versus regular insider share trades by corporate executives. We argue that the asymmetric payoff structure of options makes managerial wealth - compared to holdings of shares - relatively more sensitive to stock price changes and

  2. Motor performance, exercise tolerance, and health-related quality of life in children on dialysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsermans, RM; Creemers, DG; Helders, PJ; Schroder, CH

    In contrast to the adult population, little is known regarding health-related quality of life and exercise tolerance in children with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) undergoing chronic intermittent hemodialysis. We designed a pilot study to investigate whether research into this area is indicated.

  3. Stress responses during aerobic exercise in relation to motivational dominance and state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thatcher, Joanne; Kuroda, Yusuke; Legrand, Fabien D; Thatcher, Rhys

    2011-02-01

    We examined the hypothesis that congruence between motivational dominance and state results in optimal psychological responses and performance during exercise. Twenty participants (10 telic dominant and 10 paratelic dominant) rated their stress at 5 min intervals as they cycled on an ergometer at gas exchange threshold for 30 min in both telic and paratelic state manipulated conditions. Participants then performed a test to exhaustion at a resistance equivalent to 110% of VO(2max). The hypothesized interaction between condition and dominance was significant for internal tension stress, as paratelic dominants were more stressed than telic dominants when exercising in the telic state and telic dominants were more stressed than paratelic dominants when exercising in the paratelic state. Similarly, the condition × dominance interaction for internal stress discrepancy was significant, as paratelic dominants reported greater internal stress discrepancy exercising in the telic compared with the paratelic state. Findings are discussed in relation to the application of reversal theory for understanding stress responses during aerobic exercise.

  4. Maternal Recreational Exercise during Pregnancy in relation to Children's BMI at 7 Years of Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou Andersen, Camilla; Juhl, Mette; Gamborg, Michael

    2012-01-01

    was analyzed using multiple linear and logistic regression models. Recreational exercise across pregnancy was inversely related to children's BMI and risk of overweight, but all associations were mainly explained by smoking habits, socioeconomic status, and maternal pre-pregnancy BMI. Additionally, we did......Exposures during fetal life may have long-term health consequences including risk of childhood overweight. We investigated the associations between maternal recreational exercise during early and late pregnancy and the children's body mass index (BMI) and risk of overweight at 7 years. Data on 40......,280 mother-child pairs from the Danish National Birth Cohort was used. Self-reported information about exercise was obtained from telephone interviews around gestational weeks 16 and 30. Children's weight and height were reported in a 7-year follow-up and used to calculate BMI and overweight status. Data...

  5. Maintained exercise-enhanced brain executive function related to cerebral lactate metabolism in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Takenaka, Saki

    2018-01-01

    . Fourteen healthy, male subjects performed 2 HIIE protocols separated by 60 min of rest. Blood samples were obtained from the right internal jugular venous bulb and from the brachial artery to determine differences across the brain for lactate (a-v difflactate), glucose (diffglucose), oxygen (diffoxygen......High-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) improves cerebral executive function (EF), but the improvement in EF is attenuated after repeated HIIE, perhaps because of lower lactate availability for the brain. This investigation examined whether improved EF after exercise relates to brain lactate uptake......), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF; diffBDNF). EF was evaluated by the color-word Stroop task. The first HIIE improved EF for 40 min, whereas the second HIIE improved EF only immediately after exercise. The a-v diffglucose was unchanged, whereas the a-v diffBDNF increased similarly after both HIIEs...

  6. Sex-related differences in the normal cardiac response to upright exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higginbotham, M.B.; Morris, K.G.; Coleman, R.E.; Cobb, F.R.

    1984-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was found that approximately 30% of women with chest pain and normal coronary arteries demonstrated either a decrease in or a failure to increase radionuclide ejection fraction during exercise. To examine the hypothesis that this apparent abnormality in left ventricular function represents a physiologic difference between men and women, a prospective study was made of central and peripheral cardiovascular responses to exercise in 31 age-matched healthy volunteers (16 women and 15 men). A combination of quantitative radionuclide (technetium) angiography and expired-gas analysis was used to measure ejection fraction and relative changes in end-diastolic counts, stroke counts, count output, and arteriovenous oxygen difference during symptom-limited upright bicycle exercise. Normal male and female volunteers demonstrated comparable baseline left ventricular function and similar aerobic capacity, as determined by weight-adjusted peak oxygen consumption. However, their cardiac responses to exercise were significantly different. The ejection fraction increased by 5 points or more in 14 of 15 men, but in only seven of the 16 women. End-diastolic counts increased by 30% in women, but was unchanged in men. Because decreases in ejection fraction were matched by increases in end-diastolic counts, relative increases in stroke counts and count output were the same for men and women. These data demonstrate a basic difference between men and women with respect to the mechanism by which they achieve a normal response of stroke volume to exercise; these differences must be taken into account when measurements of cardiac function during exercise stress are used for diagnostic purposes

  7. Summary of transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reviews the papers on the pressurized water reactor (PWR) and boiling water reactor (BWR) transient analyses given at the American Nuclear Society Topical Meeting on Anticipated and Abnormal Plant Transients in Light Water Reactors. Most of the papers were based on the systems calculations performed using the TRAC-PWR, RELAP5 and RETRAN codes. The status of the nuclear industry in the code applications area is discussed. It is concluded that even though comprehensive computer codes are available for plant transient analysis, there is still a need to exercise engineering judgment, simpler tools and even hand calculations to supplement these codes

  8. The effects of compensatory workplace exercises to reduce work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiana Cristina Taubert de Freitas-Swerts

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to assess the effect of a compensatory workplace exercise program on workers with the purpose of reducing work-related stress and musculoskeletal pain.METHOD: quasi-experimental research with quantitative analysis of the data, involving 30 administrative workers from a Higher Education Public Institution. For data collection, questionnaires were used to characterize the workers, as well as the Workplace Stress Scale and the Corlett Diagram. The research took place in three stages: first: pre-test with the application of the questionnaires to the subjects; second: Workplace Exercise taking place twice a week, for 15 minutes, during a period of 10 weeks; third: post-test in which the subjects answered the questionnaires again. For data analysis, the descriptive statistics and non-parametric statistics were used through the Wilcoxon Test.RESULTS: work-related stress was present in the assessed workers, but there was no statistically significant reduction in the scores after undergoing Workplace Exercise. However, there was a statistically significant pain reduction in the neck, cervical, upper, middle and lower back, right thigh, left leg, right ankle and feet.CONCLUSION: the Workplace Exercise promoted a significant pain reduction in the spine, but did not result in a significant reduction in the levels of work-related stress.

  9. Sample problem calculations related to two-phase flow transients in a PWR relief-piping network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1981-03-01

    Two sample problems related with the fast transients of water/steam flow in the relief line of a PWR pressurizer were calculated with a network-flow analysis computer code STAC (System Transient-Flow Analysis Code). The sample problems were supplied by EPRI and are designed to test computer codes or computational methods to determine whether they have the basic capability to handle the important flow features present in a typical relief line of a PWR pressurizer. It was found necessary to implement into the STAC code a number of additional boundary conditions in order to calculate the sample problems. This includes the dynamics of the fluid interface that is treated as a moving boundary. This report describes the methodologies adopted for handling the newly implemented boundary conditions and the computational results of the two sample problems. In order to demonstrate the accuracies achieved in the STAC code results, analytical solutions are also obtained and used as a basis for comparison

  10. Calculation of sample problems related to two-phase flow blowdown transients in pressure relief piping of a PWR pressurizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Y.W.; Wiedermann, A.H.

    1984-02-01

    A method was published, based on the integral method of characteristics, by which the junction and boundary conditions needed in computation of a flow in a piping network can be accurately formulated. The method for the junction and boundary conditions formulation together with the two-step Lax-Wendroff scheme are used in a computer program; the program in turn, is used here in calculating sample problems related to the blowdown transient of a two-phase flow in the piping network downstream of a PWR pressurizer. Independent, nearly exact analytical solutions also are obtained for the sample problems. Comparison of the results obtained by the hybrid numerical technique with the analytical solutions showed generally good agreement. The good numerical accuracy shown by the results of our scheme suggest that the hybrid numerical technique is suitable for both benchmark and design calculations of PWR pressurizer blowdown transients

  11. Impaired exercise-related myocardial uptake of technetium-99m-tetrofosmin in relation to coronary narrowing and diabetic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasao, Hisataka; Nakata, Tomoaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi; Wakabayashi, Takeru; Nakahara, Norifumi; Doi, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Shimamoto, Kazuaki

    2001-01-01

    Despite the diagnostic efficacy of stress myocardial perfusion imaging, the correlation between the actual perfusion tracer activity and diseased state of a coronary artery has not been studied in detail. We estimated exercise-related perfusion augmentation in relation to disease states of a coronary artery in diabetic and non-diabetic patients by a newly developed quantitative technetium (Tc)-99m-tetrofosmin myocardial imaging technique. Tc-99m-tetrofosmin tomographic imaging with an exercise-rest protocol was performed in 26 stable coronary patients and in 8 age-matched controls. Percent increase (%IR) in myocardial count during symptom-limited submaximal exercise-stress was calculated in 16 non-infarcted polar map segments and in each coronary territory by a subtraction technique with corrections for physical decay and injected tracer doses, and the results were compared with those of angiographically quantified coronary diameter stenosis (%DS). Percent IR and peak heart rate during exercise showed a positive linear correlation both in coronary territories with significant stenosis (%DS≥75%) and in control or non-stenotic (%DS<75%) territories. The regression line in stenotic regions was, however, significantly (p<0.01) shifted downward compared to that in non-stenotic regions. Percent IR in stenotic regions showed a significant inverse correlation with %DS. Coronary stenosis of 75% or more was identified by a %IR cutoff value of 40% with 77% sensitivity, 70% specificity, and an accuracy of 72%. In coronary territories with a %DS of less than 75%, %IR in diabetic patients was significantly lower (46±15%) than that in non-diabetic patients (61±25%). Thus, blunted exercise-related augmentation of myocardial uptake of Tc-99m-tetrofosmin correlates with the severity of coronary narrowing and diabetic state. (author)

  12. The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Leisure-Time Exercise, Exercise Attitude, and Body Mass Index to Self-Rated Health among College Students in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Huey-Hong; Chang, Chia-Ming; Liu, Li-Wei; Huang, Hsiu-Chin

    2018-01-01

    Background: Self-rated health (SRH) is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. The purpose of this study is to find the connections of dietary habits, leisure-time exercise, exercise attitude, and body mass index (BMI) to SRH among college students. Methods: The “dietary–exercise attitude and SRH” questionnaire was developed to investigate college students in Taiwan through the Internet. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the relationship among them. Results: The reliability and validity were confirmed using PLS-SEM. The results found exercise habits, dietary habits, and BMI explained 26.5% of SRH. Poor dietary habits and being overweight led to bad health status (negative path coefficients to SRH). Additionally, the study found that positive exercise attitude had a positive relationship with exercise habits. Conclusions: Based on the results, college students should be well-informed of the potential threat of poor dietary habits and being overweight to health and should improve their attitude with respect to exercise so as to prevent overweight-related diseases. PMID:29751682

  13. The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Leisure-Time Exercise, Exercise Attitude, and Body Mass Index to Self-Rated Health among College Students in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Huey-Hong; Chang, Chia-Ming; Liu, Li-Wei; Huang, Hsiu-Chin

    2018-05-11

    Background : Self-rated health (SRH) is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. The purpose of this study is to find the connections of dietary habits, leisure-time exercise, exercise attitude, and body mass index (BMI) to SRH among college students. Methods : The "dietary⁻exercise attitude and SRH" questionnaire was developed to investigate college students in Taiwan through the Internet. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM) was used to test the relationship among them. Results : The reliability and validity were confirmed using PLS-SEM. The results found exercise habits, dietary habits, and BMI explained 26.5% of SRH. Poor dietary habits and being overweight led to bad health status (negative path coefficients to SRH). Additionally, the study found that positive exercise attitude had a positive relationship with exercise habits. Conclusions : Based on the results, college students should be well-informed of the potential threat of poor dietary habits and being overweight to health and should improve their attitude with respect to exercise so as to prevent overweight-related diseases.

  14. The Relative Contribution of Dietary Habits, Leisure-Time Exercise, Exercise Attitude, and Body Mass Index to Self-Rated Health among College Students in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Hong Hsieh

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Self-rated health (SRH is consistent with objective health status and can serve as a global measure of health status in the general population. The purpose of this study is to find the connections of dietary habits, leisure-time exercise, exercise attitude, and body mass index (BMI to SRH among college students. Methods: The “dietary–exercise attitude and SRH” questionnaire was developed to investigate college students in Taiwan through the Internet. Partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM was used to test the relationship among them. Results: The reliability and validity were confirmed using PLS-SEM. The results found exercise habits, dietary habits, and BMI explained 26.5% of SRH. Poor dietary habits and being overweight led to bad health status (negative path coefficients to SRH. Additionally, the study found that positive exercise attitude had a positive relationship with exercise habits. Conclusions: Based on the results, college students should be well-informed of the potential threat of poor dietary habits and being overweight to health and should improve their attitude with respect to exercise so as to prevent overweight-related diseases.

  15. The diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone in relation to intense aerobic exercise in recreationally trained soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labsy, Z; Prieur, F; Le Panse, B; Do, M C; Gagey, O; Lasne, F; Collomp, K

    2013-03-01

    Diurnal patterns of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) secretion, the two main peripheral secretory products of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine stress axis, have been well characterized in rest conditions but not in relation to physical exercise. The purpose of this investigation was therefore to determine the effects of an intense 90-min aerobic exercise on the waking diurnal cortisol and DHEA cycles on three separate days [without exercise, with morning exercise (10:00-11:30 h), and with afternoon exercise (14:00-15:30 h)] in nine recreationally trained soccer players. Saliva samples were collected at awakening, 30 min after awakening, and then every 2 h from 08:00 to 22:00 h. A burst of secretory activity was found for cortisol (p exercise days under all conditions. However, there was a significant increase in salivary cortisol concentrations on the morning-exercise and afternoon-exercise days at, respectively, 12:00 h (p exercise was not evident for DHEA. The results of this investigation indicate that 90 min of intense aerobic exercise does not affect the circadian pattern of salivary adrenal steroids in recreationally trained athletes over a 16-h waking period, despite a transitory increase in post-exercise cortisol concentration. Further studies are necessary to determine whether these results are applicable to elite athletes or patients with cortisol or DHEA deficiency.

  16. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-01-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether motivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n¼375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, exercise stages of change, number of relapses from exercise, future intention to exercise, barriers s...

  17. Endurance Exercise and Health-Related Quality of Life in 50-65 Year-Old Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Anita L.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated health-related quality of life in relation to endurance exercise over prior year for 194 previously sedentary, healthy men and women aged 50 to 65. In three exercise regimens studied, subjects who participated more had better physical health; no differences were observed in general psychological well-being. Extent of participation was…

  18. Power Relative to Body Mass Best Predicts Change in Core Temperature During Exercise-Heat Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Oliver R; Willmott, Ashley G B; James, Carl A; Hayes, Mark; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-02-01

    Gibson, OR, Willmott, AGB, James, CA, Hayes, M, and Maxwell, NS. Power relative to body mass best predicts change in core temperature during exercise-heat stress. J Strength Cond Res 31(2): 403-414, 2017-Controlling internal temperature is crucial when prescribing exercise-heat stress, particularly during interventions designed to induce thermoregulatory adaptations. This study aimed to determine the relationship between the rate of rectal temperature (Trec) increase, and various methods for prescribing exercise-heat stress, to identify the most efficient method of prescribing isothermic heat acclimation (HA) training. Thirty-five men cycled in hot conditions (40° C, 39% R.H.) for 29 ± 2 minutes. Subjects exercised at 60 ± 9% V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak, with methods for prescribing exercise retrospectively observed for each participant. Pearson product moment correlations were calculated for each prescriptive variable against the rate of change in Trec (° C·h), with stepwise multiple regressions performed on statistically significant variables (p ≤ 0.05). Linear regression identified the predicted intensity required to increase Trec by 1.0-2.0° C between 20- and 45-minute periods and the duration taken to increase Trec by 1.5° C in response to incremental intensities to guide prescription. Significant (p ≤ 0.05) relationships with the rate of change in Trec were observed for prescriptions based on relative power (W·kg; r = 0.764), power (%Powermax; r = 0.679), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) (r = 0.577), V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (%V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak; r = 0.562), heart rate (HR) (%HRmax; r = 0.534), and thermal sensation (r = 0.311). Stepwise multiple regressions observed relative power and RPE as variables to improve the model (r = 0.791), with no improvement after inclusion of any anthropometric variable. Prescription of exercise under heat stress using power (W·kg or %Powermax) has the strongest relationship with the rate of change in

  19. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model.The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running, considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations. To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8.Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77, while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56.The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  20. The effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugbeer, Nivash; Ramklass, Serela; Mckune, Andrew; van Heerden, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The study aimed to determine the effect of group exercise frequency on health related quality of life in institutionalized elderly. One hundred participants were recruited for voluntary participation from five aged care facilities, with inclusion being based on the outcome of a medical assessment by a sports physician. A quasi-experimental design was used to compare the effect of a 12 week group exercise programme on two groups of participants using pre-test and post-test procedures. A significant difference was noted in social function post training 2X/week (MD = -13.85, 95% CI [-24.66, -3.38], p = 0.017, d = 0.674) and 3X/week (MD = -13.30, 95% CI [-21.81, -5.59], p = 0.003, d = 0.712) a week. Training 3X/week a week provided an additional benefit in vitality (MD = -7.55, 95% CI [-13.16, -1.91], p = 0.018, d =0. 379). Improvements in mental component summary scale post training 2X/week (MD = -4.08, 95% CI [-7.67, -0.42], p = 0.033, d = 0.425) and 3X/week (MD = -6.67, 95% CI [-10.92, -2.33], p = 0.005, d = 0.567) a week was further noted. Mental health and social health benefits can be obtained irrespective of exercise frequency 2X/week or 3X/week. The exercise intervention at a frequency 3X/ week was more effective in improving mental component summary due to a larger effect size obtained compared to the exercise frequency of 2X/week. Additional benefits in vitality were achieved by exercising 3X/week. This may assist the elderly in preserving their independence.

  1. Nonelite exercise-related injuries: participant reported frequency, management and perceptions of their consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grice, A; Kingsbury, S R; Conaghan, P G

    2014-04-01

    This mixed methods study explored the frequency of sport/exercise-related injuries in nonelite sport, participant-reported management and perceptions of potential injury consequences. Focus group participants, who trained two to four times a week and had previously sustained musculoskeletal sports-related injuries, reported seeking medical advice secondary to advice from teammates or online research. General practitioners were viewed as gatekeepers to specialist secondary care and less able to effectively treat sport-related injuries. Participants displayed limited awareness of potential future implications of injury, and considered physical and psychological benefits of exercise more valuable than potential injury-associated risks. In the survey of physically active people, over half reported sustaining an exercise-related injury (562/1002, 56%). Previously injured respondents were less likely to consider consulting a health professional for injury-related advice than those with no injury history (45% vs 64%; P sports-related injuries and a lack of awareness about appropriate injury management and potential consequences of injury, particularly in the long-term. © 2013 The Authors. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Relations Between Exercise Habit and Visual Attentional Ability in Older Adult Community Dwellers: Evidences From the Yakumo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Hatta

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The relation between mild everyday exercise and cognitive ability in healthy older people was examined using cohort study database. Methods: Individually calculated linear regression coefficients in digit cancelation task performances for 11 years age from 65 to 75 years were compared between mild exercise habit holders and non-holders. Results: Exercise habit holders showed significantly smaller age-related decline than non-holders, irrespective of task difficulty. Discussion: The results suggested that even mild exercise habit for long years possesses benefits on sustaining cognitive function in older people as well as the physical activities such as programmed in a sport gym. It also becomes clear that it is difficult for ordinary older adult to continue exercising habits for many years. Therefore, more substantial ways are required for local health officials to advertise the effectiveness of mild exercise habits and to devise the necessary work to become a habit.

  3. Transient acidosis while retrieving a fear-related memory enhances its lability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jianyang; Price, Margaret P; Taugher, Rebecca J; Grigsby, Daniel; Ash, Jamison J; Stark, Austin C; Hossain Saad, Md Zubayer; Singh, Kritika; Mandal, Juthika; Wemmie, John A; Welsh, Michael J

    2017-01-01

    Attenuating the strength of fearful memories could benefit people disabled by memories of past trauma. Pavlovian conditioning experiments indicate that a retrieval cue can return a conditioned aversive memory to a labile state. However, means to enhance retrieval and render a memory more labile are unknown. We hypothesized that augmenting synaptic signaling during retrieval would increase memory lability. To enhance synaptic transmission, mice inhaled CO2 to induce an acidosis and activate acid sensing ion channels. Transient acidification increased the retrieval-induced lability of an aversive memory. The labile memory could then be weakened by an extinction protocol or strengthened by reconditioning. Coupling CO2 inhalation to retrieval increased activation of amygdala neurons bearing the memory trace and increased the synaptic exchange from Ca2+-impermeable to Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors. The results suggest that transient acidosis during retrieval renders the memory of an aversive event more labile and suggest a strategy to modify debilitating memories. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.22564.001 PMID:28650315

  4. Sex-related differences in fuel utilization and hormonal response to exercise: implications for individuals with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockman, Nicole K; Yardley, Jane E

    2018-06-01

    Sex-related differences in metabolic and neuroendocrine response to exercise in individuals without diabetes have been well established. Men and women differ in fuel selection during exercise, in which women rely to a greater extent on fat oxidation, whereas males rely mostly on carbohydrate oxidation for energy production. The difference in fuel selection appears to be mediated by sex-related differences in hormonal (including catecholamines, growth hormone, and estrogen) response to different types and intensities of exercise. In general, men exhibit an amplified counter-regulatory response to exercise, with elevated levels of catecholamines compared with women. However, women exhibit greater sensitivity to the lipolytic action of the catecholamines and deplete less of their glycogen stores than men during exercise, which suggests that women may experience a greater defense in blood glucose control after exercise than men. Conversely, little is known about sex-related differences in response to exercise in individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D). A single study investigating sex-related differences in response to moderate aerobic exercise in individuals with T1D found sex-related differences in catecholamine response and fuel selection, but changes in blood glucose were not measured. To our knowledge, there are no studies investigating sex-related differences in blood glucose responses to different types and intensities of exercise in individuals with T1D. This review summarizes sex-related differences in exercise responses that could potentially impact blood glucose levels during exercise in individuals with T1D and highlights the need for further research.

  5. Comparison of Pharmaceutical, Psychological, and Exercise Treatments for Cancer-Related Fatigue: A Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustian, Karen M; Alfano, Catherine M; Heckler, Charles; Kleckner, Amber S; Kleckner, Ian R; Leach, Corinne R; Mohr, David; Palesh, Oxana G; Peppone, Luke J; Piper, Barbara F; Scarpato, John; Smith, Tenbroeck; Sprod, Lisa K; Miller, Suzanne M

    2017-07-01

    Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) remains one of the most prevalent and troublesome adverse events experienced by patients with cancer during and after therapy. To perform a meta-analysis to establish and compare the mean weighted effect sizes (WESs) of the 4 most commonly recommended treatments for CRF-exercise, psychological, combined exercise and psychological, and pharmaceutical-and to identify independent variables associated with treatment effectiveness. PubMed, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched from the inception of each database to May 31, 2016. Randomized clinical trials in adults with cancer were selected. Inclusion criteria consisted of CRF severity as an outcome and testing of exercise, psychological, exercise plus psychological, or pharmaceutical interventions. Studies were independently reviewed by 12 raters in 3 groups using a systematic and blinded process for reconciling disagreement. Effect sizes (Cohen d) were calculated and inversely weighted by SE. Severity of CRF was the primary outcome. Study quality was assessed using a modified 12-item version of the Physiotherapy Evidence-Based Database scale (range, 0-12, with 12 indicating best quality). From 17 033 references, 113 unique studies articles (11 525 unique participants; 78% female; mean age, 54 [range, 35-72] years) published from January 1, 1999, through May 31, 2016, had sufficient data. Studies were of good quality (mean Physiotherapy Evidence-Based Database scale score, 8.2; range, 5-12) with no evidence of publication bias. Exercise (WES, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.25-0.36; P psychological (WES, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.21-0.33; P psychological interventions (WES, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.13-0.38; P psychological mode, type of control condition, use of intention-to-treat analysis, and fatigue measures (WES range, -0.91 to 0.99). Results suggest that the effectiveness of behavioral interventions, specifically exercise and psychological interventions, is not attributable to

  6. Self-efficacy for exercise, more than disease-related factors, is associated with objectively assessed exercise time and sedentary behaviour in rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, K M; Pieper, C F; Hall, K S; St Clair, E W; Kraus, W E

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, reports of physical activity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were limited to self-report methods and/or leisure-time physical activity. Our objectives were to assess, determine correlates of, and compare to well-matched controls both exercise and sedentary time in a typical clinical cohort of RA. Persons with established RA (seropositive or radiographic erosions; n = 41) without diabetes or cardiovascular disease underwent assessments of traditional and disease-specific correlates of physical activity and 7 days of triaxial accelerometry. Twenty-seven age, gender, and body mass index (BMI)-matched controls were assessed. For persons with RA, objectively measured median (25th-75th percentile) exercise time was 3 (1-11) min/day; only 10% (n = 4) of participants exercised for ≥ 30 min/day. Time spent in sedentary activities was 92% (89-95%). Exercise time was not related to pain but was inversely related to disease activity (r = -0.3, p self-efficacy for endurance activity (r = 0.4, p self-efficacy for endurance activity (r = -0.4, p self-efficacy for physical activity but similar amounts of exercise and sedentary time. For persons with RA and without diabetes or cardiovascular disease, time spent in exercise was well below established guidelines and activity patterns were predominantly sedentary. For optimal care in RA, in addition to promoting exercise, clinicians should consider assessing sedentary behaviour and self-efficacy for exercise. Future interventions might determine whether increased self-efficacy can increase physical activity in RA.

  7. Exercise at an onsite facility with or without direct exercise supervision improves health-related physical fitness and exercise participation: An 8-week randomised controlled trial with 15-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Jayden R; Gordon, Brett A; Lythgo, Noel; Bird, Stephen R; Benson, Amanda C

    2018-04-01

    Physical activity and exercise participation is limited by a perceived lack of time, poor access to facilities and low motivation. The aim was to assess whether providing an exercise program to be completed at the workplace with or without direct supervision was effective for promoting health-related physical fitness and exercise participation. Fifty university employees aged (Mean ± SD) 42.5 ± 11.1 years were prescribed a moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise program to be completed at an onsite facility for 8 weeks. Participants were randomly allocated to receive direct exercise supervision or not. Cardiorespiratory fitness (V̇O 2max ) and maximal muscular strength were assessed at baseline and 8 weeks. Self-report physical activity was assessed at baseline, 8 weeks and 15 months post-intervention. Attendance or exercise session volume were not different between groups. Cardiorespiratory fitness (Mean ± 95% CI); +1.9 ± 0.7 mL·kg·min -1 ; P exercise facility to complete an individually-prescribed 8-week exercise program is sufficient to improve health-related physical fitness in the short-term independent to the level of supervision provided, but does not influence long-term participation. SO WHAT?: Lower cost onsite exercise facility supervision is as effective at improving physical health and fitness as directly supervised exercise, however ongoing support may be required for sustained physical activity behaviour change. © 2017 Australian Health Promotion Association.

  8. Flow-related Right Ventricular - Pulmonary Arterial Pressure Gradients during Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephen P; Opotowsky, Alexander R; Buchan, Tayler A; Esfandiari, Sam; Granton, John T; Goodman, Jack M; Mak, Susanna

    2018-06-06

    The assumption of equivalence between right ventricular and pulmonary arterial systolic pressure is fundamental to several assessments of right ventricular or pulmonary vascular hemodynamic function. Our aims were to 1) determine whether systolic pressure gradients develop across the right ventricular outflow tract in healthy adults during exercise, 2) examine the potential correlates of such gradients, and 3) consider the effect of such gradients on calculated indices of right ventricular function. Healthy untrained and endurance-trained adult volunteers were studied using right-heart catheterization at rest and during submaximal cycle ergometry. Right ventricular and pulmonary artery pressures were simultaneously transduced, and cardiac output was determined by thermodilution. Systolic pressures, peak and mean gradients, and indices of chamber, vascular, and valve function were analyzed offline. Summary data are reported as mean ± standard deviation or median [interquartile range]. No significant right ventricular outflow tract gradients were observed at rest (mean gradient = 4 [3-5] mmHg), and calculated effective orifice area was 3.6±1.0 cm2. Right ventricular systolic pressure increases during exercise were greater than that of pulmonary artery systolic pressure. Accordingly, mean gradients developed during light exercise (8 [7-9] mmHg) and increased during moderate exercise (12 [9-14] mmHg, p < 0.001). The magnitude of the mean gradient was linearly related to cardiac output (r2 = 0.70, p < 0.001). In healthy adults without pulmonic stenosis, systolic pressure gradients develop during exercise, and the magnitude is related to blood flow rate.

  9. Exercise therapy for Stress-related mental disorder, a randomised controlled trial in primary care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donker Marieke

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background to investigate whether a structured physical exercise programme (PEP improves the recovery of general health in patients suffering from Stress-related Mental Disorder (SMD. Method Study design: randomised open trial in general practice. Patients from two regions in the Netherlands were included between September 2003 and December 2005, and followed up for 12 weeks. Intervention: the patients were referred to a physical therapist for instruction in and monitoring of physical exercise of an intermediate intensity. Following the Dutch Guidelines for Healthy Physical Exercise, the patients were instructed to exercise at least five times a week, for at least 30 minutes per day. Control group: usual care from the GP Outcome Primary: improvement of general health after 6 weeks according to the 'general health' dimension of the Short-Form 36. Secondary: total days off work, percentage that resumed work after 6 and 12 weeks, change in distress score and change in remaining SF36 dimensions after 6 and 12 weeks. Results out of 102 randomised patients (mean age 43, 60 (59% female, 70 (68% completed the trial, of whom 31 were in the intervention group. After 6 weeks, the mean (SD general health score was 54.6 (22.1 for the intervention group and 57.5 (19.2 for the controls. The corresponding effect size (Cohen's d with 95% confidence interval from analysis of covariance was -0.06 (-0.41, 0.30 indicating no effect on general health. No significant effects of the intervention were detected for any secondary outcome parameter either. Conclusion Notwithstanding the relatively high drop-out rate, our results suggest that referral to a physical therapist for structured physical exercise is not likely to be very effective in improving recovery from SMD. Trial registry Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN15609105

  10. Is frequent attendance of longer duration related to less transient episodes of care? A retrospective analysis of transient and chronic episodes of care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, F.T.; Brouwer, H.J.; Schene, A.H.; van Weert, H.C.; ter Riet, G.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Frequent attenders (FAs) suffer more and consult general practitioners (GPs) more often for chronic physical and psychiatric illnesses, social difficulties and distress than non-FAs. However, it is unclear to what extent FAs present transient episodes of care (TECs) compared with

  11. Recent experience related to neutronic transients in Ontario Hydro CANDU nuclear generating stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frescura, G.M.; Smith, A.J.; Lau, J.H.

    1991-01-01

    Ontario Hydro presently operates 18 CANDU reactors in the province of Ontario, Canada. All of these reactors are of the CANDU Pressurized Heavy Water design, although their design features differ somewhat reflecting the evolution that has taken place from 1971 when the first Pickering unit started operation to the present as the Darlington units are being placed in service. Over the last three years, two significant neutronic transients took place at the Pickering Nuclear Generating Station 'A' (NGS A) one of which resulted in a number of fuel failures. Both events provided valuable lessons in the areas of operational safety, fuel performance And accident analysis. The events and the lessons learned are discussed in this paper

  12. Therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Young Lim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have focused on evidence-based interventions to prevent mobility decline and enhance physical performance in older adults. Several modalities, in addition to traditional strengthening programs, have been designed to manage age-related functional decline more effectively. In this study, we reviewed the current relevant literatures to assess the therapeutic potential of eccentric exercises for age-related muscle atrophy (sarcopenia. Age-related changes in human skeletal muscle, and their relationship with physical performance, are discussed with reference to in vitro physiologic and human biomechanics studies. An overview of issues relevant to sarcopenia is provided in the context of the recent consensus on the diagnosis and management of the condition. A decline in mobility among the aging population is closely linked with changes in the muscle force–velocity relationship. Interventions based specifically on increasing velocity and eccentric strength can improve function more effectively compared with traditional strengthening programs. Eccentric strengthening programs are introduced as a specific method for improving both muscle force and velocity. To be more effective, exercise interventions for older adults should focus on enhancing the muscle force–velocity relationship. Exercises that can be performed easily, and that utilize eccentric strength (which is relatively spared during the aging process, are needed to improve both muscle force and velocity.

  13. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  14. Relation between contemplative exercises and an enriched psychology students' experience in a neuroscience course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit Binnun, Nava; Tarrasch, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the relation of contemplative exercises with enhancement of students' experience during neuroscience studies. Short contemplative exercises inspired by the Buddhist tradition of self-inquiry were introduced in an undergraduate neuroscience course for psychology students. At the start of the class, all students were asked to participate in short “personal brain investigations” relevant to the topic presented. These investigations were aimed at bringing stable awareness to a specific perceptual, emotional, attentional, or cognitive process and observing it in a non-judgmental, non-personal way. In addition, students could choose to participate, for bonus credit, in a longer exercise designed to expand upon the weekly class activity. In the exercise, students continued their “personal brain investigations” for 10 min a day, 4 days a week. They wrote “lab reports” on their daily observations, obtained feedback from the teacher, and at the end of the year reviewed their reports and reflected upon their experiences during the semester. Out of 265 students, 102 students completed the bonus track and their final reflections were analyzed using qualitative methodology. In addition, 91 of the students answered a survey at the end of the course, 43 students participated in a quiz 1 year after course graduation, and the final grades of all students were collected and analyzed. Overall, students reported satisfaction from the exercises and felt they contributed to their learning experience. In the 1-year follow-up, the bonus-track students were significantly more likely than their peers to remember class material. The qualitative analysis of bonus-track students' reports revealed that the bonus-track process elicited positive feelings, helped students connect with class material and provided them with personal insights. In addition, students acquired contemplative skills, such as increased awareness and attention, non-judgmental attitudes, and

  15. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eMueller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training three days per week over a period of three months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI, reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing.

  16. Exercise counteracts aging-related memory impairment: a potential role for the astrocytic metabolic shuttle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng eTsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas.

  17. Perceptions about exercise and intrinsic motivation of students attending a health-related physical education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papacharisis, Vassilios; Goudas, Marios

    2003-12-01

    The present study examined effects of sex, attitude towards physical activity, perceived barriers for participation in physical activity, and students' perception of their parents' participation in physical activity on the intrinsic motivation of students participating in a health related program in physical education. 643 students (303 boys and 340 girls) responded to questionnaires measuring intrinsic motivation, attitudes towards physical activity, perceived barriers to exercise and perceived parents' participation in physical activity. Mean age was 12.9 yr. (SD=1.2, range 11-14 years). Analysis indicated that students' intrinsic motivation towards the program was influenced by perceived barriers to exercise. Sex, attitudes towards physical activity, and perceived parents' participation in physical activity seem to be less important.

  18. Safety and feasibility of post-stroke care and exercise after minor ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack: MotiveS & MoveIT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boss, H.M.; Van Schaik, S.M.; Deijle, I.A.; de Melker, E.C.; van den Berg, B.M.; Scherder, E.J.A.; Bosboom, W.M.J.; Weinstein, H.C.; van den Berg-Vos, R.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Despite the beneficial effect of cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, a rehabilitation program to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and influence secondary prevention has not been implemented for ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). Objective: To

  19. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justus D Ortega

    Full Text Available Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy.To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults.15 older adults (69 ± 3 years who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s. We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study.Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016 and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237. We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461 and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (p<.0001.Running mitigates the age-related deterioration of walking economy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  20. Vivo-morpholinos induced transient knockdown of physical activity related proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P Ferguson

    Full Text Available Physical activity is associated with disease prevention and overall wellbeing. Additionally there has been evidence that physical activity level is a result of genetic influence. However, there has not been a reliable method to silence candidate genes in vivo to determine causal mechanisms of physical activity regulation. Vivo-morpholinos are a potential method to transiently silence specific genes. Thus, the aim of this study was to validate the use of Vivo-morpholinos in a mouse model for voluntary physical activity with several sub-objectives. We observed that Vivo-morpholinos achieved between 60-97% knockdown of Drd1-, Vmat2-, and Glut4-protein in skeletal muscle, the delivery moiety of Vivo-morpholinos (scramble did not influence physical activity and that a cocktail of multiple Vivo-morpholinos can be given in a single treatment to achieve protein knockdown of two different targeted proteins in skeletal muscle simultaneously. Knocking down Drd1, Vmat2, or Glut4 protein in skeletal muscle did not affect physical activity. Vivo-morpholinos injected intravenously alone did not significantly knockdown Vmat2-protein expression in the brain (p = 0.28. However, the use of a bradykinin analog to increase blood-brain-barrier permeability in conjunction with the Vivo-morpholinos significantly (p = 0.0001 decreased Vmat2-protein in the brain with a corresponding later over-expression of Vmat2 coincident with a significant (p = 0.0016 increase in physical activity. We conclude that Vivo-morpholinos can be a valuable tool in determining causal gene-phenotype relationships in whole animal models.

  1. Observation and Modeling of Chromospheric Evaporation in a Coronal Loop Related to Active Region Transient Brightening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G. R.; Sarkar, Aveek; Tripathi, Durgesh

    2018-04-01

    Using the observations recorded by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer and X-Ray Telescope both on board Hinode, we present evidence of chromospheric evaporation in a coronal loop after the occurrence of two active region transient brightenings (ARTBs) at the two footpoints. The chromospheric evaporation started nearly simultaneously in all of the three hot channels of AIA 131, 94, and 335 Å and was observed to be temperature dependent, being fastest in the highest temperature channel. The whole loop became fully brightened following the ARTBs after ≈25 s in 131 Å, ≈40 s in 94 Å, and ≈6.5 minutes in 335 Å. The differential emission measurements at the two footpoints (i.e., of two ARTBs) and at the loop top suggest that the plasma attained a maximum temperature of ∼10 MK at all these locations. The spectroscopic observations from IRIS revealed the presence of redshifted emission of ∼20 km s‑1 in cooler lines like C II and Si IV during the ARTBs that was cotemporal with the evaporation flow at the footpoint of the loop. During the ARTBs, the line width of C II and Si IV increased nearly by a factor of two during the peak emission. Moreover, enhancement in the line width preceded that in the Doppler shift, which again preceded enhancement in the intensity. The observed results were qualitatively reproduced by 1D hydrodynamic simulations, where energy was deposited at both of the footpoints of a monolithic coronal loop that mimicked the ARTBs identified in the observations.

  2. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donath, Lars; Ludyga, Sebastian; Hammes, Daniel; Rossmeissl, Anja; Andergassen, Nadin; Zahner, Lukas; Faude, Oliver

    2017-10-25

    Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory) in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO 2peak : 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight) were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation) vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test) before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HR max - HR rest )] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing) and completed figures (Five-Point test) at pre and post testing (0.002 seniors can be presumed.

  3. Effort Thrombosis of the Upper Extremities Related to an Arm Stretching Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huey-Wen Liang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available “Effort” axillary-subclavian vein thrombosis (Paget-Schroetter syndrome is an uncommon deep venous thrombosis due to repetitive activity of the upper limbs. Most cases of this condition are related to strenuous or prolonged sport or occupational activities, while others are associated with endogenous or exogenous risk factors. We report the case of a 43-year-old, previously healthy, male who developed right axillary-subclavian venous thrombosis, which was possibly associated with an exercise involving arm extension and shaking in a posture of shoulder abduction and outstretched for 10 minutes on 2 consecutive days. The condition improved but returned with increased severity when he resumed the exercise after a 2-day break, when he presented with a swollen and bluish arm at the emergency department. Sonographic examination showed moderate thrombotic stenosis of the right axillary vein. Effort thrombosis was diagnosed after ruling out associated coagulopathy or concomitant malignancy. External compression of the accessory ribs or lymph nodes were not detected. He was treated with low molecular weight heparin, followed by oral anticoagulant therapy for 6 months. Only partial resolution of thrombosis was achieved after 6 months of anticoagulant therapy, but pulmonary embolism did not occur during 18 months of follow-up. This case illustrates that, although unusual, Paget-Schroetter syndrome can occur in a healthy patient as a result of mild to moderate exercise.

  4. Effects of Exercise Interventions and Physical Activity Behavior on Cancer Related Cognitive Impairments: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Zimmer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This systematic review analyzes current data on effects of exercise interventions and physical activity behavior on objective and subjective cancer related cognitive impairments (CRCI. Out of the 19 studies which met all inclusion criteria, five RCTs investigated rodents, whereas the other 14 trials explored humans and these included six RCTs, one controlled trial, two prospective noncontrolled trials, one case series, one observational study, and three cross-sectional studies. The results from animal models revealed positive effects of exercise during and after chemotherapy or radiation on structural alterations of the central nervous system, physiological as well as neuropsychological outcomes. The overall study quality in patient studies was poor. The current data on intervention studies showed preliminary positive effects of Asian-influenced movement programs (e.g., Yoga with benefits on self-perceived cognitive functions as well as a reduction of chronic inflammation for breast cancer patients in the aftercare. Exercise potentially contributes to the prevention and rehabilitation of CRCI. Additional RCTs with standardized neuropsychological assessments and controlling for potential confounders are needed to confirm and expand preliminary findings.

  5. Running for exercise mitigates age-related deterioration of walking economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Justus D; Beck, Owen N; Roby, Jaclyn M; Turney, Aria L; Kram, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    Impaired walking performance is a key predictor of morbidity among older adults. A distinctive characteristic of impaired walking performance among older adults is a greater metabolic cost (worse economy) compared to young adults. However, older adults who consistently run have been shown to retain a similar running economy as young runners. Unfortunately, those running studies did not measure the metabolic cost of walking. Thus, it is unclear if running exercise can prevent the deterioration of walking economy. To determine if and how regular walking vs. running exercise affects the economy of locomotion in older adults. 15 older adults (69 ± 3 years) who walk ≥ 30 min, 3x/week for exercise, "walkers" and 15 older adults (69 ± 5 years) who run ≥ 30 min, 3x/week, "runners" walked on a force-instrumented treadmill at three speeds (0.75, 1.25, and 1.75 m/s). We determined walking economy using expired gas analysis and walking mechanics via ground reaction forces during the last 2 minutes of each 5 minute trial. We compared walking economy between the two groups and to non-aerobically trained young and older adults from a prior study. Older runners had a 7-10% better walking economy than older walkers over the range of speeds tested (p = .016) and had walking economy similar to young sedentary adults over a similar range of speeds (p =  .237). We found no substantial biomechanical differences between older walkers and runners. In contrast to older runners, older walkers had similar walking economy as older sedentary adults (p =  .461) and ∼ 26% worse walking economy than young adults (peconomy whereas walking for exercise appears to have minimal effect on the age-related deterioration in walking economy.

  6. Unsupervised exercise in survivors of human papillomavirus related head and neck cancer: how many can go it alone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauml, Joshua; Kim, Jiyoung; Zhang, Xiaochen; Aggarwal, Charu; Cohen, Roger B; Schmitz, Kathryn

    2017-08-01

    Patients with human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck cancer (HNC) have a better prognosis relative to other types of HNC, making survivorship an emerging and critical issue. Exercise is a core component of survivorship care, but little is known about how many survivors of HPV-related HNC can safely be advised to start exercising on their own, as opposed to needing further evaluation or supervised exercise. We utilized guidelines to identify health issues that would indicate value of further evaluation prior to being safely prescribed unsupervised exercise. We performed a retrospective chart review of 150 patients with HPV-related HNC to assess health issues 6 months after completing definitive therapy. Patients with at least one health issue were deemed appropriate to receive further evaluation prior to prescription for unsupervised exercise. We utilized logistic regression to identify clinical and demographic factors associated with the need for further evaluation, likely performed by outpatient rehabilitation clinicians. In this cohort of patients, 39.3% could safely be prescribed unsupervised exercise 6 months after completing definitive therapy. On multivariable regression, older age, BMI >30, and receipt of radiation were associated with an increased likelihood for requiring further evaluation or supervised exercise. Over half of patients with HPV-related HNC would benefit from referral to physical therapy or an exercise professional for further evaluation to determine the most appropriate level of exercise supervision, based upon current guidelines. Development of such referral systems will be essential to enhance survivorship outcomes for patients who have completed treatment.

  7. Exercise interventions on health-related quality of life for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Scherer, Roberta W; Geigle, Paula M; Berlanstein, Debra R; Topaloglu, Ozlem; Gotay, Carolyn C; Snyder, Claire

    2012-08-15

    Cancer survivors experience numerous disease and treatment-related adverse outcomes and poorer health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Exercise interventions are hypothesized to alleviate these adverse outcomes. HRQoL and its domains are important measures for cancer survivorship. To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise on overall HRQoL and HRQoL domains among adult post-treatment cancer survivors. We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, PEDRO, LILACS, SIGLE, SportDiscus, OTSeeker, and Sociological Abstracts from inception to October 2011 with no language or date restrictions. We also searched citations through Web of Science and Scopus, PubMed's related article feature, and several websites. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and other reviews in the field. We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs) comparing exercise interventions with usual care or other nonexercise intervention to assess overall HRQoL or at least one HRQoL domain in adults. Included trials tested exercise interventions that were initiated after completion of active cancer treatment. We excluded trials including people who were terminally ill, or receiving hospice care, or both, and where the majority of trial participants were undergoing active treatment for either the primary or recurrent cancer. Five paired review authors independently extracted information on characteristics of included trials, data on effects of the intervention, and assessed risk of bias based on predefined criteria. Where possible, meta-analyses results were performed for HRQoL and HRQoL domains for the reported difference between baseline values and follow-up values using standardized mean differences (SMD) and a random-effects model by length of follow-up. We also reported the SMDs between mean follow-up values of exercise and control group. Because investigators used many different

  8. Impact of exercise capacity on dyspnea and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Ramune; Frølich, Anne; Godtfredsen, Nina S

    2012-01-01

    To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).......To assess the impact of the amount of exercise training during pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) program for improvements in dyspnea and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)....

