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Sample records for exercise pafix study

  1. The Preventing Australian Football Injuries with Exercise (PAFIX) Study: a group randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C; Lloyd, D; Elliott, B

    2009-06-01

    Knee injuries are a major injury concern for Australian Football players and participants of many other sports worldwide. There is increasing evidence from laboratory and biomechanically focused studies about the likely benefit of targeted exercise programmes to prevent knee injuries. However, there have been few international studies that have evaluated the effectiveness of such programmes in the real-world context of community sport that have combined epidemiological, behavioural and biomechanical approaches. To implement a fully piloted and tested exercise training intervention to reduce the number of football-related knee injuries. In so doing, to evaluate the intervention's effectiveness in the real-world context of community football and to determine if the underlying neural and biomechanical training adaptations are associated with decreased risk of injury. Adult players from community-level Australian Football clubs in two Australian states over the 2007-08 playing seasons. A group-clustered randomised controlled trial with teams of players randomly allocated to either a coach-delivered targeted exercise programme or usual behaviour (control). Epidemiological component: field-based injury surveillance and monitoring of training/game exposures. Behavioural component: evaluation of player and coach attitudes, knowledge, behaviours and compliance, both before and after the intervention is implemented. Biomechanical component: biomechanical, game mobility and neuromuscular parameters assessed to determine the fundamental effect of training on these factors and injury risk. The rate and severity of injury in the intervention group compared with the control group. Changes, if any, in behavioural components. Process evaluation: coach delivery factors and likely sustainability.

  2. Electrophysiologic Study of Exhaustive Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA Babaee Bigi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Exhaustive exercise is well known to pose a variety ofhealth hazards, such as sudden cardiac death reported in ultra-marathon runners.Depressed parasympathetic tone is associated with increased risk of suddencardiac death, thus parasympathetic withdrawal in post-exercise phase may be ahigh risk period for sudden death. To date, the effect on cardiacelectrophysiology after exhaustive strenuous exercise has not been described.The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of severe exhaustive exerciseon cardiac electrophysiology.Methods: The subjects in ranger training were invited to participatein this prospective study. The parameters measured consisted of PR interval, QRSduration, and macro T wave alternans as well as corrected QT, QTc dispersion,Tpeak –Tend interval and Tpeak –Tend dispersion.Results: The study group consisted of 40 consecutive male rangers whocompleted training and the control group (22 healthy age and height matched malesubjects. In regard to electrocardiographic criteria, no differences were foundbetween rangers before and after training program. In respect of therepolarization markers, there were no significant differences between therangers before and after training program.

  3. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Roseanne Armitage; Cheryl King

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They ...

  4. Case study on hypertension, physical exercise and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study describes the effective treatment of a hypertensive crisis in a 63 year old woman with special reference to relevant, optimal, physical exercise and psychophysiological, heart rhythm variability, biofeedback interventions. Quantitative findings and client's experiential descriptions provided convergent support ...

  5. Exposing college students to exercise: the training interventions and genetics of exercise response (TIGER) study

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age ...

  6. Exposing College Students to Exercise: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sailors, Mary H.; Jackson, Andrew S.; McFarlin, Brian K.; Turpin, Ian; Ellis, Kenneth J.; Foreyt, John P.; Hoelscher, Deanna M.; Bray, Molly S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: The Training Interventions and Genetics of Exercise Response (TIGER) study is an exercise program designed to introduce sedentary college students to regular physical activity and to identify genetic factors that influence response to exercise. Participants: A multiracial/ethnic cohort (N = 1,567; 39% male), age 18 to 35 years,…

  7. Exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... exercising. Count out loud as you do the exercises. View Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) Home Techniques to ... Intimacy Importance of Being Together Body Changes with Age Communicating with Your Partner Exercise and Sexual Activity Less Strenuous Positions for Sexual ...

  8. Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT): Modified Delphi Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slade, S.C.; Dionne, C.E.; Underwood, M.; Buchbinder, R.; Beck, B.; Bennell, K.; Brosseau, L.; Costa, L.; Cramp, F.; Cup, E.H.; Feehan, L.; Ferreira, M.; Forbes, S.; Glasziou, P.; Habets, B.; Harris, S.; Hay-Smith, J.; Hillier, S.; Hinman, R.; Holland, A.; Hondras, M.; Kelly, G.; Kent, P.; Lauret, G.J.; Long, A.; Maher, C.; Morso, L.; Osteras, N.; Peterson, T.; Quinlivan, R.; Rees, K.; Regnaux, J.P.; Rietberg, M.; Saunders, D.; Skoetz, N.; Sogaard, K.; Takken, T.; Tulder, M. van; Voet, N.; Ward, L.; White, C.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often incompletely described in reports of clinical trials, hampering evaluation of results and replication and implementation into practice. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop a standardized method for reporting exercise programs in clinical

  9. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard R. Dopp

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions. Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children’s Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol’s independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms.

  10. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dopp, Richard R.; Mooney, Ann J.; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination. This study assessed the feasibility of a 12-week intervention designed to increase exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: Will a teenager with depression exercise? Methods. Participants were 13 adolescents with depression reporting low levels of aerobic exercise. They completed a 12-week intervention (15 supervised exercise sessions and 21 independent sessions). Exercise was measured through the aerobic exercise Questionnaire, actigraphy, and heart-rate monitoring. Depression was measured with the Children's Depression Rating Scale, Revised, and Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology, Self-Report. Results. All participants who started the intervention completed the protocol, attending all supervised exercise sessions. Actigraphy verified 81% adherence to the protocol's independent sessions. Analysis of secondary outcomes showed a significant increase in exercise levels and a significant decrease in depression severity. Initially, ten participants were overweight or obese, and three were healthy weight. After 12 weeks of exercise, the number of participants in the healthy-weight category doubled. Conclusions. Adolescents suffering from depression can complete a rigorous protocol requiring structured increases in aerobic exercise. Participants showed significant increases in exercise, and significant decreases in depressive symptoms. PMID:22888415

  11. Exercise on prescription: a randomized study on the effect of counseling vs counseling and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, J.; Skovgaard, T.; Puggaard, L.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare short- (0-4 months) and long-term (0-10 months) effects of high-intensive Exercise on Prescription (EoP) intervention (counseling and supervised exercise) implemented in primary healthcare in a number of Danish counties with a low-intensive intervention...

  12. Study protocol: EXERcise and cognition in sedentary adults with early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M; Eggermont, Laura H P; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H G; Koppe, Peter A; Scherder, Erik J A

    2012-08-16

    Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study), after three months (end of the exercise program) and after six months (follow-up). Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental) activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. The present study is registered within The Netherlands National Trial Register (ref: NTR2124).

  13. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooghiemstra Astrid M

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to participate in an exercise program. The main aim of the EXERCISE-ON study is to assess whether exercise slows down the progressive course of the symptoms of dementia. Methods/Design One hundred and fifty patients with early-onset dementia are recruited. After completion of the baseline measurements, participants living within a 50 kilometre radius to one of the rehabilitation centres are randomly assigned to either an aerobic exercise program in a rehabilitation centre or a flexibility and relaxation program in a rehabilitation centre. Both programs are applied three times a week during 3 months. Participants living outside the 50 kilometre radius are included in a feasibility study where participants join in a daily physical activity program set at home making use of pedometers. Measurements take place at baseline (entry of the study, after three months (end of the exercise program and after six months (follow-up. Primary outcomes are cognitive functioning; psychomotor speed and executive functioning; (instrumental activities of daily living, and quality of life. Secondary outcomes include physical, neuropsychological, and rest-activity rhythm measures. Discussion The EXERCISE-ON study is the first study to offer exercise programs to patients with early-onset dementia. We expect this study to supply evidence regarding the effects of exercise on the symptoms of early-onset dementia, influencing quality of life. Trial registration The present study is registered

  14. Study in Parkinson disease of exercise (SPARX): translating high-intensity exercise from animals to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Charity G; Schenkman, Margaret; Kohrt, Wendy M; Delitto, Anthony; Hall, Deborah A; Corcos, Daniel

    2013-09-01

    A burgeoning literature suggests that exercise has a therapeutic benefit in persons with Parkinson disease (PD) and in animal models of PD, especially when animals exercise at high intensity. If exercise is to be prescribed as "first-line" or "add-on" therapy in patients with PD, we must demonstrate its efficacy and dose-response effects through testing phases similar to those used in the testing of pharmacologic agents. The SPARX Trial is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, Phase II study that we designed to test the feasibility of using high-intensity exercise to modify symptoms of PD and to simultaneously test the nonfutility of achieving a prespecified change in patients' motor scores on the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS). The trial began in May 2102 and is in the process of screening, enrolling, and randomly assigning 126 patients with early-stage PD to 1 of 3 groups: usual care (wait-listed controls), moderate-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 60%-65% maximal heart rate [HRmax]), or high-intensity exercise (4 days/week at 80%-85% HRmax). At 6-month follow-up, the trial is randomly reassigning usual care participants to a moderate-intensity or high-intensity exercise group for the remaining 6 months. The goals of the Phase II trial are to determine if participants can exercise at moderate and high intensities; to determine if either exercise yields benefits consistent with meaningful clinical change (nonfutility); and to document safety and attrition. The advantage of using a non-futility approach allows us to efficiently determine if moderate- or high-intensity exercise warrants further large-scale investigation in PD. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dropout from exercise programs for seniors: A prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stiggelbout, M.; Hopman-Rock, M.; Tak, E.; Lechner, L.; Mechelen, W. van

    2005-01-01

    This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725,

  16. Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it can lead to weakness of muscles, decreased bone density with an increased risk of fracture, and shallow, inefficient breathing. An exercise program needs to fit the capabilities and limitations ...

  17. A Theory-Based Exercise App to Enhance Exercise Adherence: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voth, Elizabeth C; Oelke, Nelly D

    2016-01-01

    Background Use of mobile health (mHealth) technology is on an exponential rise. mHealth apps have the capability to reach a large number of individuals, but until now have lacked the integration of evidence-based theoretical constructs to increase exercise behavior in users. Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of a theory-based, self-monitoring app on exercise and self-monitoring behavior over 8 weeks. Methods A total of 56 adults (mean age 40 years, SD 13) were randomly assigned to either receive the mHealth app (experimental; n=28) or not to receive the app (control; n=28). All participants engaged in an exercise goal-setting session at baseline. Experimental condition participants received weekly short message service (SMS) text messages grounded in social cognitive theory and were encouraged to self-monitor exercise bouts on the app on a daily basis. Exercise behavior, frequency of self-monitoring exercise behavior, self-efficacy to self-monitor, and self-management of exercise behavior were collected at baseline and at postintervention. Results Engagement in exercise bouts was greater in the experimental condition (mean 7.24, SD 3.40) as compared to the control condition (mean 4.74, SD 3.70, P=.03, d=0.70) at week 8 postintervention. Frequency of self-monitoring increased significantly over the 8-week investigation between the experimental and control conditions (Pself-monitoring significantly more at postintervention (mean 6.00, SD 0.93) in comparison to those in the control condition (mean 1.95, SD 2.58, Pbehavior were unaffected by this intervention. Conclusions The successful integration of social cognitive theory into an mHealth exercise self-monitoring app provides support for future research to feasibly integrate theoretical constructs into existing exercise apps. In addition, findings provide preliminary support for theory-based apps to increase self-monitoring and exercise behavior in comparison to a control, no

  18. Exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, Manja; thor Straten, Eivind Per

    2016-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that voluntary exercise leads to an influx of immune cells in tumors and a greater than 60% reduction in tumor incidence and growth across several mouse models. Improved immunological control of tumor progression may have important clinical implications in the prevention...... and treatment of cancer in humans....

  19. International standard problem (ISP) no. 41 follow up exercise: Containment iodine computer code exercise: parametric studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ball, J.; Glowa, G.; Wren, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada); Ewig, F. [GRS Koln (Germany); Dickenson, S. [AEAT, (United Kingdom); Billarand, Y.; Cantrel, L. [IPSN (France); Rydl, A. [NRIR (Czech Republic); Royen, J. [OECD/NEA (France)

    2001-11-01

    This report describes the results of the second phase of International Standard Problem (ISP) 41, an iodine behaviour code comparison exercise. The first phase of the study, which was based on a simple Radioiodine Test Facility (RTF) experiment, demonstrated that all of the iodine behaviour codes had the capability to reproduce iodine behaviour for a narrow range of conditions (single temperature, no organic impurities, controlled pH steps). The current phase, a parametric study, was designed to evaluate the sensitivity of iodine behaviour codes to boundary conditions such as pH, dose rate, temperature and initial I{sup -} concentration. The codes used in this exercise were IODE(IPSN), IODE(NRIR), IMPAIR(GRS), INSPECT(AEAT), IMOD(AECL) and LIRIC(AECL). The parametric study described in this report identified several areas of discrepancy between the various codes. In general, the codes agree regarding qualitative trends, but their predictions regarding the actual amount of volatile iodine varied considerably. The largest source of the discrepancies between code predictions appears to be their different approaches to modelling the formation and destruction of organic iodides. A recommendation arising from this exercise is that an additional code comparison exercise be performed on organic iodide formation, against data obtained front intermediate-scale studies (two RTF (AECL, Canada) and two CAIMAN facility, (IPSN, France) experiments have been chosen). This comparison will allow each of the code users to realistically evaluate and improve the organic iodide behaviour sub-models within their codes. (author)

  20. Parkinson’s Disease and Forced Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Qutubuddin; Timothy Reis; Raed Alramadhani; David X. Cifu; Alan Towne; William Carne

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson's disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson's disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson's disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experime...

  1. Parkinson’s Disease and Forced Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abu Qutubuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The concept of forced exercise has drawn attention for the treatment of Parkinson’s disease symptoms with anecdotal reports of success. This study sought to ascertain any significant effect of forced exercise using a motorized stationary bicycle when compared to controls on Parkinson’s disease symptoms in a blinded, randomized, and controlled setting. Setting. Parkinson’s disease outpatient clinic, Veterans Administration Medical Center. Method. We assessed 23 patients (13 experimental and 10 controls on a number of standard Parkinson’s measures at baseline, after participation in eight weeks of twice weekly forced exercise or eight weeks of conventional clinic care, and then after a three-month period had elapsed. Dependent measures were UPDRS-III, Berg Balance Scale, finger taping test, and the PDQ-39. Results. Results did not demonstrate any main effect differences between the exercise and control groups on any measure at any point in time. A within subjects effect was demonstrated for the forced exercise group on overall UPDRS-III scores at the three-month end point. No other within group effects were noted. Results suggest that early enthusiasm for forced exercise may need tempering. Limitations of the study are discussed as well as numerous logistical challenges to this type of study.

  2. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks.

  3. Recruitment of pregnant women to an exercise-intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, R E; Emery, S J; Rassi, D; Uzun, O; Lewis, M J

    2016-01-01

    We share here our experience of recruiting pregnant women into an exercise intervention study. Recruitment challenges were anticipated owing to the study design, which required four hospital visits for cardiovascular assessment, a long-term (nine-month) commitment, and adherence to a 20-week exercise programme. Fifty-three women were assigned to one of three groups (no-exercise, land exercise or water exercise) using a 2 × 2 × 2 flexible randomisation design. Seven hundred forty-four women were screened at an antenatal clinic, of whom 501 were eligible to participate in the study. One hundred forty-five women were subsequently approached: 46 (32%) of whom agreed to participate, 42 (29%) were interested but then declined and 57 (39%) declined outright. Our study design helped recruit pregnant women as it allowed them some choice of group membership. We also noted that the participant-researcher relationship is important in reducing attrition. Our experience provides indications of likely recruitment and attrition rates for future randomised controlled trials of this type.

  4. Exercise on prescription: a randomized study on the effect of counseling vs counseling and supervised exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jes Bak; Kragstrup, J.; Skovgaard, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare short- (0-4 months) and long-term (0-10 months) effects of high-intensive Exercise on Prescription (EoP) intervention (counseling and supervised exercise) implemented in primary healthcare in a number of Danish counties with a low-intensive intervention...... (counseling) using maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) as the primary outcome. The study was conducted as a randomized trial in 2005-2006 with a high and a low-intensive group. All the patients referred to the EoP scheme by their GP in the counties of Vejle and Ribe, Denmark, were eligible for the trial....... The high-intensive EoP group received 4 months of group-based supervised training and attended five motivational counseling sessions. The low-intensive group only attended four motivational counseling sessions. Three hundred and twenty-seven patients entered the EoP scheme, and 52 (16%) volunteered...

  5. The importance of animal studies in Exercise Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia De Angelis

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The validity and relevance of research with animals for the development of knowledge in Exercise Science have for long been discussed. Given the complexity of the biological systems, the use of animal models offers a significant contribution to uncover new findings about acute and chronic effects of exercise, particularly when these studies in humans have limitations and ethical implications. There have been notable findings using experimental animals either in basic sciences or in clinical studies involving physiology, pharmacology, genetic, biochemistry, urology, endocrinology and cancer. This article presents a brief review of scientific research using animal models with a focus on exercise training as an effective tool for the prophylaxis and treatment of different pathological processes, which are the basis of many concepts taught and used in undergraduate courses and graduate programs, as well as in new researches showed in scientific conference meetings in numerous areas of science.

  6. Performing an Event Study: An Exercise for Finance Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, William A., Jr.; Robins, Russell P.

    2017-01-01

    This exercise helps instructors teach students how to perform a simple event study. The study tests to see if stocks earn abnormal returns when added to the S&P 500. Students select a random sample of stocks that were added to the index between January 2000 and July 2015. The accompanying spreadsheet calculates cumulative abnormal returns and…

  7. Molecular studies of exercise, skeletal muscle, and ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmons, James A; Gallagher, Iain J

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of an F1000 review is to reflect on the bigger picture, exploring controversies and new concepts as well as providing opinion as to what is limiting progress in a particular field. We reviewed about 200 titles published in 2015 that included reference to 'skeletal muscle, exercise, and ageing' with the aim of identifying key articles that help progress our understanding or research capacity while identifying methodological issues which represent, in our opinion, major barriers to progress. Loss of neuromuscular function with chronological age impacts on both health and quality of life. We prioritised articles that studied human skeletal muscle within the context of age or exercise and identified new molecular observations that may explain how muscle responds to exercise or age. An important aspect of this short review is perspective: providing a view on the likely 'size effect' of a potential mechanism on physiological capacity or ageing.

  8. Overview of the Exploration Exercise Device Validation Study Plans

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, J. K.; Swan, B. G.

    2018-01-01

    during design iterations. Assuming successful ground tests, the device will be installed on the ISS for testing during space flight. Spaceflight testing is envisioned to include an activation and checkout (ACO) phase and a V&V phase. During the ACO phase, 1-2 crewmembers will exercise with the device to ensure proper function. ACO is expected to last multiple months because of the many modes and methods of exercise that need to be assessed. However, the goal is to complete the ACO as quickly as possible. Once successful ACO occurs, the crew will be free to use the device for normal exercise pending concurrence from stakeholders. V&V tests on the ISS will ideally consist of crew using the device for all of their exercise for an entire mission. Exercise prescriptions will be supplied that replicate expected prescriptions during exploration missions. Crew that are not enrolled in the V&V studies would be also free to use the device as their schedule permits. As experience is gained by users, exercise protocols could change. The intent of all V&V testing is to ensure that all have thorough understanding of experience at optimizing device capability

  9. Post-Exercise Hypotension and Its Mechanisms Differ after Morning and Evening Exercise: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Brito, Leandro C; Rezende, Rafael A; da Silva Junior, Natan D; Tinucci, Tais; Casarini, Dulce E; Cipolla-Neto, José; Forjaz, Cláudia L M

    2015-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH), calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order): two conducted in the morning (7:30 am) and two in the evening (5 pm). At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak) and a control (sitting rest) session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise)-(post-pre control)] and were compared by paired t-test (PExercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure) occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, PExercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, Ptimes of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, Pevening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, Pexercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance.

  10. A study on the relationship between compulsive exercise, depression and anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Weinstein, Aviv; Maayan, Gavriel; Weinstein, Yitzhak

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Exercise and physical activity are beneficial both physically and psychologically but a few individuals use exercise excessively resulting in physical and even psychological damage. There is evidence for bi-directional relationship between exercise with depression and anxiety showing that exercise can reduce anxiety and depression, whereas a lack of exercise is associated with higher levels of anxiety and depression. Methods This study used questionnaires assessing compuls...

  11. Emotion regulation styles as longitudinal predictors of compulsive exercise : a twelve month prospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    Exercise can be used as a mood regulator but, in the eating disorder literature, exercise has sometimes been found to be compulsive, detrimental to physical health, and regarded as one maladaptive strategy used to regulate emotions. This study examined longitudinal associations between emotion regulation styles and this compulsive exercise in 572 adolescents who completed measures of compulsive exercise and emotion regulation. Twelve months later they completed measures of compulsive exercise...

  12. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    OpenAIRE

    Hooghiemstra Astrid M; Eggermont Laura HP; Scheltens Philip; van der Flier Wiesje M; Bakker Jet; de Greef Mathieu HG; Koppe Peter A; Scherder Erik JA

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial effect on cognition in older persons without dementia and older persons at risk for dementia is exercise. In view of their younger age early-onset dementia patients may be well able to partic...

  13. Primary care physicians' own exercise habits influence exercise counseling for patients with chronic kidney disease: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morishita, Yoshiyuki; Numata, Akihiko; Miki, Atushi; Okada, Mari; Ishibashi, Kenichi; Takemoto, Fumi; Ando, Yasuhiro; Muto, Shigeaki; Nagata, Daisuke; Kusano, Eiji

    2014-03-19

    The appropriate exercise counseling for chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients is crucial to improve their prognosis. There have been few studies about exercise counseling by primary care physicians for CKD patients. We investigated primary care physicians' exercise counseling practices for CKD patients, and the association of these physicians' own exercise habits with exercise counseling. The population of this cross-sectional study was 3310 medical doctors who graduated from Jichi Medical University from 1978 to 2012. The study instrument was a self-administered questionnaire that was mailed in August 2012 to investigate their age class, specialty, workplace, exercise habits, and practices of exercise counseling for CKD. 581 (64.8%) medical doctors practiced the management of CKD among a total of 933 responses. These 581 medical doctors were defined as CKD primary care physicians and their answers were analyzed. CKD primary care physicians' own exercise habits (frequencies and intensities) were as follows: frequencies: daily, 71 (12.1%); ≥ 2-3 times/week, 154 (26.5%); ≥ 1 time/week, 146 (25.1%); and ≤ 1 time/month, 176 (30.2%); intensities: high (≥ 6 Mets), 175 (30.1%); moderate (4-6 Mets), 132 (22.7%); mild (3-4 Mets), 188 (32.3%); very mild (influenced the exercise counseling for CKD patients. The establishment of guidelines for exercise by CKD patients and their dissemination among primary care physicians are needed.(University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trial Registry. number, UMIN000011803. Registration date, Sep/19/2013).

  14. Exercise for adolescents with depressive disorders: a feasibility study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dopp, Richard R; Mooney, Ann J; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination...

  15. Exercise for Adolescents with Depressive Disorders: A Feasibility Study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dopp, Richard R; Mooney, Ann J; Armitage, Roseanne; King, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. Adolescence is associated with increased depressive symptoms and decreased aerobic exercise, yet the relationship between exercise and clinical depression among adolescents requires further examination...

  16. Epidemiological studies of exercise in diabetes prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Gang; Lakka, Timo A; Oskari Kilpeläinen, Tuomas

    2007-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is one of the fastest growing public health problems in both developed and developing countries. It is estimated that the number of people with diabetes in the world will double in coming years, from 171 million in 2000 to 366 million in 2030. Cardiovascular disease accounts...... for more than 70% of total mortality among patients with type 2 diabetes. The associations of physical activity, physical fitness, and changes in the lifestyle with the risk of type 2 diabetes have been assessed by a number of prospective studies and clinical trials in the past decade. Several studies have...... also evaluated the joint associations of physical activity, body mass index, and glucose levels with the risk of type 2 diabetes. Prospective studies and clinical trials have shown that moderate or high levels of physical activity or physical fitness and changes in the lifestyle (dietary modification...

  17. Curative and health enhancement effects of aquatic exercise: evidence based on interventional studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Kamioka, Hiroharu

    2012-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise. Methods We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials), for which there were many studies on aquatic exercise. Aquatic exercise, in this study, means walking in all directions, stretching, and various exercises and conditioning performed with the feet grounded on the floor of a swimming pool. We excluded swimming. We decided to treat aquatic exercise, underwater exercise, hydrotherapy, and pool exercise as all having the same meaning. Results Aquatic exercise had significant effects on pain relief and related outcome measurements for locomotor diseases. Conclusion Patients may become more active, and improve their quality of life, as a result of aquatic exercise. PMID:24198584

  18. Curative and health enhancement effects of aquatic exercise: evidence based on interventional studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Takuya; Kamioka, Hiroharu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise. We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials), for which there were many studies on aquatic exercise. Aquatic exercise, in this study, means walking in all directions, stretching, and various exercises and conditioning performed with the feet grounded on the floor of a swimming pool. We excluded swimming. We decided to treat aquatic exercise, underwater exercise, hydrotherapy, and pool exercise as all having the same meaning. Aquatic exercise had significant effects on pain relief and related outcome measurements for locomotor diseases. Patients may become more active, and improve their quality of life, as a result of aquatic exercise.

  19. Post-Exercise Hypotension and Its Mechanisms Differ after Morning and Evening Exercise: A Randomized Crossover Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro C de Brito

    Full Text Available Post-exercise hypotension (PEH, calculated by the difference between post and pre-exercise values, it is greater after exercise performed in the evening than the morning. However, the hypotensive effect of morning exercise may be masked by the morning circadian increase in blood pressure. This study investigated PEH and its hemodynamic and autonomic mechanisms after sessions of aerobic exercise performed in the morning and evening, controlling for responses observed after control sessions performed at the same times of day. Sixteen pre-hypertensive men underwent four sessions (random order: two conducted in the morning (7:30 am and two in the evening (5 pm. At each time of day, subjects underwent an exercise (cycling, 45 min, 50%VO2peak and a control (sitting rest session. Measurements were taken pre- and post-interventions in all the sessions. The net effects of exercise were calculated for each time of day by [(post-pre exercise-(post-pre control] and were compared by paired t-test (P<0.05. Exercise hypotensive net effects (e.g., decreasing systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressure occurred at both times of day, but systolic blood pressure reductions were greater after morning exercise (-7±3 vs. -3±4 mmHg, P<0.05. Exercise decreased cardiac output only in the morning (-460±771 ml/min, P<0.05, while it decreased stroke volume similarly at both times of day and increased heart rate less in the morning than in the evening (+7±5 vs. +10±5 bpm, P<0.05. Only evening exercise increased sympathovagal balance (+1.5±1.6, P<0.05 and calf blood flow responses to reactive hyperemia (+120±179 vs. -70±188 U, P<0.05. In conclusion, PEH occurs after exercise conducted at both times of day, but the systolic hypotensive effect is greater after morning exercise when circadian variations are considered. This greater effect is accompanied by a reduction of cardiac output due to a smaller increase in heart rate and cardiac sympathovagal balance.

  20. Design of the sex hormones and physical exercise (SHAPE study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peeters Petra HM

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity has been associated with a decreased risk for breast cancer. The biological mechanismn(s underlying the association between physical activity and breast cancer is not clear. Most prominent hypothesis is that physical activity may protect against breast cancer through reduced lifetime exposure to endogenous hormones either direct, or indirect by preventing overweight and abdominal adiposity. In order to get more insight in the causal pathway between physical activity and breast cancer risk, we designed the Sex Hormones and Physical Exercise (SHAPE study. Purpose of SHAPE study is to examine the effects of a 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity exercise programme on endogenous hormone levels associated with breast cancer among sedentary postmenopausal women and whether the amount of total body fat or abdominal fat mediates the effects. Methods/Design In the SHAPE study, 189 sedentary postmenopausal women, aged 50–69 years, are randomly allocated to an intervention or a control group. The intervention consists of an 1-year moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic and strenght training exercise programme. Partcipants allocated to the control group are requested to retain their habitual exercise pattern. Primary study parameters measured at baseline, at four months and at 12 months are: serum concentrations of endogenous estrogens, endogenous androgens, sex hormone binding globuline and insuline. Other study parameters include: amount of total and abdominal fat, weight, BMI, body fat distribution, physical fitness, blood pressure and lifestyle factors. Discussion This study will contribute to the body of evidence relating physical activity and breast cancer risk and will provide insight into possible mechanisms through which physical activity might be associated with reduced risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Trial registration NCT00359060

  1. In vivo studies of peritendinous tissue in exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue injury of tendons represents a major problem within sports medicine. Although several animal and cell culture studies have addressed this, human experiments have been limited in their ability to follow changes in specific tissue directly in response to interventions. Recently, methods...... exercise. This coincides with a surprisingly marked drop in tissue pressure during contraction. With regards to both circulation, metabolism and collagen formation, peritendinous tissue represents a dynamic, responsive region that adapts markedly to acute muscular activity....

  2. Effects of combined exercise training and electromyostimulation treatments in chronic heart failure: A prospective multicentre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliou, Marie C; Vergès-Patois, Bénédicte; Pavy, Bruno; Charles-Nelson, Anais; Monpère, Catherine; Richard, Rudy; Verdier, Jean C

    2017-08-01

    Background Exercise training as part of a comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation is recommended for patients with cardiac heart failure. It is a valuable method for the improvement of exercise tolerance. Some studies reported a similar improvement with quadricipital electrical myostimulation, but the effect of combined exercise training and electrical myostimulation in cardiac heart failure has not been yet evaluated in a large prospective multicentre study. Purpose The aim of this study was to determine whether the addition of low frequency electrical myostimulation to exercise training may improve exercise capacity and/or muscular strength in cardiac heart failure patients. Methods Ninety-one patients were included (mean age: 58 ± 9 years; New York Heart Association II/III: 52/48%, left ventricular ejection fraction: 30 ± 7%) in a prospective French study. The patients were randomised into two groups: 41 patients in exercise training and 50 in exercise training + electrical myostimulation. All patients underwent 20 exercise training sessions. In addition, in the exercise training + electrical myostimulation group, patients underwent 20 low frequency (10 Hz) quadricipital electrical myostimulation sessions. Each patient underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test, a six-minute walk test, a muscular function evaluation and a quality of life questionnaire, before and at the end of the study. Results A significant improvement of exercise capacity (Δ peak oxygen uptake+15% in exercise training group and +14% in exercise training + electrical myostimulation group) and of quality of life was observed in both groups without statistically significant differences between the two groups. Mean creatine kinase level increased in the exercise training group whereas it remained stable in the combined group. Conclusions This prospective multicentre study shows that electrical myostimulation on top of exercise training does not demonstrate any significant

  3. Relationship Between Air Quality and Outdoor Exercise Behavior in China: a Novel Mobile-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Liang; Zhu, Li; Xu, Yaping; Lyu, Jiaying; Imm, Kellie; Yang, Lin

    2017-08-01

    Based on data collected from an exercise app, the study aims to provide empirical evidence on the relationship between air quality and patterns of outdoor exercise in China. Objective outdoor exercise data spanning 160 days were collected from 153 users of an exercise app, Tulipsport in China. Each exercise mode (running, biking, and walking, respectively) was organized into five air quality categories based on Air Quality Index (AQI): excellent, good, mild pollution, moderate pollution, and serious pollution. Key parameters of each app user were calculated and analyzed: the total number of exercise bouts, the average duration, and the average distance of each exercise mode in each air quality category. Multivariate analyses of variance indicate that the users were less likely to participate in outdoor running, biking, and walking (F = 24.16, p air pollution increased. However, there is no difference in terms of average distance and duration of exercise across different air pollution categories. People's participation in outdoor exercise is impeded by air pollution severity, but they stick to their exercise routines once exercise is initiated. Although people should protect themselves from health damages caused by exercising under pollution, the decreases in physical activity associated with air pollution may also pose an indirect risk to public health. The interactive relationship between air quality, exercise, and health warrants more empirical and interdisciplinary explorations.

  4. Consensus on Exercise Reporting Template (CERT) : A Modified Delphi Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slade, Susan C; Dionne, Clermont E; Underwood, Martin; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Beck, Belinda; Bennell, Kim; Brosseau, Lucie; Costa, Leonardo; Cramp, Fiona; Cup, Edith; Feehan, Lynne; Ferreira, Manuela; Forbes, Scott; Glasziou, Paul; Habets, Bas; Harris, Susan; Hay-Smith, Jean; Hillier, Susan; Hinman, Rana; Holland, Ann; Hondras, Maria; Kelly, George; Kent, Peter; Lauret, Gert-Jan; Long, Audrey; Maher, Chris; Morso, Lars; Osteras, Nina; Peterson, Tom; Quinlivan, Ros; Rees, Karen; Regnaux, Jean-Philippe; Reitberg, Marc; Saunders, Dave; Skoetz, Nicole; Sogaard, Karen; Takken, Tim; van Tulder, Maurits; Voet, Nicoline; Ward, Lesley; White, Claire

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise interventions are often incompletely described in reports of clinical trials hampering evaluation of results and replication and implementation into practice. OBJECTIVE: To develop a standardized method for reporting exercise programs in clinical trials, the Consensus on

  5. Health policy and exercise: a brief BRFSS study and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, James S; Winn, Mylon

    2010-03-01

    The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey is used to compare three predictors of self-rated health, specifically exercise, tobacco smoking, and a diagnosis of diabetes (a proxy for obesity). Exercise is found to be the best predictor, and the remainder of the article discusses the role of exercise in disease prevention and the all-important concept of exercise adherence. Government policy in the future needs to promote exercise adherence in a more rigorous way, because it is a key to both individual and societal health. Exercise habits need to be instilled from youth, and physical education requirements in school need to be re-established at all levels through high school. Adults also need encouragement with better neighborhood planning of exercise trails for walking and biking, as well as planned community activities to encourage fitness through one's lifetime. The article concludes with six recommendations for formal government action to encourage exercise adherence.

  6. Exercise and quality of life in patients with cystic fibrosis: A 12-week intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Mette; Jacobsen, Ulla; Bregnballe, Vibeke

    2011-01-01

    It was hypothesised that increased exercise capacity is related to improved quality of life (QoL) in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). A 12-week individually tailored unsupervised aerobic exercise programme was offered to 42 patients with CF. At the start and at the end of the exercise programm......-week individually tailored unsupervised aerobic exercise programme where HR monitors were used significantly affected VO(2max). Improvement in QoL could not be demonstrated in this study....

  7. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on spatial learning ability in hypothyroid rats: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, Minyoung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This pilot study analyzed the degradation of spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism using aerobic and anaerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The experiments were performed on 11, four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothyroidism-induced rats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment were divided into aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups. Each group performed exercise and rest for four weeks. Changes in lethargy, memory deterioration, and thyr...

  8. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: Pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Ilke Keser, PhD, PT; Nuray Kirdi, Prof PhD, PT; Aydin Meric, PhD, PT; Asli Tuncer Kurne, Assoc Prof MD; Rana Karabudak, Prof MD

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed bala...

  9. Comparative study of muscle strengthening exercises for treatment of chronic low backache

    OpenAIRE

    Soumya Ghosh; Soma Datta; Suravi Nayak; Arunima Chaudhuri; Pitchai Dhanasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Background: Low back pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Objectives: To study the outcomes of different muscle strengthening exercises in treatment of low back pain Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients in the age group of 20-40 years with mechanical low back pain were randomly divided intotwo groups and instructed to perform two different types of exercises for three months (Mckenzie exercise andSwiss ball exercise). Patients were assessed by Visua...

  10. Workplace Exercise for Control of Occupational Neck/Shoulder Disorders: A Review of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Brian D; Dick, Robert B

    2014-01-01

    A review was conducted of prospective studies (1997–2014) examining the efficacy of exercise as a workplace intervention to control neck/shoulder pain, symptoms, and disability. The review identified 38 relevant studies – 20 were classified with positive effects, 13 with null effects, and 5 as inconclusive. Of the positive studies, 12 were consistent with Level I evidence, 3 with Level II evidence, and 5 with Level IV evidence. Specific resistance training (SRT) exercise appeared to be associated with more positive studies (eight Level I studies) than other exercise modalities such as general resistance training, general physical exercise, stretching, and movement awareness exercises. Studies of longer trial duration tended toward more null findings and lower program compliance. Evidence for a primary preventive effect of workplace exercise is minimal. The findings of this review suggest that workplace exercise can be effective as tertiary prevention and therapeutic relief of neck/shoulder symptoms, at least over the shorter term. PMID:25780338

  11. Neuropsychological and neurophysiological effects of strengthening exercise for early dementia: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yerokhin, Vadim; Anderson-Hanley, Cay; Hogan, Michael J; Dunnam, Mina; Huber, Daniel; Osborne, Sandra; Shulan, Mollie

    2012-01-01

    Research demonstrates a positive effect of aerobic exercise on cognitive functioning in older adults. Unfortunately, aerobic exercise is often contraindicated for older adults due to cardiovascular and functional limitations. Low-intensity strengthening exercise may offer a practical alternative, but the neuropsychological benefits and potential neurophysiological mechanisms are less well understood. The current study evaluated the effects of a 10-week strengthening exercise intervention on cognitive functioning and EEG in a sample of 13 older adults with early dementia, and 9 normative controls. Results revealed beneficial effects of strengthening exercise on verbal memory coupled with frontal beta and delta power asymmetries and N200 amplitude asymmetry. Results point to increased cognitive efficiency following 10 weeks of strengthening exercise. The findings suggest it is feasible to conduct a strengthening intervention with early dementia patients, and to gather neuropsychological and neurophysiological data to evaluate outcomes. Strengthening exercise may serve as a useful alternative to aerobic exercise.

  12. Emotion regulation styles as longitudinal predictors of compulsive exercise: a twelve month prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Huw; Haycraft, Emma; Meyer, Caroline

    2014-12-01

    Exercise can be used as a mood regulator but, in the eating disorder literature, exercise has sometimes been found to be compulsive, detrimental to physical health, and regarded as one maladaptive strategy used to regulate emotions. This study examined longitudinal associations between emotion regulation styles and this compulsive exercise in 572 adolescents who completed measures of compulsive exercise and emotion regulation. Twelve months later they completed measures of compulsive exercise. Compulsive exercise was predicted by Internal Dysfunctional emotion regulation in girls and boys, even after controlling for initial levels of compulsive exercise. Adolescents displaying compulsivity to exercise may require intervention programmes to alter their emotion regulation strategies. Copyright © 2014 The Foundation for Professionals in Services for Adolescents. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. An Undergraduate Laboratory Exercise for Studying Kinetics of Batch Crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louhi­-Kultanen, Marjatta; Han, Bing; Nurkka, Annikka; Hatakka, Henry

    2015-01-01

    The present work describes an undergraduate laboratory exercise for improving understanding of fundamental phenomena in cooling crystallization. The exercise of nucleation and crystal growth kinetics supports learning of theories and models presented in lectures and calculation exercises. The teaching methodology incorporates precepts the…

  14. Sudden Death Following Exercise; a Case Series Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fares Najari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Natural and unexpected death that happens within less than one hour of first symptom occurrence is called sudden death. Cardiovascular diseases are the main known reason of sudden death and more than 75% of sudden deaths in athletes are assigned to it. Here we reported the autopsy results of all cases with sudden death following exercise that were referred to forensic center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014. Methods: In this cross sectional study all subjects who were registered to forensic medicine center of Tehran, Iran, from 2009 to 2014, as a case of sudden death following exercise were evaluated. Demographic data and medical history as well as autopsy and toxicology findings were retrospectively gathered using profiles of the deceased. Results were reported using descriptive analysis. Results: 14 cases were registered as sudden death following exercise in forensic medicine profiles during the study period. Exploring the files of the mentioned deceased, revealed five non-compatible cases in this regard. Finally, 9 eligible cases were enrolled (88.9% male. The mean age of the deceased was 28.66 ± 10.86 years (range: 7 – 40. Toxicological tests were available for 7 cases, one of which was positive for tramadol. Sudden death following football was reported most frequently (44.4%. Only 3 (33.3% cases had herald signs such as chest pain, syncope, or loss of consciousness. 1 case (11.11% had a positive history of sudden death in relatives. Conclusion: Although most sudden death victims are asymptomatic until the event, all those who suffer from symptoms such as chest pain, shortness of breath, dizziness, fatigue and irregular heart rate during physical activities, should be screened regarding common probable causes of sudden death.

  15. Physical exercise in treatment of AUDs – a dropout study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sari, Sengül; Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    understanding of lived lives of dropouts from The Healthy Lifestyle Study, a qualitative interview study was conducted. Objective: This interview study aims to gain better understanding of and more in depth knowledge about how alcohol patients experience, think and feel about physical exercise when...... they are in treatment for alcohol use disorders. Methods: 15 semi structured interviews conducted with dropout patients from the Healthy Lifestyle Study. An interview guide with a phenomenological approach has been used. The interviews are taped and transcribed. Interpretative reading and systematic coding will be used...... as analytical tools. Results: We are in the process of analyzing, why results will be presented at the conference. Discussion: Patients drop out from intervention studies for several reasons. In this study we will categorize different types of reasons. Furthermore we will gain knowledge about how patients...

  16. Factors associated with exercise lifestyle--a study of monozygotic twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonen, R L; Videman, T; Kaprio, J; Levälahti, E; Battié, M C

    2003-10-01

    Regular exercise is widely advocated for a broad range of health issues. Yet, the association of familial factors (i. e. both genetic and childhood environmental factors) and specific environmental factors (not shared by family members) as well as health behavior with lifelong exercise participation is currently poorly understood. A total of 117 monozygotic male twin pairs aged 35 - 69 y (mean age 49 y), recruited from the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort, were studied. A summary outcome exercise variable was created by calculating the mean hours of exercise per week from 18 y of age to present from data provided from a structured interview. Suspected factors associated with exercise were analyzed with linear regression, while pairwise relationships were analysed using polychoric correlations and structural equation modeling. There was substantial familial aggregation in adulthood exercise, accounting for 43 % of all variation in exercise using the LISREL model. Factors associated with enhanced adherence to exercise in adulthood were participation in exercise and competitive sports in adolescence (from age 12 to 18). Education, age, number of chronic diseases, smoking, alcohol use, marital status, number of children and number of changes in residence were not associated with exercise adherence in adulthood. Our results suggest that early childhood environmental factors strongly influence exercise level throughout the lifespan. Therefore, interventions aimed at enhancing lifelong exercise participation may achieve more beneficial long-term results by targeting families and other childhood and adolescent environments.

  17. Exercise on Prescription. Effect of attendance on participants' psychological factors in a Danish version of Exercise on Prescription: a study protocol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Thomas V G; Puggaard, Lis; Roessler, Kirsten K

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many countries exercise prescriptions are used to facilitate physical activity in a sedentary population with or in risk of developing lifestyle diseases. Some studies show a positive effect of exercise prescription on specific lifestyle diseases. Others only show moderately positi...... of Exercise on Prescription, which apart from the psychological concepts (the patient's perspective) covers the effectiveness, the organization, and the health economy....

  18. Motives for physical exercise participation as a basis for the development of patient-oriented exercise interventions in osteoarthritis: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauss, Inga; Katzmarek, Uwe; Rieger, Monika A; Sudeck, Gorden

    2017-08-01

    Physical exercises are effective in the treatment of osteoarthritis (OA). There is consensus that exercise interventions should take into account the patient's preferences and needs in order to improve compliance to exercise regimes. One important personal factor is the patient's motivation for physical exercise. Health improvement is a relevant motive for exercise participation. Accordingly, exercise interventions primarily focus on health related needs such as strengthening and pain reduction. However exercising provides further many-faceted incentives that may foster exercise adherence. The present study aimed to characterize target groups for person-tailored exercise interventions in OA according to the International Classification of Functioning and Disability and Health (ICF). Target groups should be classified by similar individual exercise participation motive profiles and further described by their disease-related symptoms, limitations and psychological determinants of exercise behavior. Observational study via self-administered questionnaires. Community. We enrolled 292 adults with hip/knee OA living independently of assistance. Participants completed the Bernese Motive and Goal Inventory in Leisure and Health Sports (BMZI), the Hannover Functional Ability Questionnaire for Osteoarthritis, the WOMAC-Index (pain/stiffness), the General Self-efficacy Scale and a questionnaire on perceived barriers to exercise participation. The BMZI-scales served as active variables for cluster analysis (Ward's method), other scales were used as passive variables to further describe the identified clusters. Four clusters were defined using five exercise participation motives: health, body/appearance, esthetics, nature, and contact. Based on the identified motive profiles the target groups are labelled health-focused sports people; sporty, nature-oriented individualists; functionalists primarily motivated by maintaining or improving health through exercise; and nature

  19. Exercise, eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being: a study with Portuguese adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the importance of exercise frequency on eating disordered behaviors and psychological well-being and the ability of various exercises, individual, and psychological variables to predict eating disordered behaviors. The following characteristics were measured: eating disordered behaviors, dieting habits, physical activity, goal orientation, social physique anxiety, and self-esteem. The results showed that regular exercise was reported more frequently by males, those with high attraction towards exercise, and adolescents with fewer dieting behaviors. Moreover, adolescents who exercised regularly showed fewer eating disordered behaviors and had more positive psychological functioning. The results also confirmed the importance of various exercises, individual, and psychological variables in predicting eating disordered behaviors. In conclusion, this study validates the importance of regular exercise for promoting psychological well-being and preventing eating disordered behaviors in adolescence.

  20. A standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention for healthy pregnant women. A qualitative feasibility study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backhausen, Mette G; Katballe, Malene; Hansson, Helena

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Low back pain during pregnancy is common and associated with sick leave. Studies suggest that exercise may reduce low back pain during pregnancy. Before carrying out a randomised controlled trail with individual water exercise as intervention a qualitative feasibility study was done...... was used. RESULTS: Four main categories emerged: motivation to participate, attitudes towards the exercise programme, perception of benefits, and acceptability of supportive components. The women had a desire to stay physically active during pregnancy and found water exercise a suitable, type of exercise....... OBJECTIVE: To explore women's views and experiences of the acceptability and benefits of and possible barriers to the standardised individual unsupervised water exercise intervention. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eleven women were interviewed after participating in a water exercise intervention. Content analysis...

  1. Sex differences in exercise and drug addiction: A mini review of animal studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuehui Zhou

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Growing literature has demonstrated that exercise may be an effective prevention and treatment option for drug addiction. In the past few years, many studies have suggested that there were sex differences in all phases of drug addiction. However, very limited research has investigated sex differences in the effectiveness of exercise intervention in drug addiction and rehabilitation. In this mini review, we summarize the effect of sex on the results of using exercise to prevent and treat drug addiction. The studies we consider span various animal models and use multiple types of exercise to examine the effectiveness of exercise on the neurobiological mechanism of exercise rehabilitation. We believe that exercise as an adjuvant intervention strategy can be applied better in drug addiction prevention and recovery.

  2. A comprehensive review of 46 exercise treatment studies in fibromyalgia (1988–2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Kim Dupree; Adams, Dianne; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Burckhardt, Carol S

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this review was to: (1) locate all exercise treatment studies of fibromyalgia (FM) patients from 1988 through 2005, (2) present in tabular format the key details of each study and (3) to provide a summary and evaluation of each study for exercise and health outcomes researchers. Exercise intervention studies in FM were retrieved through Cochrane Collaboration Reviews and key word searches of the medical literature, conference proceedings and bibliographies. Studies were reviewed for inclusion using a standardized process. A table summarizing subject characteristics, exercise mode, timing, duration, frequency, intensity, attrition and outcome variables was developed. Results, conclusions and comments were made for each study. Forty-six exercise treatment studies were found with a total of 3035 subjects. The strongest evidence was in support of aerobic exercise a treatment prescription for fitness and symptom and improvement. In general, the greatest effect and lowest attrition occurred in exercise programs that were of lower intensity than those of higher intensity. Exercise is a crucial part of treatment for people with FM. Increased health and fitness, along with symptom reduction, can be expected with exercise that is of appropriate intensity, self-modified, and symptom-limited. Exercise and health outcomes researchers are encouraged to use the extant literature to develop effective health enhancing programs for people with FM and to target research to as yet understudied FM subpopulations, such as children, men, older adults, ethnic minorities and those with common comorbidities of osteoarthritis and obesity. PMID:16999856

  3. A comprehensive review of 46 exercise treatment studies in fibromyalgia (1988–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winters-Stone Kerri

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this review was to: (1 locate all exercise treatment studies of fibromyalgia (FM patients from 1988 through 2005, (2 present in tabular format the key details of each study and (3 to provide a summary and evaluation of each study for exercise and health outcomes researchers. Exercise intervention studies in FM were retrieved through Cochrane Collaboration Reviews and key word searches of the medical literature, conference proceedings and bibliographies. Studies were reviewed for inclusion using a standardized process. A table summarizing subject characteristics, exercise mode, timing, duration, frequency, intensity, attrition and outcome variables was developed. Results, conclusions and comments were made for each study. Forty-six exercise treatment studies were found with a total of 3035 subjects. The strongest evidence was in support of aerobic exercise a treatment prescription for fitness and symptom and improvement. In general, the greatest effect and lowest attrition occurred in exercise programs that were of lower intensity than those of higher intensity. Exercise is a crucial part of treatment for people with FM. Increased health and fitness, along with symptom reduction, can be expected with exercise that is of appropriate intensity, self-modified, and symptom-limited. Exercise and health outcomes researchers are encouraged to use the extant literature to develop effective health enhancing programs for people with FM and to target research to as yet understudied FM subpopulations, such as children, men, older adults, ethnic minorities and those with common comorbidities of osteoarthritis and obesity.

  4. Comparative study of change in physical activity on exercise performance and mental well being

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaman Mohan Harsoda

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of aerobic exercises training with different modes of physical activity on cardiovascular fitness and mental health. In this regard, 20 young healthy male participants (18 to 30 years were included in this study. They were divided into 2 groups, 10 in each, groups A and group B. Group A participated in combined limb exercise while Group B participated in walking exercise training under the supervision of a physical trainer. Resting and maximum pulse, resting and maximum systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Treadmill walking exercise fatigue time (TWEFT and general health questionnaire GHQ-12 were analyzed in both groups before and after the exercise training. Students paired t test was applied for pre and post data analysis. Results showed resting pulse, resting and maximum SBP and TWEFT decrease significantly (p<0.05 after combined limb exercise. Walking exercise alone causes decrease in resting pulse and GHQ score. In conclusion combined limb exercise is more beneficial than walking exercise alone. The cardiovascular fitness is improved after combined limb exercise while the mental well being is more pronounced after walking exercise alone. It can be suggested that combination of both forms of physical activity is the proper way to improve cardiovascular fitness and mental well being simultaneously, if practiced regularly.

  5. A pilot study of twice-weekly exercise during hemodialysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Stuart L; Montgomery, Lance R

    2009-04-01

    Few published studies have assessed the exercise capacity and/or the effect of exercise in children receiving maintenance hemodialysis (HD). The aim of this study was to determine if twice-weekly exercise for 1 h during HD could improve exercise capacity in children receiving HD. We assessed lower extremity strength (Biodex; dominant extension peak torque in 60 degrees per second, Newton-meters), grip strength (dynanometer, kilogram) and 6-min walk capacity (yards) in ten children (median age 13.6 years, range 8-25 years) at baseline and after 3 months of twice weekly exercise for 1 h during HD. Baseline assessment revealed a mean (1) Biodex of 70 +/- 32 N-m/s, (2) 6-m walk test of 589 +/- 90 yards and (3) grip strength of 23.2 +/- 10 kg, which were 50% lower than the normal value for healthy controls. Patients demonstrated significant improvements in lower extremity strength and 6-min walk test after 3 months of exercise. Our data show that twice-weekly exercise of a moderate intensity during HD can lead to exercise capacity improvement in 3 months. We identified barriers to and strategies for the successful implementation of intradialytic exercise. We suggest that intradialytic exercise intervention may be effective to improve exercise capacity in children receiving maintenance HD.

  6. Effects of aerobic and anaerobic exercise on spatial learning ability in hypothyroid rats: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Hyun; Song, MinYoung

    2016-12-01

    [Purpose] This pilot study analyzed the degradation of spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism using aerobic and anaerobic exercise. [Subjects and Methods] The experiments were performed on 11, four-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats. Hypothyroidism-induced rats receiving propylthiouracil (PTU) treatment were divided into aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups. Each group performed exercise and rest for four weeks. Changes in lethargy, memory deterioration, and thyroid function were measured in each group by blood analysis and open field and Morris water maze tests. [Results] After four weeks, blood analysis revealed that the thyroid hormone levels had returned to normal in the aerobic exercise, anaerobic exercise, and control groups, whereas the open field and Morris water maze tests showed that the aerobic and anaerobic exercise groups had faster recovery compared to that of the control group. In addition, comparison of aerobic and anaerobic groups showed that the anaerobic exercise group had faster recovery compared to that of the aerobic group. [Conclusion] The findings of this study suggest that exercise helped to improve lethargy and deteriorated spatial learning ability caused by hypothyroidism and to recover function in rats. Anaerobic exercise was more beneficial than aerobic exercise in alleviating symptoms.

  7. Aerobic exercise in obese diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease: a randomized and controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cooper Cheryl

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with obesity, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD are generally physically inactive, have a high mortality rate, and may benefit from an exercise program. Methods We performed a 24-week randomized controlled feasibility study comparing aerobic exercise plus optimal medical management to medical management alone in patients with type 2 diabetes, obesity (body mass index [BMI] > 30 kg/m2, and stage 2-4 CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 15-90 mL/min/1.73 m2 with persistent proteinuria. Subjects randomized to exercise underwent thrice weekly aerobic training for 6 followed by 18 weeks of supervised home exercise. The primary outcome variable was change in proteinuria. Results Seven subjects randomized to exercise and 4 control subjects completed the study. Exercise training resulted in an increase in exercise duration during treadmill testing, which was accompanied by slight but insignificant decreases in resting systolic blood pressure and 24-hour proteinuria. Exercise did not alter GFR, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, serum lipids, or C-reactive protein (CRP. Caloric intake and body weight and composition also did not change with exercise training. Conclusion Exercise training in obese diabetic patients with CKD is feasible and may have clinical benefits. A large-scale randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of exercise on renal functions, cardiovascular fitness, inflammation, and oxidative stress in diabetic patients with CKD is planned.

  8. Changes in cognition and mortality in relation to exercise in late life: a population based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E Middleton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: On average, cognition declines with age but this average hides considerable variability, including the chance of improvement. Here, we investigate how exercise is associated with cognitive change and mortality in older people and, particularly, whether exercise might paradoxically increase the risk of dementia by allowing people to live longer. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the Canadian Study of Health and Aging (CSHA, of 8403 people who had baseline cognition measured and exercise reported at CSHA-1, 2219 had died and 5376 were re-examined at CSHA-2. We used a parametric Markov chain model to estimate the probabilities of cognitive improvement, decline, and death, adjusted for age and education, from any cognitive state as measured by the Modified Mini-Mental State Examination. High exercisers (at least three times per week, at least as intense as walking, n = 3264 had more frequent stable or improved cognition (42.3%, 95% confidence interval: 40.6-44.0 over 5 years than did low/no exercisers (all other exercisers and non exercisers, n = 4331 (27.8% (95% CI 26.4-29.2. The difference widened as baseline cognition worsened. The proportion whose cognition declined was higher amongst the high exercisers but was more similar between exercise groups (39.4% (95% CI 37.7-41.1 for high exercisers versus 34.8% (95% CI 33.4-36.2 otherwise. People who did not exercise were also more likely to die (37.5% (95% CI 36.0-39.0 versus 18.3% (95% CI 16.9-19.7. Even so, exercise conferred its greatest mortality benefit to people with the highest baseline cognition. CONCLUSIONS: Exercise is strongly associated with improving cognition. As the majority of mortality benefit of exercise is at the highest level of cognition, and declines as cognition declines, the net effect of exercise should be to improve cognition at the population level, even with more people living longer.

  9. Effects of an aquatic exercise program on inhibitory control in children with ADHD: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Hung, Chiao-Ling; Huang, Chung-Ju; Hatfield, Bradley D; Hung, Tsung-Min

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine whether an aquatic exercise intervention that involves both aerobic and coordinative exercises influences restraint inhibition in children with ADHD. Thirty participants were assigned to either an aquatic exercise or a wait-list control group. Participants were assessed by Go/Nogo Task and motor ability prior to and after an 8-week exercise intervention (twice per week, 90 min per session) or a control intervention. Significant improvements in accuracy associated with the Nogo stimulus and the coordination of motor skills were observed over time in the exercise group compared with the control group. Only main effects of group were found for reaction time and accuracy associated with the Go stimulus. These findings suggest that an exercise program that involves both quantitative and qualitative exercise characteristics facilitates the restraint inhibition component of behavioral inhibition in children with ADHD.

  10. Acute Exercise and Neurocognitive Development in Preadolescents and Young Adults: An ERP Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Heng Chu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout of exercise on neurocognitive function in preadolescent children and young adults by determining the modulatory role of age and the neuroelectrical mechanism(s underlying the association between acute exercise and executive function. Twenty preadolescents and 20 young adults completed the Stroop test, and neuroelectrical activity was recorded during two treatment sessions performed in a counterbalanced order. Exercise treatments involved moderate intensity aerobic exercise for 20 min as the main exercise and two 5 min periods of warm-up and cool-down. The control treatment participants read for a similar duration of time. Acute exercise improved participant reaction times on the Stroop test, regardless of Stroop congruency, and greater beneficial effects were observed in young adults compared to those in preadolescents. The P3 amplitudes increased after acute exercise in preadolescents and young adults, but acute exercise induced lower conflict sustained potential (conflict SP amplitudes in preadolescent children. Based on these findings, age influences the beneficial effect of acute exercise on cognitive performance in general. Furthermore, the event-related brain potential differences attributed to acute exercise provide a potential clue to the mechanisms that differentiate the effects of acute exercise on individuals from preadolescence to young adulthood.

  11. Comparative study of muscle strengthening exercises for treatment of chronic low backache

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    Soumya Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low back pain is a major cause of musculoskeletal disability worldwide. Objectives: To study the outcomes of different muscle strengthening exercises in treatment of low back pain Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty patients in the age group of 20-40 years with mechanical low back pain were randomly divided intotwo groups and instructed to perform two different types of exercises for three months (Mckenzie exercise andSwiss ball exercise. Patients were assessed by Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, Modified Schober Test (MST for extension and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, based on pain intensity levels, range of motion, functional disability before starting the exercise programmes and after 3 months of intervention. Results were analysed using Students T Test. Results: There was no significant difference in the pre-treatment session between the two groups. VAS and ODI Values were significantly lower in post-treatment sessions as compared to pre-treatment values in both Groups but MST Values in post-treatment sessions in Group practicing Mckenzie exercise showed significant decreases. Significant decrease in VAS, MST and ODI Valueswere found in subjects practising McKenzie exercise when comparison was done between the two groups after 3 months of treatment. Conclusion: McKenzie exercise and Swissball exercise in patients with mechanical Low back pain reduce pain intensity, increaserange of movementand decrease functional disability. McKenzie exercise seems to have higher efficacy as compared to Swissball exercise.

  12. Recovery of overall exercise ability, quality of life, and continence after 12-week combined exercise intervention in elderly patients who underwent radical prostatectomy: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Woo; Kim, Tae Nam; Nam, Jong-Kil; Ha, Hong Koo; Shin, Dong Gil; Lee, Wan; Kim, Mi-Sook; Chung, Moon Kee

    2012-08-01

    To examine the changes from a combined exercise intervention after radical prostatectomy (RP) in elderly patients with prostate cancer, because randomized controlled trials addressing exercise intervention after RP have been lacking. From May 2009 to May 2010, all patients who underwent laparoscopic RP were assessed for eligibility. A total of 66 patients were randomized to an exercise or a control group. The exercise group received a combined exercise intervention (resistance, flexibility, and Kegel exercises) twice a week for 12 weeks, and the control group received only Kegel exercises. The primary outcome was physical function, and the secondary outcomes were continence status and quality of life after the exercise intervention. A total of 49 patients completed follow-up to the end of study. After the 12-week exercise intervention, except for grip strength, all physical functions were better in the exercise group than in the control group. The 24-hour pad test results (12.2 g in the exercise group, 46.2 g in the control group) and continence rate (73.1% in exercise group, 43.5% in the control group) recovered more promptly in the exercise group. On a questionnaire study using the International Consultation on Incontinence questionnaire, Beck Depression Inventory, and Medical Outcomes Study 36-item short-form health survey, only the exercise group showed improvement at the last follow-up visit. A 12-week combined exercise intervention after RP results in improvement of physical function, continence rate, and quality of life. These results could help with prompt recovery of daily activities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Curative and health enhancement effects of aquatic exercise: evidence based on interventional studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honda T

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Takuya Honda1, Hiroharu Kamioka21Research Fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, 2Laboratory of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise.Methods: We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials, for which there were many studies on aquatic exercise. Aquatic exercise, in this study, means walking in all directions, stretching, and various exercises and conditioning performed with the feet grounded on the floor of a swimming pool. We excluded swimming. We decided to treat aquatic exercise, underwater exercise, hydrotherapy, and pool exercise as all having the same meaning.Results: Aquatic exercise had significant effects on pain relief and related outcome measurements for locomotor diseases.Conclusion: Patients may become more active, and improve their quality of life, as a result of aquatic exercise.Keywords: aquatic exercise, health enhancement, evidence

  14. Exercise in pregnancy : an experimental study of maternal and fetal responses to exercise in sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.K. Lotgering (Fred)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractPregnant women in the western world usually reduce their physical activity as term approaches. However, in recent years increasing numbers of women also voluntarily engage in relatively strenuous exercise during pregnancy. Both pregnancy and physical activity increase the body's

  15. Translational studies for exercise in high-risk pregnancy: Pre-eclampsia model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Pinto E Silva, João Luiz

    2016-08-01

    Reviewed literature regarding exercise effects on pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders, analyzing basic science perspectives and clinical studies. Scientific databases were accessed by research strategy combining Medical Subject Headings terms. Studies published between 2000 and 2015, in English, Portuguese, and Spanish language, were considered. Studies were classified into: recommendations for exercise on high-risk pregnancy; animal models for hypertension in pregnancy; exercise on hypertensive disorders in animal models and pregnant women. There are several animal models to mimic hypertensive disorders in pregnancy; however, clinical studies are still needed for exercise recommendation in pregnant women with hypertensive disorders.

  16. Factors perceived to influence exercise adherence in women with breast cancer participating in an exercise programme during adjuvant chemotherapy: a focus group study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husebø, Anne Marie Lunde; Karlsen, Bjørg; Allan, Helen; Søreide, Jon Arne; Bru, Edvin

    2015-02-01

    To explore factors influencing exercise adherence among women with breast cancer while following an exercise programme. Earlier research shows that women with breast cancer decrease physical activity following the cancer diagnosis and that adhering to exercise interventions can be a challenge. Research is needed to identify motivational factors and barriers for exercise adherence among women during treatment for breast cancer. This was a qualitative study to explore patient's perceptions of the challenges to exercise adherence during a randomised, controlled trial. Twenty-seven women with early-stage breast cancer were purposively sampled for focus group interviews during 2011-2012 from their participation in the exercise intervention group during 2010-2012. Five focus groups were performed, and data analysis was completed using the systematic text condensation method. During the focus group study, five main themes were identified, which described factors participants perceived to influence their adherence to exercise during chemotherapy: 'side effects of breast cancer treatment as a barrier to exercise', 'restoring and maintaining normality in daily life motivates exercise', 'other valued activities compete with exercise', 'constructive support enhances exercise' and 'positive beliefs about efficacy and outcomes motivate exercise'. Adherence to exercise in women with breast cancer is challenged by internal and external conditions and may be improved by attention to the impact of treatment side effects and by supporting patient self-efficacy towards changing health behaviour. Nurses should be aware that exercise adherence could be a challenge among women with breast cancer. They should help identify obstacles to exercise for women and ways to overcome them, as well as support them in their beliefs that they are capable of changing their health behaviour. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Safety of lower extremity neurodynamic exercises in adults with diabetes mellitus: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Benjamin S; Nee, Robert J; Smoot, Betty

    2017-02-01

    Neurodynamic exercises aim to improve neural mechanosensitivity in order to promote pain-free movement and function. People with diabetes mellitus (DM) may be candidates for neurodynamic exercises to address common DM-related impairments such as reduced lower extremity range of motion (ROM) and altered neural mechanosensitivity. However, no studies have examined the safety and immediate effects of neurodynamic exercise in people with DM. This study aims to determine the feasibility of applying neurodynamic exercises in adults with DM by evaluating the rate of adverse events and quantifying immediate changes in straight leg raise (SLR) ROM. This quasi-experimental study included 20 people with DM who performed a series of neurodynamic exercises on their right leg. Their left leg was used as an internal control. SLR testing was performed before and immediately after these exercises. Adverse events were monitored, including provocation of their neuropathy symptoms or discomfort or pain. All participants completed the neurodynamic exercises without provocation of their neuropathy symptoms. No pain was reported and only one participant had minor discomfort with one exercise; a neurodynamic exercises are safe in adults with DM and may create small immediate improvements in SLR testing. Further research is indicated to investigate the safety and efficacy of neurodynamic exercises performed over multiple sessions. 3b.

  18. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Henning; Othman, Ahmed; Mueckter, Sarah; Scheef, Lukas; Pensel, Max; Daamen, Marcel; Jankowski, Jakob; Schild, Hh; Tölle, Tr; Schreckenberger, M

    2010-01-01

    This perspective attempts to outline the emerging role of positron emission tomography (PET) ligand activation studies in human exercise research. By focusing on the endorphinergic system and its acclaimed role for exercise-induced antinociception and mood enhancement, we like to emphasize the unique potential of ligand PET applied to human athletes for uncovering the neurochemistry of exercise-induced psychophysiological phenomena. Compared with conventional approaches, in particular quantification of plasma beta-endorphin levels under exercise challenges, which are reviewed in this article, studying opioidergic effects directly in the central nervous system (CNS) with PET and relating opioidergic binding changes to neuropsychological assessments, provides a more refined and promising experimental strategy. Although a vast literature dating back to the 1980s of the last century has been able to reproducibly demonstrate peripheral increases of beta-endorphin levels after various exercise challenges, so far, these studies have failed to establish robust links between peripheral beta-endorphin levels and centrally mediated behavioral effects, ie, modulation of mood and/or pain perception. As the quantitative relation between endorphins in the peripheral blood and the CNS remains unknown, the question arises, to what extent conventional blood-based methods can inform researchers about central neurotransmitter effects. As previous studies using receptor blocking approaches have also revealed equivocal results regarding exercise effects on pain and mood processing, it is expected that PET and other functional neuroimaging applications in athletes may in future help uncover some of the hitherto unknown links between neurotransmission and psychophysiological effects related to physical exercise.

  19. Classroom to Community: Field Studies for Exercise Science Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, Deana; Dail, Teresa K.

    2017-01-01

    The field of kinesiology has seen growth in terms of the number of highly specialized subdisciplines, such as exercise physiology, motor learning, biomechanics, sport and exercise psychology, and fitness management. While some undergraduate students may be comfortable with a chosen concentration, others may enter the kinesiology curriculum lacking…

  20. Special Needs to Prescribe Exercise Intensity for Scientific Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hofmann

    2011-01-01

    exercise training. A wide range of intensities is used to prescribe exercise, but this approach is limited. Usually percentages of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 or heart rate (HR are applied to set exercise training intensity but this approach yields substantially variable metabolic and cardiocirculatory responses. Heterogeneous acute responses and training effects are explained by the nonuniform heart rate performance curve during incremental exercise which significantly alters the calculations of %HRmax and %HRR target HR data. Similar limitations hold true for using %VO2max and %VO2R. The solution of these shortcomings is to strictly apply objective submaximal markers such as thresholds or turn points and to tailor exercise training within defined regions.

  1. Regular aquatic exercise for chronic kidney disease patients: a 10-year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pechter, Ülle; Raag, Mait; Ots-Rosenberg, Mai

    2014-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients not yet in dialysis can benefit from increased physical activity; however, the safety and outcomes of aquatic exercise have not been investigated in observational studies. The aim of this study was to analyze association of 10 years of regularly performed aquatic exercise with the study endpoint--that is, all-cause death or start of dialysis. Consecutive CKD patients were included in the study in January 2002. The exercise group (n=7) exercised regularly under the supervision of physiotherapist for 10 years; the control group (n=9), matched in terms of age and clinical parameters, remained sedentary. Low-intensity aerobic aquatic exercise was performed regularly twice a week; 32 weeks or more of exercise therapy sessions were conducted annually. None of the members of the aquatic exercise group reached dialysis or died in 10 years. In the sedentary control group, 55% reached the study endpoint--renal replacement therapy (n=2) or all-cause death (n=3). Occurrence of the study endpoint, compared using the exact multinomial test with unconditional margins, was statistically significantly different (P-value: 0.037) between the study groups. Regular supervised aquatic exercise arrested CKD progression. There was a statistically significant difference between the sedentary group and the exercise group in reaching renal replacement therapy or all-cause death in a follow-up time of 10 years.

  2. Cardiopulmonary Response to Exercise Testing in People with Chronic Stroke: A Retrospective Study

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    Sandra A. Billinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose. This study investigated the cardiopulmonary response and safety of exercise testing at peak effort in people during the chronic stage of stroke recovery. Methods. This retrospective study examined data from 62 individuals with chronic stroke (males: 32; mean (SD; age: (12.0 yr participating in an exercise test. Results. Both males and females had low cardiorespiratory fitness levels. No significant differences were found between gender for peak HR (=0.27, or VO2 peak (=0.29. Males demonstrated higher values for minute ventilation, tidal volume, and respiratory exchange ratio. No major adverse events were observed in the exercise tests conducted. Discussion and Conclusion. There are differences between gender that may play a role in exercise testing performance and should be considered when developing exercise programs. The low VO2 peak of this cohort of chronic stroke survivors suggests the need for participation in exercise interventions.

  3. Scales and Exercises with Aksak Meters in Flute Education: A Study with Turkish and Italian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakin, Ajda Senol; Öztürk, Ferda Gürgan

    2016-01-01

    Musical scale and exercise studies in instrumental education are considered as a fundamental component of music education. During an analysis of methods prepared for instrumental education, it was detected that scale and exercise studies for Aksak meters generally did not exist. This study was conducted to identify the effects of scales and…

  4. Nursing Assistants’ Perceptions of Physical Activity and Exercise among Older People : a Phenomenographic Study

    OpenAIRE

    Wilnerzon Thörn, Rose-Marie

    2014-01-01

    Nursing assistants’, as frontline caregivers in the care of older people, have a unique opportunity to encourage physical activity and exercise in older people. Hence, the perceptions by these care providers of physical activity and exercise among older people are an essential factor. The aim of this study is to  describe how nursing assistants perceive physical activity and exercise for older people, over the age of 65, receiving home care and home help. Method: Data was collected through in...

  5. Factors Disturbing Exercise Compliance; A Study On Family Practice Outpatient Clinic

    OpenAIRE

    A.Kursad Ozsahin; Aydan Aksoyek; Cagla Sariturk; Esin Ozsahin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study was performed to assess the factors which prevent obese patients from regular exercise. Methods: A questionnarie was given to 1400 patients (748 female, 653 male) who attended to Baskent University Adana Hospital obesity outpatient clinic. Results: The cases expressed the main reason for exercise noncompliance as ‘Lack of time’ (55,5%). Other excuses were as follows; having a disease which prevents them to exercise (39,6%), Inertia (24,6%), Lack of adherence (23,...

  6. Exercise addiction: a study of eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachment styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask; Bilenberg, Niels; Støving, René Klinky

    2014-02-28

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels of excitement-seeking and achievement striving whereas scores on straightforwardness and compliance were lower than in the exercise control group. The addiction group reported more bodily pain and injuries. This study supports the hypothesis that exercise addiction is separate to an eating disorder, but shares some of the concerns of body and performance. It is driven by a striving for high goals and excitement which results in pain and injuries from overuse. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Video Gaming Disorder and Sport and Exercise in Emerging Adulthood: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Yves; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Baggio, Stéphanie; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-01-01

    Among the negative consequences of video gaming disorder, decreased participation in sport and exercise has received little attention. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal association between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise in emerging adult men. A questionnaire was completed at baseline and 15-month follow-up by a representative national sample of 4,933 respondents. The seven items of the Game Addiction Scale were used to construct a latent variable representing video gaming disorder. Level of sport and exercise was also self-reported. Cross-lagged path modeling indicated a reciprocal causality between video gaming disorder and the level of sport and exercise, even after adjusting for a large set of confounders. These findings support the need for better promotion of sport and exercise among emerging adults in order to contribute to the prevention of video gaming disorder, and to raise the level of sport and exercise activity in addicted gamers.

  8. Training Studies with Compressed Air Breathing Apparatus – Methodology, Exercises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buks Roberts

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The current article describes topics ranging from the respiratory physiology and the structure of compressed air breathing apparatus to the performance of practical training exercises in an unbreathable environment (hereinafter referred to as UE.

  9. Motivation and Exercise Dependence: A Study Based on Self-Determination Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Cutre, David; Sicilia, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to use self-determination theory to analyze the relationships of several motivational variables with exercise dependence. The study involved 531 exercisers, ranging in age from 16 to 60 years old, who responded to different questionnaires assessing perception of motivational climate, satisfaction of basic…

  10. Simpson's Paradox: A Data Set and Discrimination Case Study Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Stanley A.; Mickel, Amy E.

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present a data set and case study exercise that can be used by educators to teach a range of statistical concepts including Simpson's paradox. The data set and case study are based on a real-life scenario where there was a claim of discrimination based on ethnicity. The exercise highlights the importance of performing…

  11. The PPET Study: people and pets exercising together.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, Robert F; Blatner, Dawn Jackson; Jewell, Dennis E; Rudloff, Kimberly

    2006-10-01

    Obesity is a significant public health problem that is affecting people and their pets. The human-companion animal bond and the role of pets in providing social support provides a rationale framework for studying the effectiveness of a combined people and pets (PP) exercising together (PPET) weight loss program. Thirty-six pairs of overweight or obese people with an obese pet (PP) and 56 overweight or obese people only (PO) participated in a 1-year prospective controlled weight loss study. In a group format, people received dietary and physical activity counseling, and dogs were fed a calorie-controlled prescription diet. Physical activity was recorded using the physical activity recall questionnaire. Completion rates at 1 year were 61% for the PP group and 58% for the PO group. Mean weight losses at 12 months using last observation carried forward were 4.7% (PP) and 5.2% (PO). Mean weight loss among the dogs was 15%. Time spent in physical activity increased in both groups to 3.9 (PP) and 3.5 (PO) h/wk. Two-thirds of total physical activity in the PP group was spent with the dogs. The PPET study is the first program to demonstrate the effectiveness of a combined PP weight loss program. This fresh approach to the dual obesity epidemic builds on the human-companion animal bond. Consideration of social support for weight loss of family members, friends, and coworkers should be extended to include pets.

  12. Perceptions of exercise for older people living with dementia in Bangkok, Thailand: an exploratory qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuncharernpanit, Sirikul; Hendricks, Joyce; Toye, Christine

    2016-09-01

    Dementia is a significant issue globally, including in Thailand, and exercise is known to have health benefits for people living with dementia. However, little is known about exercise acceptable to, and feasible for, this population group in low-to-middle income countries although, more broadly, it is recognised that health-related behaviours are influenced by the perceptions of the individual, which exist within a cultural context. To explore and describe perceptions of appropriate exercise for people living with dementia in Bangkok, Thailand. Qualitative exploratory descriptive. Bangkok, Thailand. Nine professionals - experts in exercise, dementia care and relevant policy development - and nine dyads of people with dementia and their family caregivers all recruited using purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews subjected to thematic analysis. Three themes emerged: how exercise was defined, perceived benefits of exercise and how exercise should be implemented. Professionals recognised three exercise elements: aerobic exercise plus balance and strength training. Dyads recognised home-based activities (e.g., housework) and walking. Both groups recognised benefits of exercise in maintaining health and function and improving mood and sleep. Only health professionals identified falls risk reduction. There was limited appreciation of benefits for caregivers by maintaining function in care recipients. Professionals deemed that exercise should address all three elements, using easily accessible low-cost resources. The need for safety was emphasised, and there was agreement that in-home exercise was appropriate. Family/cultural values were evident that could present barriers to exercise implementation. Changing health-related behaviours requires an understanding of individual perspectives, which exist within a cultural context. This study has illuminated the Thai context and has implications beyond this. Findings emphasise a need for potential benefits to be

  13. The perspectives of adults with venous leg ulcers on exercise: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, J; Finlayson, K; Kerr, G; Edwards, H

    2014-10-01

    Exercise has the potential to offer a range of health benefits in addition to improving healing outcomes for people with venous leg ulcers (VLUs). However, despite evidence-based recommendations, most of these individuals do not engage in regular exercise. The aim of this study was to gain an understanding of the perspectives of adults with VLUs, in relation to exercise. This was a qualitative design using semi-structured interviews and discussions. Ten participants with venous leg ulceration volunteered to participate. Recruitment was through a specialist wound clinic. Verbatim data were collected by an experienced moderator using a semi-structured guide. Data saturation was reached after three group discussions and two interviews. A random selection of transcripts was sent back to the participants for verification. Thematic content analysis was used to determine major themes and categories. Two transcripts were independently analysed, categories and themes independently developed, cross checked and found comparable. Remaining transcripts were analysed using the developed categories and codes. Regardless of their current exercise routine, participants reported exercising before venous leg ulceration and expressed an interest in either becoming active or maintaining an active lifestyle. Overall, four themes emerged from the findings: i) participant understanding of the relationship between chronic venous insufficiency and exercise patterns; ii) fear of harm impacts upon positive beliefs and attitudes to exercise; iii) perceived factors limit exercise; and iv) structured management facilitates exercise. The value of exercise in improving outcomes in VLUs lies in its capacity to promote venous return and reduce the risk of secondary conditions in this population. Despite motivation and interest in being exercise active, people with VLUs report many obstacles. Further exploration of mechanisms that assist this patient population and promote understanding about

  14. Dynasplint Trismus System exercises for trismus secondary to head and neck cancer: a prospective explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I; Reintsema, Harry; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Dijkstra, Pieter U

    2016-08-01

    The Dynasplint Trismus System (DTS) can be used to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective study with the following aims: (1) to determine the effects of DTS exercises on changes in mouth opening, pain, mandibular function, quality of life (QoL), and symptomatology and (2) to analyze the patients' perception on DTS exercises, including user satisfaction, experiences, comfort, and compliance. The patients were instructed to exercise with the DTS for at least 16 weeks. Changes in mouth opening, pain, mandibular function, QoL, and symptomatology were evaluated, as well as the patients' perception of DTS exercises. Eighteen consecutive patients were included. Baseline mouth opening was 22.6 mm (sd 7.6). After the patients completed the DTS exercise program, mouth opening increased (7.1 mm, sd 4.7) and perceived difficulty of opening the mouth improved significantly (p < 0.05). No significant effects were found in mandibular function, QoL, and overall symptomatology. The patients' perception was diverse. They reported effectiveness and positive feelings of the results and would recommend DTS exercises to other patients. About half of them thought DTS exercises were burdensome. Mouth opening increased significantly after the DTS exercise program, relative to baseline. About one third of the gained increase was lost in the follow-up period. In general, the patients were satisfied about the effects and the DTS exercise program.

  15. The Effect of Music on Exercise Intensity among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley C. Woodman

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD are at risk for obesity, commonly have sleep disorders, and exhibit stereotypic behaviors that disrupt their learning. Vigorous levels of exercise have been shown to ameliorate these issues in children with ASD, but little research exists to provide techniques for motivating children with ASD to engage in exercise. The present study examined the effect of music on exercise intensity in a group of 13 elementary school students with ASD. Data were collected across six days during structured (e.g., verbal and physical prompts and unstructured (e.g., minimal prompting exercise periods. During these exercise periods, three music conditions were randomized: no music, slow-tempo music, and fast-tempo music. Exercise intensity, measured in Metabolic Equivalent of Tasks by triaxial accelerometers, was greatest during the structured exercise periods and during the slow music condition. Student characteristics moderated the impact of music condition on exercise intensity, such that students with high levels of adaptive behavior or lower levels of maladaptive behavior displayed greater exercise intensity during the fast music condition.

  16. Reciprocal within-day associations between incidental affect and exercise: An EMA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerson, Jessica A; Dunsiger, Shira; Williams, David M

    2018-01-01

    Previous research suggests that how people feel throughout the course of a day (i.e. incidental affect) is predictive of exercise behaviour. A mostly separate literature suggests that exercise can lead to more positive incidental affect. This study examines the potential reciprocal effects of incidental affect and exercise behaviour within the same day. Fifty-nine low-active (exercise exercise promotion programme. Ecological momentary assessment was used to record self-reported exercise sessions in real time and incidental affective valence (feeling good/bad) as assessed by the 11-point Feeling Scale at random times throughout the day. Use of a within-subjects cross-lagged, autoregressive model showed that participants were more likely to exercise on days when they experienced more positive incidental affect earlier in the day (b = .58, SE = .10, p exercised (b = .26, SE = .03, p exercising are reciprocally influential within the course of a day.

  17. Putative Factors That May Modulate the Effect of Exercise on Liver Fat: Insights from Animal Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faidon Magkos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An increase in intrahepatic triglyceride (IHTG content is the hallmark of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD and is strongly associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Although regular aerobic exercise improves metabolic function, its role in regulating fat accumulation in the liver is incompletely understood, and human data are scarce. Results from exercise training studies in animals highlight a number of potential factors that could possibly mediate the effect of exercise on liver fat, but none of them has been formally tested in man. The effect of exercise on IHTG content strongly depends on the background diet, so that exercise is more effective in reducing IHTG under conditions that favor liver fat accretion (e.g., when animals are fed high-fat diets. Concurrent loss of body weight or visceral fat does not appear to mediate the effect of exercise on IHTG, whereas sex (males versus females, prandial status (fasted versus fed, and duration of training, as well as the time elapsed from the last bout of exercise could all be affecting the observed exercise-induced changes in IHTG content. The potential importance of these factors remains obscure, thus providing a wide array of opportunities for future research on the effects of exercise (and diet on liver fat accumulation.

  18. Recommendations for Recruiting and Retaining Adolescent Girls in Chronic Exercise (Training Research Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Massie

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Extensive challenges are often encountered when recruiting participants to chronic exercise (training studies. High participant burden during chronic exercise training programmes can result in low uptake to and/or poor compliance with the study. The aim of this qualitative study was to identify factors affecting adolescent girls’ recruitment and adherence to chronic exercise training research studies. Twenty-six adolescent girls (aged 12 to 15 years participated in one of five focus groups discussing recruitment and retention to exercise physiology research involving a chronic exercise training programme. A thematic analysis was used to analyse the data and eight final themes were inductively identified. Seven evidence-based practical recommendations are suggested to improve the recruitment and retention of participants for prospective, chronic exercise training studies. Successful recruitment requires: (i the defining of exercise-related terms; (ii appropriate choice of recruitment material; and (iii an understanding of participant motivations. Retention strategies include: (iv regular monitoring of participant motives; and (v small groups which foster peer and researcher support. Finally, (vi friendship and ability groups were favoured in addition to (vii a variety of activities to promote adherence to an exercise training programme.

  19. Exercise for PTSD in Women Veterans: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Geetha; Anderson, Elizabeth H; Surís, Alina M; North, Carol S

    2017-11-01

    The safety, feasibility, and efficacy of a 12-week structured exercise program targeting post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in women Veterans of childbearing age was tested in a pilot study. Thirty-one women Veterans of childbearing age were enrolled in the study, 22 remained eligible after the baseline assessment, and 16 completed the exercise protocol. The exercise program consisted of moderate intensity aerobic exercise (brisk walking), 4 times a week, for 12 weeks. Data were collected on duration, intensity, and side effects. The Clinician Administered PTSD Scale was administered at baseline and at the end of 12 weeks. Weekly assessments provided data on PTSD and depression symptoms, pain, and quality of life. Both post-traumatic and depressive symptoms improved significantly by the end of study. There were no adverse events related to exercise. A small focus group provided subjective experiences supporting positive effects of exercise on emotion and physical health. The preliminary results of this study suggests that 12 weeks of moderate intensity aerobic exercise may be a promising intervention for PTSD in women Veterans of childbearing potential. Further controlled studies are warranted to determine efficacy of moderate intensity exercise as a treatment modality for this population. Reprint & Copyright © 2017 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  20. Is Green Exercise for All? A Descriptive Study of Green Exercise Habits and Promoting Factors in Adult Norwegians

    OpenAIRE

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Patil, Grete Grindal; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-01-01

    - Background: Physical activity (PA) in natural environments, known as green exercise (GE), can provide health benefits above and beyond PA in other environments, but little is known about the extent to which GE is an accessible form of weekly PA across different social groups. This study aims to examine the “GE phenomenon” in Norway, and evaluate possible differences in GE habits and perceived factors that promote GE across sub-groups of this population. Methods: 2168 adults from all ...

  1. Is Green Exercise for All? A Descriptive Study of Green Exercise Habits and Promoting Factors in Adult Norwegians

    OpenAIRE

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Patil, Grete Grindal; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) in natural environments, known as green exercise (GE), can provide health benefits above and beyond PA in other environments, but little is known about the extent to which GE is an accessible form of weekly PA across different social groups. This study aims to examine the “GE phenomenon” in Norway, and evaluate possible differences in GE habits and perceived factors that promote GE across sub-groups of this population. Methods: 2168 adults from all over ...