  9. Associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Makino, Keitaro; Ihira, Hikaru; Mizumoto, Atsushi; Shimizu, Kotaro; Ishida, Toyoaki; Furuna, Taketo

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between the settings of exercise habits and health-related outcomes in community-dwelling older adults. [Subjects] A total of 304 Japanese community-dwelling older adults (70.3 ? 4.1?years; 113 males and 191 females) participated in this study. [Methods] Demographic characteristics, medical conditions, exercise habits, and health-related outcomes were assessed by face-to-face interviews and self-reported questionnaires. Older...

  10. Effects of T'ai Chi exercise on fibromyalgia symptoms and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Helen M; Arslanian, Christine L; Bae, Sejong; Singh, Karan

    2003-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM), one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders, is associated with high levels of impaired health and inadequate or limited symptom relief. The cause of this complex syndrome is unknown, and there is no known cure. Numerous research results indicate that a combination of physical exercise and mind-body therapy is effective in symptom management. T'ai Chi, an ancient Chinese exercise, combines physical exercise with mindbody therapy. To investigate the effects of T'ai Chi exercise on FM symptoms and health-related quality of life. Pilot study, one group pre-to-post posttest design. Participants with FM (n = 39) formed a single group for 6 weeks of 1-hour, twice weekly T'ai Chi exercise classes. FM symptoms and health-related quality of life were measured before and after exercise. Twenty-one participants completed at least 10 of the 12 exercise sessions. Although the dropout rate was higher than expected, measurements on both the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ) (Buckhardt, Clark, & Bennett, 1991) and the Short Form-36 (SE-36) (Ware & Sherbourne, 1992) revealed statistically significant improvement in symptom management and health-related quality of life. Knowledge of interventions to enhance health for the patient with musculoskeletal problems is a National Association of Orthopaedic Nurses priority. Tai Chi is potentially beneficial to patients with FM. Further research is needed to support evidence-based practice.

  11. The Effects of Combined Exercise on Health-Related Fitness, Endotoxin, and Immune Function of Postmenopausal Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Mo; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Ji, Jin-Goo

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to examine the effects of combined exercise on health-related fitness, endotoxin concentrations, and immune functions of postmenopausal women with abdominal obesity. 20 voluntary participants were recruited and they were randomly allocated to the combined exercise group (n = 10) or the control group (n = 10). Visceral obesity was defined as a visceral-to-subcutaneous fat ratio ≥ 0.4 based on computed tomography (CT) results. Body composition, exercise stress testing, fitness measurement, CT scan, and blood variables were analyzed to elucidate the effects of combined exercise. The SPSS Statistics 18.0 program was used to calculate means and standard deviations for all variables. Significant differences between the exercise group and control group were determined with 2-way ANOVA and paired t-tests. The exercise group's abdominal obesity was mitigated due to visceral fat reduction; grip strength, push-ups, and oxygen uptake per weight improved; and HDL-C and IgA level also increased, while TNF-α, CD14, and endotoxin levels decreased. Lowered TNF-α after exercise might have an important role in the obesity reduction. Therefore, we can conclude that combined exercise is effective in mitigating abdominal obesity, preventing metabolic diseases, and enhancing immune function.

  12. Relative Humidity of 40% Inhibiting the Increase of Pulse Rate, Body Temperature, and Blood Lactic Acid During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nengah Sandi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive sweating of the body is a reaction to decrease the heat caused by prolonged exercise at high relative humidity (RH. This situation may cause an increase in pulse rate (PR, body temperature (BT, and blood lactic acid (BLA workout. Objective: This study aimed to prove that a RH of 40% better than a RH of 50% and 60% RH in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Methods: The study was conducted on 54 samples randomly selected from the IKIP PGRI Bali students. The samples were divided into three groups, and each group was given cycling exercise with a load of 80 Watt for 2 x 30 minutes with rest between sets for five minutes. Group-1 of cycling at 40% of RH, Group-2 at a RH of 50%, and the Group-3 at a RH of 60%. Data PR, BT, and BLA taken before and during exercise. The mean difference between groups before and during exercise were analyzed by One-way Anova and a further test used Least Significant Difference (LSD. Significance used was α = 0.05. Results: The mean of PR during exercise was significantly different between groups with p = 0.045, the mean of BT during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.006, and the mean of BLA during exercises was significantly different between groups with p = 0.005 (p <0.05. Also found that PR, BT, and BLA during exercise at 40% RH was lower than 50% RH and 60% RH (p <0.05. Conclusion: Thus, the RH of 40% was better than RH of 50% and 60 % in inhibiting the increase of PR, BT, and BLA during exercise. Therefore, when practiced in a closed room is expected at 40% relative humidity.

  13. Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population

    OpenAIRE

    Berge, Jerica M.; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Background Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent’s use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood o...

  14. Spinal manipulation and home exercise with advice for subacute and chronic back-related leg pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bronfort, Gert; Hondras, Maria; Schulz, Craig A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Back-related leg pain (BRLP) is often disabling and costly, and there is a paucity of research to guide its management. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) plus home exercise and advice (HEA) compared with HEA alone reduces leg pain in the short and long....... LIMITATION: Patients and providers could not be blinded. CONCLUSION: For patients with BRLP, SMT plus HEA was more effective than HEA alone after 12 weeks, but the benefit was sustained only for some secondary outcomes at 52 weeks. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services....

  15. IgG4-Related Disease Combined with Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia and Steroid-Responsive Transient Hypercalcemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sho Hasegawa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 67-year-old man with elevated serum immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4 levels, systemic lymphadenopathy infiltrated by IgG4-positive plasma cells, and Coombs-positive autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA showed marked hypercalcemia. Although the intact parathyroid hormone (PTH level was elevated, 99mTc-MIBI scintigraphy and thyroid ultrasonography revealed no evidence of primary hyperparathyroidism. Liver biopsy showed marked infiltration of IgG4-positive plasma cells, which confirmed the diagnosis of IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD. Corticosteroid therapy was initiated, and subsequently, intact PTH and serum calcium levels gradually normalized. Transient hypercalcemia in a patient with AIHA may therefore be associated with IgG4-RD.

  16. Absolute and relative reliability of acute effects of aerobic exercise on executive function in seniors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Donath

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aging is accompanied by a decline of executive function. Aerobic exercise training induces moderate improvements of cognitive domains (i.e., attention, processing, executive function, memory in seniors. Most conclusive data are obtained from studies with dementia or cognitive impairment. Confident detection of exercise training effects requires adequate between-day reliability and low day-to-day variability obtained from acute studies, respectively. These absolute and relative reliability measures have not yet been examined for a single aerobic training session in seniors. Methods Twenty-two healthy and physically active seniors (age: 69 ± 3 y, BMI: 24.8 ± 2.2, VO2peak: 32 ± 6 mL/kg/bodyweight were enrolled in this randomized controlled cross-over study. A repeated between-day comparison [i.e., day 1 (habituation vs. day 2 & day 2 vs. day 3] of executive function testing (Eriksen-Flanker-Test, Stroop-Color-Test, Digit-Span, Five-Point-Test before and after aerobic cycling exercise at 70% of the heart rate reserve [0.7 × (HRmax – HRrest] was conducted. Reliability measures were calculated for pre, post and change scores. Results Large between-day differences between day 1 and 2 were found for reaction times (Flanker- and Stroop Color testing and completed figures (Five-Point test at pre and post testing (0.002 < p < 0.05, 0.16 < ɳp 2 < 0.38. These differences notably declined when comparing day 2 and 3. Absolute between days variability (CoV dropped from 10 to 5% when comparing day 2 vs. day 3 instead of day 1 vs. day 2. Also ICC ranges increased from day 1 vs. day 2 (0.65 < ICC < 0.87 to day 2 vs. day 3 (0.40 < ICC < 0.93. Interestingly, reliability measures for pre-post change scores were low (0.02 < ICC < 0.71. These data did not improve when comparing day 2 with day 3. During inhibition tests, reaction times showed excellent reliability values compared to the poor to fair reliability of

  17. [Exercise for prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takao

    2011-05-01

    The prevalence of lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia (hyperlipidemia) and diabetes increases with aging, and all these conditions are risk factors of arteriosclerotic diseases such as cerebrovascular event (stroke) and myocardial infarction. The term "metabolic domino" has been used to describe the collective concept of the development and progression of these lifestyle-related diseases, the sequence of events, and the progression process of complications. Like the first tile of a domino toppling game, undesirable lifestyle such as overeating and underexercising first triggers obesity, and is followed in succession by onset of an insulin resistance state (underlied by a genetic background indigenous to Japanese) , hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and further postprandial hyperglycemia (the pre-diabetic state) , the so-called metabolic syndrome, at around the same time. On the other hand, apart from the other lifestyle-related diseases, the prevalence of osteoporosis also increases rapidly accompanying aging. Osteoporosis is known to be strongly related to disorders due to the metabolic domino such as arteriosclerosis and vascular calcification, and a new disease category called "osteo-vascular interaction" has attracted attention recently. Regarding "osteo-vascular interaction" , a close relation between bone density loss or osteoporotic changes and vascular lesion-associated lifestyle-related diseases such as hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes has been reported. Therefore, as a common preventive factor for bone mass loss or osteoporosis and lifestyle-related diseases including hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes (osteo-vascular interaction) , exercise has been recognized anew as an important non-pharmaceutical therapy that should take top priority. This article overviews the evidence of exercise therapy for the prevention of osteoporosis and other lifestyle-related diseases, from the viewpoint of health promotion, especially of

  18. Self-regulatory processes mediate the intention-behavior relation for adherence and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, Marijn; Sheeran, Paschal; Kok, Gerjo; Hiemstra, Anneke; Prins, Jan M; Hospers, Harm J; van Breukelen, Gerard J P

    2012-11-01

    Understanding the gap between people's intentions and actual health behavior is an important issue in health psychology. Our aim in this study was to investigate whether self-regulatory processes (monitoring goal progress and responding to discrepancies) mediate the intention-behavior relation in relation to HIV medication adherence (Study 1) and intensive exercise behavior (Study 2). In Study 1, questionnaire and electronically monitored adherence data were collected at baseline and 3 months later from patients in the control arm of an HIV-adherence intervention study. In Study 2, questionnaire data was collected at 3 time points 6-weeks apart in a cohort study of physical activity. Complete data at all time points were obtained from 51 HIV-infected patients and 499 intensive exercise participants. Intentions were good predictors of behavior and explained 25 to 30% of the variance. Self-regulatory processes explained an additional 11% (Study 1) and 6% (Study 2) of variance in behavior on top of intentions. Regression and bootstrap analyses revealed at least partial, and possibly full, mediation of the intention-behavior relation by self-regulatory processes. The present studies indicate that self-regulatory processes may explain how intentions drive behavior. Future tests, using different health behaviors and experimental designs, could firmly establish whether self-regulatory processes complement current health behavior theories and should become routine targets for intervention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Global warming related transient albedo feedback in the Arctic and its relation to the seasonality of sea ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andry, Olivier; Bintanja, Richard; Hazeleger, Wilco

    2015-04-01

    The Arctic is warming two to three times faster than the global average. Arctic sea ice cover is very sensitive to this warming and has reached historic minima in late summer in recent years (i.e. 2007, 2012). Considering that the Arctic Ocean is mainly ice-covered and that the albedo of sea ice is very high compared to that of open water, the change in sea ice cover is very likely to have a strong impact on the local surface albedo feedback. Here we quantify the temporal changes in surface albedo feedback in response to global warming. Usually feedbacks are evaluated as being representative and constant for long time periods, but we show here that the strength of climate feedbacks in fact varies strongly with time. For instance, time series of the amplitude of the surface albedo feedback, derived from future climate simulations (CIMP5, RCP8.5 up to year 2300) using a kernel method, peaks around the year 2100. This maximum is likely caused by an increased seasonality in sea-ice cover that is inherently associated with sea ice retreat. We demonstrate that the Arctic average surface albedo has a strong seasonal signature with a maximum in spring and a minimum in late summer/autumn. In winter when incoming solar radiation is minimal the surface albedo doesn't have an important effect on the energy balance of the climate system. The annual mean surface albedo is thus determined by the seasonality of both downwelling shortwave radiation and sea ice cover. As sea ice cover reduces the seasonal signature is modified, the transient part from maximum sea ice cover to its minimum is shortened and sharpened. The sea ice cover is reduced when downwelling shortwave radiation is maximum and thus the annual surface albedo is drastically smaller. Consequently the change in annual surface albedo with time will become larger and so will the surface albedo feedback. We conclude that a stronger seasonality in sea ice leads to a stronger surface albedo feedback, which accelerates

  20. Exploring enhanced menu labels' influence on fast food selections and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Morgan S; Thompson, Joel Kevin

    2016-10-01

    Labeling restaurant menus with calorie counts is a popular public health intervention, but research shows these labels have small, inconsistent effects on behavior. Supplementing calorie counts with physical activity equivalents may produce stronger results, but few studies of these enhanced labels have been conducted, and the labels' potential to influence exercise-related outcomes remains unexplored. This online study evaluated the impact of no information, calories-only, and calories plus equivalent miles of walking labels on fast food item selection and exercise-related attitudes, perceptions, and intentions. Participants (N = 643) were randomly assigned to a labeling condition and completed a menu ordering task followed by measures of exercise-related outcomes. The labels had little effect on ordering behavior, with no significant differences in total calories ordered and counterintuitive increases in calories ordered in the two informational conditions in some item categories. The labels also had little impact on the exercise-related outcomes, though participants in the two informational conditions perceived exercise as less enjoyable than did participants in the no information condition, and trends following the same pattern were found for other exercise-related outcomes. The present findings concur with literature demonstrating small, inconsistent effects of current menu labeling strategies and suggest that alternatives such as traffic light systems should be explored. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Diet and insulinlike growth factor I in relation to body composition in women with exercise-induced hypothalamic amenorrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crist, D M; Hill, J M

    1990-06-01

    To assess the potential influence of diet and endogenous peptide anabolic hormone secretion on exercise-related differences in body composition, we compared levels of macronutrient intake, insulinlike growth factor I (IGF-I), and fat-free mass (FFM) and fat mass (FM) in matched groups of exercising women with and without secondary hypothalamic amenorrhea. Women were tightly matched according to somatotype and grouped into those with exercise amenorrhea (EXam, n = 6), exercise eumennorhea (EXeu, n = 5), and sedentary eumennorheic controls (SED, n = 5). Although no between-group difference was observed in FFM, the EXeu subjects had a significantly lower fat fraction and a significantly elevated FFM/FM ratio. Kilocaloric and protein intakes did not differ between groups, but dietary fat intake was lowest and carbohydrate intake highest in the EXam subjects. Dietary macronutrients were not correlated with the FFM/FM ratio. However, levels of insulinlike growth factor I were significantly correlated to the FFM/FM ratio and there was a clear trend for the hormone to be highest in the EXeu subjects. We conclude that differences in body composition between exercising women with and without exercise-induced hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction were related to an alteration in IGF-I secretion, although differences in macronutrient intake might also be a factor. Further studies are warranted to elaborate upon the dietary and hormonal factors regulating the body composition response to exercise.

  2. Brain Network Modularity Predicts Exercise-Related Executive Function Gains in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baniqued, Pauline L; Gallen, Courtney L; Voss, Michelle W; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Duffy, Kristin; Fanning, Jason; Ehlers, Diane K; Salerno, Elizabeth A; Aguiñaga, Susan; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F; D'Esposito, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Recent work suggests that the brain can be conceptualized as a network comprised of groups of sub-networks or modules. The extent of segregation between modules can be quantified with a modularity metric, where networks with high modularity have dense connections within modules and sparser connections between modules. Previous work has shown that higher modularity predicts greater improvements after cognitive training in patients with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older and young adults. It is not known, however, whether modularity can also predict cognitive gains after a physical exercise intervention. Here, we quantified modularity in older adults ( N = 128, mean age = 64.74) who underwent one of the following interventions for 6 months (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov): (1) aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking (Walk), (2) aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking plus nutritional supplement (Walk+), (3) stretching, strengthening and stability (SSS), or (4) dance instruction. After the intervention, the Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups showed gains in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), with larger effects in both walking groups compared to the SSS and Dance groups. The Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups also improved in executive function (EF) as measured by reasoning, working memory, and task-switching tests. In the Walk, Walk+, and SSS groups that improved in EF, higher baseline modularity was positively related to EF gains, even after controlling for age, in-scanner motion and baseline EF. No relationship between modularity and EF gains was observed in the Dance group, which did not show training-related gains in CRF or EF control. These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that individuals with a more modular brain network organization are more responsive to cognitive training. These findings suggest that the predictive power of modularity may be generalizable across interventions aimed to enhance aspects of cognition and that

  3. Brain Network Modularity Predicts Exercise-Related Executive Function Gains in Older Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline L. Baniqued

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent work suggests that the brain can be conceptualized as a network comprised of groups of sub-networks or modules. The extent of segregation between modules can be quantified with a modularity metric, where networks with high modularity have dense connections within modules and sparser connections between modules. Previous work has shown that higher modularity predicts greater improvements after cognitive training in patients with traumatic brain injury and in healthy older and young adults. It is not known, however, whether modularity can also predict cognitive gains after a physical exercise intervention. Here, we quantified modularity in older adults (N = 128, mean age = 64.74 who underwent one of the following interventions for 6 months (NCT01472744 on ClinicalTrials.gov: (1 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking (Walk, (2 aerobic exercise in the form of brisk walking plus nutritional supplement (Walk+, (3 stretching, strengthening and stability (SSS, or (4 dance instruction. After the intervention, the Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups showed gains in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF, with larger effects in both walking groups compared to the SSS and Dance groups. The Walk, Walk+ and SSS groups also improved in executive function (EF as measured by reasoning, working memory, and task-switching tests. In the Walk, Walk+, and SSS groups that improved in EF, higher baseline modularity was positively related to EF gains, even after controlling for age, in-scanner motion and baseline EF. No relationship between modularity and EF gains was observed in the Dance group, which did not show training-related gains in CRF or EF control. These results are consistent with previous studies demonstrating that individuals with a more modular brain network organization are more responsive to cognitive training. These findings suggest that the predictive power of modularity may be generalizable across interventions aimed to enhance aspects of cognition and

  4. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P exercise, with no further increase at moderate exercise. When indexed to work rate alone or work rate adjusted to body weight and height, the PAWP response at light and moderate exercise was significantly elevated in women compared with men (P exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  5. Exercise barriers self-efficacy: development and validation of a subcale for individuals with cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchan, Jena; Janda, Monika; Box, Robyn; Rogers, Laura; Hayes, Sandi

    2015-03-18

    No tool exists to measure self-efficacy for overcoming lymphedema-related exercise barriers in individuals with cancer-related lymphedema. However, an existing scale measures confidence to overcome general exercise barriers in cancer survivors. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to develop, validate and assess the reliability of a subscale, to be used in conjunction with the general barriers scale, for determining exercise barriers self-efficacy in individuals facing lymphedema-related exercise barriers. A lymphedema-specific exercise barriers self-efficacy subscale was developed and validated using a cohort of 106 cancer survivors with cancer-related lymphedema, from Brisbane, Australia. An initial ten-item lymphedema-specific barrier subscale was developed and tested, with participant feedback and principal components analysis results used to guide development of the final version. Validity and test-retest reliability analyses were conducted on the final subscale. The final lymphedema-specific subscale contained five items. Principal components analysis revealed these items loaded highly (>0.75) on a separate factor when tested with a well-established nine-item general barriers scale. The final five-item subscale demonstrated good construct and criterion validity, high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.93) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.67, p exercise barriers self-efficacy in individuals with cancer-related lymphedema. This scale can be used in conjunction with an existing general exercise barriers scale to enhance exercise adherence in this understudied patient group.

  6. Activity-related parenting practices: development of the Parenting Related to Activity Measure (PRAM) and links with mothers' eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycraft, Emma; Powell, Faye; Meyer, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    This is a two-study paper that developed a measure to assess parenting practices related to children's physical activity and explored maternal predictors of such parenting practices. Study 1: A self-report measure of parents' activity-related practices (the Parenting Related to Activity Measure) was developed, and a principal component analysis was carried out using data from 233 mothers of 4.5- to 9-year-old children. The results supported a six-factor model and yielded the following subscales: Responsibility/monitoring; Activity regulation; Control of active behaviours; Overweight concern; Rewarding parenting; and Pressure to exercise. Study 2: Mothers (N = 170) completed the Parenting Related to Activity Measure, alongside measures of eating psychopathology and compulsive exercise, to identify predictors of activity-related parenting practices. Mothers' eating psychopathology and exercise beliefs predicted activity parenting practices with their sons and daughters, but different predictors were seen for mothers of daughters versus sons. Mothers' eating and exercise attitudes are important predictors of their activity-related parenting practices, particularly with girls. Identifying early interactions around activity/exercise could be important in preventing the development of problematic beliefs about exercise, which are often a key symptom of eating disorders. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  7. Aerobic exercise training in the treatment of non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease related fibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linden, Melissa A.; Sheldon, Ryan D.; Meers, Grace M.; Ortinau, Laura C.; Morris, E. Matthew; Booth, Frank W.; Kanaley, Jill A.; Vieira‐Potter, Victoria J.; Sowers, James R.; Ibdah, Jamal A.; Thyfault, John P.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2016-01-01

    Key points Physiologically relevant rodent models of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) that resemble the human condition are limited.Exercise training and energy restriction are first‐line recommendations for the treatment of NASH.Hyperphagic Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima fatty rats fed a western diet high in fat, sucrose and cholesterol for 24 weeks developed a severe NASH with fibrosis phenotype.Moderate intensity exercise training and modest energy restriction provided some improvement in the histological features of NASH that coincided with alterations in markers of hepatic stellate cell activation and extracellular matrix remodelling.The present study highlights the importance of lifestyle modification, including exercise training and energy restriction, in the regulation of advanced liver disease. Abstract The incidence of non‐alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is rising but the efficacy of lifestyle modifications to improve NASH‐related outcomes remain unclear. We hypothesized that a western diet (WD) would induce NASH in the Otsuka Long–Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rat and that lifestyle modification would improve this condition. Eight‐week‐old Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka (L) and OLETF (O) rats consumed a control diet (10% kcal fat, 3.5% sucrose) or a WD (45% kcal fat, 17% sucrose, 1% cholesterol) for 24 weeks. At 20 weeks of age, additional WD‐fed OLETFs were randomized to sedentary (O‐SED), food restriction (O‐FR; ∼25% kcal reduction vs. O‐SED) or exercise training (O‐EX; treadmill running 20 m min–1 with a 15% incline, 60 min day–1, 5 days week–1) conditions for 12 weeks. WD induced a NASH phenotype in OLETFs characterized by hepatic fibrosis (collagen 1α1 mRNA and hydroxyproline content), as well as elevated inflammation and non‐alcoholic fatty liver disease activity scores, and hepatic stellate cell activation (α‐smooth muscle actin) compared to Long–Evans Tokushima Otsuka rats. FR and EX modestly

  8. The effects of a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention during chemotherapy on cancer-related fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christina; Rørth, Mikael; Ejlertsen, Bent

    2013-01-01

    Cancer related fatigue (CRF) is a common problem for cancer patients across diagnoses during chemotherapy and is associated with physical inactivity, lower functional level and lack of energy. Few RCT exercise intervention studies have included cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. The objective...... of this study is to evaluate whether a six-week supervised multimodal exercise intervention, adjunct to chemotherapy and standard care, can reduce the patient's CRF level....

  9. Exercise-related changes of networks in aging and mild cognitive impairment brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei eHuang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging and mild cognitive impairment are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer’s disease, which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. Mild cognitive impairment is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate. Small decreases in the conversion rate of mild cognitive impairment to Alzheimer’s disease might significantly reduce the prevalence of dementia. Thus, it is important to intervene at the preclinical stage. Since there are still no effective drugs to treat Alzheimer’s disease, non-drug intervention is crucial for the prevention and treatment of cognitive decline in aging and mild cognitive impairment populations. Previous studies have found some cognitive brain networks disrupted in aging and mild cognitive impairment population, and physical exercise could effectively remediate the function of these brain networks. Understanding the exercise-related mechanisms is crucial to design efficient and effective physical exercise programs for treatment/intervention of cognitive decline. In this review, we provide an overview of the neuroimaging studies on physical training in normal aging and mild cognitive impairment to identify the potential mechanisms underlying current physical training procedures. Studies of functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and positron emission tomography on brain networks were all included. Based on our review, the default mode network, fronto-parietal network and fronto-executive network are probably the three most valuable targets for efficiency evaluation of interventions.

  10. Positive effect of acute mild exercise on executive function via arousal-related prefrontal activations: an fNIRS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byun, Kyeongho; Hyodo, Kazuki; Suwabe, Kazuya; Ochi, Genta; Sakairi, Yosuke; Kato, Morimasa; Dan, Ippeita; Soya, Hideaki

    2014-09-01

    Despite the practical implication of mild exercise, little is known about its influence on executive function and its neural substrates. To address these issues, the present study examined the effect of an acute bout of mild exercise on executive function and attempted to identify potential neural substrates using non-invasive functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Twenty-five young individuals performed a color-word matching Stroop task (CWST) and a two-dimensional scale to measure changes of psychological mood states both before and after a 10-minute exercise session on a cycle ergometer at light intensity (30% v(·)o2peak) and, for the control session, without exercise. Cortical hemodynamic changes in the prefrontal area were monitored with fNIRS during the CWST in both sessions. The acute bout of mild exercise led to improved Stroop performance, which was positively correlated with increased arousal levels. It also evoked cortical activations regarding Stroop interference on the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and frontopolar area. These activations significantly corresponded with both improved cognitive performance and increased arousal levels. Concurrently, this study provides empirical evidence that an acute bout of mild exercise improves executive function mediated by the exercise-induced arousal system, which intensifies cortical activation in task-related prefrontal sub-regions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Homocysteine, visceral adiposity-related novel cardiometabolic risk factors, and exaggerated blood pressure response to the exercise treadmill test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Türker Duyuler, Pinar; Duyuler, Serkan; Demir, Mevlüt; Uçar Elalmiş, Özgül; Güray, Ümit; İleri, Mehmet

    2017-12-01

    Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is a risk factor for the development of future hypertension. In this study, we aimed to investigate the association between homocysteine, epicardial fat thickness, nonalcoholic hepatic steatosis, and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise. We included 44 normotensive and 40 patients with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise who have normal resting blood pressure and without a previous diagnosis of hypertension. All patients underwent treadmill exercise test and clinical, ultrasonographic, and echocardiographic evaluation. Exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise is defined as peak exercise systolic blood pressure of at least 210 mmHg in men and at least 190 mmHg in women. Homocysteine and other biochemical parameters were determined with standardized automated laboratory tests. Mean age of all participants is 47.9±8.5 years, and 36 of 84 participants were female. The frequency of diabetes mellitus in both groups was similar (P=0.250). Homeostasis model assessment index-insulin resistance had a statistically insignificant trend to be higher in a patient with exercise hypertension (P=0.058). The nonalcoholic fatty liver was more frequent in patients with exercise hypertension (13.6 vs. 47.5%, P=0.002). Epicardial fat thickness was increased in patients with exercise hypertension (5.5±1.5 vs. 7.3±1.1 mm; P=0.001). However, homocysteine levels did not significantly differ between normotensive and exercise hypertensive patients [12.3 μmol/l (5.7-16.9 μmol/l) vs. 13 μmol/l (5.9-28.3 μmol/l); P=0.883]. In our study, homocysteine levels were not associated with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise; however, fatty liver and epicardial fat thickness as visceral adiposity-related cardiometabolic risk factors were significantly related with exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise in patients without a previous diagnosis of hypertension.

  12. The efficacy of aerobic exercise and resistance training as transdiagnostic interventions for anxiety-related disorders and constructs: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBouthillier, Daniel M; Asmundson, Gordon J G

    2017-12-01

    Evidence supports exercise as an intervention for many mental health concerns; however, randomized controlled investigations of the efficacy of different exercise modalities and predictors of change are lacking. The purposes of the current trial were to: (1) quantify the effects of aerobic exercise and resistance training on anxiety-related disorder (including anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and posttraumatic stress disorder) status, symptoms, and constructs, (2) evaluate whether both modalities of exercise were equivalent, and (3) to determine whether exercise enjoyment and physical fitness are associated with symptom reduction. A total of 48 individuals with anxiety-related disorders were randomized to aerobic exercise, resistance training, or a waitlist. Symptoms of anxiety-related disorders, related constructs, and exercise enjoyment were assessed at pre-intervention and weekly during the 4-week intervention. Participants were further assessed 1-week and 1-month post-intervention. Both exercise modalities were efficacious in improving disorder status. As well, aerobic exercise improved general psychological distress and anxiety, while resistance training improved disorder-specific symptoms, anxiety sensitivity, distress tolerance, and intolerance of uncertainty. Physical fitness predicted reductions in general psychological distress for both types of exercise and reductions in stress for aerobic exercise. Results highlight the efficacy of different exercise modalities in uniquely addressing anxiety-related disorder symptoms and constructs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The effects of exercise on cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek; Hodgson, Tim

    2012-06-01

    Smokers show heightened activation toward smoking-related stimuli and experience increased cravings which can precipitate smoking cessation relapse. Exercise can be effective for modulating cigarette cravings and attenuating reactivity to smoking cues, but the mechanism by which these effects occur remains uncertain. The objective of the study was to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomised crossover design, overnight abstinent smokers (n = 20) underwent an exercise (10-min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and passive control (seating for the same duration) treatment, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. After each treatment, participants underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) brain scanning while viewing a random series of blocked smoking or neutral images. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. There was a significant interaction effect (treatment × time) for desire to smoke, F (2,32) = 12.5, p exercise at all time points compared with the control treatment. After both exercise and rest, significant areas of activation were found in areas of the limbic lobe and in areas associated with visual attention in response to smoking-related stimuli. Smokers showed increased activation to smoking images in areas associated with primary and secondary visual processing following rest, but not following a session of exercise. The study shows differing activation towards smoking images following exercise compared to a control treatment and may point to a neuro-cognitive process following exercise that mediates effects on cigarette cravings.

  14. Eye and Ear Temperature Using Infrared Thermography Are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanghi, Brian M

    2016-01-01

    Rectal body temperature (BT) has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BT eye ) and ear (BT ear ) temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT) were compared to rectal (BT rec ) temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BT eye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers ( N  = 16) and Beagles ( N  = 16) while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise). Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BT rec , BT eye , and BT ear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by analysis of variance for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BT rec ( p  dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BT eye and BT rec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia ( r  = 0.674) versus measures at rest ( r  = 0.381), whereas BT ear was significantly related to BT rec regardless of activity ( r  = 0.615-0.735). Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias ( p  temperature and enables effective monitoring of BT changes at rest, with exercise, and between breeds. However, ear, and not eye, temperature is a better reflection of rectal temperature.

  15. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a German Institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter

    2017-07-01

    Purpose  Varying frequencies (5 - 18 %) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Materials and Methods  Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥ 3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. Results  For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p risk factors (all p > 0.05). Conclusion  We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM. Key Points:   · Gadoxetate disodium causes TSM in a relevant number of patients.. · The frequency of TSM is similar between the USA, Japan and Germany.. · To date, no validated risk factors for TSM could be identified.. Citation Format · Well L, Rausch VH, Adam G et al. Transient Severe Motion Artifact Related to Gadoxetate Disodium-Enhanced Liver MRI: Frequency and Risk Evaluation at a

  16. Integrating Public Relations with Advertising: An Exercise for Students in the College Public Relations Campaigns Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, Reginald Ford

    2012-01-01

    Today's public relations (PR) campaigns courses give students the opportunity to research, analyze, plan, and, in many cases, execute a campaign for a real client. Even so, today's campaigns courses may leave students with a weak understanding of how PR can best partner with other tools in the communication mix, namely advertising. Educators may…

  17. Evaluation of patients with coronary artery disease during exercise: the relation between extent of disease and perfusion deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakki, A.H.; DePace, N.; Iskandrian, A.S.

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relation between the extent of coronary artery disease (CAD) and size of exercise-induced myocardial hypoperfusion in 79 patients with angiographically documented CAD. None of the patients had Q-wave myocardial infarction. Fifty patients had one-vessel disease, ten had two-vessel disease, and 19 patients had three-vessel or left main disease. From a scintigraphic functional standpoint, patients were classified into two groups: 28 patients (35%) had large perfusion defects and 51 patients (65%) had small defects. The size of the thallium-201 perfusion defect during exercise was assessed as the perimeter of the defect in each projection expressed as a percentage abnormality of the total left ventricular perimeter in that projection. The average abnormality from the three projections was used in the final analysis. Eleven patients with large defects (39%) had one-vessel disease and 12 patients with small defects (24%) had multivessel disease. Stepwise multivariate discriminate analysis identified the number of diseased vessels (F . 13.9), the change in systolic blood pressure from rest to exercise (F . 10.8), the exercise heart rate (F . 9.1), and exercise electrocardiographic response (F . 7.8) as significant associates of the size of the perfusion defect (predictive accuracy . 70%). We conclude that the size of hypoperfused myocardium during exercise is variable in patients with CAD. Discriminate analysis identified the extent of CAD, exercise heart rate, change in systolic pressure from rest to exercise, and exercise electrocardiographic response as significant associates of the size of the defect

  18. Effect of task-related continuous auditory feedback during learning of tracking motion exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosati Giulio

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper presents the results of a set of experiments in which we used continuous auditory feedback to augment motor training exercises. This feedback modality is mostly underexploited in current robotic rehabilitation systems, which usually implement only very basic auditory interfaces. Our hypothesis is that properly designed continuous auditory feedback could be used to represent temporal and spatial information that could in turn, improve performance and motor learning. Methods We implemented three different experiments on healthy subjects, who were asked to track a target on a screen by moving an input device (controller with their hand. Different visual and auditory feedback modalities were envisaged. The first experiment investigated whether continuous task-related auditory feedback can help improve performance to a greater extent than error-related audio feedback, or visual feedback alone. In the second experiment we used sensory substitution to compare different types of auditory feedback with equivalent visual feedback, in order to find out whether mapping the same information on a different sensory channel (the visual channel yielded comparable effects with those gained in the first experiment. The final experiment applied a continuously changing visuomotor transformation between the controller and the screen and mapped kinematic information, computed in either coordinate system (controller or video, to the audio channel, in order to investigate which information was more relevant to the user. Results Task-related audio feedback significantly improved performance with respect to visual feedback alone, whilst error-related feedback did not. Secondly, performance in audio tasks was significantly better with respect to the equivalent sensory-substituted visual tasks. Finally, with respect to visual feedback alone, video-task-related sound feedback decreased the tracking error during the learning of a novel

  19. Eye and Ear Temperature using Infrared Thermography are Related to Rectal Temperature in Dogs at Rest or With Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Michael Zanghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Rectal body temperature (BT has been documented in exercising dogs to monitor thermoregulation, heat stress risk, and performance during physical activity. Eye (BTeye and ear (BTear temperature measured with infrared thermography (IRT were compared to rectal (BTrec temperature as the reference method and assess alternative sites to track hyperthermia, possibly to establish BTeye IRT as a passive and non-contact method. BT measures were recorded at 09:00, 11:30, 12:30, and 02:30 from Labrador Retrievers (N=16 and Beagles (N=16 while sedentary and with 30-min play-exercise (pre- and 0, 15, 30-min post-exercise. Total exercise locomotor activity counts were recorded to compare relative intensity of play-exercise between breeds. BTrec, BTeye, and BTear were measured within 5 min of the target time. Each BT method was analyzed by ANOVA for main effects of breed and time. Method differences were compared using Bland-Altman plots and linear regression. Sedentary BT differed by breed for BTrec (p<0.0001, BTear (p<0.0001, and BTeye (p=0.06 with Labs having on average 0.3-0.8oC higher BT compared to Beagles. Readings also declined over time for BTeye (p<0.0001 and BTear (p<0.0001, but not for BTrec (p=0.63 for both breeds. Total exercise (30-min activity counts did not differ (p=0.53 between breeds. Time and breed interaction was significant in response to exercise for both BTrec and BTear (p=0.035 and p=0.005, respectively, with a marginal interaction (p=0.09 for BTeye. All 3 methods detected hyperthermia with Labs having a higher increase compared to Beagles. Both BTear and BTeye were significantly (p<0.0001 related to BTrec in all dogs with sedentary or exercise activity. The relationship between BTeye and BTrec improved when monitoring exercise hyperthermia (r=0.674 versus measures at rest (r=0.381, whereas BTear was significantly related to BTrec regardless of activity (r=0.615-0.735. Although BT readings were significantly related, method bias (p<0

  20. Aerobic-synergized exercises may improve fall-related physical fitness in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chen; Wang, Jung-Der; Chen, Ho-Cheng; Hu, Susan C

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine whether a synergistic exercise model based on aerobics with additional fall-preventive components could provide extra benefits compared with the same duration of aerobic-synergistic exercise alone. A total of 102 adults aged 65 years and over from three geographically separated communities were assigned to three groups: the general aerobic exercise (GAE) group (N.=44), the GAE plus ball game group (BG group; N.=30) and the GAE plus square-stepping exercise group (SSE group; N.=28). Each group participated in one hour of exercise intervention and two hours of leisure activities twice weekly for 12 weeks. Each exercise session consisted of one hour of combined exercises performed in the following order: 10 minutes of warm-up activities, 20 minutes of aerobics, 20 minutes of the respective exercise model, and 10 minutes of cool-down activities. Functional fitness tests, including aerobic endurance, leg strength, flexibility, reaction time, static balance and mobility, were measured before and after the intervention. Paired t-tests and mixed model analyses were conducted to compare the differences in each measurement within and among the groups. All of the groups exhibited significantly positive effects (Pfall-prevention exercises performed over a consistent period may improve mobility without compromising the fundamental benefits of aerobics. Future studies using randomized control trials with recorded fall events and a longer period of follow-up are indicated to validate the effects of fall prevention exercises.

  1. Distribution profiles of transient receptor potential melastatin- and vanilloid-related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shilin; Wang, Xinghuan; Ye, Haixia; Gao, Weicheng; Pu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Zhonghua

    2010-03-01

    In the present study, we aimed to investigate the expression and distribution of transient receptor potential melastatin (TRPM)- and vanilloid (TRPV)- related channels in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa were obtained from male Sprague-Dawley rats. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were used to detect the expression of all TRPM and TRPV channel members with specific primers. Western blot analysis was applied for detecting the expression of TRPM and TRPV channel proteins. Immunohistochemistry staining for TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 was also performed in rat testis. The mRNAs of TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 were detected in the spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa in rat. Western blot analysis verified the expression of TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 in the rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. Immunocytochemistry staining for TRPM and TRPV channel families indicated that TRPM4 and TRPM7 proteins were highly expressed in different stages of spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa, while TRPV5 protein was lowly expressed in these cells. Our results demonstrate that mRNAs or proteins for TRPM3, TRPM4, TRPM7 and TRPV5 exist in rat spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa. These data presented here may assist in elucidating the possible physiological function of TRPM and TRPV channels in spermatogenic cells and spermatozoa.

  2. Electromagnetic transients in power cables

    CERN Document Server

    da Silva, Filipe Faria

    2013-01-01

    From the more basic concepts to the most advanced ones where long and laborious simulation models are required, Electromagnetic Transients in Power Cables provides a thorough insight into the study of electromagnetic transients and underground power cables. Explanations and demonstrations of different electromagnetic transient phenomena are provided, from simple lumped-parameter circuits to complex cable-based high voltage networks, as well as instructions on how to model the cables.Supported throughout by illustrations, circuit diagrams and simulation results, each chapter contains exercises,

  3. How are mood and exercise related? Results from the Finnmark study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton, H; Søgaard, A J; Olstad, R

    2001-07-01

    Recreational exercise and mood have frequently been correlated in population studies. Although it is often assumed that recreational exercise improves mood, this has not been consistently demonstrated in population studies. The relationship between mood and exercise was studied prospectively in a community sample. A series of synchronous panel models was constructed in two samples (2798 paired observations; sample I = 1219, sample II = 1498) to examine this relationship in the entire population, for women and men separately, for those with sedentary occupations, for those performing physical labour, and for those who initially showed a more dysphoric mood. Although mood and exercise were correlated, the only directional relationship that could be demonstrated was that recreational exercise had an inconsistently positive effect upon mood in those with sedentary occupations. There was no such relationship between doing physical work and mood. Analyses of those who initially showed higher levels of dysphoria did not uncover any directional relationship between mood and exercise. None of the other subgroups showed any directional effects between mood and recreational exercise, nor did the population as a whole. The relationship between exercise and mood in this population sample appears to be largely correlational in nature. This result suggests the need to take a cautious view of the role played by exercise in promoting mood in the general population.

  4. Non-invasive evaluation of cystic fibrosis related liver disease in adults with ARFI, transient elastography and different fibrosis scores.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Karlas

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. AIM: We evaluated transient elastography (TE, acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI, and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. METHODS: TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patients. In addition, AST/Platelets-Ratio-Index (APRI, and Forns' score were calculated. Healthy probands and patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis served as controls. RESULTS: Fourteen CF patients met CFLD criteria, six had liver cirrhosis. Elastography acquisition was successful in >89% of cases. Non-cirrhotic CFLD individuals showed elastography values similar to CF patients without liver involvement. Cases with liver cirrhosis differed significantly from other CFLD patients (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 1.13 m/s; p = 0.031; TE: 7.95 vs. 4.16 kPa; p = 0.020 and had significantly lower results than individuals with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 2.99 m/s; p = 0.002. APRI showed the best diagnostic performance for CFLD detection (AUROC 0.815; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 70.7%. CONCLUSIONS: ARFI, TE, and laboratory based fibrosis indices correlate with each other and reliably detect CFLD related liver cirrhosis in adult CF patients. CF specific cut-off values for cirrhosis in adults are lower than in alcoholic cirrhosis.

  5. Non-Invasive Evaluation of Cystic Fibrosis Related Liver Disease in Adults with ARFI, Transient Elastography and Different Fibrosis Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltmanns, Annett; Güttler, Andrea; Petroff, David; Wirtz, Hubert; Mainz, Jochen G.; Mössner, Joachim; Berg, Thomas; Tröltzsch, Michael; Keim, Volker; Wiegand, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis-related liver disease (CFLD) is present in up to 30% of cystic fibrosis patients and can result in progressive liver failure. Diagnosis of CFLD is challenging. Non-invasive methods for staging of liver fibrosis display an interesting diagnostic approach for CFLD detection. Aim We evaluated transient elastography (TE), acoustic radiation force impulse imaging (ARFI), and fibrosis indices for CFLD detection. Methods TE and ARFI were performed in 55 adult CF patients. In addition, AST/Platelets-Ratio-Index (APRI), and Forns' score were calculated. Healthy probands and patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis served as controls. Results Fourteen CF patients met CFLD criteria, six had liver cirrhosis. Elastography acquisition was successful in >89% of cases. Non-cirrhotic CFLD individuals showed elastography values similar to CF patients without liver involvement. Cases with liver cirrhosis differed significantly from other CFLD patients (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 1.13 m/s; p = 0.031; TE: 7.95 vs. 4.16 kPa; p = 0.020) and had significantly lower results than individuals with alcoholic liver cirrhosis (ARFI: 1.49 vs. 2.99 m/s; p = 0.002). APRI showed the best diagnostic performance for CFLD detection (AUROC 0.815; sensitivity 85.7%, specificity 70.7%). Conclusions ARFI, TE, and laboratory based fibrosis indices correlate with each other and reliably detect CFLD related liver cirrhosis in adult CF patients. CF specific cut-off values for cirrhosis in adults are lower than in alcoholic cirrhosis. PMID:22848732

  6. Transient severe motion artifact related to gadoxetate disodium-enhanced liver MRI. Frequency and risk evaluation at a German institution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Well, Lennart; Rausch, Vanessa Hanna; Adam, Gerhard; Henes, Frank Oliver; Bannas, Peter [Univ. Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf, Hamburg (Germany). Dept. for Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology and Nuclear Medicine

    2017-07-15

    Varying frequencies (5 - 18%) of contrast-related transient severe motion (TSM) imaging artifacts during gadoxetate disodium-enhanced arterial phase liver MRI have been reported. Since previous reports originated from the United States and Japan, we aimed to determine the frequency of TSM at a German institution and to correlate it with potential risk factors and previously published results. Two age- and sex-matched groups were retrospectively selected (gadoxetate disodium n = 89; gadobenate dimeglumine n = 89) from dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI examinations in a single center. Respiratory motion-related artifacts in non-enhanced and dynamic phases were assessed independently by two readers blinded to contrast agents on a 4-point scale. Scores of ≥3 were considered as severe motion artifacts. Severe motion artifacts in arterial phases were considered as TSM if scores in all other phases were < 3. Potential risk factors for TSM were evaluated via logistic regression analysis. For gadoxetate disodium, the mean score for respiratory motion artifacts was significantly higher in the arterial phase (2.2 ± 0.9) compared to all other phases (1.6 ± 0.7) (p < 0.05). The frequency of TSM was significantly higher with gadoxetate disodium (n = 19; 21.1 %) than with gadobenate dimeglumine (n = 1; 1.1%) (p < 0.001). The frequency of TSM at our institution is similar to some, but not all previously published findings. Logistic regression analysis did not show any significant correlation between TSM and risk factors (all p>0.05). We revealed a high frequency of TSM after injection of gadoxetate disodium at a German institution, substantiating the importance of a diagnosis-limiting phenomenon that so far has only been reported from the United States and Japan. In accordance with previous studies, we did not identify associated risk factors for TSM.