  2. Health impact of sport and exercise in emerging adult men: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Yves; Baggio, Stéphanie; N'Goran, Alexandra A; Studer, Joseph; Deline, Stéphane; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2014-10-01

    Health benefits of sport and exercise are well documented in children, adolescents and adults, but little is known about emerging adulthood-a period of life characterized by significant demographic and developmental changes. The present study aimed to assess the health impact of changes in sport and exercise levels during that specific period of life. The analysis used baseline and 15-month follow-up data (N = 4,846) from the cohort study on substance use risk factors. Associations between baseline exercise levels or changes in exercise levels and health indicators (i.e., health-related quality of life, depression, body mass index, alcohol dependence, nicotine dependence and cannabis use disorder) were measured using chi-squared tests and ANOVA. Direction of effects was tested using cross-lagged analysis. At baseline, all health indicator scores were observed to be better for regular exercisers than for other exercise levels. At follow-up, participants who had maintained regular exercise over time had better scores than those who had remained irregular exercisers or had discontinued, but their scores for health-related quality of life and depression were close to those of participants who had adopted regular exercise after the baseline questionnaire. Cross-lagged analysis indicated that regular exercise at baseline was a significant predictor of health-related quality of life and substance use dependence at follow-up, but was itself predicted only by health-related quality of life. From a health promotion perspective, this study emphasizes how important it is for emerging adult men to maintain, or adopt, regular sport and exercise.

  3. Understanding Why Undergraduate Students Declare and Continue to Study an Exercise Science-Related Major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaartstra, Matthew B; Kercher, Vanessa M; Start, Amanda; Brown, Amber N; Peterson, Mark D; McGrath, Ryan

    2017-01-01

    Understanding factors that contribute to a student's selection of an exercise science-related major is important to student success, higher education and industry. This study sought to 1) better understand why undergraduate students study an exercise science-related major, 2) determine whether positive influences to study an exercise science-related major differ by academic classification, and 3) identify what student's aspirations are after graduation. Department administrators from four-year colleges and universities offering an exercise science-related major in the Northwest Region of the United States (i.e., Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington) were contacted. Cooperating department administrators were given self-reported questionnaires for students to complete using a snowball sampling method. A total of 388 participants completed the questionnaire. Interest in the subject and potential job opportunities were the most common reasons to study an exercise science-related major. Self-reported Holland's codes identified that realistic and social personalities were most prevalent among participants. Seniors rated a friend's influence and college advisors as stronger influences to study an exercise science-related major compared to freshmen. Pay in the field was a stronger influence for freshmen to study an exercise science-related major than for fifth-year seniors, whereas freshmen were less influenced by introductory courses to study an exercise-science related major than fifth-year seniors. The majority of undergraduate students studying an exercise science-related major planned on attending graduate school after completing their baccalaureate degree. These findings can be used to help guide undeclared students and better serve undergraduates enrolled in an exercise science-related major.

  4. Simulated Partners and Collaborative Exercise (SPACE) to boost motivation for astronauts: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, Deborah L; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori; Winn, Brian; Kerr, Norbert L; Pivarnik, James M; Ede, Alison; Hill, Christopher; Samendinger, Stephen; Jeffery, William

    2016-11-14

    Astronauts may have difficulty adhering to exercise regimens at vigorous intensity levels during long space missions. Vigorous exercise is important for aerobic and musculoskeletal health during space missions and afterwards. A key impediment to maintaining vigorous exercise is motivation. Finding ways to motivate astronauts to exercise at levels necessary to mitigate reductions in musculoskeletal health and aerobic capacity have not been explored. The focus of Simulated Partners and Collaborative Exercise (SPACE) is to use recently documented motivation gains in task groups to heighten the exercise experience for participants, similar in age and fitness to astronauts, for vigorous exercise over a 6-month exercise regimen. A secondary focus is to determine the most effective features in simulated exercise partners for enhancing enjoyment, self-efficacy, and social connectedness. The aims of the project are to (1) Create software-generated (SG) exercise partners and interface software with a cycle ergometer; (2) Pilot test design features of SG partners within a video exercise game (exergame), and (3) Test whether exercising with an SG partner over 24-week time period, compared to exercising alone, leads to greater work effort, aerobic capacity, muscle strength, exercise adherence, and enhanced psychological parameters. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB). Chronic exercisers, between the ages 30 and 62, were asked to exercise on a cycle ergometer 6 days per week for 24 weeks using a routine consisting of alternating between moderate-intensity continuous and high-intensity interval sessions. Participants were assigned to one of three conditions: no partner (control), always faster SG partner, or SG partner who was not always faster. Participants were told they could vary cycle ergometer output to increase or decrease intensity during the sessions. Mean change in cycle ergometer power (watts) from the initial continuous and 4

  5. Group cohesion and social support in exercise classes: results from a danish intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ulla; Schmidt, Lone; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben

    2006-01-01

    This study examines the formation of group cohesion and social support in exercise classes among former sedentary adults, participating in a Danish community-based intervention. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze the impact of this process on exercise activity among the participants. A multimethod...

  6. Adherence to an online exercise program for copd patients in the home environment- a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kun, L.; van Weering, Marit; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé; Hermens, Hermanus J.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the adherence to an online exercise program for patients with moderate to very severe COPD in their home environment. The intervention consisted of three modules: module 1 online exercising; module 2 telemonitoring and module 3 telecommunication. Patients

  7. An exercise programme for patients with diabetic complications: a study on feasibility and preliminary effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otterman, N. M.; van Schie, C. H. M.; van der Schaaf, M.; van Bon, A. C.; Busch-Westbroek, T. E.; Nollet, F.

    2011-01-01

    P>Aims To investigate the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an exercise programme for patients with diabetic complications. Methods In this pre-post design study, 22 patients from a diabetic foot outpatient clinic participated in a 12-week individualized exercise programme, consisting of

  8. Influence of exercise on visceral pain: an explorative study in healthy volunteers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weerdenburg, L.J. van; Brock, C.; Drewes, A.M.; Goor, H. van; Vries, M. de; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Contradictory results have been found about the effect of different exercise modalities on pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the early effects of aerobic and isometric exercise on different types of experimental pain, including visceral pain, compared to an

  9. Emotional and Motivational Uses of Music in Sports and Exercise: A Questionnaire Study among Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukka, Petri; Quick, Lina

    2013-01-01

    Music is present in many sport and exercise situations, but empirical investigations on the motives for listening to music in sports remain scarce. In this study, Swedish elite athletes (N = 252) answered a questionnaire that focused on the emotional and motivational uses of music in sports and exercise. The questionnaire contained both…

  10. Recurrent Rhabdomyolysis and Extreme Exercise-A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Wagner

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To present the case of recurrent rhabdomyolysis in an active female Background: A healthy 21 year old female developed severe fatigue and peripheral edema in the upper extremities after an extreme exercise workout session. 4 ½ months later she participated in a similar exercise session with a personal trainer and experienced the same symptoms. Differential Diagnosis: In the initial case, upon physical examination and review of blood work a diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis was made. After the second exercise session athlete was diagnosed with recurrent rhabdomyolysis and was advised to seek treatment at the local emergency room. Treatment: In the initial case the athlete was told by medical personnel to increase fluid intake and rest. In the second case athlete was treated at the emergency room with IV fluids. Uniqueness: The athlete was female, and most cases of rhabdomyolysis occur in males. Athlete was treated for rhabdomyolysis and recurrent rhabdomyolysis, however these diagnosis were made 4 ½ months apart. Also, both cases appear to be the result of the same type of exercise session. Conclusion: There does not appear to be a definitive protocol for an accurate diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis. Guidelines for return to activity should be evaluated on a case by case basis, and a conservative increase in intensity of exercise is warranted to prevent a case of recurrent rhabdomyolysis.

  11. Physiological and cytokine response to acute exercise under hypoxic conditions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Fábio S; Lemos, Valdir A; Bittar, Irene G; Caris, Aline V; Dos Santos, Ronaldo V; Tufik, Sergio; Zagatto, Alessandro M; de Souza, Claudio T; Pimentel, Gustavo D; De Mello, Marco T

    2017-04-01

    Studies have demonstrated that exercise in hypoxia situations induces a cytotoxicity effects. However, the cytokines participation in this condition is remaining unknown. Thus, the aim the present study was to evaluate physiological parameters and inflammatory profiles in response to acute exercise after five hours of hypoxic conditions. Fourteen healthy men were distributed randomly into two groups: normoxic exercise (N.=7) and hypoxic exercise (N.=7). All volunteers were blinded to the protocol. Initially, all subjects were submitted to chamber normobaric in a room fitted for altitude simulations of up to 4500 m, equivalent to a barometric pressure of 433 mmHg. All analyses began at 7:00 a.m. and was maintained for 5 hours; the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) was 13.5%. The groups began a 60-minute session of physical exercise starting at 11:00 a.m., at 50% of peak VO2 (50% VO2peak). Blood was collected for cytokine analysis in the morning upon waking, before the 60-minute exercise session and immediately thereafter. The heart rate during 60 minutes' exercise training was significantly increased in both exercise groups (P<0.05), and the oxygen saturation was reduced under hypoxic conditions during exercise (P<0.05). After exercise, significant increases were found for IL-1ra and IL-10 under hypoxic conditions (P<0.05) and for IL-6 for both groups (P<0.05). TNF-α was not altered under either environmental condition. Our data demonstrate that acute exercise performance in hypoxic conditions can promotes early inflammatory response, leads for immunosuppression state.

  12. Comparison study of resistance exercise nomenclature adopted among professionals and undergraduate physical education students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mendes de Souza

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2016v18n2p233   In the past few years, increased popularity of resistance training (RT and a significant increase in the number of professionals and undergraduate in Physical Education students have been observed. A variety of names has been usually adopted for the same resistance exercise in fields. The aim of the study was to compare the resistance exercise nomenclature adopted by physical education professionals and students, and also to identify the frequencies of names adopted for these resistance exercises. The study included 191 graduate students and active physical education professionals of RT centers and gyms in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Ten exercises traditionally performed on RT programs were selected. The results indicated that there was no association between the nomenclature of exercises and academic degree for all exercises included in the survey. However, there was significant difference (p <0.001 among response frequencies for each exercise, for the whole sample. In this sense, this study enabled identifying significant differences in the nomenclature of resistance exercises. Therefore, nomenclature standardization is essential to establish a direction and clearness in communication among professionals.

  13. Effect of modified bridge exercise on trunk muscle activity in healthy adults: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong-Oh; Kang, Min-Hyeok; Kim, Jun-Seok; Oh, Jae-Seop

    2017-09-09

    This is a cross-sectional study. University research laboratory. Fifteen healthy adults (mean age: 27.47 years) volunteered for this study. The individuals performed standard bridge exercise and modified bridge exercises with right leg-lift (single-leg-lift bridge exercise, single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface, and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise). During the bridge exercises, electromyography of the rectus abdominis, internal oblique, erector spinae, and multifidus muscles was recorded using a wireless surface electromyography system. Two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (exercise by side) with post hoc pairwise comparisons using Bonferroni correction was used to compare the electromyography data collected from each muscle. Bilateral internal oblique muscle activities showed significantly greater during single-leg-lift bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-8.99 to -1.08, left internal oblique=-6.84 to -0.10), single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-7.32 to -1.78, left internal oblique=-5.34 to -0.99), and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right internal oblique=-17.13 to -0.89, left internal oblique=-8.56 to -0.60) compared with standard bridge exercise. Bilateral rectus abdominis showed greater electromyography activity during single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval: right rectus abdominis=-9.33 to -1.13, left rectus abdominis=-4.80 to -0.64) and single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise (95% confidence interval: right rectus abdominis=-14.12 to -1.84, left rectus abdominis=-6.68 to -0.16) compared with standard bridge exercise. In addition, the right rectus abdominis muscle activity was greater during single-leg-lift hip abduction bridge exercise compared with single-leg-lift bridge exercise on an unstable surface (95% confidence interval=-7.51 to

  14. Transformational and transactional leadership and exercise-related self-efficacy: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauchamp, Mark R; Welch, Amy S; Hulley, Angie J

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships between transformational and transactional leadership behaviors and the self-efficacy ofparticipants involved in a structured 10-week exercise program. Three weeksinto their exercise classes 174 females (M age = 25.36 years, SD = 8.48) provided ratings of their exercise instructor's leadership behaviors as well as their personal efficacy related to scheduling, over-coming barriers and within-class capabilities. Results revealed that for exercise initiates, contingent rewards behaviors were able to explain unique variation in scheduling self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy, but not within-class self-efficacy. For experienced exercisers, none of the leadership behaviors assessed in this study were associated with participant self-efficacy.

  15. Advocating neuroimaging studies of transmitter release in human physical exercise challenges studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Boecker

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Henning Boecker1, Ahmed Othman1, Sarah Mueckter1, Lukas Scheef1, Max Pensel1, Marcel Daamen1, Jakob Jankowski1, HH Schild2, TR Tölle3, M Schreckenberger41FE Klinische Funktionelle Neurobildgebung, Radiologische Universitätsklinik, Friedrich-Wilhelms–Universität Bonn, Germany; 2Radiologische Universitätsklinik, Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany; 3TUM Neurologische Klinik und Poliklinik im Neuro-Kopf-Zentrum, Klinikum rechts der Isar der Technischen Universität München, München, Germany; 4Klinik und Poliklinik für Nuklearmedizin am Mainzer Universitätsklinikum, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität, Mainz, GermanyAbstract: This perspective attempts to outline the emerging role of positron emission tomography (PET ligand activation studies in human exercise research. By focusing on the endorphinergic system and its acclaimed role for exercise-induced antinociception and mood enhancement, we like to emphasize the unique potential of ligand PET applied to human athletes for uncovering the neurochemistry of exercise-induced psychophysiological phenomena. Compared with conventional approaches, in particular quantification of plasma beta-endorphin levels under exercise challenges, which are reviewed in this article, studying opioidergic effects directly in the central nervous system (CNS with PET and relating opioidergic binding changes to neuropsychological assessments, provides a more refined and promising experimental strategy. Although a vast literature dating back to the 1980s of the last century has been able to reproducibly demonstrate peripheral increases of beta-endorphin levels after various exercise challenges, so far, these studies have failed to establish robust links between peripheral beta-endorphin levels and centrally mediated behavioral effects, ie, modulation of mood and/or pain perception. As the quantitative relation between endorphins in the peripheral blood and the CNS remains unknown, the question arises, to what

  16. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Wook Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group. The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048, word list delayed recall (p = 0.038, word list recognition (p = 0.007, and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037. However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome.

  17. Comparing routine neurorehabilitation program with trunk exercises based on Bobath concept in multiple sclerosis: pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keser, Ilke; Kirdi, Nuray; Meric, Aydin; Kurne, Asli Tuncer; Karabudak, Rana

    2013-01-01

    This study compared trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept with routine neurorehabilitation approaches in multiple sclerosis (MS). Bobath and routine neurorehabilitation exercises groups were evaluated. MS cases were divided into two groups. Both groups joined a 3 d/wk rehabilitation program for 8 wk. The experimental group performed trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept, and the control group performed routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Additionally, both groups performed balance and coordination exercises. All patients were evaluated with the Trunk Impairment Scale (TIS), Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), and Multiple Sclerosis Functional Composite (MSFC) before and after the physiotherapy program. In group analysis, TIS, BBS, ICARS, and MSFC scores and strength of abdominal muscles were significantly different after treatment in both groups (p 0.05). Although trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept are rarely applied in MS rehabilitation, the results of this study show that they are as effective as routine neurorehabilitation exercises. Therefore, trunk exercises based on the Bobath concept can be beneficial in MS rehabilitation programs.

  18. Studies on ergometer exercise testing. II. Effect of previous myocardial infarction, digoxin, and beta-blockade on exercise electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellinen, T J; Virtanen, K S; Valle, M; Frick, M H

    1986-10-01

    The results of exercise electrocardiography were studied in a random sample of 317 subjects with clinical suspicion of coronary artery disease. In 278 patients with coronary artery disease the rate of false negative tests was 18% with and 12% without previous myocardial infarction. If ST elevation was considered a negative response, the corresponding values were 25% and 13%, respectively, p less than 0.01. The greatest prevalence of negative tests was seen after anterior myocardial infarction: 27% or 42% when ST elevation was not included into positive responses. The sensitivity of exercise-induced ST depression for the presence of multivessel disease was lower after anterior infarction (67%) than in other patients with previous infarction (86%), p less than 0.01. The corresponding specificities were 71% and 22%, respectively, p less than 0.005. If ST elevation was included into positive responses these differences were abolished. In subjects without myocardial infarction the sensitivity was 89% and specificity 43%. Digitalized patients had somewhat higher sensitivity in the exercise electrocardiogram than those without digoxin, 90% vs. 81% (p less than 0.05), but the difference was not seen with exclusion of ST elevation. The specificity was not influenced by digitalis. beta-blockade had no effect on the sensitivity or specificity, but the prevalence of postexercise ST evolution was lower with (11%) than without (30%) beta-blockade. The prevalence of slowly ascending ST depression was reduced by three factors: the presence of digitalis in patients without previous myocardial infarction, infarction itself, and the extent of coronary artery disease. We conclude that exercise electrocardiography has only a limited value in prediction of multivessel disease.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. The health benefits of yoga and exercise: a review of comparison studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Alyson; Thomas, Sue

    2010-01-01

    Exercise is considered an acceptable method for improving and maintaining physical and emotional health. A growing body of evidence supports the belief that yoga benefits physical and mental health via down-regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and the sympathetic nervous system (SNS). The purpose of this article is to provide a scholarly review of the literature regarding research studies comparing the effects of yoga and exercise on a variety of health outcomes and health conditions. Using PubMed((R)) and the key word "yoga," a comprehensive search of the research literature from core scientific and nursing journals yielded 81 studies that met inclusion criteria. These studies subsequently were classified as uncontrolled (n = 30), wait list controlled (n = 16), or comparison (n = 35). The most common comparison intervention (n = 10) involved exercise. These studies were included in this review. In the studies reviewed, yoga interventions appeared to be equal or superior to exercise in nearly every outcome measured except those involving physical fitness. The studies comparing the effects of yoga and exercise seem to indicate that, in both healthy and diseased populations, yoga may be as effective as or better than exercise at improving a variety of health-related outcome measures. Future clinical trials are needed to examine the distinctions between exercise and yoga, particularly how the two modalities may differ in their effects on the SNS/HPA axis. Additional studies using rigorous methodologies are needed to examine the health benefits of the various types of yoga.

  20. Exercise addiction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lichtenstein, Mia Beck; Christiansen, Erik; Elklit, Ask

    2014-01-01

    Exercise addiction is characterized by excessive exercise patterns with potential negative consequences such as overuse injuries. The aim of this study was to compare eating disorder symptoms, quality of life, personality traits and attachments styles in exercisers with and without indications...... of exercise addiction. A case-control study with 121 exercisers was conducted. The exercisers were categorized into an addiction group (n=41) or a control group (n=80) on the basis of their responses to the Exercise Addiction Inventory. The participants completed the Eating Disorder Inventory 2, the Short......-Form 36, the NEO Personality Inventory Revised and the Adult Attachment Scale. The addiction group scored higher on eating disorder symptoms, especially on perfectionism but not as high as eating disorder populations. The characteristic personality traits in the addiction group were high levels...

  1. Characteristics of attitude and recommendation of oncologists toward exercise in South Korea: a cross sectional survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ji-Hye; Oh, Minsuk; Yoon, Yong Jin; Lee, Chul Won; Jones, Lee W; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Nam Kyu; Jeon, Justin Y

    2015-04-10

    The purpose of the present study was to examine 1) characteristics and attitudes of oncologists toward exercise and toward recommending exercise to their patients, 2) association among oncologists' own physical activity levels, exercise recommendations, and their attitudes toward recommending exercise. A total of 167 oncologists participated in this survey study (41 surgeons, 78 medical oncologists, 25 radiation oncologists, and 21 others). Most oncologists included in the study treat more than one type of cancer, including colorectal, gastric, breast, lung, and liver cancer. To analyze the data, the one-way ANOVA, and t-test were used. All data were indicated for mean, SD, and proportions. Most oncologists agreed that exercise is beneficial (72.8%) and important (69.6%), but only 39.2% of them agreed that exercise is safe, and only 7.2% believed that cancer patients manage to exercise during cancer treatment. Forty-six percentage of the surveyed oncologists recommended exercise to their patients during the past month. The average amount of participation in physical activity by oncologists who participated in the study was 139.5 ± 120.3 min per week, and 11.4% of the study participants met the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) guidelines. Oncologists' own physical activity levels were associated with their attitudes toward recommending exercise. Belief in the benefits of exercise in the performance of daily tasks, improvement of mental health, and the attenuation of physical decline from treatment were the three most prevalent reasons why oncologists recommend exercise to their patients. Barriers to recommending exercise to patients included lack of time, unclear exercise recommendations, and the safety of patients. Oncologists have favorable attitudes toward exercise and toward recommending exercise to their patients during treatment. However, they also experience barriers to recommending exercise, including lack of time, unclear exercise guidelines

  2. Adherence to physical exercise recommendations in people over 65--the SNAC-Kungsholmen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydwik, Elisabeth; Welmer, Anna-Karin; Kåreholt, Ingemar; Angleman, Sara; Fratiglioni, Laura; Wang, Hui-Xin

    2013-10-01

    There is limited knowledge regarding to what extent the older population meet the recommendations of physical exercise, especially fitness-enhancing exercise. This study assessed participation in health- and fitness-enhancing exercises in people aged >65, and explored to what extent the possible differences in meeting current recommendations differs by age, gender and education. The study population was derived from the Swedish National study on Aging and Care, and consisted of a random sample of 2593 subjects, aged 65+ years. Participation in health- and fitness-enhancing exercise according to the WHO and the American College of Sports Medicine's recommendations in relation to age, gender and education was evaluated using multinomial logistic regression adjusted for health indicators and physical performance. According to the recommendations, 46% of the participants fulfilled the criteria for health-enhancing and 16% for fitness-enhancing exercises. Independent of health indicators and physical performance, women <80 years of age were less likely than men to participate in fitness-enhancing exercise, but they participated more in health-enhancing exercise. In the advanced age group (80+ years), women were less likely to participate both in fitness- and health-enhancing exercise. Advanced age and low education were negatively related to participation in both health- and fitness-enhancing exercise independent of health indicators, but the association was not observed among people with fast walking speed. Promoting physical exercise and encouraging participation among older adults with lower education, especially among those with initial functional decline, may help to reduce adverse health outcomes.

  3. Rehabilitation exercise for treatment of vestibular disorder: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avraham Feazadeh

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Vertigo and dizziness are common symptoms in the general population. While the clinical picture is well known and widely described, there are different interpretations of Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo. The purpose of this case report was to describe the treatment of a 56 year old woman with complains of positional vertigo for 35 consecutive years. She suffered from a sudden onset of rotatory, unilateral horizontal canal type benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV. The symtoms started a day after falling from a bus, where she injured her head. Otherwise her medical history was unremarkable. She was treated with an individualized home exercise program of eye movement exercises, Brandt/Daroff exercises, and general conditioning exercises (i.e., laying on the left side from sitting on the bed, while the head rotated 45 degrees to the right, waiting for about one minue; twice a day on gradual basis, not laying on the side all the way, but to use enough pillows to lay about at 60 degrees. Four weeks from the start of physical therapy, the patient was free of symptoms, even when her neck was in the extended position.

  4. A pilot study of muscle plasma protein changes after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Voss, Line G; Lauridsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    profiles were measured before and after exercise in 3 groups: subjects affected by either Becker muscular dystrophy or McArdle disease, and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Mb and TnI appeared early in the blood, and the increase of TnI was only observed in patients with muscle disease. The CK increase was more...

  5. Preliminary Study of Exercise Capacity in Post-acute Stroke Survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    June-Kai Chen

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and exercise capacity of cycle ergometry exercise testing and exercise performance in patients with post-acute stroke. Nineteen male patients (mean age, 62.7 ± 9.2 years with a post stroke interval of 9.9 ± 2.0 days underwent symptom- limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Peak exercise capacity was measured by open-circuit spirometry during standard upright ergometer cycling. The mean peak oxygen uptake was 11.8 mL/kg/min, peak heart rate with age-predicted maximal heart rate was 67.9 ± 3.4%, and peak oxygen pulse was 7.5 mL/beat. The anaerobic threshold was achieved with a mean peak oxygen uptake of 73.4%. Mean peak minute ventilation was 42.1 L/min, and ventilatory reserve was 48.1 ± 16.8%. Our findings confirm that cycle ergometry exercise testing is feasible and exercise capacity is compromised in post-acute stroke survivors within 2 weeks after stroke. Respiratory impairments do not appear to contribute to the reduced exercise capacity post stroke.

  6. Exercise and the Prevention of Depression: Results of the HUNT Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Samuel B; Øverland, Simon; Hatch, Stephani L; Wessely, Simon; Mykletun, Arnstein; Hotopf, Matthew

    2017-10-03

    The purpose of the present study was to address 1) whether exercise provides protection against new-onset depression and anxiety and 2) if so, the intensity and amount of exercise required to gain protection and, lastly, 3) the mechanisms that underlie any association. A "healthy" cohort of 33,908 adults, selected on the basis of having no symptoms of common mental disorder or limiting physical health conditions, was prospectively followed for 11 years. Validated measures of exercise, depression, anxiety, and a range of potential confounding and mediating factors were collected. Undertaking regular leisure-time exercise was associated with reduced incidence of future depression but not anxiety. The majority of this protective effect occurred at low levels of exercise and was observed regardless of intensity. After adjustment for confounders, the population attributable fraction suggests that, assuming the relationship is causal, 12% of future cases of depression could have been prevented if all participants had engaged in at least 1 hour of physical activity each week. The social and physical health benefits of exercise explained a small proportion of the protective effect. Previously proposed biological mechanisms, such as alterations in parasympathetic vagal tone, did not appear to have a role in explaining the protection against depression. Regular leisure-time exercise of any intensity provides protection against future depression but not anxiety. Relatively modest changes in population levels of exercise may have important public mental health benefits and prevent a substantial number of new cases of depression.

  7. Attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with a recent diagnosis of type 1 diabetes: a qualitative study of participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes (EXTOD) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amy; Narendran, Parth; Andrews, Robert C; Daley, Amanda; Greenfield, Sheila M

    2018-01-24

    To explore attitudes and barriers to exercise in adults with new-onset type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Qualitative methodology using focus group (n=1), individual face-to-face (n=4) and telephone interviews (n=8). Thematic analysis using the Framework Method. Nineteen UK hospital sites. Fifteen participants in the Exercise for Type 1 Diabetes study. We explored current and past levels of exercise, understanding of exercise and exercise guidelines, barriers to increasing exercise levels and preferences for monitoring of activity in a trial. Five main themes were identified: existing attitudes to exercise, feelings about diagnosis, perceptions about exercise consequences, barriers to increasing exercise and confidence in managing blood glucose. An important finding was that around half the participants reported a reduction in activity levels around diagnosis. Although exercise was felt to positively impact on health, some participants were not sure about the benefits or concerned about potential harms such as hypoglycaemia. Some participants reported being advised by healthcare practitioners (HCPs) not to exercise. Exercise should be encouraged (not discouraged) from diagnosis, as patients may be more amenable to lifestyle change. Standard advice on exercise and T1DM needs to be made available to HCPs and patients with T1DM to improve patients' confidence in managing their diabetes around exercise. ISRCTN91388505; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  8. The effect of exercise on sleep and fatigue in rheumatoid arthritis: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durcan, Laura; Wilson, Fiona; Cunnane, Gaye

    2014-10-01

    Sleep disturbance and chronic fatigue are common in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and contribute to disability, symptomatology, and healthcare use. It has long been recognized in other populations that exercise can improve sleep and diminish fatigue. The effect of exercise on sleep quality and fatigue in RA has not been evaluated. Ours is a randomized controlled study in RA to determine the effect of an exercise program on sleep quality and fatigue. These were measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index and the Fatigue Severity Scale. Patients were randomized to either a 12-week, home-based exercise intervention or usual care. The exercise program consisted of specific exercises to target individual deficiencies identified using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ) with cardiovascular work as per the guidelines. The intervention group was evaluated on a 3-week basis. Full evaluation was carried out at baseline and at 12 weeks. Forty patients were randomized to the intervention with 38 controls. In the exercise intervention group, there was a statistically significant improvement in HAQ (p = 0.00), pain (p = 0.05), stiffness (p = 0.05), sleep quality (p = 0.04), and fatigue (p = 0.04). In our control group, there was a statistically significant improvement demonstrated in their overall perceptions of the benefits of exercise, but none of the other variables. Our study demonstrates that an exercise program resulted in significant improvement in sleep quality and fatigue. This is particularly interesting given the importance of fatigue as an outcome measure in RA and gives us yet another reason to prescribe exercise in this population.

  9. Received social support and exercising: An intervention study to test the enabling hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rackow, Pamela; Scholz, Urte; Hornung, Rainer

    2015-11-01

    Received social support is considered important for health-enhancing exercise participation. The enabling hypothesis of social support suggests an indirect association of social support and exercising via constructs of self-regulation, such as self-efficacy. This study aimed at examining an expanded enabling hypothesis by examining effects of different kinds of social support (i.e., emotional and instrumental) on exercising not only via self-efficacy but also via self-monitoring and action planning. An 8-week online study was conducted. Participants were randomly assigned to an intervention or a control group. The intervention comprised finding and then exercising regularly with a new exercise companion. Intervention and control group effects were compared by a manifest multigroup model. Received emotional social support predicted self-efficacy, self-monitoring, and action planning in the intervention group. Moreover, received emotional social support was indirectly connected with exercise via the examined mediators. The indirect effect from received emotional social support via self-efficacy mainly contributed to the total effect. No direct or indirect effect of received instrumental social support on exercise emerged. In the control group, neither emotional nor instrumental social support was associated with any of the self-regulation constructs nor with exercise. Actively looking for a new exercise companion and exercising together seems to be beneficial for the promotion of received emotional and instrumental social support. Emotional support in turn promotes exercise by enabling better self-regulation, in particular self-efficacy. Statement of contribution What is already known on this subject? With the 'enabling hypothesis', Benight and Bandura (2004, Behav. Res. Ther., 42, 1129) claimed that social support indirectly affects behaviour via self-efficacy. Research in the domain of physical exercise has provided evidence for this enabling hypothesis on a

  10. The impact of time cost of physical exercise on health outcomes by older adults: the DR's EXTRA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuvaja-Köllner, Virpi; Valtonen, Hannu; Komulainen, Pirjo; Hassinen, Maija; Rauramaa, Rainer

    2013-06-01

    When the motivation for exercise is high and people are retired, the cost of time used for physical exercise may be lower and individuals may exercise more compared to individuals with a low motivational level and in working life. The aim was to study the effect of time cost of physical exercise on the amount of physical exercise and on health-related quality of life. We used 2-year data (n = 1,292) from a 4-year randomised controlled trial in a population-based sample of Eastern Finnish men and women, 57-78 years of age at baseline, in 2005-2006. In the statistical analysis, physical exercise and health outcomes were assumed to be endogenous variables explained with a set of exogenous variables. The statistical modelling was done by panel data instrumental variable regressions. Health-related quality of life was evaluated by the RAND 36-item survey and motives for exercise with a questionnaire. Joy as the motivation for physical exercise and retirement increased the amount of physical exercise per week (p exercise was associated with physical (p exercise decreased the metabolic risk factor score (p exercise (p exercise. The results emphasise that motivation and the labour market position are important in determining the cost of physical exercise.

  11. Stages of change, barriers, benefits, and preferences for exercise in RA patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henchoz, Y; Zufferey, P; So, A

    2013-01-01

    To determine the distribution of exercise stages of change in a rheumatoid arthritis (RA) cohort, and to examine patients' perceptions of exercise benefits, barriers, and their preferences for exercise. One hundred and twenty RA patients who attended the Rheumatology Unit of a University Hospital were asked to participate in the study. Those who agreed were administered a questionnaire to determine their exercise stage of change, their perceived benefits and barriers to exercise, and their preferences for various features of exercise. Eighty-nine (74%) patients were finally included in the analyses. Their mean age was 58.4 years, mean RA duration 10.1 years, and mean disease activity score 2.8. The distribution of exercise stages of change was as follows: precontemplation (n = 30, 34%), contemplation (n = 11, 13%), preparation (n = 5, 6%), action (n = 2, 2%), and maintenance (n = 39, 45%). Compared to patients in the maintenance stage of change, precontemplators exhibited different demographic and functional characteristics and reported less exercise benefits and more barriers to exercise. Most participants preferred exercising alone (40%), at home (29%), at a moderate intensity (64%), with advice provided by a rheumatologist (34%) or a specialist in exercise and RA (34%). Walking was by far the preferred type of exercise, in both the summer (86%) and the winter (51%). Our cohort of patients with RA was essentially distributed across the precontemplation and maintenance exercise stages of change. These subgroups of patients exhibit psychological and functional differences that make their needs different in terms of exercise counselling.

  12. Telomere Length and Long-Term Endurance Exercise: Does Exercise Training Affect Biological Age? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Østhus, Ida Beate Øyen; Sgura, Antonella; Berardinelli, Francesco; Alsnes, Ingvild Vatten; Brønstad, Eivind; Rehn, Tommy Aune; Støbakk, Per Kristian; Hatle, Håvard; Wisløff, Ulrik; Nauman, Javaid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Telomeres are potential markers of mitotic cellular age and are associated with physical ageing process. Long-term endurance training and higher aerobic exercise capacity (VO2max) are associated with improved survival, and dynamic effects of exercise are evident with ageing. However, the association of telomere length with exercise training and VO2max has so far been inconsistent. Our aim was to assess whether muscle telomere length is associated with endurance exercise trainin...

  13. Functional Stretching Exercise Submitted for Spastic Diplegic Children: A Randomized Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Elshafey, Mohamed Ali; Abd-Elaziem, Adel; Gouda, Rana Elmarzouki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studying the effect of the functional stretching exercise in diplegic children. Design. Children were randomly assigned into two matched groups. Setting. Outpatient Clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Participants. Thirty ambulant spastic diplegic children, ranging in age from five to eight years, participated in this study. Interventions. The control group received physical therapy program with traditional passive stretching exercises. The study group re...

  14. Exercise adherence in a randomized trial of exercise on aromatase inhibitor arthralgias in breast cancer survivors: the Hormones and Physical Exercise (HOPE) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arem, Hannah; Sorkin, Mia; Cartmel, Brenda; Fiellin, Martha; Capozza, Scott; Harrigan, Maura; Ercolano, Elizabeth; Zhou, Yang; Sanft, Tara; Gross, Cary; Schmitz, Kathryn; Neogi, Tuhina; Hershman, Dawn; Ligibel, Jennifer; Irwin, Melinda L

    2016-08-01

    Up to 50 % of postmenopausal breast cancer survivors taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) experience AI-associated arthralgias, or joint pain, which causes many to stop taking AIs and may inhibit exercise, despite known health benefits. We thus evaluated exercise adherence and factors associated with better exercise adherence in breast cancer survivors experiencing AI-induced arthralgia in the (HOPE) year long randomized controlled trial. We included 61 HOPE women randomized to exercise (150 min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and twice-weekly supervised strength training). Our main outcomes were aerobic exercise measured with daily activity logs, attendance at supervised exercise sessions, and changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, measured maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max). We examined means and standard deviations (SDs) for exercise adherence by demographic and medical characteristics and used the t test for mean differences. We also examined predictors of adherence using linear regression. On average, at the end of the year long trial, women reported 119 (SD 78) min/week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and participated in 70 % of supervised exercise training sessions. After adjustment for other factors that influence adherence, at 6 months postrandomization, only baseline VO2max was associated with higher aerobic exercise levels and at 12 months, only older age predicted better supervised exercise training attendance. Breast cancer survivors taking AIs and experiencing arthralgia are able to initiate and maintain a year long exercise program, regardless of other factors that influence activity levels. Breast cancer survivors can exercise at levels that have been shown to improve AI-associated arthralgia.

  15. Association between exercise and the risk of dementia: results from a nationwide longitudinal study in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zi; Fu, Jian; Hong, Y Alicia; Wang, Ping; Fang, Ya

    2017-12-04

    This study was conducted to examine the causal association between exercise and the risk of dementia among older Chinese adults. Longitudinal population-based study with a follow-up duration of 9 years. Data for the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey waves occurring from 2002 to 2011-2012 were extracted from the survey database. In total, 7501 dementia-free subjects who were older than 65 years were included at baseline. Dementia was defined as a self-reported or proxy-reported physician's diagnosis of the disease. Regular exercise and potential confounding variables were obtained via a self-report questionnaire. We generated longitudinal logistic regression models based on time-lagged generalised estimating equation to examine the causal association between exercise and dementia risk. Of the 7501 older Chinese people included in this study, 338 developed dementia during the 9-year follow-up period after excluding those who were lost to follow-up or deceased. People who regularly exercised had lower odds of developing dementia (OR=0.53, 95% CI 0.33 to 0.85) than those who did not exercise regularly. Regular exercise was associated with decreased risk of dementia. Policy-makers should develop effective public health programmes and build exercise-friendly environments for the general public. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Negative Exercise Stress Test: Does it Mean Anything? Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan A. Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite its low sensitivity and specificity (67% and 72%, respectively, exercise testing has remained one of the most widely used noninvasive tests to determine the prognosis in patients with suspected or established coronary disease.As a screening test for coronary artery disease, the exercise stress test is useful in that it is relatively simple and inexpensive. It has been considered particularly helpful in patients with chest pain syndromes who have moderate probability for coronary artery disease, and in whom the resting electrocardiogram (ECG is normal. The following case presentation and discussion will question the predictive value of a negative stress testing in patients with moderate probability for coronary artery disease.

  17. Effect of physical exercise training in patients with Chagas heart disease: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial (PEACH study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Fernanda de Souza Nogueira Sardinha; Sousa, Andréa Silvestre; Souza, Fernando Cesar de Castro Cesar; Pinto, Vivian Liane Mattos; Silva, Paula Simplicio; Saraiva, Roberto Magalhães; Xavier, Sergio Salles; Veloso, Henrique Horta; Holanda, Marcelo Teixeira; Costa, Andréa Rodrigues; Carneiro, Fernanda Martins; Silva, Gilberto Marcelo Sperandio; Borges, Juliana Pereira; Tibirica, Eduardo; Pinheiro, Roberta Olmo; Lara, Flávio Alves; Hasslocher-Moreno, Alejandro Marcel; Brasil, Pedro Emmanuel Alvarenga Americano; Mediano, Mauro Felippe Felix

    2016-09-02

    The effects of exercise training on Chagas heart disease are still unclear. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of exercise training over functional capacity, cardiac function, quality of life, and biomarkers in Chagas heart disease. The PEACH study is a superiority randomized clinical trial which will include subjects who meet the following criteria: Chagas heart disease with a left ventricular ejection fraction below 45 % with or without heart failure symptoms; clinical stability in the last 3 months; adherence to clinical treatment; and age above 18 years. The exclusion criteria are: pregnancy; neuromuscular limitations; smoking; evidence of non-chagasic heart disease; systemic conditions that limit exercise practice or cardiopulmonary exercise test; unavailability to attend the center three times a week during the intervention period; and practitioners of regular exercise. The intervention group will perform an exercise training intervention three times per week during 6 months and will be compared to the control group without exercise. Both groups will undergo the same monthly pharmaceutical and nutritional counseling as well as standard medical treatment according to the Brazilian consensus on Chagas disease. The primary outcome is functional capacity based on peak exercise oxygen consumption during cardiopulmonary exercise testing. Secondary outcomes are: cardiac function; body composition; muscle respiratory strength; microvascular reactivity; cardiac rhythm abnormalities; autonomic function; biochemical; oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers; and quality of life. Subjects will be evaluated at baseline, and at 3 and 6 months after randomization. Thirty patients will be randomly assigned into exercise or control groups at a ratio of 1:1. Findings of the present study will be useful to determine if physical exercise programs should be included as an important additional therapy in the treatment of patients with Chagas heart disease. Clinical

  18. Effects of a tailor-made exercise program on exercise adherence and health outcomes in patients with knee osteoarthritis: a mixed-methods pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Fung-Kam Iris; Lee, Tze-Fan Diana; So, Winnie Kwok-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies showed that exercise intervention was effective in symptoms control of knee osteoarthritis (OA) but poor intervention adherence reduced the exercise effect. It has been suspected that the design of exercise intervention mainly from the health care professionals' perspective could not address the patients' barriers to exercise. Therefore, a tailor-made exercise program which incorporated the patient's perspective in the design was developed and ready for evaluation. This pilot study estimated the effects of a tailor-made exercise program on exercise adherence and health outcomes, and explored the participants' perception and experience of the program. The intervention of this study was a 4-week community-based group exercise program, which required the participants to attend a 1-hour session each week. Thirty-four older people with knee OA were recruited to the program. Mixed-methods study design was used to estimate the effects of this program and explore the participants' perception and experience of the program. Exercise adherence and performance in return-demonstration of the exercise were assessed at 12 weeks after the program. Disease-specific health status (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index), general health status (12-item Short Form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire), knee range of motion, muscle strength, and endurance of the lower extremities (Timed-Stands Test) were measured at the beginning of the program and 12 weeks after. Six participants were interviewed individually on the 12th week. Thirty-three participants (75.0±7.3 years) completed the one-group pretest and post-test study. The participants' exercise adherence was 91.4%±14.54%, and their correct performance in return-demonstration was 76.7%±21.75%. Most of the participants' health outcomes significantly improved at posttests except the 12-item Short Form of the Medical Outcome Study Questionnaire physical health summary score. The

  19. Regular group exercise contributes to balanced health in older adults in Japan: a qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hiroko Komatsu; Kaori Yagasaki; Yoshinobu Saito; Yuko Oguma

    2017-01-01

    .... We conducted a qualitative study among older adults participating in regular group exercise to understand their perceptions of the physical, mental, and social changes they underwent as a result...

  20. Exercise during pregnancy: knowledge and beliefs of medical practitioners in South Africa: a survey study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Watson, Estelle D; Oddie, Brydie; Constantinou, Demitri

    2015-01-01

    ...) can play an important role in changing antenatal health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of South African MPs towards exercise during pregnancy...

  1. The Dopaminergic Reward System and Leisure Time Exercise Behavior: A Candidate Allele Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlotte Huppertz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Twin studies provide evidence that genetic influences contribute strongly to individual differences in exercise behavior. We hypothesize that part of this heritability is explained by genetic variation in the dopaminergic reward system. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in DRD1: rs265981, DRD2: rs6275, rs1800497, DRD3: rs6280, DRD4: rs1800955, DBH: rs1611115, rs2519152, and in COMT: rs4680 and three variable number of tandem repeats (VNTRs in DRD4, upstream of DRD5, and in DAT1 were investigated for an association with regular leisure time exercise behavior. Materials and Methods. Data on exercise activities and at least one SNP/VNTR were available for 8,768 individuals aged 7 to 50 years old that were part of the Netherlands Twin Register. Exercise behavior was quantified as weekly metabolic equivalents of task (MET spent on exercise activities. Mixed models were fitted in SPSS with genetic relatedness as a random effect. Results. None of the genetic variants were associated with exercise behavior (P>.02, despite sufficient power to detect small effects. Discussion and Conclusions. We did not confirm that allelic variants involved in dopaminergic function play a role in creating individual differences in exercise behavior. A plea is made for large genome-wide association studies to unravel the genetic pathways that affect this health-enhancing behavior.