  7. Does Kinesiology tape counter exercise-related impairments of balance in the elderly?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosp, Simona; Csapo, Robert; Heinrich, Dieter; Hasler, Michael; Nachbauer, Werner

    2018-05-01

    Maintaining balance is an essential requirement for the performance of daily tasks and sporting activities, particularly in older adults to prevent falls and associated injuries. Kinesiology tape has gained great popularity in sports and is frequently used as a tool for performance enhancement. However, there is little research investigating its influence on balance. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of Kinesiology tape on dynamic balance, postural stability and knee proprioception after physical activity in healthy, older adults. Twelve physically active, healthy men aged 63-77 years performed the test on two separate days, with and without Kinesiology tape at the knee joint (prospective intervention with cross-over design). Dynamic balance during an obstacle-crossing task, postural stability in a single-leg stance test, and knee joint position sense as a measure of proprioception were examined before and after 30 min of downhill walking on a treadmill. The influences of taping condition and physical activity on all parameters were statistically tested using factorial ANOVAs. Factorial ANOVA revealed significant time × taping condition interaction effects on all performance parameters (p postural stability and knee proprioception differed between the two taping conditions. The deterioration of performance was always greater when no tape was used. This study demonstrated that physical exercise significantly deteriorated dynamic balance, postural stability and knee proprioception in older men. These effects can be attenuated through the usage of Kinesiology tape. By preventing exercise-related impairments of balance, Kinesiology tape might help reduce the risk of sports-associated falls and associated injuries. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. The effects of acute exercise on attentional bias towards smoking-related stimuli during temporary abstinence from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rensburg, Kate Janse; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim

    2009-11-01

    Attentional bias towards smoking-related cues is increased during abstinence and can predict relapse after quitting. Exercise has been found to reduce cigarette cravings and desire to smoke during temporary abstinence and attenuate increased cravings in response to smoking cues. To assess the acute effects of exercise on attentional bias to smoking-related cues during temporary abstinence from smoking. In a randomized cross-over design, on separate days regular smokers (n = 20) undertook 15 minutes of exercise (moderate intensity stationary cycling) or passive seating following 15 hours of nicotine abstinence. Attentional bias was measured at baseline and post-treatment. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixation was assessed during the passive viewing of a series of paired smoking and neutral images using an Eyelink II eye-tracking system. Self-reported desire to smoke was recorded at baseline, mid- and post-treatment and post-eye-tracking task. There was a significant condition x time interaction for desire to smoke, F((1,18)) = 10.67, P = 0.004, eta(2) = 0.36, with significantly lower desire to smoke at mid- and post-treatment following the exercise condition. The percentage of dwell time and direction of initial fixations towards smoking images were also reduced significantly following the exercise condition compared with the passive control. Findings support previous research that acute exercise reduces desire to smoke. This is the first study to show that exercise appears to also influence the salience and attentional biases towards cigarettes.

  9. Eat now, exercise later: The relation between consideration of immediate and future consequences and healthy behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van J.; Antonides, G.; Handgraaf, M.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    In light of the current obesity epidemic, individual choices for food and exercise should be understood better. Consideration of the immediate and future consequences of these choices (i.e., time orientation) can be an important predictor of eating and exercising behavior. The objective was to show

  10. Health promotion: the impact of beliefs of health benefits, social relations and enjoyment on exercise continuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, G; Wikman, J M; Jensen, C J; Schmidt, J F; Gliemann, L; Andersen, T R

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore how and why participants in structured exercise intervention programs continue or stop exercising after the program is finished. We conducted four focus group interviews with four groups of middle-aged and elderly men (total n = 28) who had participated in exercise interventions involving playing either a team sport (football) or a more individually focused activity (spinning and crossfit). Our results show that different social, organizational and material structures inherent in the different activities shape the subjects' enjoyment of exercise participation, as well as their intention and ability to continue being active. In conclusion, team sport activities seem to be intrinsically motivating to the participants through positive social interaction and play. They are therefore more likely to result in exercise continuation than activities that rely primarily on extrinsic motivation such as the expectation of improved health and well-being. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. A randomized dose-response trial of aerobic exercise and health-related quality of life in colon cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C; Damjanov, Nevena; Courneya, Kerry S; Troxel, Andrea B; Zemel, Babette S; Rickels, Michael R; Ky, Bonnie; Rhim, Andrew D; Rustgi, Anil K; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2018-04-01

    To examine the dose-response effects of aerobic exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) among colon cancer survivors. Thirty-nine stage I to III colon cancer survivors were randomized to 1 of 3 groups: usual-care control, 150 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise (low-dose) and 300 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise (high-dose) for 6 months. HRQoL outcomes included the Short Form (SF)-36 physical and mental component summary, Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, Fatigue Symptom Inventory, and North Central Cancer Treatment Group bowel function questionnaire, assessed at baseline and post intervention. The primary hypothesis was that exercise would improve HRQoL outcomes in a dose-response fashion, such that high-dose aerobic exercise would yield the largest improvements in HRQoL outcomes. Over 6 months, the low-dose group completed 141 ± 10 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise, and the high-dose group completed 247 ± 11 min·wk -1 of aerobic exercise. Over 6 months, exercise improved the physical component summary score of the SF-36 (P trend  = 0.002), the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Colorectal (P trend  = 0.025), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (P trend  = 0.049), and the Fatigue Symptom Inventory (P trend  = 0.045) in a dose-response fashion. Between-group standardized mean difference effects sizes for the above-described findings were small to moderate in magnitude (0.35-0.75). No dose-response effects were observed for the mental component summary score of the SF-36, the Fear of Cancer Recurrence Inventory, or bowel function. Higher doses of aerobic exercise, up to 300 min·wk -1 , improve multiple HRQoL outcomes among stage I to III colon cancer survivors. These findings provide evidence that aerobic exercise may provide multiple health benefits for colon cancer survivors. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Intensity and Types of Physical Exercise in Relation to Dementia Risk Reduction in Community-Living Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen T C; Richards, Marcus; Chan, Wai C; Chiu, Helen F K; Lee, Ruby S Y; Lam, Linda C W

    2015-10-01

    To systematically examine the amount and type of physical exercise that might reduce the future risk of dementia in community-living older people. Six-year observational study. All the Elderly Health Centers (EHCs) of the Department of Health in Hong Kong. A total of 15,589 community-living Chinese aged 65 years and older with no history of stroke, clinical dementia, or Parkinson disease when they completed health assessment at the EHCs in the first 6 months of 2005. Self-reported habitual physical exercise patterns, including the frequency, duration, and type of exercise, at baseline and Year 3 were analyzed. The study outcome was incident dementia in 6 years. Dementia was defined by presence of clinical dementia in accordance with the 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems or Clinical Dementia Rating of 1 to 3. Both the cognitively stable and incident groups reported exercising a median of 7 days per week and 45 minutes per day at baseline and Year 3. The former practiced aerobic and mind-body exercises more at baseline and Year 3, whereas the latter practiced stretching and toning exercises more. The odds ratio for dementia remained significant for aerobic (0.81; 95% confidence interval 0.68-0.95; P = .01) and mind-body exercises (0.76; 0.63-0.92; P = .004) after excluding participants who developed dementia within 3 years after baseline and adjusting for important potential confounders, such as age, gender, educational level, and physical and psychiatric comorbidities. Although physical exercise is widely promoted as a nonpharmacological intervention for dementia prevention, not all types of exercise appear to be useful in reducing risk of dementia in older people. Our findings suggest that daily participation in aerobic and mind-body but not stretching and toning exercises might protect community-living older adults from developing dementia. Copyright © 2015 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and

  13. Important aspects in relation to patients' attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation - facilitators, barriers and physiotherapist's role: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Maria; Öberg, Birgitta; Krevers, Barbro

    2017-03-14

    In order to improve attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a greater insight into patients' perspectives is necessary. The aim of the study was to explore aspects that influence patients' attendance at exercise-based CR after acute coronary artery disease (CAD) and the role of the physiotherapist in patients' attendance at exercise-based CR. A total of 16 informants, (5 women; median age 64.5, range 47-79 years), diagnosed with CAD, were included in the study at the Cardiology Department, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed according to inductive content analysis. Four main categories were identified: (i) previous experience of exercise, (ii) needs in the acute phase, (iii) important prerequisites for attending exercise-based CR and (iv) future ambitions. The categories demonstrate that there are connections between the past, the present and the future, in terms of attitudes to facilitators, barriers and the use of strategies for managing exercise. An overall theme, defined as existential thoughts, had a major impact on the patients' attitudes to attending exercise-based CR. The interaction and meetings with the physiotherapists in the acute phase were described as important factors for attending exercise-based CR. Moreover, informants could feel that the physiotherapists supported them in learning the right level of effort during exercise and reducing the fear of exercise. This study adds to previous knowledge of barriers and facilitators for exercise-based CR that patients with CAD get existential thoughts both related to exercise during the rehabilitation process and for future attitudes to exercise. This knowledge might necessitate greater attention to the physiotherapist-patient interaction. To be able to tailor exercise-based CR for patients, physiotherapists need to be aware of patients' past experiences of exercise and previous phases of the rehabilitation process as these are

  14. Transient behaviour in the plasma core of TJ-II stellarator and its relation with rational surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estrada, T.; Luna, E. de la; Ascasibar, E; Jimenez, J.A.; Castejon, F.; Garcia-Cortes, I.; Lopez-Fraguas, A.; Sanchez, J.; Tribaldos, V.

    2002-01-01

    A transient behaviour is observed in the plasma core of TJ-II stellarator with fast drops in the electron temperature. Changes in the line-averaged density are observed synchronized with temperature drops. This phenomenon appears in plasmas created and heated using 300 kW of electron cyclotron heating with high power density. The transient behaviour resembles both, the electric pulsation discovered in CHS and the 'electron root' feature reported by the W7-AS team. The flexibility and low magnetic shear of TJ-II have permitted the identification of the plasma current as the control parameter for the appearance of this phenomenon. The results obtained during the magnetic configuration scans carried out in TJ-II points to the hypothesis that the transient behaviour is connected with the presence of a rational surface close to the plasma centre. Equilibrium calculations performed with the VMEC code reinforce this hypothesis. (author)

  15. An event-related potential investigation of the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on inhibitory control in children with ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Ludyga

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The current body of evidence suggests that an aerobic exercise session has a beneficial effect on inhibitory control, whereas the impact of coordinative exercise on this executive function has not yet been examined in children with ADHD. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the acute effects of aerobic and coordinative exercise on behavioral performance and the allocation of attentional resources in an inhibitory control task.Using a cross-over design, children with ADHD-combined type and healthy comparisons completed a Flanker task before and after 20 min moderately-intense cycling exercise, coordinative exercise and an inactive control condition. During the task, stimulus-locked event-related potentials were recorded with electroencephalography.Both groups showed an increase of P300 amplitude and decrease of reaction time after exercise compared to the control condition. Investigating the effect of exercise modality, aerobic exercise led to greater increases of P300 amplitude and reductions in reaction time than coordinative exercise in children with ADHD.The findings suggest that a single exercise bout improves inhibitory control and the allocation of attentional resources. There were some indications that an aerobic exercise session seems to be more efficient than coordinative exercise in reducing the inhibitory control deficits that persist in children with ADHD. Keywords: P300, Executive function, Cognitive performance, Flanker task, Development, Healthy children

  16. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R.; Kreutz, L.C.; Spilki, F.; Flores, E.F.

    2014-01-01

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines

  17. Inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis induces a transient increase in the expression of proinflammatory, Th1-related, and autoregulatory cytokines in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anziliero, D.; Weiblen, R. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Kreutz, L.C. [Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS, Brasil, Programa de Pós-Graduação em Bioexperimentação, Faculdade de Agronomia e Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Passo Fundo, Passo Fundo, RS (Brazil); Spilki, F. [Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS, Brasil, Laboratório de Microbiologia Molecular, Instituto de Ciências da Saúde, Universidade Feevale, Novo Hamburgo, RS (Brazil); Flores, E.F. [Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS, Brasil, Setor de Virologia, Departamento de Medicina Veterinária Preventiva, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2014-02-17

    The immunostimulatory properties of inactivated Parapoxvirus ovis (iPPVO) have long been investigated in different animal species and experimental settings. In this study, we investigated the effects of iPPVO on cytokine expression in mice after intraperitoneal inoculation. Spleen and sera collected from iPPVO-treated mice at intervals after inoculation were submitted to cytokine mRNA determination by real-time PCR (qPCR), serum protein concentration by ELISA, and interferon (IFN)-α/β activity by bioassay. The spleen of iPPVO-treated animals showed a significant increase in mRNA expression of all cytokines assayed, with different kinetics and magnitude. Proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-8 mRNA peaked at 24 hours postinoculation (hpi; 5.4-fold increase) and 48 hpi (3- and 10-fold increases), respectively. A 15-fold increase in IFN-γ and 6-fold IL-12 mRNA increase were detected at 48 and 24 hpi, respectively. Increased expression of autoregulatory cytokines (Th2), mainly IL-10 and IL-4, could be detected at later times (72 and 96 hpi) with peaks of 4.7- and 4.9-fold increases, respectively. IFN-I antiviral activity against encephalomyocarditis virus was demonstrated in sera of treated animals between 6 and 12 hpi, with a >90% reduction in the number of plaques. Measurement of serum proteins by ELISA revealed increased levels of IL-1, TNF-α, IL-12, IFN-γ, and IL-10, with kinetics similar to those observed by qPCR, especially for IL-12 and IFN-γ. These data demonstrate that iPPVO induced a transient and complex cytokine response, initially represented by Th1-related cytokines followed by autoregulatory and Th2 cytokines.

  18. Can transient elastography, Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score predict esophageal varices in HCV-related cirrhotic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Eman M; Omran, Dalia A; El Beshlawey, Mohamad L; Abdo, Mahmoud; El Askary, Ahmad

    2014-02-01

    Gastroesophageal varices are present in approximately 50% of patients with liver cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate liver stiffness measurement (LSM), Fib-4, Forns Index and Lok Score as noninvasive predictors of esophageal varices (EV). This prospective study included 65 patients with HCV-related liver cirrhosis. All patients underwent routine laboratory tests, transient elastograhy (TE) and esophagogastroduodenoscopy. FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were calculated. The diagnostic performances of these methods were assessed using sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and receiver operating characteristic curves. All predictors (LSM, FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score) demonstrated statistically significant correlation with the presence and the grade of EV. TE could diagnose EV at a cutoff value of 18.2kPa. Fib-4, Forns Index, and Lok Score could diagnose EV at cutoff values of 2.8, 6.61 and 0.63, respectively. For prediction of large varices (grade 2, 3), LSM showed the highest accuracy (80%) with a cutoff of 22.4kPa and AUROC of 0.801. Its sensitivity was 84%, specificity 72%, PPV 84% and NPV 72%. The diagnostic accuracies of FIB-4, Forns Index and Lok Score were 70%, 70% and76%, respectively, at cutoffs of 3.3, 6.9 and 0.7, respectively. For diagnosis of large esophageal varices, adding TE to each of the other diagnostic indices (serum fibrosis scores) increased their sensitivities with little decrease in their specificities. Moreover, this combination decreased the LR- in all tests. Noninvasive predictors can restrict endoscopic screening. This is very important as non invasiveness is now a major goal in hepatology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  19. Transient analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muir, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    The design and design philosophy of a high performance, extremely versatile transient analyzer is described. This sub-system was designed to be controlled through the data acquisition computer system which allows hands off operation. Thus it may be placed on the experiment side of the high voltage safety break between the experimental device and the control room. This analyzer provides control features which are extremely useful for data acquisition from PPPL diagnostics. These include dynamic sample rate changing, which may be intermixed with multiple post trigger operations with variable length blocks using normal, peak to peak or integrate modes. Included in the discussion are general remarks on the advantages of adding intelligence to transient analyzers, a detailed description of the characteristics of the PPPL transient analyzer, a description of the hardware, firmware, control language and operation of the PPPL transient analyzer, and general remarks on future trends in this type of instrumentation both at PPPL and in general

  20. High School Students' Exercise-Related Stages of Change and Physical Activity Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Cevdet; Tilmac, Kubra

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: The existing literature has shown that the amount of sedentary time during early adolescence is low. This decrease is more pronounced among girls than boys. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to analyze high school students' exercise-related stages of change (ESC) and physical activity self-efficacy (PASE) for overcoming barriers…

  1. Exercise, Diet, and Stress Management as Mediators between Functional Disability and Health-Related Quality of Life in Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Connie; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Lee, Eun-Jeong; Bezyak, Jill; Chan, Fong; Muller, Veronica

    2013-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to examine the mediational and moderational effect of exercise, diet, and stress management on the relationship between functional disability and health-related quality of life. Quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques was used. Participants were 215…

  2. Do Telomeres Adapt to Physiological Stress? Exploring the Effect of Exercise on Telomere Length and Telomere-Related Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew T. Ludlow

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is associated with a tissue degeneration phenotype marked by a loss of tissue regenerative capacity. Regenerative capacity is dictated by environmental and genetic factors that govern the balance between damage and repair. The age-associated changes in the ability of tissues to replace lost or damaged cells is partly the cause of many age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes, and sarcopenia. A well-established marker of the aging process is the length of the protective cap at the ends of chromosomes, called telomeres. Telomeres shorten with each cell division and with increasing chronological age and short telomeres have been associated with a range of age-related diseases. Several studies have shown that chronic exposure to exercise (i.e., exercise training is associated with telomere length maintenance; however, recent evidence points out several controversial issues concerning tissue-specific telomere length responses. The goals of the review are to familiarize the reader with the current telomere dogma, review the literature exploring the interactions of exercise with telomere phenotypes, discuss the mechanistic research relating telomere dynamics to exercise stimuli, and finally propose future directions for work related to telomeres and physiological stress.

  3. The role of self-determined motivation in the understanding of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Cecilie; Ntoumanis, Nikos

    2006-04-01

    Grounded in self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1985), the purpose of the present study was to examine whether amotivation, self-determined and controlling types of motivation could predict a range of exercise-related behaviours, cognitions and physical self-evaluations. Exercisers (n = 375) from ten health clubs in the North of England completed questionnaires measuring exercise motivation, exercise stages of change, number of relapses from exercise, future intention to exercise, barriers self-efficacy, physical self-worth and social physique anxiety. Controlling for age and sex, multiple and logistic regression analyses supported our hypotheses by showing self-determined motivation (i.e. intrinsic motivation and identified regulation) to predict more adaptive behavioural, cognitive and physical self-evaluation patterns than external regulation and amotivation. Introjected regulation was related to both adaptive and maladaptive outcomes. Furthermore, a multivariate analysis of variance revealed that exercisers in the maintenance stage of change displayed significantly more self-determined motivation to exercise than those in the preparation and action stages. The results illustrate the importance of promoting self-determined motivation in exercisers to improve the quality of their experiences, as well as to foster their exercise behaviour. Future research should examine the mechanisms that promote self-determined motivation in exercise.

  4. Modest Amounts of Voluntary Exercise Reduce Pain- and Stress-Related Outcomes in a Rat Model of Persistent Hind Limb Inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitcher, Mark H; Tarum, Farid; Rauf, Imran Z; Low, Lucie A; Bushnell, Catherine

    2017-06-01

    Aerobic exercise improves outcomes in a variety of chronic health conditions, yet the support for exercise-induced effects on chronic pain in humans is mixed. Although many rodent studies have examined the effects of exercise on persistent hypersensitivity, the most used forced exercise paradigms that are known to be highly stressful. Because stress can also produce analgesic effects, we studied how voluntary exercise, known to reduce stress in healthy subjects, alters hypersensitivity, stress, and swelling in a rat model of persistent hind paw inflammation. Our data indicate that voluntary exercise rapidly and effectively reduces hypersensitivity as well as stress-related outcomes without altering swelling. Moreover, the level of exercise is unrelated to the analgesic and stress-reducing effects, suggesting that even modest amounts of exercise may impart significant benefit in persistent inflammatory pain states. Modest levels of voluntary exercise reduce pain- and stress-related outcomes in a rat model of persistent inflammatory pain, independently of the amount of exercise. As such, consistent, self-regulated activity levels may be more relevant to health improvement in persistent pain states than standardized exercise goals. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Expression of extracellular matrix components and related growth factors in human tendon and muscle after acute exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, K M; Bjerrum, S S; Schjerling, P

    2013-01-01

    Acute kicking exercise induces collagen synthesis in both tendon and muscle in humans, but it is not known if this relates to increased collagen transcription and if other matrix genes are regulated. Young men performed 1 h of one-leg kicking at 67% of max workload. Biopsies were taken from...... the patellar tendon and vastus lateralis muscle of each leg at 2 (n = 10), 6 (n = 11), or 26 h (n = 10) after exercise. Levels of messenger ribonucleic acid mRNA for collagens, noncollagenous matrix proteins, and growth factors were measured with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...

  6. Experimental investigation of exercise-related hedonic responses to preferred and imposed media content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frith, Emily; Loprinzi, Paul D

    2018-01-01

    Background: We evaluated the differential influence of preferred versus imposed media selections on distinct hedonic responses to an acute bout of treadmill walking. Methods: Twenty university students were recruited for this [160 person-visit] laboratory experiment, which employed a within-subject, counter-balanced design. Participants were exposed to 8 experimental conditions, including (1) Exercise Only, (2) Texting Only, (3) Preferred Phone Call, (4) Imposed Phone Call, (5) Preferred Music Playlist, (6) Imposed Music Playlist, (7)Preferred Video and (8) Imposed Video. During each visit (except Texting Only), participants completed a 10-minute bout of walking on the treadmill at a self-selected pace. Walking speed was identical for all experimental conditions. Before, at the midpoint of exercise, and post-exercise, participants completed the Feeling Scale (FS) and the Felt Arousal Scale (FAS) to measure acute hedonic response. The Affective Circumplex Scale was administered pre-exercise and post-exercise. Results: Significant pre-post change scores were observed for happy (Imposed Call: P=0.05;Preferred Music: P=0.02; Imposed Video: P=0.03), excited (Exercise Only: P=0.001; PreferredVideo: P=0.01; Imposed Video: P=0.03), sad (Preferred Music: P=0.05), anxious (ExerciseOnly: P=0.05; Preferred Video: P=0.01), and fatigue (Exercise Only: P=0.03; Imposed Video:P=0.002). For the FS all change scores were statistically significant from pre-to-mid and pre-topost (Pmedia platforms substantively influences hedonic responses to exercise. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  7. Investigation of de novo unique differentially expressed genes related to evolution in exercise response during domestication in Thoroughbred race horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woncheoul Park

    Full Text Available Previous studies of horse RNA-seq were performed by mapping sequence reads to the reference genome during transcriptome analysis. However in this study, we focused on two main ideas. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs were identified by de novo-based analysis (DBA in RNA-seq data from six Thoroughbreds before and after exercise, here-after referred to as "de novo unique differentially expressed genes" (DUDEG. Second, by integrating both conventional DEGs and genes identified as being selected for during domestication of Thoroughbred and Jeju pony from whole genome re-sequencing (WGS data, we give a new concept to the definition of DEG. We identified 1,034 and 567 DUDEGs in skeletal muscle and blood, respectively. DUDEGs in skeletal muscle were significantly related to exercise-induced stress biological process gene ontology (BP-GO terms: 'immune system process'; 'response to stimulus'; and, 'death' and a KEGG pathways: 'JAK-STAT signaling pathway'; 'MAPK signaling pathway'; 'regulation of actin cytoskeleton'; and, 'p53 signaling pathway'. In addition, we found TIMELESS, EIF4A3 and ZNF592 in blood and CHMP4C and FOXO3 in skeletal muscle, to be in common between DUDEGs and selected genes identified by evolutionary statistics such as FST and Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH. Moreover, in Thoroughbreds, three out of five genes (CHMP4C, EIF4A3 and FOXO3 related to exercise response showed relatively low nucleotide diversity compared to the Jeju pony. DUDEGs are not only conceptually new DEGs that cannot be attained from reference-based analysis (RBA but also supports previous RBA results related to exercise in Thoroughbred. In summary, three exercise related genes which were selected for during domestication in the evolutionary history of Thoroughbred were identified as conceptually new DEGs in this study.

  8. Investigation of de novo unique differentially expressed genes related to evolution in exercise response during domestication in Thoroughbred race horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Woncheoul; Kim, Jaemin; Kim, Hyeon Jeong; Choi, JaeYoung; Park, Jeong-Woong; Cho, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Byeong-Woo; Park, Myung Hum; Shin, Teak-Soon; Cho, Seong-Keun; Park, Jun-Kyu; Kim, Heebal; Hwang, Jae Yeon; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Cho, Seoae; Cho, Byung-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies of horse RNA-seq were performed by mapping sequence reads to the reference genome during transcriptome analysis. However in this study, we focused on two main ideas. First, differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by de novo-based analysis (DBA) in RNA-seq data from six Thoroughbreds before and after exercise, here-after referred to as "de novo unique differentially expressed genes" (DUDEG). Second, by integrating both conventional DEGs and genes identified as being selected for during domestication of Thoroughbred and Jeju pony from whole genome re-sequencing (WGS) data, we give a new concept to the definition of DEG. We identified 1,034 and 567 DUDEGs in skeletal muscle and blood, respectively. DUDEGs in skeletal muscle were significantly related to exercise-induced stress biological process gene ontology (BP-GO) terms: 'immune system process'; 'response to stimulus'; and, 'death' and a KEGG pathways: 'JAK-STAT signaling pathway'; 'MAPK signaling pathway'; 'regulation of actin cytoskeleton'; and, 'p53 signaling pathway'. In addition, we found TIMELESS, EIF4A3 and ZNF592 in blood and CHMP4C and FOXO3 in skeletal muscle, to be in common between DUDEGs and selected genes identified by evolutionary statistics such as FST and Cross Population Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (XP-EHH). Moreover, in Thoroughbreds, three out of five genes (CHMP4C, EIF4A3 and FOXO3) related to exercise response showed relatively low nucleotide diversity compared to the Jeju pony. DUDEGs are not only conceptually new DEGs that cannot be attained from reference-based analysis (RBA) but also supports previous RBA results related to exercise in Thoroughbred. In summary, three exercise related genes which were selected for during domestication in the evolutionary history of Thoroughbred were identified as conceptually new DEGs in this study.

  9. The role of auditory transient and deviance processing in distraction of task performance: a combined behavioral and event-related brain potential study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan eBerti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Distraction of goal-oriented performance by a sudden change in the auditory environment is an everyday life experience. Different types of changes can be distracting, including a sudden onset of a transient sound and a slight deviation of otherwise regular auditory background stimulation. With regard to deviance detection, it is assumed that slight changes in a continuous sequence of auditory stimuli are detected by a predictive coding mechanisms and it has been demonstrated that this mechanism is capable of distracting ongoing task performance. In contrast, it is open whether transient detection – which does not rely on predictive coding mechanisms – can trigger behavioral distraction, too. In the present study, the effect of rare auditory changes on visual task performance is tested in an auditory-visual cross-modal distraction paradigm. The rare changes are either embedded within a continuous standard stimulation (triggering deviance detection or are presented within an otherwise silent situation (triggering transient detection. In the event-related brain potentials, deviants elicited the mismatch negativity (MMN while transients elicited an enhanced N1 component, mirroring pre-attentive change detection in both conditions but on the basis of different neuro-cognitive processes. These sensory components are followed by attention related ERP components including the P3a and the reorienting negativity (RON. This demonstrates that both types of changes trigger switches of attention. Finally, distraction of task performance is observable, too, but the impact of deviants is higher compared to transients. These findings suggest different routes of distraction allowing for the automatic processing of a wide range of potentially relevant changes in the environment as a pre-requisite for adaptive behavior.

  10. Body image dissatisfaction and aesthetic exercise in adolescents: are they related?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fernanda Laus

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated if boys and girls who practice exercises with aesthetic propose report higher levels of body dissatisfaction compared to their inactive peers. A total of 199 adolescents (89 boys, mean age 16.1 years, completed measures of body dissatisfaction and psychological commitment to exercise. Results demonstrated that active boys presented lower dissatisfaction than their inactive peers; and active girls were significantly more dissatisfied than inactive ones. Active boys were more satisfied than active girls. The majority of active girls reported a desire for a slimmer silhouette; while active boys were equally divided between those who desired a heavier silhouette and those who were satisfied. Psychological commitment to exercise did not differ between satisfied and dissatisfied active adolescents. Thus, girls who practice aesthetic exercises must be looked at as a high risk population to the development of health harmful behaviors and eating disorders.

  11. Age-related differences in the bone mineralization pattern of rats following exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, R.; Hegenauer, J.; Saltman, P.

    1986-01-01

    The effect of 12 weeks of treadmill exercise on the mineralization of trabecular and cortical bone was studied in rats 7, 14, and 19 months of age. Bone mineralization was evaluated by measuring concentrations of Ca, Mg, and hydroxyproline as well as uptake of 45Ca concentration in the femur, humerus, rib and calvaria. The 7- and 14-month-old rats increased mineralization in those cortical bones directly involved in exercise. The 19-month animal responded to exercise by increasing mineralization in all bones examined, including the nonweight bearing trabecular calvaria and cortical rib. From these data, it is apparent that the older animals undergo a total skeletal mineralization in response to exercise compared with local adaptation in the younger animal. Further, we provide evidence to support the use of the rat as a model in which to study mammalian bone physiology during the aging process

  12. Effects of exercise on activity-and blood flow-related neuromuscular degeneration

    OpenAIRE

    Ishihara, Akihiko; 石原 昭彦

    2006-01-01

    Effects of running exercise with increasing loads on hindlimb unloading-induced neuromuscular degeneration in male rats were investigated. Ten-week-old male rats were hindlimb suspended at horizontal position for two weeks and thereafter were rehabilitated by voluntary running exercise with increasing loads for two weeks. A decreased percentage of type 1 fibers and atrophy and decreased oxidative enzyme activity of all types of fibers in the soleus muscle were observed after hindlimb unloadin...

  13. The aging musculoskeletal system and obesity-related considerations with exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Heather K; Raiser, Sara N; Vincent, Kevin R

    2012-07-01

    Advancing age and adiposity contribute to musculoskeletal degenerative diseases and the development of sarcopenic obesity. The etiology of muscle loss is multifactorial, and includes inflammation, oxidative stress and hormonal changes, and is worsened by activity avoidance due to fear of pain. The risk for mobility disability and functional impairment rises with severity of obesity in the older adult. Performance measures of walking distance, walking speed, chair rise, stair climb, body transfers and ability to navigate obstacles on a course are adversely affected in this population, and this reflects decline in daily physical functioning. Exercise training is an ideal intervention to counteract the effects of aging and obesity. The 18 randomized controlled trials of exercise studies with or without diet components reviewed here indicate that 3-18 month programs that included aerobic and strengthening exercise (2-3 days per week) with caloric restriction (typically 750 kcal deficit/day), induced the greatest change in functional performance measures compared with exercise or diet alone. Importantly, resistance exercise attenuates muscle mass loss with the interventions. These interventions can also combat factors that invoke sarcopenia, including inflammation, oxidative stress and insulin resistance. Therefore, regular multimodal exercise coupled with diet appears to be very effective for counteracting sarocpenic obesity and improving mobility and function in the older, obese adult. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise during Short-Term and Long-Term Continuous Exposure to Hypoxia Exacerbates Sleep-Related Periodic Breathing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tellez, Helio Fernandez; Morrison, Shawnda A.; Neyt, Xavier; Mairesse, Olivier; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Macdonald-Nethercott, Eoin; Pangerc, Andrej; Dolenc-Groselj, Leja; Eiken, Ola; Pattyn, Nathalie; Mekjavic, Igor B.; Meeusen, Romain

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: Exposure to hypoxia elevates chemosensitivity, which can lead to periodic breathing. Exercise impacts gas exchange, altering chemosensitivity; however, interactions between sleep, exercise and chronic hypoxic exposure have not been examined. This study investigated whether exercise exacerbates sleep-related periodic breathing in hypoxia. Methods: Two experimental phases. Short-Term Phase: a laboratory controlled, group-design study in which 16 active, healthy men (age: 25 ± 3 y, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 74 ± 8 kg) were confined to a normobaric hypoxic environment (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003, 4,000 m) for 10 days, after random assignment to a sedentary (control, CON) or cycle-exercise group (EX). Long-Term Phase: conducted at the Concordia Antarctic Research Station (3,800 m equivalent at the Equator) where 14 men (age: 36 ± 9 y, height: 1.77 ± 0.09 m, mass: 75 ± 10 kg) lived for 12–14 months, continuously confined. Participants were stratified post hoc based on self-reported physical activity levels. We quantified apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and physical activity variables. Results: Short-Term Phase: mean AHI scores were significantly elevated in the EX group compared to CON (Night1 = CON: 39 ± 51, EX: 91 ± 59; Night10 = CON: 32 ± 32, EX: 92 ± 48; P = 0.046). Long-Term Phase: AHI was correlated to mean exercise time (R2 = 0.4857; P = 0.008) and the coefficient of variation in night oxyhemoglobin saturation (SpO2; R2 = 0.3062; P = 0.049). Conclusions: Data indicate that exercise (physical activity) per se affects night SpO2 concentrations and AHI after a minimum of two bouts of moderate-intensity hypoxic exercise, while habitual physical activity in hypobaric hypoxic confinement affects breathing during sleep, up to 13+ months' duration Citation: Tellez HF, Morrison SA, Neyt X, Mairesse O, Piacentini MF, Macdonald-Nethercott E, Pangerc A, Dolenc-Groselj L, Eiken O, Pattyn N, Mekjavic IB, Meeusen R. Exercise during short-term and long

  15. Balance-related exercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children

    OpenAIRE

    Chmelíčková, Hana

    2008-01-01

    Title: Balance-related excercise as a preparation to cross-country skiing practice in visually impaired children. Objectives of the Thesis: The goal of this thesis is to test the possibilitiy of implementation of selected balance- related excercise in visually impaired children. Method: The testing pool consisted of six pupils attending the Special school for Visually Impaired Children between 14 and 15 years of age. Over the period of ten weeks, selected exercise geared towards the cross-cou...

  16. Efficacy of an exercise intervention for employees with work-related fatigue: Study protocol of a two-arm randomized controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, J.D. de; Hooff, M.L.M. van; Geurts, S.A.E.; Kompier, M.A.J.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the current study is to evaluate the efficacy of an exercise intervention to reduce work-related fatigue. Exercise is a potentially effective intervention strategy to reduce work-related fatigue, since it may enhance employees' ability to cope with work stress and it helps to

  17. Acute exercise modulates cigarette cravings and brain activation in response to smoking-related images: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janse Van Rensburg, Kate; Taylor, Adrian; Hodgson, Tim; Benattayallah, Abdelmalek

    2009-04-01

    Substances of misuse (such as nicotine) are associated with increases in activation within the mesocorticolimbic brain system, a system thought to mediate the rewarding effects of drugs of abuse. Pharmacological treatments have been designed to reduce cigarette cravings during temporary abstinence. Exercise has been found to be an effective tool for controlling cigarette cravings. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of exercise on regional brain activation in response to smoking-related images during temporary nicotine abstinence. In a randomized crossover design, regular smokers (n = 10) undertook an exercise (10 min moderate-intensity stationary cycling) and control (passive seating for same duration) session, following 15 h of nicotine abstinence. Following treatments, participants entered a functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scanner. Subjects viewed a random series of smoking and neutral images for 3 s, with an average inter-stimulus-interval (ISI) of 10 s. Self-reported cravings were assessed at baseline, mid-, and post-treatments. A significant interaction effect (time by group) was found, with self-reported cravings lower during and following exercise. During control scanning, significant activation was recorded in areas associated with reward (caudate nucleus), motivation (orbitofrontal cortex) and visuo-spatial attention (parietal lobe, parahippocampal, and fusiform gyrus). Post-exercise scanning showed hypo-activation in these areas with a concomitant shift of activation towards areas identified in the 'brain default mode' (Broadmanns Area 10). The study confirms previous evidence that a single session of exercise can reduce cigarette cravings, and for the first time provides evidence of a shift in regional activation in response to smoking cues.

  18. Exercise and health-related quality of life during the first year following acute stroke. A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhammer, Birgitta; Stanghelle, Johan K; Lindmark, Birgitta

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of two different physiotherapy exercise regimes in patients after acute stroke on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and to investigate how the degree of motor and balance function, gait capacity, activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living influenced HRQoL. A longitudinal randomized controlled stratified trial of two interventions: the intensive exercise groups with scheduled intensive training during four periods of the first year after stroke and the regular exercise group with self-initiated training. There was a tendency of better HRQoL in the regular exercise group on NHP total score (p = 0.05). Patients with low scores in activities of daily living, balance and motor function and inability to perform 6-minute walk test on admission, scored lower on self-perceived health than patients with high scores and ability to perform the walking test. At 1 year post-stroke, total scores on NHP were moderately associated with motor function (r = -0.63), balance (r = -0.56), gait (r = -0.57), activities of daily living (r = -0.57) and instrumental activities of daily living (r = -0.49-0.58). The physical mobility sub-scale of NHP had the strongest association ranging from r = -0.47-0.82. The regular exercise group with self-initiated training seemed to enhance HRQoL more than the intensive exercise group with scheduled intensive training. The degree of motor function, balance, walking capacity and independence in activities of daily living is of importance for perceived HRQoL.

  19. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U. A.; Mody, F. K.; Mese, A. I. [Haliburton Energy Services, TX (United States)

    2002-07-01

    In order to develop a real-time wellbore (in)stability modelling capability, experimental work was carried out to investigate the role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations. Time-dependent alterations in the pore pressure, acoustic and rock properties of formations subjected to compressive tri-axial test were recorded during the experiments involving the Pore Pressure Transmission (PPT) test. Based on the transient pore pressure of shale exposed to the test fluid presented here, the 20 per cent calcium chloride showed a very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. The need for a thorough understanding of the drilling fluid/shale interaction prior to applying any chemical potential wellbore (in)stability model to real-time drilling operations was emphasized. 9 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Age-related changes in mastication are not improved by tongue exercise in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krekeler, Brittany N; Connor, Nadine P

    2017-01-01

    Aging results in progressive changes in deglutitive functions, which may be due in part to alterations in muscle morphology and physiology. Mastication is a critical component of bolus formation and swallowing, but aging effects on masticatory function have not been well studied. The purpose of this study was to 1) quantify the effects of aging on mastication, and 2) determine the effects of tongue exercise on mastication in young adult and old rats. We hypothesized that there would be significant differences in mastication characteristics (number of bites, interval between bites, time to eat) as a function of age, and that tongue exercise would resolve preexercise differences between age groups. We expanded the established model of progressive, 8-week tongue exercise to include a mastication measurement: acoustic recordings of vermicelli pasta biting from 17 old and 17 young adult rats, randomized into exercise and control groups. We found the following: 1) Mastication characteristics were impacted by age. Specifically in older rats, there was an increase in time to eat and number of bites and intervals between bites decreased, suggesting increased oral motor-processing requirements for bolus formation. 2) tongue exercise did not impact mastication behaviors in young adult or old rats. Tongue exercise may not have been specific enough to result in behavioral changes in mastication or exercise dose may not have been sufficient. Nevertheless, results were noteworthy in expanding the established rat model of aging and have relevant clinical implications for future translation to human populations. NA Laryngoscope, 127:E29-E34, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  1. The effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN-related brain regions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo-Yi; Huang, Mao-Mao; Li, Shu-Zhen; Tao, Jing; Zheng, Guo-Hua; Chen, Li-Dian

    2017-07-01

    Physical activity may play a role in both the prevention and slowing of brain volume loss and may be beneficial in terms of improving the functional connectivity of brain regions. But much less is known about the potential benefit of aerobic exercise for the structure and function of the default mode network (DMN) brain regions. This systematic review examines the effects of aerobic exercise on the structure and function of DMN brain regions in human adulthood. Seven electronic databases were searched for prospective controlled studies published up to April 2015. The quality of the selected studies was evaluated with the Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing the risk of bias. RevMan 5.3 software was applied for data analysis. Finally, 14 studies with 631 participants were identified. Meta-analysis revealed that aerobic exercise could significantly increase right hippocampal volume (SMD = 0.26, 95% CI 0.01-0.51, p = 0.04, I 2 = 7%, 4 studies), and trends of similar effects were observed in the total (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.41, p = 0.43, I 2 = 0%, 5 studies), left (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.37, p = 0.33, I 2 = 14%, 4 studies), left anterior (SMD = 0.12, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.40, p = 0.41, I 2 = 74%, 2 studies) and right anterior (SMD = 0.10, 95% CI -0.17 to 0.38, p = 0.46, I 2 = 76%, 4 studies) hippocampal volumes compared to the no-exercise interventions. A few studies reported that relative to no-exercise interventions, aerobic exercise could significantly decrease the atrophy of the medial temporal lobe, slow the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) volume loss, increase functional connectivity within the hippocampus and improve signal activation in the cingulate gyrus and ACC. The current review suggests that aerobic exercise may have positive effects on the right hippocampus and potentially beneficial effects on the overall and other parts of the hippocampus, the cingulate cortex and the medial temporal areas of the DMN. Moreover, aerobic exercise may

  2. Examining within- and across-day relationships between transient and chronic stress and parent food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant population : Stress types and food-related parenting practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berge, Jerica M; Tate, Allan; Trofholz, Amanda; Fertig, Angela; Crow, Scott; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Miner, Michael

    2018-01-16

    Although prior research suggests that stress may play a role in parent's use of food-related parenting practices, it is unclear whether certain types of stress (e.g., transient, chronic) result in different food-related parenting practices. Identifying whether and how transient (i.e., momentary; parent/child conflict) and chronic (i.e., long-term; unemployment >6 months) sources of stress are related to parent food-related parenting practices is important with regard to childhood obesity. This is particularly important within racially/ethnically diverse parents who may be more likely to experience both types of stress and who have higher levels of obesity and related health problems. The current study examined the association between transient and chronic stressors and food-related parenting practices in a racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant sample. The current study is a cross-sectional, mixed-methods study using ecological momentary assessment (EMA). Parents (mean age = 35; 95% mothers) of children ages 5-7 years old (n = 61) from six racial/ethnic groups (African American, American Indian, Hispanic, Hmong, Somali, White) participated in this ten-day in-home observation with families. Transient stressors, specifically interpersonal conflicts, had significant within-day effects on engaging in more unhealthful food-related parenting practices the same evening with across-day effects weakening by day three. In contrast, financial transient stressors had stronger across-day effects. Chronic stressors, including stressful life events were not consistently associated with more unhealthful food-related parenting practices. Transient sources of stress were significantly associated with food-related parenting practices in racially/ethnically diverse and immigrant households. Chronic stressors were not consistently associated with food-related parenting practices. Future research and interventions may want to assess for transient sources of stress in

  3. Exercise in fibromyalgia and related inflammatory disorders: known effects and unknown chances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, E; García, J J; Bote, M E; Martín-Cordero, L; Escalante, Y; Saavedra, J M; Northoff, H; Giraldo, E

    2009-01-01

    Fibromyalgia (FM) is characterised by chronic widespread pain and allodynia (pain from stimuli which are not normally painful with pain that may occur other than in the area stimulated) of more than 3 months duration. The current hypothesis of the aetiology of FM includes inflammatory and neuroendocrine disorders. The biophysiology of this syndrome, however; remains still widely elusive, and there are no formally approved therapies. Non-pharmacological interventions in FM patients include habitual exercise programs which improve physical function and quality of life of patients and may even reduce pain. However the mechanisms through which exercise benefits FM symptoms needs to be elucidated. In this article we firstly review the main topics and characteristics of the FM syndrome, while focusing our attention on the inflammatory hypothesis of FM, as well as on the beneficial effects of habitual exercise as a co-therapy for FM patients. In this context, the latest developments in research on anti-inflammatory effects of exercise are also reviewed and discussed. To find out what is known about the connection between benefits of exercise for FM and anti-inflammatory effects of exercise, we carried out a PubMed search using the term "fibromyalgia" and "exercise" together with "inflammation", and no more than ten published articles were found (six of them reviews), which are also discussed. In the second part of the article we present a pilot investigation on a group of 14 female FM patients with a diagnosis of FM by a rheumatologist. They took part in a pool-aquatic program in warm water over a period of fourth months (three weekly 60-min sessions). Circulating inflammatory (IL-1beta, IL-2, IFNgamma, TNFalpha, IL-8, IL-6, IL-4, IL-10 and CRP) and neuroendocrine (NA and cortisol) markers were determined. FM patients showed higher circulating levels of IL-8, IFNgamma and CRP as well as cortisol and NA than age-matched healthy control women. After the exercise program, a

  4. Limitations of skeletal muscle oxygen delivery and utilization during moderate-intensity exercise in moderately impaired patients with chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, V.M.; Spee, R.F.; Schoots, T.; Wijn, P.F.F.; Kemps, H.M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The extent and speed of transient skeletal muscle deoxygenation during exercise onset in patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) are related to impairments of local O2 delivery and utilization. This study examined the physiological background of submaximal exercise performance in 19 moderately

  5. Kegel Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ... exercised my pelvic muscles ____ times. I spent ____ minutes exercising. At each exercise session, I squeezed my pelvic ...