  2. Experiences of breast cancer survivors participating in a tailored exercise intervention -a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luoma, Minna-Liisa; Hakamies-Blomqvist, Liisa; Blomqvist, Carl; Nikander, Riku; Gustavsson-Lilius, Mila; Saarto, Tiina

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate how tailored exercise is experienced by cancer survivors. Twenty-five breast cancer survivors who were recently treated with systemic adjuvant treatments attended tailored exercise classes as a part of a randomized controlled exercise intervention study (Breast Cancer and Exercise, BREX). Focus group discussions with a median of four (range 3-6) participants in each group were conducted to capture their individual experiences of their course of illness, taking part in the exercise trial, the personal meaning of tailored exercise classes and the group. Attending the intervention in which the focus of attention was on physical rehabilitation was highly valued, since the participants experienced both improved physical fitness and improved coping. Due to altered physical appearance and poor physical fitness, the participants felt that tailored exercise for patients with breast cancer reduced their barrier to start exercising. Peer support from the group was valued, especially that of sharing experiences, receiving psychological support and gaining a sense of normality. A sense of mastery over their disease through participating in the intervention, i.e. better psychological functioning and improved mood, was a consequence of better physical fitness and of meeting other breast cancer survivors. Also participating in the study per se increases a sense of comfort and security with extra medical examinations and follow-up. Participating in the tailored exercise group for breast cancer survivors helped patients gain a sense of mastery, restoring their self-esteem and constructing a meaning for their cancer experience and its impact on their lives.

  3. DATE: Depressed adolescents treated with exercise: Study rationale and design for a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hughes, Carroll W; Trivedi, Madhukar H.; Cleaver, Joseph; Greer, Tracy L.; Emslie, Graham J.; Kennard, Beth; Dorman, Shauna; Bain, Tyson; Dubreuil, Judy; Barnes, Conrad

    2009-01-01

    There is an important need for non-medication interventions for depressed youth. The aim of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using a standardized aerobic exercise regime to treat non-medicated clinically depressed adolescents based on adherence and completion rates, including 1) establishing effect sizes for the primary outcomes including the Chidren’s Depression Rating Scale – Revised (CDRS-R) and Actical (energy expenditure data) as well as selected secondary outcomes; (e.g., Cl...

  4. Practice and Pattern of Antenatal and Postnatal Exercise among Nigerian Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    OpenAIRE

    Chidozie Emmanuel Mbada; Olubukayomi EbunOluwa Adebayo; Taofeek Oluwole Awotidebe; Funmilola Adenike Faremi; Monisola Omoyemi Oginni; Abiola Oladele Ogundele; Anne Antonette I. Emechete

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The African culture seems to play a major prohibiting role in physical exercise during pregnancy and immediate postpartum. This study was designed to assess practice and pattern of antenatal and postnatal exercise among Nigerian women. Materials and Methods: Three hundred and sixty-five women (189 pregnant women and 179 nursing mothers) from six selected hospitals in south-west Nigeria participated in this cross-sectional study. Data were obtained on socio-demographic and obste...

  5. Follow up exercise studies in paediatric obesity: implications for long term effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziekas, M T; LeMura, L M; Stoddard, N M; Kaercher, S; Martucci, T

    2003-01-01

    To examine the effects of exercise training on paediatric obesity immediately after training and at a one year follow up and to provide recommendations for future research. Studies that met the following criteria were included in a meta-analysis: (a) at least six subjects per group; (b) subject groups consisting of children in the 4-17 year age range; (c) pre-test and post-test values for body composition; (d) used exercise such as walking, jogging, cycle ergometry, high repetition resistance exercise, and combinations; (e) training programmes lasting eight weeks or more; (f) full length publications; (g) apparently healthy children. A total of 135 studies of exercise as a method of treatment of paediatric obesity were located. Eight, containing 236 subjects, met our criteria for inclusion. Across all designs and categories, fixed effects modelling yielded significant decreases in the dependent variable percentage body fat immediately (0=1.04 (0.35); 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.41 to 1.6) and one year after the exercise intervention (0=0.84 (0.51); 95% CI 0.22 to 0.94). Forward stepwise linear regression suggested that the percentage body fat measured at the end of exercise training, exercise duration, and programme length accounted for 53-86% of the variance for percentage body fat at one year. These data indicate that exercise is efficacious for reducing percentage body fat in obese children and adolescents, and that exercise intervention may encourage long term maintenance of the observed gains.

  6. Prevalence of eating disorder attitudes among men and women with exercise dependence symptoms: a non-athlete population study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Fernanda da Silva

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The present study sought to describe the prevalence of Secondary Exercise Dependence (ScED, i.e. eating disorders attitudes along with exercise dependence symptoms may differ between men and women in a broader exercising population. In this study, 174 regularly exerciser, aged 18-62 years old, who were invited to respond the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT-26. There were more women than men with ScED. However, only men in the sample presented exercise dependence symptoms without eating disorders attitudes. Eating disorders may or may not exist in those who are exercise dependent in the broad exercising population, although there is a higher prevalence of ScED in women than men.

  7. Exercise as a potential treatment for drug abuse: Evidence from preclinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Andrew Smith

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies reveal that individuals who engage in regular aerobic exercise are less likely to use and abuse illicit drugs. Until recently, very few studies had examined the causal influences that mediate this relationship, and it was not clear whether exercise was effective at reducing substance use and abuse. In the past few years, several preclinical studies have revealed that exercise reduces drug self-administration in laboratory animals. These studies have revealed that exercise produces protective effects in procedures designed to model different transitional phases that occur during the development of, and recover from, a substance use disorder (e.g., acquisition, maintenance, escalation, and relapse/reinstatement of drug use. Moreover, recent studies have revealed several behavioral and neurobiological consequences of exercise that may be responsible for its protective effects in these assays. Collectively, these studies have provided convincing evidence to support the development of exercise-based interventions to reduce compulsive patterns of drug intake in clinical and at-risk populations.

  8. Optical measurement of blood flow in exercising skeletal muscle: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Detian; Baker, Wesley B.; Parthasarathy, Ashwin B.; Zhu, Liguo; Li, Zeren; Yodh, Arjun G.

    2017-07-01

    Blood flow monitoring during rhythm exercising is very important for sports medicine and muscle dieases. Diffuse correlation spectroscopy(DCS) is a relative new invasive way to monitor blood flow but suffering from muscle fiber motion. In this study we focus on how to remove exercise driven artifacts and obtain accurate estimates of the increase in blood flow from exercise. Using a novel fast software correlator, we measured blood flow in forearm flexor muscles of N=2 healthy adults during handgrip exercise, at a sampling rate of 20 Hz. Combining the blood flow and acceleration data, we resolved the motion artifact in the DCS signal induced by muscle fiber motion, and isolated the blood flow component of the signal from the motion artifact. The results show that muscle fiber motion strongly affects the DCS signal, and if not accounted for, will result in an overestimate of blood flow more than 1000%. Our measurements indicate rapid dilation of arterioles following exercise onset, which enabled blood flow to increase to a plateau of 200% in 10s. The blood flow also rapidly recovered to baseline following exercise in 10s. Finally, preliminary results on the dependence of blood flow from exercise intensity changes will be discussed.

  9. Multicomponent Exercise Intervention and Metacognition in Obese Preadolescents: A Randomized Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Feng-Tzu; Chen, Su-Ru; Chu, I-Hua; Liu, Jen-Hao; Chang, Yu-Kai

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the effect of a 12-week multicomponent exercise intervention on metacognition among preadolescents with obesity. Seventy-five preadolescents were randomly assigned to either a multicomponent exercise group or a reading control group. An exercise intervention consisting of a jumping rope was utilized to develop multifaceted fitness features, with each session lasting for 75 min and three sessions being conducted per week for 12 weeks. Results revealed significant interactions between group and time point for cardiovascular fitness, muscular endurance, flexibility, and power, as well as for Tower of London task measures, including total move score, total executive time, and total planning-solving time, with better postintervention performances achieved by the exercise group. Positive correlations between the physical fitness and metacognition measurements were also observed. These findings suggest that the multicomponent exercise benefits metacognition in obese preadolescents, with exercise-associated changes in multifaceted fitness features mediating the relationship between exercise and metacognition.

  10. Habit formation among regular exercisers at fitness centers: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tappe, Karyn; Tarves, Ellen; Oltarzewski, Jayme; Frum, Deirdra

    2013-05-01

    Predictive modeling for physical activity behavior has included many different psychological components, including planning, motivation, personality, and self-efficacy. However, habit formation in exercise maintenance has not been well explored and lacks reliable measurement tools. The current study explores novel survey questions that examine behavioral components of exercise habit, including frequency, environmental cuing, and temporal constancy of behavior. We then relate these concepts to an established psychological measure of habit, the Self-Report Habit Inventory (SRHI). One hundred and seventy-four exercisers were surveyed at 2 private fitness clubs. A single questionnaire was administered that included the SRHI and the novel behavioral questions developed from habit formation concepts. Habit formation was reported by many of the exercisers. Participants scoring higher on the SRHI also reported higher frequency of physical activity and a higher probability of environmental cuing. Exercise frequency did not correlate well with environmental cuing. Habit formation appears relevant to the physical activity patterns of many regular exercisers. However, wide variation in response styles was evident suggesting further development and exploration of the novel questionnaire is warranted. The ultimate goals are to include habit in predictive models of physical activity, and then to inform interventions to increase exercise adherence.

  11. Exercise capacity and mortality - a follow-up study of 3033 subjects referred to clinical exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korpelainen, Raija; Lämsä, Jenni; Kaikkonen, Kaisu M; Korpelainen, Juha; Laukkanen, Jari; Palatsi, Ilkka; Takala, Timo E; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Hautala, Arto J

    2016-08-01

    Exercise stress testing is used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool. We determined the prognostic significance of exercise test findings for cardiovascular (CVD) and all-cause mortality in men and women. 3033 subjects underwent a symptom-limited bicycle exercise test. Exercise capacity was defined as the mean of last four minutes of exercise workload. During an average follow-up of 19 years, 186 (11.6%) CVD and 370 (20.6%) all-cause deaths in men and 57 (5.0%) CVD and 155 (12.5%) all-cause deaths in women occurred. Among exercise test variables (workload, ECG, BP, HR), exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of mortality. Low exercise capacity (1st quartile) was associated with a hazard ratio of 4.2 (95% CI: 1.7, 10.8) for CVD and 4.0 (95% CI: 2.5, 6.4) for all-cause mortality compared with high exercise capacity (4th quartile) among men and in women with a 5.4-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 24.0) risk for CVD and 2.3-fold (95% CI: 1.2, 4.3) risk for all-cause mortality, respectively. The relationship between other exercise test variables and mortality was much weaker. Among exercise test variables exercise capacity was the strongest predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both genders, and especially CVD deaths in women. Key Messages Exercise capacity was the most powerful predictor of CVD and all-cause mortality in both men and women. Low exercise capacity is a strong predictor of CVD death, especially among women.

  12. Effect of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-Hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key pointsMetabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment.Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music.In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list

  13. A pilot study examining diagnostic differences among exercise and weight suppression in bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Brian J; Steffen, Kristine J; Mitchell, James E; Otto, Maxwell; Crosby, Ross D; Cao, Li; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Crow, Scott; Hill, Laura; Le Grange, Daniel; Powers, Pauline

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate diagnostic differences in weight suppression (e.g., the difference between one's current body weight and highest non-pregnancy adult body weight) and exercise among Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and Binge Eating Disorder (BED). Because exercise may be a key contributor to weight suppression in BN, we were interested in examining the potential moderating effect of exercise on weight suppression in BN or BED. Participants with BN (n = 774) and BED (n = 285) completed self-report surveys of weight history, exercise and eating disorder symptoms. Generalised linear model analyses were used to examine the associations among diagnosis, exercise frequency and their interaction on weight suppression. Exercise frequency and BN/BED diagnosis were both associated with weight suppression. Additionally, exercise frequency moderated the relationship between diagnosis and weight suppression. Specifically, weight suppression was higher in BN than in BED among those with low exercise frequency but comparable in BN and BED among those with high exercise frequency. Our results suggest that exercise frequency may contribute to different weight suppression outcomes among BN and BED. This may inform clinical implications of exercise in these disorders. Specifically, much understanding of the differences among exercise frequency and the compensatory use of exercise in BN and BED is needed. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.

  14. Physical activity and exercise priorities in community dwelling people with multiple sclerosis: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stennett, Andrea; De Souza, Lorraine; Norris, Meriel

    2017-04-10

    Exercise and physical activity have been found to be beneficial in managing disabilities caused by multiple sclerosis. Despite the known benefits, many people with multiple sclerosis are inactive. This study aimed to identify the prioritised exercise and physical activity practices of people with multiple sclerosis living in the community and the reasons why they are engaged in these activities. A four Round Delphi questionnaire scoped and determined consensus of priorities for the top 10 exercise and physical activities and the reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 101) are engaged in these activities. Data were analysed using content analysis, descriptive statistics, and non-parametric tests. The top 10 exercise and physical activity practices and the top 10 reasons why people with multiple sclerosis (n = 70) engaged in these activities were identified and prioritised. Consensus was achieved for the exercise and physical activities (W = 0.744, p multiple sclerosis engaged in exercise and physical activity were diverse. These self-selected activities and reasons highlighted that people with multiple sclerosis might conceptualise exercise and physical activity in ways that may not be fully appreciated or understood by health professionals. Considerations of the views of people with multiple sclerosis may be essential if the goal of increasing physical activity in this population is to be achieved. Implications for Rehabilitation Health professionals should work collaboratively with people with multiple sclerosis to understand how they prioritise activities, the underlying reasons for their prioritisations and embed these into rehabilitation programmes. Health professionals should utilise activities prioritised by people with multiple sclerosis in the community as a way to support, promote, and sustain exercise and physical activity in this population. Rehabilitation interventions should include both the activities people with multiple

  15. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Park, Sok; Chun, Yoonseok; Song, Wook; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-09-02

    In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  16. Influence of methylsulfonylmethane on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalman Douglas S

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM has been reported to provide anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects in both animal and man. Strenuous resistance exercise has the potential to induce both inflammation and oxidative stress. Using a pilot (proof of concept study design, we determined the influence of MSM on markers of exercise recovery and performance in healthy men. Methods Eight, healthy men (27.1 ± 6.9 yrs old who were considered to be moderately exercise-trained (exercising Results Muscle soreness increased following exercise and a trend was noted for a reduction in muscle soreness with 3.0 grams versus 1.5 grams of MSM (p = 0.080, with a 1.0 point difference between dosages. Fatigue was slightly reduced with MSM (p = 0.073 with 3.0 grams; p = 0.087 for both dosages combined. TEAC increased significantly following exercise with 3.0 grams of MSM (p = 0.035, while homocysteine decreased following exercise for both dosages combined (p = 0.007. No significant effects were noted for glutathione or total work performed during knee extension testing (p > 0.05. Conclusion MSM, especially when provided at 3.0 grams per day, may favorably influence selected markers of exercise recovery. More work is needed to extend these findings, in particular using a larger sample of subjects and the inclusion of additional markers of exercise recovery and performance.

  17. A pilot study on the effects of exercise in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey-Goldman, R; Schilling, E M; Dunlop, D; Langman, C; Greenland, P; Thomas, R J; Chang, R W

    2000-10-01

    A pilot study was designed to assess the efficacy and safety of different exercise therapies on patient-reported fatigue and functional status. Ten patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) were randomly placed in either an aerobic exercise group (group 1: n = 5) or a range of motion/muscle strengthening (ROM/MS) exercise group (group 2: n = 5). Outcome measures assessed at baseline and the end of the study were fatigue, functional status, disease activity, cardiovascular fitness, isometric strength, bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and femoral neck, and parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin as representative bone biochemical markers for bone resorption and bone formation, respectively. Both aerobic and ROM/MS types of exercise were safe and did not worsen SLE disease activity. Patients in both exercise groups showed some improvement in fatigue, functional status, cardiovascular fitness, and muscle strength. Both groups showed increased bone turnover, but BMD was unchanged. Eighty percent of the patients met the compliance standard for the study. This pilot study shows the feasibility of exercise for SLE patients. The potential value of this approach shows promise in the routine management of these patients.

  18. Exercise and depressive symptoms in adolescents: a longitudinal cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toseeb, Umar; Brage, Soren; Corder, Kirsten; Dunn, Valerie J; Jones, Peter B; Owens, Matthew; St Clair, Michelle C; van Sluijs, Esther M F; Goodyer, Ian M

    2014-12-01

    Physical activity (PA) may have a positive effect on depressed mood. However, whether it can act as a protective factor against developing depressive symptoms in adolescence is largely unknown. To investigate the association between objectively measured PA and depressive symptoms during 3 years of adolescence. We performed a longitudinal study between November 1, 2005, and January 31, 2010, of a community-based sample from Cambridgeshire and Suffolk, United Kingdom, that included 736 participants (mean [SD] age, 14.5 years [6 months]). The follow-up period was approximately 3 years after baseline (the ROOTS study). Linear regression models were fitted using physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as the predictors and depressive symptoms as the outcome variable. Binomial logistic regression models were also fitted using PAEE and MVPA as the predictors and clinical depression as the outcome measure. Exercise. Individually calibrated heart rate and movement sensing were used to measure PA at baseline only. Physical activity summary measures included total PAEE and time spent in MVPA. These measures were divided into weekend and weekday activity. All participants also completed the Mood and Feelings Questionnaire, a self-report measure of current depressive symptoms, and took part in a Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia for School-Age Children-Present and Lifetime Version interview at baseline and 3 years later. Depressive symptoms at 3-year follow-up were not significantly predicted by any of the 4 PA measures at baseline: weekend MVPA (unstandardized β = 0.02; 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.20; P = .79), weekday MVPA (β = 0.00; 95% CI, -0.17 to 0.17; P = .99), weekend PAEE (β = 0.03; 95% CI, -0.14 to 0.20; P = .75), and weekday PAEE (β = -0.03; 95% CI, -0.20 to 0.14; P = .71). This was also true for major depressive disorder diagnoses at follow-up: weekend MVPA (odds ratio

  19. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout

    OpenAIRE

    Gerber, Markus; Brand,Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; P?hse, Uwe; Beck, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Background Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale stud...

  20. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simony Lira Nascimento

    Full Text Available To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy.For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR, with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI, followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%.Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1% (p = 0.01. Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6% and third trimesters (13.4%. Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%. Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60, primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07, exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96, and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57. Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women.The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt

  1. Physical Activity Patterns and Factors Related to Exercise during Pregnancy: A Cross Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Simony Lira; Surita, Fernanda Garanhani; Godoy, Ana Carolina; Kasawara, Karina Tamy; Morais, Sirlei Siani

    2015-01-01

    To assess the physical activity levels of pregnant women and to examine the characteristics associated with the practice of exercise and the activities of daily living during pregnancy. For this cross-sectional study, 1,279 women were recruited within 72 hours postpartum. They were interviewed about their socio-demographic data and obstetric history and were administered self-report questionnaires about exercise and daily physical activities during pregnancy. Data on the current pregnancy, labor, delivery, and newborn outcomes were collected from participants' medical records. To analyze factors related to the practice of exercise, we used the student t-test, X², and odds ratio (OR), with a corresponding 95% confident interval (CI), followed by a multiple logistic regression. The significance level was 5%. Compared to the pre-pregnancy period, the prevalence of physical activity among participants was lower throughout pregnancy (20.1%) (p = 0.01). Half of the women interrupted practicing physical exercise due to pregnancy. The lowest prevalence of exercise was observed in the first (13.6%) and third trimesters (13.4%). Less than half of women received exercise guidance during prenatal care meetings (47.4%). Walking was the most commonly reported exercise, followed by water aerobics. Factors positively associated with exercise practice were higher educational level (OR= 1.82; CI 95% 1.28-2.60), primiparity (OR=1.49; CI 95% 1.07-2.07), exercising before pregnancy (OR= 6.45; CI 95% 4.64-8.96), and exercise guidance during prenatal care (OR=2.54; CI 95% 1.80-3.57). Mildly intense exercise and domestic activities were most frequently reported among pregnant women. There were no differences in maternal and perinatal outcomes between active and sedentary pregnant women. The findings indicate that promoting physical activity remains a priority in public health policy, and women of childbearing age, especially those planning a pregnancy, should be encouraged to adopt an

  2. Physical ExeRcise Following Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PERFECT) study: design of a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Vulpen, Jonna K; Siersema, Peter D; van Hillegersberg, Richard; Nieuwenhuijzen, Grard A P; Kouwenhoven, Ewout A; Groenendijk, Richard P R; van der Peet, Donald L; Hazebroek, Eric J; Rosman, Camiel; Schippers, Carlo C G; Steenhagen, Elles; Peeters, Petra H M; May, Anne M

    2017-08-18

    Following esophagectomy, esophageal cancer patients experience a clinically relevant deterioration of health-related quality of life, both on the short- and long-term. With the currently growing number of esophageal cancer survivors, the burden of disease- and treatment-related complaints and symptoms becomes more relevant. This emphasizes the need for interventions aimed at improving quality of life. Beneficial effects of post-operative physical exercise have been reported in several cancer types, but so far comparable evidence in esophageal cancer patients is lacking. The aim of this study is to investigate effects of physical exercise on health-related quality of life in esophageal cancer patients following surgery. The Physical ExeRcise Following Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PERFECT) study is a multicenter randomized controlled trial including 150 esophageal cancer patients after surgery with curative intent. Patients are randomly allocated to an exercise group or usual care group. The exercise group participates in a 12-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise program, supervised by a physiotherapist near the patient's home-address. In addition, participants in the exercise group are requested to be physically active for at least 30 min per day, every day of the week. Participants allocated to the usual care group are asked to maintain their habitual physical activity pattern. The primary outcome is health-related quality of life (EORTC-QLQ-C30). Secondary outcomes include esophageal cancer specific quality of life, fatigue, anxiety and depression, sleep quality, work-related factors, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak), muscle strength, physical activity, malnutrition risk, anthropometry, blood markers, recurrence of disease and survival. All questionnaire outcomes, diaries and accelerometers are assessed at baseline, post-intervention (12 weeks post-baseline) and 24 weeks post-baseline. Physical fitness, anthropometry and blood markers are assessed

  3. Exercise treatment for drug abuse--a Danish pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2010-08-01

    The paper presents a recent Danish programme using exercise to alter the behaviour and body image of drug addicts. 38 participants (23 male and 15 female) took part in groups three times per week for a minimum of two to a maximum of six months. Self-reported data combined with the European Addiction Severity Index (EuropASI) collected at initial admission and in follow-up interviews included information on drug use, body image, self-confidence and motivation to change behaviour. The completion rate of the participants during the training period was on average 52%, which is considered as a success in treatments with drug abusers, usually characterized by a low compliance and commitment. The results of the participants who completed the programme (n = 20) showed an increased oxygen uptake of an average of 10%, improved self-reported quality of life and a higher energy level for the majority of the participants. The addicts obtained a better body image, became more sensitive to physical pain and disorders and reduced their drug intake during the training period. The long-term effect showed that five of the 20 abusers interviewed reported that they still had not taken drugs, 10 had downgraded their intake, four experienced no change at all and one died through an overdose. The results show that physical exercise can provide important support in the treatment of drug abuse and that the main problem is maintaining change in behaviour and peer group influence to ensure long-term change.

  4. Larger Lateral Prefrontal Cortex Volume Predicts Better Exercise Adherence Among Older Women: Evidence From Two Exercise Training Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, John R; Chiu, Bryan K; Hall, Peter A; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa

    2017-06-01

    Recent research has suggested an important role of lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC) in consistent implementation of positive health behaviors and avoidance of negative health behaviors. We examined whether gray matter volume in the lPFC prospectively predicts exercise class attendance among older women (n = 122) who underwent either a 52-week or 26-week exercise training intervention. Structural magnetic resonance imaging determined gray matter volume at baseline. Independent of intracranial volume, age, education, body composition, mobility, depressive symptoms, and general cognitive functioning, larger lPFC volume predicted greater exercise class attendance (all p values exercise adherence as well as identified other regions, especially in the insula and temporal cortex, that predicted exercise adherence. These findings suggest that sustained engagement in exercise training might rely in part on functions of the lPFC and that lPFC volume might be a reasonable proxy for such functions.

  5. Acute affective responses to prescribed and self-selected exercise sessions in adolescent girls: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Hamlyn-Williams, C. C.; Freeman, P.; Parfitt, G.

    2014-01-01

    Background Positive affective responses can lead to improved adherence to exercise. This study sought to examine the affective responses and exercise intensity of self-selected exercise in adolescent girls. Methods An observational study where twenty seven females (Age M = 14.6 ± 0.8 years) completed three 20-minute exercise sessions (2 self-selected and 1 prescribed intensity) and a graded exercise test. The intensity of the prescribed session was matched to the first self-selected session. ...

  6. Post-Exercise Protein Trial: Interactions between Diet and Exercise (PEPTIDE): study protocol for randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Alghannam, Abdullah F.; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Bilzon, James; Betts, James A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Performing regular exercise is known to manifest a number of health benefits that mainly relate to cardiovascular and muscular adaptations to allow for greater oxygen extraction and utilization. There is increasing evidence that nutrient intake can affect the adaptive response to a single exercise bout, and that protein feeding is important to facilitate this process. Thus, the exercise-nutrient interaction may potentially lead to a greater response to training. The role of post-ex...

  7. Home Exercise Training in Children and Adolescents with Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöller, David; Siaplaouras, Jannos; Apitz, Anita; Bride, Peter; Kaestner, Michael; Latus, Heiner; Schranz, Dietmar; Apitz, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is often associated with impaired exercise capacity. It has been shown that supervised training can improve exercise capacity in adult patients with PAH. The objective of this prospective study was to assess the feasibility of a home exercise training program in children with PAH. Nine children and adolescents (mean age 15.2 ± 3.8 years) with low-risk PAH (defined as mean pulmonary to systemic arterial pressure ratio patients' well-being was supervised by periodical phone calls and online-questionnaires. Home exercise training was well tolerated in all patients, and no adverse events occurred. After 16 weeks of training, patients significantly improved their exercise capacity [treadmill running distance increased from 589.5 ± 153.9 to 747.9 ± 209.2 m (p = 0.036)]. Oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold increased from 1307.8 (±417) to 1406.4 (±418) ml (p = 0.028). Chronotropic index improved from 0.77 ± 0.12 to 0.82 ± 0.11 (p = 0.004) and was slightly related to the increase in running distance (r = 0.62; p = 0.07). Home exercise training is feasible in children and adolescents with low-risk PAH, and the preliminary results of this pilot study indicate beneficial effects. The observed increase in exercise capacity was accompanied by an improved chronotropic competence and increased oxygen consumption at the anaerobic threshold. Future research is needed to investigate the safety and efficacy of home exercise training in a larger population of children with PAH including also patients in WHO functional class III or IV.

  8. Exercise therapy in oncology rehabilitation in Australia: A mixed-methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Amy M; Peiris, Casey L; Shields, Nora; Morgan, Delwyn; Taylor, Nicholas F

    2017-10-01

    Oncology rehabilitation improves outcomes for cancer survivors but little is known about program availability in Australia. The aims of this study were: to describe oncology rehabilitation programs in Australia: determine whether the exercise component of programs is consistent with guidelines: and to explore barriers and facilitators to program implementation. A sequential, explanatory mixed-methods study was completed in two phases: (1) a survey of Australian oncology rehabilitation programs; and (2) purposively sampled follow-up semistructured interviews with senior clinicians working in oncology rehabilitation who were involved with exercise prescription. Hospitals and/or cancer centers from 42 public hospital health networks (representing 163 hospitals) and 39 private hospitals were contacted to identify 31 oncology rehabilitation programs. All 31 surveys were returned (100% response rate). Programs were typically multidisciplinary, ran twice weekly, provided education and exercise and included self-management strategies. Exercise prescription and progression was patient centered and included a combination of resistance and aerobic training supplemented by balance, pelvic floor, and core stability exercises. Challenges to implementation included a lack of awareness of programs in the community and organizational barriers such as funding. Strong links with oncologists facilitated program referrals. Despite evidence to support oncology rehabilitation, there are few programs in Australia and there are challenges that limit it becoming part of standard practice. Programs that exist are multidisciplinary with a focus on exercise with the majority of programs following a cardiac rehabilitation model of care. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Cardiovascular evaluation, including resting and exercise electrocardiography, before participation in competitive sports: cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Capalbo, Andrea; Pucci, Nicola; Giuliattini, Jacopo; Condino, Francesca; Alessandri, Flavio; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Califano, Sergio

    2008-07-03

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of complete preparticipation cardiovascular screening in a large cohort of sports participants. Cross sectional study of data over a five year period. Institute of Sports Medicine in Florence, Italy. 30,065 (23,570 men) people seeking to obtain clinical eligibility for competitive sports. Results of resting and exercise 12 lead electrocardiography. Resting 12 lead ECG patterns showed abnormalities in 1812 (6%) participants, with the most common abnormalities (>80%) concerning innocent ECG changes. Exercise ECG showed an abnormal pattern in 1459 (4.9%) participants. Exercise ECG showed cardiac anomalies in 1227 athletes with normal findings on resting ECG. At the end of screening, 196 (0.6%) participants were considered ineligible for competitive sports. Among the 159 participants who were disqualified at the end of the screening for cardiac reasons, a consistent proportion (n=126, 79.2%) had shown innocent or negative findings on resting 12 lead ECG but clear pathological alterations during the exercise test. After adjustment for possible confounders, logistic regression analysis showed that age >30 years was significantly associated with an increased risk of being disqualified for cardiac findings during exercise testing. Among people seeking to take part in competitive sports, exercise ECG can identify those with cardiac abnormalities. Follow-up studies would show if disqualification of such people would reduce the incidence of CV events among athletes.

  10. Randomized controlled trial of postoperative exercise rehabilitation program after lumbar spine fusion: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarnanen Sami

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Lumbar spine fusion (LSF effectively decreases pain and disability in specific spinal disorders; however, the disability rate following surgery remains high. This, combined with the fact that in Western countries the number of LSF surgeries is increasing rapidly it is important to develop rehabilitation interventions that improve outcomes. Methods/design In the present RCT-study we aim to assess the effectiveness of a combined back-specific and aerobic exercise intervention for patients after LSF surgery. One hundred patients will be randomly allocated to a 12-month exercise intervention arm or a usual care arm. The exercise intervention will start three months after surgery and consist of six individual guidance sessions with a physiotherapist and a home-based exercise program. The primary outcome measures are low back pain, lower extremity pain, disability and quality of life. Secondary outcomes are back function and kinesiophobia. Exercise adherence will also be evaluated. The outcome measurements will be assessed at baseline (3 months postoperatively, at the end of the exercise intervention period (15 months postoperatively, and after a 1-year follow-up. Discussion The present RCT will evaluate the effectiveness of a long-term rehabilitation program after LSF. To our knowledge this will be the first study to evaluate a combination of strength training, control of the neutral lumbar spine position and aerobic training principles in rehabilitation after LSF. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT00834015

  11. Impact of a brief exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Tina L; Peeters, Gmme Geeske; Croci, Ilaria; Bell, Katherine R; Burton, Nicola W; Chambers, Suzanne K; Bolam, Kate A

    2016-09-01

    It is well established that exercise is beneficial for prostate cancer survivors. The challenge for health professionals is to create effective strategies to encourage survivors to exercise in the community. Many community exercise programs are brief in duration (e.g. exercise sessions); whilst evidence for the efficacy of exercise within the literature are derived from exercise programs ≥8 weeks in duration, it is unknown if health benefits can be obtained from a shorter program. This study examined the effect of a four-session individualized and supervised exercise program on the physical and psychosocial health of prostate cancer survivors. Fifty-one prostate cancer survivors (mean age 69±7 years) were prescribed 1 h, individualized, supervised exercise sessions once weekly for 4 weeks. Participants were encouraged to increase their physical activity levels outside of the exercise sessions. Objective measures of muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and flexibility; and self-reported general, disease-specific and psychosocial health were assessed at baseline and following the intervention. Improvements were observed in muscle strength (leg press 17.6 percent; P exercise capacity (400-m walk 9.3 percent; P exercise program. A four-session exercise program significantly improved the muscular strength, exercise capacity, physical function and positive well-being of prostate cancer survivors. This short-duration exercise program is safe and feasible for prostate cancer survivors and a randomized controlled trial is now required to determine whether a similar individualized exercise regimen improves physical health and mental well-being over the short, medium and long term. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Exercise participation before and during pregnancy among low-income, urban, Black women: the Baltimore Preterm Birth Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Suezanne T; James, Sherman A; Garry, Joseph; Newton, Edward

    2006-01-01

    National data demonstrate that Black women have poorer health status, and greater risk of death from chronic diseases, than their White counterparts. Exercise can help prevent chronic disease, and adult Black women are less likely to engage in exercise than White women. However, few data are available about exercise among pregnant Black women. Pregnant Black women were enrolled in this study at hospital-based prenatal clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. Exercise before and during pregnancy were assessed at the first prenatal visit, along with exposure to stressors, depression, John Henryism Active Coping, and behavioral factors such as smoking. Among the 922 women in the sample, approximately three quarters reported engaging in exercise before pregnancy, and two thirds exercised during pregnancy. Most women engaged in non-strenuous exercise during pregnancy (56%) and exercised for > or = 20 minutes at least three times per week (80%). Exercise participation was significantly associated with higher levels of John Henryism Active Coping and lower levels of depression but was not significantly associated with behavioral factors or exposure to stressors. Prior research, based on older women, may have underestimated exercise participation by young Black women. These results suggest that Black women may decrease exercise participation after pregnancy and as they age. Encouraging Black women to continue to exercise as they age may have promising implications for the prevention of chronic diseases.

  13. What are patient beliefs and perceptions about exercise for nonspecific chronic low back pain? A systematic review of qualitative studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, Susan C; Patel, Shilpa; Underwood, Martin; Keating, Jennifer L

    2014-11-01

    The global burden of low back pain is the highest ranked condition contributing to years of living with disability. Exercise is moderately effective, and adherence to exercise may improve if participants are engaged. Identification of elements that enhance engagement would enable clinicians to prescribe appropriate interventions. The review objective was to identify and synthesize qualitative empirical studies that have explored beliefs about exercise therapy of people with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Two independent reviewers conducted a structured review and metasynthesis informed by Cochrane and Campbell Collaboration guidelines and the PRISMA statement. Fifteen papers were included for data extraction, method quality assessment, and thematic analysis. Four key themes emerged: (1) perceptions and classification of exercise; (2) role and impact of the health professional; (3) exercise and activity enablers/facilitators; (4) exercise and activity barriers. Participants believed that there were distinctions between general activity, real/fitness exercise, and medical exercise. Levels of acquired skills and capability and participant experience with exercise culture require consideration in program design. People participating in exercise classes and group work may be more comfortable when matched for abilities and experience. When an intervention interferes with everyday life and appears to be ineffective or too difficult to implement, people make a reasoned decision to discontinue. People are likely to prefer and participate in exercise or training programs and activities that are designed with consideration of their preferences, circumstances, fitness levels, and exercise experiences.

  14. Exercise treatment for drug abuse -a Danish pilot study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roessler, Kirsten Kaya

    2010-01-01

    for the majority of the participants. The addicts obtained a better body image, became more sensitive to physical pain and disorders and reduced their drug intake during the training period. The long-term effect showed that five of the 20 abusers interviewed reported that they still had not taken drugs, 10 had...... is considered as a success in treatments with drug abusers, usually characterized by a low compliance and commitment. The results of the participants who completed the programme (n = 20) showed an increased oxygen uptake of an average of 10%, improved self-reported quality of life and a higher energy level...... downgraded their intake, four experienced no change at all and one died through an overdose. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that physical exercise can provide important support in the treatment of drug abuse and that the main problem is maintaining change in behaviour and peer group influence to ensure long...

  15. Randomized controlled trial of aerobic exercise on insulin and insulin-like growth factors in breast cancer survivors: the Yale Exercise and Survivorship study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Melinda L; Varma, Katie; Alvarez-Reeves, Marty; Cadmus, Lisa; Wiley, Andrew; Chung, Gina G; Dipietro, Loretta; Mayne, Susan T; Yu, Herbert

    2009-01-01

    High insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels may be associated with an increased breast cancer risk and/or death. Given the need to identify modifiable factors that decrease insulin, IGF-I, and breast cancer risk and death, we investigated the effects of a 6-month randomized controlled aerobic exercise intervention versus usual care on fasting insulin, IGF-I, and its binding protein (IGFBP-3) in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Seventy-five postmenopausal breast cancer survivors were identified from the Yale-New Haven Hospital Tumor Registry and randomly assigned to an exercise (n = 37) or usual care (n = 38) group. The exercise group participated in 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. The usual care group was instructed to maintain their current physical activity level. A fasting blood sample was collected on each study participant at baseline and 6 months. Blood levels of insulin and IGF were measured with ELISA. On average, exercisers increased aerobic exercise by 129 minutes per week compared with 45 minutes per week among usual care participants (P exercise experienced decreases in insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3, whereas women randomized to usual care had increases in these hormones. Between-group differences in insulin, IGF-I, and IGFBP-3 were 20.7% (P = 0.089), 8.9% (P = 0.026), and 7.9% (P = 0.006), respectively. Moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, decreases IGF-I and IGFBP-3. The exercise-induced decreases in IGF may mediate the observed association between higher levels of physical activity and improved survival in women diagnosed with breast cancer.

  16. Cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise programs with different intensity: 20 weeks longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulke, Sandip Meghnad; Phatak, Mrunal S; Vaidya, Yuganti P

    2012-07-01

    participation in regular intensive exercise is associated with a modest increase in left ventricular wall thickness and cavity size. The magnitude of improvement depends on frequency, intensity, type, and duration of exercise program. to determine the effect of sports training on LV morphology and function, lung function, and to know the intensity of the exercise program enough for these changes. this was a longitudinal study (20 weeks duration) done on the medical college students. three groups, doing exercise at different intensities, high intensity group (HG) [74.9±3.9 %HRmax], low intensity group (LG) [59.46±4.1%HRmax] and no exercise group (NG) were made, and their assessments were done using the echocardiography and pulmonary function test three times, first before start of the exercise program, second at the end of 10th week, and then at the end of the 20th week. 3 × 3 Anova test and Bonferroni's post-test using Graph pad prism5 software. significant improvement was seen in HG in majority of cardio respiratory parameters (VO2max, heart rate, LVIDD, LVIDS, EDV, MVV, PEFR, FVC) as compared to the LG (VO2max, heart rate, MVV, PEFR) and this improvement was specially seen at the end of the twentieth week. twenty weeks of training is helpful in improving aerobic power, MVV, and PEFR even the exercise is of moderate (LG) to high intensity (HG) but for overall cardio respiratory development physical training must be associated with very hard intensity if duration of the exercise program is short.

  17. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, João P. P.; de Souza, Altay A. L.; de Lima, Giscard H. O.; Rodrigues, Dayane F.; de Aquino Lemos, Valdir; da Silva Alves, Eduardo; Tufik, Sergio; de Mello, Marco T.

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations influence one’s commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (SDT, Self Determination Theory) and distal (evolutionary) explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2, Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2) and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54) before starting a 1-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women) included a completed protocol group (CPG; n = 21) and drop-out group (n = 73). The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation). Both questionnaires were assessed before starting a regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression analysis showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability – 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity) and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity) of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness), physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, as occurs in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide

  18. Cardiorespiratory response to aerobic exercise programs with different intensity: 20 weeks longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandip Meghnad Hulke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: participation in regular intensive exercise is associated with a modest increase in left ventricular wall thickness and cavity size. The magnitude of improvement depends on frequency, intensity, type, and duration of exercise program. Aims: to determine the effect of sports training on LV morphology and function, lung function, and to know the intensity of the exercise program enough for these changes. Settings and design: this was a longitudinal study (20 weeks duration done on the medical college students. Material and methods: three groups, doing exercise at different intensities, high intensity group (HG [74.9±3.9 %HRmax], low intensity group (LG [59.46±4.1%HRmax] and no exercise group (NG were made, and their assessments were done using the echocardiography and pulmonary function test three times, first before start of the exercise program, second at the end of 10th week, and then at the end of the 20th week. Statistical analysis used: 3 × 3 Anova test and Bonferroni′s post-test using Graph pad prism5 software. Results: significant improvement was seen in HG in majority of cardio respiratory parameters (VO2max, heart rate, LVIDD, LVIDS, EDV, MVV, PEFR, FVC as compared to the LG (VO2max, heart rate, MVV, PEFR and this improvement was specially seen at the end of the twentieth week. Conclusions: twenty weeks of training is helpful in improving aerobic power, MVV, and PEFR even the exercise is of moderate (LG to high intensity (HG but for overall cardio respiratory development physical training must be associated with very hard intensity if duration of the exercise program is short.

  19. COMPRESSION GARMENTS AND RECOVERY FROM ECCENTRIC EXERCISE: A 31P-MRS STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael I. Trenell

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The low oxidative demand and muscular adaptations accompanying eccentric exercise hold benefits for both healthy and clinical populations. Compression garments have been suggested to reduce muscle damage and maintain muscle function. This study investigated whether compression garments could benefit metabolic recovery from eccentric exercise. Following 30-min of downhill walking participants wore compression garments on one leg (COMP, the other leg was used as an internal, untreated control (CONT. The muscle metabolites phosphomonoester (PME, phosphodiester (PDE, phosphocreatine (PCr, inorganic phosphate (Pi and adenosine triphosphate (ATP were evaluated at baseline, 1-h and 48-h after eccentric exercise using 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Subjective reports of muscle soreness were recorded at all time points. The pressure of the garment against the thigh was assessed at 1-h and 48-h following exercise. There was a significant increase in perceived muscle soreness from baseline in both the control (CONT and compression (COMP leg at 1-h and 48-h following eccentric exercise (p < 0.05. Relative to baseline, both CONT and COMP showed reduced pH at 1-h (p < 0.05. There was no difference between CONT and COMP pH at 1-h. COMP legs exhibited significantly (p < 0.05 elevated skeletal muscle PDE 1-h following exercise. There was no significant change in PCr/Pi, Mg2+ or PME at any time point or between CONT and COMP legs. Eccentric exercise causes disruption of pH control in skeletal muscle but does not cause disruption to cellular control of free energy. Compression garments may alter potential indices of the repair processes accompanying structural damage to the skeletal muscle following eccentric exercise allowing a faster cellular repair

  20. Antecedent acute cycling exercise affects attention control: an ERP study using attention network test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Kai eChang

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the after-effects of an acute bout of moderate-intensity aerobic cycling exercise on neuroelectric and behavioral indices of efficiency of three attentional networks: alerting, orienting, and executive (conflict control. Thirty young, highly fit amateur basketball players performed a multifunctional attentional reaction time task, the attention network test (ANT, with a two-group randomized experimental design after an acute bout of moderate-intensity spinning wheel exercise or without antecedent exercise. The ANT combined warning signals prior to targets, spatial cueing of potential target locations and target stimuli surrounded by congruent or incongruent flankers, which were provided to assess three attentional networks. Event-related brain potentials and task performance were measured during the ANT. Exercise resulted in a larger P3 amplitude in the alerting and executive control subtasks across frontal, central and parietal midline sites that was paralleled by an enhanced reaction speed only on trials with incongruent flankers of the executive control network. The P3 latency and response accuracy were not affected by exercise. These findings suggest that after spinning, more resources are allocated to task-relevant stimuli in tasks that rely on the alerting and executive control networks. However, the improvement in performance was observed in only the executively challenging conflict condition, suggesting that whether the brain resources that are rendered available immediately after acute exercise translate into better attention performance depends on the cognitive task complexity.

  1. The prevalence of compulsive eating and exercise among college students: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Jenny; Pender, Maribeth; Hollon, Steven D; Zisook, Sidney; Schwartz, Faye H; Pedrelli, Paola; Farabaugh, Amy; Fava, Maurizio; Petersen, Timothy J

    2009-01-30

    Eating disturbances continue to grow among college students, and researchers have begun to investigate factors that may lead to abnormal eating behaviors in this population. Recent research has also suggested that excessive exercise can become a compulsive behavior that may affect psychological health. The aim of this exploratory study was to evaluate the relationships between both compulsive eating and exercise, and demographic and clinical variables in a college population. Participants were 589 undergraduates (mean age 20 years) recruited during a mental health screening at two different campuses. Participants completed a screening package of measures including a questionnaire about socio-demographic data, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), the Beck Hopelessness Scale (BHS), the Consumptive Habits Questionnaire (CHQ), the Modified Overt Aggression Scale-Self-rated version (MOAS), and the Quality of Life Enjoyment and Satisfaction Questionnaire-Short version (QLESQ). A prevalence rate of 7.2% was found for compulsive eating and 18.1% for compulsive exercise, as measured by the CHQ. Only 11 participants (1.9%) reported both compulsive eating and exercise. There was no significant relationship between compulsive eating and compulsive exercise. The results suggest that college students may represent a group at high risk of developing abnormal eating behaviors and compulsive exercise.

  2. Prevalence of Exercise Addiction Symptomology and Disordered Eating in Australian Students Studying Nutrition and Dietetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocks, Tetyana; Pelly, Fiona; Slater, Gary; Martin, Lisa Anne

    2017-10-01

    Previous research has reported the existence of disordered eating in students studying nutrition and dietetics. However, the occurrence of exercise addiction, previously linked to disordered eating, is poorly understood in this group. The main objective of this study was to explore the prevalence of self-reported symptoms of exercise addiction and the association with disordered eating in a sample of students studying nutrition and dietetics. A secondary objective was to compare the prevalence of exercise addiction to students enrolled in another health-related degree. We conducted a cross-sectional study in 165 undergraduate students. Participants were students of both sexes enrolled in nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy degree programs at an Australian university in August 2013. Participants completed four validated questionnaires for assessment of exercise- and eating-related attitudes and behaviors measuring scores for exercise addiction, weekly volume of physical activity (PA), eating disorder symptoms, and cognitive restraint. Stretch stature and body mass were measured and body composition was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Independent t test, Mann-Whitney U test, and χ2 test were completed to compare groups of students based on sex, degree, or eating attitudes. Spearman's correlation was performed to explore associations between continuous variables (exercise addiction scores, PA volume, and scores for eating attitudes and cognitive restraint). Approximately 23% of nutrition and dietetics students were found to be at risk of exercise addiction (20% females and 35% males; P=0.205), while the majority demonstrated some symptoms of exercise addiction. A similar proportion of at risk individuals was found in the female occupational therapy group (19%; P=1.000). In females (nutrition and dietetics and occupational therapy combined), the exercise addiction scores were associated with three other outcome measures: PA volume (rs=0

  3. Study protocol: EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, A.M.; Eggermont, L.H.P.; Scheltens, P.; van der Flier, W.M.; Bakker, J.; de Greef, M.H.G.; Koppe, P.A.; Scherder, E.J.A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial

  4. Study protocol : EXERcise and Cognition In Sedentary adults with Early-ONset dementia (EXERCISE-ON)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooghiemstra, Astrid M.; Eggermont, Laura H. P.; Scheltens, Philip; van der Flier, Wiesje M.; Bakker, Jet; de Greef, Mathieu H. G.; Koppe, Peter A.; Scherder, Erik J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although the development of early-onset dementia is a radical and invalidating experience for both patient and family there are hardly any non-pharmacological studies that focus on this group of patients. One type of a non-pharmacological intervention that appears to have a beneficial

  5. The effects of therapeutic exercises on pain, muscle strength, functional capacity, balance and hemodynamic parameters in knee osteoarthritis patients: a randomized controlled study of supervised versus home exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuru Çolak, Tuğba; Kavlak, Bahar; Aydoğdu, Onur; Şahin, Emir; Acar, Gönül; Demirbüken, İlkşan; Sarı, Zübeyir; Çolak, İlker; Bulut, Güven; Polat, M Gülden

    2017-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of low-intensity exercise programs for lower extremities, either supervised or at home, on pain, muscle strength, balance and the hemodynamic parameters of knee osteoarthritis (OA) patients. This randomized study included 78 patients with knee OA in 2 groups of supervised and home-based exercise program. Exercises were applied to the first group in the clinic as a group exercise program and were demonstrated to the second group to be performed at home. Before and after the 6-week exercise program, assessment was made of pain, quadriceps and hamstring muscle strengths, 6-min walk test (6MWT), and non-invasive hemodynamic parameters. Results of the 78 patients, 56 completed the study. Pain, muscle strength, and 6MWT scores showed significant improvements in both groups. There were also significant differences in the amount of change in pain and muscle strength (pain: p = 0.041, Rqdc: 0.009, Lqdc: 0.013, Rhms: 0.04) which indicated greater improvements in the supervised group. The balance scores of supervised group showed a significant improvement (p = 0.009). No significant change was determined in hemodynamic parameters of either group. Conclusion according to the results of this study showed that low-intensity lower extremity exercises conducted in a clinic under the supervision of a physiotherapist were more effective than home-based exercises in reducing post-activity pain levels and improving quadriceps and right hamstring muscle strength. Both the supervised and home exercise programs were seen to be effective in reducing rest pain and increasing 6 MW distance in knee osteoarthritis patients.

  6. Exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes: Facilitators and barriers - A qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Advika

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Diabetes is a major noncommunicable disease affecting more than 65 million Indians. Although treatment algorithms suggest lifestyle measures (diet and exercise along with medications data regarding adherence to exercise as well as facilitators and barriers to the practice of physical activity in such patients are limited. Hence, this qualitative study was conducted. Objectives: The objective of this study is to describe the factors which (1 Facilitated and (2 hindered the practice of regular exercise in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methodology: The study was conducted on 13 diabetic patients admitted to a tertiary care center in Bengaluru - St. John's Medical College Hospital, to explore factors that acted as facilitators and barriers to physical activity. Data saturation with the coded themes was achieved on interviewing 13 patients, after which, thematic analysis was done, and final themes reported. Results: The age of the study participants (7 males, 6 females ranged from 40 to 80 years. Among those who did exercise, factors such as awareness regarding the benefits of exercise and complications linked with diabetes, positive family support, and emphasis by nursing staff emerged as facilitators. Lack of time, obligations to others, inability to link exercise with blood sugar control, lack of perception of obesity as a health issue, inadequate emphasis by physicians, social/cultural issues, lack of infrastructure, and physical restriction were the factors that acted as barriers to physical activity. In addition to the above, a clear lack of adherence to standard guidelines, while advising patients by physicians was also noted. Conclusion: A comprehensive approach by both doctors and nurses, based on standard guidelines, could help in implementing adherence to exercise in patients with diabetes.

  7. HIV Patient Characteristics that Affect Adherence to Exercise Programmes: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petróczi, Andrea; Hawkins, Kim; Jones, Gareth; Naughton, Declan P

    2010-06-25

    Benefits of exercise for HIV-infected persons have been documented, although in clinical practice, diminished adherence to exercise limits the effectiveness of this auxiliary treatment. Exercise intervention studies carry the caveat that the results are limited to volunteers with good compliance and completion profiles. This study aimed to identify characteristics contributing to adherence vs non-adherence to prescribed supervised 10-week 75-minute aerobic and progressive resistance exercise programme in a clinical setting that requires twice-weekly attendance at the physiotherapy gym. This observational study was comprised of 11 males and 11 females, physician-assessed, HIV seropositive patients referred to exercise programmes in a tertiary multi-disciplinary outpatient service for HIV patients at an urban Teaching Hospital in London (UK). Measurements taken prior to the exercise programme were used as dependent variables and include CD4 count, fitness level, flexibility and perceived physical-, emotional-, functional- and psychological- well-being. Attendance records were categorised into a dichotomous independent variable of adherence based on a natural break that occurred at 8/20 attended sessions. Prior-to-treatment differences in perceived physical, functional and psychological well-being exist between adherent and non-adherent patients, but no differences were found in age, CD4 count or fitness level. Perceived well-being explained 55.7% of the variances in attendance. Gender and reason for referral appear to be independent of adherence, whereas ethnicity may play an influential role. Perceived well-being appears to differentiate between adherent and non-adherent patients. Further studies are required to investigate other psychological characteristics and barriers to maintaining exercise.

  8. Compliance with physical exercise: using a multidisciplinary approach within a dose-dependent exercise study of moderately overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gram, Anne Sofie; Bønnelycke, Julie; Rosenkilde, Mads; Reichkendler, Michala; Auerbach, Pernille; Sjödin, Anders; Ploug, Thorkil; Jespersen, Astrid; Stallknecht, Bente

    2014-02-01

    Sixty-one healthy, sedentary, moderately overweight young men participated in a randomised controlled trial to examine the effects of two different doses of endurance exercise on health behaviour and exercise compliance. Participants were randomised to a sedentary control group, a moderate (MOD; 300 kcal/day) or a high-dose (HIGH; 600 kcal/day) endurance exercise group for 12 weeks. A sub-set of the subjects were interviewed using pre-determined, qualitative questions to elucidate physical activity and health behaviour. In combination with the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB), a post hoc thematic analysis was conducted to connect qualitative and quantitative data in a joint analysis. Of the subjects interviewed, exercise compliance expressed as 95% CI was [96.8; 103%] in the MOD group and [82.9; 99.6%] in the HIGH group. The different doses of daily exercise equally improved various metabolic health parameters. The MOD group was untroubled by the exercise load and had a positive attitude towards exercise. The HIGH group expressed increased fatigue, less positivity and perceived exercise as time-consuming. The MOD group described themselves as more energetic, and thereby may have increased physical activity levels in areas of their everyday lives that were not related to the intervention. A multidisciplinary approach provided explanations for similar effects of two different doses of exercise. This could not have been determined via either qualitative or quantitative methodology alone. The preconditions of the TBP were fulfilled, and it represents a methodological model to explain the high degree of compliance and motivation to exercise.

  9. EFFECT OF PRANAYAMA AND EYE EXERCISES ON EYE TO HAND COORDINATION: STUDY BY FINGER DEXTERITY TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Our eyes are bo dy's most well developed sensory organs. Indeed, a far larger part of our brain is devoted to the functions of eyesight than to those of hearing, taste, touch or smell together. We usually take our eyesight for granted, although when vision problems develop, most of us will do everything in our capacity to restore our eyesight to normal . Eyes work together to perceive depth thus allowing us to coordinate with motor actions. Practicing relaxation exercises in the form of pranayama and eye exercise has been shown to improve motor functions and attention. AIM: To study the effect of pranayama and eye exercises on eye to hand coordination. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study consisted of 60 healthy subjects divided equally into two groups. One group practiced kapalabhati pranayama and eye exercises for eight weeks whereas other group did not participate in any kind of exercise. The effect of pranayama and eye exercises on eye to hand coordination were assessed by finger dexterity test by using O′Connor finger dexterity task. RESULTS: There was significant improvement in eye to hand coordination in subjects practicing pranayama and eye exercises. Fi nger dexterity test values in study group before and after intervention were 31±4.94 and 33±4.98 respectively. Whereas in control group the values were 29.9±5.7 and 30.1±5.31 respectively. CONCLUSION: Both Kapalabhati pranayama and eye to hand coordination can improve fine motor skills

  10. Abdominal exercises affect inter-rectus distance in postpartum women: a two-dimensional ultrasound study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, M F; Pascoal, A G; Mota, P; Bø, K

    2015-09-01

    To compare inter-rectus distance (IRD) at rest between women who had a vaginal delivery with women who had a caesarean section, and to describe the effect of different abdominal exercises on IRD. Physiotherapy practice. Cross-sectional experimental study. Thirty-eight postpartum primiparous mothers with a singleton baby (vaginal delivery: n=23; caesarean section: n=15). Two-dimensional ultrasound images from the abdominal wall were recorded at rest and at the end position of abdominal crunch, drawing-in and drawing-in+abdominal crunch exercises. IRD measurements at rest, above and below the umbilicus, were compared between the two groups (vaginal delivery and caesarean section). IRD was also measured above and below the umbilicus during three abdominal exercises in both groups. IRD 2 cm above and below the umbilicus. No significant differences in IRD, either above or below the umbilicus, were found between the vaginal delivery and caesarean section groups. IRD above the umbilicus was significantly reduced during abdominal crunch exercises compared with at rest {mean 21.7 [standard deviation (SD) 7.6]mm vs 25.9 (SD 9.0) mm; mean difference 4.2 mm; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.5 to 7.9}. IRD below the umbilicus was significantly greater during drawing-in exercises compared with at rest [16.0 (SD 8.1) mm vs 11.4 (SD 4.9) mm; mean difference 4.5 mm; 95% CI 1.6 to 7.4]. In contrast to existing recommendations for abdominal strength training among postpartum women, this study found that abdominal crunch exercises reduced IRD, and drawing-in exercises were ineffective for reducing IRD. Further basic studies and randomised controlled trials are warranted to explore the effect of abdominal training on IRD. Copyright © 2015 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of endothelial function response to exercise training in hypertensive individuals (SEFRET): study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

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    Pedralli, Marinei Lopes; Waclawovsky, Gustavo; Camacho, Augusto; Markoski, Melissa Medeiros; Castro, Iran; Lehnen, Alexandre Machado

    2016-02-13

    Endothelial dysfunction is a hallmark of diabetes mellitus and systemic arterial hypertension (SAH) and an early maker for atherosclerosis. Aerobic exercise training is known to enhance endothelial function, but little is understood about the effects of resistance or combined exercise training on endothelial function. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of a 12-week aerobic (AT), resistance (RT), or combined (aerobic and resistance, CT) training program on endothelial function and assess associated effects on blood pressure in individuals with SAH. Eighty-one subjects with SAH aged 18 to 70 years will be selected and randomly assigned to three types of exercise training: AT, RT or CT. The study will involve the following procedures and tests: anamnesis, anthropometric assessment, echocardiography, blood pressure measurements through ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, flow-mediated dilation, ergospirometry, one repetition maximum test (1-RM), and blood collection (number of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, number of circulating endothelial microparticles, lipid profile, glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and creatinine). The AT intervention will consist of a 40-min exercise session with progressive intensities ranging from 50 to 75% of heart rate reserve. The RT intervention will consist of a 40-minute session with four sets of six to 12 repetitions with a rest period of 60 to 90 seconds between each set and each type of exercise. Weight loads will be adjusted to 60 to 80% of 1-RM for six types of exercise. The CT intervention will consist of a 20-min aerobic exercise session, followed by an additional 20-min resistance exercise session; each resistance exercise will have two sets less to match the total training volume. The study results are expected evidence of cardiovascular protective effects of different types of exercise training through the modulation of endothelial function in hypertensive individuals. Knowing the magnitude of

  12. Progenitor cell release plus exercise to improve functional performance in peripheral artery disease: the PROPEL Study.

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    Domanchuk, Kathryn; Ferrucci, Luigi; Guralnik, Jack M; Criqui, Michael H; Tian, Lu; Liu, Kiang; Losordo, Douglas; Stein, James; Green, David; Kibbe, Melina; Zhao, Lihui; Annex, Brian; Perlman, Harris; Lloyd-Jones, Donald; Pearce, William; Taylor, Doris; McDermott, Mary M

    2013-11-01

    Functional impairment, functional decline, and mobility loss are major public health problems in people with lower extremity peripheral artery disease (PAD). Few medical therapies significantly improve walking performance in PAD. We describe methods for the PROgenitor cell release Plus Exercise to improve functionaL performance in PAD (PROPEL) Study, a randomized controlled clinical trial designed to determine whether granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) combined with supervised treadmill walking exercise improves six-minute walk distance more than GM-CSF alone, more than supervised treadmill exercise alone, and more than placebo plus attention control in participants with PAD, respectively. PROPEL Study participants are randomized to one of four arms in a 2 by 2 factorial design. The four study arms are GM-CSF plus supervised treadmill exercise, GM-CSF plus attention control, placebo plus supervised exercise therapy, or placebo plus attention control. The primary outcome is change in six-minute walk distance at 12-week follow-up. Secondary outcomes include change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD), change in maximal treadmill walking time, and change in circulating CD34+ cells at 12-week follow-up. Outcomes are also measured at six-week and six-month follow-up. Results of the PROPEL Study will have important implications for understanding mechanisms of improving walking performance and preventing mobility loss in the large and growing number of men and women with PAD. © 2013.

  13. Effect of exhaustive exercise on the angular pedaling pattern: A preliminary study

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    Matheus Joner Wiest

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2009v11n4p386   Considering biomechanical aspects such as kinematics, fatigue can be characterized as a loss of efficiency in maintaining a movement pattern, such as pedaling technique, during exercise. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of 1-h exhaustive cycling exercise at intensity of 80% VO2max on pedaling technique. The pedaling technique was evaluated in four skilled mountain-bike cyclists by 2D kinematics. The main hypothesis of this study was that angular changes in response to fatigue would occur mainly in the ankle joint. After achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the cyclists were submitted to a submaximal protocol at intensity corresponding to 80% VO2max for 1 h. The cyclists were filmed throughout 10 complete consecutive crank cycles at intervals of 10 min. Images were acquired from the right lower limb and the hip, knee and ankle joint angles were measured after kinematic processing. The Shapiro-Wilk test, ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 0.05. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference only for ankle kinematics after 40 min of exercise, with an increase in the range of motion from 20° at the beginning of exercise to 35° at the end of exercise. This result confirms the hypothesis proposed and suggests that only the ankle joint was affected by the exercise. The characteristics of ankle movement suggest that this joint plays a compensatory role in an attempt to maintain the pedaling technique and to sustain the exercise workload.

  14. Green exercise as a workplace intervention to reduce job stress. Results from a pilot study.

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    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Evensen, Katinka; Weydahl, Andi; Andersson, Kim; Patil, Grete; Ihlebæk, Camilla; Raanaas, Ruth K

    2015-01-01

    Stress and mental fatigue are major health threats to employees in office-based occupations. Physical activity is widely used as a stress-management intervention for employees. Moreover, experiences in contact with nature have been shown to provide stress-reduction and restoration from mental fatigue. In a pilot study designed as a randomized controlled trial we investigated the impact of a green-exercise intervention on psychological and physiological indicators of stress in municipality employees. Fourteen employees (7 females and 7 males, 49±8 yrs) volunteered in an exercise-based intervention in workplace either outdoors in a green/nature area or in an indoor exercise-setting. The intervention consisted of an information meeting and two exercise sessions, each including a biking bout and a circuit-strength sequence using elastic rubber bands (45-minutes, at about 55% of HR reserve, overall). Main outcomes were perceived environmental potential for restoration, affective state, blood pressure (BP) and cortisol awakening response (CAR AUC(G) and CAR AUC(I)) and cortisol levels in serum. Measurements were taken at baseline and in concomitance with the exercise sessions. Furthermore, affective state and self-reported physical activity levels were measured over a 10-weeks follow-up period. Compared with the indoor group, the nature group reported higher environmental potential for restoration (p nature group also reported higher ratings of Positive Affect at follow-up (p = 0.02). Differences at post-exercise were not found for any of the other components of affective state, systolic BP, CAR AUC(G) and cortisol levels measured in serum. Green-exercise at the workplace could be a profitable way to manage stress and induce restoration among employees. Further studies on larger samples are needed in order to improve the generalizability of the results.

  15. Value associated with mindfulness meditation and moderate exercise intervention in acute respiratory infection: the MEPARI Study.

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    Rakel, David; Mundt, Marlon; Ewers, Tola; Fortney, Luke; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Gassman, Michele; Barrett, Bruce

    2013-08-01

    Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is among the most common, debilitating and expensive human illnesses. The purpose of this study was to assess ARI-related costs and determine if mindfulness meditation or exercise can add value. One hundred and fifty-four adults ≥50 years from Madison, WI for the 2009-10 cold/flu season were randomized to (i) wait-list control (ii) meditation or (iii) moderate intensity exercise. ARI-related costs were assessed through self-reported medication use, number of missed work days and medical visits. Costs per subject were based on cost of generic medications, missed work days ($126.20) and clinic visits ($78.70). Monte Carlo bootstrap methods evaluated reduced costs of ARI episodes. The total cost per subject for the control group was $214 (95% CI: $105-$358), exercise $136 (95% CI: $64-$232) and meditation $65 (95% CI: $34-$104). The majority of cost savings was through a reduction in missed days of work. Exercise had the highest medication costs at $16.60 compared with $5.90 for meditation (P = 0.004) and $7.20 for control (P = 0.046). Combining these cost benefits with the improved outcomes in incidence, duration and severity seen with the Meditation or Exercise for Preventing Acute Respiratory Infection study, meditation and exercise add value for ARI. Compared with control, meditation had the greatest cost benefit. This savings is offset by the cost of the intervention ($450/subject) that would negate the short-term but perhaps not long-term savings. Meditation and exercise add value to ARI-associated health-related costs with improved outcomes. Further research is needed to confirm results and inform policies on adding value to medical spending.

  16. Effect of exhaustive exercise on the angular pedaling pattern: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Joner Wiest

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Considering biomechanical aspects such as kinematics, fatigue can be characterized as a loss of efficiency in maintaining a movement pattern, such as pedaling technique, during exercise. The objective of this preliminary study was to investigate the effects of 1-h exhaustive cycling exercise at intensity of 80% VO2max on pedaling technique. The pedaling technique was evaluated in four skilled mountain-bike cyclists by 2D kinematics. The main hypothesis of this study was that angular changes in response to fatigue would occur mainly in the ankle joint. After achievement of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max, the cyclists were submitted to a submaximal protocol at intensity corresponding to 80% VO2max for 1 h. The cyclists were filmed throughout 10 complete consecutive crank cycles at intervals of 10 min. Images were acquired from the right lower limb and the hip, knee and ankle joint angles were measured after kinematic processing. The Shapiro-Wilk test, ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey HSD test were used for statistical analysis, with the level of significance set at 0.05. Statistical analysis showed a significant difference only for ankle kinematics after 40 min of exercise, with an increase in the range of motion from 20° at the beginning of exercise to 35° at the end of exercise. This result confirms the hypothesis proposed and suggests that only the ankle joint was affected by the exercise. The characteristics of ankle movement suggest that this joint plays a compensatory role in an attempt to maintain the pedaling technique and to sustain the exercise workload.

  17. Brain activity and perceived exertion during cycling exercise: an fMRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, Eduardo B; Okano, Alexandre H; De Guio, François; Schabort, Elske J; Min, Li Li; Basset, Fabien A; Stein, Dan J; Noakes, Timothy D

    2015-04-01

    Currently, the equipment and techniques available to assess brain function during dynamic exercise are limited, which has restricted our knowledge of how the brain regulates exercise. This study assessed the brain areas activated during cycling by making use of a novel cycle ergometer, constructed to measure functional MRI (fMRI) brain images during dynamic exercise. Furthermore, we compared brain activation at different levels of ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) generated during the exercise. Seven healthy adults performed cycling exercise in a novel MRI compatible cycle ergometer while undergoing brain  fMRI. Participants completed a cycling block protocol comprising six trials of 2 min cycling with 16-s intervals between trials. Participants reported their RPE every minute through an audio link. The MRI cycling ergometer transferred the torque generated on the ergometer through a cardan system to a cycling ergometer positioned outside the MRI room. For data analysis, the effects of cycling as opposed to rest periods were examined after motion correction. The multiparticipant analysis revealed in particular the activation of the cerebellar vermis and precentral and postcentral gyrus when periods of cycling versus rest were compared. Single participant analysis in four participants revealed that activation of the posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus occurred in cycling blocks perceived as 'hard' compared with exercise blocks that were less demanding. The present study offers a new approach to assess brain activation during dynamic cycling exercise, and suggests that specific brain areas could be involved in the sensations generating the rating of perceived exertion. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  18. Exercise during pregnancy: knowledge and beliefs of medical practitioners in South Africa: a survey study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Estelle D; Oddie, Brydie; Constantinou, Demitri

    2015-10-07

    There is compelling evidence for the benefits of regular exercise during pregnancy, and medical practitioners (MPs) can play an important role in changing antenatal health behaviours. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitudes and beliefs of South African MPs towards exercise during pregnancy. A convenience sample of ninety-six MPs working in the private health care sector, including General Practitioners (n = 58), Obstetricians/Gynaecologists (n = 33) and other Specialists (n = 5), participated in this cross sectional, descriptive survey study. A 33-item questionnaire was distributed manually at medical practices and via email to an on-line survey tool. Descriptive statistics and frequency tables were calculated for all questions. Chi-squared and Fisher's exact statistical tests were used to determine the differences in response by age, speciality and years of practice (p exercise during pregnancy is beneficial, and were knowledgeable on most of the expected benefits. Seventy-eight percent believed that providing exercise advice is an important part of prenatal care, however only 19% provided informational pamphlets and few (24%) referred to exercise specialists. A large majority (83%) were unaware of the recommended exercise guidelines. Although age and years of practice played no role in this awareness, practitioners who focussed on obstetrics and gynaecology were more likely to be aware of the current guidelines, than those in general practice (p exercise during pregnancy, their advice did not always align with the current guidelines. Therefore, better dissemination of available research is warranted, to bridge the gap between clinical knowledge and current recommendations for physical activity promotion.

  19. Exercise augmentation compared to usual care for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder: A Randomised Controlled Trial (The REAP study: Randomised Exercise Augmentation for PTSD

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    van der Ploeg Hidde P

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The physical wellbeing of people with mental health conditions can often be overlooked in order to treat the primary mental health condition as a priority. Exercise however, can potentially improve both the primary psychiatric condition as well as physical measures that indicate risk of other conditions such as diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Evidence supports the role of exercise as an important component of treatment for depression and anxiety, yet no randomised controlled trials (RCT's have been conducted to evaluate the use of exercise in the treatment of people with post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. This RCT will investigate the effects of structured, progressive exercise on PTSD symptoms, functional ability, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. Methods and design Eighty participants with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV diagnosis of PTSD will be recruited. Participants will have no contraindications to exercise and will be cognitively able to provide consent to participate in the study. The primary outcome measures will be PTSD symptoms, measured through the PTSD Checklist Civilian (PCL-C scale. Secondary outcome measures will assess depression and anxiety, mobility and strength, body composition, physical activity levels, sleep patterns and medication usage. All outcomes will be assessed by a health or exercise professional masked to group allocation at baseline and 12 weeks after randomisation. The intervention will be a 12 week individualised program, primarily involving resistance exercises with the use of exercise bands. A walking component will also be incorporated. Participants will complete one supervised session per week, and will be asked to perform at least two other non-supervised exercise sessions per week. Both intervention and control groups will receive all usual non-exercise interventions including psychotherapy

  20. Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE - CTN 0037: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

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    Morris David W

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is a need for novel approaches to the treatment of stimulant abuse and dependence. Clinical data examining the use of exercise as a treatment for the abuse of nicotine, alcohol, and other substances suggest that exercise may be a beneficial treatment for stimulant abuse, with direct effects on decreased use and craving. In addition, exercise has the potential to improve other health domains that may be adversely affected by stimulant use or its treatment, such as sleep disturbance, cognitive function, mood, weight gain, quality of life, and anhedonia, since it has been shown to improve many of these domains in a number of other clinical disorders. Furthermore, neurobiological evidence provides plausible mechanisms by which exercise could positively affect treatment outcomes. The current manuscript presents the rationale, design considerations, and study design of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA Clinical Trials Network (CTN CTN-0037 Stimulant Reduction Intervention using Dosed Exercise (STRIDE study. Methods/Design STRIDE is a multisite randomized clinical trial that compares exercise to health education as potential treatments for stimulant abuse or dependence. This study will evaluate individuals diagnosed with stimulant abuse or dependence who are receiving treatment in a residential setting. Three hundred and thirty eligible and interested participants who provide informed consent will be randomized to one of two treatment arms: Vigorous Intensity High Dose Exercise Augmentation (DEI or Health Education Intervention Augmentation (HEI. Both groups will receive TAU (i.e., usual care. The treatment arms are structured such that the quantity of visits is similar to allow for equivalent contact between groups. In both arms, participants will begin with supervised sessions 3 times per week during the 12-week acute phase of the study. Supervised sessions will be conducted as one-on-one (i.e., individual sessions

  1. Improved Left Ventricular Diastolic Function with Exercise Training in Hypertension: A Doppler Imaging Study

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    Huan Zheng

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To study the effects of 6 months’ exercise training on ventricular function in hypertensive patients. Methods. Both groups received routine anti-hypertensive pharmacological therapy and one received a 6 months’ exercise program in addition. All patients underwent incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test and echocardiography in baseline and after 6 months. Results. (1 In 6 months’ follow-up, PeakVO2, Powermax (max workload, AT (anaerobic threshold, VO2AT (VO2 at anaerobic threshold, tAT (time from beginning to anaerobic threshold (<.05, were increased in the exercise group. HRrest (Heart rate at rest was decreased (<.05. LAVI (left atrial volume index, peak mitral filling velocities during early (E and late (A diastole E/A ratio, DT(deceleration time of the mitral E wave, IVST(Interventricular septum thickness in diastole, tissue Doppler indice Mean Ea/Aa ratio (<.05 were also improved. (2 Correlation analysis: 4 variates had significant effect on change of PeakVO2 in the exercise group: age (=−0.39, change of HRrest (=0.59, change of E/A (=0.55, change of Mean Ea/Aa (=0.58; Through analyzing 2 groups patients’ baseline values, their age (=−0.32, VO2AT (=0.29, HRrest (=−0.25, LAVI (=−0.24, E/A (=0.41 were found to be independent predictors of MeanEa/Aa. -value under .05 was considered statistically significant. Conclusion. 6 months’ exercise could enhance hypertensive patients’ aerobic exercise level and diastolic function to a certain extent.

  2. Exercise rehabilitation on home-dwelling patients with Alzheimer's disease - a randomized, controlled trial. Study protocol

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    Tilvis Reijo S

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Besides cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease (AD leads to physical disability, need for help and permanent institutional care. The trials investigating effects of exercise rehabilitation on physical functioning of home-dwelling older dementia patients are still scarce. The aim of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of intensive exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year on mobility and physical functioning of home-dwelling patients with AD. Methods During years 2008-2010, patients with AD (n = 210 living with their spousal caregiver in community are recruited using central AD registers in Finland, and they are offered exercise rehabilitation lasting for one year. The patients are randomized into three arms: 1 tailored home-based exercise twice weekly 2 group-based exercise twice weekly in rehabilitation center 3 control group with usual care and information of exercise and nutrition. Main outcome measures will be Guralnik's mobility and balance tests and FIM-test to assess physical functioning. Secondary measures will be cognition, neuropsychiatric symptoms according to the Neuropsychiatric Inventory, caregivers' burden, depression and health-related quality of life (RAND-36. Data concerning admissions to institutional care and the use and costs of health and social services will be collected during a two year follow-up. Discussion To our knowledge this is the first large scale trial exploring whether home-dwelling patients with AD will benefit from intense and long-lasting exercise rehabilitation in respect to their mobility and physical functioning. It will also provide data on cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Trial registration ACTRN12608000037303

  3. Motivational and evolutionary aspects of a physical exercise training program: a longitudinal study.

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    João Paulo Pereira Rosa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Several studies have indicated that motivational level and prior expectations are relevant aspects to increase commitment to physical activity. Moreover, these aspects are not properly described in terms of proximal (Self Determination Theory and distal (evolutionary explanations in the literature. This paper aims to verify if level of motivation (BREQ-2 and expectations regarding regular physical exercise (IMPRAF-54 before starting a one-year exercise program could determine likelihood of completion. Ninety-four volunteers (53 women included a completed protocol group (CPG n=21 and drop-out group (DG n=73. The IMPRAF-54 scale was used to assess six different expectations associated with physical activity, and the BREQ-2 inventory was used to assess the level of motivation in five steps (from amotivation to intrinsic motivation. Both questionnaires were assessed before the regular exercise program. The CPG group presented higher sociability and lower pleasure scores according to IMPRAF-54 domains. A logistic regression showed that a one-point increment on sociability score increased the chance of completing the program by 10%, and the same one-point increment on pleasure score reduced the chance of completing the protocol by 16%. ROC curves were also calculated to establish IMPRAF-54 cutoffs for adherence (Sociability - 18.5 points – 81% sensibility/50% specificity and dropout (Pleasure – 25.5 points – 86% sensibility/20% specificity of the exercise protocol. Our results indicate that an expectation of social interaction was a positive factor in predicting adherence to exercise. Grounded in SDT and its innate needs (competence, autonomy, relatedness, physical exercise is not an end; it is a means to achieve autonomy and self-cohesion. The association of physical activity with social practices, like in hunter-gathering groups, can engage people to be physically active and can provide better results in adherence exercise programs for the

  4. Association Between Geographic Elevation, Bone Status, and Exercise Habits: The Shimane CoHRE Study

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    Miwako Takeda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been growing interest in the association between the residential environment and health. The association between residential environment (i.e., geographic elevation and bone status is unknown. Furthermore, these associations could differ by exercise habits due to the chronically greater daily activity caused by steep slopes in mountainous areas. The aim of this study was to test whether the association between bone status of elderly people measured using quantitative ultrasound (QUS and elevation varied according to the exercise habits in a mountainous area population. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study conducted during 2012–2013. QUS value was expressed as a proportion of the young adult mean (%YAM, with higher scores donating better bone status. After excluding subjects with missing data, we analyzed the data for 321 men and 500 women. Our results indicate that %YAM was not associated with elevation among men, or among women with exercise habits. However, elevation was associated with %YAM among women without exercise habits. Our results highlight the importance of considering residential environment and exercise habits when establishing promotion strategies to maintain bone status of the elderly people who live in rural mountainous areas.

  5. Aerobic exercise training and burnout: a pilot study with male participants suffering from burnout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Markus; Brand, Serge; Elliot, Catherine; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Beck, Johannes

    2013-03-04

    Occupational burnout is associated with severe negative health effects. While stress management programs proved to have a positive influence on the well-being of patients suffering from burnout, it remains unclear whether aerobic exercise alleviates burnout severity and other parameters related to occupational burnout. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to pilot-test the potential outcomes of a 12-week exercise training to generate hypotheses for future larger scale studies. The sample consisted of 12 male participants scoring high on the MBI emotional exhaustion and depersonalization subscales. The training program took place in a private fitness center with a 17.5 kcal/kg minimum requirement of weekly energy expenditure. The key findings are that increased exercise reduced overall perceived stress as well as symptoms of burnout and depression. The magnitude of the effects was large, revealing changes of substantial practical relevance. Additionally, profiles of mood states improved considerably after single exercise sessions with a marked shift towards an iceberg profile. Among burnout patients, the findings provide preliminary evidence that exercise has the potential to reduce stress and prevent the development of a deeper depression. This has important health implications given that burnout is considered an antecedent of depressive disorders. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: ISRNCT01575743.

  6. Aerobic exercise as a therapy option for migraine: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darabaneanu, S; Overath, C H; Rubin, D; Lüthje, S; Sye, W; Niederberger, U; Gerber, W-D; Weisser, B

    2011-06-01

    Exercise is assumed to have a positive effect on migraine. However, none of the few studies on this topic can prove the expected positive influence of exercise. Therefore, the aim of this pilot study was to develop a training program suitable for migraine patients and to examine its effect on migraine. 16 patients were examined. 8 migraine patients completed a 10-week aerobic running exercise program consisting of 3 workouts per week. The program was developed by sports scientists especially to increase the fitness level. Physical fitness, i. e., physical working capacity, was assessed using a PWC 150 test. There was also a control group of 8 patients without any special physical training. Migraine patients of the exercise group showed both a reduction in the number of migraine days per month (p=0.048) and the intensity of the attacks (p=0.028). An increase in fitness level resulted in a lowered stress level. Stress strategies like "displacement activity" (r=-0.715; p=0.046), "looking for self-affirmation" (r=-0.742; p=0.035) and "feelings of aggression" (r=-0.802; p=0.017) were reduced. Increasing the level of fitness (PWC 150) is one predictor for migraine improvement (r=0.409, p=0.031). Aerobic exercise which leads to a better fitness level is an alternative therapy method for migraine. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Postexercise heart rate variability following treadmill and cycle exercise: a comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esco, Michael R; Flatt, Andrew A; Williford, Henry N

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare postexercise heart rate variability (HRV) immediately following acute bouts of treadmill (T) and cycle (C) exercise at 65% of mode-specific maximal oxygen consumption reserve (65% VO2 R). Fourteen apparently healthy men participated in this study. On two separate and randomized days, each participant performed 30 min of exercise at 65% VO2 R on T and C. Supine HRV was evaluated as normalized and log-transformed (ln) high-frequency (HF) and low-frequency (LF) spectral power, as well as the LF:HF ratio in 5-min segments immediately before (PRE) and at 10-15 min (POST1) and 25-30 min (POST2) following each exercise bout. There were no significant differences in the HRV values at PRE between the modalities. Following each exercise bout, lnHF was significantly lower at POST2 following C compared to T. In addition, lnLF and LF:HF were significantly higher at POST1 and POST2 following C compared to T. All HRV metrics returned towards baseline 30 min following T but remained significantly different than PRE values after C. These results suggest that following exercise at 65% of mode-specific VO2 R, C is associated with a greater delay of postexercise HRV recovery than T in apparently healthy men. © 2015 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Gelatinases and physical exercise: A systematic review of evidence from human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Presti, Rosalia; Hopps, Eugenia; Caimi, Gregorio

    2017-09-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly gelatinase A (MMP-2) and gelatinase B (MMP-9), as well as their tissue inhibitors (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2), are involved in the development of skeletal muscle tissue, in the repair process after muscle injury and in the adaptive modifications induced by physical exercise in skeletal muscle. This paper aims at reviewing results from human studies that investigated the role of gelatinases and their inhibitors in skeletal muscle response to acute physical exercise or training. Electronic databases PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus and Web of Science were searched for papers published between January 2000 and February 2017. The papers were eligible when reporting human studies in which MMP-2 and/or MMP-9 and/or the inhibitors TIMP-1/TIMP-2 were evaluated, in blood or muscular tissue, before and after acute physical exercise or before and after a period of structured physical training. We included studies on healthy subjects and patients with chronic metabolic diseases (obesity, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome-MS) or asymptomatic coronary artery disease. We excluded studies on patients with neurological, rheumatologic or neoplastic diseases. Studies conducted on muscle biopsies showed an early stimulation of MMP-9 gene transcription as a result of acute exercise, whereas MMP-2 and TIMP transcription resulted from regular repetition of exercise over time. Studies on serum or plasma level of gelatinases and their inhibitors showed an early release of MMP-9 after acute exercise of sufficient intensity, while data on MMP-2 and TIMP were more contrasting. Most of the studies dealing with the effect of training indicated a trend toward reduction in blood gelatinase levels, once again more clear for MMP-9. This result was related to an anti-inflammatory effect of regular exercise and was more evident when training consisted of aerobic activities. This study has limitations: as the initial selection was done through titles and abstracts

  9. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF EXERCISE MOTIVATION BETWEEN MALE AND FEMALE UNDER 17 YEARS SOCCER PLAYERS

    OpenAIRE

    Arif Mohammad; Mohammad Ahsan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the present research was to compare the level of exercise motivation of male and female soccer players. Secondary purpose of this work was to answer of the question “which gender needs what extend of exercise motivation to perform better in sports?” The method carried out in this study was quantitative in nature and based on the questionnaire study. Population of this research consisted on all male and female soccer players in Rakiraki Public High School, Kings Road, Fiji. Amon...

  10. Physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Olsen, Jørn; Andersen, Per Kragh

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the association between physical exercise during pregnancy and fetal growth measures. STUDY DESIGN: Data on 79,692 liveborn singletons from the Danish National Birth Cohort were collected between 1996 and 2002. Mean differences in birthweight......, length, ponderal index, head and abdominal circumference, and placental weight and hazard ratios of small- and large-for-gestational-age babies were calculated. RESULTS: Our data indicated smaller babies in exercising women compared with nonexercisers, but the differences were small, and only a few were...

  11. An Exercise Intervention During Chemotherapy for Women With Recurrent Ovarian Cancer: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizrahi, David; Broderick, Carolyn; Friedlander, Michael; Ryan, Mary; Harrison, Michelle; Pumpa, Kate; Naumann, Fiona

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility of a combined supervised and home-based exercise intervention during chemotherapy for women with recurrent ovarian cancer. Secondary aims were to determine the impact of physical activity on physical and psychological outcomes and on chemotherapy completion rates. Women with recurrent ovarian cancer were recruited from 3 oncology outpatient clinics in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All participants received an individualized exercise program that consisted of 90 minutes or more of low to moderate aerobic, resistance, core stability, and balance exercise per week, for 12 weeks. Feasibility was determined by recruitment rate, retention rate, intervention adherence, and adverse events. Aerobic capacity, muscular strength, fatigue, sleep quality, quality of life, depression, and chemotherapy completion rates were assessed at weeks 0, 12, and 24. Thirty participants were recruited (recruitment rate, 63%), with a retention rate of 70%. Participants averaged 196 ± 138 min · wk of low to moderate physical activity throughout the intervention, with adherence to the program at 81%. There were no adverse events resulting from the exercise intervention. Participants who completed the study displayed significant improvements in quality of life (P = 0.017), fatigue (P = 0.004), mental health (P = 0.007), muscular strength (P = 0.001), and balance (P = 0.003) after the intervention. Participants completing the intervention had a higher relative dose intensity than noncompleters (P = 0.03). A program consisting of low to moderate exercise of 90 min · wk was achieved by two-thirds of women with recurrent ovarian cancer in this study, with no adverse events reported. Randomized control studies are required to confirm the benefits of exercise reported in this study.