  6. Impaired transcriptional activity of Nrf2 in age-related myocardial oxidative stress is reversible by moderate exercise training.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sellamuthu S Gounder

    Full Text Available Aging promotes accumulation of reactive oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS in cardiomyocytes, which leads to contractile dysfunction and cardiac abnormalities. These changes may contribute to increased cardiovascular disease in the elderly. Inducible antioxidant pathways are regulated by nuclear erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2 through antioxidant response cis-elements (AREs and are impaired in the aging heart. Whereas acute exercise stress (AES activates Nrf2 signaling and promotes myocardial antioxidant function in young mice (~2 months, aging mouse (>23 months hearts exhibit significant oxidative stress as compared to those of the young. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-dependent regulation of Nrf2-antioxidant mechanisms and redox homeostasis in mouse hearts and the impact of exercise. Old mice were highly susceptible to oxidative stress following high endurance exercise stress (EES, but demonstrated increased adaptive redox homeostasis after moderate exercise training (MET; 10m/min, for 45 min/day for ~6 weeks. Following EES, transcription and protein levels for most of the ARE-antioxidants were increased in young mice but their induction was blunted in aging mice. In contrast, 6-weeks of chronic MET promoted nuclear levels of Nrf2 along with its target antioxidants in the aging heart to near normal levels as seen in young mice. These observations suggest that enhancing Nrf2 function and endogenous cytoprotective mechanisms by MET, may combat age-induced ROS/RNS and protect the myocardium from oxidative stress diseases.

  7. Physical Exercise and Cancer-Related Fatigue in Hospitalized Patients: Role of the Clinical Nurse Leader in Implementation of Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Katrina

    2016-02-01

    Guidelines suggest that aerobic endurance training and moderate resistance training lessen the effects of cancer-related fatigue (CRF). However, specifics regarding frequency, intensity, and type of physical activity required to alleviate fatigue are less specific. In addition, outcomes of these interventions during the initial stages of active treatment are not well documented. The purpose of this article is to review the current evidence-based literature regarding the effects of physical exercise on CRF and the role that the clinical nurse leader (CNL) can play in implementing interventions to address CRF and promote physical exercise to improve patient outcomes. A literature review of the effect of physical exercise on CRF was conducted using the CINAHL®, PubMed, and Google Scholar databases. As leaders in health care, CNLs have the knowledge and skill to take an active role in managing CRF and to develop evidence-based interventions to address fatigue in this patient population. Interventions may include creating and evaluating individualized exercise plans for inpatients with cancer and/or developing educational programs for the inpatient setting that may be continued after discharge and during outpatient treatment.

  8. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Wulf; Schwarzbach, Hans; Pardun, Anita; Hannemann, Lena; Bogs, Björn; König, Alexander M; Mahnken, Andreas H; Hildebrandt, Olaf; Koehler, Ulrich; Kinscherf, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans. Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV), flow velocity (MFV) and blood flow (MBF) calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat) and intermedius (VInt) muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years) and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years) healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT). In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness. During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u.) and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.). In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia) post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG. In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  9. Age-related differences in skeletal muscle microvascular response to exercise as detected by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wulf Hildebrandt

    Full Text Available Aging involves reductions in exercise total limb blood flow and exercise capacity. We hypothesized that this may involve early age-related impairments of skeletal muscle microvascular responsiveness as previously reported for insulin but not for exercise stimuli in humans.Using an isometric exercise model, we studied the effect of age on contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS parameters, i.e. microvascular blood volume (MBV, flow velocity (MFV and blood flow (MBF calculated from replenishment of Sonovue contrast-agent microbubbles after their destruction. CEUS was applied to the vastus lateralis (VLat and intermedius (VInt muscle in 15 middle-aged (MA, 43.6±1.5 years and 11 young (YG, 24.1±0.6 years healthy males before, during, and after 2 min of isometric knee extension at 15% of peak torque (PT. In addition, total leg blood flow as recorded by femoral artery Doppler-flow. Moreover, fiber-type-specific and overall capillarisation as well as fiber composition were additionally assessed in Vlat biopsies obtained from CEUS site. MA and YG had similar quadriceps muscle MRT-volume or PT and maximal oxygen uptake as well as a normal cardiovascular risk factors and intima-media-thickness.During isometric exercise MA compared to YG reached significantly lower levels in MFV (0.123±0.016 vs. 0.208±0.036 a.u. and MBF (0.007±0.001 vs. 0.012±0.002 a.u.. In the VInt the (post-occlusive hyperemia post-exercise peaks in MBV and MBF were significantly lower in MA vs. YG. Capillary density, capillary fiber contacts and femoral artery Doppler were similar between MA and YG.In the absence of significant age-related reductions in capillarisation, total leg blood flow or muscle mass, healthy middle-aged males reveal impaired skeletal muscle microcirculatory responses to isometric exercise. Whether this limits isometric muscle performance remains to be assessed.

  10. New perspectives concerning feedback influences on cardiorespiratory control during rhythmic exercise and on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Jerome A

    2012-09-01

    The cardioaccelerator and ventilatory responses to rhythmic exercise in the human are commonly viewed as being mediated predominantly via feedforward 'central command' mechanisms, with contributions from locomotor muscle afferents to the sympathetically mediated pressor response. We have assessed the relative contributions of three types of feedback afferents on the cardiorespiratory response to voluntary, rhythmic exercise by inhibiting their normal 'tonic' activity in healthy animals and humans and in chronic heart failure. Transient inhibition of the carotid chemoreceptors during moderate intensity exercise reduced muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow; and reducing the normal level of respiratory muscle work during heavier intensity exercise increased limb vascular conductance and blood flow. These cardiorespiratory effects were prevented via ganglionic blockade and were enhanced in chronic heart failure and in hypoxia. Blockade of μ opioid sensitive locomotor muscle afferents, with preservation of central motor output via intrathecal fentanyl: (a) reduced the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate and ventilatory responses to all steady state exercise intensities; and (b) during sustained high intensity exercise, reduced O(2) transport, increased central motor output and end-exercise muscle fatigue and reduced endurance performance. We propose that these three afferent reflexes - probably acting in concert with feedforward central command - contribute significantly to preserving O(2) transport to locomotor and to respiratory muscles during exercise. Locomotor muscle afferents also appear to provide feedback concerning the metabolic state of the muscle to influence central motor output, thereby limiting peripheral fatigue development.

  11. Emergency exercise scenario tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1998-03-01

    Nuclear power plant emergency exercises require a realistically presented accident situation which includes various aspects: plant process, radioactivity, radiation, weather and people. Experiences from nuclear power plant emergency exercises show that preparing accident scenarios even for relatively short exercises is tedious. In the future modern computer technology and past experience could be used for making exercise planning more effective. (au)

  12. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly ... Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ...

  13. Exercise-induced hyperthermia syndrome (canine stress syndrome in four related male English springer spaniels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thrift E

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Elizabeth Thrift,1 Justin A Wimpole,2 Georgina Child,2 Narelle Brown,1 Barbara Gandolfi,3 Richard Malik4 1Animal Referral Hospital, 2Small Animal Specialist Hospital, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3Veterinary Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA; 4Centre for Veterinary Education, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Objective: This retrospective study describes the signalment, clinical presentation, diagnostic findings, and mode of inheritance in four young male English springer spaniel dogs with presumptive canine stress syndrome.Materials and methods: Appropriate cases were located through medical searches of medical records of two large private referral centers. Inclusion criteria comprised of English springer spaniel dogs with tachypnea and hyperthermia that subsequently developed weakness or collapse, with or without signs of hemorrhage, soon after a period of mild-to-moderate exercise. The pedigrees of the four affected dogs, as well as eleven related English springer spaniels, were then analyzed to determine a presumptive mode of genetic inheritance.Results: Four dogs met the inclusion criteria. All four were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked heritable disorder. Pedigree analysis suggests that more dogs may be potentially affected, although these dogs may have never had the concurrent triggering drug/activity/event to precipitate the clinical syndrome. There was complete resolution of clinical signs in three of the four dogs with aggressive symptomatic and supportive therapy, with one dog dying during treatment.Conclusion: Dogs with canine stress syndrome have the potential for rapid recovery if treated aggressively and the complications of the disease (eg, coagulopathy are anticipated. All four dogs were male, suggesting the possibility of a recessive sex-linked mode of inheritance. Further genetic analyses should be strongly considered by those

  14. Relation of exercise capacity with lung volumes before and after 6-minute walk test in subjects with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wibmer, Thomas; Rüdiger, Stefan; Kropf-Sanchen, Cornelia; Stoiber, Kathrin M; Rottbauer, Wolfgang; Schumann, Christian

    2014-11-01

    There is growing evidence that exercise-induced variation in lung volumes is an important source of ventilatory limitation and is linked to exercise intolerance in COPD. The aim of this study was to compare the correlations of walk distance and lung volumes measured before and after a 6-min walk test (6MWT) in subjects with COPD. Forty-five subjects with stable COPD (mean pre-bronchodilator FEV1: 47 ± 18% predicted) underwent a 6MWT. Body plethysmography was performed immediately pre- and post-6MWT. Correlations were generally stronger between 6-min walk distance and post-6MWT lung volumes than between 6-min walk distance and pre-6MWT lung volumes, except for FEV1. These differences in Pearson correlation coefficients were significant for residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.67 vs -0.58, P = .043), percent of predicted residual volume expressed as percent of total lung capacity (-0.68 vs -0.59, P = .026), inspiratory vital capacity (0.65 vs 0.54, P = .019), percent of predicted inspiratory vital capacity (0.49 vs 0.38, P = .037), and percent of predicted functional residual capacity (-0.62 vs -0.47, P = .023). In subjects with stable COPD, lung volumes measured immediately after 6MWT are more closely related to exercise limitation than baseline lung volumes measured before 6MWT, except for FEV1. Therefore, pulmonary function testing immediately after exercise should be included in future studies on COPD for the assessment of exercise-induced ventilatory constraints to physical performance that cannot be adequately assessed from baseline pulmonary function testing at rest. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  15. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine E van Loon

    Full Text Available Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise.105 healthy individuals (18-35 years were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599, Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987 and VWF (promoter, rs7965413 were determined.The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (p<0.0001. VWF:CB levels and ADAMTS13 activity both also increased after exhaustive exercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both p<0.0001. The strongest determinants of the VWF:Ag level increase are performance related (p<0.0001. We observed a gender difference in VWF:Ag response to exercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001, which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase.VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  16. Effects of Aerobic, Strength or Combined Exercise on Perceived Appetite and Appetite-Related Hormones in Inactive Middle-Aged Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Penelope S; Donges, Cheyne E; Guelfi, Kym J; Smith, Greg C; Adams, David R; Duffield, Rob

    2017-10-01

    Aerobic exercise (AE) and strength exercise (SE) are reported to induce discrete and specific appetite-related responses; however, the effect of combining AE and SE (i.e., combined exercise; CE) remains relatively unknown. Twelve inactive overweight men (age: 48 ± 5 y; BMI: 29.9 ± 1.9 kg∙m 2 ) completed four conditions in a random order: 1) nonexercise control (CON) (50 min seated rest); 2) AE (50 min cycling; 75% VO 2peak ); 3) SE (10 × 8 leg extensions; 75% 1RM); and 4) CE (50% SE + 50% AE). Perceived appetite, and appetiterelated peptides and metabolites were assessed before and up to 2 h postcondition (0P, 30P, 60P, 90P, 120P). Perceived appetite did not differ between trials (p appetite-related peptides and metabolites. Despite these differential exercise-induced hormone responses, exercise mode appears to have little effect on perceived appetite compared with a resting control in this population.

  17. Myocardial infarction is a frequent cause of exercise-related resuscitated out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in a general non-athletic population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søholm, Helle; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Thomsen, Jakob Hartvig; Bro-Jeppesen, John; Lippert, Freddy K; Køber, Lars; Wanscher, Michael; Hassager, Christian

    2014-11-01

    Performing exercise is shown to prevent cardiovascular disease, but the risk of an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is temporarily increased during strenuous activity. We examined the etiology and outcome after successfully resuscitated OHCA during exercise in a general non-athletic population. Consecutive patients with OHCA were admitted with return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) or on-going resuscitation at hospital arrival (2002-2011). Patient charts were reviewed for post-resuscitation data. Exercise was defined as moderate/vigorous physical activity. A total of 1393 OHCA-patients were included with 91(7%) arrests occurring during exercise. Exercise-related OHCA-patients were younger (60 ± 13 vs. 65 ± 15, p<0.001) and predominantly male (96% vs. 69%, p<0.001). The arrest was more frequently witnessed (94% vs. 86%, p=0.02), bystander CPR was more often performed (88% vs. 54%, p<0.001), time to ROSC was shorter (12 min (IQR: 5-19) vs. 15 (9-22), p=0.007) and the primary rhythm was more frequently shock-able (91% vs. 49%, p<0.001) compared to non-exercise patients. Cardiac etiology was the predominant cause of OHCA in both exercise and non-exercise patients (97% vs. 80%, p<0.001) and acute coronary syndrome was more frequent among exercise patients (59% vs. 38%, p<0.001). One-year mortality was 25% vs. 65% (p<0.001), and exercise was even after adjustment associated with a significantly lower mortality (HR=0.40 (95%CI: 0.23-0.72), p=0.002). OHCA occurring during exercise was associated with a significantly lower mortality in successfully resuscitated patients even after adjusting for confounding factors. Acute coronary syndrome was more common among exercise-related cardiac arrest patients. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A Group Exercise to Explore Employee Ethics in Business-Related Psychology Courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carkenord, David M.

    1996-01-01

    Recounts an in-class group exercise where students individually rate 10 employee behaviors of a questionable ethical nature (use company car, call in sick). The students then calculate mean group ratings for each behavior and determine appropriate consequences for some of the actions. Includes statistical data and student responses. (MJP)

  19. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 is related to fish intake and exercise in Korean adult men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lym, Youl Lee; Joh, Hee-Kyung

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important factor for bone health. It is uncertain which lifestyle is associated with vitamin D status, especially in healthy middle aged Asian men. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in 149 men aged 40-69 years who visited a health check-up center in Korea. Serum vitamin D (25-OHD3) was measured and smoking, alcohol, exercise, occupation, frequency of fish and dairy intake were estimated by self-administered questionnaire. The mean (+/-SD) 25-OHD3 concentration was 96.5+/-30.7 nmol/L. Higher and lower 25-OHD3 groups were generated with the median concentration as the cut-off point. By univariate analysis, exercise status and fish intake frequency were significantly different between two 25-OHD3 groups (p=0.012, 0.019 respectively). After multivariable logistic regression, higher fish intake frequency and regular exercise were associated with higher levels of 25-OHD3 (p for trend=0.017 and 0.02 respectively). In conclusion, frequent fish intake and regular exercise are positively associated with serum 25-OHD3 concentrations in healthy Korean men.

  20. Musculoskeletal pains in relation to different sport and exercise activities in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auvinen, Juha P; Tammelin, Tuija H; Taimela, Simo P; Zitting, Paavo J; Mutanen, Pertti O A; Karppinen, Jaro I

    2008-11-01

    We examined the associations between participation in different sports and exercise activities and neck, shoulder, and low back pains in adolescents. This population-based study included the members of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986, who, at the age of 15 to 16 yr, completed a questionnaire including items about their musculoskeletal pains and participation in various sport and exercise activities (N = 6945). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate how musculoskeletal pains are associated a) with participation in a certain type of sport or exercise activity and b) with the clusters formed by latent class analysis (LCA) according to the adolescents' profiles of participation in different sport and exercise activities. Participation in certain sports showed some direct and inverse associations with musculoskeletal pains when adjusted for participation in other sports and for the amount of physical activity. However, after grouping the individuals into clusters by their participation in different sports, these associations vanished. Only the cluster characterized by boys' active participation in several sports (i.e., ice hockey, cycling, ice-skating, soccer, floorball, rinkball/bandy, swimming, roller-skating/skateboarding, Finnish baseball) had lower prevalence of neck pain compared with the physically inactive group. Physically active adolescents usually engage in several different sport and exercise activities, which make associations between single sports and musculoskeletal pains inconsequential in the general population of adolescents. Participation in several sports seemed to protect from harmful effects of a single risk sport. However, this finding cannot be generalized to adolescent elite athletes who are often involved in intense training for a single sport.

  1. Transient and steady-state auditory gamma-band responses in first-degree relatives of people with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojas Donald C

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stimulus-related γ-band oscillations, which may be related to perceptual binding, are reduced in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. The purpose of this study was to examine auditory transient and steady-state γ-band findings in first-degree relatives of people with ASD to assess the potential familiality of these findings in ASD. Methods Magnetoencephalography (MEG recordings in 21 parents who had a child with an autism spectrum disorder (pASD and 20 healthy adult control subjects (HC were obtained. Gamma-band phase locking factor (PLF, and evoked and induced power to 32, 40 and 48 Hz amplitude-modulated sounds were measured for transient and steady-state responses. Participants were also tested on a number of behavioral and cognitive assessments related to the broad autism phenotype (BAP. Results Reliable group differences were seen primarily for steady-state responses. In the left hemisphere, pASD subjects exhibited lower phase-locked steady-state power in all three conditions. Total γ-band power, including the non-phase-locked component, was also reduced in the pASD group. In addition, pASD subjects had significantly lower PLF than the HC group. Correlations were seen between MEG measures and BAP measures. Conclusions The reduction in steady-state γ-band responses in the pASD group is consistent with previous results for children with ASD. Steady-state responses may be more sensitive than transient responses to phase-locking errors in ASD. Together with the lower PLF and phase-locked power in first-degree relatives, correlations between γ-band measures and behavioral measures relevant to the BAP highlight the potential of γ-band deficits as a potential new autism endophenotype.

  2. Endothelial cell senescence with aging in healthy humans: prevention by habitual exercise and relation to vascular endothelial function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossman, Matthew J; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Hill, Sierra D; McNamara, Molly N; Santos-Parker, Jessica R; Pierce, Gary L; Seals, Douglas R; Donato, Anthony J

    2017-11-01

    Cellular senescence is emerging as a key mechanism of age-related vascular endothelial dysfunction, but evidence in healthy humans is lacking. Moreover, the influence of lifestyle factors such as habitual exercise on endothelial cell (EC) senescence is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that EC senescence increases with sedentary, but not physically active, aging and is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction. Protein expression (quantitative immunofluorescence) of p53, a transcription factor related to increased cellular senescence, and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p21 and p16 were 116%, 119%, and 128% greater (all P age-related differences were not present (all P > 0.05) in venous ECs from older exercising adults (57 ± 1 yr, n = 13). Furthermore, venous EC protein levels of p53 ( r  = -0.49, P = 0.003), p21 ( r  = -0.38, P = 0.03), and p16 ( r  = -0.58, P = 0.002) were inversely associated with vascular endothelial function (brachial artery flow-mediated dilation). Similarly, protein expression of p53 and p21 was 26% and 23% higher (both P healthy older sedentary (63 ± 1 yr, n = 18) versus young sedentary (25 ± 1 yr, n = 9) adults; age-related changes in arterial EC p53 and p21 expression were not observed ( P > 0.05) in older habitually exercising adults (59 ± 1 yr, n = 14). These data indicate that EC senescence is associated with sedentary aging and is linked to endothelial dysfunction. Moreover, these data suggest that prevention of EC senescence may be one mechanism by which aerobic exercise protects against endothelial dysfunction with age. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our study provides novel evidence in humans of increased endothelial cell senescence with sedentary aging, which is associated with impaired vascular endothelial function. Furthermore, our data suggest an absence of age-related increases in endothelial cell senescence in older exercising adults, which is linked with preserved vascular endothelial function

  3. The joy of transient chaos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tél, Tamás [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eötvös University, and MTA-ELTE Theoretical Physics Research Group, Pázmány P. s. 1/A, Budapest H-1117 (Hungary)

    2015-09-15

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  4. The joy of transient chaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tél, Tamás

    2015-09-01

    We intend to show that transient chaos is a very appealing, but still not widely appreciated, subfield of nonlinear dynamics. Besides flashing its basic properties and giving a brief overview of the many applications, a few recent transient-chaos-related subjects are introduced in some detail. These include the dynamics of decision making, dispersion, and sedimentation of volcanic ash, doubly transient chaos of undriven autonomous mechanical systems, and a dynamical systems approach to energy absorption or explosion.

  5. Skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine are related to insulin sensitivity and respond to acute exercise in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newsom, Sean A; Brozinick, Joseph T; Kiseljak-Vassiliades, Katja; Strauss, Allison N; Bacon, Samantha D; Kerege, Anna A; Bui, Hai Hoang; Sanders, Phil; Siddall, Parker; Wei, Tao; Thomas, Melissa; Kuo, Ming Shang; Nemkov, Travis; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Hansen, Kirk C; Perreault, Leigh; Bergman, Bryan C

    2016-06-01

    Several recent reports indicate that the balance of skeletal muscle phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) is a key determinant of muscle contractile function and metabolism. The purpose of this study was to determine relationships between skeletal muscle PC, PE and insulin sensitivity, and whether PC and PE are dynamically regulated in response to acute exercise in humans. Insulin sensitivity was measured via intravenous glucose tolerance in sedentary obese adults (OB; n = 14), individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D; n = 15), and endurance-trained athletes (ATH; n = 15). Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained at rest, immediately after 90 min of cycle ergometry at 50% maximal oxygen consumption (V̇o2 max), and 2-h postexercise (recovery). Skeletal muscle PC and PE were measured via infusion-based mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis. ATH had greater levels of muscle PC and PE compared with OB and T2D (P insulin sensitivity (both P insulin sensitivity among the entire cohort (r = -0.43, P = 0.01). Muscle PC and PE were altered by exercise, particularly after 2 h of recovery, in a highly group-specific manner. However, muscle PC:PE ratio remained unchanged in all groups. In summary, total muscle PC and PE are positively related to insulin sensitivity while PC:PE ratio is inversely related to insulin sensitivity in humans. A single session of exercise significantly alters skeletal muscle PC and PE levels, but not PC:PE ratio. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Exercise training on skill-related physical fitness in adolescents with intellectual disability: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Shiau-Chian; Chang, Chia-Wei; Liu, Wen-Yu; Hou, Yu-Jen; Lin, Yang-Hua

    2017-04-01

    Skill-related fitness (SRF) is a component of physical fitness related to sports or occupational performance. Adolescents with intellectual disability (ID) can take advantage of SRF for enhancing work performance and enjoying participation with peers in leisure activities. However, few studies have examined the benefits of exercise on SRF in adolescents with ID. This study synthesized the results from the reviewed studies and determined whether exercise training improves SRF in adolescents with ID. We searched ten electronic databases and used the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) scale to assess the methodological quality of included studies. This study pooled quantitative data where possible in statistical meta-analyses and expressed the effect sizes (ESs) as Cohen's d and converted it to Hedges's g. Eighteen studies met inclusion criteria for systematic review, of which 14 for further meta-analyses. Nine meta-analyses were conducted in this study. The results supported positive exercise training effects on agility, power, RT, and speed, but not balance (Hedges's g range -1.465-0.760) in adolescents with ID. We found only a limited number of studies exhibiting high quality evidence and were being included in the meta-analyses. Therefore, the results of our systematic review and meta-analyses should be interpreted with caution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression of perilipins in human skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo in relation to diet, exercise and energy balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjelstad, I M F; Haugen, F; Gulseth, H L

    2011-01-01

    , enhanced the expression of perilipin 2 and 3. Perilipin 1 mRNA correlated positively with body fat mass, whereas none of the perilipins were associated with insulin sensitivity. In conclusion, all perilipins mRNAs were expressed in human skeletal muscle. Diet as well as endurance exercise modulated......The perilipin proteins enclose intracellular lipid droplets. We describe the mRNA expression of the five perilipins in human skeletal muscle in relation to fatty acid supply, exercise and energy balance. We observed that all perilipins were expressed in skeletal muscle biopsies with the highest m......RNA levels of perilipin 2, 4 and 5. Cultured myotubes predominantly expressed perilipin 2 and 3. In vitro, incubation of myotubes with fatty acids enhanced mRNA expression of perilipin 1, 2 and 4. In vivo, low fat diet increased mRNA levels of perilipin 3 and 4. Endurance training, but not strength training...

  8. Physical exercise can influence local levels of matrix metalloproteinases and their inhibitors in tendon-related connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koskinen, S O A; Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L

    2004-01-01

    Microdialysis studies indicate that mechanical loading of human tendon tissue during exercise or training can affect local synthesis and degradation of type I collagen. Degradation of collagen and other extracellular matrix proteins is controlled by an interplay between matrix metalloproteinases...... (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). However, it is unknown whether local levels of MMPs and TIMPs are affected by tendon loading in humans in vivo. In the present experiment, six healthy young men performed 1 h of uphill (3%) treadmill running. Dialysate was collected from microdialysis probes...... (placed in the peritendinous tissue immediately anterior to the Achilles tendon) before, immediately after, 1 day after, and 3 days after an exercise bout. MMP-2 and MMP-9 were measured in dialysate by gelatin zymography, and amounts were quantified by densitometry in relation to total protein...

  9. Suprathreshold Heat Pain Response Predicts Activity-Related Pain, but Not Rest-Related Pain, in an Exercise-Induced Injury Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Rogelio A.; Simon, Corey B.; Valencia, Carolina; Parr, Jeffrey J.; Borsa, Paul A.; George, Steven Z.

    2014-01-01

    Exercise-induced injury models are advantageous for studying pain since the onset of pain is controlled and both pre-injury and post-injury factors can be utilized as explanatory variables or predictors. In these studies, rest-related pain is often considered the primary dependent variable or outcome, as opposed to a measure of activity-related pain. Additionally, few studies include pain sensitivity measures as predictors. In this study, we examined the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors, including pain sensitivity, for induced rest and activity-related pain following exercise induced muscle injury. The overall goal of this investigation was to determine if there were convergent or divergent predictors of rest and activity-related pain. One hundred forty-three participants provided demographic, psychological, and pain sensitivity information and underwent a standard fatigue trial of resistance exercise to induce injury of the dominant shoulder. Pain at rest and during active and resisted shoulder motion were measured at 48- and 96-hours post-injury. Separate hierarchical models were generated for assessing the influence of pre-injury and post-injury factors on 48- and 96-hour rest-related and activity-related pain. Overall, we did not find a universal predictor of pain across all models. However, pre-injury and post-injury suprathreshold heat pain response (SHPR), a pain sensitivity measure, was a consistent predictor of activity-related pain, even after controlling for known psychological factors. These results suggest there is differential prediction of pain. A measure of pain sensitivity such as SHPR appears more influential for activity-related pain, but not rest-related pain, and may reflect different underlying processes involved during pain appraisal. PMID:25265560

  10. Functional outcome in contemporary children with total cavopulmonary connection - Health-related physical fitness, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hock, Julia; Reiner, Barbara; Neidenbach, Rhoia C; Oberhoffer, Renate; Hager, Alfred; Ewert, Peter; Müller, Jan

    2018-03-15

    Children and adolescents with an univentricular heart after total cavopulmonary connection (TCPC) have functional impairments. This study assesses health-related physical fitness (HRPF) and exercise capacity, as well as their relation to health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in patients with an univentricular heart after total-pulmonary connection (TCPC). Between July 2014 and October 2016 a total of 78 children and adolescents with TCPC (12.0±3.2years, 21 female) performed a motor test including five tasks for strength and flexibility during their routine follow-up appointment. They also underwent a symptom limited cardio-pulmonary exercise test and filled in a HRQoL questionnaire (KINDL-R). Patients' data were compared to a recent sample of healthy children (n=1650, 12.6±2.4years, 49% female). Multivariable regressions corrected for sex, age and BMI showed that TCPC patients achieved 12.4 repetitions of curl-ups (pflexibility (-4.7cm; pmotor competence and exercise capacity, early screening for HRPF and early treatment, if indicated, is recommended. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Factors in Maximal Power Production and in Exercise Endurance Relative to Maximal Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-10-13

    Mechanical efficiency of fast -and slow - twitch muscle fibers in mnan during cycling. J. ADLi Physiol.:Reespirat. Environ. Exercise Physiol. 47: 263- 267...R.S. Hikida, and F.C. Hagerman. Myofibrillar ATPase activity in hu-man muscle fast - twitch subtypes. Histochem. 78: 405-408, 1983. 31. Suzuki, Y...capacity and muscle fibre composition in mnan. J. Physiol (London) 354: 73P, 1984. 21. Margaria, R., P. Aghemo, and E. Rovelli. Measurement of muscular

  12. Compulsive exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Hinze, Cecilie Juul; Emborg Jannsen, Bolette

    2017-01-01

    found that compulsive exercise is associated with eating disorder pathology, perfectionism, neuroticism, narcissism, and obsessive compulsive traits. The most prominent negative consequences were injuries, social impairment, and depression, but more research is needed to uncover the potential......Compulsive exercise is a condition described since 1970s. It is characterized by a craving for physical training, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior with harmful consequences, such as injuries and impaired social relations. It has not been accepted as a mental disorder...... dysfunction resulting from compulsive exercise. As the condition is not recognized as a psychiatric disorder, studies on treatment interventions are sparse. Problems with compliance have been reported; therefore, motivational interviewing has been proposed as a treatment approach, in combination...

  13. Potential avenues for exercise to activate episodic memory-related pathways: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Edwards, Meghan K; Frith, Emily

    2017-09-01

    Memory function plays an important role in activities of daily living, and consequently, quality and quantity of life. In this narrative review, we discuss the anatomical components of episodic memory, including the structure of the hippocampus and the routes of communication to and from this structure. We also highlight cellular traces of memory, such as the engram cell and pathway. To provide etiological insight, the biological mechanisms of episodic memory are discussed, including factors subserving memory encoding (e.g., cognitive attention, neuroelectrical indices), consolidation (i.e., synaptic and brain systems level), and retrieval (e.g., availability of cues, context-dependent, state-dependent, and cognitive processing). Central to this manuscript, we highlight how exercise may influence each of these aforementioned parameters (e.g., exercise-induced hippocampal growth, synaptic plasticity, and cue retrieval) and then discuss the implications of these findings to enhance and preserve memory function. Collectively, this narrative review briefly summarizes potential mechanisms of episodic memory, and how exercise may activate these mechanistic pathways. © 2017 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Affective status in relation to impulsive, motor and motivational symptoms: personality, development and physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomo, Tomas; Beninger, Richard J; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Archer, Trevor

    2008-10-01

    The contributions of impulsive and risk-taking behaviour in depressive and bipolar disorders, motivational and motor behaviours in anhedonic and substance addictive states, and the factors, particularly distress and trauma, underlying the development of neuropathology in affective status are described from clinical, epidemiological and laboratory perspectives. In order to distinguish one case factor for biopsychological substrates of health, an array of self-reported characteristics, e.g., positive or negative affect, stress or energy, optimism, etc., that may be predictive or counterpredictive for the propensity for physical exercise and activity were analysed using a linear regression in twelve different studies. Several individual characteristics were found to be markedly and significantly predictive of the exercise propensity, i.e., positive affect, energy, health-seeking behaviour and character, while optimism was of lesser, though significant, importance. Several individual characteristics were found to be significantly counterpredictive: expression of BDI- and HAD-depression, major sleep problems and lack/negligence of health-seeking behaviour. The consequences of physical activity and exercise for both affective well-being, cognitive mobility and neurogenesis is noted, particularly with regard to developmental assets for younger individuals. Affective disorder states may be studied through analyses of personal characteristics that unfold predispositions for symptoms-profiles and biomarkers derived from properties of dysfunction, such as impulsiveness, temperament dimensions, anhedonia and 'over-sensitivity', whether interpersonal or to reward.

  15. Effects of stress related acute exercise on consolidation of implicit motor memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Ghadiri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Extensive evidence documents arousal modulation of declarative memory in humans. However, little is known about the arousal modulation of implicit motor memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a post-acquisition acute exercise stress on implicit motor memory consolidation.Materials and Methods: Forty healthy subjects were randomly divided into stress (10 men and 10 woman and non- stress (10 men and 10 woman groups. Experiment consisted of two phases of acquisition and retention. Serial Color matching (SCM task was used for this study. In acquisition period, all groups practiced the task for six blocks of 150 trials. Following, the stress group performed exercise on a treadmill until the moment of exhaustion while the non stress group did rest. In retention, all groups practiced the SCM task in one block. During the experiment the trends of saliva cortisol changes were measured.Results: Acute exercise stress leads to a significant increase in salivary cortisol level. While the non-stress group did not show enhancement of SCRT learning across the 24 hours delay interval, the stress group showed substantial enhancement across the same time (P<0.05.Conclusion: Our findings indicate that acute stress after acquisition can facilitate the implicit motor memory consolidation.

  16. Effects of aerobic training on exercise-related oxidative stress in mitochondrial myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siciliano, Gabriele; Simoncini, Costanza; Lo Gerfo, Annalisa; Orsucci, Daniele; Ricci, Giulia; Mancuso, Michelangelo

    2012-12-01

    In mitochondrial myopathies with respiratory chain deficiency impairment of energy cell production may lead to in excess reactive oxygen species generation with consequent oxidative stress and cell damage. Aerobic training has been showed to increase muscle performance in patients with mitochondrial myopathies. Aim of this study has been to evaluate, in 7 patients (6 F e 1M, mean age 44.9 ± 12.1 years) affected by mitochondrial disease, concomitantly to lactate exercise curve, the occurrence of oxidative stress, as indicated by circulating levels of lipoperoxides, in rest condition and as effect of exercise, and also, to verify if an aerobic training program is able to modify, in these patients, ox-redox balance efficiency. At rest and before training blood level of lipoperoxides was 382.4 ± 37.8 AU, compared to controls (318.7 ± 63.8; Pstress degree according to the adopted scale. During incremental exercise blood level of lipoperoxides did not increase, but maintained significantly higher compared to controls. After an aerobic training of 10 weeks the blood level of lipoperoxides decreased by 13.7% at rest (Pexercise test (P=0.06). These data indicate that, in mitochondrial patients, oxidative stress occurs and that an aerobic training is useful in partially reverting this condition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity Is Related to Cognitive Ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Biesen, Debbie; Hettinga, Florentina J; McCulloch, Katina; Vanlandewijck, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ ≤ 75) and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment ( N = 36) and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment ( N = 39), of which 47 were 400 m runners (all male) and 28 were 1500 m-runners (15 male and 13 female). Pacing was analyzed by means of 100 m split times (for 400 m races) and 200 m split times (for 1500 m races). Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment ( p competitive races.

  18. Select Skeletal Muscle mRNAs Related to Exercise Adaptation Are Minimally Affected by Different Pre-exercise Meals that Differ in Macronutrient Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pim Knuiman

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Substantial research has been done on the impact of carbohydrate and fat availability on endurance exercise adaptation, though its role in the acute adaptive response to resistance exercise has yet to be fully characterized.Purpose: We aimed to assess the effects of a pre-resistance exercise isocaloric mixed meal containing different amounts of carbohydrates and fat, on post-resistance exercise gene expression associated with muscle adaptation.Methods: Thirteen young (age 21.2 ± 1.6 year, recreationally trained (VO2max 51.3 ± 4.8 ml/kg/min men undertook an aerobic exercise session of 90-min continuous cycling (70% VO2max in the morning with pre- and post-exercise protein ingestion (10 and 15 g casein in a 500 ml beverage pre- and post-exercise, respectively. Subjects then rested for 2 h and were provided with a meal consisting of either 3207 kJ; 52 g protein; 51 g fat; and 23 g carbohydrate (FAT or 3124 kJ; 53 g protein; 9 g fat; and 109 g carbohydrate (CHO. Two hours after the meal, subjects completed 5 × 8 repetitions (80% 1-RM for both bilateral leg press and leg extension directly followed by 25 g of whey protein (500 ml beverage. Muscle biopsies were obtained from the vastus lateralis at baseline (morning and 1 and 3 h post-resistance exercise (afternoon to determine intramuscular mRNA response.Results: Muscle glycogen levels were significantly decreased post-resistance exercise, without any differences between conditions. Plasma free fatty acids increased significantly after the mixed meal in the FAT condition, while glucose and insulin were higher in the CHO condition. However, PDK4 mRNA quantity was significantly higher in the FAT condition at 3 h post-resistance exercise compared to CHO. HBEGF, INSIG1, MAFbx, MURF1, SIRT1, and myostatin responded solely as a result of exercise without any differences between the CHO and FAT group. FOXO3A, IGF-1, PGC-1α, and VCP expression levels remained unchanged over the course of the

  19. Effects of an Exercise Intervention on Cancer-Related Fatigue and Its Relationship to Markers of Oxidative Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repka, Chris P; Hayward, Reid

    2018-06-01

    Although the underlying mechanisms of cancer-related fatigue (CRF) are not fully characterized, treatment-associated oxidative stress may play a role. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of an exercise intervention on the relationship between CRF and oxidative stress. Upon cessation of radiation or chemotherapy, 8 cancer patients participated in a 10-week exercise intervention (EX), while 7 continued standard care (CON). Blood draws and fatigue questionnaires were administered to cancer patients before and after the intervention as well as to 7 age-matched individuals with no cancer history. Changes in plasma 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), protein carbonyls, antioxidant capacity, and fatigue were compared between groups. Correlations between CRF and oxidative stress were evaluated. Mean total fatigue scores decreased significantly (5.0 ± 2.2 to 2.6 ± 1.5, P fatigue ( r = -.58). Changes in total ( r = .46) and affective ( r = .47) fatigue exhibited significant correlations with changes in 8-OHdG over time, while behavioral ( r = .46) and sensory ( r = .47) fatigue changes were significantly correlated with protein carbonyls. Oxidative stress may be implicated in CRF, while improved antioxidant capacity following an exercise intervention may play a role in mitigating CRF in cancer survivors.

  20. The relationship between blood potassium, blood lactate, and electromyography signals related to fatigue in a progressive cycling exercise test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenan, Matthew S; McMurray, Robert G; Blackburn, B Troy; McGrath, Melanie; Leppert, Kyle

    2011-02-01

    Local muscle fatigue may be related to potassium efflux from the muscle cell and/or lactate accumulation within the muscle. Local fatigue causes a decrease in median frequency (MPF) of the electromyogram's power spectrum during isometric contractions but its relationship to changes in potassium and lactate during dynamic exercise is equivocal. Thus, this investigation evaluated relationships between changes in the MPF from the vastus lateralis and blood levels of lactate and potassium during an incremental cycling test and recovery. Trained cyclists (n=8) completed a discontinuous, graded cycle test to exhaustion under normal and glycogen-reduced conditions. The glycogen reduced condition promoted an environment of lower lactate production while permitting a consistent potassium response. Blood samples and maximal isometric EMG data were collected at the end of each stage and during recovery. Maximal lactate levels were ∼ 60% lower in the glycogen reduced condition; potassium was similar between trials. MPF did not change significantly at volitional fatigue. Further, MPF was not significantly related to lactate (p>0.27) or potassium (p>0.16) in either condition. Though both lactate and potassium have been implicated as factors relating to local muscle fatigue, neither is significantly related to changes in MPF during or after progressive exercise on a cycle ergometer. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Pacing Profiles in Competitive Track Races: Regulation of Exercise Intensity is related to Cognitive Ability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie Van Biesen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pacing has been defined as the goal-directed regulation of exercise intensity over an exercise bout, in which athletes need to decide how and when to invest their energy. The purpose of this study was to explore if the regulation of exercise intensity during competitive track races is different between runners with and without intellectual impairment, which is characterized by significant limitations in intellectual functioning (IQ≤75 and adaptive behavioral deficits, diagnosed before the age of 18. The samples included elite runners with intellectual impairment (N= 36 and a comparison group of world class runners without impairment (N= 39, of which 47 were 400m runners (all male and 28 were 1500m-runners (15 male and 13 female. Pacing was analysed by means of 100m split times (for 400m races and 200m split times (for 1500m races. Based on the split times, the average velocity was calculated for four segments of the races. Velocity fluctuations were defined as the differences in velocity between consecutive race segments. A mixed model ANOVA revealed significant differences in pacing profiles between runners with and without intellectual impairment (p<.05. Maximal velocity of elite 400m runners with intellectual impairment in the first race segment (7.9 ± 0.3 m/s was well below the top-velocity reached by world level 400m runners without intellectual impairment (8.9 ±0.2 m/s, and their overall pace was slower (F=120.7, p<.05. In addition, both groups followed a different pacing profile and inter-individual differences in pacing profiles were larger, with differences most pronounced for 1500m races. Whereas male 1500m-runners without intellectual impairment reached a high velocity in the first 100m (7.2±0.1 m/s, slowly decelerated in the second race segment (-0.6±0.1 m/s, and finished with an end sprint (+0.9±0.1 m/s; the 1500m runners with intellectual impairment started slower (6.1±0.3 m/s, accelerated in the second segment (+ 0.2±0

  2. Understanding chemical-potential-related transient pore-pressure response to improve real-time borehole (in)stability predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tare, U.A.; Mody, F.K.; Mese, A.I. [Halliburton Energy Services, Cairo (Egypt)

    2000-11-01

    Experimental studies were conducted to explain the concept of a real-time wellbore (in)stability logging methodology. The role of the chemical potential of drilling fluids on transient pore pressure and time-dependent rock property alterations of shale formations was examined by providing details about a pore pressure transmission (PPT) test. The PPT experiments exposed formation (shale) cores under simulated downhole conditions to various salt solutions and drilling fluids. The main objective was to translate the results of the PPT tests to actual drilling conditions. A 20 per cent w/w calcium chloride solution was exposed to a Pierre II shale under high pressure in the PPT apparatus. The PPT test was used to estimate the impact of a drilling fluid on shale pore pressure. The efficiency of the salt solution/shale system was also estimated. Estimates of the dynamic rock properties were made based on the obtained acoustic data. It was determined that in order to accurately model time-dependent wellbore (in)stability in the field, it is important to calibrate representative shale core response to drilling fluids under realistic in-situ conditions. The 20 per cent w/w calcium chloride solution showed very low membrane efficiency of 4.45 per cent. It was concluded that changes in the shale dynamic rock properties as a function of test fluid exposure can be obtained from the simultaneous acquisition of sonic compression and shear wave velocity data. 12 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA): two cases of epilepsy-related memory disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Steven; Illman, Nathan A; Moulin, Chris J A; Baddeley, Alan D

    2012-07-01

    Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) has long been associated with memory impairment. Recently, two specific forms of memory complaint in this population have been identified: accelerated long-term forgetting (ALF) and transient epileptic amnesia (TEA). This paper presents neuropsychological data (standard neuropsychological tests and experimental measures) on two patients who presented in the epilepsy clinic with seemingly similar subjective reports of profound memory difficulties. This paper illustrates the differences between TEA and ALF. Our focus was on measuring long-term forgetting utilizing a novel visual and verbal test protocol, with responses elicited via verbal prompts over the telephone at intervals up to 30 days. Whereas patient SK had neuropsychological test evidence of problems with learning plus ALF at short and long intervals without clinical evidence of TEA, patient EB had clinically convincing TEA without neuropsychological test evidence of ALF. In particular, SK showed accelerated forgetting while EB did not. This detailed case work develops our understanding of ALF measurement and demonstrates that ALF and TEA can be dissociated. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Transient permeabilization of cell membranes by ultrasound-exposed microbubbles is related to formation of hydrogen peroxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffermans, L J M; Dijkmans, P A; Musters, R J P; Visser, C A; Kamp, O

    2006-10-01

    In the present study, we addressed the interactions among ultrasound, microbubbles, and living cells as well as consequent arising bioeffects. We specifically investigated whether hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) is involved in transient permeabilization of cell membranes in vitro after ultrasound exposure at low diagnostic power, in the presence of stable oscillating microbubbles, by measuring the generation of H(2)O(2) and Ca(2+) influx. Ultrasound, in the absence or presence of SonoVue microbubbles, was applied to H9c2 cells at 1.8 MHz with a mechanical index (MI) of 0.1 or 0.5 during 10 s. This was repeated every minute, for a total of five times. The production of H(2)O(2) was measured intracellularly with CM-H(2)DCFDA. Cell membrane permeability was assessed by measuring real-time changes in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration with fluo-4 using live-cell fluorescence microscopy. Ultrasound, in the presence of microbubbles, caused a significant increase in intracellular H(2)O(2) at MI 0.1 of 50% and MI 0.5 of 110% compared with control (P ultrasound exposure was completely blocked at MI 0.1 (P ultrasound-exposed microbubbles.

  5. Differences in visuo-motor control in skilled vs. novice martial arts athletes during sustained and transient attention tasks: a motor-related cortical potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Lopez, Javier; Fernandez, Thalia; Silva-Pereyra, Juan; Martinez Mesa, Juan A; Di Russo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive and motor processes are essential for optimal athletic performance. Individuals trained in different skills and sports may have specialized cognitive abilities and motor strategies related to the characteristics of the activity and the effects of training and expertise. Most studies have investigated differences in motor-related cortical potential (MRCP) during self-paced tasks in athletes but not in stimulus-related tasks. The aim of the present study was to identify the differences in performance and MRCP between skilled and novice martial arts athletes during two different types of tasks: a sustained attention task and a transient attention task. Behavioral and electrophysiological data from twenty-two martial arts athletes were obtained while they performed a continuous performance task (CPT) to measure sustained attention and a cued continuous performance task (c-CPT) to measure transient attention. MRCP components were analyzed and compared between groups. Electrophysiological data in the CPT task indicated larger prefrontal positive activity and greater posterior negativity distribution prior to a motor response in the skilled athletes, while novices showed a significantly larger response-related P3 after a motor response in centro-parietal areas. A different effect occurred in the c-CPT task in which the novice athletes showed strong prefrontal positive activity before a motor response and a large response-related P3, while in skilled athletes, the prefrontal activity was absent. We propose that during the CPT, skilled athletes were able to allocate two different but related processes simultaneously according to CPT demand, which requires controlled attention and controlled motor responses. On the other hand, in the c-CPT, skilled athletes showed better cue facilitation, which permitted a major economy of resources and "automatic" or less controlled responses to relevant stimuli. In conclusion, the present data suggest that motor expertise

  6. The effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema: a single-blind, randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin-Hyuck

    2017-07-01

    This study was to investigate the effects of complex exercise on shoulder range of motion and pain for women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. 69 women participated in this study and then they were randomly allocated to complex exercise group (n = 35) or the conventional decongestive therapy group (n = 34). All subjects received 8 sessions for 4 weeks. To identify the effects on shoulder range of motion and pain, goniometer and visual analog scale were used, respectively. The outcome measurements were performed before and after the 4 week intervention. After 4 weeks, complex exercise group had greater improvements in shoulder range of motion and pain compared with the conventional decongestive therapy group (p women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. Complex exercise would be useful to improve shoulder range of motion and pain of the women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

  7. Which dimensions of impulsivity are related to problematic practice of physical exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotbagi, Gayatri; Morvan, Yannick; Romo, Lucia; Kern, Laurence

    2017-06-01

    Background and aims Problematic practice of physical exercise (PPPE) has been suggested to be a behavioral addiction. Impulsivity represents a core dimension of behavioral addictions. However, little is known about impulsivity facets in PPPE. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of impulsivity facets in PPPE. Methods A total of 684 students (between 18 and 25 years) took part in this study and filled up a battery of questionnaire, which consisted of following measures - Global Physical Activity Questionnaire, Exercise Dependence Scale - Revised, and the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Multiple regression analyses were utilized to investigate the predictive role of each impulsivity facet in PPPE. Results Age, the total level of physical activity per day, sex (male), negative urgency, and sensation seeking were found to be significant predictors of PPPE. A categorical analysis of PPPE revealed that negative urgency, positive urgency, and sensation seeking were significantly higher in the dependent category of PPPE. Discussion and conclusions Associations to negative urgency and sensation seeking might indicate that PPPE serves to regulate or alleviate negative affect or aversive emotional states. Thus, PPPE could be conceptualized as a short-term coping strategy dedicated to relieving negative affective states, like other maladaptive behaviors such as binge eating, binge drinking, or compulsive buying.

  8. Age related blood flow around the Achilles tendon during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, J; Skovgaard, D

    2001-01-01

    -muscle (1.5 s contraction, 1.5 s rest, 40 min) in young (n = 6; 26 years), middle-aged (n = 6; 48 years), and older (n = 6; 74 years) individuals. At rest, the older individuals had a lower peritendinous blood flow compared with the two other age groups. During exercise, blood flow in all three groups rose......Injuries due to the overuse of tendons increase with age, and it has been suggested that this correlates with hypovascularity of the tendon. In the present study, the peritendinous blood flow was determined using xenon-133 washout at rest and during standardised intermittent exercise of the calf...... 2.5-3.5-fold to reveal similar blood flows [2.7 (SEM 0.5) to 7.8 (SEM 1.0) ml.100 g tissue-1 min-1 (young group); 3.0 (SEM 0.4) to 7.3 (SEM 1.6) ml.100 g tissue-1 min-1 (middle-aged group); 1.6 (SEM 0.2) to 5.5 (SEM 1.1) ml 100 g tissue-1.min-1 (older group)]. The findings demonstrated...

  9. Lessons learned from the quench-11 training exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hohorst, J.K.; Allison, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    16 organizations in 12 countries are participating in a RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise based on the Quench 11 experiment performed at Karlsruhe (Germany) in 2005. This exercise is being conducted in parallel to an International Standard Problem (ISP). Both the ISP and the RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise included a 'semi-blind' portion that was completed in the fall of 2006 and an 'open' portion that is to be completed in the summer of 2007. The RELAP/SCDAPSIM training exercise is coordinated by Innovative Systems Software with support by the International SCDAP Development and Training Program (SDTP). The Quench-11 experiment is based on an electrically heated fuel rod bundle representative of a PWR design. The bundle was subjected to a boil down transient, heat-up, and quenching with peak temperatures exceeding the melting point of the Zircaloy cladding. This experiment was chosen by the European Union as an International Benchmark exercise to compare the effectiveness of quenching models in the severe accident computer codes used today for accident analysis. This paper briefly describes (a) RELAP/SCDAPSIM/MOD3.4, (b) the Quench facility and experiments used in the training exercise, and (c) the training guidelines provided to the participants followed by a more detailed description of the lessons learned from the initial 'semi-blind' portion. The representative results demonstrate that good analysts can still have a difficult time predicting the thermal hydraulic response of a relative simple transient in a complex system

  10. Criteria for safety-related nuclear-power-plant operator actions: 1982 pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) simulator exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, D.S.; Beare, A.N.; Kozinsky, E.J.; Haas, P.M.

    1983-06-01

    The primary objective of the Safety-Related Operator Action (SROA) Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is to provide a data base to support development of criteria for safety-related actions by nuclear power plant operators. When compared to field data collected on similar events, a base of operator performance data developed from the simulator experiments can then be used to establish safety-related operator action design evaluation criteria, evaluate the effects of performance shaping factors, and support safety/risk assessment analyses. This report presents data obtained from refresher training exercises conducted in a pressurized water reactor (PWR) power plant control room simulator. The 14 exercises were performed by 24 teams of licensed operators from one utility, and operator performance was recorded by an automatic Performance Measurement System. Data tapes were analyzed to extract operator response times (RTs) and error rate information. Demographic and subjective data were collected by means of brief questionnaires and analyzed in an attempt to evaluate the effects of selected performance shaping factors on operator performance

  11. Exercise as an Intervention to Reduce Study-Related Fatigue among University Students: A Two-Arm Parallel Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juriena D de Vries

    Full Text Available Many university students experience high levels of study-related fatigue. This high prevalence, and the negative impact of fatigue on health and academic performance, call for prevention and reduction of these symptoms. The primary aim of the current study was to investigate to what extent an exercise intervention is effective in reducing three indicators of study-related fatigue (emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and need for recovery. Effects of exercise on secondary outcomes (sleep quality, self-efficacy, physical fitness, and cognitive functioning were also investigated.Participants were students with high levels of study-related fatigue, currently not exercising or receiving other psychological or pharmacological treatments, and with no medical cause of fatigue. They were randomly assigned to either a six-week exercise intervention (low-intensity running three times a week, n = 49 or wait list (no intervention, n = 48. All participants were measured before the intervention (T0, and immediately after the intervention (T1. Exercisers were also investigated 4 weeks (T2 and 12 weeks (T3 after the intervention.Participants in the exercise condition showed a larger decrease in two of the three indicators of study-related fatigue (i.e., overall fatigue and need for recovery as compared to controls. Additionally, sleep quality and some indicators of cognitive functioning improved more among exercisers than among controls. No effects were found for self-efficacy, and physical fitness. The initial effects of the exercise intervention lasted at follow-up (T2 and T3. At 12-week follow up (T3, 80% of participants in the exercise condition still engaged in regular exercise, and further enhancements were seen for emotional exhaustion, overall fatigue, and sleep quality.These results underline the value of low-intensity exercise for university students with high levels of study-related fatigue. The follow-up effects that were found in this study imply

  12. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils' academic achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Danilo; Jimmefors, Alexander; Mousavi, Fariba; Adrianson, Lillemor; Rosenberg, Patricia; Archer, Trevor

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulation strategies (i.e., locomotion and assessment). Well-being was measured using Ryff's Psychological Well-Being Scales short version, the Temporal Satisfaction with Life Scale, and the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule. Exercise behaviour was self-reported using questions pertaining to frequency and intensity of exercise compliance. Academic achievement was operationalized through the pupils' mean value of final grades in Swedish, Mathematics, English, and Physical Education. Both correlation and regressions analyses were conducted. Results. Academic achievement was positively related to assessment, well-being, and frequent/intensive exercise behaviour. Assessment was, however, negatively related to well-being. Locomotion on the other hand was positively associated to well-being and also to exercise behaviour. Conclusions. The results suggest a dual (in)direct model to increase pupils' academic achievement and well-being-assessment being directly related to higher academic achievement, while locomotion is related to frequently exercising and well-being, which in turn, increase academic achievement.

  13. Health-related quality of life and stages of behavioural change for exercise in overweight/obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romain, A J; Bernard, P; Attalin, V; Gernigon, C; Ninot, G; Avignon, A

    2012-10-01

    Stages of change in exercise behaviour have been shown to be associated with health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in overweight/obese adults. However, studies examining this relationship have not used questionnaires specifically designed for such a population. The present study assessed the impact of stages of change (SOC) for exercise, using the transtheoretical model, on the HRQoL, using the quality of life, obesity and dietetics (QOLOD) scale, an obesity-specific QoL questionnaire. Our hypothesis was that the more people are in the advanced stages of behavioural change, the better their HRQoL. A total of 214 consecutive obese individuals (148 women/66 men, mean age 47.4 ± 14.0 years, BMI 37.2 ± 8.4 kg/m2) were included in the cross-sectional study, and all completed SOC and QOLOD questionnaires. Multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) established significant effects on the overall composite of the five dimensions of the QOLOD (P food (P = 0.13) or on the dieting experience (P = 0.13), two dimensions evaluating attitudes toward food. In obese/overweight individuals, the HRQoL varies with the SOC, with those in the more advanced behavioural stages reporting better HRQoL. However, dimensions related to food showed no differences according to SOC, confirming the complexity of the relationship between exercise and nutrition, and the need for further studies to acquire a more complete understanding of their underlying mechanisms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Gene expression in mdx mouse muscle in relation to age and exercise: aberrant mechanical-metabolic coupling and implications for pre-clinical studies in Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camerino, Giulia Maria; Cannone, Maria; Giustino, Arcangela; Massari, Ada Maria; Capogrosso, Roberta Francesca; Cozzoli, Anna; De Luca, Annamaria

    2014-11-01

    Weakness and fatigability are typical features of Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients and are aggravated in dystrophic mdx mice by chronic treadmill exercise. Mechanical activity modulates gene expression and muscle plasticity. Here, we investigated the outcome of 4 (T4, 8 weeks of age) and 12 (T12, 16 weeks of age) weeks of either exercise or cage-based activity on a large set of genes in the gastrocnemius muscle of mdx and wild-type (WT) mice using quantitative real-time PCR. Basal expression of the exercise-sensitive genes peroxisome-proliferator receptor γ coactivator 1α (Pgc-1α) and Sirtuin1 (Sirt1) was higher in mdx versus WT mice at both ages. Exercise increased Pgc-1α expression in WT mice; Pgc-1α was downregulated by T12 exercise in mdx muscles, along with Sirt1, Pparγ and the autophagy marker Bnip3. Sixteen weeks old mdx mice showed a basal overexpression of the slow Mhc1 isoform and Serca2; T12 exercise fully contrasted this basal adaptation as well as the high expression of follistatin and myogenin. Conversely, T12 exercise was ineffective in WT mice. Damage-related genes such as gp91-phox (NADPH-oxidase2), Tgfβ, Tnfα and c-Src tyrosine kinase were overexpressed in mdx muscles and not affected by exercise. Likewise, the anti-inflammatory adiponectin was lower in T12-exercised mdx muscles. Chronic exercise with minor adaptive effects in WT muscles leads to maladaptation in mdx muscles with a disequilibrium between protective and damaging signals. Increased understanding of the pathways involved in the altered mechanical-metabolic coupling may help guide appropriate physical therapies while better addressing pharmacological interventions in translational research. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. The dynamics of success and failure: how post-behaviour evaluations relate to subsequent exercise intentions and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Bethany M; Bryan, Angela D; Sheeran, Paschal

    2018-01-25

    Exercise behaviour change involves multiple experiences with success and failure. The Model of Action Phases (MAP) offers a dynamic account of how success and failure influence both immediate evaluations and future decisions and actions. However, predictions from the MAP have not been formally tested. A longitudinal daily diary study was used to examine how post-behaviour evaluations of exercise success and failure influence subsequent exercise intentions and behaviour. Participants (N = 104) set exercise goals, and then kept a daily online exercise diary for four weeks. Participants self-reported exercise behaviour, affective response to exercise, self-evaluations after success or failure at following through on intentions to exercise, and intentions to exercise in the next week. Multilevel modelling revealed significant within- and between-participant relationships among post-behaviour evaluations, intentions and subsequent behaviour. Findings supported MAP-derived predictions about how success and failure at exercise are associated with feelings about exercise and the self, and inform subsequent exercise intentions and behaviour. Positive post-behaviour evaluations of success or failure may stabilise positive intentions and aid maintenance of exercise behaviour. Implications of these MAP-based findings for intervention design are discussed.

  16. Metabolic effects of beta2-agonists in relation to exercise performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalsen, Anders

    2015-01-01

    athletes. The present PhD thesis is based on four manuscripts in which the acute effects of beta2-agonists on exercise performance were investigated. The aims were 1) to investigate whether supratherapeutic inhalation of beta2-agonists enhances muscle strength, anaerobic performance and aerobic performance......, 2) to uncover the mechanisms behind potential beta2-adrenergic improvements in anaerobic performance, 3) to investigate whether inhalation of beta2-agonists is ergogenic in elite athletes with or without airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR). Results from the studies of the thesis show...... administration of a certain dose, but a further increase in dose does not seem to elicit a greater performance-enhancing effect. Moreover, the effects of beta2-agonists on performance are unaffected by training status and AHR, but athletes with AHR who regularly use beta2-agonists get a reduced ergogenic...

  17. Positive and Negative Affect Is Related to Experiencing Chest Pain During Exercise-Induced Myocardial Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stébenne, Philippe; Bacon, Simon L; Austin, Anthony; Paine, Nicola J; Arsenault, André; Laurin, Catherine; Meloche, Bernard; Gordon, Jennifer; Dupuis, Jocelyn; Lavoie, Kim L

    2017-05-01

    Silent myocardial ischemia is thought to be associated with worse cardiovascular outcomes due to a lack of perception of pain cues that initiate treatment seeking. Negative affect (NA) has been associated with increased pain reporting and positive affect (PA) with decreased pain reporting, but these psychological factors have not been examined within the context of myocardial ischemia. This study evaluated the associations between PA, NA, and chest pain reporting in patients with and without ischemia during exercise testing. A total of 246 patients referred for myocardial perfusion single-photon emission computed tomography exercise stress testing completed the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded version, a measure of PA and NA. Presence of chest pain and myocardial ischemia were evaluated using standardized protocols. Logistic regression analyses revealed that for every 1-point increase in NA, there was a 13% higher chance for ischemic patients (odds ratio [OR] = 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02 to 1.26) and an 11% higher chance in nonischemic patients (OR = 1.11; 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.19) to report chest pain. A significant interaction of PA and NA on chest pain reporting (β = 0.02; 95% CI = 0.002 to 0.031) was also observed; nonischemic patients with high NA and PA reported more chest pain (57%) versus patients with low NA and low PA (13%), with high NA and low PA (17%), and with high PA and low NA (7%). Patients who experience higher NA are more likely to report experiencing chest pain. In patients without ischemia, high NA and PA was also associated with a higher likelihood of reporting chest pain. Results suggest that high levels of PA as well as NA may increase the experience and/or reporting of chest pain.

  18. Effects of endurance training and competition on exercise tests in relatively untrained people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verstappen, F T; Janssen, G M; Does, R J

    1989-10-01

    One hundred fourteen subjects (34 +/- 8 years) without any competition background took part in an endurance training study to be completed after 1.5 years with running a marathon. Ultimately, 60 males and 18 females achieved that goal. The training program, carefully supervised, was divided into three phases with a maximum of 45, 70, and 110 km/week training volume and concluded with a performance race of 15, 25, and 42.195 km, respectively. Three days before and 3 and 5 days after each race, 35 subjects were selected to perform a progressive treadmill test and the remaining subjects participated in performing field tests of running 400 and 1000 m. The maximal velocity achieved in the treadmill test was 4.75 +/- 0.36 m.s-1 for males and 4.18 +/- 0.28 m.s-1 for females; it remained constant throughout the study. However, the running velocity at 4 mmol.1(-1) plasma lactate concentration increased about 10% from phase 1 to 3. In the females this rise already appeared to be completed in phase 2. Heart rate showed a tendency to increase at both submaximal and maximal exercise from training phase 1 to 2 and 3, whereas plasma lactate concentration showed a decreasing tendency. Three days after the 25 km and the marathon race the maximal running velocity in the exercise test was 2%-4% lower compared with the pre-race test (P less than 0.05). Five days after the race this difference again faded away. This small decline in running performance was not reflected in changes of physiologic responses such as heart rate or plasma lactate concentration.

  19. Exercise interventions for the improvement of falls-related outcomes among older adults with diabetes mellitus: A systematic review and meta-analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Anna; Meyer, Claudia; Renehan, Emma; Hill, Keith D; Browning, Colette J

    2017-03-01

    Falls as a complication of diabetes mellitus (DM) can have a major impact on the health of older adults. Previous reviews have demonstrated that certain exercise interventions are effective at reducing falls in older people; however, no studies have quantified the effectiveness of exercise interventions on falls-related outcomes among older adults with DM. A systematic search for all years to September 2015 identified available literature. Eligibility criteria included: appropriate exercise intervention/s; assessed falls-related outcomes; older adults with DM. Effect sizes were pooled using a random effects model. Positive effect sizes favoured the intervention. Ten RCTs were eligible for the meta-analyses. Exercise interventions were more effective than the control condition for static balance (0.53, 95% CI: 0.13 to 0.93), lower-limb strength (0.63, 95% CI: 0.09 to 1.18), and gait (0.59, 95% CI: 0.22 to 0.96). No RCTs assessed falls-risk; one RCT reported 12month falls-rate, with no differential treatment effect observed. Exercise interventions can improve certain falls-related outcomes among older adults with DM. Substantial heterogeneity and limited numbers of studies should be considered when interpreting results. Among older adults, where DM burden is increasing, exercise interventions may provide promising approaches to assist the improvement of falls-related outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Liver stiffness by transient elastography predicts liver-related complications and mortality in patients with chronic liver disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jack X Q Pang

    Full Text Available Liver stiffness measurement (LSM by transient elastography (TE, FibroScan is a validated method for noninvasively staging liver fibrosis. Most hepatic complications occur in patients with advanced fibrosis. Our objective was to determine the ability of LSM by TE to predict hepatic complications and mortality in a large cohort of patients with chronic liver disease.In consecutive adults who underwent LSM by TE between July 2008 and June 2011, we used Cox regression to determine the independent association between liver stiffness and death or hepatic complications (decompensation, hepatocellular carcinoma, and liver transplantation. The performance of LSM to predict complications was determined using the c-statistic.Among 2,052 patients (median age 51 years, 65% with hepatitis B or C, 87 patients (4.2% died or developed a hepatic complication during a median follow-up period of 15.6 months (interquartile range, 11.0-23.5 months. Patients with complications had higher median liver stiffness than those without complications (13.5 vs. 6.0 kPa; P<0.00005. The 2-year incidence rates of death or hepatic complications were 2.6%, 9%, 19%, and 34% in patients with liver stiffness <10, 10-19.9, 20-39.9, and ≥40 kPa, respectively (P<0.00005. After adjustment for potential confounders, liver stiffness by TE was an independent predictor of complications (hazard ratio [HR] 1.05 per kPa; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.03-1.06. The c-statistic of liver-stiffness for predicting complications was 0.80 (95% CI 0.75-0.85. A liver stiffness below 20 kPa effectively excluded complications (specificity 93%, negative predictive value 97%; however, the positive predictive value of higher results was sub-optimal (20%.Liver stiffness by TE accurately predicts the risk of death or hepatic complications in patients with chronic liver disease. TE may facilitate the estimation of prognosis and guide management of these patients.

  1. Effects of augmented exercise therapy on outcome of gait and gait-related activities in the first 6 months after stroke: a meta-analysis.

    OpenAIRE

    Veerbeek, J.M.; Koolstra, M.; Ket, J.C.F.; Wegen, van, E.E.H.; Kwakkel, G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE-: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of augmented exercise therapy on gait, gait-related activities, and (basic and extended) activities of daily living within the first 6 months poststroke. METHODS-: A systematic literature search in electronic databases from 1990 until October 2010 was performed. Randomized controlled trials were included in which the experimental group spent augmented time in lower-limb exercise therapy compared with the control g...

  2. Effect of square stepping exercise for older adults to prevent fall and injury related to fall: systematic review and meta-analysis of current evidences

    OpenAIRE

    Fisseha, Berihu; Janakiraman, Balamurugan; Yitayeh, Asmare; Ravichandran, Hariharasudhan

    2017-01-01

    Falls and fall related injuries become an emerging health problem among older adults. As a result a review of the recent evidences is needed to design a prevention strategy. The aim of this review was to determine the effect of square stepping exercise (SSE) for fall down injury among older adults compared with walking training or other exercises. An electronic database search for relevant randomized control trials published in English from 2005 to 2016 was conducted. Articles with outcome me...

  3. Acupuncture and physical exercise for affective symptoms and health-related quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Holm, G?ran; Janson, Per Olof; Gustafson, Deborah; Waern, Margda

    2013-01-01

    Background Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have symptoms of depression and anxiety and impaired health related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we test the post-hoc hypothesis that acupuncture and exercise improve depression and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL in PCOS women. Methods Seventy-two PCOS women were randomly assigned to 16?weeks of 1) acupuncture (n?=?28); 2) exercise (n?=?29); or 3) no intervention (control) (n?=?15). Outcome measures included: change in Montgomery ?sberg Depr...

  4. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuang J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of an innovative exercise program on muscle strength, balance, and gait kinematics in elderly community-dwellers. The exercise program included strength and balance training and the 8-form Tai Chi Chuan. The measurements were carried out at baseline and 12 weeks, and consisted of four physical performance tests, joint isokinetic strength tests, and three-dimensional gait analysis. Fifty-six community-dwelling older adults aged 60–80 years old were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. After 12 weeks, the intervention group showed a 17.6% improvement in the timed up and go test, accompanied by a 54.7% increase in the 30-second chair stand test score. Significant increases in the score of star excursion balance tests, and the strength of the extensor and flexor muscles at knee and ankle joints were also observed. In addition, the intervention group walked at a faster speed with a longer step length, shorter support phase, and a greater sagittal plane range of motion at the hip and ankle joints. No statistical improvements were seen in the control group. This study provided an effective, evidence-based falls prevention program that can be implemented in community settings to improve physical fitness and reduce fall risks among community-dwelling older adults. The star excursion balance test could be a sensitive measure of physical performance for fall risk assessment in older people. Keywords: Tai Chi Chuan, resistance training, balance, fall prevention, fall-related

  5. Effects of Pilates and trunk strengthening exercises on health-related quality of life in women with chronic low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofotolis, Nikolaos; Kellis, Eleftherios; Vlachopoulos, Symeon P; Gouitas, Iraklis; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2016-11-21

    Pilates programs are widely used as a form of regular exercise in a broad range of populations investigating their effectiveness for chronic low back pain (CLBP) treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of a Pilates program and a trunk strengthening exercise program on functional disability and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in women with nonspecific CLBP. A total of 101 volunteer women with CLBP provided data with a 3-month follow-up. They were randomized to either a Pilates (n= 37), trunk strengthening exercise (n= 36) or a control group (n= 28), exercising for a period of 8 weeks, three times a week. Data were collected on HRQOL using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey (SF-36v2), and functional disability using the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire prior to program initiation, mid-intervention, immediately after program termination, and three months post-intervention. The Pilates participants reported greater improvements on self-reported functional disability and HRQOL compared with participants in the trunk strengthening exercise and control groups (p Pilates group and to a lesser extent for the trunk strengthening exercise group. An 8-week Pilates program improved HRQOL and reduced functional disability more than either a trunk strengthening exercise program or controls among women with CLBP.

  6. Relation of Angina Pectoris to Outcomes, Quality of Life and Response to Exercise Training in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure (from HF-ACTION)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parikh, Kishan S.; Coles, Adrian; Schulte, Phillip J.; Kraus, William E.; Fleg, Jerome L.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Piña, Ileana L.; Fiuzat, Mona; Whellan, David J.; O’Connor, Christopher M.; Mentz, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    Angina pectoris (AP) is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure (HF). We investigated the association of AP with health-related quality of life (HRQoL), exercise capacity, and clinical outcomes, and its interaction with exercise training in a HF population. We grouped 2,331 HF patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF) in the HF-ACTION trial of usual care +/− exercise training according to whether they had self-reported AP by Canadian classification score (CCS). HRQoL and clinical outcomes were assessed by AP status. In HF-ACTION, 406 (17%) patients had AP at baseline (44% with CCS ≥ II) with HF severity similar to those without AP. Patients with AP had similar baseline exercise capacity but worse depressive symptoms and HRQoL. AP was associated with 22% greater adjusted risk for all-cause mortality/hospitalizations, driven by hospitalizations. There was significant interaction between baseline AP and exercise training peak VO2 change (P=0.019), but not other endpoints. Exercise training was associated with greater peak VO2 improvement after 3 months in patients with AP (treatment effect=1.25 mL/kg/min, 95% CI=0.6–1.9). In conclusion, AP was associated with worse HRQoL and depressive symptoms. Despite greater peak VO2 improvement with exercise training, patients with AP experienced more adverse outcomes. PMID:27561194

  7. Effects of exercise training on fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life among adults with multiple sclerosis: a systematic review to inform guideline development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latimer-Cheung, Amy E; Pilutti, Lara A; Hicks, Audrey L; Martin Ginis, Kathleen A; Fenuta, Alyssa M; MacKibbon, K Ann; Motl, Robert W

    2013-09-01

    To conduct a systematic review of evidence surrounding the effects of exercise training on physical fitness, mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life in adults with multiple sclerosis (MS). The databases included EMBASE, 1980 to 2011 (wk 12); Ovid MEDLINE and Ovid OLDMEDLINE, 1947 to March (wk 3) 2011; PsycINFO, 1967 to March (wk 4) 2011; CINAHL all-inclusive; SPORTDiscus all-inclusive; Cochrane Library all-inclusive; and Physiotherapy Evidence Database all-inclusive. The review was limited to English-language studies (published before December 2011) of people with MS that evaluated the effects of exercise training on outcomes of physical fitness, mobility, fatigue, and/or health-related quality of life. One research assistant extracted data and rated study quality. A second research assistant verified the extraction and quality assessment. From the 4362 studies identified, 54 studies were included in the review. The extracted data were analyzed using a descriptive approach. There was strong evidence that exercise performed 2 times per week at a moderate intensity increases aerobic capacity and muscular strength. The evidence was not consistent regarding the effects of exercise training on other outcomes. Among those with mild to moderate disability from MS, there is sufficient evidence that exercise training is effective for improving both aerobic capacity and muscular strength. Exercise may improve mobility, fatigue, and health-related quality of life. Copyright © 2013 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. INEX 5 - General information. INEX 5 Exercise on Notification, Communication and Interfaces Related to Catastrophic Events Involving Radiation or Radiological Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okyar, Halil Burcin; Lazo, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The INEX series of international nuclear emergency exercises, organised under the OECD Nuclear Energy Agency (NEA), has proven successful in testing, investigating and improving the arrangements for responding to nuclear accidents and radiological emergencies at the national and international level. Previous INEX exercises focussed largely on national and international aspects of early phase management of emergencies at nuclear power plants and more recently, in INEX 4, on issues in consequence management and transition to recovery in response to malicious acts involving the release of radioactive materials in an urban setting. Since the events at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant, it has been recognised that notification, communication, and identifying and obtaining resources during catastrophic events can be difficult and the need for established protocols, policies, and procedures among and between country entities is critical for minimizing negative impacts. Therefore, the benefit and goal of INEX 5 is to provide a basis for enhancing national and international emergency management arrangements related to notification, communication and obtaining resources through the exchange of exercise outcomes and experiences from participating countries, in order to identify good practice and common issues to be addressed. INEX 5 will address emergency management aspects of notification, communication and interfaces between and among country and international organizations. INEX 5 is set up as a table top exercise with three levels of discussion for participants (prior to a release, recognizing/validating a release, and impacts to the radiological event from a catastrophic natural event). Countries can develop additional materials to expand this table top to a full field exercise if preferred. Prior to initiation of the table top, participants will be provided clear guidance about how the exercise will be conducted. Because this exercise may involve government agencies and

  9. The effect of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and pain-related cellular reactions in the spinal cord and midbrain in a rat sciatic nerve injury model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumizono M

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Megumi Sumizono,1,2 Harutoshi Sakakima,1 Shotaro Otsuka,1 Takuto Terashi,1 Kazuki Nakanishi,1,2 Koki Ueda,1,2 Seiya Takada,1,2 Kiyoshi Kikuchi3 1Course of Physical Therapy, School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima, Japan; 2Kirishima Orthopedics, Kirishima, Japan; 3Division of Brain Science, Department of Physiology, Kurume University School of Medicine, Kurume, Japan Background: Exercise regimens are established methods that can relieve neuropathic pain. However, the relationship between frequency and intensity of exercise and multiple cellular responses of exercise-induced alleviation of neuropathic pain is still unclear. We examined the influence of exercise frequency on neuropathic pain and the intracellular responses in a sciatic nerve chronic constriction injury (CCI model. Materials and methods: Rats were assigned to four groups as follows: CCI and high-frequency exercise (HFE group, CCI and low-frequency exercise (LFE group, CCI and no exercise (No-Ex group, and naive animals (control group. Rats ran on a treadmill, at a speed of 20 m/min, for 30 min, for 5 (HFE or 3 (LFE days a week, for a total of 5 weeks. The 50% withdrawal threshold was evaluated for mechanical sensitivity. The activation of glial cells (microglia and astrocytes, expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and μ-opioid receptor in the spinal dorsal horn and endogenous opioid in the midbrain were examined using immunohistochemistry. Opioid receptor antagonists (naloxone were administered using intraperitoneal injection. Results: The development of neuropathic pain was related to the activation of glial cells, increased BDNF expression, and downregulation of the μ-opioid receptor in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. In the No-Ex group, neuropathic pain showed the highest level of mechanical hypersensitivity at 2 weeks, which improved slightly until 5 weeks after CCI. In both exercise groups, the alleviation of

  10. Prevention of age-related endothelial dysfunction by habitual aerobic exercise in healthy humans: possible role of nuclear factor κB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Ashley E; Kaplon, Rachelle E; Pierce, Gary L; Nowlan, Molly J; Seals, Douglas R

    2014-12-01

    Habitual aerobic exercise prevents age-related impairments in endothelium-dependent dilation (EDD). We have hypothesized that the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) impairs EDD with sedentary aging, and habitual aerobic exercise prevents this age-related suppression of EDD by NF-κB. To test this hypothesis, we have inhibited NF-κB signalling via oral salsalate administration in healthy older aerobic exercise-trained adults (OT, n=14, 58 ± 2 years), older non-exercising adults (ON, n=16, 61 ± 1 years) and young non-exercising controls (YN, n=8, 23 ± 1 years). Salsalate reduced endothelial cell expression of NF-κB p65 by ~25% in ON (P0.05). EDD, assessed by brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), was improved by salsalate in ON (4.0 ± 0.7% compared with 6.8 ± 0.7%, placebo compared with salsalate, P0.05). Endothelium-independent dilation was not affected by salsalate in any group (P>0.05). In ON, vitamin C infusion improved FMD by ~30% during placebo (P0.05). In OT and YN, vitamin C infusion did not affect FMD during either placebo or salsalate (P>0.05). Salsalate reduced endothelial cell nitrotyrosine content by ~25% and NADPH oxidase p47phox expression by ~30% in ON (P0.05). Our results suggest that endothelial NF-κB signalling is associated with oxidative stress-related impairment of EDD in healthy non-exercising but not aerobically exercising older adults. This may be a key mechanism by which regular aerobic exercise preserves endothelial function and reduces cardiovascular risk with aging.

  11. The relation between angina and myocardial ischemia during exercise stress in coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa

    1988-01-01

    To examine the mechanism of occurrence of anginal chest pain from the aspect of myocardial ischemia, myocardial Tl-201 SPECT scans were obtained immediately and 3 hr after exercise (Ex) in 35 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). The extent of ischemia was defined as the percentage of ischemic segments to the entire left ventricle. The minimum washout (WO) rate correlated well with the ratio of Tl uptake in the ischemic area to that in the normal area during Ex in the other 9 patients having single vessel CAD without previous history of myocardial infarction. This suggested that the miminum WO rate reflects the severity of Ex-induced ischemia. According to the development of angina during Ex, patients were classified as having either symptomatic ischemia (n = 16) or silent ischemia (n = 19). In regard to age, sex, a history of myocardial infarction, severity of CAD, and the extent of Ex-induced ischemia, there was no difference between the two groups. The minimum WO rate and the incidence of Ex-induced ST depression were significantly lower and higher, respectively, in the group with symptomatic ischemia than that with silent ischemia. The severity of Ex-induced ischemia has important implications for the development of anginal chest pain. (Namekawa, K.)

  12. Relation among 25(OH)D, Aquatic Exercises, and Multifunctional Fitness on Functional Performance of Elderly Women from the Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, N A Perigo; Moreira, P F P; Marin, R V; Moreira, L D F; Castro, M Lazaretti; Santos, C A F; Filho, C M A; Cendoroglo, M Seabra

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate if there is a relation among 25(OH)D, aquatic training, and multifunctional fitness on functional performance of elderly woman from the community. Cross-sectional study. Community. We evaluated elderly women aged ≥ 60 years (67±5 years old). One-hundred eighty were engaged in aquatic training (AT), 119 in multifunctional fitness (MF) for at least one year, and sedentary group (SED) with 162 independent elderly women from the community centers who had not practicing any regular physical exercise at least one year before. Timed up-and-go (TUG), 2-minute step test (2MST), 30-second chair stand (CS), arm curl (AC), functional reach test (FRT), unipedal balance test (UB) with visual control, handgrip right (HR) and handgrip left (HL) portable dynamometer for strength hip flexors (Hip strength) and knee extensors (Knee strength), serum 25(OH)D, intact parathyroid hormone (PTH), and creatinine clearance. Physical and functional tests showed differences among the three groups (ST; TUG, CS, AC, FR and USB = p test correlated inversely with 25(OH)D (r = -0.29 - p test showed positive correlation (r = 0, 1 - p test (p= 0.049). TUG performance was associated with age, exercise type and serum levels of 25(OH)D. The 25(OH)D insufficiency was common in elderly women from subtropical areas.

  13. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N; Smith, April R; Fussner, Lauren M; Dodd, Dorian R; Clerkin, Elise M

    2016-01-01

    "Fast" (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; "slow" (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence.

  14. Transient pseudohypoaldosteronism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stajić Nataša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Infants with urinary tract malformations (UTM presenting with urinary tract infection (UTI are prone to develop transient type 1 pseudohypoaldosteronism (THPA1. Objective. Report on patient series with characteristics of THPA1, UTM and/or UTI and suggestions for the diagnosis and therapy. Methods. Patients underwent blood and urine electrolyte and acid-base analysis, serum aldosterosterone levels and plasma rennin activity measuring; urinalysis, urinoculture and renal ultrasound were done and medical and/or surgical therapy was instituted. Results. Hyponatraemia (120.9±5.8 mmol/L, hyperkalaemia (6.9±0.9 mmol/L, metabolic acidosis (plasma bicarbonate, 11±1.4 mmol/L, and a rise in serum creatinine levels (145±101 μmol/L were associated with inappropriately high urinary sodium (51.3±17.5 mmol/L and low potassium (14.1±5.9 mmol/L excretion. Elevated plasma aldosterone concentrations (170.4±100.5 ng/dL and the very high levels of the plasma aldosterone to potassium ratio (25.2±15.6 together with diminished urinary K/Na values (0.31±0.19 indicated tubular resistance to aldosterone. After institution of appropriate medical and/or surgical therapy, serum electrolytes, creatinine, and acid-base balance were normalized. Imaging studies showed ureteropyelic or ureterovesical junction obstruction in 3 and 2 patients, respectively, posterior urethral valves in 3, and normal UT in 1 patient. According to our knowledge, this is the first report on THPA1 in the Serbian literature. Conclusion. Male infants with hyponatraemia, hyperkalaemia and metabolic acidosis have to have their urine examined and the renal ultrasound has to be done in order to avoid both, the underdiagnosis of THPA1 and the inappropriate medication.

  15. Behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise among American college students relative to stages of change and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ersöz, Gözde; Eklund, Robert C

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise among university students in terms of gender and stage of change. Data were collected from American college students (N = 257; M age ± SD = 23.02 ± 4.05) in Spring 2013. Behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise were assessed, along with stage of change. Exercisers in the maintenance stage of change displayed significantly more self-determined motivation to exercise and a greater tendency to experience flow than those in preparation and action stages. Significant correlations were observed among behavioral regulations and flow state. Nonsignificant differences were observed for gender on behavioral regulations and dispositional flow in exercise. The results suggest that promotion of self-determined motivation and dispositional flow in exercisers may improve the quality of their experiences, as well as to foster their exercise behavior.

  16. Design of a randomized controlled trial of physical training and cancer (Phys-Can) - the impact of exercise intensity on cancer related fatigue, quality of life and disease outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Aaronson, Neil K; Buffart, Laurien

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cancer-related fatigue is a common problem in persons with cancer, influencing health-related quality of life and causing a considerable challenge to society. Current evidence supports the beneficial effects of physical exercise in reducing fatigue, but the results across studies...... are not consistent, especially in terms of exercise intensity. It is also unclear whether use of behaviour change techniques can further increase exercise adherence and maintain physical activity behaviour. This study will investigate whether exercise intensity affects fatigue and health related quality of life...... on exercise adherence. We will also investigate whether exercise intensity influences inflammatory markers and cytokines, and whether gene expressions following training serve as mediators for the effects of exercise on fatigue and health related quality of life. METHODS/DESIGN: Six hundred newly diagnosed...

  17. Delayed hippocampal neuronal death in young gerbil following transient global cerebral ischemia is related to higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the ischemic hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eun Joo Bae

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The tumor suppressor p63 is one of p53 family members and plays a vital role as a regulator of neuronal apoptosis in the development of the nervous system. However, the role of p63 in mature neuronal death has not been addressed yet. In this study, we first compared ischemia-induced effects on p63 expression in the hippocampal regions (CA1- 3 between the young and adult gerbils subjected to 5 minutes of transient global cerebral ischemia. Neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 region of young gerbils was significantly slow compared with that in the adult gerbils after transient global cerebral ischemia. p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in the sham-operated young group was significantly low compared with that in the sham-operated adult group. p63 immunoreactivity was apparently changed in ischemic hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. In the ischemia-operated adult groups, p63 immunoreactivity in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons was significantly decreased at 4 days post-ischemia; however, p63 immunoreactivity in the ischemia-operated young group was significantly higher than that in the ischemia-operated adult group. At 7 days post-ischemia, p63 immunoreactivity was decreased in the hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons in both ischemia-operated young and adult groups. Change patterns of p63 level in the hippocampal CA1 region of adult and young gerbils after ischemic damage were similar to those observed in the immunohistochemical results. These findings indicate that higher and longer-term expression of p63 in the hippocampal CA1 region of the young gerbils after ischemia/reperfusion may be related to more delayed neuronal death compared to that in the adults.

  18. Exercise-Induced Oxidative Stress Responses in the Pediatric Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Avloniti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Adults demonstrate an upregulation of their pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms in response to acute exercise while systematic exercise training enhances their antioxidant capacity, thereby leading to a reduced generation of free radicals both at rest and in response to exercise stress. However, less information exists regarding oxidative stress responses and the underlying mechanisms in the pediatric population. Evidence suggests that exercise-induced redox perturbations may be valuable in order to monitor exercise-induced inflammatory responses and as such training overload in children and adolescents as well as monitor optimal growth and development. The purpose of this review was to provide an update on oxidative stress responses to acute and chronic exercise in youth. It has been documented that acute exercise induces age-specific transient alterations in both oxidant and antioxidant markers in children and adolescents. However, these responses seem to be affected by factors such as training phase, training load, fitness level, mode of exercise etc. In relation to chronic adaptation, the role of training on oxidative stress adaptation has not been adequately investigated. The two studies performed so far indicate that children and adolescents exhibit positive adaptations of their antioxidant system, as adults do. More studies are needed in order to shed light on oxidative stress and antioxidant responses, following acute exercise and training adaptations in youth. Available evidence suggests that small amounts of oxidative stress may be necessary for growth whereas the transition to adolescence from childhood may promote maturation of pro- and anti-oxidant mechanisms. Available evidence also suggests that obesity may negatively affect basal and exercise-related antioxidant responses in the peripubertal period during pre- and early-puberty.

  19. How effective is the integration of Sport and Exercise Medicine in the English National Health Service for sport related injury treatment and health management?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullen, Emma; Malcolm, Dominic; Wheeler, Patrick

    2018-06-07

    Regular participation in sport, exercise and physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes and form a mainstay of British public health policies. However, regular participation in sport and exercise can result in sport related injury (SRI) which, in turn, is a key cause of exercise cessation. The integration of Sport and Exercise Medicine (SEM) in the English National Health Service (NHS) aims to provide a specialist service for public populations and thus reduce the impact of SRI on exercise cessation and associated negative health outcomes. More broadly it aims to both support physical activity health promotion policies and improve healthcare organisations efficiencies through providing the most condition-appropriate treatment. This qualitative interview study examines patients' (n=19) experiences of accessing and receiving SEM treatment within the English NHS. The research demonstrates that referral pathways into SEM were often prolonged, characterised by multiple General Practitioner (GP) visits and referrals into other musculoskeletal services, demonstrating an inefficient use of healthcare resources. Prolonged pathways fostered only limited recovery back to previous physical activity levels and other negative health behaviours, yet on accessing the SEM clinic, patients experienced progressive rehabilitation back into sport and exercise participation. This study highlights the importance of more fully integrating SEM services into public healthcare as a way of improving the organisational capacity of healthcare in treating SRI and ensuring that citizens comply with state interventions which orchestrate health management through raising physical activity levels across the population.

  20. Effects of weekly and fortnightly therapeutic exercise on physical function and health-related quality of life in individuals with hip osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jigami, Hirofumi; Sato, Daisuke; Tsubaki, Atsuhiro; Tokunaga, Yuta; Ishikawa, Tomoji; Dohmae, Yoichiro; Iga, Toshiroh; Minato, Izumi; Yamamoto, Noriaki; Endo, Naoto

    2012-11-01

    Most previous studies on the effects of therapeutic exercise on osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip joint included participants with knee OA or postoperative participants. Moreover, although some systematic reviews recommend therapeutic exercise for hip OA, a consensus on the effective interventional frequency has not been reached. This study aimed to investigate the effects of therapeutic exercise performed at different frequencies on physical function and health-related quality of life in participants with hip OA. Individuals diagnosed with hip OA (36 women, age 42-79 years; 19 in 2009 and 17 in 2010) were recruited from the cooperating medical institutions. They were divided into two groups depending on the frequency of therapeutic exercise: fortnightly in 2009 (fortnightly group) and weekly in 2010 (weekly group). Participants in each group performed the same land-based and aquatic exercises on the same day for a total of ten sessions. Muscle strength of the lower extremity, "timed up and go" (TUG), time of one-leg standing with open eyes (TOLS), Harris Hip Score, and scores of the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 questionnaire, were measured before and after interventions. The fortnightly group had no significant changes in lower-extremity muscle strength following intervention, but the strength of all muscles in the weekly group improved significantly after intervention. Further, in both groups, TUG and TOLS of the worse side of the hip joint significantly improved after interventions. Weekly exercise improves muscle strength of the lower extremity and may therefore be an effective interventional technique for managing hip OA. In addition, in persons with hip OA, therapeutic exercise consisting of both land- and water-based exercises markedly improved physical function.

  1. Investigations of safety-related parameters applying a new multi-group diffusion code for HTR transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasselmann, S.; Druska, C.; Lauer, A.

    2010-01-01

    The energy spectra of fast and thermal neutrons from fission reactions in the FZJ code TINTE are modelled by two broad energy groups. Present demands for increased numerical accuracy led to the question of how precise the 2-group approximation is compared to a multi-group model. Therefore a new simulation program called MGT (Multi Group TINTE) has recently been developed which is able to handle up to 43 energy groups. Furthermore, an internal spectrum calculation for the determination of cross-sections can be performed for each time step and location within the reactor. In this study the multi-group energy models are compared to former calculations with only two energy groups. Different scenarios (normal operation and design-basis accidents) have been defined for a high temperature pebble bed reactor design with annular core. The effect of an increasing number of energy groups on safety-related parameters like the fuel and coolant temperature, the nuclear heat source or the xenon concentration is studied. It has been found that for the studied scenarios the use of up to 8 energy groups is a good trade-off between precision and a tolerable amount of computing time. (orig.)

  2. Transient two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, Y.Y.

    1974-01-01

    The following papers related to two-phase flow are summarized: current assumptions made in two-phase flow modeling; two-phase unsteady blowdown from pipes, flow pattern in Laval nozzle and two-phase flow dynamics; dependence of radial heat and momentum diffusion; transient behavior of the liquid film around the expanding gas slug in a vertical tube; flooding phenomena in BWR fuel bundles; and transient effects in bubble two-phase flow. (U.S.)

  3. Exercise Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Martin G; Sharman, James E

    2014-05-01

    Irrespective of apparent 'normal' resting blood pressure (BP), some individuals may experience an excessive elevation in BP with exercise (i.e. systolic BP ≥210 mm Hg in men or ≥190 mm Hg in women or diastolic BP ≥110 mm Hg in men or women), a condition termed exercise hypertension or a 'hypertensive response to exercise' (HRE). An HRE is a relatively common condition that is identified during standard exercise stress testing; however, due to a lack of information with respect to the clinical ramifications of an HRE, little value is usually placed on such a finding. In this review, we discuss both the clinical importance and underlying physiological contributors of exercise hypertension. Indeed, an HRE is associated with an increased propensity for target organ damage and also predicts the future development of hypertension, cardiovascular events and mortality, independent of resting BP. Moreover, recent work has highlighted that some of the elevated cardiovascular risks associated with an HRE may be related to high-normal resting BP (pre-hypertension) or ambulatory 'masked' hypertension and that an HRE may be an early warning signal of abnormal BP control that is otherwise undetected with clinic BP. Whilst an HRE may be amenable to treatment via pharmacological and lifestyle interventions, the exact physiological mechanism of an HRE remains elusive, but it is likely a manifestation of multiple factors including large artery stiffness, increased peripheral resistance, neural circulatory control and metabolic irregularity. Future research focus may be directed towards determining threshold values to denote the increased risk associated with an HRE and further resolution of the underlying physiological factors involved in the pathogenesis of an HRE.