  12. Effects of low-dye taping on plantar pressure pre and post exercise: an exploratory study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nolan, Damien

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low-Dye taping is used for excessive pronation at the subtalar joint of the foot. Previous research has focused on the tape\\'s immediate effect on plantar pressure. Its effectiveness following exercise has not been investigated. Peak plantar pressure distribution provides an indirect representation of subtalar joint kinematics. The objectives of the study were 1) To determine the effects of Low-Dye taping on peak plantar pressure immediately post-application. 2) To determine whether any initial effects are maintained following exercise. METHODS: 12 asymptomatic subjects participated; each being screened for excessive pronation (navicular drop > 10 mm). Plantar pressure data was recorded, using the F-scan, at four intervals during the testing session: un-taped, baseline-taped, post-exercise session 1, and post-exercise session 2. Each exercise session consisted of a 10-minute walk at a normal pace. The foot was divided into 6 regions during data analysis. Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to assess regional pressure variations across the four testing conditions. RESULTS: Reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was the only significant difference immediately post tape application (p = 0.039). This effect was lost after 10 minutes of exercise (p = 0.036). Each exercise session resulted in significantly higher medial forefoot peak pressure compared to un-taped; (p = 0.015) and (p = 0.014) respectively, and baseline-taped; (p = 0.036) and (p = 0.015) respectively. Medial and lateral rearfoot values had also increased after the second session (p = 0.004), following their non-significant reduction at baseline-taped. A trend towards a medial-to-lateral shift in pressure present in the midfoot immediately following tape application was still present after 20 minutes of exercise. CONCLUSION: Low-Dye tape\\'s initial effect of reduced lateral forefoot peak plantar pressure was lost after a 10-minute walk. However, the tape continued

  13. The effects of caffeine ingestion on exercise-induced hypoalgesia: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Christopher D; Gonglach, Alexander R; Renfroe, Jessica B; Hight, Robert E

    2016-07-01

    Exercise acutely reduces pain sensitivity, termed exercise-induced hypoalgesia (EIH). The mechanisms underlying EIH remain unclear. Caffeine, a non-specific adenosine receptor antagonist has been shown to attenuate EIH in animals-suggesting the involvement of the adenosinergic system. This pilot study investigated the effects of caffeine on pain sensitivity following cycling exercise in college-aged men. Pressure pain threshold (PPT) and thermal pain threshold (TPT) were assessed in thirteen low caffeine consuming men prior to ingestion of a counter-balanced 5mg·kg(-1) dose of caffeine or a placebo (Pre), 60min following ingestion (Post-In), and then following a 15min bout of cycling exercise (Post-Ex) at an intensity eliciting a quadriceps muscle pain rating of 3 out of 10. Nine of the men completed follow-up testing which was identical except that the exercise consisted of 10min of cycling eliciting a pain rating of 5 out of 10. Caffeine had no effect compared to placebo on PPT (p≥0.15) or TPT (p≥0.41) 60min following ingestion and following exercise. PPT increased from 599±176kPa to 648±202kPa (p=0.009) and from 578±217kPa to 666±278kPa (p=0.01) following 15 and 10min of cycling, respectively. TPT increased from 46.2±2.9°C to 46.8±2.6°C (p=0.008) following the 15min exercise bout, but did not change (46.4±3.6°C vs. 46.8±3.3°C; p=0.24) following the shorter, higher intensity exercise bout. The results from this study indicate cycling exercise reduces pain sensitivity, especially to pressure stimuli. Caffeine ingestion did not alter the EIH response-suggesting adenosine may not play a prominent role in the EIH response in humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exercise capacity, muscle strength, and fatigue in sarcoidosis : A follow-up study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcellis, R.G.; Lenssen, A.F.; Kleynen, S.; de Vries, J.; Drent, M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to examine changes in the prevalence of exercise intolerance, reduced muscle strength, and fatigue and the changes in these parameters in individual patients during a 2-year follow-up study. Methods Ninety sarcoidosis patients (62 males and 28 females; mean age:

  15. An Entrepreneurial Learning Exercise as a Pedagogical Tool for Teaching CSR: A Peruvian Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farber, Vanina A.; Prialé, María Angela; Fuchs, Rosa María

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory cross-sectional study of the value of an entrepreneurial learning exercise as a tool for examining the entrepreneurship dimension of corporate social responsibility (CSR). The study used grounded theory to analyse diaries kept by graduate (MBA) students during the "20 Nuevos Soles Project". From the…

  16. Anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise on tendon biomechanics: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsitsilonis, Serafim; Chatzistergos, Panayiotis E; Panayiotis, Chatzistergos E; Mitousoudis, Athanasios S; Athanasios, Mitousoudis S; Kourkoulis, Stavros K; Stavros, Kourkoulis K; Vlachos, Ioannis S; Ioannis, Vlachos S; Agrogiannis, George; George, Agrogiannis; Fasseas, Konstantinos; Konstantinos, Fasseas; Perrea, Despina N; Despina, Perrea N; Zoubos, Aristides B; Aristides, Zoubos B

    2014-06-01

    The effect of anabolic androgenic steroids on tendons has not yet been fully elucidated. Aim of the present study was the evaluation of the impact of anabolic androgenic steroids on the biomechanical and histological characteristics of Achilles tendons. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were randomized into four groups with exercise and anabolic steroids (nandrolone decanoate) serving as variables. Protocol duration was 12 weeks. Following euthanasia, tendons' biomechanical properties were tested with the use of a modified clamping configuration. Histological examination with light and electron microscopy were also performed. In the group of anabolic steroids and exercise the lowest fracture stress values were observed, while in the exercise group the highest ones. Histological examination by light and electron microscopy revealed areas of collagen dysplasia and an increased epitendon in the groups receiving anabolic steroids and exercise. These findings suggest that anabolic androgenic steroids reverse the beneficial effect of exercise, thus resulting in inferior maximal stress values. Copyright © 2013 European Foot and Ankle Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Temporal effects of antecedent exercise on students' disruptive behaviors: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folino, Anthony; Ducharme, Joseph M; Greenwald, Naomi

    2014-10-01

    Although a growing body of literature indicates that antecedent exercise is effective at reducing disruptive behaviors, there is a paucity of research examining the temporal effects of antecedent exercise. The present investigation involved 4 students (age range 11 to 14years) enrolled in a self-contained special education behavior classroom due to severe aggressive, disruptive, and oppositional behaviors. In an alternating treatment design with baseline, students were first exposed to baseline conditions and then to 2 experimental conditions (i.e., an antecedent exercise condition and a control condition) in a randomized fashion. Results indicated that 30min of moderate to intense aerobic exercise resulted in approximately 90min of behavioral improvements. In addition, there appeared to be an inverse relation between arousal levels and behavioral difficulties. The potential utility of antecedent exercise as a treatment alternative in schools for students with severe disruptive behavior is discussed. Copyright © 2014 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Exercises to activate the deeper abdominal wall muscles: the Lewit: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiuk, Boyd W N; Andersen, Jordan T; McGill, Stuart M

    2014-03-01

    The abdominal wall is a prime target for therapeutic exercises aimed to prevent and rehabilitate low back pain and to enhance performance training. This study examined the "Lewit," a corrective exercise prescribed for several purposes, which is performed lying supine in a crook-lying position and involves forceful breathing. Muscle activation and lumbar posture were compared with bracing the abdominal wall (stiffening) with robust effort and "hollowing" (attempting to draw in the wall toward the naval) with robust effort. Eight healthy male volunteers with 6 channels of electromyography were collected by means of surface electrode pairs of the rectus abdominis, external oblique, and internal oblique (IO) together with lumbar motion. The Lewit exercise caused higher muscle activity in the deeper abdominal wall muscles, in particular the IO and by default the transverse abdominis were activated at 54% maximum voluntary contractions (MVCs) on average and 84% MVC peak with no change in spine posture to maintain the elastic equilibrium of the lumbar spine. The Lewit is a deep oblique muscle activation exercise, and the activation levels are of a sufficient magnitude for training muscle engrams. This information will assist strength and conditioning coaches with program design decisions where this corrective abdominal exercise may be considered for clients who elevate the ribcage during strength exertions, or for clients targeting the deep obliques.

  19. Physical exercise at midlife and risk of dementia three decades later: a population-based study of Swedish twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andel, Ross; Crowe, Michael; Pedersen, Nancy L; Fratiglioni, Laura; Johansson, Boo; Gatz, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    With the number of people with dementia increasing, identifying potential protective factors has become more important. We explored the association between physical exercise at midlife and subsequent risk of dementia among members of the HARMONY study. Measures of exercise were obtained by the Swedish Twin Registry an average of 31 years prior to dementia assessment. Dementia was diagnosed using a two-stage procedure--screening for cognitive impairment followed by full clinical evaluation. We used two study designs: case-control analyses included 264 cases with dementia (176 had Alzheimer's disease) and 2870 controls; co-twin control analyses included 90 twin pairs discordant for dementia. In case-control analyses, controlling for age, sex, education, diet (eating fruits and vegetables), smoking, drinking alcohol, body mass index, and angina, light exercise such as gardening or walking and regular exercise involving sports were associated with reduced odds of dementia compared to hardly any exercise (odds ratio [OR] = 0.63, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.43-0.91 for light exercise; OR = 0.34, 95% CI, 0.16-0.72 for regular exercise). Findings were similar for Alzheimer's disease alone. In co-twin control analyses, controlling for education, the association between higher levels of exercise and lower odds of dementia approached significance (OR = 0.50, 95% CI, 0.23-1.06; p =.072). Exercise at midlife may reduce the odds of dementia in older adulthood, suggesting that exercise interventions should be explored as a potential strategy for delaying disease onset.

  20. The EXERRT trial: ?EXErcise to Regadenoson in Recovery Trial?: A phase 3b, open-label, parallel group, randomized, multicenter study to assess regadenoson administration following an inadequate exercise stress test as compared to regadenoson without exercise for myocardial perfusion imaging using a SPECT protocol

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Gregory S.; Cullom, S. James; Kitt, Therese M.; Feaheny, Kathleen M.; Ananthasubramaniam, Karthikeyan; Gropler, Robert J.; Jain, Diwakar; Thompson, Randall C.

    2017-01-01

    Background This study assessed the non-inferiority and safety of regadenoson administration during recovery from inadequate exercise compared with administration without exercise. Methods Patients unable to achieve adequate exercise stress were randomized to regadenoson 0.4?mg either during recovery (Ex-Reg) or 1?hour after inadequate exercise (Regadenoson) (MPI1). All patients also underwent non-exercise regadenoson MPI 1-14?days later (MPI2). The number of segments with reversible perfusion...

  1. Effectiveness of coordination exercise in improving cognitive function in older adults: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwok TCY

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Timothy CY Kwok1,2, KC Lam2, PS Wong2, WW Chau2, Kenneth SL Yuen2,3, KT Ting2, Elite WK Chung2, Jessie CY Li2, Florence KY Ho2,41Department of Medicine and Therapeutics, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 2Jockey Club Centre for Positive Ageing, 3Laboratory of Neuropsychology, Department of Psychology, The University of Hong Kong, 4Jockey Club CADENZA Hub, Hong Kong SARBackground: Studies on the effect of a low intensity coordination exercise on the elderly with limited mobility are sparse. This prospective study attempted to compare the effectiveness of a customized coordination exercise and a strength exercise in improving the cognitive functioning and physical mobility on the elderly.Methods: Participants from two centers for the elderly were allocated to practice either an 8-week coordination training (CT program or an 8-week towel exercise (TE program. The Chinese Mini-Mental State Examination and Chinese Dementia Rating Scale (CDRS were used to measure cognitive functioning of participants, and Timed Up-and-Go test for physical mobility. These assessments were administered before and after the program.Results: Paired t-tests showed that the CDRS scores of the CT group improved significantly from 114.8 at pre-test to 119.3 after training (P = 0.045. The CDRS scores of the TE group also improved from 114.9 at pre-test to 116.9 after training.Conclusion: Findings from this prospective study demonstrated that low-intensity level mind-body exercise could be beneficial to the cognitive functioning of older adults.Keywords: coordination exercise, cognitive function, elderly, Chinese

  2. The relationships between exercise and affective states: a naturalistic, longitudinal study of recreational runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonham, Tim; Pepper, Gillian V; Nettle, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    Although people generally feel more positive and more energetic in the aftermath of exercise than before, longitudinal research on how exercise relates to within-person fluctuations in affect over the course of everyday life is still relatively limited. One constraint on doing such research is the need to provide participants with accelerometers to objectively record their exercise, and pagers to capture affective reports. We aimed to develop a methodology for studying affect and exercise using only technology that participants already possess, namely GPS running watches and smartphones. Using this methodology, we aimed to characterize within-individual fluctuations in affective valence and arousal in relation to bouts of exercise, and explore possible moderators of these fluctuations. We recruited a sample of 38 recreational runners. Participants provided daily affective reports for six weeks using their smartphones. Information on their runs was harvested from their own GPS devices via an online platform for athletes. Average valence and arousal were higher on days when the person had run than on the next day, and higher the day after a run than on the days after that. Over the course of the day of a run, valence and arousal declined significantly as the time since the run increased. Physically fitter participants had more positive valence overall, and this was particularly true when they had not run recently. There was some evidence of higher-dose (i.e., longer and faster) runs being associated with lower arousal on the next and subsequent days. Gender did not moderate associations between running and valence or arousal. Our study demonstrated the potential for studying the associations between affect and exercise in a way that is precise, undemanding for participants, and convenient for researchers, using technologies that participants already own and use.

  3. The relationships between exercise and affective states: a naturalistic, longitudinal study of recreational runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Bonham

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Although people generally feel more positive and more energetic in the aftermath of exercise than before, longitudinal research on how exercise relates to within-person fluctuations in affect over the course of everyday life is still relatively limited. One constraint on doing such research is the need to provide participants with accelerometers to objectively record their exercise, and pagers to capture affective reports. Aims We aimed to develop a methodology for studying affect and exercise using only technology that participants already possess, namely GPS running watches and smartphones. Using this methodology, we aimed to characterize within-individual fluctuations in affective valence and arousal in relation to bouts of exercise, and explore possible moderators of these fluctuations. Methods We recruited a sample of 38 recreational runners. Participants provided daily affective reports for six weeks using their smartphones. Information on their runs was harvested from their own GPS devices via an online platform for athletes. Results Average valence and arousal were higher on days when the person had run than on the next day, and higher the day after a run than on the days after that. Over the course of the day of a run, valence and arousal declined significantly as the time since the run increased. Physically fitter participants had more positive valence overall, and this was particularly true when they had not run recently. There was some evidence of higher-dose (i.e., longer and faster runs being associated with lower arousal on the next and subsequent days. Gender did not moderate associations between running and valence or arousal. Discussion Our study demonstrated the potential for studying the associations between affect and exercise in a way that is precise, undemanding for participants, and convenient for researchers, using technologies that participants already own and use.

  4. Molecular studies of exercise, skeletal muscle, and ageing [version 1; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A. Timmons

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of an F1000 review is to reflect on the bigger picture, exploring controversies and new concepts as well as providing opinion as to what is limiting progress in a particular field. We reviewed about 200 titles published in 2015 that included reference to ‘skeletal muscle, exercise, and ageing’ with the aim of identifying key articles that help progress our understanding or research capacity while identifying methodological issues which represent, in our opinion, major barriers to progress. Loss of neuromuscular function with chronological age impacts on both health and quality of life. We prioritised articles that studied human skeletal muscle within the context of age or exercise and identified new molecular observations that may explain how muscle responds to exercise or age. An important aspect of this short review is perspective: providing a view on the likely ‘size effect’ of a potential mechanism on physiological capacity or ageing.

  5. [Exercising sexual and reproductive rights: a qualitative study of heterosexual people with HIV in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campero, Lourdes; Kendall, Tamil; Caballero, Marta; Mena, Ana Lorena; Herrera, Cristina

    2010-01-01

    To analyze experiences of heterosexual Mexican people living with HIV (PLWHA) related to the exercise of their sexual and reproductive rights. Qualitative study based on 40 in-depth interviews with PLWHA in four Mexican States. Lack of support and counseling limits the exercise of sexual and reproductive rights by PLWHA, especially women. Principal limitations include feelings of frustration and confusion, fear of re-infection, scanty information, lack of power to negotiate condom use, social stigma and discrimination, and limited access to services and adequate technologies. To increase awareness and exercise of rights by PLWHA it is necessary to: improve sexual education; promote processes of cultural change to combat gender inequality and stigma and discrimination; and provide timely and scientific information about HIV prevention.

  6. Group swimming and aquatic exercise programme for children with autism spectrum disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Haley, Stephen M; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of a 14-week aquatic exercise programme for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Non-randomized control trial. Twelve children participated in this pilot study with seven participants in the aquatic exercise group and five in the control group. The programme was held twice per week for 40 minutes per session. Swimming skills, cardiorespiratory endurance, muscular endurance, mobility skills and participant and parent satisfaction were measured before and after the intervention. No significant between-group changes were found. Within-group improvements for swimming skills were found for the intervention group. Programme attendance was high. Parents and children were very satisfied with the programme activities and instructors. This pilot programme was feasible and showed potential for improving swimming ability in children with ASD. Exercise intensity was low for some participants, most likely contributing to a lack of significant findings on fitness outcomes.

  7. The effects of an 'exercise and education' programme on exercise self-efficacy and levels of independent activity in adults with acquired neurological pathologies: an exploratory, randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, Jo; Young, Carolyn; Thornton, Everard

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effects of an exercise and education programme on primary outcomes of exercise efficacy and activity levels; and on secondary outcomes including quality of life, mood and physical disability. Randomized, single blind trial. Specialist neurosciences centre. Forty-four patients with acquired neurological pathologies. Twenty-one participants undertook a four-week exercise and education programme alongside standard follow-up care. Twenty-three participants underwent standard follow-up care alone. Primary outcome measures included the Exercise Efficacy Scale and Human Activity Profile. Secondary outcomes were evaluated by the Short Form 36 Health Survey, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, UWIST Mood Adjective Checklist, Motricity Index, Frenchay Arm Test, Rivermead Mobility Index, 10-metre timed walk and a visual analogue scale. Data were collected at baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks. At six weeks, significant improvements in exercise efficacy were found following the treatment but not the control (P= 0.001). Moderate improvements in activity levels were noted for both study groups with no between-group differences. Short Form 36 'physical health' and 'general health' domains showed trends towards increased positive change following the intervention, but these did not reach significant levels. Mood, physical impairment and physical disability remained unchanged within either study group. Longer term follow-up revealed that the improvements noted in exercise self-efficacy, activity levels and quality of life were maintained. The intervention resulted in improved exercise efficacy and may positively influence the physical and general health dimensions of health-related quality of life.

  8. Study Protocol on Hormonal Mediation of Exercise on Cognition, Stress and Immunity (PRO-HMECSI): Effects of Different Exercise Programmes in Institutionalized Elders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Ana Maria; Ferreira, José Pedro; Hogervorst, Eef; Braga, Margarida Ferreira; Bandelow, Stephan; Rama, Luís; Figueiredo, António; Campos, Maria João; Furtado, Guilherme Eustáquio; Chupel, Matheus Uba; Pedrosa, Filipa Martins

    2016-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) in elders has been shown to have positive effects on a plethora of chronic diseases and to improve immunity, mental health, and cognition. Chronic stress has also been shown to have immuno-suppressive effects and to accelerate immunosenescence. Exercise could be a significant factor in ameliorating the deleterious effects of chronic stress, but variables such as the type, intensity, and frequency of exercise that should be performed in order to effectively reduce the stress burden need to be defined clearly. PRO-HMECSI will allow us to investigate which hormonal and immunological parameters are able to mediate the effects of exercise on mucosal immunity, psychological/biological stress, and cognitive functioning in older people. Phase I consists of an observational cross-sectional study that compares elders groups (n = 223, >65 years) by functional fitness levels aiming to identify biomarkers involved in maintaining immune and mental health. Neuroendocrine and immune biomarkers of stress, psychological well-being related to mental health, neurocognitive function, functional fitness, and daily PA will be evaluated. Phase II consists of a 28-week intervention in elders with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) profile (n = 149, >65 years, divided in three groups of exercise and one control group), aiming to investigate whether the positive effect of three different types of chair-based exercise programs on physical and psychological health is mediated by an optimal endocrine environment. Primary outcomes are measures of cognitive function and global health. Secondary outcomes include the evaluation the other dimensions such as immune function, psychological health, and depression. Few studies addressed the effects of different types of exercise interventions in older population samples with MCI. We will also be able to determine which type of exercise is more effective in the immune and hormonal function of this population. PMID:27446898

  9. Post-Exercise Protein Trial: Interactions between Diet and Exercise (PEPTIDE): study protocol for randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghannam, Abdullah F; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Bilzon, James; Betts, James A

    2014-11-24

    Performing regular exercise is known to manifest a number of health benefits that mainly relate to cardiovascular and muscular adaptations to allow for greater oxygen extraction and utilization. There is increasing evidence that nutrient intake can affect the adaptive response to a single exercise bout, and that protein feeding is important to facilitate this process. Thus, the exercise-nutrient interaction may potentially lead to a greater response to training. The role of post-exercise protein ingestion in enhancing the effects of running-based endurance exercise training relative to energy-matched carbohydrate intervention remains to be established. Additionally, the influence of immediate versus overnight protein ingestion in mediating these training effects is currently unknown. The current protocol aims to establish whether post-exercise nutrient intake and timing would influence the magnitude of improvements during a prescribed endurance training program. The project involves two phases with each involving two treatment arms applied in a randomized investigator-participant double-blind parallel group design. For each treatment, participants will be required to undergo six weeks of running-based endurance training. Immediately post-exercise, participants will be prescribed solutions providing 0.4 grams per kilogram of body mass (g · kg(-1)) of whey protein hydrolysate plus 0.4 g · kg(-1) sucrose, relative to an isocaloric sucrose control (0.8 g · kg(-1); Phase I). In Phase II, identical protein supplements will be provided (0.4 + 0.4 g · kg(-1) · h(-1) of whey protein hydrolysate and sucrose, respectively), with the timing of ingestion manipulated to compare immediate versus overnight recovery feedings. Anthropometric, expired gas, venous blood and muscle biopsy samples will be obtained at baseline and following the six-week training period. By investigating the role of nutrition in enhancing the effects of endurance exercise training, we will provide

  10. Effect of an Acute Bout of Kettlebell Exercise on Glucose Tolerance in Sedentary Men: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwald, Samantha; Seger, Edward; Nichols, David; Ray, Andrew D; Rideout, Todd C; Gosselin, Luc E

    2016-01-01

    Impaired glucose tolerance can have significant health consequences. The purposes of this preliminary study were to examine whether a single session of kettlebell exercise improves acute post-exercise glucose tolerance in sedentary individuals, and whether it was as effective as high-intensity interval running. Six sedentary male subjects underwent a two-hour oral glucose tolerance test following three different conditions: 1) control (no exercise); 2) kettlebell exercise (2 sets of 7 exercises, 15 repetitions per exercise with 30 seconds rest between each exercise); or 3) high-intensity interval running (10 one-minute intervals at a workload corresponding to 90% VO2max interspersed with one-minute active recovery periods). Blood glucose and insulin levels were measured before (0 minutes), and 60 and 120 minutes after glucose ingestion. Both kettlebell and high-intensity interval running exercise significantly lowered blood glucose 60 minutes after glucose ingestion compared with control. However, there was no significant difference in blood glucose between the two exercise conditions at any time point. In addition, there were no significant differences in insulin concentration between high intensity interval running, kettlebell, and control conditions at all time points. Results indicate that an acute bout of kettlebell exercise is as effective as high intensity interval running at improving glucose tolerance in sedentary young men.

  11. Influence of exercise on visceral pain: an explorative study in healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Weerdenburg LJGM

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Laura JGM van Weerdenburg,1 Christina Brock,2,3 Asbjørn Mohr Drewes,2 Harry van Goor,1 Marjan de Vries,1 Oliver HG Wilder-Smith4 1Department of Surgery, Radboud University Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands; 2Mech-Sense, Department of Gastroenterology, Aalborg University Hospital, Aalborg, 3Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Anesthesiology, Pain and Palliative Medicine, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre, Nijmegen, the Netherlands Background and objectives: Contradictory results have been found about the effect of different exercise modalities on pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the early effects of aerobic and isometric exercise on different types of experimental pain, including visceral pain, compared to an active control condition. Methods: Fifteen healthy subjects (6 women, mean [standard deviation] age 25 [6.5] years completed 3 interventions consisting of 20 minutes of aerobic cycling, 12 minutes of isometric knee extension and a deep breathing procedure as active control. At baseline and after each intervention, psychophysical tests were performed, including electrical stimulation of the esophagus, pressure pain thresholds and the cold pressor test as a measure for conditioned pain modulation. Participants completed the Medical Outcome Study Short-Form 36 and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory prior to the experiments. Data were analyzed using two-way repeated measures analysis of variance. Results: No significant differences were found for the psychophysical tests after the interventions, compared to baseline pain tests and the control condition. Conclusion: No hypoalgesic effect of aerobic and isometric exercise was found. The evidence for exercise-induced hypoalgesia appears to be not as consistent as initially thought, and caution is recommended when interpreting the effects of exercise on pain. Keywords: motor activity, breathing

  12. Maternal obesity and physical activity and exercise levels as pregnancy advances: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, N; Mitchell, C; Farren, M; Kennelly, M M; Hussey, J; Turner, M J

    2016-05-01

    Increases in clinical complications associated with maternal obesity have generated interest in increasing physical activity (PA) and exercise levels as an intervention to improve pregnancy outcomes. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI categorisation and PA and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. This was an observational study in a large university maternity hospital. Women were recruited at their convenience before they left hospital after delivering a baby weighing 500 g or more. They completed a detailed customised physical activity and exercise questionnaire. BMI categorisation was based on the measurement of weight and height in early pregnancy. Of the 155 women recruited, 42.5 % (n = 66) were primigravidas and 10.3 % (n = 16) were smokers. Mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was 24.6 kg/m(2) and 14.2 % (n = 22) were obese, based on a BMI >29.9 kg/m(2). Overall, women decreased their exercise from an average 194 min (range 0-650 min) per week pre-pregnancy to 98 min antenatally (range 0-420 min) (p exercised least pre-pregnancy and antenatally at 187.5 and 75 min per week, respectively, compared with 193.2 and 95.5 min per week in the normal BMI group and 239.3 and 106.7 min per week in the overweight group. The mean gestation at which all women reduced their activity levels was 29 weeks. We found that women decreased their PA  and exercise levels significantly in the third trimester and, thus, in the absence of a medical contra-indication there is considerable scope for an exercise intervention to improve activity  and exercise levels as pregnancy advances. However, an increase in PA levels in obese women needs further studies to determine whether it will improve the clinical outcomes for the woman and her offspring.

  13. Increased self-efficacy: the experience of high-intensity exercise of nursing home residents with dementia - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Cecilie Fromholt; Telenius, Elisabeth Wiken; Engedal, Knut; Bergland, Astrid

    2015-09-14

    There has been increasing interest in the use of non-pharmacological interventions, such as physical exercise, to improve the well-being of nursing home residents with dementia. For reasons regarding disease symptoms, persons with dementia might find it difficult to participate in exercise programs. Therefore, it is important to find ways to successfully promote regular exercise for patients in residential care. Several quantitative studies have established the positive effects of exercise on biopsychosocial factors, such as self-efficacy in older people; however, little is known regarding the qualitative aspects of participating in an exercise program among older people with dementia. From the perspective of residents, we explored the experiences of participating in a high-intensity functional exercise program among nursing home residents with dementia. The participants were eight elderly people with mild-to-moderate dementia. We conducted semi-structured interviews one week after they had finished a 10-week supervised high-intensity exercise program. We analyzed the data using an inductive content analysis. Five overreaching and interrelated themes emerged from the interviews: "Pushing the limits," "Being invested in," "Relationships facilitate exercise participation," "Exercise revives the body, increases independence and improves self-esteem" and "Physical activity is a basic human necessity--use it or lose it!" The results were interpreted in light of Bandura's self-efficacy theory. The exercise program seemed to improve self-efficacy through several mechanisms. By being involved, "being invested in" and having something expected of them, the participants gained a sense of empowerment in their everyday lives. The importance of social influences related to the exercise instructor and the exercise group was accentuated by the participants. The nursing home residents had, for the most part, positive experiences with regard to participating in the exercise program

  14. Impact of sleep complaints and depression outcomes among participants in the standard medical intervention and long-term exercise study of exercise and pharmacotherapy for depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combs, Kory; Smith, Patrick J; Sherwood, Andrew; Hoffman, Benson; Carney, Robert M; Freedland, Kenneth; Craighead, W Edward; Blumenthal, James A

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of exercise and sertraline on disordered sleep in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). Methods The Standard Medical Intervention and Long-term Exercise study randomized the patients with MDD (n = 202) to one of four arms: a) supervised exercise, b) home-based exercise, c) sertraline therapy, and d) placebo pill. Sleep disturbance was assessed with three sleep-related items from the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAM-D) before and after 4 months of treatment. The patients were followed for 12 months to assess the prognostic value of sleep disturbance on MDD relapse and recovery.Results Comparison of the active treatment and placebo groups showed no treatment differences in HAM-D sleep complaints after 4 months (p = 0.758). However, residual insomnia symptoms after treatment were strongly associated with elevated depressive symptoms assessed by the HAM-D after 4 months (β = 0.342, p exercise nor sertraline was associated with greater improvements in sleep disturbance compared with the placebo controls. However, residual symptoms of insomnia after successful treatment of MDD predicted relapse, highlighting the clinical importance of addressing insomnia in patients with MDD.

  15. Exercise on Prescription: A Cross-sectional Study with Self-reported Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Helene Buch; Helmer-Nielsen, Morten; Dieperink, Karin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Exercise on prescription (EOP) is an attempt to increase physical activity among sedentary adults with signs of or established lifestyle diseases. Until now, no studies have focused on patients with chronic diseases and how they assess the long-term effect of participating in EOP cons...

  16. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: A pragmatic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L.U. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  17. Feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of preoperative therapeutic exercise in patients with cancer: a pragmatic study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, H.; Groot, J.F. de; Hulzebos, H.J.; Knikker, R. de; Kerkkamp, H.E.M.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this pilot study is to determine the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of an individually designed preoperative therapeutic exercise program (PreTEP), in patients recently diagnosed with cancer and awaiting elective surgery. The purpose is to improve their physical fitness levels

  18. Dynasplint Trismus System exercises for trismus secondary to head and neck cancer : a prospective explorative study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kamstra, Jolanda I.; Reintsema, Harry; Roodenburg, Jan L. N.; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    The Dynasplint Trismus System (DTS) can be used to treat trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. We conducted a prospective study with the following aims: (1) to determine the effects of DTS exercises on changes in mouth opening, pain, mandibular function, quality of life (QoL), and

  19. Exercise Self-Efficacy and Perceived Wellness among College Students in a Basic Studies Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidman, Cara L.; D'Abundo, Michelle Lee; Hritz, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    University basic studies courses provide a valuable opportunity for facilitating the knowledge, skills, and beliefs that develop healthy behaviors to last a lifetime. Belief in one's ability to participate in physical activity, exercise self-efficacy, is a psychological construct that has had a documented impact on physical activity. Although…

  20. Particle in a Disk: A Spectroscopic and Computational Laboratory Exercise Studying the Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Corannulene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, E. Ramsey; Sygula, Andrzej; Hammer, Nathan I.

    2014-01-01

    This laboratory exercise introduces undergraduate chemistry majors to the spectroscopic and theoretical study of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH), corannulene. Students explore the spectroscopic properties of corannulene using UV-vis and Raman vibrational spectroscopies. They compare their experimental results to simulated vibrational…

  1. Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: A population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, M.H.M.; Beem, A.L.; Stubbe, J.H.; Boomsma, D.I.; de Geus, E.J.C.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: To examine whether regular exercise is associated with anxiety, depression and personality in a large population-based sample as a function of gender and age. Methods: The sample consisted of adolescent and adult twins and their families (N = 19,288) who participated in the study on

  2. Regular exercise, anxiety, depression and personality: a population-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Moor, M. H. M.; Beem, A. L.; Stubbe, J. H.; Boomsma, D. I.; de Geus, E. J. C.

    2006-01-01

    To examine whether regular exercise is associated with anxiety, depression and personality in a large population-based sample as a function of gender and age. The sample consisted of adolescent and adult twins and their families (N=19,288) who participated in the study on lifestyle and health from

  3. Gaming and conventional exercises for improvement of arm function after stroke: a randomised controlled pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kottink, A.I.R.; Prange, Grada Berendina; Krabben, T.; Rietman, Johan Swanik; Buurke, Jaap

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The use of new technologies in rehabilitation, such as virtual reality and/or computerized gaming exercises, may be useful to enable patients to practice intensively in a motivating way. The objective of the present randomized controlled pilot study was to compare the effect of reach

  4. Functional stretching exercise submitted for spastic diplegic children: a randomized control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elshafey, Mohamed Ali; Abd-Elaziem, Adel; Gouda, Rana Elmarzouki

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Studying the effect of the functional stretching exercise in diplegic children. Design. Children were randomly assigned into two matched groups. Setting. Outpatient Clinic of the Faculty of Physical Therapy, Cairo University. Participants. Thirty ambulant spastic diplegic children, ranging in age from five to eight years, participated in this study. Interventions. The control group received physical therapy program with traditional passive stretching exercises. The study group received physical therapy program with functional stretching exercises. The treatment was performed for two hours per session, three times weekly for three successive months. Main Outcome Measure(s). H∖M ratio, popliteal angle, and gait parameters were evaluated for both groups before and after treatment. Results. There was significant improvement in all the measuring variables for both groups in favor of study group. H∖M ratio was reduced, popliteal angle was increased, and gait was improved. Conclusion(s). Functional stretching exercises were effectively used in rehabilitation of spastic diplegic children; it reduced H∖M ratio, increased popliteal angle, and improved gait.

  5. Responsiveness to exercise training in juvenile dermatomyositis: a twin case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roschel Hamilton

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM often present strong exercise intolerance and muscle weakness. However, the role of exercise training in this disease has not been investigated. Purpose this longitudinal case study reports on the effects of exercise training on a 7-year-old patient with JDM and on her unaffected monozygotic twin sister, who served as a control. Methods Both the patient who was diagnosed with JDM as well as her healthy twin underwent a 16-week exercise training program comprising aerobic and strengthening exercises. We assessed one repetition-maximum (1-RM leg-press and bench-press strength, balance, mobility and muscle function, blood markers of inflammation and muscle enzymes, aerobic conditioning, and disease activity scores. As a result, the healthy child had an overall greater absolute strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning compared to her JDM twin pair at baseline and after the trial. However, the twins presented comparable relative improvements in 1-RM bench press, 1-RM leg press, VO2peak, and time-to-exhaustion. The healthy child had greater relative increments in low-back strength and handgrip, whereas the child with JDM presented a higher relative increase in ventilatory anaerobic threshold parameters and functional tests. Quality of life, inflammation, muscle damage and disease activity scores remained unchanged. Results and Conclusion this was the first report to describe the training response of a patient with non-active JDM following an exercise training regimen. The child with JDM exhibited improved strength, muscle function and aerobic conditioning without presenting an exacerbation of the disease.

  6. Hand exercise intervention in patients with polymyositis and dermatomyositis: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regardt, Malin; Schult, Marie-Louise; Axelsson, Yvonne; Aldehag, Anna; Alexanderson, Helene; Lundberg, Ingrid E; Henriksson, Elisabet Welin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop a 12-week hand exercise intervention for patients with polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) and evaluate adherence, patients' opinions of the programme design and overall feasibility, and the effect on hand function and activity limitation after the intervention. A pilot hand exercise intervention was conducted on a convenience sample of 15 patients with reduced handgrip strength and established, inactive PM and DM. Acceptable adherence was set at 75%. The programme was evaluated based on patients' opinions regarding exertion, the movements involved and overall feasibility. Hand- and pinch-grip strength, grip ability, dexterity and activity limitation were assessed. Eleven of 15 patients completed the intervention, with acceptable adherence of 78-100%. Measures of handgrip strength, dexterity and activity limitation were reduced at baseline compared with normative data from the literature. Throughout the intervention, rates of perceived exertion were scored between 'moderate' and 'fairly strong'. Finger abduction and adduction were excluded from the hand exercise programme because they were not feasible to perform. Repetitions of the exercise increased gradually to a maximum of 30 per movement. Patients regarded this as too time-consuming and suggested ten repetitions daily or 10-20 repetitions 2-4 times per week. There were some individual, clinically meaningful improvements in hand function and activity limitation. A comparison between baseline and after the intervention showed that the three-jaw (tripod) pinch-grip strength (left hand) had increased (p hand exercise programme was found to be feasible to perform by patients with established PM or DM. The effect was limited, with few individual improvements in hand function and activity limitation, indicating a need to increase the resistance in the movements and to limit the duration of each exercise session. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability: An 8-year longitudinal observational study among musculoskeletal patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Vera; Paech, Juliane; Ziegelmann, Jochen P; Lippke, Sonia

    2016-06-13

    Physical exercise recommendations become particularly effective when embedded into medical rehabilitation. However, little is known about long-term behaviour maintenance and its effect on sickness absence and subjective employability. The current longitudinal observational study investigated self-reported physical exercise, sickness absence and subjective employability over a period of 8 years. A total of 601 (T0) outpatients (mean age 45.14 years; standard deviation 10.73 years, age range 18-65 years) with different orthopaedic disorders were recruited during their 3-week medical rehabilitation in Germany. Of these, 61.7% (n = 371) were female. Follow-ups were carried out at 6 months (T1, n = 495), 12 months (T2, n = 340), 3 years (T3, n = 296) and 8 years (T4, n = 142) after baseline. Patient characteristics, exercise status, social-cognitive variables, sickness absence and subjective employability were obtained via self-report questionnaires. SPSS hierarchical regression models were used for data analysis, controlling for baseline measures and sociodemographic variables. Physical exercise status 6 months after rehabilitation treatment (T1) predicted sickness absence at 12 months (T2). Inactive people were 3.28 times more likely to be on sick leave at T2. In addition, physical exercise at T1 predicted subjective employability 12 months (T2) and 3 years (T3) later. Those who met the recommendations to be physically active for at least 40 min a week were more likely to feel able to work. Exercise appears to play an important role in reducing sickness absence and subjective employability and should be promoted within and after rehabilitation treatment.

  8. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF AGILITY AND PERTURBATION EXERCISES VERSUS DYNAMIC RESISTANCE EXERCISES TO IMPROVE KNEE FUNCTION IN KNEE OSTEOARTHRITIS A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeutishree Roy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Primary osteoarthritis is more commonly found in post menopausal women; Secondary osteoarthritis had an underlying cause such as trauma, obesity or inflammatory arthritis. It is characterized by a progressive degeneration of the articular cartilage with subsequent remodeling and hypertrophy of the bone at the joint margins. Muscle weakness is associated with increased functional limitation, disability. Muscle strengthening through resistance exercises increases physical function; decreases pain due to osteoarthritis and reduces self reported disability. Agility is the ability to change direction and maintain stability and is more often important in changing direction and speed; In order to train muscle to react quickly neuromuscular training is essential; Perturbation enhances the ability of the proprioceptor signals to the muscle and prevent injuries and enhances performance. The aim of this study is to compare the effectiveness of agility training and dynamic resistance training in patients with primary osteoarthritis. Methods: 50 subjects were assigned in two groups 25 each group and subjects were selected by convenient sampling method. Group A with agility training and Group B with dynamic resistance training. The treatment session was performed 3 days a week for 3 weeks lasting for 45minutes. Day 0 is the starting day of the session and Day-21 last day of the session. Each subject performed all the measurement with knee function assessed by Timed up and Go test (TUG and Lower extremity function Scale (LEFS. Both outcomes were tested at starting day and at the end of 21st day. Results: All the analysis was carried out in PASW version 21.0. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to determine statistical significance. The between group analysis of agility training and dynamic strengthening for LEFS and TUG in evaluation of knee function was done using independent ‘t’ test showed statistically very significant (P=0.000. Conclusions

  9. Aerobic Exercise Improves Mood, Cognition, and Language Function in Parkinson's Disease: Results of a Controlled Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altmann, Lori J P; Stegemöller, Elizabeth; Hazamy, Audrey A; Wilson, Jonathan P; Bowers, Dawn; Okun, Michael S; Hass, Chris J

    2016-10-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) results in a range of non-motor deficits that can affect mood, cognition, and language, and many of these issues are unresponsive to pharmacological intervention. Aerobic exercise can improve mood and cognition in healthy older adults, although only a few studies have examined exercise effects on these domains in PD. The current study assesses the effects of aerobic exercise on aspects of cognition, mood, and language production in people with PD. This study compares the effects of aerobic exercise to stretch-balance training and a no-contact control group in participants with idiopathic PD. The aerobic and stretch-balance groups trained three times a week for 16 weeks, while controls continued normal activities. Outcome measures included disease severity, mood, cognition (speed of processing, memory, and executive function), and language production (picture descriptions). Cognition and language were assessed in single and dual task conditions. Depressive symptoms increased only in the control group (pexercise group only in the single task (p=.007) and declined in controls in the dual task. Completeness of picture descriptions improved significantly more in the aerobic group than in the stretch-balance group (pexercise is a viable intervention for PD that can be protective against increased depressive symptoms, and can improve several non-motor domains, including executive dysfunction and related aspects of language production. (JINS, 2016, 22, 878-889).

  10. Effects of mini trampoline exercise on male gymnasts' physiological parameters: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakollukçu, M; Aslan, C S; Paoli, A; Bianco, A; Sahin, F N

    2015-01-01

    There are limited studies that indicate the effects of trampoline exercise on strength and other physiological parameters. This study aims to determine whether twelve weeks of trampoline exercise would have any effects on the physical and physiological parameters of male gymnasts. A number of 20 intercollegiate competitive male gymnasts (as experimental group) and 20 non-athlete male (as control group) participated voluntarily. Their anthropometric characteristics and the anaerobic power were measured and their back strength, vertical jump, standing long jump and 20 meter sprint performances were measured. As a result; whereas 12 weeks of trampoline exercise improved standing long jump (before 242.35±3.40 cm; after 251.70±2.95 cm) and also vertical jump, 20 meter sprint speed and anaerobic power of subjects. We did not observe significant changes on back strength performances (before 148.32±5.73 kg; after 148.10±5.71). The trampoline exercise protocol improved significantly speed, jump and anaerobic performances of the experimental group, while did not induced any changes on back strength performances. More studies are necessary to confirm the interesting results coming from this pilot intervention.

  11. HIGH INTENSITY EXERCISE AND FLEXIBILITY OF THE LOWER LIMBS: DOSE-EFFECT STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Rafael Valentim-Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Introduction: Sports scientists have been studying the phenomenon involving different types of exercises and their influence on other activities. Stretching exercises have a negative influence on muscular strength and power output, as do high intensity or long duration cardiovascular training. Nevertheless, several studies have found the opposite to be true Nevertheless, few investigations have studied the opposite. Objective: To determine whether high intensity power exercise influences muscular flexibility in an acute manner. Methods: A sample of forty-three male and female young adults aged between 18 and 28 years, with a mean age of 22.88 + 3.04 years, who have practiced physical activity for at least six months. To determine flexibility, the sit-and-reach test was used. For the high intensity training, a 45º leg press was used. A 10-rep movement was performed at 85% of 1 RM, in both pre- and post-tests. Statistic analysis was conducted using the ANOVA and Scheffer's post-hoc tests, with a level of significance for differences of < 0.05. Results: Comparison of the pre- and post-tests proved to be statistically significant from the baseline from the fourth to the seventh repetitions. Conclusion: Strength exercises at 85% of 1RM seem to significantly increase range of motion in an acute manner, and the growth of this range of motion has a dose-effect response.