  4. Age-related changes in physical and perceptual markers of recovery following high-intensity interval cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nattai R; Reaburn, Peter R; Doering, Thomas M; Argus, Christos K; Driller, Matthew W

    2018-05-29

    The purpose of this study was to compare physical performance, perceptual and haematological markers of recovery in well-trained masters and young cyclists across 48 h following a bout of repeated high-intensity interval exercise. Nine masters (mean ± SD; age = 55.6 ± 5.0 years) and eight young (age = 25.9 ± 3.0 years) cyclists performed a high-intensity interval exercise session consisting of 6 × 30 s intervals at 175% peak power output with 4.5 min rest between efforts. Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), 10 s sprint (10SST), 30-min time trial (30TT) performance, creatine kinase concentration (CK) and perceptual measures of motivation, total recovery, fatigue and muscle soreness were collected at baseline and at standardised time points across the 48 h recovery period. No significant group-time interactions were observed for performance of MVC, 10SST, 30TT and CK (P > 0.05). A significant reduction in 10SST peak power was found in both masters (P = 0.002) and young (P = 0.003) cyclists at 1 h post exercise, however, both groups physically recovered at similar rates. Neither group showed significant (P > 0.05) or practically meaningful increases in CK (%∆ < 10%). A significant age-related difference was found for perceptual fatigue (P = 0.01) and analysis of effect size (ES) showed that perceptual recovery was delayed with masters cyclists reporting lower motivation (ES ±90%CI = 0.69 ± 0.77, moderate), greater fatigue (ES = 0.75 ± 0.93, moderate) and muscle soreness (ES = 0.61 ± 0.70, moderate) after 48 h of recovery. The delay in perceived recovery may have negative effects on long-term participation to systematic training.

  5. Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense Mechanisms Linked to Exercise During Cardiopulmonary and Metabolic Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelsey Fisher-Wellman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of multiple human diseases, in addition to the aging process. Although various stimuli exist, acute exercise is known to induce a transient increase in reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS, evident by several reports of increased oxidative damage following acute bouts of aerobic and anaerobic exercise. Although the results are somewhat mixed and appear disease dependent, individuals with chronic disease experience an exacerbation in oxidative stress following acute exercise when compared to healthy individuals. However, this increased oxidant stress may serve as a necessary “signal” for the upregulation in antioxidant defenses, thereby providing protection against subsequent exposure to prooxidant environments within susceptible individuals. Here we present studies related to both acute exercise-induced oxidative stress in those with disease, in addition to studies focused on adaptations resulting from increased RONS exposure associated with chronic exercise training in persons with disease.

  6. REDD1 induction regulates the skeletal muscle gene expression signature following acute aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Bradley S; Steiner, Jennifer L; Rossetti, Michael L; Qiao, Shuxi; Ellisen, Leif W; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Eroshkin, Alexey M; Williamson, David L; Coen, Paul M

    2017-12-01

    The metabolic stress placed on skeletal muscle by aerobic exercise promotes acute and long-term health benefits in part through changes in gene expression. However, the transducers that mediate altered gene expression signatures have not been completely elucidated. Regulated in development and DNA damage 1 (REDD1) is a stress-induced protein whose expression is transiently increased in skeletal muscle following acute aerobic exercise. However, the role of this induction remains unclear. Because REDD1 altered gene expression in other model systems, we sought to determine whether REDD1 induction following acute exercise altered the gene expression signature in muscle. To do this, wild-type and REDD1-null mice were randomized to remain sedentary or undergo a bout of acute treadmill exercise. Exercised mice recovered for 1, 3, or 6 h before euthanization. Acute exercise induced a transient increase in REDD1 protein expression within the plantaris only at 1 h postexercise, and the induction occurred in both cytosolic and nuclear fractions. At this time point, global changes in gene expression were surveyed using microarray. REDD1 induction was required for the exercise-induced change in expression of 24 genes. Validation by RT-PCR confirmed that the exercise-mediated changes in genes related to exercise capacity, muscle protein metabolism, neuromuscular junction remodeling, and Metformin action were negated in REDD1-null mice. Finally, the exercise-mediated induction of REDD1 was partially dependent upon glucocorticoid receptor activation. In all, these data show that REDD1 induction regulates the exercise-mediated change in a distinct set of genes within skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  7. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yankai Araya

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Methods Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly. Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO, blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC], beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. Results In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05. In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p 0.05. All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%, 1(59.52%, 3 (53.57% and 4(14.04%, whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%, 3 (42.30%, 2 (40% and 4 (9.2%. Conclusion Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  8. Lifelong exercise and locally produced insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have a modest influence on reducing age-related muscle wasting in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, C D; Chai, R; Radley-Crabb, H G; Watson, T; Matthews, K G; Sheard, P W; Soffe, Z; Grounds, M D; Shavlakadze, T

    2014-12-01

    The age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function is termed sarcopenia and has been attributed to a decline in concentrations of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). We hypothesized that constitutively expressed IGF-1 within skeletal muscles with or without exercise would prevent sarcopenia. Male transgenic mice that overexpress IGF-1 Ea in skeletal muscles were compared with wild-type littermates. Four-month-old mice were assigned to be sedentary, or had access to free-running wheels, until 18 or 28 months of age. In wild-type mice, the mass of the quadriceps muscles was reduced at 28 months and exercise prevented such loss, without affecting the diameter of myofibers. Conversely, increased IGF-1 alone was ineffective, whereas the combination of exercise and IGF-1 was additive in maintaining the diameter of myofibers in the quadriceps muscles. For other muscles, the combination of IGF-1 and exercise was variable and either increased or decreased the mass at 18 months of age, but was ineffective thereafter. Despite an increase in the diameter of myofibers, grip strength was not improved. In conclusion, our data show that exercise and IGF-1 have a modest effect on reducing aged-related wasting of skeletal muscle, but that there is no improvement in muscle function when assessed by grip strength. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Vernonia cinerea Less. supplementation and strenuous exercise reduce smoking rate: relation to oxidative stress status and beta-endorphin release in active smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leelarungrayub, Donrawee; Pratanaphon, Sainatee; Pothongsunun, Prapas; Sriboonreung, Thanyaluck; Yankai, Araya; Bloomer, Richard J

    2010-05-26

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Vernonia cinerea Less. (VC) supplementation and exercise on oxidative stress biomarkers, beta-endorphin release, and the rate of cigarette smoking. Volunteer smokers were randomly divided into four groups: group 1: VC supplement; group 2: exercise with VC supplement; group 3: exercise; and group 4: control. VC was prepared by wash and dry techniques and taken orally before smoking, matching the frequency of strenuous exercise (three times weekly). Before and after a two month period, exhaled carbon monoxide (CO), blood oxidative stress (malondialdehyde [MDA], nitric oxide [NOx], protein hydroperoxide [PrOOH] and total antioxidant capacity [TAC]), beta-endorphin and smoking rate were measured, and statistically analyzed. In Group 1, MDA, PrOOH, and NOx significantly decreased, whereas TAC increased (p 0.05). In Group 3, MDA, PrOOH, NOx, TAC, and beta-endorphin levels increased significantly (p stress variables or beta-endorphine levels (p > 0.05). All groups had lower levels of CO after the intervention. The smoking rate for light cigarette decreased in group 2(62.7%), 1(59.52%), 3 (53.57%) and 4(14.04%), whereas in self-rolled cigarettes it decreased in group 1 (54.47%), 3 (42.30%), 2 (40%) and 4 (9.2%). Supplementation with Vernonia cinerea Less and exercise provided benefit related to reduced smoking rate, which may be related to oxidaive stress and beta-endorphine levels.

  10. Relationships of peripheral IGF-1, VEGF and BDNF levels to exercise-related changes in memory, hippocampal perfusion and volumes in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Anne; Düzel, Sandra; Brigadski, Tanja; Goerke, Monique; Becke, Andreas; Sobieray, Uwe; Neumann, Katja; Lövdén, Martin; Lindenberger, Ulman; Bäckman, Lars; Braun-Dullaeus, Rüdiger; Ahrens, Dörte; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Müller, Notger G; Lessmann, Volkmar; Sendtner, Michael; Düzel, Emrah

    2016-05-01

    Animal models point towards a key role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in mediating exercise-induced structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. Recently, also platelet derived growth factor-C (PDGF-C) has been shown to promote blood vessel growth and neuronal survival. Moreover, reductions of these neurotrophic and angiogenic factors in old age have been related to hippocampal atrophy, decreased vascularization and cognitive decline. In a 3-month aerobic exercise study, forty healthy older humans (60 to 77years) were pseudo-randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise group (indoor treadmill, n=21) or to a control group (indoor progressive-muscle relaxation/stretching, n=19). As reported recently, we found evidence for fitness-related perfusion changes of the aged human hippocampus that were closely linked to changes in episodic memory function. Here, we test whether peripheral levels of BDNF, IGF-I, VEGF or PDGF-C are related to changes in hippocampal blood flow, volume and memory performance. Growth factor levels were not significantly affected by exercise, and their changes were not related to changes in fitness or perfusion. However, changes in IGF-I levels were positively correlated with hippocampal volume changes (derived by manual volumetry and voxel-based morphometry) and late verbal recall performance, a relationship that seemed to be independent of fitness, perfusion or their changes over time. These preliminary findings link IGF-I levels to hippocampal volume changes and putatively hippocampus-dependent memory changes that seem to occur over time independently of exercise. We discuss methodological shortcomings of our study and potential differences in the temporal dynamics of how IGF-1, VEGF and BDNF may be affected by exercise and to what extent these differences may have led to the negative findings reported here. Copyright © 2015 The Authors

  11. Effects of diet and exercise on weight-related outcomes for breast cancer survivors and their adult daughters: an analysis of the DAMES trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tometich, Danielle B; Mosher, Catherine E; Winger, Joseph G; Badr, Hoda J; Snyder, Denise C; Sloane, Richard J; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2017-08-01

    Few trials have aimed to promote diet and exercise behaviors in both cancer survivors and their family members and examine their associations with weight-related outcomes. We conducted a secondary analysis to examine associations between change in diet and exercise behaviors and weight-related outcomes for overweight breast cancer survivors and their overweight adult daughters in the Daughters And MothErS Against Breast Cancer (DAMES) randomized trial. The DAMES trial assessed the impact of two iteratively tailored, mailed print diet and exercise interventions against standard brochures over a 12-month period. This analysis examined change in diet and exercise behaviors and weight-related variables from baseline to post-intervention for the 50 breast cancer survivors and their adult daughters randomized to the intervention arms. To reduce the potential for type II error in this pilot, p values diet quality was uniquely related to change in BMI (β = -0.12, p = 0.082), weight (β = -0.12, p = 0.060), and waist circumference (β = -0.38, p = 0.001), whereas change in caloric intake was related to waist circumference (β = 0.21, p = 0.002). For daughters, change in caloric intake was related to change in waist circumference (β = 0.12, p = 0.055). However, change in diet quality was not associated with weight-related outcomes in daughters. Additionally, change in exercise was not associated with weight-related outcomes in mothers or daughters. Findings support mail-based and other tailored interventions for weight loss in this population, with an emphasis on diet quality for breast cancer survivors and caloric intake for their adult daughters.

  12. The effects of exercise-induced weight loss on appetite-related peptides and motivation to eat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cecilia; Kulseng, B; King, N A

    2010-01-01

    The magnitude of exercise-induced weight loss depends on the extent of compensatory responses. An increase in energy intake is likely to result from changes in the appetite control system toward an orexigenic environment; however, few studies have measured how exercise impacts on both orexigenic...

  13. ILLEGAL ACTS - CONDITION OF LIABILITY FOR DAMAGES CAUSED IN EXERCISING LEGAL LABOR RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefania-Alina Dumitrache

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available According to article 253 and 254 of Labor Code, both employers and employees are responsible under the rules and principles of contractual liability for damages to the other party of legal labor relationship and we emphasize that this is not purely civil liability, but a variety of it, determined by the specific peculiarities of legal labor relations. Thus, we highlight that labor law provisions which refer to liability for damages complement, unquestionably, with the common law relating to civil liability. The paper analyzes the objective basis of legal accountability, namely the illicit act causing damages committed in fulfilling labor duties or in connection tot hem, therewith the method detailed and comparative documentation of legislation in the field and relevant doctrine.

  14. Pulmonary rehabilitation improves exercise capacity and dyspnea in air pollution-related respiratory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Naomi; Senjyu, Hideaki; Tanaka, Takako; Asai, Masaharu; Yanagita, Yorihide; Yano, Yudai; Nishinakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Kotaki, Kenji; Kitagawa, Chika; Rikitomi, Naoto; Kozu, Ryo; Honda, Sumihisa

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in Japan caused respiratory disease, such as chronic bronchitis and asthma, in many individuals in the 1960s. Although air pollution has decreased, many victims of air pollution-related respiratory disease are limited in their activities of daily living because of respiratory symptoms. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation in victims of air pollution-related chronic bronchitis or asthma. Subjects were enrolled in a 12-week (2-week inpatient followed by 10-week outpatient) pulmonary rehabilitation program. The program comprised conditioning, strength training, endurance training, and patient education. We assessed the Modified Medical Research Council (MMRC) dyspnea grade, pulmonary function, peripheral muscle force, incremental shuttle walk distance (ISWD), and physical activity at baseline and immediately after the program. Twenty-nine subjects (mean age 74.2 ± 10.1 years, 11 males) completed the program, including 11 subjects with COPD and 18 subjects with asthma. Following rehabilitation, the participants (n = 29) showed significant improvements in MMRC dyspnea grade, vital capacity % predicted, quadriceps force and ISWD (all P pollution-related asthma. In conclusion, we recommend that patients with chronic bronchitis or asthma, resulting from exposure to air pollution, are referred for pulmonary rehabilitation.

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  17. Ageing has no effect on the regulation of the ubiquitin proteasome-related genes and proteins following resistance exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renae Jane Stefanetti

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle atrophy is a critical component of the ageing process. Age-related muscle wasting is due to disrupted muscle protein turnover, a process mediated in part by the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP. Additionally, older subjects have been observed to have an attenuated anabolic response, at both the molecular and physiological levels, following a single-bout of resistance exercise (RE. We investigated the expression levels of the UPP-related genes and proteins involved in muscle protein degradation in 10 older (60-75 years versus 10 younger (18-30 years healthy male subjects at basal as well as 2 hours after a single-bout of RE. MURF1, atrogin-1 and FBXO40, their substrate targets PKM2, myogenin, MYOD, MHC and EIF3F as well as MURF1 and atrogin-1 transcriptional regulators FOXO1 and FOXO3 gene and/or protein expression levels were measured via real time PCR and western blotting, respectively. At basal, no age-related difference was observed in the gene/protein levels of atrogin-1, MURF1, myogenin, MYOD and FOXO1/3. However, a decrease in FBXO40 mRNA and protein levels was observed in older subjects, while PKM2 protein was increased in older subjects. In response to RE, MURF1, atrogin-1 and FBXO40 mRNA were upregulated in both the younger and older subjects, with changes observed in protein levels. In conclusion, UPP-related gene/protein expression is comparably regulated in healthy young and old male subjects at basal and following RE. These findings suggest that UPP signalling plays a limited role in the process of age-related muscle wasting. Future studies are required to investigate additional proteolytic mechanisms in conjunction with skeletal muscle protein breakdown measurements following RE in older versus younger subjects.

  18. Hypoxia-Related Hormonal Appetite Modulation in Humans during Rest and Exercise: Mini Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is associated with numerous chronic ailments and represents one of the major health and economic issues in the modernized societies. Accordingly, there is an obvious need for novel treatment approaches. Recently, based on the reports of reduced appetite and subsequent weight loss following high-altitude sojourns, exposure to hypoxia has been proposed as a viable weight-reduction strategy. While altitude-related appetite modulation is complex and not entirely clear, hypoxia-induced alterations in hormonal appetite modulation might be among the key underlying mechanisms. The present paper summarizes the up-to-date research on hypoxia/altitude-induced changes in the gut and adipose tissue derived peptides related to appetite regulation. Orexigenic hormone ghrelin and anorexigenic peptides leptin, glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, and cholecystokinin have to-date been investigated as potential modulators of hypoxia-driven appetite alterations. Current evidence suggests that hypoxia can, especially acutely, lead to decreased appetite, most probably via reduction of acylated ghrelin concentration. Hypoxia-related short and long-term changes in other hormonal markers are more unclear although hypoxia seems to importantly modulate leptin levels, especially following prolonged hypoxic exposures. Limited evidence also suggests that different activity levels during exposures to hypoxia do not additively affect hormonal appetite markers. Although very few studies have been performed in obese/overweight individuals, the available data indicate that hypoxia/altitude exposures do not seem to differentially affect appetite regulation via hormonal pathways in this cohort. Given the lack of experimental data, future well-controlled acute and prolonged studies are warranted to expand our understanding of hypoxia-induced hormonal appetite modulation and its kinetics in health and disease.

  19. Every exercise bout matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Christine; Pedersen, Katrine Seide; Hojman, Pernille

    2017-01-01

    Cumulative epidemiological evidence shows that regular exercise lowers the risk of developing breast cancer and decreases the risk of disease recurrence. The causality underlying this relation has not been fully established, and the exercise recommendations for breast cancer patients follow...... the general physical activity guidelines, prescribing 150 min of exercise per week. Thus, elucidations of the causal mechanisms are important to prescribe and implement the most optimal training regimen in breast cancer prevention and treatment. The prevailing hypothesis on the positive association within...... exercise oncology has focused on lowering of the basal systemic levels of cancer risk factors with exercise training. However, another rather overlooked systemic exercise response is the marked acute increases in several potential anti-cancer components during each acute exercise bout. Here, we review...

  20. Roles of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 in transient global ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shang-Der, E-mail: chensd@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tsu-Kung [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Yang, Ding-I. [Institute of Brain Science and Brain Research Center, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Lee, Su-Ying [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Shaw, Fu-Zen [Department of Psychology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Liou, Chia-Wei [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Chuang, Yao-Chung, E-mail: ycchuang@adm.cgmh.org.tw [Department of Neurology, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China); Center for Translational Research in Biomedical Sciences, Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Chang Gung University College of Medicine, Taiwan (China)

    2015-05-01

    Recent studies showed that increased mitochondrial fission is an early event of cell death during cerebral ischemia and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays an important role in mitochondrial fission, which may be regulated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and regulate mitochondrial fission. However, the roles of PINK1 and Drp1 in hippocampal injury caused by transient global ischemia (TGI) remain unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TGI may induce PINK1 causing downregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation to enhance hippocampal neuronal survival, thus functioning as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. We found progressively increased PINK1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 subfield1-48 h following TGI, reaching the maximal level at 4 h. Despite lack of changes in the expression level of total Drp1 and phosphor-Drp1 at Ser637, TGI induced a time-dependent increase of Drp1 phosphorlation at Ser616 that peaked after 24 h. Notably, PINK1-siRNA increased p-Drp1(Ser616) protein level in hippocampal CA1 subfield 24 h after TGI. The PINK1 siRNA also aggravated the TGI-induced oxidative DNA damage with an increased 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in hippocampal CA1 subfield. Furthermore, PINK1 siRNA also augmented TGI-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased numbers of TUNEL-positive staining and enhanced DNA fragmentation. These findings indicated that PINK1 is an endogenous protective mediator vital for neuronal survival under ischemic insult through regulating Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser616. - Highlights: • Transient global ischemia increases expression of PINK1 and p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA decreases PINK1 expression but increases p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA augments oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield.

  1. Roles of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 in transient global ischemia-induced hippocampal neuronal injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Shang-Der; Lin, Tsu-Kung; Yang, Ding-I.; Lee, Su-Ying; Shaw, Fu-Zen; Liou, Chia-Wei; Chuang, Yao-Chung

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that increased mitochondrial fission is an early event of cell death during cerebral ischemia and dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1) plays an important role in mitochondrial fission, which may be regulated by PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), a mitochondrial serine/threonine-protein kinase thought to protect cells from stress-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and regulate mitochondrial fission. However, the roles of PINK1 and Drp1 in hippocampal injury caused by transient global ischemia (TGI) remain unknown. We therefore tested the hypothesis that TGI may induce PINK1 causing downregulation of Drp1 phosphorylation to enhance hippocampal neuronal survival, thus functioning as an endogenous neuroprotective mechanism. We found progressively increased PINK1 expression in the hippocampal CA1 subfield1-48 h following TGI, reaching the maximal level at 4 h. Despite lack of changes in the expression level of total Drp1 and phosphor-Drp1 at Ser637, TGI induced a time-dependent increase of Drp1 phosphorlation at Ser616 that peaked after 24 h. Notably, PINK1-siRNA increased p-Drp1(Ser616) protein level in hippocampal CA1 subfield 24 h after TGI. The PINK1 siRNA also aggravated the TGI-induced oxidative DNA damage with an increased 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) content in hippocampal CA1 subfield. Furthermore, PINK1 siRNA also augmented TGI-induced apoptosis as evidenced by the increased numbers of TUNEL-positive staining and enhanced DNA fragmentation. These findings indicated that PINK1 is an endogenous protective mediator vital for neuronal survival under ischemic insult through regulating Drp1 phosphorylation at Ser616. - Highlights: • Transient global ischemia increases expression of PINK1 and p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA decreases PINK1 expression but increases p-Drp1 at Ser616 in hippocampal CA1 subfield. • PINK1-siRNA augments oxidative stress and neuronal damage in hippocampal CA1 subfield

  2. The Effect of School-Based Exercise Practices of 9-11 Year Old Girls Students on Obesity and Health-Related Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demirci, Nevzat; Demirci, Pervin Toptas; Demirci, Erdal

    2017-01-01

    This study was planned to determine the effects of school-based exercise practices (SBEP) on obesity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in 9-11 year old girls. Participants consist of girls students from 9-11 years old in two state schools in Kars. Intervention Group (n: 85) courses of games and physical activities (CGPA) and SBEP…

  3. Parental mental health moderates the efficacy of exercise training on health-related quality of life in adolescents with congenital heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dulfer, Karolijn; Duppen, Nienke; van Dijk, Arie P. J.; Kuipers, Irene M.; van Domburg, Ron T.; Verhulst, Frank C.; van der Ende, Jan; Helbing, Willem A.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the moderating influence of parental variables on changes in health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adolescents with Tetralogy of Fallot (ToF) or a Fontan circulation after participation in standardized exercise training. A multicenter randomized controlled trail in which 56 patients,

  4. Are exercise programs effective for improving health-related quality of life among cancer survivors? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiraz I; Scherer, Roberta W; Snyder, Claire; Geigle, Paula; Gotay, Carolyn

    2014-11-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise interventions on overall health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its domains among cancer survivors who have completed primary treatment. 11 electronic databases were searched from inception (dates varied) to October 2011. The authors also identified eligible trials through a search of additional sources. 40 trials with 3,694 participants met the inclusion criteria. At 12 weeks, cancer survivors exposed to exercise interventions had greater positive improvement in overall HRQOL (standardized mean difference [SMD] 0.48; 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.16, 0.81]), emotional well-being (SMD 0.33; 95% CI [0.05, 0.61]), and social functioning (SMD 0.45; 95% CI [0.02, 0.87]); and had a significant reduction in anxiety (SMD -0.26; 95% CI [-0.44, -0.07]) and fatigue (SMD -0.82; 95% CI [-1.5, -0.14]). Exercise programs have a beneficial effect on HRQOL and most of its domains and can be integrated into the management plans for cancer survivors who have completed treatment. Future research is needed to help understand specific attributes of exercise programs that are beneficial for improving HRQOL within and across cancer types. Evidence presented in this review supports the inclusion of exercise programs in clinical guidelines for the management of cancer survivors who have completed treatment, such as the Oncology Nursing Society's Putting Evidence Into Practice resource.

  5. Myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-labeled beta-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial scintigraphy and its relation to exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    Reversible thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) abnormalities during exercise stress have been used as markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are most likely to identify relatively underperfused myocardium. Although metabolic abnormalities in HCM were reported, the relationship between impaired energy metabolism and exercise-induced ischemia has not been fully elucidated as yet. To assess the relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities, 28 patients with HCM underwent exercise 201 Tl and rest 123 I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. Perfusion abnormalities were observed by exercise 201 Tl in 19/28 patients with HCM. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was decreased compared with delayed 201 Tl in 106/364 (29%) of the total myocardial segments (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl was observed more often in the 49/75 (65%) segments with reversible exercise 201 Tl defects (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl suggests that myocardial ischemia may play an important role in metabolic abnormalities in HCM. (author)

  6. Gender and developmental differences in exercise beliefs among youth and prediction of their exercise behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A W; Broda, M A; Frenn, M; Coviak, C; Pender, N J; Ronis, D L

    1995-08-01

    This study examined gender and developmental differences in exercise-related beliefs and exercise behaviors of 286 racially diverse youth and explored factors predictive of exercise. Compared to males, females reported less prior and current exercise, lower self-esteem, poorer health status, and lower exercise self-schema. Adolescents, in contrast to pre-adolescents, reported less social support for exercise and fewer exercise role models. In a path model, gender, the benefits/barriers differential, and access to exercise facilities and programs directly predicted exercise. Effects of grade, perceived health status, exercise self-efficacy, social support for exercise, and social norms for exercise on exercise behavior, were mediated through the benefits/barriers differential. Effect of race on exercise was mediated by access to exercise facilities and programs. Continued exploration of gender and developmental differences in variables influencing physical activity can yield valuable information for tailoring exercise promotion interventions to the unique needs of youth.

  7. Relation of N-Terminal Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Left Ventricular Diastolic Function to Exercise Tolerance in Patients With Significant Valvular Heart Disease and Normal Left Ventricular Systolic Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji-Won; Park, Sung-Ji; Cho, Eun Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Ga Yeon; Chang, Sung-A; Choi, Jin-Oh; Lee, Sang-Chol; Park, Seung Woo

    2017-06-01

    An association between N-terminal prohormone brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and exercise tolerance in patients with valvular heart disease (VHD) has been suggested; however, there are few data available regarding this relation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between exercise tolerance and NT-proBNP in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic significant VHD and normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LV EF). A total of 96 patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic VHD and normal LV EF (≥50%) underwent cardiopulmonary exercise echocardiography. NT-proBNP levels were determined at baseline and after exercise in 3 hours. Patients were divided in 2 groups based on lower (left atrial volume index before exercise, right ventricular systolic pressure before exercise, E velocity after exercise, and E/e' ratio after exercise varied significantly. In addition, peak VO 2 was inversely related to NT-proBNP before (r = -0.352, p left atrial volume index, E/e' ratio, and right ventricular systolic pressure before and after exercise. NT-proBNP after exercise was also directly related to the same parameters. NT-proBNP levels both before and after exercise were higher in the group with lower exercise tolerance. In conclusion, through the correlation among exercise tolerance, NT-proBNP, and parameters of diastolic dysfunction, we demonstrated that diastolic dysfunction and NT-proBNP could predict exercise tolerance in patients with significant VHD and normal LV EF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Familial Transient Global Amnesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Rhys Davies

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an episode of typical transient global amnesia (TGA, a female patient reported similar clinical attacks in 2 maternal aunts. Prior reports of familial TGA are few, and no previous account of affected relatives more distant than siblings or parents was discovered in a literature survey. The aetiology of familial TGA is unknown. A pathophysiological mechanism akin to that in migraine attacks, comorbidity reported in a number of the examples of familial TGA, is one possibility. The study of familial TGA cases might facilitate the understanding of TGA aetiology.

  9. Rowers’ Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-01-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes. PMID:28983443

  10. Rowers' Self-Reported Behaviors, Attitudes, and Safety Concerns Related to Exercise, Training, and Competition During Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franklin, Ashley; Mishtal, Joanna; Johnson, Teresa; Simms-Cendan, Judith

    2017-08-01

    Background The American College of Obstetrics and Gynecology notes that pregnant athletes require more supervision due to their involvement in strenuous training schedules throughout pregnancy. Currently, rowing is not mentioned in the guidelines despite its increasing popularity, high cardiovascular demands, and risk for abdominal trauma. Methods This study aimed to elicit information from competitive female rowers regarding exercise, training, and competition during pregnancy. We administered a survey consisting of 122 items to female Masters rowers in the United States, aged 21 to 49 years, from June to December 2013. Results A total of 224 recreational and elite rowers met the inclusion criteria. Pregnant rowers self-reported high levels of exercise engagement: 85.2% (n/N = 98/115) exercised during any past pregnancy; exercise adherence decreased throughout pregnancy with 51.3%, 42.4%, and 15.7% meeting and/or exceeding national guidelines during the first, second, and third trimesters, respectively. Rowers were significantly (p sport. Novel barriers to exercise in pregnancy included guilt towards the team and a mental barrier due to decreased performance. Healthcare providers are the number one information source for rowers regarding exercise during pregnancy. Conclusion Pregnant rowers are a relevant obstetrics population and have barriers and sport-specific safety concerns not previously identified in the literature. Rowers consider exercising in pregnancy to be important and struggle to meet exercise guidelines like the general population, indicating the need for healthcare providers to provide prenatal and antenatal education and interventions to support exercise during pregnancy even amongst athletes.

  11. Prognostic significance of transient myocardial ischaemia after first acute myocardial infarction: five year follow up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Nielsen, J R; Berning, J

    1995-01-01

    infarction. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relation of ambulatory ST segment depression, exercise test variables, and left ventricular ejection fraction to subsequent objective (cardiac death or myocardial infarction) or subjective (need for coronary revascularisation) events. RESULTS: 23 of the 123 patients had...... an association between transient ST segment depression and an adverse long term outcome was found (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P = 0.004). The presence of exercise induced angina identified a similar proportion of patients with a poor prognosis (Kaplan-Meier analysis; P ... ST segment depression had high specificity but poor sensitivity. The presence of exercise induced ST segment depression was of no value in predicting combined cardiac events. Indeed, patients without exertional ST segment depression were at increased risk of future objective end points (Kaplan...

  12. Effects of a computer-based cognitive exercise program on age-related cognitive decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozoki, Andrea; Radovanovic, Mirjana; Winn, Brian; Heeter, Carrie; Anthony, James C

    2013-01-01

    We developed a 'senior friendly' suite of online 'games for learning' with interactive calibration for increasing difficulty, and evaluated the feasibility of a randomized clinical trial to test the hypothesis that seniors aged 60-80 can improve key aspects of cognitive ability with the aid of such games. Sixty community-dwelling senior volunteers were randomized to either an online game suite designed to train multiple cognitive abilities, or to a control arm with online activities that simulated the look and feel of the games but with low level interactivity and no calibration of difficulty. Study assessment included measures of recruitment, retention and play-time. Cognitive change was measured with a computerized assessment battery administered just before and within two weeks after completion of the six-week intervention. Impediments to feasibility included: limited access to in-home high-speed internet, large variations in the amount of time devoted to game play, and a reluctance to pursue more challenging levels. Overall analysis was negative for assessed performance (transference effects) even though subjects improved on the games themselves. Post hoc analyses suggest that some types of games may have more value than others, but these effects would need to be replicated in a study designed for that purpose. We conclude that a six-week, moderate-intensity computer game-based cognitive intervention can be implemented with high-functioning seniors, but the effect size is relatively small. Our findings are consistent with Owen et al. (2010), but there are open questions about whether more structured, longer duration or more intensive 'games for learning' interventions might yield more substantial cognitive improvement in seniors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effects of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on dyspnea, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life for patients with chronic lung disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chang Kwan

    2007-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of an inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program on dyspnea, exercise capacity, and health related quality of life in inpatients with chronic lung disease. This quasi experimental study was designed with a nonequivalent control group pre-post test time series. Twenty three patients were assigned to the experimental group and nineteen to the control group. The inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program was composed of upper and lower extremity exercise, breathing retraining, inspiratory muscle training, education, relaxation and telephone contacts. This program consisted of 4 sessions with inpatients and 4 weeks at home after discharge. The control group was given a home based pulmonary rehabilitation program at the time of discharge. The outcomes were measured by the Borg score, 6MWD and the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire(CRQ). There was a statistically significant difference in dyspnea between the experimental group and control group, but not among time sequence, or interaction between groups and time sequence. Also significant improvements in exercise capacity and health related quality of life were found only in the experimental group. An Inpatient pulmonary rehabilitation program may be a useful intervention to reduce dyspnea, and increase exercise capacity and health related quality of life for chronic lung disease patients.

  14. Factors related to leader implementation of a nationally disseminated community-based exercise program: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Economos Christina D

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The benefits of community-based health programs are widely recognized. However, research examining factors related to community leaders' characteristics and roles in implementation is limited. Methods The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to use a social ecological framework of variables to explore and describe the relationships between socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, programmatic, leadership, and community-level social and demographic characteristics as they relate to the implementation of an evidence-based strength training program by community leaders. Eight-hundred fifty-four trained program leaders in 43 states were invited to participate in either an online or mail survey. Corresponding community-level characteristics were also collected. Programmatic details were obtained from those who implemented. Four-hundred eighty-seven program leaders responded to the survey (response rate = 57%, 78% online and 22% by mail. Results Of the 487 respondents, 270 implemented the program (55%. One or more factors from each category – professional, socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, and leadership characteristics – were significantly different between implementers and non-implementers, determined by chi square or student's t-tests as appropriate. Implementers reported higher levels of strength training participation, current and lifetime physical activity, perceived support, and leadership competence (all p Conclusion Among this sample of trained leaders, several factors within the professional, socioeconomic, personal/behavioral, and leadership categories were related to whether they implemented a community-based exercise program. It may benefit future community-based physical activity program disseminations to consider these factors when selecting and training leaders.

  15. The Potential Role of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Pentraxin 3 on Obesity-Related Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron L. Slusher

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat, resulting in a state of chronic, low-grade proinflammation that can directly contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3 is an acute-phase protein that is expressed by a variety of tissue and cell sources and provides an anti-inflammatory property to downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although PTX3 may therapeutically aid in altering the proinflammatory milieu in obese individuals, and despite elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity. Interestingly, aerobic activity has been demonstrated to elevate PTX3 levels. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to positively regulate obesity-related inflammation and discuss the proposition for utilizing aerobic exercise as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment strategy to enhance circulating PTX3 concentrations in obese individuals.

  16. The Potential Role of Aerobic Exercise-Induced Pentraxin 3 on Obesity-Related Inflammation and Metabolic Dysregulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slusher, Aaron L; Huang, Chun-Jung; Acevedo, Edmund O

    2017-01-01

    Obesity is defined as the excess accumulation of intra-abdominal body fat, resulting in a state of chronic, low-grade proinflammation that can directly contribute to the development of insulin resistance. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an acute-phase protein that is expressed by a variety of tissue and cell sources and provides an anti-inflammatory property to downregulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines, in particular interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Although PTX3 may therapeutically aid in altering the proinflammatory milieu in obese individuals, and despite elevated expression of PTX3 mRNA observed in adipose tissue, the circulating level of PTX3 is reduced with obesity. Interestingly, aerobic activity has been demonstrated to elevate PTX3 levels. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to discuss the therapeutic potential of PTX3 to positively regulate obesity-related inflammation and discuss the proposition for utilizing aerobic exercise as a nonpharmacological anti-inflammatory treatment strategy to enhance circulating PTX3 concentrations in obese individuals.

  17. Anaerobic exercise - Induced changes in serum mineral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Anaerobic exercise, a non 02 – dependent energy metabolism leads to transient metabolic changes, which are corrected gradually by homestatic mechanism. We investigated in eight male subjects, the effects of anaerobic exercise after a day sedentary activity on serum mineral concentration. There was significant ...

  18. 29 CFR 2509.08-2 - Interpretive bulletin relating to the exercise of shareholder rights and written statements of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., statements may need to take into account factors such as the plan's funding policy and its liquidity needs as.... Plan fiduciaries risk violating the exclusive purpose rule when they exercise their fiduciary authority...

  19. Voluntary exercise confers protection against age-related deficits in brain oxygenation in awake mice model of Alzheimer's disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xuecong; Moeini, Mohammad; Li, Baoqiang; Sakadžić, Sava; Lesage, Frédéric

    2018-02-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by short-term memory loss and cognitive inabilities. This work seeks to study the effects of voluntary exercise on the change in oxygen delivery in awake mice models of Alzheimer's disease by monitoring brain tissue oxygenation. Experiments were performed on Young (AD_Y, 3-4 months, n=8), Old (AD_O, 6-7 months, n=8), and Old with exercise (AD_OEX, 6-7 months, n=8) transgenic APPPS1 mice and their controls. Brain tissue oxygenation was measured by two photon phosphorescence lifetime microscopy on the left sensory motor cortex. We found that the average tissue PO2 decreased with age but were regulated by exercise. The results suggest a potential for exercise to improve brain function with age and AD.

  20. Role of TGF-beta1 in relation to exercise-induced type I collagen synthesis in human tendinous tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja; Langberg, Henning; Olesen, Jens L

    2003-01-01

    synthesis, is released from cultured tendon fibroblasts in response to mechanical loading. Thus TGF-beta1 could link mechanical loading and collagen synthesis in tendon tissue in vivo. Tissue levels of TGF-beta1 and type I collagen metabolism markers [procollagen I COOH-terminal propeptide (PICP) and COOH...... exercise (P insertion was markedly delayed by exercise compared with the decay seen in resting subjects...

  1. Relative effects of bronchial drainage and exercise for in-hospital care of patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerny, F J

    1989-08-01

    Bronchial hygiene therapy is a standard part of the treatment of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). Coughing alone promotes sputum expectoration and is probably the primary effective component of standard bronchial hygiene therapy. The purpose of this study was to determine whether substituting regular exercise, which also promotes coughing, for two of three daily bronchial hygiene treatments would affect the expected improvements in pulmonary function and exercise response in hospitalized patients with CF. Seventeen patients with CF hospitalized (means length of stay = 13.0 +/- 2.6 days) for an acute exacerbation of their pulmonary disease participated in the study. The patients were randomly assigned to either a group that participated in two cycle ergometer exercise sessions and one bronchial hygiene treatment session per day (EX Group [n = 9]) or a group that participated in three bronchial hygiene treatment sessions per day (PD Group [n = 8]). Pulmonary functions and responses to a progressive, incremental cycle ergometer exercise test were measured on admission and before discharge. Bronchial hygiene therapy consisted of postural drainage, in six positions, with chest percussion and vibration. Therapeutic exercise was of moderate intensity and was individually adjusted based on the patient's heart rate and arterial oxygen saturation response to the admission exercise test. Coughing was encouraged during and after all treatments. Pulmonary function and exercise response were significantly improved over the period of hospitalization in both groups; the improvements were the same in the two groups. These results indicate that, in some hospitalized patients with CF, exercise therapy may be substituted for at least part of the standard protocol of bronchial hygiene therapy.

  2. Thallium-201 right lung/heart ratio during exercise in patients with coronary artery disease: relation to thallium-201 myocardial single-photon emission tomography, rest and exercise left ventricular function and coronary angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, O.; Pezard, P.; Le Jeune, J.J.; Denizot, B.; Jallet, P.; Furber, A.; Vielle, B.

    1999-01-01

    The aim of this study was to correlate lung thallium-201 uptake on exercise with 201 Tl single-photon emission tomography (SPET) myocardial perfusion imaging, rest and exercise equilibrium radionuclide angiographic and coronary angiographic findings in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) using a simple, reproducible lung/heart (L/H) ratio that would be easy to use in clinical practice. L/H ratio was defined on the anterior planar image obtained during exercise 201 Tl SPET acquisition as the mean counts per pixel in an entire right lung field region of interest divided by the mean counts per pixel in the hottest myocardial wall region of interest. We studied 103 patients. Fifty-nine patients (group I) with 201 Tl SPET, radionuclide angiographic and coronary angiographic variables. The group I L/H ratio of 0.35±0.05 (mean ±1 SD) was significantly lower (P 0.45 (mean+2 SD in group I) was considered abnormal. In group II, L/H ratio showed a significant correlation with stress and rest 201 Tl perfusion defect size (r=0.39 and r=0.42, P<0.01, respectively), but not with extent of ischaemic myocardium. The mean L/H ratio was 0.41±0.10 in patients with one-vessel disease (n=15), 0.46±0.08 in those with two-vessel disease (n=17) and 0.47±0.12 in those with three-vessel disease (n=12), but no significant difference was found between the three subgroups. L/H ratio showed a significant inverse relation with rest and exercise left ventricular ejection fraction (r=-0.37 and r=-0.50, P<0.05 and P<0.001, respectively). Using stepwise multiple regression analysis, exercise left ventricular ejection fraction and previous history of hypertension were the sole two variables independently predictive of the L/H ratio. In conclusion, although lung thallium uptake is usually found to correlate with extent and severity of CAD, increased L/H ratio should primarily be considered as a marker of exercise-induced left ventricular systolic and perhaps diastolic dysfunction, probably

  3. Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center Research Great Expectations Post navigation ← Previous Next → Exercise Concepts for Individuals with Syringomyelia Posted on November ... related duties? 3. Do you have questions about exercise? Do you exercise regularly? Are you involved in ...

  4. Transient drainage summary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    This report summarizes the history of transient drainage issues on the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. It defines and describes the UMTRA Project disposal cell transient drainage process and chronicles UMTRA Project treatment of the transient drainage phenomenon. Section 4.0 includes a conceptual cross section of each UMTRA Project disposal site and summarizes design and construction information, the ground water protection strategy, and the potential for transient drainage

  5. Exercise-related alterations in crimp morphology in the central regions of superficial digital flexor tendons from young thoroughbreds: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson-Kane, J C; Wilson, A M; Firth, E C; Parry, D A; Goodship, A E

    1998-01-01

    Injury to the core of the mid-metacarpal region of the superficial digital flexor tendon in Thoroughbred racehorses is a very frequent but poorly understood condition. It has been suggested that subclinical changes induced by galloping exercise weaken the collagen in this region of the tendon, predisposing it to rupture. The longitudinally arranged collagen fibrils in tendon follow a planar waveform, termed the crimp. Fibril bundles with a smaller crimp angle fail at a lower level of strain than those with a larger crimp angle. This study tested the hypothesis that a specific 18 month exercise programme would result in significant reduction of collagen fibril crimp angle and period length in the core region of the superficial digital flexor tendon of young Thoroughbreds (21 +/- 1 months), compared to the normal change in these parameters with age. Central region crimp angle and length were significantly lower in exercised horses than in control horses (P < 0.05). The crimp angle was significantly lower in this central region than in the peripheral region of the tendon in 4 of the 5 exercised horses, as was the crimp length in 3 of the 4 horses. The crimp angle in the peripheral region was significantly greater in exercised horses than in the controls (P < 0.05), which may indicate functional adaptation due to differing mechanical environment between the 2 tendon regions. The results of this study supported previous evidence that galloping exercise modifies normal age-related changes in crimp morphology in the core of the superficial digital flexor tendon. Such changes are indicative of microtrauma and would be detrimental to tendon strength.

  6. PSH Transient Simulation Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-21

    PSH Transient Simulation Modeling presentation from the WPTO FY14 - FY16 Peer Review. Transient effects are an important consideration when designing a PSH system, yet numerical techniques for hydraulic transient analysis still need improvements for adjustable-speed (AS) reversible pump-turbine applications.

  7. Exercise, lifestyle, and your bones

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they are good for your heart, swimming and biking DO NOT increase bone density. Other Lifestyle Changes ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise and Physical Fitness ...

  8. The effects of progressive-resisted exercises on muscle strength and health-related quality of life in persons with HIV-related poly-neuropathy in Zimbabwe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mkandla, Khumbula; Myezwa, Hellen; Musenge, Eustasius

    2016-01-01

    Distal symmetrical poly-neuropathy (DSP) is a neurological complication associated with HIV/AIDS and stavudine (d4T) containing antiretroviral therapy. People with DSP experience pain, numbness and muscle weakness, which affect their quality of life (QOL). The purpose of this study was to establish the effect of a progressive-resisted exercise (PRE) intervention on health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) in people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP. An assessor-blinded randomised controlled trial was conducted, with participants sourced from 10 clinics with HIV services, the family care clinic at Wilkins Hospital and 2 large hospitals in Harare, Zimbabwe. A 12-week PRE intervention was conducted twice weekly for 80 participants, while the control group with 80 participants continued with usual daily activities. The main outcome variable was HR-QOL for which we controlled for demographic and clinical measures in generalised estimating equation population-averaged models. Data were summarised and analysed using an intention to treat analysis approach using the Stata v10 program. Mean age of participants was 42.2 years (SD = 8.5). While d4T was used by 59% (n = 94), an equal proportion of the participants also had moderate to severe neuropathy. PRE was found to significantly improve HR-QOL in the intervention group based on the mean difference between the intervention group mean change and the mean change in the control group (F ratio 4.24; p = .04). This study established that PREs have positive effects on HR-QOL for people living with HIV/AIDS-related DSP.

  9. Exercise and Physical Fitness: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Learn to love exercise Make time to move Outdoor fitness routine Physical activity Working with a personal trainer Yoga for health Show More Show Less Related Health Topics Benefits of Exercise Exercise for Children Exercise for Seniors ...

  10. Pain trajectory and exercise-induced pain flares during 8 weeks of neuromuscular exercise in individuals with knee and hip pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandal, L F; Roos, E M; Bøgesvang, S J

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients considering or engaged in exercise as treatment may expect or experience transient increases in joint pain, causing fear of exercise and influencing compliance. This study investigated the pain trajectory during an 8-week neuromuscular exercise (NEMEX) program together with ac...... to educate and balance patient expectation when starting supervised neuromuscular exercise....

  11. Transient magnetoviscosity of dilute ferrofluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soto-Aquino, Denisse; Rinaldi, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    The magnetic field induced change in the viscosity of a ferrofluid, commonly known as the magnetoviscous effect and parameterized through the magnetoviscosity, is one of the most interesting and practically relevant aspects of ferrofluid phenomena. Although the steady state behavior of ferrofluids under conditions of applied constant magnetic fields has received considerable attention, comparatively little attention has been given to the transient response of the magnetoviscosity to changes in the applied magnetic field or rate of shear deformation. Such transient response can provide further insight into the dynamics of ferrofluids and find practical application in the design of devices that take advantage of the magnetoviscous effect and inevitably must deal with changes in the applied magnetic field and deformation. In this contribution Brownian dynamics simulations and a simple model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations are applied to explore the dependence of the transient magnetoviscosity for two cases: (I) a ferrofluid in a constant shear flow wherein the magnetic field is suddenly turned on, and (II) a ferrofluid in a constant magnetic field wherein the shear flow is suddenly started. Both simulations and analysis show that the transient approach to a steady state magnetoviscosity can be either monotonic or oscillatory depending on the relative magnitudes of the applied magnetic field and shear rate. - Research Highlights: →Rotational Brownian dynamics simulations were used to study the transient behavior of the magnetoviscosity of ferrofluids. →Damped and oscillatory approach to steady state magnetoviscosity was observed for step changes in shear rate and magnetic field. →A model based on the ferrohydrodynamics equations qualitatively captured the damped and oscillatory features of the transient response →The transient behavior is due to the interplay of hydrodynamic, magnetic, and Brownian torques on the suspended particles.

  12. A systematic review of exercise and psychosocial rehabilitation interventions to improve health-related outcomes in patients with bladder cancer undergoing radical cystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammant, Elke; Decaestecker, Karel; Bultijnck, Renée; Sundahl, Nora; Ost, Piet; Pauwels, Nele S; Deforche, Benedicte; Pieters, Ronny; Fonteyne, Valérie

    2018-05-01

    Summarizing the evidence on the effects of pre- and postoperative exercise and psychosocial rehabilitation interventions on patient-reported outcomes (PROs) and physical fitness in bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database were searched independently by two authors from inception until 10 November 2017. Cited references of the studies and citing references retrieved via Web of Science were also checked. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized studies assessing effects of exercise and psychosocial interventions in bladder cancer patients undergoing radical cystectomy were eligible. Primary outcome measures were PROs and physical fitness. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Five RCTs (three exercise and two psychosocial studies) and one non-randomized psychosocial study comprising 317 bladder cancer patients were included. Timing of the intervention was preoperative ( n = 2), postoperative ( n = 2) or both pre- and postoperative ( n = 2). Positive effects of exercise were found for physical fitness ( n = 3), some health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) domains ( n = 2), personal activities in daily living ( n = 1) and muscle strength ( n = 1). Psychosocial interventions showed positive effects on anxiety ( n = 1), fatigue ( n = 1), depression ( n = 1), HRQoL ( n = 1) and posttraumatic growth ( n = 1). Quality assessment showed most shortcomings with sample sizes and strong heterogeneity was observed between studies. The evidence relating to the effects of exercise in bladder cancer is very limited and is even less for psychosocial interventions.

  13. Transient regional osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Trotta

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis are uncommon and probably underdiagnosed bone diseases characterized by pain and functional limitation mainly affecting weight-bearing joints of the lower limbs. These conditions are usually self-limiting and symptoms tend to abate within a few months without sequelae. Routine laboratory investigations are unremarkable. Middle aged men and women during the last months of pregnancy or in the immediate post-partum period are principally affected. Osteopenia with preservation of articular space and transitory edema of the bone marrow provided by magnetic resonance imaging are common to these two conditions, so they are also known by the term regional transitory osteoporosis. The appearance of bone marrow edema is not specific to regional transitory osteoporosis but can be observed in several diseases, i.e. trauma, reflex sympathetic dystrophy, avascular osteonecrosis, infections, tumors from which it must be differentiated. The etiology of this condition is unknown. Pathogenesis is still debated in particular the relationship with reflex sympathetic dystrophy, with which regional transitory osteoporosis is often identified. The purpose of the present review is to remark on the relationship between transient osteoporosis of the hip and regional migratory osteoporosis with particular attention to the bone marrow edema pattern and relative differential diagnosis.

  14. Supra- and Sub-Baseline Phosphocreatine Recovery in Developing Brain after Transient Hypoxia-Ischaemia: Relation to Baseline Energetics, Insult Severity and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwata, Osuke; Iwata, Sachiko; Bainbridge, Alan; De Vita, Enrico; Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Cady, Ernest B.; Robertson, Nicola J.

    2008-01-01

    Following hypoxia-ischaemia (HI), an early biomarker of insult severity is desirable to target neuroprotective therapies to patients most likely to benefit; currently there are no biomarkers within the "latent phase" period before the establishment of secondary energy failure. Brief transient phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery overshoot (measured…

  15. Galois theory through exercises

    CERN Document Server

    Brzeziński, Juliusz

    2018-01-01

    This textbook offers a unique introduction to classical Galois theory through many concrete examples and exercises of varying difficulty (including computer-assisted exercises). In addition to covering standard material, the book explores topics related to classical problems such as Galois’ theorem on solvable groups of polynomial equations of prime degrees, Nagell's proof of non-solvability by radicals of quintic equations, Tschirnhausen's transformations, lunes of Hippocrates, and Galois' resolvents. Topics related to open conjectures are also discussed, including exercises related to the inverse Galois problem and cyclotomic fields. The author presents proofs of theorems, historical comments and useful references alongside the exercises, providing readers with a well-rounded introduction to the subject and a gateway to further reading. A valuable reference and a rich source of exercises with sample solutions, this book will be useful to both students and lecturers. Its original concept makes it particula...

  16. Diet and exercise intervention adherence and health-related outcomes among older long-term breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winger, Joseph G; Mosher, Catherine E; Rand, Kevin L; Morey, Miriam C; Snyder, Denise C; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2014-10-01

    Diet and exercise interventions for cancer survivors result in health benefits; however, few studies have examined health outcomes in relation to adherence. We examined associations between adherence to components of a diet-exercise intervention and survivors' physical and mental health. A randomized controlled trial tested a telephone and mailed print intervention among 641 older, overweight, long-term survivors of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. Dietary and exercise behaviors were assessed at 14 time points throughout the year-long intervention; health outcomes were examined postintervention. Telephone session attendance had significant indirect relationships with health outcomes through intervention-period exercise and dietary behavior. Attendance showed positive indirect relationships with physical function (β = 0.11, p < 0.05), basic and advanced lower extremity function (β = 0.10, p < 0.05/β = 0.09, p < 0.05), and mental health (β = 0.05, p < 0.05), and a negative indirect relationship with body mass index (β = -0.06, p < 0.05). Session attendance is vital in facilitating improvement in health behaviors and attendant outcomes (Clinicaltrials.gov number NCT00303875).

  17. [Overweight and obesity in young adults: relevance of job-related changes of exercise on fat, lean body and body mass in students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; Kohl, Matthias; Bebenek, Michael; von Stengel, Simon

    2015-03-01

    Early adulthood is related to changes in lifestyle that negatively affect body weight and health. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of exercise changes on the development of weight and body composition in college students.Sixty-one randomly selected dental (ZMS) and 53 sport students (SLS) were accompanied over 5 years. Body mass, fat and lean body mass (LBM) were determined via DXA-technique. Exercise and physical activity were assessed by questionnaires and interviews.All exercise indices significantly increased in the SLS and significantly decreased in the ZMS. Physical activity slightly increased in both groups. Both cohorts comparably gained body mass, however, the increase in the SLS group can be attributed to LBM-changes with minor changes of fat-mass (2.4 % ± 3.3 % vs. 0.1 ± 1.0 %) whereas ZMS gained fat and LBM in a proportion of 2:1.Maintenance/increase of exercise compensate the negative effects of lifestyle changes on body composition during young adulthood.

  18. Exercise but not metformin improves health-related quality of life and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Liliana C; Machado-Rodrigues, Aristides M; Martins, Raul A

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this cohort study is to analyse the effect of three types of treatment: (i) exercise training with multicomponent exercise (E); (ii) pharmacologic treatment with oral hypoglycaemic drug - metformin (M); and (iii) a combined therapy - exercise and metformin (E + M) on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and mood states in older adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D) with comorbidity in an early stage of the disease. Participants (n = 284) underwent 1 of the following 3 conditions: (i) E (n = 59) trained three times/week; (ii) M (n = 30) used 850 mg of metformin twice daily; and (iii) E + M (n = 195) combined exercise and metformin. Furthermore, participants completed baseline and 2-year follow-up evaluations including a Shortform Health Survey 36, Profile of Mood States - Short-form, the health history questionnaires, anthropometric, and blood biochemistry. E and E + M revealed improved mood states, with large effect size on the vigour domain, and moderate effect size in the anger and total mood disturbance (TMD) domains (P  0.05). Metformin had no significant effect on the self-referred HRQoL in T2D participants aged above 60 years, in an early stage of the disease. The E and E + M were the most effective long-term therapies to improve mood states and HRQoL in older adults with T2D.

  19. Impact of low-volume, high-intensity interval training on maximal aerobic capacity, health-related quality of life and motivation to exercise in ageing men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Ann-Marie; Herbert, Peter; Easton, Chris; Sculthorpe, Nicholas; Grace, Fergal M

    2015-01-01

    There is a demand for effective training methods that encourage exercise adherence during advancing age, particularly in sedentary populations. This study examined the effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQL), aerobic fitness and motivation to exercise in ageing men. Participants consisted of males who were either lifelong sedentary (SED; N = 25; age 63 ± 5 years) or lifelong exercisers (LEX; N = 19; aged 61 ± 5 years). [Formula: see text] and HRQL were measured at three phases: baseline (Phase A), week seven (Phase B) and week 13 (Phase C). Motivation to exercise was measured at baseline and week 13. [Formula: see text] was significantly higher in LEX (39.2 ± 5.6 ml kg min(-1)) compared to SED (27.2 ± 5.2 ml kg min(-1)) and increased in both groups from Phase A to C (SED 4.6 ± 3.2 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1 - 6.0; LEX 4.9 ± 3.4 ml kg min(-1), 95 % CI 3.1-6.6) Physical functioning (97 ± 4 LEX; 93 ± 7 SED) and general health (70 ± 11 LEX; 78 ± 11 SED) were significantly higher in LEX but increased only in the SED group from Phase A to C (physical functioning 17 ± 18, 95 % CI 9-26, general health 14 ± 14, 95 % CI 8-21). Exercise motives related to social recognition (2.4 ± 1.2 LEX; 1.5 ± 1.0 SED), affiliation (2.7 ± 1.0 LEX; 1.6 ± 1.2 SED) and competition (3.3 ± 1.3 LEX; 2.2 ± 1.1) were significantly higher in LEX yet weight management motives were significantly higher in SED (2.9 ± 1.1 LEX; 4.3 ± 0.5 SED). The study provides preliminary evidence that low-volume HIIT increases perceptions of HRQL, exercise motives and aerobic capacity in older adults, to varying degrees, in both SED and LEX groups.

  20. Time-dependent relation between smoking cessation and improved exercise tolerance in apparently healthy middle-age men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkovitch, Anat; Kivity, Shaye; Klempfner, Robert; Segev, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi; Goldenberg, Ilan; Sidi, Yechezkel; Maor, Elad

    2015-06-01

    Smoking is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and correlates with reduced exercise tolerance. However, data on the time dependent effect of smoking cessation on exercise tolerance are limited. We investigated 17,115 men and women who were annually screened at the Institute for Medical Screening of the Chaim Sheba Medical Centre. All subjects had their smoking status documented and performed an exercise stress testing (EST) according to Bruce protocol at each visit. Subjects were divided at baseline into four groups: active smokers (N = 2858), recent quitters (smoking cessation ≤2 years before baseline EST; N = 861), remote quitters (smoking cessation >2 years before the baseline EST; N = 3856) and never smokers (N = 9810). Baseline and follow up EST duration were compared among the four groups. Recent quitters demonstrated a 2.4-fold improvement in their EST duration compared with active smokers (improvement of 24 ± 157 vs. 10 ± 157 s, respectively, p = 0.02). Multivariate logistic regression showed that recent quitters were 26% more likely to improve their exercise tolerance compared with active smokers (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.08-1.47, p = 0.003). Assessing smoking status as a time-dependent covariate during four consecutive visits demonstrated that recent quitters were 17% more likely to improve their exercise tolerance compared with active smokers (95% CI 1.02-1.34, p = 0.02), with a less pronounced benefit among remote quitters (hazard ratio = 1.11, 95% CI 1.02-1.21; p = 0.01). Smoking cessation is independently associated with improved exercise tolerance. The benefits of smoking cessation are evident within the first two years of abstinence. © The European Society of Cardiology 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  1. Pressure transients across HEPA filters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, W.; Reynolds, G.; Ricketts, C.; Smith, P.R.

    1977-01-01

    Nuclear fuel cycle facilities require ventilation for health and safety reasons. High efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are located within ventilation systems to trap radioactive dust released in reprocessing and fabrication operations. Pressure transients within the air cleaning systems may be such that the effectiveness of the filtration system is questioned under certain accident conditions. These pressure transients can result from both natural and man-caused phenomena: atmospheric pressure drop caused by a tornado or explosions and nuclear excursions initiate pressure pulses that could create undesirable conditions across HEPA filters. Tornado depressurization is a relatively slow transient as compared to pressure pulses that result from combustible hydrogen-air mixtures. Experimental investigation of these pressure transients across air cleaning equipment has been undertaken by Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and New Mexico State University. An experimental apparatus has been constructed to impose pressure pulses across HEPA filters. The experimental equipment is described as well as preliminary results using variable pressurization rates. Two modes of filtration of an aerosol injected upstream of the filter is examined. A laser instrumentation for measuring the aerosol release, during the transient, is described

  2. Chernobyl reactor transient simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaber, F.A.; El Messiry, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    This paper deals with the Chernobyl nuclear power station transient simulation study. The Chernobyl (RBMK) reactor is a graphite moderated pressure tube type reactor. It is cooled by circulating light water that boils in the upper parts of vertical pressure tubes to produce steam. At equilibrium fuel irradiation, the RBMK reactor has a positive void reactivity coefficient. However, the fuel temperature coefficient is negative and the net effect of a power change depends upon the power level. Under normal operating conditions the net effect (power coefficient) is negative at full power and becomes positive under certain transient conditions. A series of dynamic performance transient analysis for RBMK reactor, pressurized water reactor (PWR) and fast breeder reactor (FBR) have been performed using digital simulator codes, the purpose of this transient study is to show that an accident of Chernobyl's severity does not occur in PWR or FBR nuclear power reactors. This appears from the study of the inherent, stability of RBMK, PWR and FBR under certain transient conditions. This inherent stability is related to the effect of the feed back reactivity. The power distribution stability in the graphite RBMK reactor is difficult to maintain throughout its entire life, so the reactor has an inherent instability. PWR has larger negative temperature coefficient of reactivity, therefore, the PWR by itself has a large amount of natural stability, so PWR is inherently safe. FBR has positive sodium expansion coefficient, therefore it has insufficient stability it has been concluded that PWR has safe operation than FBR and RBMK reactors

  3. Stationary and Transient Response Statistics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Peter Hauge; Krenk, Steen

    1982-01-01

    The covariance functions for the transient response of a linear MDOF-system due to stationary time limited excitation with an arbitrary frequency content are related directly to the covariance functions of the stationary response. For rational spectral density functions closed form expressions fo...

  4. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement

    OpenAIRE

    Danilo Garcia; Alexander Jimmefors; Fariba Mousavi; Lillemor Adrianson; Patricia Rosenberg; Trevor Archer

    2015-01-01

    Background. Self-regulation is the procedure implemented by an individual striving to reach a goal and consists of two inter-related strategies: assessment and locomotion. Moreover, both subjective and psychological well-being along exercise behaviour might also play a role on adolescents academic achievement. Method. Participants were 160 Swedish high school pupils (111 boys and 49 girls) with an age mean of 17.74 (sd = 1.29). We used the Regulatory Mode Questionnaire to measure self-regulat...

  5. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaito Iwayama

    2015-12-01

    Interpretation: Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  6. Wnt Signaling-Related Osteokines and Transforming Growth Factors Before and After a Single Bout of Plyometric Exercise in Child and Adolescent Females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Jennifer; Nelson, Katlynne; Kurgan, Nigel; Falk, Bareket; Josse, Andrea; Klentrou, Panagiota

    2017-11-01

    This study examined resting levels of catabolic and anabolic osteokines related to Wnt signaling and their responses to a single bout of plyometric exercise in child and adolescent females. Fourteen premenarcheal girls [10.5 (1.8) y old] and 12 postmenarcheal adolescent girls [15.0 (1.0) y old] performed a plyometric exercise trial. One resting and 3 postexercise blood samples (5 min, 1 h, and 24 h postexercise) were analyzed for sclerostin, dickkopf-1 (DKK-1), osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-β ligand (RANKL), and transforming growth factors (TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3). Premenarcheal girls had significantly higher resting sclerostin, TGF-β1, TGF-β2, and TGF-β3 than the postmenarcheal girls, with no significant time effect or group-by-time interaction. DKK-1 was higher in premenarcheal compared with postmenarcheal girls. There was an overall significant DKK-1 decrease from baseline to 1 h postexercise, which remained lower than baseline 24 h postexercise in both groups. There was neither a significant group effect nor group-by-time interaction in OPG, RANKL, and their ratio. RANKL decreased 5 min postexercise compared with baseline and remained significantly lower from baseline 24 h following the exercise. No changes were observed in OPG. OPG/RANKL ratio was significantly elevated compared with resting values 1 h postexercise. In young females, high-impact exercise induces an overall osteogenic effect through a transitory suppression of catabolic osteokines up to 24 h following exercise.

  7. Acupuncture and physical exercise for affective symptoms and health-related quality of life in polycystic ovary syndrome: secondary analysis from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Holm, Göran; Janson, Per Olof; Gustafson, Deborah; Waern, Margda

    2013-06-13

    Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have symptoms of depression and anxiety and impaired health related quality of life (HRQoL). Here we test the post-hoc hypothesis that acupuncture and exercise improve depression and anxiety symptoms and HRQoL in PCOS women. Seventy-two PCOS women were randomly assigned to 16 weeks of 1) acupuncture (n = 28); 2) exercise (n = 29); or 3) no intervention (control) (n = 15). Outcome measures included: change in Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS-S), Brief Scale for Anxiety (BSA-S), Swedish Short-Form 36 (SF-36), and PCOS Questionnaire (PCOSQ) scores from baseline to after 16-week intervention, and to 16-week post-intervention follow-up. A reduction in MADRS-S and BSA-S from baseline to 16-weeks post-intervention follow-up was observed for the acupuncture group. The SF-36 domains role physical, energy/vitality, general health perception and the mental component of summary scores improved in the acupuncture group after intervention and at follow-up. Within the exercise group the role physical decreased after treatment, while physical functioning and general health perception scores increased at follow-up. The emotion domain in the PCOSQ improved after 16-weeks of intervention within all three groups, and at follow-up in acupuncture and exercise groups. At follow-up, improvement in the infertility domain was observed within the exercise group. There was a modest improvement in depression and anxiety scores in women treated with acupuncture, and improved HRQoL scores were noted in both intervention groups. While not a primary focus of the trial, these data suggest continued investigation of mental health outcomes in women treated for PCOS. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00484705.

  8. The effect, moderators, and mediators of resistance and aerobic exercise on health-related quality of life in older long-term survivors of prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffart, Laurien M; Newton, Robert U; Chinapaw, Mai J; Taaffe, Dennis R; Spry, Nigel A; Denham, James W; Joseph, David J; Lamb, David S; Brug, Johannes; Galvão, Daniel A

    2015-08-15

    The current study examined effects, moderators (for whom), and mediators (working mechanisms) of 12 months of exercise on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in older long-term survivors of prostate cancer. In total, 100 men aged 71.7 years (standard deviation, 6.4 years) were randomly assigned to 6 months of supervised aerobic and resistance exercise followed by 6 months of a home-based exercise maintenance program (EX group) or printed education material regarding physical activity for 12 months (PA group). Assessments took place at baseline and after 6 and 12 months. Generalized estimating equations were used to study the effects of EX versus PA on HRQoL at 6 and 12 months, adjusting for baseline HRQoL. The authors examined potential sociodemographic and clinical moderators by adding interaction terms, and potential physical and psychological mediators using the product-of-coefficients test. At 6 months, significant beneficial effects were found for global QoL, physical function, and social function in the EX group compared with the PA group. For physical function, beneficial effects were sustained at 12 months. Moderation analyses demonstrated larger effects of EX versus PA for patients who were married, started exercising sooner after their diagnosis, and previously used bisphosphonates. Changes in lower body functional performance significantly mediated the effect of EX on global QoL, physical function, and social function. No mediating effects on HRQoL were found for aerobic fitness, physical activity, fatigue, distress, or falls self-efficacy. Aerobic and resistance exercise appears to have beneficial effects on HRQoL among older, long-term survivors of prostate cancer. Effects were moderated by marital status, time since diagnosis, and use of bisphosphonates, and were mediated by lower body functional performance. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  9. Case-control study of high-speed exercise history of Thoroughbred and Quarter Horse racehorses that died related to a complete scapular fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, S A; Entwistle, R C; Hitchens, P L; Gardner, I A; Stover, S M

    2013-05-01

    Identification of exercise history patterns that are related to catastrophic scapular fracture will facilitate prevention of racehorse fatalities. To determine if exercise patterns are associated with scapular fracture in Thoroughbred (TB) and Quarter Horse (QH) racehorses. High-speed exercise histories for 65 TB and 26 QH racehorses that had a complete scapular fracture (cases) and 2 matched control racehorses were retrospectively studied. Exercise variables were created from lifetime race and official timed workout reports. Associations between exercise variables and scapular fracture were investigated using conditional logistic regression. Thoroughbreds with a scapular fracture had a greater number of workouts, events (combined works and races), and mean event distances than QHs with a scapular fracture. Quarter Horses worked less frequently and accumulated distance at a lower rate than TBs. Breed differences were not found for career race number or length, time between races or lay-up variables for horses with ≥1 lay-up. For both breeds, cases had fewer events, lower recent accumulated distance and fewer active days in training than controls; however, a subset of TB cases with >10 events since lay-up had a longer active career than controls. For QHs that had a lay-up, total and mean lay-up times were greater for cases than controls. Multivariable models revealed that odds ratios (OR) of scapular fracture were greater for TBs that had not yet raced (OR = 23.19; 95% confidence interval (CI) 3.03-177.38) and lower for QHs with more events (OR = 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.94). Racehorses that are in early high-speed training but behind that of their training cohort should be examined for signs of scapular stress remodelling. Quarter Horses that had a prolonged lay-up and TBs that have endured high-speed training for a longer duration than that of their training cohort also were at greater risk. © 2012 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Obesity, inflammation, and exercise training: relative contribution of iNOS and eNOS in the modulation of vascular function in the mouse aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Fernandes da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background - The understanding of obsesity-related vascular dysfunction remains controversial mainly because of the diseases associated with vascular injury. Exercise training is known to prevent vascular dysfunction. Using an obesity model without comorbidities, we aimed at investigating the underlying mechanism of vascular dysfunction and how exercise interferes with this process.Methods - High-sugar diet was used to induce obesity in mice. Exercise training was performed 5 days/week. Body weight, energy intake, and adipose tissues were assessed; blood metabolic and hormonal parameters were determined; and serum TNFα was measured. Blood pressure and heart rate were assessed by plethysmography. Changes in aortic isometric tension were recorded on myograph. Western blot was used to analyze protein expression. Nitric oxide (NO was evaluated using fluorescence microscopy. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides were used for inducible nitric oxide synthase isoform (iNOS knockdown.Results - Body weight, fat mass, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol fraction, insulin, and leptin were higher in the sedentary obese group (SD than in the sedentary control animals (SS. Exercise training prevented these changes. No difference in glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, blood pressure, and heart rate was found. Decreased vascular relaxation and reduced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS functioning in the SD group were prevented by exercise. Contractile response to phenylephrine was decreased in the aortas of the wild SD mice, compared with that of the SS group; however, no alteration was noted in the SD iNOS-/- animals. The decreased contractility was endothelium-dependent, and was reverted by iNOS inhibition or iNOS silencing. The aortas from the SD group showed increased basal NO production, serum TNFα, TNF receptor-1, and phospho-IκB. Exercise training attenuated iNOS-dependent reduction in contractile response in high-sugar diet

  11. Peak-bone-mass development in young adults: effects of study program related levels of occupational and leisure time physical activity and exercise. A prospective 5-year study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Bebenek, M; von Stengel, S; Bauer, J

    2015-02-01

    Young adulthood is characterized by profound life-style changes. This study suggests that reduction of sport or exercise, induced by alteration of the occupational situation, negatively impacts generation/maintenance of peak bone mass. In order to compensate occupational-related reductions of physical activity, workplace exercise programs will be helpful. Only few studies have determined the effect of physical activity or physical exercise on bone mineral density (BMD) in the period of late skeletal maturation, i.e. around peak bone mass. The aim of this article was to determine the long-term effect of different levels of physical activity and exercise directly and indirectly derived by occupation during young adulthood. Sixty-one male and female dental students (DES) and 53 male and female sport students (SPS) 21±2 years old were accompanied over the course (4.8±0.5 years) of their study program. BMD at the lumbar spine (LS), hip, and whole body (WB) were determined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Parameters of physical activity increased non-significantly in both groups with no relevant differences between the groups. Indices of exercise, however, increased significantly in the SPS group while a significant decrease was assessed for the DES group. Independent of gender, BMD of the SPS increased significantly (p≤0.007) at all skeletal sites (LS, 2.4±3.9%; hip, 1.6±3.5%; WB, 1.8±2.8%) while BMD of the DES remained unchanged at LS (-0.6±4.4%, p=0.432) and WB (0.5±1.9%, p=0.092) but decreased significantly at the hip (-1.9±4.3%, p=0.010). BMD-changes at LS, hip, and WB differ significantly between SPS and DES (p≤0.017). Results remained unchanged after adjusting for baseline BMD-values that differed (p=0.030 to p=0.082) in favor of the SPS group. Changes of exercise levels directly or indirectly caused by occupational factors during young adulthood significantly affected generation and/or maintenance of peak bone mass. Compensatory exercise is

  12. Exercise-induced rib stress fractures: potential risk factors related to thoracic muscle co-contraction and movement pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther-Knudsen, Archibald; Kanstrup, I-L; Christiansen, E

    2006-01-01

    The etiology of exercise-induced rib stress fractures (RSFs) in elite rowers is unclear. The purpose of the study was to investigate thoracic muscle activity, movement patterns and muscle strength in elite rowers. Electromyographic (EMG) and 2-D video analysis were performed during ergometer rowing...

  13. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    Science.gov (United States)

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, psmokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected (r=.739, smokers vs. r=.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO2max, but not following a run at 80% VO2max. An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis. PMID:27182363

  14. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... body. Pilates, yoga and martial arts all provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ...

  15. Compulsive Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... negative thinking and low self-esteem. Why Is Exercising Too Much a Bad Thing? We all know ... spent with friends. Warning Signs Someone may be exercising compulsively if he or she: won't skip ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... prescribe an exercise program that matches your abilities. Neck Press This is an isometric exercise to strengthen your neck. Press your palm against your forehead, then use ...

  17. Exercise Headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... headaches may require emergency medical attention. Symptoms Primary exercise headaches These headaches: Are usually described as throbbing ... sides of the head in most cases Secondary exercise headaches These headaches may cause: The same symptoms ...

  18. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described ... times... Abdominal Crunch Draw abdominal wall inward, exhale as you lift chest area. This can be done ...

  19. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... provide well-rounded core strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific ... benefit from this exercise... Sagittal Core Strengthening You can stretch and strengthen the low back muscles that ...

  20. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disc Replacement (ADR) Bone Graft Alternatives Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMP) Cervical Disc Replacement Cervical Laminoplasty Lumbar (Open) ... Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy and Back ...

  1. Anticipated transients without scram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lellouche, G.S.

    1980-01-01

    This article discusses in various degrees of depth the publications WASH-1270, WASH-1400, and NUREG-0460, and has as its purpose a description of the technical work done by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) personnel and its contractors on the subject of anticipated transients without scram (ATWS). It demonstrates the close relation between the probability of scram failure derived from historical scram data and that derived from the use of component data in a model of a system (the so-called synthesis method), such as was done in WASH-1400. The inherent conservatism of these models is demonstrated by showing that they predict significantly more events than have in fact occurred and that such models still predict scram failure probabilities low enough to make ATWS an insignificant contributor to accident risk

  2. The prefrontal oxygenation and ventilatory responses at start of one-legged cycling exercise have relation to central command.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asahara, Ryota; Matsukawa, Kanji; Ishii, Kei; Liang, Nan; Endo, Kana

    2016-11-01

    When performing exercise arbitrarily, activation of central command should start before the onset of exercise, but when exercise is forced to start with cue, activation of central command should be delayed. We examined whether the in-advance activation of central command influenced the ventilatory response and reflected in the prefrontal oxygenation, by comparing the responses during exercise with arbitrary and cued start. The breath-by-breath respiratory variables and the prefrontal oxygenated-hemoglobin concentration (Oxy-Hb) were measured during one-legged cycling. Minute ventilation (V̇e) at the onset of arbitrary one-legged cycling was augmented to a greater extent than cued cycling, while end-tidal carbon dioxide tension (ETco 2 ) decreased irrespective of arbitrary or cued start. Symmetric increase in the bilateral prefrontal Oxy-Hb occurred before and at the onset of arbitrary one-legged cycling, whereas such an increase was absent with cued start. The time course and magnitude of the increased prefrontal oxygenation were not influenced by the extent of subjective rating of perceived exertion and were the same as those of the prefrontal oxygenation during two-legged cycling previously reported. Mental imagery or passive performance of the one-legged cycling increased V̇e and decreased ETco 2 Neither intervention, however, augmented the prefrontal Oxy-Hb. The changes in ETco 2 could not explain the prefrontal oxygenation response during voluntary or passive one-legged cycling. Taken together, it is likely that the in-advance activation of central command influenced the ventilatory response by enhancing minute ventilation at the onset of one-legged cycling exercise and reflected in the preexercise increase in the prefrontal oxygenation. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  3. Performance related factors are the main determinants of the von Willebrand factor response to exhaustive physical exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loon, Janine E; Sonneveld, Michelle A H; Praet, Stephan F E; de Maat, Moniek P M; Leebeek, Frank W G

    2014-01-01

    Physical stress triggers the endothelium to release von Willebrand Factor (VWF) from the Weibel Palade bodies. Since VWF is a risk factor for arterial thrombosis, it is of great interest to discover determinants of VWF response to physical stress. We aimed to determine the main mediators of the VWF increase by exhaustive physical exercise. 105 healthy individuals (18-35 years) were included in this study. Each participant performed an incremental exhaustive exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Respiratory gas exchange measurements were obtained while cardiac function was continuously monitored. Blood was collected at baseline and directly after exhaustion. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag) levels, VWF collagen binding (VWF:CB) levels, ADAMTS13 activity and common variations in Syntaxin Binding Protein-5 (STXBP5, rs1039084 and rs9399599), Syntaxin-2 (STX2, rs7978987) and VWF (promoter, rs7965413) were determined. The median VWF:Ag level at baseline was 0.94 IU/mL [IQR 0.8-1.1] and increased with 47% [IQR 25-73] after exhaustive exercise to a median maximum VWF:Ag of 1.38 IU/mL [IQR 1.1-1.8] (pexercise (median increase 43% and 12%, both pexercise (females 1.2 IU/mL; males 1.7 IU/mL, p = 0.001), which was associated by a difference in performance. Genetic variations in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter were not associated with VWF:Ag levels at baseline nor with the VWF:Ag increase. VWF:Ag levels strongly increase upon exhaustive exercise and this increase is strongly determined by physical fitness level and the intensity of the exercise, while there is no clear effect of genetic variation in STXBP5, STX2 and the VWF promoter.

  4. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered

  5. Application of disturbance analysis methodology to safety related transients in the electrical systems of a nuclear power plant. Report UCLA-ENG-8056

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarro, S.; Okrent, D.

    1981-08-01

    The present study tries to address the question of whether or not the computerized on-line procedures known under the name of DAS (Disturbance Analysis System) can be usefully and successfully applied to provide timely diagnostics and operational suggestions during the occurrence of a major electrical transient in the auxiliary systems of a nuclear power plant. The perspective of the study is from the plant-safety point of view. A short definition of DAS methodology features and capabilities is presented. A discussion of some of the problems of a general nature that are encountered in DAS safety-oriented applications are also included. The event insufficient power on both emergency buses, with reference to a particular plant dsign (San Onofre 1), is presented. Some transients that have recently occurred in the power supply systems of operating plants are examined. Whether or not a DAS could have successfully dealt with such occurrences is considered.

  6. Effect of exercise on age-related changes in collagen fibril diameter distributions in the common digital extensor tendons of young horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Lindsey J; Goodship, Allen E; Birch, Helen L; Patterson-Kane, Janet C

    2005-04-01

    To determine whether specific treadmill exercise regimens would accelerate age-related changes in collagen fibril diameter distributions in the common digital extensor tendon (CDET) of the forelimbs of young Thoroughbreds. 24 female Thoroughbreds. Horses were trained for 18 weeks (6 horses; short term) or 18 months (5 horses; long term) on a high-speed treadmill; 2 age-matched control groups (6 horses/group) performed walking exercise only. Horses were (mean +/- SD) 24 +/- 1 months and 39 +/- 1 months old at termination of the short-term and long-term regimens, respectively. Midmetacarpal CDET specimens were obtained and processed for transmission electron microscopy. Diameter and area of at least 1,000 collagen fibrils/specimen were measured by use of computerized image analysis. Mass-average diameter (MAD) of collagen fibrils and collagen fibril index were calculated for each horse. Collagen fibril MAD for the older horses was significantly less than that for the younger horses. Exercise did not significantly affect fibril diameter or distributions in either age group, and collagen fibril index did not differ significantly between groups. Age-related reduction in collagen fibril MAD agreed with findings for other tendons and species. Training did not accelerate age-related change in the CDET in contrast to a reported decrease in collagen fibril MAD in the superficial digital flexor tendon of horses trained long term. Our results support the concept that the functionally distinct nature of the CDET and superficial digital flexor tendon in horses results in fundamentally different responses to high-speed exercise regimens.

  7. Effects of yoga versus hydrotherapy training on health-related quality of life and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hägglund, Ewa; Hagerman, Inger; Dencker, Kerstin; Strömberg, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine whether yoga and hydrotherapy training had an equal effect on the health-related quality of life in patients with heart failure and to compare the effects on exercise capacity, clinical outcomes, and symptoms of anxiety and depression between and within the two groups. The design was a randomized controlled non-inferiority study. A total of 40 patients, 30% women (mean±SD age 64.9±8.9 years) with heart failure were randomized to an intervention of 12 weeks, either performing yoga or training with hydrotherapy for 45-60 minutes twice a week. Evaluation at baseline and after 12 weeks included self-reported health-related quality of life, a six-minute walk test, a sit-to-stand test, clinical variables, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Yoga and hydrotherapy had an equal impact on quality of life, exercise capacity, clinical outcomes, and symptoms of anxiety and depression. Within both groups, exercise capacity significantly improved (hydrotherapy p=0.02; yoga p=0.008) and symptoms of anxiety decreased (hydrotherapy p=0.03; yoga p=0.01). Patients in the yoga group significantly improved their health as rated by EQ-VAS ( p=0.004) and disease-specific quality of life in the domains symptom frequency ( p=0.03), self-efficacy ( p=0.01), clinical summary as a combined measure of symptoms and social factors ( p=0.05), and overall summary score ( p=0.04). Symptoms of depression were decreased in this group ( p=0.005). In the hydrotherapy group, lower limb muscle strength improved significantly ( p=0.01). Yoga may be an alternative or complementary option to established forms of exercise training such as hydrotherapy for improvement in health-related quality of life and may decrease depressive symptoms in patients with heart failure.

  8. Exercise Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chunks of time. Exercise has so many health benefits that any amount is better than none. Try exercising for 10 minutes at a time throughout your ... second hand. Most people will get the greatest benefit and lower their risks if ... rate when exercising. To figure out your maximum heart rate, subtract ...

  9. TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-24

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2017-0169 TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION Dr. Burhan Bayraktaroglu Devices for Sensing Branch Aerospace Components & Subsystems...SUBTITLE TRANSIENT ELECTRONICS CATEGORIZATION 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-house 5b. GRANT NUMBER N/A 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 6. AUTHOR(S) Dr. Burhan...88ABW-2017-3747, Clearance Date 31 July 2017. Paper contains color. 14. ABSTRACT Transient electronics is an emerging technology area that lacks proper

  10. Predicting students' physical activity and health-related well-being: a prospective cross-domain investigation of motivation across school physical education and exercise settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standage, Martyn; Gillison, Fiona B; Ntoumanis, Nikos; Treasure, Darren C

    2012-02-01

    A three-wave prospective design was used to assess a model of motivation guided by self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2008) spanning the contexts of school physical education (PE) and exercise. The outcome variables examined were health-related quality of life (HRQoL), physical self-concept (PSC), and 4 days of objectively assessed estimates of activity. Secondary school students (n = 494) completed questionnaires at three separate time points and were familiarized with how to use a sealed pedometer. Results of structural equation modeling supported a model in which perceptions of autonomy support from a PE teacher positively predicted PE-related need satisfaction (autonomy, competence, and relatedness). Competence predicted PSC, whereas relatedness predicted HRQoL. Autonomy and competence positively predicted autonomous motivation toward PE, which in turn positively predicted autonomous motivation toward exercise (i.e., 4-day pedometer step count). Autonomous motivation toward exercise positively predicted step count, HRQoL, and PSC. Results of multisample structural equation modeling supported gender invariance. Suggestions for future work are discussed.

  11. cfDNA as an Earlier Predictor of Exercise-Induced Performance Decrement Related to Muscle Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Michely V; Curty, Victor M; Coutinho, João Victor S; Santos, Miguel Ângelo A; Vassallo, Paula F; de Sousa, Nuno F; Barauna, Valério G

    2017-11-28

    The aims of this study were: a) to evaluate whether cell-free DNA (cfDNA) levels increase immediately after an acute light and heavy resistance exercise (RE) bout, and b) to whether cfDNA levels are associated with functional muscle capacity until 48hrs after exercise session. Twenty healthy volunteers performed 3 sets of the leg press resistance exercise with 80% of 1RM (RE80) or 40% of 1RM (RE40) with similar exercise volume. Blood lactate was measured after completion of the 3 sets. Creatine kinase (CK), cfDNA and jump performance were evaluated before (pre) exercise, immediately post-exercise (Post-0) and every 24hrs until 48hrs. Lactate concentration increased similarly in both groups (RE40, 4.0±1.3mmol/L; RE80, 4.8±1.3mmol/L). No changes were observed in squat jump and countermovement jump performance after RE40, however both jumps remained reduced until 48h in RE80 group. CK concentration increased post-24h only in the RE80 group (Pre: 128.8±73.7U/L to Post-24h: 313.8±116.4U/L). cfDNA concentration increased post-0h only in the RE80 group (Pre, 249.8±82.3ng/mL; Post-0h, 406.3±67.2ng/mL). There was a negative correlation between post-0h cfDNA concentration and post-24h squat jump (r=-0.521; p=0.01) and post-0h cfDNA concentration and post-24h countermovement jump (r=-0.539; p=0.01). cfDNA increases in responsive to RE intensity even when not performed until exhaustion. cfDNA measured immediately after RE is a promising biomarker for muscle performance decrement until 48hrs of a RE bout.

  12. Exercise increases circulating GDF15 in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kleinert, Maximilian; Clemmensen, Christoffer; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2018-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) is a stress-sensitive circulating factor that regulates systemic energy balance. Since exercise is a transient physiological stress that has pleiotropic effects on whole-body energy metabolism, we herein explored the effect of exercise on a......) circulating GDF15 levels and b) GDF15 release from skeletal muscle in humans. METHODS: Seven healthy males either rested or exercised at 67% of their VO2max for 1 h and blood was sampled from the femoral artery and femoral vein before, during, and after exercise. Plasma GDF15 concentrations were determined...... in these samples. RESULTS: Plasma GDF15 levels increased 34% with exercise (p exercise. There was no difference between the arterial and venous GDF15 concentration before, during, and after exercise. During...

  13. A randomized controlled trial on the effects of combined aerobic-resistance exercise on muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and health-related quality of life of type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomas-Carus, Pablo; Ortega-Alonso, Alfredo; Pietilainen, Kirsi H; Santos, Vitoria; Goncalves, Helena; Ramos, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effects of a 12-weeks combined aerobic-resistance exercise therapy on fatigue and isokinetic muscle strength, glycemic control and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in moderately affected type 2 diabetes (T2DM) patients. A randomized controlled trial design was employed. Forty-three T2DM patients were assigned to an exercise group (N.=22), performing 3 weekly sessions of 60 minutes of combined aerobic-resistance exercise for 12-weeks; or a no exercise control group (N.=21). Both groups were evaluated at a baseline and after 12-weeks of exercise therapy for: 1) muscle strength and fatigue by isokinetic dynamometry; 2) plasma glycated hemoglobin A1C (HbA1C); and 3) HRQoL utilizing the SF-36 questionnaire. The exercise therapy led to improvements in muscle fatigue in knee extensors (-55%) and increased muscle strength in knee flexors and extensors (+15 to +30%), while HbA1C decreased (-18%). In addition, the exercising patients showed sizeable improvements in HRQoL: physical function (+53%), vitality (+21%) and mental health (+40%). Twelve-weeks of combined aerobic-resistance exercise was highly effective to improve muscle strength and fatigue, glycemic control and several aspects of HRQoL in T2DM patients. These data encourage the use of aerobic and resistance exercise in the good clinical care of T2DM.

  14. Prismatic Core Coupled Transient Benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortensi, J.; Pope, M.A.; Strydom, G.; Sen, R.S.; DeHart, M.D.; Gougar, H.D.; Ellis, C.; Baxter, A.; Seker, V.; Downar, T.J.; Vierow, K.; Ivanov, K.

    2011-01-01

    The Prismatic Modular Reactor (PMR) is one of the High Temperature Reactor (HTR) design concepts that have existed for some time. Several prismatic units have operated in the world (DRAGON, Fort St. Vrain, Peach Bottom) and one unit is still in operation (HTTR). The deterministic neutronics and thermal-fluids transient analysis tools and methods currently available for the design and analysis of PMRs have lagged behind the state of the art compared to LWR reactor technologies. This has motivated the development of more accurate and efficient tools for the design and safety evaluations of the PMR. In addition to the work invested in new methods, it is essential to develop appropriate benchmarks to verify and validate the new methods in computer codes. The purpose of this benchmark is to establish a well-defined problem, based on a common given set of data, to compare methods and tools in core simulation and thermal hydraulics analysis with a specific focus on transient events. The benchmark-working group is currently seeking OECD/NEA sponsorship. This benchmark is being pursued and is heavily based on the success of the PBMR-400 exercise.

  15. A comparison of eating, exercise, shape, and weight related symptomatology in males with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Stuart B; Rieger, Elizabeth; Hildebrandt, Tom; Karlov, Lisa; Russell, Janice; Boon, Evelyn; Dawson, Robert T; Touyz, Stephen W

    2012-03-01

    In the context of the lack of nosological clarity surrounding muscle dysmorphia, this paper aims to compare the symptomatic profile of muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa in males whilst using measures sensitive to indexing male body image concerns. Twenty-one male muscle dysmorphia patients, 24 male anorexia nervosa patients, and 15 male gym-using controls completed the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire, the Muscle Dysmorphia Disorder Inventory, the Compulsive Exercise Test, and a measure of appearance-enhancing substance use. Men with muscle dysmorphia and anorexia nervosa demonstrated widespread symptomatic similarities spanning the domains of disturbed body image, disordered eating, and exercise behaviour, whilst differences were consistent with the opposing physiques pursued in each condition. Furthermore, correlational analyses revealed significant associations between scores on muscle dysmorphia and eating disorder measures. The present findings provide moderate support for the notion that muscle dysmorphia may be nosologically similar to anorexia nervosa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Workplace exercise and educational program for improving fitness outcomes related to health in workers: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilela, Bianca Lima; Benedito Silva, Ana Amélia; de Lira, Claudio Andre Barbosa; Andrade, Marília dos Santos

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of a workplace fitness and education program intervention on physical fitness of workers. Employees from a chemical plant (n = 60) participated in a 4-month longitudinal study. They were randomly distributed in control and experimental groups. The experimental group had 4 months of exercise training in 15-minute sessions. The following evaluations were performed before and after the training period: body composition, localized muscle strength, and flexibility. The experimental group showed a significant decrease in body fat (24.7%) and a significant increase in lean mass (6.1%), flexibility (17.9%), sit-up test performance (39.8%), and push-up test performance (29.8%) after the workplace fitness and education program compared with initial values. A structured program of physical exercise was effective in improving body composition, abdominal strength, upper limb strength, and flexibility in workers.

  17. Is exercise good for the right ventricle? Concepts for health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Gerche, André; Claessen, Guido

    2015-04-01

    There is substantial evidence supporting the prescription of exercise training in patients with left-sided heart disease, but data on the effects of exercise are far more limited for conditions that primarily affect the right ventricle. There is evolving evidence that right ventricular (RV) function is of critical importance to circulatory function during exercise. Even in healthy individuals with normal pulmonary vascular function, the hemodynamic load on the right ventricle increases relatively more during exercise than that of the left ventricle, and this disproportionate load is far greater in patients with pulmonary hypertension. Exercise-induced increases in pulmonary artery pressures can exceed RV contractile reserve (so-called arterioventricular uncoupling), resulting in attenuated cardiac output and exercise intolerance. In this review, we explore the spectrum of RV reserve-from transient RV dysfunction observed in athletes after extreme bouts of intense endurance exercise to RV failure with minimal exertion in patients with advanced pulmonary hypertension. Recent advances and novel approaches to echocardiographic and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging have provided more accurate means of assessing the right ventricle and pulmonary circulation during exercise such that quantification of exercise reserve may provide a valuable means of assessing prognosis and response to therapies. We discuss the potential benefits and risks of exercise training in both health and disease while recognizing the need for prospective studies that assess the long-term efficacy and safety of exercise interventions in patients with pulmonary vascular and RV pathologic conditions. Copyright © 2015 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  19. The effectiveness of a combined exercise intervention on physical fitness factors related to falls in community-dwelling older adults

    OpenAIRE

    Zhuang J; Huang L; Wu Y; Zhang Y

    2014-01-01

    Jie Zhuang,1,* Liang Huang,1,2,* Yanqiang Wu,3 Yanxin Zhang2 1School of Kinesiology, Shanghai University of Sport, Shanghai, People's Republic of China; 2Department of Sport and Exercise Science, The University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand; 3Shanghai Municipal Center for Students' Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, Shanghai, People's Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness ...