  12. Acute Effects of Classroom Exercise Breaks on Executive Function and Math Performance: A Dose-Response Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howie, Erin K.; Schatz, Jeffrey; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the acute dose-response relationship of classroom exercise breaks with executive function and math performance in 9- to 12-year-old children by comparing 5-min, 10-min, or 20-min classroom exercise breaks to 10 min of sedentary classroom activity. Method: This study used a within-subjects…

  13. The effects of yoga on psychosocial variables and exercise adherence: a randomized, controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan, Stephanie; Pinto Zipp, Genevieve; Parasher, Raju

    2012-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a serious issue for the American public. Because of conditions that result from inactivity, individuals incur close to $1 trillion USD in health-care costs, and approximately 250 000 premature deaths occur per year. Researchers have linked engaging in yoga to improved overall fitness, including improved muscular strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance. Researchers have not yet investigated the impact of yoga on exercise adherence. The research team assessed the effects of 10 weeks of yoga classes held twice a week on exercise adherence in previously sedentary adults. The research team designed a randomized controlled pilot trial. The team collected data from the intervention (yoga) and control groups at baseline, midpoint, and posttest (posttest 1) and also collected data pertaining to exercise adherence for the yoga group at 5 weeks posttest (posttest 2). The pilot took place in a yoga studio in central New Jersey in the United States. The pretesting occurred at the yoga studio for all participants. Midpoint testing and posttesting occurred at the studio for the yoga group and by mail for the control group. Participants were 27 adults (mean age 51 y) who had been physically inactive for a period of at least 6 months prior to the study. Interventions The intervention group (yoga group) received hour-long hatha yoga classes that met twice a week for 10 weeks. The control group did not participate in classes during the research study; however, they were offered complimentary post research classes. Outcome Measures The study's primary outcome measure was exercise adherence as measured by the 7-day Physical Activity Recall. The secondary measures included (1) exercise self-efficacy as measured by the Multidimensional Self-Efficacy for Exercise Scale, (2) general well-being as measured by the General Well-Being Schedule, (3) exercise-group cohesion as measured by the Group Environment Questionnaire (GEQ), (4) acute feeling response

  14. Experimental Studies of the Molecular Pathways Regulated by Exercise and Resveratrol in Heart, Skeletal Muscle and the Vasculature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon W. Dolinsky

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise contributes to healthy aging and the prevention of chronic disease. Recent research has focused on the development of molecules, such as resveratrol, that activate similar metabolic and stress response pathways as exercise training. In this review, we describe the effects of exercise training and resveratrol on some of the organs and tissues that act in concert to transport oxygen throughout the body. In particular, we focus on animal studies that investigate the molecular signaling pathways induced by these interventions. We also compare and contrast the effects of exercise and resveratrol in diseased states.

  15. Effect of individualized worksite exercise training on aerobic capacity and muscle strength among construction workers - a randomized controlled intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram, Bibi; Holtermann, Andreas; Søgaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    tailored exercise programs on their physical fitness and muscular capacity. METHOD: The study was a randomized controlled trial of male constructions workers allocated to either an exercise or control group. The intervention lasted 12 weeks, and the exercise group trained 3 x 20 minutes a week....... The participants completed health checks before and after the intervention period. Data from the first health check were used to tailor the exercise in the interventions. RESULTS: At baseline, participants had maximal oxygen consumption (VO (2max)) of 2.9 [standard deviation (SD) 0.7L/min] and body mass index (BMI...

  16. Back to the basics: regular exercise matters in parkinson's disease: results from the National Parkinson Foundation QII registry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguh, O; Eisenstein, A; Kwasny, M; Simuni, T

    2014-11-01

    There is a substantial interest in the impact of exercise on reduction of disability and rate of progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). The primary aim was to describe exercise habits of PD patients and factors associated with greater levels of exercise. The secondary aim was to explore whether regular exercise is associated with a slower decline of function, disease-related quality of life, and caregiver burden. The National Parkinson's Foundation (NPF) QII Registry data was used to analyze variables that correlate with levels of exercise in PD patients across disease severity. Subjects were categorized into three groups: non-exercisers (0 min/week), low exercisers (1-150 min/week), and regular exercisers (>150 min/week). Health related outcomes, disease metrics, and demographic factors associated with exercise were examined using bivariate analyses. Multiple regression models controlled for disease duration, severity, and cognitive function. An exploratory analysis was completed on the association of baseline level of exercise with health outcomes at one year follow up. 4866 subjects were included in the baseline analysis and 2252 subjects who had second visits were included in the longitudinal data. Regular exercisers at baseline were associated with better QOL, mobility, and physical function, less progression of disease, less caregiver burden and less cognitive decline one year later, after controlling for demographic and disease severity variables. This study provides important preliminary evidence of the beneficial effects of regular exercise in a large PD cohort. Longitudinal studies will be essential to confirm findings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-invasive ventilation abolishes the IL-6 response to exercise in muscle-wasted COPD patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannink, J D C; van Hees, H W H; Dekhuijzen, P N R; van Helvoort, H A C; Heijdra, Y F

    2014-02-01

    Systemic inflammation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has been related to the development of comorbidities. The level of systemic inflammatory mediators is aggravated as a response to exercise in these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate whether unloading of the respiratory muscles attenuates the inflammatory response to exercise in COPD patients. In a cross-over design, eight muscle-wasted stable COPD patients performed 40 W constant work-rate cycle exercise with and without non-invasive ventilation support (NIV vs control). Patients exercised until symptom limitation for maximally 20 min. Blood samples were taken at rest and at isotime or immediately after exercise. Duration of control and NIV-supported exercise was similar, both 12.9 ± 2.8 min. Interleukin- 6 (IL-6) plasma levels increased significantly by 25 ± 9% in response to control exercise, but not in response to NIV-supported exercise. Leukocyte concentrations increased similarly after control and NIV-supported exercise by ∼15%. Plasma concentrations of C-reactive protein, carbonylated proteins, and production of reactive oxygen species by blood cells were not affected by both exercise modes. This study demonstrates that NIV abolishes the IL-6 response to exercise in muscle-wasted patients with COPD. These data suggest that the respiratory muscles contribute to exercise-induced IL-6 release in these patients. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Erratic control of breathing during exercise in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus: a pilot-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Prado, D M L; Gualano, B; Miossi, R; Lima, F R; Roschel, H; Borba, E; Bonfa, E; de Sá Pinto, A L

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the pattern and timing of breathing during incremental exercise in a sample of women living with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). In this cross-sectional study, 20 women with SLE without pulmonary involvement were compared with 20 gender-, body mass index- (BMI), and age-matched healthy individuals. By using a cardiopulmonary incremental exercise test, the following parameters were assessed: tidal volume (VT); breathing frequency (BF); total respiratory time (TOT); inspiratory time (TI); expiratory time (TE); inspiratory time to total time (TI/TOT); mean inspiratory flow (VT/TI); ventilatory equivalent for carbon dioxide (VE/VCO2) and end-tidal carbon dioxide pressure (PETCO2). BF and BF/VT were significantly higher in patients with SLE versus controls, whereas VT, TE, TI and TOT were significantly lower in the former group ( pexercise in SLE. Considering that an erratic control of breathing may play an important role in exercise intolerance and fatigue, respiratory exercises emerge as a potential treatment for these symptoms in patients with SLE.

  19. Information needs of cancer patients and survivors regarding diet, exercise and weight management: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Martin, G; Koczwara, B; Smith, E L; Miller, M D

    2014-05-01

    While advanced cancer is often associated with weight loss, curative cancer treatment is often associated with weight gain. Weight gain during treatment may be associated with greater risk of cancer recurrence and development of lifestyle diseases. Currently, limited resources are available to cancer patients focussed on weight control. This study assessed the information needs of patients undergoing curative chemotherapy regarding diet, exercise and weight management for the purpose of developing weight management resources. Focus groups were held with oncology practitioners, patients and survivors to determine current information provision and needs. Focus groups highlighted a perception that information provision regarding diet, exercise and weight management is insufficient and no routine assessment of weight occurs during chemotherapy. Barriers to information provision described included lack of resources and time, and practitioners' uncertainty regarding appropriate messages to provide. Patients wanted more information regarding diet, exercise and weight during treatment time. The findings of this study suggest an increase in provision of diet, exercise and weight management information is needed. This information should be evidence-based and delivered at an appropriate time by the preferred health care professional. It would also be beneficial to implement protocols regarding assessment of weight during treatment. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. A study to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in patients with schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bineeta Nath

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Psychotic disorders are some of the most severe, chronic, and intractable psychiatric disorders. Schizophrenia is a common and unsolved mental health problem in the world today. Negative symptoms are those symptoms that tend to reflect diminution or loss of normal functions like apathy, anhedonia, alogia, avolition, affective flattening, or social isolation. Exercise is useful for the reduction of some of the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, depression, and anxiety, and also to reduce auditory hallucinations and improve sleep patterns, self-esteem, and general behaviour in people living with schizophrenia. Aim of the study was to assess the effectiveness of planned exercise programme in negative symptoms among patients with schizophrenia. Methodology: A quasi experimental research design was used for this study. Total 60 samples were assigned into two groups with 30 in control group and 30 in experimental group. The data was collected by using structured socio-demographic proforma, Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and Scale for Assessment of Negative symptoms. Result: There was a statistically significant difference in pre and post test scores in both control and experimental groups. But statistically significant difference in post test mean scores on negative symptoms between control and experimental groups indicated effectiveness of planned exercise programme along with medical and nursing care. Conclusion: The findings concluded that planned exercise programme with routine medical and nursing care was effective in reduction of negative symptoms in schizophrenia patients.

  1. Visual and Motor Recovery After "Cognitive Therapeutic Exercises" in Cortical Blindness: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Patre, Daniele; Van de Winckel, Ann; Panté, Franca; Rizzello, Carla; Zernitz, Marina; Mansour, Mariam; Zordan, Lara; Zeffiro, Thomas A; OʼConnor, Erin E; Bisson, Teresa; Lupi, Andrea; Perfetti, Carlo

    2017-07-01

    Spontaneous visual recovery is rare after cortical blindness. While visual rehabilitation may improve performance, no visual therapy has been widely adopted, as clinical outcomes are variable and rarely translate into improvements in activities of daily living (ADLs). We explored the potential value of a novel rehabilitation approach "cognitive therapeutic exercises" for cortical blindness. The subject of this case study was 48-year-old woman with cortical blindness and tetraplegia after cardiac arrest. Prior to the intervention, she was dependent in ADLs and poorly distinguished shapes and colors after 19 months of standard visual and motor rehabilitation. Computed tomographic images soon after symptom onset demonstrated acute infarcts in both occipital cortices. The subject underwent 8 months of intensive rehabilitation with "cognitive therapeutic exercises" consisting of discrimination exercises correlating sensory and visual information. Visual fields increased; object recognition improved; it became possible to watch television; voluntary arm movements improved in accuracy and smoothness; walking improved; and ADL independence and self-reliance increased. Subtraction of neuroimaging acquired before and after rehabilitation showed that focal glucose metabolism increases bilaterally in the occipital poles. This study demonstrates feasibility of "cognitive therapeutic exercises" in an individual with cortical blindness, who experienced impressive visual and sensorimotor recovery, with marked ADL improvement, more than 2 years after ischemic cortical damage.Video Abstract available for additional insights from the authors (see Video, Supplemental Digital Content 1, available at: http://links.lww.com/JNPT/A173).

  2. Association of serum myokines and aerobic exercise training in patients with spinal cord injury: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Der-Sheng; Hsiao, Ming-Yen; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Chen, Ssu-Yuan; Yang, Wei-Shiung

    2016-08-17

    Patients with spinal cord injury (SCI) have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular diseases compared to the healthy population. Aerobic exercise training is one of the recommended treatments. However, literature regarding the effect of aerobic training on patients with SCI is scarce. This study evaluated changes in parameters of exercise physiology and serum myokines immediately after exercise and after a training program among patients with SCI. Male patients with SCI and age- and sex-matched healthy individuals were recruited. Cardio-pulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was used to determine oxygen uptake at peak exercise and anaerobic threshold in both groups. The patients with SCI attended aerobic exercise training for 36 sessions within 12-16 weeks. Basic data, hemodynamic and exercise physiology parameters, and serum myokine (myostatin, IGF-1, and follistatin) concentrations were measured pre- and post-exercise in both groups, and were repeated in patients with SCI post-training. Eleven patients with SCI underwent CPET and 5 completed the training. The 11 patients and 16 healthy adults had no differences in baseline serum myokine concentrations before CPET. Immediately after the CPET, the reference group had an 18 ± 19 % increase in serum IGF-1, while the patients had no observable myokine changes. After aerobic exercise training, the 5 patients had a 48 ± 18 % increase in serum myostatin compared to the pre-training level, although the body weight and exercise physiology parameters remained unchanged. Acute exercise to exhaustion in CPET results in an immediate increase in serum IGF-1 in healthy individuals while aerobic exercise training results in increased serum myostatin in patients with SCI.

  3. A randomized comparison study regarding the impact of short-duration, high-intensity exercise and traditional exercise on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in post-menopausal women--A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Joan A Cebrick; Payne, Ellen K

    2016-03-01

    The mode and duration of exercise necessary to change body composition and reduce weight remains debatable. Menopause results in hormonal changes that preclude weight loss. This randomized pilot study compared the effects of short-duration, high-intensity interval training and traditional exercise on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in post-menopausal women. To compare the effects of short-duration, high-intensity interval training and traditional methods of exercise (walking) on anthropometric, body composition and body weight change over a 12-week period. Subjects (N = 18) were post-menopausal, sedentary female volunteers, randomly assigned into one of two exercise groups. Both groups exercised five out of seven days for 12 weeks. The resistance group (n = 8) (54.3 ± 7.3 years; BMI = 28.0 ± 2.1 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) exercised for 15.0 ± 3.5 min, which consisted of five different exercise routines including upper and lower extremity, a cardio segment, yoga and abdominal exercises. The walkers (n = 10) (56.6 ± 5.2 years; BMI = 29.2 ± 2.6 kg/m(2); mean ± SD) exercised for 40.0 ± 5.0 min at 65% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate. Relative (%) body fat was measured via DEXA scan, along with five anthropometric measurements, all of which were taken prior to and after 12 weeks. Independent sample t-tests were probed for differences, p ≤ 0.05. No statistically significant changes were determined between the groups for pre-and post-measurements. The outcomes of this study provide a foundation for future comparisons of short-duration high-intensity interval training exercise and traditional exercise, or walking, on anthropometric and body composition measurement changes in sedentary, overweight, post-menopausal females over a 12-week period. © The Author(s) 2016.

  4. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative (1)H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied (1)H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  5. Perceptions of issues relating to exercise and joint health in rheumatoid arthritis: a UK-based questionnaire study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Rebecca-Jane; Markland, David A; Jones, Jeremy G; Maddison, Peter J; Thom, Jeanette M

    2013-09-01

    This questionnaire study investigated the perceptions of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients across the UK in relation to exercise and joint health. The validity of the measure was also assessed. Members of the National Rheumatoid Arthritis Society (NRAS) with self-reported RA completed the questionnaire online. Items related to five factors that emerged from previous qualitative research. Participants responded using a five-point Likert-style scale (strongly disagree to strongly agree). The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) assessed physical activity. The model was tested using confirmatory factor analysis (LISREL 8.8); statistical analyses were conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). A total of 247 responses were collected over 47 days (88% females; age: 18-77 years; disease duration: Health professionals show exercise knowledge' (19%); 'Knowing what exercise should be done' (43%); 'Having to exercise because it is helpful' (72%); 'Worry about causing harm to joints' (44%); and 'Not wanting to exercise as joints hurt' (52%). Patient concerns about joint pain, joint harm and how to exercise were significantly associated with lower physical activity (p exercise as beneficial. However, concerns about how to exercise, joint pain, causing harm to joints and a perceived lack of exercise knowledge among health professionals remain. Addressing these concerns may have implications for increasing physical activity within the RA population. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Stress is associated with exercise differently among individuals with higher and lower eating disorder symptoms: An ecological momentary assessment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sala, Margarita; Brosof, Leigh C; Rosenfield, David; Fernandez, Katya C; Levinson, Cheri A

    2017-11-03

    Stress is associated with the maintenance of eating disorders and exercise behaviors. However, it is unclear how stress is associated with exercise and vice-versa among individuals with higher levels of eating disorder symptoms in daily life. The current study tested the moderating effect of eating disorder symptoms on the relationships between: (1) daily stress and later exercise behavior and (2) daily exercise behavior and later stress. Female college students [N = 129, mean age = 19.19 (SD = 1.40)] completed the Eating Disorder Inventory-2. Participants then completed measures of stress and exercise four times daily across seven days using an automated telephone ecological momentary assessment system. Data were analyzed using multilevel models. Drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, and body dissatisfaction significantly moderated the relationship between daily stress and later exercise (ps = .01-.05), such that higher daily stress predicted higher later exercise only in individuals who were low (but not average or high) in drive for thinness, bulimic symptoms, and body dissatisfaction symptoms. Stress is associated with exercise differentially depending on individuals' eating disorder symptoms. Our findings suggest that only individuals with lower levels of eating disorder symptoms exercise when stressed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Moderate intensity supine exercise causes decreased cardiac volumes and increased outer volume variations: a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Jablonowski, Robert; Arvidsson, Per M

    2013-01-01

    The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study ...... was to determine if LV, RV and total heart volumes (THV) as well as cardiac pumping mechanisms change during physical exercise compared to rest using cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR).......The effects on left and right ventricular (LV, RV) volumes during physical exercise remains controversial. Furthermore, no previous study has investigated the effects of exercise on longitudinal contribution to stroke volume (SV) and the outer volume variation of the heart. The aim of this study...

  8. Aquatic aerobic exercise for children with cerebral palsy: a pilot intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragala-Pinkham, Maria A; Smith, Hilary J; Lombard, Kelly A; Barlow, Carrie; O'Neil, Margaret E

    2014-02-01

    The primary purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a14-week aquatic exercise program on gross motor function and walking endurance in children with cerebral palsy (CP). The secondary purpose was to evaluate changes in functional strength, aerobic capacity and balance. A prospective time series group design consisting of four measurement sessions (two baseline, one post intervention, and 1-month follow-up) was used. Eight ambulatory children ages 6-15 years with CP and classified at Gross Motor Function Classification System Level I or Level III participated in an aquatic aerobic exercise program. Significant improvements were observed for the primary outcomes of gross motor function and walking endurance. No significant differences between any of the secondary measures were observed, although all of the measures demonstrated trends of improvement after intervention. Ambulatory children with CP may improve their gross motor skills and walking endurance after an aquatic exercise program held twice per week for 14 weeks, utilizing moderate-to-vigorous exercise intensity and consisting of functional activities.

  9. Abdominal crunch exercise analysis performed with maximum and submaximum loads: An electromyographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Moura

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the electromyographic activity of the rectus abdominis and obliquus externus abdominis during abdominal crunch exercise performed with maximum and submaximum loads. Thirteen male and female university students participated in this investigation (18-23 years old. The subjects completed abdominal crunch exercise until exhaustion with 20, 40, 60 and 80% of the maximum load. The root-mean-square (RMS from electromyography activity of the rectus abdominis and obliquus externus muscles from the first and last three repetitions from each workload performed was analyzed. RMS for the last repetitions increased in relation to the first repetitions for the 20% workload, first two repetitions on 40% workload and first repetition on the 80% workload. There was no difference for the 60% workload. Results showed that external load on abdominal crunch exercise might be an alternative to increase intensity while performing abdominal crunch exercise, which on its turn can be a practical tool for subjects that aim to increase abdominal strength level.

  10. A pilot study using the XBOX Kinect for exercise conditioning in sedentary female university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roopchand-Martin, Sharmella; Nelson, Gail; Gordon, Carron; Sing, Shanice Yee

    2015-01-01

    There is little research exploring training effects of engaging in active video gaming activities. This study sought to determine the cardiovascular and metabolic responses, changes in flexibility and exercise adherence to an aerobic dance exercise programme using the XBOX Kinect over a 6 week training period. Training was conducted using the Just Dance 4 disc on the XBOX Kinect 360. Participants attended five, 30 minute sessions per week for the first two weeks, four 45 minute sessions per week for the next two weeks and three 60 minute sessions per week for the last two weeks. Outcomes assessed included flexibility, body mass index (BMI), percentage body fat, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), resting and post exercise blood pressure, heart rate and blood lactate levels. There were significant improvements in flexibility, maximal oxygen consumption and resting heart rate. There were no significant changes in BMI, percentage body fat or blood lactate levels. Nine (37.5%) participants continued to engage in this form of exercise at least 3-days per week over the 3-month post intervention follow-up period. Engaging in dancing using dance videogames can lead to improved cardiovascular conditioning and flexibility in sedentary female university students.

  11. Is Green Exercise for All? A Descriptive Study of Green Exercise Habits and Promoting Factors in Adult Norwegians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calogiuri, Giovanna; Patil, Grete G; Aamodt, Geir

    2016-11-23

    Background: Physical activity (PA) in natural environments, known as green exercise (GE), can provide health benefits above and beyond PA in other environments, but little is known about the extent to which GE is an accessible form of weekly PA across different social groups. This study aims to examine the "GE phenomenon" in Norway, and evaluate possible differences in GE habits and perceived factors that promote GE across sub-groups of this population. Methods: 2168 adults from all over Norway reported weekly GE and other forms of PA, specific forms of GE, and perceived factors that promote GE. Data were examined in the overall sample and in relation with the respondents' PA status and sociodemographic characteristics. Results: GE, especially "walking in the forest" and "activities by/on the sea", was the most popular form of weekly PA, even among those with low PA levels. GE was fairly represented across all social groups, and especially among the elderly, those who live with spouse/partner and those who live in the west regions of Norway, while no associations were found in relation to sex, centrality, education level or household income. "Time flexibility" and "PA-supportive places" were generally perceived as the most important factors that promote GE across all social groups. "Accessibility to nature" was generally perceived relatively little important, though a gradient was observed in relation to age, education level and household income. Conclusions: GE is an important source of weekly PA and health among adult Norwegians, especially in sub-groups of interest for public health such as the elderly, those with lower socio-economic status and those who live in non-urban areas. More should be done to understand and address the inequities relative to the perceived accessibility to nature.

  12. Cardiopulmonary Function, Exercise Capacity, and Echocardiography Finding of Pediatric Patients With Kawasaki Disease: An Observational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuan, Sheng-Hui; Li, Min-Hui; Hsu, Miao-Ju; Tsai, Yun-Jeng; Chen, Yin-Han; Liao, Tin-Yun; Lin, Ko-Long

    2016-01-01

    Coronary artery (CA) abnormalities influence exercise capacity (EC) of patients with Kawasaki disease (KD), and Z-score of CA is a well established method for detecting CA aneurysm. We studied the influence of KD on cardiopulmonary function and EC; meanwhile we analyzed echocardiographic findings of KD patients. We also assessed the correlation between CA Z-score and EC of KD patients to see if CA Z-score of KD patients could reflect EC during exercise.Sixty-three KD patients were recruited as KD group 1 from children (aged 5-18 y) who received transthoracic echocardiographic examinations and symptom-limited treadmill exercise test for regular follow-up of KD from January 2010 to October 2014 in 1 medical center. We then divided KD group 1 into KD group 2 (LCA or RCA by Dalliarre equation or Fuse calculator.All routine parameters measured during standard exercise test were similar between KD and control groups, except that peak rate pressure products (PRPPs) in KD group 1 to 3 were all lower than corresponding control groups significantly (P = 0.010, 0.020, and 0.049, respectively). PRPPs correlated with Max-Z of CA by both equations modest inversely (by Dallaire, P = 0.017, Spearman rho = -0.301; by Fuse, P = 0.014, Spearman rho = -0.309).Our study recruited larger number of KD patients and provided a newer data of EC of KD patients. Our finding suggests that after acute stage of KD, patients could maintain normal cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we believe that it is important to promote cardiovascular health to KD patients and KD patients should exercise as normal peers. However, since KD patients might still have compromised coronary perfusion during exercise, it remains crucial to assess and monitor cardiovascular risk of KD patients. Max-Z of CA correlates with PRPP modest inversely and might be used as a follow-up indicator of CA reserve during exercise after acute stage of KD.

  13. DYNAMIC HIP ADDUCTION, ABDUCTION AND ABDOMINAL EXERCISES FROM THE HOLMICH GROIN-INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAM ARE INTENSE ENOUGH TO BE CONSIDERED STRENGTHENING EXERCISES - A CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krommes, Kasper; Bandholm, Thomas; Jakobsen, Markus D

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Training intensity is an important variable in strength training and above 80% of one repetition maximum is recommended for promoting strength for athletes. Four dynamic and two isometric on-field exercises are included in the Hölmich groin-injury prevention study that initially faile...

  14. The effect of high-intensity exhaustive exercise studied in isolated mitochondria from human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, U.F.; Krustrup, Peter; Bangsbo, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Bicycle exercise; cytochromes; Fatigue; Lactate; Oxidative phosphorylation; Oxygen uptake; Quadriceps muscle; Respiration......Bicycle exercise; cytochromes; Fatigue; Lactate; Oxidative phosphorylation; Oxygen uptake; Quadriceps muscle; Respiration...

  15. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome – a case study exercise testing in master cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rüst CA

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Christoph Alexander Rüst,1 Beat Knechtle,1,2 Thomas Rosemann11Institute of General Practice and Health Services Research, University of Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland; 2Gesundheitszentrum St Gallen, St Gallen, SwitzerlandAbstract: The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery, a 40%–50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery. The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect

  16. Tai chi chuan: mind-body practice or exercise intervention? Studying the benefit for cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansky, Patrick; Sannes, Tim; Wallerstedt, Dawn; Ge, Adeline; Ryan, Mary; Johnson, Laura Lee; Chesney, Margaret; Gerber, Lynn

    2006-09-01

    Tai chi chuan (TCC) has been used as a mind-body practice in Asian culture for centuries to improve wellness and reduce stress and has recently received attention by researchers as an exercise intervention. A review of the English literature on research in TCC published from 1989 to 2006 identified 20 prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trials in a number of populations, including elderly participants (7 studies), patients with cardiovascular complications (3 studies), patients with chronic disease (6 studies), and patients who might gain psychological benefit from TCC practice (2 studies). However, only the studies of TCC in the elderly and 2 studies of TCC for cardiovascular disease had adequate designs and size to allow conclusions about the efficacy of TCC. Most (11 studies) were small and provided limited information on the benefit of TCC in the settings tested. There is growing awareness that cancer survivors represent a population with multiple needs related to physical deconditioning, cardiovascular disease risk, and psychological stress. TCC as an intervention may provide benefit to cancer survivors in these multiple areas of need based on its characteristics of combining aspects of meditation and aerobic exercise. However, little research has been conducted to date to determine the benefit of TCC in this population. We propose a model to study the unique characteristics of TCC compared to physical exercise that may highlight characteristic features of this mind-body intervention in cancer survivors.

  17. Build Better Bones With Exercise: Protocol for a Feasibility Study of a Multicenter Randomized Controlled Trial of 12 Months of Home Exercise in Women With a Vertebral Fracture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabane, Lehana; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Ashe, Maureen C.; Bleakney, Robert R.; Braun, E. Anne; Cheung, Angela M.; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Gibbs, Jenna C.; Hill, Keith D.; Hodsman, Anthony B.; Kendler, David L.; Mittmann, Nicole; Prasad, Sadhana; Scherer, Samuel C.; Wark, John D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Background Our goal is to conduct a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate whether exercise can reduce incident fractures compared with no intervention among women aged ≥65 years with a vertebral fracture. Objectives This pilot study will determine the feasibility of recruitment, retention, and adherence for the proposed trial. Design The proposed RCT will be a pilot feasibility study with 1:1 randomization to exercise or attentional control groups. Setting Five Canadian sites (1 community hospital partnered with an academic center and 4 academic hospitals or centers affiliated with an academic center) and 2 Australian centers (1 academic hospital and 1 center for community primary care, geriatric, and rehabilitation services). Participants One hundred sixty women aged ≥65 years with vertebral fracture at 5 Canadian and 2 Australian centers will be recruited. Intervention The Build Better Bones With Exercise (B3E) intervention includes exercise and behavioral counseling, delivered by a physical therapist in 6 home visits over 8 months, and monthly calls; participants are to exercise ≥3 times weekly. Controls will receive equal attention. Measurements Primary outcomes will include recruitment, retention, and adherence. Adherence to exercise will be assessed via calendar diary. Secondary outcomes will include physical function (lower extremity strength, mobility, and balance), posture, and falls. Additional secondary outcomes will include quality of life, pain, fall self-efficacy, behavior change variables, intervention cost, fractures, and adverse events. Analyses of feasibility objectives will be descriptive or based on estimates with 95% confidence intervals, where feasibility will be assessed relative to a priori criteria. Differences in secondary outcomes will be evaluated in intention-to-treat analyses via independent Student t tests, chi-square tests, or logistic regression. The Bonferroni method will be used to adjust the level of

  18. Build better bones with exercise: protocol for a feasibility study of a multicenter randomized controlled trial of 12 months of home exercise in women with a vertebral fracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giangregorio, Lora M; Thabane, Lehana; Adachi, Jonathan D; Ashe, Maureen C; Bleakney, Robert R; Braun, E Anne; Cheung, Angela M; Fraser, Lisa-Ann; Gibbs, Jenna C; Hill, Keith D; Hodsman, Anthony B; Kendler, David L; Mittmann, Nicole; Prasad, Sadhana; Scherer, Samuel C; Wark, John D; Papaioannou, Alexandra

    2014-09-01

    Our goal is to conduct a multicenter randomized controlled trial (RCT) to investigate whether exercise can reduce incident fractures compared with no intervention among women aged ≥65 years with a vertebral fracture. This pilot study will determine the feasibility of recruitment, retention, and adherence for the proposed trial. The proposed RCT will be a pilot feasibility study with 1:1 randomization to exercise or attentional control groups. Five Canadian sites (1 community hospital partnered with an academic center and 4 academic hospitals or centers affiliated with an academic center) and 2 Australian centers (1 academic hospital and 1 center for community primary care, geriatric, and rehabilitation services). One hundred sixty women aged ≥65 years with vertebral fracture at 5 Canadian and 2 Australian centers will be recruited. The Build Better Bones With Exercise (B3E) intervention includes exercise and behavioral counseling, delivered by a physical therapist in 6 home visits over 8 months, and monthly calls; participants are to exercise ≥3 times weekly. Controls will receive equal attention. Primary outcomes will include recruitment, retention, and adherence. Adherence to exercise will be assessed via calendar diary. Secondary outcomes will include physical function (lower extremity strength, mobility, and balance), posture, and falls. Additional secondary outcomes will include quality of life, pain, fall self-efficacy, behavior change variables, intervention cost, fractures, and adverse events. Analyses of feasibility objectives will be descriptive or based on estimates with 95% confidence intervals, where feasibility will be assessed relative to a priori criteria. Differences in secondary outcomes will be evaluated in intention-to-treat analyses via independent Student t tests, chi-square tests, or logistic regression. The Bonferroni method will be used to adjust the level of significance for secondary outcomes so the overall alpha level is .05. No

  19. Study of Hyperkyphosis, Exercise and Function (SHEAF) Protocol of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Multimodal Spine-Strengthening Exercise in Older Adults With Hyperkyphosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, Wendy B; Vittinghoff, Eric; Kado, Deborah M; Schafer, Anne L; Wong, Shirley S; Gladin, Amy; Lane, Nancy E

    2016-03-01

    Hyperkyphosis negatively affects health status, physical mobility, and quality of life, but there is no standard protocol for treating people with hyperkyphosis. Treatment options include targeted exercise. This single-site randomized controlled trial (RCT) will determine the efficacy of a targeted multimodal spine-strengthening exercise program, compared with no exercise intervention, among community-dwelling men and women aged ≥60 years. The RCT is a parallel-group design, with 1:1 randomization to exercise and attentional control groups. The study will be conducted at one primary site (one academic medical center partnered with one local community medical center). One hundred men and women, aged ≥60 years, with thoracic kyphosis ≥40 degrees will be randomized. The targeted multimodal spine-strengthening exercise intervention includes exercise and postural training delivered by a physical therapist in a group of 10 participants, 3 times a week for 6 months. Controls receive monthly health education meetings in a group of 10 participants and monthly calls from the study coordinator to monitor physical activity and any adverse events. The primary outcome is change in Cobb angle of kyphosis measured from lateral spine radiographs at baseline and 6 months. Secondary outcomes include change in physical function (assessed with the modified Physical Performance Test, Timed "Up & Go" Test, timed loaded standing, 4-m walk, and Six-Minute Walk Test) and health-related quality of life (assessed with the modified Scoliosis Research Society instrument [SRS-30] self-image domain and Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System [PROMIS] global health and physical function indexes). Additional secondary outcomes include pain, physical activity level, spinal flexion and extension muscle strength, paraspinal extensor muscle density, and adverse events. Blinding of the participants and instructors providing the intervention is not possible. The efficacy of a high

  20. Effect of thrombolytic therapy on exercise response during early recovery from acute myocardial infarction: a placebo controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Madsen, J K; Saunamäki, K I

    1992-01-01

    Several studies have shown that infarct size is reduced following thrombolytic treatment in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Exercise test variables, such as an impaired heart rate response during exercise, are known to be related to left ventricular function and patient prognosis follo...

  1. The Impact of Aquatic Exercise on Sleep Behaviors in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oriel, Kathryn N.; Kanupka, Jennifer Wood; DeLong, Kylee S.; Noel, Kelsie

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine if participation in an aquatic exercise program improves sleep in children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Participants included 8 children. An A-B-A withdrawal design was utilized. Each phase lasted for 4 weeks. The treatment included 60 min of aquatic exercise 2X/week. Phone calls to parents…

  2. 'Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of individually prescribed exercise versus usual care in a heterogeneous cancer survivor population': A feasibility study PEACH Trial: Prescribed exercise after chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guinan Emer

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many cancer survivors suffer a range of physical and psychological symptoms which may persist for months or years after cessation of treatment. Despite the known benefits of exercise and its potential to address many of the adverse effects of treatment, the role of exercise as well as optimum duration, frequency, and intensity in this population has yet to be fully elucidated. Many cancer rehabilitation programmes presented in the literature are very long and have tight eligibility criteria which make them non-applicable to the majority of cancer survivors. This paper presents the protocol of a novel 8-week intervention which aims to increase fitness, and address other physical symptoms in a heterogeneous cancer survivor population. Methods/design The aim is to recruit 64 cancer survivors 2-6 months after completion of chemotherapy, usually adjuvant, with curative intent. Subjects will be recruited through oncology clinics in a single institution and randomised to usual care or an exercise intervention. The exercise intervention consists of two specifically tailored supervised moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions weekly over 8-weeks. All participants will be assessed at baseline (0 weeks, at the end of the intervention (8 weeks, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is fitness, and secondary patient-related outcome measures include fatigue, quality of life, and morphological outcomes. A further secondary outcome is process evaluation including adherence to and compliance with the exercise program. Discussion This study will provide valuable information about the physical outcomes of this 8-week supervised aerobic programme. Additionally, process information and economic evaluation will inform the feasibility of implementing this program in a heterogeneous population post cessation of chemotherapy. Trial Registration NCT01030887

  3. Human Muscle Protein Synthetic Responses during Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Exercise: A Comparative Study of Exercise Modes and Recovery Nutrition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan M Pasiakos

    Full Text Available Effects of conventional endurance (CE exercise and essential amino acid (EAA supplementation on protein turnover are well described. Protein turnover responses to weighted endurance exercise (i.e., load carriage, LC and EAA may differ from CE, because the mechanical forces and contractile properties of LC and CE likely differ. This study examined muscle protein synthesis (MPS and whole-body protein turnover in response to LC and CE, with and without EAA supplementation, using stable isotope amino acid tracer infusions. Forty adults (mean ± SD, 22 ± 4 y, 80 ± 10 kg, VO 2peak 4.0 ± 0.5 L ∙ min(-1 were randomly assigned to perform 90 min, absolute intensity-matched (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2 L ∙ m(-1 LC (performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass, mean ± SD load carried 24 ± 3 kg or CE (cycle ergometry performed at the same absolute VO2 as LC exercise, during which EAA (10 g EAA, 3.6 g leucine or control (CON, non-nutritive drinks were consumed. Mixed-muscle and myofibrillar MPS were higher during exercise for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05, independent of dietary treatment. EAA enhanced mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS during exercise, regardless of mode (drink main effect, P < 0.05. Mixed-muscle and sarcoplasmic MPS were higher in recovery for LC than CE (mode main effect, P < 0.05. No other differences or interactions (mode x drink were observed. However, EAA attenuated whole-body protein breakdown, increased amino acid oxidation, and enhanced net protein balance in recovery compared to CON, regardless of exercise mode (P < 0.05. These data show that, although whole-body protein turnover responses to absolute VO2-matched LC and CE are the same, LC elicited a greater muscle protein synthetic response than CE.

  4. 'Pragmatic randomized controlled trial of individually prescribed exercise versus usual care in a heterogeneous cancer survivor population': a feasibility study PEACH trial: prescribed exercise after chemotherapy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, Julie M

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many cancer survivors suffer a range of physical and psychological symptoms which may persist for months or years after cessation of treatment. Despite the known benefits of exercise and its potential to address many of the adverse effects of treatment, the role of exercise as well as optimum duration, frequency, and intensity in this population has yet to be fully elucidated. Many cancer rehabilitation programmes presented in the literature are very long and have tight eligibility criteria which make them non-applicable to the majority of cancer survivors. This paper presents the protocol of a novel 8-week intervention which aims to increase fitness, and address other physical symptoms in a heterogeneous cancer survivor population. METHODS\\/DESIGN: The aim is to recruit 64 cancer survivors 2-6 months after completion of chemotherapy, usually adjuvant, with curative intent. Subjects will be recruited through oncology clinics in a single institution and randomised to usual care or an exercise intervention. The exercise intervention consists of two specifically tailored supervised moderate intensity aerobic exercise sessions weekly over 8-weeks. All participants will be assessed at baseline (0 weeks), at the end of the intervention (8 weeks), and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome measure is fitness, and secondary patient-related outcome measures include fatigue, quality of life, and morphological outcomes. A further secondary outcome is process evaluation including adherence to and compliance with the exercise program. DISCUSSION: This study will provide valuable information about the physical outcomes of this 8-week supervised aerobic programme. Additionally, process information and economic evaluation will inform the feasibility of implementing this program in a heterogeneous population post cessation of chemotherapy.

  5. In vivo studies of peritendinous tissue in exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjaer, M; Langberg, Henning; Skovgaard, D

    2000-01-01

    Soft tissue injury of tendons represents a major problem within sports medicine. Although several animal and cell culture studies have addressed this, human experiments have been limited in their ability to follow changes in specific tissue directly in response to interventions. Recently, methods...

  6. Genetic predictors of exercise adherence in the Tiger study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obesity established in adolescence strongly predicts obesity for the remainder of adult life, suggesting this is a critical time in which to establish healthy diet and physical activity behaviors. Many studies have reported low levels of habitual activity among this age group, however. We hypothesiz...

  7. Effectiveness of Hamstring Knee Rehabilitation Exercise Performed in Training Machine vs. Elastic Resistance Electromyography Evaluation Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, M. D.; Sundstrup, E.; Andersen, C. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded in ...... extended knee angles and with higher perceived loading as hamstring curls using training machines.......Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate muscle activity during hamstring rehabilitation exercises performed in training machine compared with elastic resistance. Design Six women and 13 men aged 28-67 yrs participated in a crossover study. Electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded...... in the biceps femoris and the semitendinosus during the concentric and the eccentric phase of hamstring curls performed with TheraBand elastic tubing and Technogym training machines and normalized to maximal voluntary isometric contraction-EMG (normalized EMG). Knee joint angle was measured using electronic...

  8. Curative and health enhancement effects of aquatic exercise: evidence based on interventional studies

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroharu Kamioka, Hiroharu; Honda,Takuya

    2012-01-01

    Takuya Honda1, Hiroharu Kamioka21Research Fellow of the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science, 2Laboratory of Physical and Health Education, Faculty of Regional Environment Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to report on the health benefits and curative effects of aquatic exercise.Methods: We adopted the results of high-grade study designs (ie, randomized controlled trials and nonrandomized controlled trials), for which ther...

  9. Effects of different exercise modalities on ataxia in multiple sclerosis patients: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcı, Yeliz; Fil, Ayla; Armutlu, Kadriye; Yildiz, F Gökçem; Kurne, Aslı; Aksoy, Songül; Nurlu, Gülay; Karabudak, Rana

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of different exercise protocols on ataxia in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). A total of 42 MS patients, 17 male and 25 female (Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS): 3-5), were enrolled in this randomized controlled study. The patients were divided into three groups: a balance training (BT) group, a lumbar stabilization (LS) group and a task-oriented training (TT) group. All groups received balance training; additionally, the LS group received lumbar stabilization exercises, and the TT group received task-oriented training. The Berg Balance Scale (BBS), International Cooperative Ataxia Rating Scale (ICARS), Functional Reach Test (FRT), 2-Minute Walk Test (2MWT), Sensory Organization Test (SOT), and measurement of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) were performed before and at the end of the 18 training sessions. The BBS, ICARS, FRT, 2MWT, and composite balance score of the SOT were improved in all groups. The ICARS kinetic function sub-score and the left limb cortical onset amplitudes of SSEPs were increased significantly in both the TT and the LS groups. The ICARS total score, composite balance score, and 2MWT were different between groups (p  0.005). The 2MWT results were better for the LS group than the BT group, while the BT and the TT groups improved similarly. Balance training alone is not sufficient for rehabilitation of ataxic MS patients. A combination of lumbar stabilization exercises or task-oriented training increases the success of balance rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory and autoimmune disease of central nervous system and ataxia is one of the most challenging symptoms of this disease. Different exercise modalities are commonly employed to control ataxic symptoms in MS patients. Lumbar stabilization exercises or task-oriented training should be considered as complementary approach to improve balance and coordination in ataxic multiple sclerosis

  10. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mille-Hamard Laurence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse. Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls, using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p  1.4 and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio  Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail.

  11. Cardiovascular effects of strenuous exercise in adult recreational hockey: the Hockey Heart Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwal, Sanita; Porter, Jack; MacDonald, Paul

    2002-02-05

    More than 500,000 men play "gentlemen's" recreational hockey in Canada, but the safety of this exercise has not been studied. Exercising at extremes of intensity has been associated with an increased risk of cardiac events. Our objective was therefore to determine baseline cardiac risk factors among adult recreational hockey players and to measure any cardiac abnormalities they experienced while playing hockey. We assessed baseline cardiac risk factors in 113 male volunteers recruited from a recreational hockey league. Each subject underwent holter electrocardiographic monitoring before, during and after at least one hockey game (maximum of 115 holter data sets). We used the data to assess exercise heart rate, arrhythmias and ST-segment changes and for correlation with symptoms and other predictors of fitness. For all participants, maximum heart rate (HRmax) (mean 184 [standard deviation 11] beats/min) was greater than target exercise heart rate (calculated as 55% to 85% of age-predicted HRmax), and in 87 (75.6%) of the 115 holter data sets, the heart rate exceeded the age-predicted HRmax. The mean period for which heart rate exceeded 85% of the age-predicted HRmax was 30 (SD 13) min. For 80 (70.1%) of 114 data sets, heart rate recovery was poor. Nonsustained ventricular tachycardia was seen in data from 2 holter monitoring sessions and ST-segment depression in data from 15 sessions. The physical activity pattern that occurred during recreational hockey caused cardiac responses that might be dangerous to players' health. More specifically, the players exceeded target and maximum heart rates, had poor heart rate recovery after exercise, and had episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia and ST-segment depression of uncertain clinical significance.