  20. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyung-Shin; Lee, Yang

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (≤ 1 pack year, n =7) and non-smokers ( n =7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO 2max . AI and L were analyzed at rest (Pre), immediately after (Post), and 1 h following (1 h post) each run. Data was analyzed using two way repeated measures ANOVA. Smokers showed higher AI than non-smokers at Post in 60% (12.5±0.62% vs. 9.97±0.51, p vs. 15.6±0.41, p smokers and non-smokers. The strong positive relationship between AI and L was detected ( r =.739, smokers vs. r =.793, non-smokers). Smokers tend to have higher AI than non-smokers following runs at 60% and 70% VO 2max, but not following a run at 80% VO 2max . An increase in AI following a run at 60% VO 2max indicates that lymphocyte apoptosis can be increased following moderate intensity exercise. Since L and AI at post were increased in dose-dependent manner to exercise intensity, it is suggested that an increase in lactate production during exercise might contribute to the increase in lymphocyte apoptosis.

  1. Prevalence and distribution of metabolic syndrome in a southern Chinese population. Relation to exercise, smoking, and educational level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yong-Qiang; Zhao, Li-Qin; Liu, Xin-Yu; Wang, Hong-Lei; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Li, Bin; Deng, Kang-Ping; Zhang, Ying; Liu, Qin; Holthofer, Harry; Zou, He-Qun

    2013-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence and distribution of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and the impact of exercise, smoking, and educational level on the risk of MetS in a southern Chinese population. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Zhuhai City, China from June to August 2012. Data on exercise, smoking, and educational level, anthropometric parameters, blood pressure, lipid, and glucose levels were collected. The prevalence of MetS (as defined by the International Diabetes Federation) was determined. Data necessary to evaluate MetS, the socio-economic characteristics, and lifestyle were obtained for 4645 subjects aged 18-75 years old. A total of 19.8% of the participants had MetS. The adjusted odds of having MetS were lower among males (adjusted odds: 0.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.57-1.01) compared with females. Those participants who currently smoked had a higher risk of developing MetS compared with non-smokers (adjusted odds: 1.61; 95% CI: 1.13-2.50). Those who had no physical exercise had a higher risk of developing MetS compared with those who physically exercised more than 60 minutes/day (adjusted odds: 1.51; 95% CI: 1.12-2.23;). Compared with those with no education, every category of attained educational level had a lower risk of developing MetS (p<0.001). The findings in this study revealed that current smokers had a greater risk of developing MetS compared with non-smokers. Increased physical activity and higher levels of education attained served as protective factors for the population.

  2. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... form-fitting, stretchy clothing for activities like: Running Biking Advanced yoga/Pilates Swimming You may be able ... A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Exercise and Physical Fitness Browse the Encyclopedia ...

  3. Use of cis-[18F] fluoro-proline for assessment of exercise-related collagen synthesis in musculoskeletal connective tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovgaard, Dorthe; Kjaer, Andreas; Heinemeier, Katja Maria

    2011-01-01

    Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18)F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro), for non-invasive assess......Protein turnover in collagen rich tissue is influenced by exercise, but can only with difficulty be studied in vivo due to use of invasive procedure. The present study was done to investigate the possibility of applying the PET-tracer, cis-[(18)F]fluoro-proline (cis-Fpro), for non......-invasive assessment of collagen synthesis in rat musculoskeletal tissues at rest and following short-term (3 days) treadmill running. Musculoskeletal collagen synthesis was studied in rats at rest and 24 h post-exercise. At each session, rats were PET scanned at two time points following injection of cis-FPro: (60...... and 240 min p.i). SUV were calculated for Achilles tendon, calf muscle and tibial bone. The PET-derived results were compared to mRNA expression of collagen type I and III. Tibial bone had the highest SUV that increased significantly (p...

  4. Mini-trampoline exercise related to mechanisms of dynamic stability improves the ability to regain balance in elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragão, Fernando Amâncio; Karamanidis, Kiros; Vaz, Marco Aurélio; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2011-06-01

    Falls have been described by several studies as the major cause of hip and femur fractures among the elderly. Therefore, interventions to reduce fall risks, improve dynamic stability and the falling recovery strategies in the elderly population are highly relevant. This study aimed at investigating the effects of a 14-week mini-trampoline exercise intervention regarding the mechanisms of dynamic stability on elderly balance ability during sudden forward falls. Twenty-two elderly subjects participated on mini-trampoline training and 12 subjects were taken as controls. The subjects of the experimental group were evaluated before and after the 14-week trampoline training (exercised group), whereas control subjects were evaluated twice in the forward fall task with a three-month interval. The applied exercise intervention increased the plantarflexors muscle strength (∼10%) as well as the ability to regain balance during the forward falls (∼35%). The 14-week mini-trampoline training intervention increased elderly abilities to recover balance during forward falls; the improvement was attributed to the higher rate of hip moment generation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Exercise addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landolfi, Emilio

    2013-02-01

    This article examines the nature of exercise addiction. It presents a broad, congruent and discerning narrative literature review with the aim of providing a deeper understanding of the condition 'exercise addiction', including symptoms and options for treatment. In addition, guidelines are provided with respect to 'healthy' levels of exercise. Criteria used for determining the eligibility of studies evaluated in the review included the provision of relevant information in studies identified using pertinent search terms. The review highlights some of the key distinctions between healthy levels of exercise and exercise addiction. The findings suggest that an individual who is addicted to exercise will continue exercising regardless of physical injury, personal inconvenience or disruption to other areas of life including marital strain, interference with work and lack of time for other activities. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to exercise for intrinsic rewards and experience disturbing deprivation sensations when unable to exercise. In contrast, 'committed' exercisers engage in physical activity for extrinsic rewards and do not suffer severe withdrawal symptoms when they cannot exercise. Exercisers must acquire a sense of life-balance while embracing an attitude conducive to sustainable long-term physical, psychological and social health outcomes. Implementation of recommendations by the Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology, which states that all apparently healthy adults between 18 and 64 years of age should accumulate at least 150 minutes of moderate (5 or 6 on a scale of 0-10) to vigorous (7 or 8 on a scale of 0-10) intensity aerobic physical activity per week in bouts of 10 minutes or more, also expressed as 30 minutes per day distributed over 5 days per week, would be a good start.

  6. Perceived personal importance of exercise and fears of re-injury: a longitudinal study of psychological factors related to activity after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gignac, Monique Am; Cao, Xingshan; Ramanathan, Subha; White, Lawrence M; Hurtig, Mark; Kunz, Monica; Marks, Paul H

    2015-01-01

    Psychological perceptions are increasingly being recognized as important to recovery and rehabilitation post-surgery. This research longitudinally examined perceptions of the personal importance of exercise and fears of re-injury over a three-year period post anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. Stability and change in psychological perceptions was examined, as well as the association of perceptions with time spent in different types of physical activity, including walking, household activities, and lower and higher risk for knee injury activities. Participants were athletes, 18-40 years old, who underwent ACL reconstruction for first-time ACL injuries. They were recruited from a tertiary care centre in Toronto, Canada. Participants completed interviewer-administered questionnaires pre-surgery and at years one, two and three, postoperatively. Questions assessed demographics, pain, functional limitations, perceived personal importance of exercise, fear of re-injury and physical activities (i.e., walking; household activities; lower risk for knee injury activities; higher risk for knee injury activities). Analyses included fixed-effect longitudinal modeling to examine the association of a fear of re-injury and perceived personal importance of exercise and changes in these perceptions with the total hours spent in the different categories of physical activities, controlling for other factors. Baseline participants were 77 men and 44 women (mean age = 27.6 years; SD = 6.2). At year three, 78.5% of participants remained in the study with complete data. Fears of re-injury decreased over time while personal importance of exercise remained relatively stable. Time spent in walking and household activities did not significantly change with ACL injury or surgery. Time spent in lower and higher risk of knee injury physical activity did not return to pre-injury levels at three years, post-surgery. Greater time spent in higher risk of knee injury activities

  7. Exercise and reproductive dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, E C; Brzyski, R G

    1999-01-01

    To provide an overview of our current understanding of exercise-induced reproductive dysfunction and an approach to its evaluation and management. A MEDLINE search was performed to review all articles with title words related to menstrual dysfunction, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, exercise, and athletic activities from 1966 to 1998. The pathophysiology, proposed mechanisms, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and management of exercise-associated reproductive dysfunction were compiled. Exercise-induced menstrual irregularity appears to be multifactorial in origin and remains a diagnosis of exclusion. The underlying mechanisms are mainly speculative. Clinical manifestations range from luteal phase deficiency to anovulation, amenorrhea, and even delayed menarche. Evaluation should include a thorough history and a complete physical plus pelvic examination. Most cases are reversible with dietary and exercise modifications. Hormonal replacement in cases of a prolonged hypoestrogenic state with evidence of increased bone loss is recommended, although the long-term consequences of prolonged hormonal deficiency are ill-defined.

  8. Spectroscopic classification of transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stritzinger, M. D.; Fraser, M.; Hummelmose, N. N.

    2017-01-01

    We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017.......We report the spectroscopic classification of several transients based on observations taken with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) equipped with ALFOSC, over the nights 23-25 August 2017....

  9. Transient and stable expression of marker genes in cotransformed Petunia protoplasts in relation to X-ray and UV-irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benediktsson, I.; Köhler, F.; Schieder, O.

    1991-01-01

    Irradiation of protoplasts with X-rays or ultraviolet light does not seem to influence the level of transient expression of foreign DNA in Petunia protoplasts, whereas the number of stably transformed colonies is significantly raised. This may indicate that irradiation influences integration and/or the expression of marker genes and does not result in enhanced uptake rates of plasmids into protoplasts and cell nuclei. Co-transformation with plasmids carrying a gene for kanamycin resistance (neomycin phosphotransferase II) and a gene for hygromycin resistance (hygromycin phosphotransferase) revealed that the cotransformation rates were not stimulated by irradiation when measuring expression

  10. RELAP4/MOD5: a computer program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors and related systems. User's manual. Volume II. Program implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-06-01

    A discussion is presented of the use of the RELAP4/MOD5 computer program in simulating the thermal-hydraulic behavior of light-water reactor systems when subjected to postulated transients such as a LOCA, pump failure, or nuclear excursion. The volume is divided into main sections which cover: (1) program description, (2) input data, (3) problem initialization, (4) user guidelines, (5) output discussion, (6) source program description, (7) implementation requirements, (8) data files, (9) description of PLOTR4M, (10) description of STH20, (11) summary flowchart, (12) sample problems, (13) problem definition, and (14) problem input

  11. RELAP4/MOD5: a computer program for transient thermal-hydraulic analysis of nuclear reactors and related systems. User's manual. Volume I. RELAP4/MOD5 description. [PWR and BWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-09-01

    RELAP4 is a computer program written in FORTRAN IV for the digital computer analysis of nuclear reactors and related systems. It is primarily applied in the study of system transient response to postulated perturbations such as coolant loop rupture, circulation pump failure, power excursions, etc. The program was written to be used for water-cooled (PWR and BWR) reactors and can be used for scale models such as LOFT and SEMISCALE. Additional versatility extends its usefulness to related applications, such as ice condenser and containment subcompartment analysis. Specific options are available for reflood (FLOOD) analysis and for the NRC Evaluation Model.

  12. RFI flagging implications for short-duration transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cendes, Y.; Prasad, P.; Rowlinson, A.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Swinbank, J. D.; Law, C. J.; van der Horst, A. J.; Carbone, D.; Broderick, J. W.; Staley, T. D.; Stewart, A. J.; Huizinga, F.; Molenaar, G.; Alexov, A.; Bell, M. E.; Coenen, T.; Corbel, S.; Eislöffel, J.; Fender, R.; Grießmeier, J.-M.; Jonker, P.; Kramer, M.; Kuniyoshi, M.; Pietka, M.; Stappers, B.; Wise, M.; Zarka, P.

    2018-04-01

    With their wide fields of view and often relatively long coverage of any position in the sky in imaging survey mode, modern radio telescopes provide a data stream that is naturally suited to searching for rare transients. However, Radio Frequency Interference (RFI) can show up in the data stream in similar ways to such transients, and thus the normal pre-treatment of filtering RFI (flagging) may also remove astrophysical transients from the data stream before imaging. In this paper we investigate how standard flagging affects the detectability of such transients by examining the case of transient detection in an observing mode used for Low Frequency Array (LOFAR; van Haarlem et al., 2013) surveys. We quantify the fluence range of transients that would be detected, and the reduction of their SNR due to partial flagging. We find that transients with a duration close to the integration sampling time, as well as bright transients with durations on the order of tens of seconds, are completely flagged. For longer transients on the order of several tens of seconds to minutes, the flagging effects are not as severe, although part of the signal is lost. For these transients, we present a modified flagging strategy which mitigates the effect of flagging on transient signals. We also present a script which uses the differences between the two strategies, and known differences between transient RFI and astrophysical transients, to notify the observer when a potential transient is in the data stream.

  13. A randomized, controlled trial of aerobic exercise for treatment-related fatigue in men receiving radical external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windsor, Phyllis M; Nicol, Kathleen F; Potter, Joan

    2004-08-01

    Advice to rest and take things easy if patients become fatigued during radiotherapy may be detrimental. Aerobic walking improves physical functioning and has been an intervention for chemotherapy-related fatigue. A prospective, randomized, controlled trial was performed to determine whether aerobic exercise would reduce the incidence of fatigue and prevent deterioration in physical functioning during radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma. Sixty-six men were randomized before they received radical radiotherapy for localized prostate carcinoma, with 33 men randomized to an exercise group and 33 men randomized to a control group. Outcome measures were fatigue and distance walked in a modified shuttle test before and after radiotherapy. There were no significant between group differences noted with regard to fatigue scores at baseline (P = 0.55) or after 4 weeks of radiotherapy (P = 0.18). Men in the control group had significant increases in fatigue scores from baseline to the end of radiotherapy (P = 0.013), with no significant increases observed in the exercise group (P = 0.203). A nonsignificant reduction (2.4%) in shuttle test distance at the end of radiotherapy was observed in the control group; however, in the exercise group, there was a significant increase (13.2%) in distance walked (P = 0.0003). Men who followed advice to rest and take things easy if they became fatigued demonstrated a slight deterioration in physical functioning and a significant increase in fatigue at the end of radiotherapy. Home-based, moderate-intensity walking produced a significant improvement in physical functioning with no significant increase in fatigue. Improved physical functioning may be necessary to combat radiation fatigue.

  14. Role of microRNAs in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle and diet or exercise interventions to promote healthy aging in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Robin A; Poppitt, Sally D; Cameron-Smith, David

    2014-09-01

    Progressive age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass and composition, underpin decreases in muscle function, which can inturn lead to impaired mobility and quality of life in older adults. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression in skeletal muscle and are associated with aging. Accumulating evidence suggests that miRNAs play an important role in the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition and function. At the cellular level, miRNAs have been demonstrated to regulate muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Furthermore, miRNAs are involved in the transitioning of muscle stem cells from a quiescent, to either an activated or senescence state. Evidence from animal and human studies has shown miRNAs are modulated in muscle atrophy and hypertrophy. In addition, miRNAs have been implicated in changes in muscle fiber composition, fat infiltration and insulin resistance. Both exercise and dietary interventions can combat age-related changes in muscle mass, composition and function, which may be mediated by miRNA modulation in skeletal muscle. Circulating miRNA species derived from myogenic cell populations represent potential biomarkers of aging muscle and the molecular responses to exercise or diet interventions, but larger validation studies are required. In future therapeutic approaches targeting miRNAs, either through exercise, diet or drugs may be able to slow down or prevent the age-related changes in skeletal muscle mass, composition, function, hence help maintain mobility and quality of life in old age. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Work-related pain in extrinsic finger extensor musculature of instrumentalists is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Moreno-Torres

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although non-specific pain in the upper limb muscles of workers engaged in mild repetitive tasks is a common occupational health problem, much is unknown about the associated structural and biochemical changes. In this study, we compared the muscle energy metabolism of the extrinsic finger extensor musculature in instrumentalists suffering from work-related pain with that of healthy control instrumentalists using non-invasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31P-MRS. We hypothesize that the affected muscles will show alterations related with an impaired energy metabolism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We studied 19 volunteer instrumentalists (11 subjects with work-related pain affecting the extrinsic finger extensor musculature and 8 healthy controls. We used (31P-MRS to find deviations from the expected metabolic response to exercise in phosphocreatine (PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi, Pi/PCr ratio and intracellular pH kinetics. We observed a reduced finger extensor exercise tolerance in instrumentalists with myalgia, an intracellular pH compartmentation in the form of neutral and acid compartments, as detected by Pi peak splitting in (31P-MRS spectra, predominantly in myalgic muscles, and a strong association of this pattern with the condition. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Work-related pain in the finger extrinsic extensor muscles is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise, non-invasively detectable by (31P-MRS and consistent with the simultaneous energy production by oxidative metabolism and glycolysis. We speculate that a deficit in energy production by oxidative pathways may exist in the affected muscles. Two possible explanations for this would be the partial and/or local reduction of blood supply and the reduction of the muscle oxidative capacity itself.

  16. Work-Related Pain in Extrinsic Finger Extensor Musculature of Instrumentalists Is Associated with Intracellular pH Compartmentation during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Torres, Angel; Rosset-Llobet, Jaume; Pujol, Jesus; Fàbregas, Sílvia; Gonzalez-de-Suso, Jose-Manuel

    2010-01-01

    Background Although non-specific pain in the upper limb muscles of workers engaged in mild repetitive tasks is a common occupational health problem, much is unknown about the associated structural and biochemical changes. In this study, we compared the muscle energy metabolism of the extrinsic finger extensor musculature in instrumentalists suffering from work-related pain with that of healthy control instrumentalists using non-invasive phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS). We hypothesize that the affected muscles will show alterations related with an impaired energy metabolism. Methodology/Principal Findings We studied 19 volunteer instrumentalists (11 subjects with work-related pain affecting the extrinsic finger extensor musculature and 8 healthy controls). We used 31P-MRS to find deviations from the expected metabolic response to exercise in phosphocreatine (PCr), inorganic phosphate (Pi), Pi/PCr ratio and intracellular pH kinetics. We observed a reduced finger extensor exercise tolerance in instrumentalists with myalgia, an intracellular pH compartmentation in the form of neutral and acid compartments, as detected by Pi peak splitting in 31P-MRS spectra, predominantly in myalgic muscles, and a strong association of this pattern with the condition. Conclusions/Significance Work-related pain in the finger extrinsic extensor muscles is associated with intracellular pH compartmentation during exercise, non-invasively detectable by 31P-MRS and consistent with the simultaneous energy production by oxidative metabolism and glycolysis. We speculate that a deficit in energy production by oxidative pathways may exist in the affected muscles. Two possible explanations for this would be the partial and/or local reduction of blood supply and the reduction of the muscle oxidative capacity itself. PMID:20161738

  17. Transient analysis capabilities at ABB-CE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kling, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    The transient capabilities at ABB-Combustion Engineering (ABB-CE) Nuclear Power are a function of the computer hardware and related network used, the computer software that has evolved over the years, and the commercial technical exchange agreements with other related organizations and customers. ABB-CEA is changing from a mainframe/personal computer network to a distributed workstation/personal computer local area network. The paper discusses computer hardware, mainframe computing, personal computers, mainframe/personal computer networks, workstations, transient analysis computer software, design/operation transient analysis codes, safety (licensed) analysis codes, cooperation with ABB-Atom, and customer support

  18. Transient survivability of LMR oxide fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, E.T.; Pitner, A.L.; Bard, F.E.; Culley, G.E.; Hunter, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    Fuel pin integrity during transient events must be assessed for both the core design and safety analysis phases of a reactor project. A significant increase in the experience related to limits of integrity for oxide fuel pins in transient overpower events has been realized from testing of fuel pins irradiated in FFTF and PFR. Fourteen FFTF irradiated fuel pins were tested in TREAT, representing a range of burnups, overpower ramp rates and maximum overpower conditions. Results of these tests along with similar testing in the PFR/TREAT program, provide a demonstration of significant safety margins for oxide fuel pins. Useful information applied in analytical extrapolation of fuel pin test data have been developed from laboratory transient tests on irradiated fuel cladding (FCTT) and on unirradiated fuel pellet deformation. These refinements in oxide fuel transient performance are being applied in assessment of transient capabilities of long lifetime fuel designs using ferritic cladding

  19. Hemopoiesis in mouse heterozygous for the W trait. Difference in postirradiation recovery related to the defect in formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiktor-Jedrzejczak, W.; Urbanowska, E.; Szczylik, C.; Siekierzynski, M.; Pojda, Z.

    1985-01-01

    The hemopoietic regeneration following midlethal irradiation in Wsup(v)/+ mice had similarly biphasic kinetics as in their hematologically normal +/+ littermates. The first abortive phase of regeneration was either severly reduced (formation of transient endogenous spleen colonies, reticulocyte count, granulocyte count) or absent (spleen and femur cellularity, platelet count, PCV) in Wsup(v)/+ mice, when compared to +/+ mice. The second phase leading to permanent recovery of hemopoiesis was in Wsup(v)/+ mice delayed in time. Moreover, although to a lesser extent the values of spleen and femur cellularity, PCV and platelet count were decreased in Wsup(v)/+ mice. Postirradiation bleeding, which stimulated particularly the 1st phase of regeneration both in Wsup(v)/+ and +/+ mice did not lead to the minimization of differences between above two genotypes. It is suggested that the observed differences in the abortive regeneration between Wsup(v)/+ and +/+ mice are primarily dependent on the presence in Wsup(v)/+ mice of selective defect of transient endogeneous colony forming units (TE-CFUs). Moreover, it is possible that the differences in the second phase of regeneration leading to permanent recovery are secondarily dependent on the TE-CFUs defect, as most probably the TE-CFU is the step in stem cell differentiation to mature cells. (orig.) [de

  20. Relation between myocardial damage and disease activity in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus by exercise {sup 201}Tl scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzumoto, Masayuki [Nara Medical Univ. (Japan)

    1997-08-01

    Myocardial damage in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was evaluated using exercise thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy, and the relationship between myocardial damage and disease activity of SLE was examined. Twenty-seven patients (26 women and 1 man, mean age 43 years), in whom extramural coronary artery lesions were excluded by coronary angiogram or presumed to be excluded by exercise electrocardiogram, were enrolled in this study. The mean duration of disease and the mean duration of corticosteroid therapy in these patients were 94 and 77 months, respectively. Exercise thallium-201 scintigraphy was performed twice (mean interval, 30 months) to evaluate the progression of myocardial damage. Myocardial ischemia as an index of myocardial damage was evaluated by visual analysis and ischemic score (IS). The changes in myocardial ischemia were categorized into 3 groups: improved, unchanged or worsened. The disease activity of SLE was determined by the SLE Disease Activity Index (SLEDAI), and the changes in this index were classified into the same three categories, as evaluated every six months between the two scintigraphic examinations. Disease activity was significantly correlated with myocardial ischemia (p<0.05), and with myocardial ischemia as diagnosed by {Delta}IS (difference in ischemic score between the first and second thallium-201 scintigrams: p<0.005). But neither the duration of disease nor the duration of corticosteroid therapy was correlated with IS at the first scintigraphy. These results indicate that control of SLE disease activity may be critical in the treatment of myocardial damage resulting from vascular lesions, especially intramyocardial small-artery disease, in patients with SLE. (author)

  1. Increased pulmonary artery pressures during exercise are related to persistent tricuspid regurgitation after atrial septal defect closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meester, Pieter; Van De Bruaene, Alexander; Herijgers, Paul; Voigt, Jens-Uwe; Vanhees, Luc; Budts, Werner

    2013-08-01

    Although closure of an atrial septal defect type secundum often normalizes right heart dimensions and pressures, mild tricuspid insufficiency might persist. This study aimed at (1) identification of determinants explaining the persistence of tricuspid insufficiency after atrial septal defect closure, and (2) evaluation of functional capacity of patients with persistent mild tricuspid insufficiency. Twenty-five consecutive patients (age 42+17 y) were included from the outpatient clinic of congenital heart disease at the University Hospitals of Leuven. All underwent transthoracic echocardiography, semi-supine bicycle stress echocardiography and cardio-pulmonary exercise testing. Six patients (24%) had mild tricuspid insufficiency (2/4) compared to 19 patients (76%) with no or minimal tricuspid insufficiency ( 1/4) as assessed by semi-quantitative colour Doppler echocardiography. Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests were performed where applicable. Patients with persistent mild tricuspid insufficiency were significantly older than those with no or minimal tricuspid insufficiency (P = 0.042). At rest, no differences in right heart configuration, mean pulmonary artery pressure or right ventricular function were found. At peak exercise, mean pulmonary artery pressure was significantly higher in patients with mild persistent tricuspid insufficiency (P = 0.026). Peak oxygen uptake was significantly lower in patients with mild persistent tricuspid insufficiency (P = 0.019). Mild tricuspid insufficiency after atrial septal defect repair occurs more frequently in older patients and in patients with higher mean pulmonary artery pressure at peak exercise. In patients with mild tricuspid insufficiency, functional capacity was more reduced. Mild tricuspid insufficiency could be a marker of subclinical persistent pressure load on the right ventricle.

  2. Exercise Dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdal Vardar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Exercise dependence define a condition in which a person performs excessive exercise resulting in deterioration of his or her physical and mental health wellness. Despite many clinical research studies on exercise dependence, exact diagnostic criteria has not been developed yet. Clinical evidences concerning etiology, epidemiology, underlying mechanisms and treatment of exercise dependence are still not sufficient. Moreover, evaluation of this clinical disorder within dependency perspective is a fairly new concept. Recent studies have shown that exercise dependence has similar features like chemical substance dependence with regards to withdrawal and tolerance symptoms. The aim of this review was to briefly evaluate diagnostic and clinical features of exercise dependence. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2012; 21(3.000: 163-173

  3. Lymphocyte Apoptosis in Smokers and Non-Smokers Following Different Intensity of Exercises and Relation with Lactate

    OpenAIRE

    PARK, KYUNG-SHIN; LEE, YANG

    2011-01-01

    Purposes of this study were 1) to examine the exercise intensity where lymphocyte apoptosis index (AI) is significantly increased in smokers and non-smokers, 2) to find out whether AI is associated with level of lactate (L). Fourteen healthy untrained smokers (? 1 pack year, n=7) and non-smokers (n=7) aged 18 to 26 were recruited. Each subject conducted three treadmill runs at different intensities randomly. Running distance for all three runs was equivalent to 30 minute run at 70% VO2max. AI...

  4. Influence of exercise on bone remodeling-related hormones and cytokines in ovariectomized rats: a model of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Li

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effects of exercise on postmenopausal osteoporosis and the mechanisms by which exercise affects bone remodeling. Sixty-three Wistar female rats were randomly divided into five groups: (1 control group, (2 sham-operated group, (3 OVX (Ovariectomy group, (4 DES-OVX (Diethylstilbestrol-OVX group, and (5 Ex-OVX (Exercise-OVX group. The rat osteoporosis model was established through ovariectomy. The Ex-OVX rats were made to run 251.2 meters every day, 6 d/wk for 3 months in a running wheel. Trabecular bone volume (TBV%, total resorption surface (TRS%, trabecular formation surface (TFS%, mineralization rate (MAR, bone cortex mineralization rate (mAR, and osteoid seam width (OSW were determined by bone histomorphometry. The mRNA and protein levels of interleukin-1β (IL-1β2, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2 were determined by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Serum levels of estrogen estradiol (E2, calcitonin (CT, osteocalcin (BGP, and parathyroid hormone (PTH were determined by ELISA assays. The investigation revealed that compared to the control and the sham-operated groups, the OVX group showed significantly lower levels of TBV%, E2, and CT, but much higher levels of TRS%, TFS%, MAR, OSW, BGP, and PTH. The Ex-OVX group showed increased TBV% and serum levels of E2 and CT compared to the OVX group. Ovariectomy also led to a significant increase in IL-1β mRNA and protein levels in the bone marrow and IL-6 and Cox-2 protein levels in tibias. In addition, the Ex-OVX group showed lower levels of IL-1 mRNA and protein, IL-6 mRNA, and Cox-2 mRNA and protein than those in the OVX group. The upshot of the study suggests that exercise can significantly increase bone mass in postmenopausal osteoporosis rat models by inhibiting bone resorption and increasing bone formation, especially in trabecular bones.

  5. Intellectual differences of adult men related to age and physical fitness before and after an exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsayed, M; Ismail, A H; Young, R J

    1980-05-01

    Fluid and crystalized intelligence differences among high-fit, young; high-fit, old; low-fit, young, and low-fit, old groups were investigated before and after an exercise program. The high-fit group had higher fluid intelligence than the low-fit group. Likewise, the young group scored higher than the old group. The four groups scored higher at the posttest on two of the fluid intelligence subtests of the Cattell Culture. Fair Intelligence Test. No differences were observed on crystallized intelligence. It is uncertain how biological factors and psychological changes, either individually or in combination, produce differences in cognitive functioning due to physical fitness.

  6. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysical (Facet) Joint Injections PREVENTION Lifestyle Choices 10 Tips for a Healthy Back Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen ...

  7. On Task: Considerations and Future Directions for Studies of Corticospinal Excitability in Exercise Neuroscience and Related Disciplines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmar, Jayne M

    2018-04-27

    Over the last few decades, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has emerged as a conventional laboratory technique in human neurophysiological research. Exercise neuroscientists have used TMS to study central nervous system contributions to fatigue, training, and performance in health, injury, and disease. In such studies, corticospinal excitability is often assessed at rest or during simple isometric tasks with the implication that the results may be extrapolated to more functional and complex movement outside of the laboratory. However, the neural mechanisms that influence corticospinal excitability are both state- and task-dependent. Furthermore, there are many sites of modulation along the pathway from the motor cortex to the muscle; a fact that is somewhat obscured by the all-encompassing and poorly-defined term "corticospinal excitability." Therefore, the tasks we use to assess corticospinal excitability and the conclusions that we draw from such a global measure of the motor pathway must be taken into consideration. The overall objective of this review is to highlight the task-dependent nature of corticospinal excitability and the tools used to assess modulation at cortical and spinal sites of modulation. By weighing the advantages and constraints of conventional approaches to studying corticospinal excitability, and considering some new and novel approaches, we will continue to advance our understanding of the neural control of movement during exercise.

  8. A pilot randomized controlled trial comparing the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and neuro emotional technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peterson Caroline D

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This pilot randomized controlled trial evaluated the feasibility of conducting a full scale study and compared the efficacy of exercise, spinal manipulation, and a mind-body therapy called Neuro Emotional Technique for the treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain, a common morbidity of pregnancy. Methods Healthy pregnant women with low back pain of insidious onset were eligible to enroll in the study at any point in their pregnancy. Once enrolled, they remained in the study until they had their babies. Women were randomly allocated into one of three treatment groups using opaque envelopes. The treatment schedule paralleled the prenatal care schedule and women received individualized intervention. Our null hypothesis was that spinal manipulation and Neuro Emotional Technique would perform no better than exercise in enhancing function and decreasing pain. Our primary outcome measure was the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and our secondary outcome measure was the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. Intention to treat analysis was conducted. For the primary analysis, regression was conducted to compare groups on the outcome measure scores. In a secondary responder analysis, difference in proportions of participants in attaining 30% and 50% improvement were calculated. Feasibility factors for conducting a future larger trial were also evaluated such as recruitment, compliance to study protocols, cost, and adverse events. Results Fifty-seven participants were randomized into the exercise (n = 22, spinal manipulation (n = 15, and Neuro Emotional Technique (n = 20 treatment arms. At least 50% of participants in each treatment group experienced clinically meaningful improvement in symptoms for the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire. At least 50% of the exercise and spinal manipulation participants also experienced clinically meaningful improvement for the Numeric Pain Rating Scale. There were no clinically

  9. Human factors reliability Benchmark exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poucet, A.

    1989-06-01

    The Joint Research Centre of the European Commission has organized a Human Factors Reliability Benchmark Exercise (HF-RBE) with the aim of assessing the state of the art in human reliability modelling and assessment. Fifteen teams from eleven countries, representing industry, utilities, licensing organisations and research institutes, participated in the HF-RBE. The HF-RBE was organized around two study cases: (1) analysis of routine functional Test and Maintenance (T and M) procedures: with the aim of assessing the probability of test induced failures, the probability of failures to remain unrevealed and the potential to initiate transients because of errors performed in the test; (2) analysis of human actions during an operational transient: with the aim of assessing the probability that the operators will correctly diagnose the malfunctions and take proper corrective action. This report contains the final summary reports produced by the participants in the exercise

  10. A model for mild traumatic brain injury that induces limited transient memory impairment and increased levels of axon related serum biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham eRostami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI is one of the most common neuronal insults and can lead to long-term disabilities. mTBI occurs when the head is exposed to a rapid acceleration-deceleration movement triggering axonal injuries. Our limited understanding of the underlying pathological changes makes it difficult to predict the outcome of mTBI. In this study we used a scalable rat model for rotational acceleration TBI, previously characterized for the threshold of axonal pathology. We have analyzed whether a TBI just above the defined threshold would induce any detectable behavioral changes and/or changes in serum biomarkers. The effect of injury on sensory motor functions, memory and anxiety were assessed by beam walking, radial arms maze and elevated plus maze at 3 to 7 days following TBI. The only behavioral deficits found were transient impairments in working and reference memory. Blood serum was analyzed at 1, 3 and 14 days after injury for changes in selected protein biomarkers. Serum levels of neurofilament heavy chain (NF-H and Tau, as well as S100B and myelin basic protein (MBP showed significant increases in the injured animals at all time points. No signs of macroscopic injuries such as intracerebral hematomas or contusions were found. Amyloid precursor protein (APP immunostaining indicated axonal injuries at all time points analyzed. In summary, this model mimics some of the key symptoms of mTBI, such as transient memory impairment, which is paralleled by an increase in serum biomarkers. Our findings suggest that serum biomarkers may be used to detect mTBI. The model provides a suitable foundation for further investigation of the underlying pathology of mTBI.

  11. Exercise identity as a risk factor for exercise dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Aja L; McKenzie, Karen; Newman, Emily; Brown, Erin

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to explore the relationship between exercise identity and exercise dependence. We hypothesized that stronger exercise identities would be associated with greater odds of experiencing exercise dependence symptoms. Logistic regression was used to assess the extent of association between exercise identity and the risk of experiencing exercise dependence symptoms. Participants (101) were recruited online via sports clubs and social networking sites and were asked to complete online measures of exercise identity and exercise dependence. The overall model fit was a significant improvement on the baseline model, but only the exercise beliefs factor was significantly associated with the odds of dependence symptoms, with higher scores on the belief scale predicting greater odds of experiencing dependence symptoms. Exercise role identity, in contrast, was not significantly associated with odds of experiencing dependence symptoms. Per cent correct classification was 55.9% for asymptomatic and 88.2% for symptomatic individuals and the overall per cent correct classification was 77.5%. The relation between identity and dependence could represent both a fruitful research avenue and a potential therapeutic target for those experiencing dependence symptoms; although our findings only showed a relationship between one of the two factors of the exercise identity measure and dependence. Longitudinal research is required to examine the relationship between identity and dependence in the context of other variables to better understand why some individuals become exercise dependent whereas others do not. What is already known on this subject? Exercise identity has been identified as an important determinant of exercise behaviour and studies within the exercise identity framework have proven elucidative with respect to the psychological processes that may underpin commitment to exercise. It has separately been established that some individuals may become

  12. An exploration of fluoroscopically guided spinal steroid injections in patients with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Neve

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Leon Neve1, John Orchard2, Nathan Gibbs3, Willem van Mechelen4, Evert Verhagen4, Ken Sesel5, Ian Burgess6, Brett Hines61VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 2School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 3South Sydney Sports Medicine, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 4EMGO, VU University, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; 5Sydney X-ray Centre, Sydney, NSW, Australia; 6Mater Imaging, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaBackground: Fluoroscopically guided lumbar cortisone injections have been proven useful in cases of lower-limb pain caused by lumbar disc prolapse (with evidence levels ll-1/ll-2. These injections are also sometimes used clinically in sports medicine for patients with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain, where no prolapse or other obvious cause of nerve-impingement is diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI or computed tomography (CT, even though this treatment scenario has not been adequately studied for this last diagnosis.Objectives: To explore whether fluoroscopically guided transforaminal lumbar cortisone injections may be a valid treatment method for non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain.Study design: Retrospective case series.Methods: Patients were selected from databases at two sports clinics and divided into two groups: Group D, with back-related lower-limb pain and disc prolapse proven on CT or MR; and Group N, with non-specific exercise-related lower-limb pain. Patients were sent a questionnaire regarding: symptoms, improvement, effect of injections, satisfaction, side effects and other used treatments. Outcomes were compared between Group D and N.Results: 153 patients were eligible for the study (Group D: 93/Group N: 60. Eventually 110 patients responded (Group D: 67/Group N: 43. Twelve percent of Group D and 14% of Group N indicated that the injections had fully cured their symptoms. Altogether, 27% of Group D and 24% of Group N were certain the injections had improved their symptoms in the

  13. PWR systems transient analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, M.F.; Peeler, G.B.; Abramson, P.B.

    1985-01-01

    Analysis of transients in pressurized water reactor (PWR) systems involves the assessment of the response of the total plant, including primary and secondary coolant systems, steam piping and turbine (possibly including the complete feedwater train), and various control and safety systems. Transient analysis is performed as part of the plant safety analysis to insure the adequacy of the reactor design and operating procedures and to verify the applicable plant emergency guidelines. Event sequences which must be examined are developed by considering possible failures or maloperations of plant components. These vary in severity (and calculational difficulty) from a series of normal operational transients, such as minor load changes, reactor trips, valve and pump malfunctions, up to the double-ended guillotine rupture of a primary reactor coolant system pipe known as a Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA). The focus of this paper is the analysis of all those transients and accidents except loss of coolant accidents

  14. Transients: The regulator's view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheron, B.W.; Speis, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter attempts to clarify the basis for the regulator's concerns for transient events. Transients are defined as both anticipated operational occurrences and postulated accidents. Recent operational experience, supplemented by improved probabilistic risk analysis methods, has demonstrated that non-LOCA transient events can be significant contributors to overall risk. Topics considered include lessons learned from events and issues, the regulations governing plant transients, multiple failures, different failure frequencies, operator errors, and public pressure. It is concluded that the formation of Owners Groups and Regulatory Response Groups within the owners groups are positive signs of the industry's concern for safety and responsible dealing with the issues affecting both the US NRC and the industry

  15. The anabolic potential of dietary protein intake on skeletal muscle is prolonged by prior light-load exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bechshøft, Rasmus; Dideriksen, Kasper; Reitelseder, Søren

    2013-01-01

    Hyperaminoacidemia stimulates myofibrillar fractional synthesis rate (myoFSR) transiently in resting skeletal muscle. We investigated whether light-load resistance exercise can extent this responsiveness....

  16. Transient multivariable sensor evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilim, Richard B.; Heifetz, Alexander

    2017-02-21

    A method and system for performing transient multivariable sensor evaluation. The method and system includes a computer system for identifying a model form, providing training measurement data, generating a basis vector, monitoring system data from sensor, loading the system data in a non-transient memory, performing an estimation to provide desired data and comparing the system data to the desired data and outputting an alarm for a defective sensor.

  17. Transient regional osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Marquina, Antonio; Tarín, Juan J; García-Pérez, Miguel-Ángel; Cano, Antonio

    2014-04-01

    Transient regional osteoporosis (TRO) is a disease that predisposes to fragility fracture in weight bearing joints of mid-life women and men. Pregnant women may also suffer the process, usually at the hip. The prevalence of TRO is lower than the systemic form, associated with postmenopause and advanced age, but may be falsely diminished by under-diagnosis. The disease may be uni- or bilateral, and may migrate to distinct joints. One main feature of TRO is spontaneous recovery. Pain and progressive limitation in the functionality of the affected joint(s) are key symptoms. In the case of the form associated with pregnancy, difficulties in diagnosis derive from the relatively young age at presentation and from the clinical overlapping with the frequent aches during gestation. Densitometric osteoporosis in the affected region is not always present, but bone marrow edema, with or without joint effusion, is detected by magnetic resonance. There are not treatment guidelines, but the association of antiresorptives to symptomatic treatment seems to be beneficial. Surgery or other orthopedic interventions can be required for specific indications, like hip fracture, intra-medullary decompression, or other. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Iyengar-Yoga Compared to Exercise as a Therapeutic Intervention during (Neoadjuvant Therapy in Women with Stage I–III Breast Cancer: Health-Related Quality of Life, Mindfulness, Spirituality, Life Satisfaction, and Cancer-Related Fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Désirée Lötzke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to test the effects of yoga on health-related quality of life, life satisfaction, cancer-related fatigue, mindfulness, and spirituality compared to conventional therapeutic exercises during (neoadjuvant cytotoxic and endocrine therapy in women with breast cancer. In a randomized controlled trial 92 women with breast cancer undergoing oncological treatment were randomly enrolled for a yoga intervention (YI (n=45 or for a physical exercise intervention (PEI (n=47. Measurements were obtained before (t0 and after the intervention (t1 as well as 3 months after finishing intervention (t2 using standardized questionnaires. Life satisfaction and fatigue improved under PEI (p<0.05 but not under YI (t0 to t2. Regarding quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30 a direct effect (t0 to t1; p<0.001 of YI was found on role and emotional functioning, while under PEI only emotional functioning improved. Significant improvements (p<0.001 were observed at both t1 and t2 also for symptom scales in both groups: dyspnea, appetite loss, constipation, and diarrhea. There was no significant difference between therapies for none of the analyzed variables neither for t1 nor for t2. During chemotherapy, yoga was not seen as more helpful than conventional therapeutic exercises. This does not argue against its use in the recovery phase.

  19. Laboratory exercises on oscillation modes of pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeberli, Willy

    2009-03-01

    This paper describes an improved lab setup to study the vibrations of air columns in pipes. Features of the setup include transparent pipes which reveal the position of a movable microphone inside the pipe; excitation of pipe modes with a miniature microphone placed to allow access to the microphone stem for open, closed, or conical pipes; and sound insulation to avoid interference between different setups in a student lab. The suggested experiments on the modes of open, closed, and conical pipes, the transient response of a pipe, and the effect of pipe diameter are suitable for introductory physics laboratories, including laboratories for nonscience majors and music students, and for more advanced undergraduate laboratories. For honors students or for advanced laboratory exercises, the quantitative relation between the resonance width and damping time constant is of interest.

  20. Exercise training and work task induced metabolic and stress-related mRNA and protein responses in myalgic muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjøgaard, Gisela; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Kiilerich, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    healthy controls. Those with myalgia performed similar to 7 hrs repetitive stressful work and were subsequently randomized to 10 weeks of specific strength training, general fitness training, or reference intervention. Muscles biopsies were taken from the trapezius muscle at baseline, after work and after...... 10 weeks intervention. The main findings are that the capacity of carbohydrate oxidation was reduced in myalgic compared with healthy muscle. Repetitive stressful work increased mRNA content for heat shock proteins and decreased levels of key regulators for growth and oxidative metabolism......The aim was to assess mRNA and/or protein levels of heat shock proteins, cytokines, growth regulating, and metabolic proteins in myalgic muscle at rest and in response to work tasks and prolonged exercise training. A randomized controlled trial included 28 females with trapezius myalgia and 16...

  1. Exercise and Congenital Heart Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junnan; Liu, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Exercise is an essential part of the physical and mental health. However, many doctors and patients have a conservative attitude to participate in exercise in patients with congenital heart disease (CHD). Exercise in patients with CHD is a relatively new and controversial field. Taking into account the involvement of exercise in patients with CHD is likely to induce acute cardiovascular events and even sudden death; many doctors have a conservative attitude to participate in exercise in patients with CHD, leading to the occurrence of excessive self-protection. CHD has been transformed from the original fatal diseases into chronic diseases, medical treatment will also transform from the improvement of the survival rate to the improvement of the quality of life. It is still a problem that whether patients with CHD should participate in exercise and which kind of CHD should take part in exercise to improve the quality of life.

  2. Pronounced effects of acute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catoire, Milène; Mensink, Marco; Boekschoten, Mark V; Hangelbroek, Roland; Müller, Michael; Schrauwen, Patrick; Kersten, Sander

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated the effects of an acute endurance exercise bouts on gene expression in exercising and non-exercising human muscle. To that end, 12 male subjects aged 44-56 performed one hour of one-legged cycling at 50% W(max). Muscle biopsies were taken from the exercising and non-exercising leg before and immediately after exercise and analyzed by microarray. One-legged cycling raised plasma lactate, free fatty acids, cortisol, noradrenalin, and adrenalin levels. Surprisingly, acute endurance exercise not only caused pronounced gene expression changes in exercising muscle but also in non-exercising muscle. In the exercising leg the three most highly induced genes were all part of the NR4A family. Remarkably, many genes induced in non-exercising muscle were PPAR targets or related to PPAR signalling, including PDK4, ANGPTL4 and SLC22A5. Pathway analysis confirmed this finding. In conclusion, our data indicate that acute endurance exercise elicits pronounced changes in gene expression in non-exercising muscle, which are likely mediated by changes in circulating factors such as free fatty acids. The study points to a major influence of exercise beyond the contracting muscle.