  12. Effects of Pioglitazone or Exercise in Older Adults with Mild Cognitive Impairment and Insulin Resistance: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerry L. Hildreth

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To examine the effects of pioglitazone or endurance exercise training on cognitive function in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI and insulin resistance. Methods: Seventy-eight adults (mean age ± SD: 65 ± 7 years with central obesity and MCI were randomized to 6 months of endurance exercise, pioglitazone or control. Results: Sixty-six participants completed the study. Exercise training did not significantly increase peak oxygen uptake compared to control (p = 0.12. Compared to control, insulin resistance improved in the pioglitazone group (p = 0.002 but not in the exercise group (p = 0.25. There was no measureable effect of pioglitazone or exercise on cognitive performance compared to control. Conclusion: In this pilot study, pioglitazone improved insulin resistance but not cognitive performance in older adults with MCI and insulin resistance.

  13. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety ...

  14. A study on the operation of rehabilitation interfaces in active rehabilitation exercises for upper limb hemiplegic patients: Interfaces for lateral and bilateral exercises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Su-Hong; Lee, Eung-Hyuk

    2016-04-29

    For implementing autonomous rehabilitation exercises for upper limb hemiplegic patients, interfaces and a rehabilitation scenario that allow lateral and bilateral motions in a rehabilitation exercise robot are proposed. The proposed method measures the motion information generated from the unaffected part and projects it to an affected part in which the affected part expresses motions of the unaffected part. Both the accelerometer and gyro data were merged for estimating the motion information of the unaffected part. Also, HDR and complementary filters were applied to improve measurement errors in a data merging process. For verifying the proposed method, a device, which is similar to a human body joint, was fabricated. Then, the angular values estimated by using an inertial sensor and the encoder values from the device were compared. In addition, a camera analysis was used to verify the proposed rehabilitation scenario by applying the rehabilitation interface proposed in this study to an exo-skeleton robot arm. It is possible to apply the method proposed in this study to the control variables in different upper limb rehabilitation exercise robots. Thus, it is expected that patient centered active lateral/bilateral rehabilitation exercises can be performed through this interface method.

  15. Attitudes of older adults in a group-based exercise program towards a blended intervention; a focus-group study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Mehra

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Ageing is associated with a decline in daily functioning and mobility. A physically active life and physical exercise can minimize the decline of daily functioning and improve the physical-, psychological- and social functioning of older adults. Despite several advantages of group-based exercise programs, older adults participating in such interventions often do not meet the frequency, intensity or duration of exercises needed to gain health benefits. An exercise program that combines the advantages of group-based exercises led by an instructor with tailored home-based exercises can increase the effectiveness. Technology can assist in delivering a personalized program. The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of older adults currently participating in a nationwide group-based exercise program to such a blended exercise program. Eight focus-groups were held with adults of 55 years of age or older. Two researchers coded independently the remarks of the 30 participants that were included in the analysis according to the three key concepts of the Self Determination Theory: autonomy, competence and relatedness. The results show that maintaining self-reliance and keeping in touch with others were the main motives to participate in the weekly group-based exercises. Participants recognized benefits of doing additional home-based exercises, but had concerns regarding guidance, safety and motivation. Furthermore, some participants strongly rejected the idea to use technology to support them in doing exercises at home, but the majority was open to it. Insights are discussed how these findings can help design novel interventions that can increase the wellbeing of older adults and preserve an independent living.

  16. A comparison of the motivational factors between CrossFit participants and other resistance exercise modalities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, James; Sales, Adele; Carlson, Luke; Steele, James

    2017-09-01

    Understanding resistance exercise motives and participation is essential in increasing exercise adherence and reducing comorbidities. CrossFit is a fitness movement that has seen an explosive growth in popularity worldwide; however, little research has investigated the motivational factors within this "niche" resistance exercise environment. The aim of this study was to explore the motivational factors of CrossFit participants in comparison to other resistance exercise participants. Using an independent-group design, quantitative data was collected using exercise motivations inventory-2 (EMI-2) questionnaire, for a total of 314 male and female participants (CrossFit: N.=68, group resistance exercise: N.=55, alone: N.=125, personal trainer: N.=66). The present study suggest that CrossFit participants were more likely to report higher levels of intrinsic motives, such as enjoyment, challenge and affiliation, whereas personal training clients reported higher values for health related motives such as positive health, ill-health avoidance and weight management. The findings suggest that the motivations for engaging in CrossFit may be similar to those seen in sport participation, and therefore may have an influence on facilitating long-term adherence in comparison with other resistance exercise modalities. This article also discusses health related motives as being extrinsic in nature but reflecting intrinsic characteristics, potentially also facilitating long term adherence. The present research helps develop further understanding of motivational variables within differing resistance exercise modalities.

  17. Experiences of an exercise referral scheme from the perspective of people with chronic stroke: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Helen; Bulley, Cathy; van Wijck, Frederike M J

    2012-12-01

    To explore stroke survivors' experiences of undertaking exercise in the context of an exercise referral scheme for people with chronic stroke. A qualitative design, using semi-structured interviews within a constructivist framework to explore the experiences of individual participants. Verbatim transcripts were thematically analysed. Rigour mechanisms included respondent validation, peer checking, and reflexivity. An exercise referral scheme, based at a leisure centre in South London. Nine community-dwelling stroke survivors took part; 5 male and 4 female, mean age 51 years (range 37-61 years); time post stroke 1-4 years, with mixed ethnic backgrounds. Participants described greater physical and psychological well-being following participation in the exercise referral scheme. Categories that emerged were: improved exercise engagement and confidence, more internalised perceptions of control and enhanced lifestyle, work and social roles. Categories linked to form a master theme, labelled: 'Exercise Referral Scheme as a catalyst for regaining independence.' This study supports the value of exercise referral schemes in enabling people with stroke to engage in exercise. For participants in this study, the scheme seemed influential in the process of regaining independence. Copyright © 2011 Chartered Society of Physiotherapy. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Physical exercise in adults and mental health status findings from the Netherlands mental health survey and incidence study (NEMESIS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Have, Margreet; de Graaf, Ron; Monshouwer, Karin

    2011-11-01

    To establish associations between physical exercise during leisure time and prevalence, incidence and course of mental disorders. Data were derived from the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study, a 3-wave cohort study in a representative sample (N=7,076) of Dutch adults. Mental disorders were assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Physical activity was established by the number of hours per week people spent on taking physical exercise. Physical exercise was negatively associated with presence and first-onset of mood and anxiety disorders after adjustment for confounders. Evidence for a dose-response relationship between exercise levels and mental health was not found. Among those with mental disorder at baseline, exercise participants were more likely to recover from their illness (OR=1.47) compared to their counterparts who did not take exercise. Physical exercise is beneficial to mental health, but it remains uncertain whether this association truly reflects a causal effect of exercise. 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. A randomized study comparing the Shaker exercise with traditional therapy: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, Jeri A; Rademaker, Alfred; Pauloski, Barbara Roa; Kelly, Amy; Stangl-McBreen, Carrie; Antinoja, Jodi; Grande, Barbara; Farquharson, Julie; Kern, Mark; Easterling, Caryn; Shaker, Reza

    2009-12-01

    Seven institutions participated in this small clinical trial that included 19 patients who exhibited oropharyngeal dysphagia on videofluorography (VFG) involving the upper esophageal sphincter (UES) and who had a 3-month history of aspiration. All patients were randomized to either traditional swallowing therapy or the Shaker exercise for 6 weeks. Each patient received a modified barium swallow pre- and post-therapy, including two swallows each of 3 ml and 5 ml liquid barium and 3 ml barium pudding. Each videofluorographic study was sent to a central laboratory and digitized in order to measure hyoid and larynx movement as well as UES opening. Fourteen patients received both pre-and post-therapy VFG studies. There was significantly less aspiration post-therapy in patients in the Shaker group. Residue in the various oral and pharyngeal locations did not differ between the groups. With traditional therapy, there were several significant increases from pre- to post-therapy, including superior laryngeal movement and superior hyoid movement on 3-ml pudding swallows and anterior laryngeal movement on 3-ml liquid boluses, indicating significant improvement in swallowing physiology. After both types of therapy there is a significant increase in UES opening width on 3-ml paste swallows.

  20. Exercise electrocardiogram testing in two brothers with different outcome - a case study exercise testing in master cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat; Rosemann, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    The cases of two brothers training and competing as master cyclists and both preparing for a cycling tour are presented. The older brother aged 66 years went first to the primary care physician and presented with an asymptomatic depression in the exercise stress test of the ST segment in V5 and V6 during recovery after complete exhaustion. Coronary angiography revealed a multi vessel coronary artery disease and he underwent bypass surgery. One year later, he successfully completed his planned cycling tour of ~600 km in seven stages and covering ~12,000 m of total ascent. The younger brother aged 59 years went a few months later to the primary care physician and also performed asymptomatic exercise stress testing without changes in the ST segments. Unfortunately, 2 months later he suffered a cardiac arrest during his cycling tour and survived following immediate successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation on the road by his cycling colleagues. Immediate invasive coronary arteriography showed a complete stenosis of the trunk of arteria coronaria sinistra (left coronary artery), a 40%-50% stenosis of ramus circumflexus, and a 20% stenosis of arteria coronaria dextra (right coronary artery). The left coronary artery was dilated and he continued cycling 2 months later. In both brothers, familial hypercholesterolemia was the main cardiovascular risk factor for the multi vessel coronary artery disease. A negative exercise electrocardiogram in siblings with an increased risk for coronary artery disease seemed not to exclude an advanced multi vessel coronary artery disease. In master athletes with asymptomatic exercise electrocardiogram but a positive family history, further examinations should be performed in order to detect relevant stenosis in coronary arteries.

  1. Rethinking exercise identity: a qualitative study of physically inactive cancer patients' transforming process while undergoing chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamsen, Lis; Andersen, Christina; Lillelund, Christian; Bloomquist, Kira; Møller, Tom

    2017-08-23

    To explore physically inactive breast and colon cancer patients' prediagnosis exercise history and attitudes to physical activity (PA) and experiences in initiating PA while undergoing adjuvant chemotherapy. An explorative qualitative study guided the interpretive analysis of semistructured, open-ended interviews conducted at initiation of chemotherapy and after 12 weeks. The study was embedded in a pilot randomised controlled trial. Participants were recruited from the Oncological Department at a hospital in Copenhagen, Denmark. 33 patients with cancer, median age 49 years: 25 patients with breast cancer and 8 with colon cancer, 72% with a low cardiac respiratory fitness level and the majority with a high level of education. Patients received adjuvant chemotherapy, oncologist's PA recommendation and exercise, cancer nurse specialist's counselling prior to allocation to PA interventions or waitlist control group. Prediagnosis exercise had been excluded from patients' daily lives due to perceptions of exercise as boring, lack of discipline and stressful work conditions for both genders. Recommendations from oncologists and nurses inspired the patients to reconsider their attitudes and behaviour by accepting recruitment and participation in PA interventions during chemotherapy. Despite extensive side effects, most patients adhered to their PA commitment due to their perception of the bodily, emotional and social benefits and support of healthcare professionals, peers and family. The patients' attitude towards exercise transformed from having no priority in patients' daily lives prediagnosis to being highly prioritised. This study identified four important phases in the exercise transformation process during the patients' treatment trajectory of relevance to clinicians in identifying, motivating and supporting physically inactive patients with cancer at long-term risk. Clinicians should address young, highly educated patients with cancer at onset of adjuvant

  2. A Study To Assess The Prevalence Of Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction In Inter-County Hurling.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hunt, EB

    2017-11-01

    Exercise-Induced Bronchoconstriction (EIB) is an acute, transient airway narrowing occurring after exercise which may impact athletic performance. Studies report 10% of the general population and up to 90% of asthmatics experience EIB. Ninety-two players from three elite hurling squads underwent a spirometric field-based provocation test with real-time heart rate monitoring and lactate measurements to ensure adequate exertion. Players with a new diagnosis of EIB and those with a negative field-test but with a previous label of EIB or asthma underwent further reversibility testing and if negative, methacholine challenge. Eight (8.7%) of players had EIB, with one further athlete having asthma with a negative field test. Interestingly, only three out of 12 players who had previously been physician-labelled with EIB or asthma had their diagnosis objectively confirmed. Our study highlights the role of objective testing in EIB.

  3. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing in Children and Adolescents With Dystrophinopathies : A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, Bart|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413634973; Takken, Tim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/184586674; Blank, A. Christian|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304821578; van Moorsel, Huib; van der Pol, W. Ludo|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/203721721; de Groot, Janke F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To determine exercise response during cardiopulmonary exercise testing in children and adolescents with dystrophinopathies. Methods: Exercise response on the cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) was compared with a standard care test protocol. Results: Nine boys (aged 10.8 +/- 4.7 years)

  4. Candidate Exercise Technologies and Prescriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loerch, Linda H.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews potential exercise technologies to counter the effects of space flight. It includes a overview of the exercise countermeasures project, a review of some of the candidate exercise technologies being considered and a few of the analog exercise hardware devices, and a review of new studies that are designed to optimize the current and future exercise protocols.

  5. Exercise frequency and bone mineral density development in exercising postmenopausal osteopenic women. Is there a critical dose of exercise for affecting bone? Results of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon; Kohl, Matthias

    2016-08-01

    Due to older people's low sports participation rates, exercise frequency may be the most critical component for designing exercise protocols that address bone. The aims of the present article were to determine the independent effect of exercise frequency (ExFreq) and its corresponding changes on bone mineral density (BMD) and to identify the minimum effective dose that just relevantly affects bone. Based on the 16-year follow-up of the intense, consistently supervised Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention-Study, ExFreq was retrospectively determined in the exercise-group of 55 initially early-postmenopausal females with osteopenia. Linear mixed-effect regression analysis was conducted to determine the independent effect of ExFreq on BMD changes at lumbar spine and total hip. Minimum effective dose of ExFreq based on BMD changes less than the 90% quantile of the sedentary control-group (n=43). Cut-offs were determined after 4, 8, 12 and 16years using bootstrap with 5000 replications. After 16years, average ExFreq ranged between 1.02 and 2.96sessions/week (2.28±0.40sessions/week). ExFreq has an independent effect on LS-BMD (pexercise frequency that relevantly addresses BMD is quite high, at least compared with the low sport participation rate of older adults. This result might not be generalizable across all exercise types, protocols and cohorts, but it does indicate at least that even when applying high impact/high intensity programs, exercise frequency and its maintenance play a key role in bone adaptation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Low back pain : a comparative study on the value of core training versus traditional strengthening exercises

    OpenAIRE

    Schembri, Laura; Fenech, Pauline; Sacco, Mark

    2014-01-01

    This randomised controlled trial (RCT) employed a pre-test/post-test design to compare the effects of core training (Pilates method) and traditional back exercises on a population with low back pain (LBP). Therapeutic intervention related to the Pilates method has recently become popular, but there is little evidence to prove it works. In this study, 120 individuals with LBP were allocated to three different groups. Group A was the control group, Group B was given modifie...

  7. EMG threshold determination in eight lower limb muscles during cycling exercise: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Hug, François; Laplaud, David; Lucía Mulas, Alejandro; Grelot, Laurent

    2006-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to verify the occurrence of the EMG threshold (EMG (Th)) in each of eight lower limb muscles (vastus lateralis [VL], vatus medialis [VM], rectus femoris [RF], semimembranosus [SM], biceps femoris [BF], gastrocnemius lateralis [GL] and medialis [GM], and tibialis anterior [TA]) during incremental cycling exercise. The second aim was to investigate the test-retest reproducibility of the EMG (Th) occurrence. Six sedentary male subjects (27 +/- 1 years) performed t...

  8. The evaluation of BMI and serum beta-endorphin levels: the study of acute exercise intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinaei, M; Kargarfard, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare BMI and the effects of a session of acute exercise on serum beta-endorphin levels among the sprint swimmers and runners. In a semi-experimental study, 15 healthy skilled male swimmers (mean and SD of age: 21.64 ± 2.35, weight: 75.25 ± 9.81 kg, height: 180.31 ± 4.75 cm), and 14 healthy skilled runners (age: 21.38 ± 2.76, weight: 69.78 ± 6.86 kg, height: 182.21 ± 5.22 cm), purposefully and voluntarily participated in this study. Venous blood samples of the subjects were taken in three stages 1) basic conditions; 2) immediately after each field of specialized training, with an intensity equal to 80-85% VO(2max) 30 minutes after exercise in the fasting state. Data was analyzed using with repeated measures (ANOVA). The body composition and anthropometric variables assessed in the study were not significantly different between the 2 groups, except BMI, which was significant (Pdifferences between levels of beta-endorphin of male sprint runners and swimmers in the three periods before, immediately after and 30 minutes after exercise (P ≤ 0. 05). The results showed that Increased fat storage may underlie the higher BMI observed in swimmers compared to runners and B-Endorphin Serum Levels was in swimmers more than runners and an acute exercise session significantly increases the levels of beta-endorphin serum hormone in sprint swimmers and runners.

  9. Meta-evaluation of published studies on evaluation of health disaster preparedness exercises through a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikhbardsiri, Hojjat; Yarmohammadian, Mohammad H; Khankeh, Hamid Reza; Nekoei-Moghadam, Mahmoud; Raeisi, Ahmad Reza

    2018-01-01

    Exercise evaluation is one of the most important steps and sometimes neglected in designing and taking exercises, in this stage of exercise, it systematically identifying, gathering, and interpreting related information to indicate how an exercise has fulfilled its objectives. The present study aimed to assess the most important evaluation techniques applied in evaluating health exercises for emergencies and disasters. This was meta-evaluation study through a systematic review. In this research, we searched papers based on specific and relevant keywords in research databases including ISI web of science, PubMed, Scopus, Science Direct, Ovid, ProQuest, Wiley, Google Scholar, and Persian database such as ISC and SID. The search keywords and strategies are followed; "simulation," "practice," "drill," "exercise," "instrument," "tool," "questionnaire," " measurement," "checklist," "scale," "test," "inventory," "battery," "evaluation," "assessment," "appraisal," "emergency," "disaster," "cricise," "hazard," "catastrophe,: "hospital", "prehospital," "health centers," "treatment centers," were used in combination with Boolean operators OR and AND. The research findings indicate that there are different techniques and methods for data collection to evaluate performance exercises of health centers and affiliated organizations in disasters and emergencies including debriefing inventories, self-report, questionnaire, interview, observation, shooting video, and photographing, electronic equipment which can be individually or collectively used depending on exercise objectives or purposes. Taking exercise in the health sector is one of the important steps in preparation and implementation of disaster risk management programs. This study can be thus utilized to improve preparedness of different sectors of health system according to the latest available evaluation techniques and methods for better implementation of disaster exercise evaluation stages.

  10. A randomised study of the effects of supplemental exercise sessions after a 7-week chronic obstructive pulmonary disease rehabilitation program

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Rasmussen, Mathilde; Buch, Tove Fedder

    2012-01-01

    Background: Several studies have suggested that the effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) rehabilitation programs tend to attenuate with time. We aimed to investigate the effects of supplemental exercise sessions following an initial 7-week COPD rehabilitation program with regard...... to exercise capacity and disease-specific quality of life (QoL). Methods: We performed a 7-week COPD rehabilitation program in 140 COPD patients. Patients (n = 118) who completed the initial program were randomised for additional six supervised supplemental exercise sessions or three follow-up examinations...... without exercise. Both groups were followed for 12 months. Primary end-points were QoL as measured by the St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire total score and exercise capacity as measured by the endurance shuttle walking time (ESWT). Results: A marked increase in ESWT (from 193 to 921 s) and a moderate...

  11. Toward Monitoring and Increasing Exercise Adherence in Older Adults by Robotic Intervention: A Proof of Concept Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prathik Gadde

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Socially assistive robots have the potential to improve the quality of life of older adults by encouraging and guiding their performance of rehabilitation exercises while offering cognitive stimulation and companionship. This study focuses on the early stages of developing and testing an interactive personal trainer robot to monitor and increase exercise adherence in older adults. The robot physically demonstrates exercises for the user to follow and monitors the user's progress using a vision-processing unit that detects face and hand movements. When the user successfully completes a move, the robot gives positive feedback and begins the next repetition. The results of usability testing with 10 participants support the feasibility of this approach. Further extensions are planned to evaluate a complete exercise program for improving older adults' physical range of motion in a controlled experiment with three conditions: a personal trainer robot, a personal trainer on-screen character, and a pencil-and-paper exercise plan.

  12. Physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth: a study within the Danish National Birth Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Mette; Andersen, Per Kragh; Olsen, Jørn

    2008-01-01

    According to many national recommendations, women should be physically active during pregnancy, but empirical evidence to support this recommendation is sparse. The authors' aim in this study was to examine the relation between physical exercise during pregnancy and the risk of preterm birth. Self......-reported data on physical exercise during pregnancy were collected prospectively for 87,232 singleton pregnancies included in the Danish National Birth Cohort between 1996 and 2002. Hazard ratios for preterm birth according to hours of exercise per week, type of exercise, and metabolic equivalent-hours per week......, respectively, were calculated using Cox regression analysis. Results showed a reduced risk of preterm birth among the almost 40% of women who engaged in some kind of exercise during pregnancy in comparison with nonexercisers (hazard ratio = 0.82, 95% confidence interval: 0.76, 0.88), but no dose...

  13. Treating trismus: A prospective study on effect and compliance to jaw exercise therapy in head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Nina; Andréll, Paulin; Johansson, Mia; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Finizia, Caterina

    2015-12-01

    Trismus after head and neck cancer is a symptom associated with pain and negatively affected health-related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to compare two different jaw exercise devices and the compliance to exercise. Fifty patients with head and neck cancer were randomized to jaw exercise with either the TheraBite or Engström jaw device in a 10-week exercise program. Patients were regularly assessed by an oral surgeon, filled in exercise diaries, and answered the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 30 Head and Neck 35-questions (EORTC QLQ H&N35) and the Gothenburg Trismus Questionnaire (GTQ). Both groups improved their mouth opening, 7.2 mm (22.9%) and 5.5 mm (17.6%) for TheraBite and Engström, respectively. The largest increase in mouth opening and highest compliance to exercise was seen during the 4 first weeks. Jaw exercise therapy effectively improved mouth opening capacity and led to less trismus-related symptoms. Both jaw devices were proved efficient and compliance to exercise was comparable. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Pilot safety and feasibility study of treadmill aerobic exercise in Parkinson disease with gait impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Frank M; Patterson, Shawnna L; Shulman, Lisa M; Sorkin, John D; Macko, Richard F

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the safety and feasibility of a 3-month progressive treadmill aerobic exercise (TM-AEX) program for persons with Parkinson disease with gait impairment. Eight subjects underwent a treadmill stress test to determine eligibility. Of these subjects, three were referred for further cardiac evaluation and five were enrolled. In 136 TM-AEX sessions, 11 falls or near falls and 9 episodes (8 asymptomatic) of systolic blood pressure drops >20 mmHg occurred. Harness supports prevented injury from falls. TM-AEX significantly improved the subjects' total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale scores and peak ambulatory workload capacities. This study suggests that an aerobic exercise program is feasible for persons who have Parkinson disease with gait impairment; however, precautions must be taken to prevent falls. Systolic blood pressure instability during exercise points to the need for autonomic dysfunction monitoring. Our data indicate that TM-AEX may reduce symptom severity and improve fitness. Further studies are needed for a better understanding of the risks and benefits of TM-AEX in this population.

  15. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, Wolfgang; von Stengel, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV) and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS), may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue. PMID:22500224

  16. Alternative Exercise Technologies to Fight against Sarcopenia at Old Age: A Series of Studies and Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Kemmler

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most effective physiologic mean to prevent sarcopenia and related muscle malfunction is a physically active lifestyle, or even better, physical exercise. However, due to time constraints, lack of motivation, or physical limitations, a large number of elderly subjects are either unwilling or unable to perform conventional workouts. In this context, two new exercise technologies, whole-body vibration (WBV and whole-body electromyostimulation (WB-EMS, may exhibit a save, autonomous, and efficient alternative to increase or maintain muscle mass and function. Regarding WB-EMS, the few recent studies indeed demonstrated highly relevant effects of this technology on muscle mass, strength, and power parameters at least in the elderly, with equal or even higher effects compared with conventional resistance exercise. On the contrary, although the majority of studies with elderly subjects confirmed the positive effect of WBV on strength and power parameters, a corresponding relevant effect on muscle mass was not reported. However, well-designed studies with adequate statistical power should focus more intensely on this issue.

  17. Effect of Tai Chi Exercise on Type 2 Diabetes: A Feasibility Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chwan-Li Shen Dr.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This feasibility study investigated the effects of Tai Chi, a mind-body exercise, on management of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. A total of 25 subjects (20–70 years were recruited to participate in two 60-minute instructed Tai Chi exercise sessions each week for 12 weeks. The primary outcome measures (physiological variables were hemoglobin A 1 C (HbA1c taken at baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention, and self-reported fasting blood glucose level measured at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 weeks of intervention. The secondary outcome measures (psychosocial variables were Diabetes Quality of Life Questionnaire (Diabetes-39 and Exercise Self-Efficacy administered at baseline and 12 weeks. A semi-structured interview was conducted at the end of the study (week 12. Paired t -tests was employed to determine all pre- and post-intervention measurement changes, while individual growth curves were generated to show changes in fasting blood glucose levels during the study period. A rather high attrition rate of 48% was observed among the participants. The data showed no significant effect of Tai Chi on HbA1c and self-reported fasting blood glucose, although there seemed to be a trend of lowered HbA1c. Analysis of subjects’ response suggested a positive experience for those who completed the intervention.

  18. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Anders Revdal, Siri M. Hollekim-Strand, Charlotte B. Ingul

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise (HIIE; 27 minutes/bo...

  19. Can Time Efficient Exercise Improve Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes? A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Revdal, Anders; Hollekim-Strand, Siri M.; Ingul, Charlotte B.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is considered a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes, but few individuals with type 2 diabetes exercise according to guidelines. We investigated the effect of two time efficient high intensity exercise interventions on exercise capacity, glycemic control and other cardiometabolic risk factors in patients with type 2 diabetes. Twenty-one individuals with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned to low volume high intensity interval exercise...

  20. Effects of Strengthening Exercises on Swallowing Musculature and Function in Senior Healthy Subjects: a Prospective Effectiveness and Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraaijenga, S A C; van der Molen, L; Stuiver, M M; Teertstra, H J; Hilgers, F J M; van den Brekel, M W M

    2015-08-01

    Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients may develop dysphagia due to muscle atrophy and fibrosis following chemoradiotherapy. Strengthening of the swallowing muscles through therapeutic exercise is potentially effective for improving swallowing function. We hypothesize that a customized Swallow Exercise Aid (SEA), developed for isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises (against resistance), can help to functionally strengthen the suprahyoid musculature, which in turn can improve swallowing function. An effectiveness/feasibility study was carried out with ten senior healthy volunteers, who performed exercises 3 times per day for 6 weeks. Exercises included chin tuck against resistance (CTAR), jaw opening against resistance (JOAR), and effortful swallow exercises with the SEA. Multidimensional assessment consisted of measurements of maximum chin tuck and jaw opening strength, maximum tongue strength/endurance, suprahyoid muscle volume, hyoid bone displacement, swallowing transport times, occurrence of laryngeal penetration/aspiration and/or contrast residue, maximum mouth opening, feasibility/compliance (questionnaires), and subjective swallowing complaints (SWAL-QOL). After 6-weeks exercise, mean chin tuck strength, jaw opening strength, anterior tongue strength, suprahyoid muscle volume, and maximum mouth opening significantly increased (p < .05). Feasibility and compliance (median 86 %, range 48-100 %) of the SEA exercises were good. This prospective effectiveness/feasibility study on the effects of CTAR/JOAR isometric and isokinetic strengthening exercises on swallowing musculature and function shows that senior healthy subjects are able to significantly increase swallowing muscle strength and volume after a 6-week training period. These positive results warrant further investigation of effectiveness and feasibility of these SEA exercises in HNC patients with dysphagia.

  1. Sympathetic activation in exercise is not dependent on muscle acidosis. Direct evidence from studies in metabolic myopathies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vissing, J.; Vissing, S. F.; MacLean, D. A.; Saltin, B.; Quistorff, B.; Haller, R. G.; Blomqvist, C. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Muscle acidosis has been implicated as a major determinant of reflex sympathetic activation during exercise. To test this hypothesis we studied sympathetic exercise responses in metabolic myopathies in which muscle acidosis is impaired or augmented during exercise. As an index of reflex sympathetic activation to muscle, microneurographic measurements of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were obtained from the peroneal nerve. MSNA was measured during static handgrip exercise at 30% of maximal voluntary contraction force to exhaustion in patients in whom exercise-induced muscle acidosis is absent (seven myophosphorylase deficient patients; MD [McArdle's disease], and one patient with muscle phosphofructokinase deficiency [PFKD]), augmented (one patient with mitochondrial myopathy [MM]), or normal (five healthy controls). Muscle pH was monitored by 31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy during handgrip exercise in the five control subjects, four MD patients, and the MM and PFKD patients. With handgrip to exhaustion, the increase in MSNA over baseline (bursts per minute [bpm] and total activity [%]) was not impaired in patients with MD (17+/-2 bpm, 124+/-42%) or PFKD (65 bpm, 307%), and was not enhanced in the MM patient (24 bpm, 131%) compared with controls (17+/-4 bpm, 115+/-17%). Post-handgrip ischemia studied in one McArdle patient, caused sustained elevation of MSNA above basal suggesting a chemoreflex activation of MSNA. Handgrip exercise elicited an enhanced drop in muscle pH of 0.51 U in the MM patient compared with the decrease in controls of 0.13+/-0.02 U. In contrast, muscle pH increased with exercise in MD by 0.12+/-0.05 U and in PFKD by 0.01 U. In conclusion, patients with glycogenolytic, glycolytic, and oxidative phosphorylation defects show normal muscle sympathetic nerve responses to static exercise. These findings indicate that muscle acidosis is not a prerequisite for sympathetic activation in exercise.

  2. The Lichfield bone study: the skeletal response to exercise in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleftheriou, Kyriacos I; Rawal, Jaikirty S; Kehoe, Anthony; James, Laurence E; Payne, John R; Skipworth, James R; Puthucheary, Zudin A; Drenos, Fotios; Pennell, Dudley J; Loosemore, Mike; World, Michael; Humphries, Steve E; Haddad, Fares S; Montgomery, Hugh E

    2012-02-01

    The skeletal response to short-term exercise training remains poorly described. We thus studied the lower limb skeletal response of 723 Caucasian male army recruits to a 12-wk training regime. Femoral bone volume was assessed using magnetic resonance imaging, bone ultrastructure by quantitative ultrasound (QUS), and bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) of the hip. Left hip BMD increased with training (mean ± SD: 0.85 ± 3.24, 2.93 ± 4.85, and 1.89 ± 2.85% for femoral neck, Ward's area, and total hip, respectively; all P exercise training in young men is associated not only with a rise in human femoral BMD, but also in femoral bone volume, the latter largely through a periosteal response.

  3. Effects of an exercise program during three years in obese boys: an intervention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Escalante

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of a long-term exercise program (3 years on kinanthopometric and metabolic in obese children. The sample consisted of eight boys between 8 and 11 years, who conducted a aerobic multi-sport exercise program (three sessions, 90 minutes per week. Carried out an assessment kinanthropometric assessing the following parameters: height, weight, body mass index (BMI, zBMI, fat mass and fat free mass, and a metabolic assessing: total cholesterol (TC, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TG, insuline, glucose, Homeostasis Model Assessment (HOMA-IR, ratio LDL/HDL and TC/HDL. Following the intervention, changes were observed on zBMI (ceasing to be obese after the intervention, total cholesterol, LDL, and ratio total cholesterol/HDL and glucose levels at the long term, showing that longitudinal interventions generate positive benefits on obese children mainly in the lipid profile.

  4. Effectiveness of exercise at workplace in physical fitness: uncontrolled randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, Antônio José; Silva, Valter; Parra, Sérgio Alencar

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of workplace exercise for employee health by means of health-related physical activity components. A randomized uncontrolled study with 20 workers was carried out during three months to evaluate a workplace exercise program. The selected outcomes were flexibility, body mass, fat percentage, lean mass, blood pressure, and heart rate. For statistical analysis, the paired t test and the intent-to-treat analysis were used. There was a significant increase in weight, fat percentage, blood pressure, and heart rate. However the clinical significance was 10% in the size of the effect. The changes verified in the outcomes analyzed were not significant; the variables are within normality ranges proposed by academic organizations.

  5. Human Muscle Protein Synthetic Responses during Weight-Bearing and Non-Weight-Bearing Exercise: A Comparative Study of Exercise Modes and Recovery Nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasiakos, Stefan M; McClung, Holly L; Margolis, Lee M; Murphy, Nancy E; Lin, Gregory G; Hydren, Jay R; Young, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    Effects of conventional endurance (CE) exercise and essential amino acid (EAA) supplementation on protein turnover are well described. Protein turnover responses to weighted endurance exercise (i.e., load carriage, LC) and EAA may differ from CE, because the mechanical forces and contractile properties of LC and CE likely differ. This study examined muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and whole-body protein turnover in response to LC and CE, with and without EAA supplementation, using stable isotope amino acid tracer infusions. Forty adults (mean ± SD, 22 ± 4 y, 80 ± 10 kg, VO 2peak 4.0 ± 0.5 L ∙ min(-1)) were randomly assigned to perform 90 min, absolute intensity-matched (2.2 ± 0.1 VO2 L ∙ m(-1)) LC (performed on a treadmill wearing a vest equal to 30% of individual body mass, mean ± SD load carried 24 ± 3 kg) or CE (cycle ergometry performed at the same absolute VO2 as LC) exercise, during which EAA (10 g EAA, 3.6 g leucine) or control (CON, non-nutritive) drinks were consumed. Mixed-muscle and myofibrillar MPS were higher during exercise for LC than CE (mode main effect, P drink main effect, P drink) were observed. However, EAA attenuated whole-body protein breakdown, increased amino acid oxidation, and enhanced net protein balance in recovery compared to CON, regardless of exercise mode (P protein turnover responses to absolute VO2-matched LC and CE are the same, LC elicited a greater muscle protein synthetic response than CE.

  6. Protein-Pacing and Multi-Component Exercise Training Improves Physical Performance Outcomes in Exercise-Trained Women: The PRISE 3 Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul J. Arciero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The beneficial cardiometabolic and body composition effects of combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day and multi-mode exercise (resistance, interval, stretching, endurance; RISE training (PRISE in obese adults has previously been established. The current study examines PRISE on physical performance (endurance, strength and power outcomes in healthy, physically active women. Thirty exercise-trained women (>4 days exercise/week were randomized to either PRISE (n = 15 or a control (CON, 5–6 meals/day at 1.0 g/kg BW/day; n = 15 for 12 weeks. Muscular strength (1-RM bench press, 1-RM BP endurance (sit-ups, SUs; push-ups, PUs, power (bench throws, BTs, blood pressure (BP, augmentation index, (AIx, and abdominal fat mass were assessed at Weeks 0 (pre and 13 (post. At baseline, no differences existed between groups. Following the 12-week intervention, PRISE had greater gains (p < 0.05 in SUs, PUs (6 ± 7 vs. 10 ± 7, 40%; 8 ± 13 vs. 14 ± 12, 43% ∆reps, respectively, BTs (11 ± 35 vs. 44 ± 34, 75% ∆watts, AIx (1 ± 9 vs. −5 ± 11, 120%, and DBP (−5 ± 9 vs. −11 ± 11, 55% ∆mmHg. These findings suggest that combined protein-pacing (P; 5–6 meals/day at 2.0 g/kg BW/day diet and multi-component exercise (RISE training (PRISE enhances muscular endurance, strength, power, and cardiovascular health in exercise-trained, active women.

  7. Stroke maintenance exercise group: pilot study on daily functioning in long-term stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Sarah A; Ross-Edwards, Benjamin M; Gill, Hannah L

    2010-01-01

    Typical models of stroke rehabilitation usually direct minimal resources for ongoing maintenance beyond discharge. However, there is increasing recognition of the benefits of community-based rehabilitation to maintain physical function and health in frail and disabled clients. A stroke maintenance exercise group was established to provide long-term care for stroke survivors. A pilot study was conducted to explore its effects compared with a traditional peer support group. Self-reported questionnaires, measuring daily task participation with the Home Functioning Questionnaire and quality of life with the EQ-5D, were utilised to compare twenty-two clients in the stroke maintenance exercise group and twenty-one in the peer support group. The results indicated that both these groups showed a significant increase with daily task participation over a 3-month period. However, no improvement was evident in either group on self-rated quality of life or health status, as measured by the EQ-5D. This pilot study suggests that both stroke maintenance exercise groups and peer support groups are effective with assisting long-term stroke survivors to improve participation in everyday activities. More research is recommended to further explore the long-term needs of this clinical group.

  8. Effectiveness of additional trunk exercises on gait performance: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Criekinge, Tamaya; Saeys, Wim; Hallemans, Ann; Vereeck, Luc; De Hertogh, Willem; Van de Walle, Patricia; Vaes, Nathalie; Lafosse, Christophe; Truijen, Steven

    2017-06-02

    Evidence is lacking concerning the effect of additional trunk rehabilitation on gait performance. Investigating gait performance by both clinical and biomechanical outcome measures might lead to new scientific insights into the importance of the trunk during gait rehabilitation in people suffering from stroke. This protocol was written according to the SPIRIT 2013 Statement. An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial will be conducted in patients with impaired trunk control after stroke. A total of 60 patients will be randomly allocated to the control or the experimental group by means of sealed opaque envelopes. They will receive either 16 h of additional trunk exercises (experimental group) or cognitive exercises (controls) for 1 h a day, 4 days a week for 4 weeks. Patients will also receive 2 h of standard care consisting of physiotherapy and occupational therapy. Gait performance will be assessed clinically by the Tinetti Test and biomechanically by means of a full body gait analysis. In addition, the effect of the exercise protocol on the trunk itself and trunk activities of daily living will be assessed by the Trunk Impairment Scale and the Barthel Index. Despite the evidence demonstrating the importance of trunk control after stroke, studies about the effects of trunk rehabilitation on gait performance are inconsistent. In the current study, a more sophisticated treatment protocol will be used to enlarge therapeutic improvements, the relationship between clinical and biomechanical measures of gait performance can be investigated, and the sustainability of the effects of trunk exercises over time will be examined. Since clinical improvements are of greater importance to patients and physiotherapists, clinical assessment scales will be used as primary outcome measures. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT02708888 . Registered on 2 March 2016.

  9. Influence of Land or Water Exercise in Pregnancy on Outcomes: A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barakat, Ruben; Perales, Maria; Cordero, Yaiza; Bacchi, Mariano; Mottola, Michelle F

    2017-07-01

    This study aimed to compare the cross-sectional results from three experimental studies conducted on land, in water, and in mixed form (land + water) during pregnancy on maternal and newborn outcomes. A cross-sectional design was used to analyze the results of three randomized clinical trials in healthy pregnant women from Madrid (Spain) and Buenos Aires (Argentina). Five hundred and sixty-eight pregnant women were recruited. For each of the studies, the number of women in the exercise group totaled 107 for study 1 (land), 49 women for study 2 (water), and 101 women for study 3 (land + water). A total of 311 women represented the control group (CG) (pooled together from all three studies). Total maternal weight gain was different between study 1 and CG (11.7 vs 13.4 kg, P = 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.38) as well as the percentage of pregnant women with excessive weight gain (20.6%, n = 22, vs 37.9%, n = 118, respectively, P = 0.005, χ = 16.6, OR = 0.42, 95% confidence interval = 0.25-0.71). The number of pregnant women with gestational diabetes in CG was significantly higher than that in studies 2 and 3 (CG n = 22/7.1%; study 2, n = 0/0%; and study 3, n = 1/1%; P = 0.03, χ = 8.9). Exercise performed on land is more effective than aquatic activities in preventing excessive maternal weight gain, whereas combined programs (land + aquatic) or water exercise programs may be more effective in preventing gestational diabetes.

  10. Traditional Gymnastic Exercises for the Pelvic Floor Often Lead to Bladder Neck Descent - a Study Using Perineal Ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baeßler, Kaven; Junginger, Bärbel

    2017-07-01

    The aims of physiotherapy in stress incontinent women are to improve pelvic floor function and the continence mechanism including bladder neck support and urethral closure pressure. In Germany, traditional conservative treatment often includes gymnastic exercises with unclear effects on the bladder neck. The aim of this study was to sonographically assess bladder neck movements during selected exercises. Fifteen healthy, continent women without previous vaginal births, who were able to voluntarily contract their pelvic floor muscels performed the shoulder bridge, the abdominal press, tiptoe and the Pilates clam exercises. The first set was performed without any additional instructions. During the second set directions were given to activate the pelvic floor before beginning each exercise and to maintain the contraction throughout the exercise. Bladder neck movement was measured on perineal ultrasound using a validated method with the pubic symphysis as a reference point. The median age of participants was 32 years, median BMI was 23. Eight women were nulliparous and seven had given birth to 1 - 2 children via caesarean section. When exercises were performed without voluntary pelvic floor contraction the bladder neck descended on average between 2.3 and 4.4 mm, and with pelvic floor contraction prior to the exercise only between 0.5 and 2.1 mm (p > 0.05 except for abdominal press p = 0.007). The Pilates clam exercise and toe stand stabilised the bladder neck most effectively. Bladder neck descent often occurs during pelvic floor gymnastic exercises as traditionally performed in Germany, and a voluntary pelvic floor contraction during the exercises does not necessarily prevent this.

  11. The assessment and treatment of unhealthy exercise in adolescents with anorexia nervosa: A Delphi study to synthesize clinical knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noetel, Melissa; Dawson, Lisa; Hay, Phillipa; Touyz, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to explore and synthesize expert clinical knowledge on defining and managing unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. The Delphi methodology was used. Clinicians (n = 25) considered experts in the treatment of AN in adolescents were recruited internationally to form the panel. The first round of the questionnaires was comprised of five open-ended questions regarding defining, assessing, and treating unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. Statements were derived from this data using content analysis, and included as Likert-based items in two subsequent rounds, in which panellists were required to rate their level of agreement for each item. All 25 respondents completed the three rounds of questionnaires. Consensus was achieved for 59.0% of the items included in the second and third round of questionnaires. Although consensus was not achieved, compulsive exercise was the preferred term for the panel when referring to unhealthy exercise in adolescents with AN. The panel clearly delineated features of unhealthy and healthy exercise, and endorsed a number of items considered important to assess for when evaluating exercise in this clinical population. A variety of treatment approaches and strategies reached consensus. Notably, for those who are medically stable and progressing toward recovery, the panel recommended initial exercise restriction practices and reintroducing healthy exercise behaviors, rather than exercise cessation practices. The current findings can serve as preliminary treatment guidelines. A unified approach to labeling and defining unhealthy exercise in the eating disorder literature and clinical settings is required to achieve further progress. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in exercising and sedentary coronary artery disease patients: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Sardinha

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular physical exercise has been shown to favorably influence mood and anxiety; however, there are few studies regarding psychiatric aspects of physically active patients with coronary artery disease (CAD. The objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and cardiac anxiety in sedentary and exercising CAD patients. A total sample of 119 CAD patients (74 men were enrolled in a case-control study. The subjects were interviewed to identify psychiatric disorders and responded to the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire. In the exercise group (N = 60, there was a lower prevalence (45 vs 81%; P < 0.001 of at least one psychiatric diagnosis, as well as multiple comorbidities, when compared to the sedentary group (N = 59. Considering the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire, sedentary patients presented higher scores compared to exercisers (mean ± SEM = 55.8 ± 1.9 vs 37.3 ± 1.6; P < 0.001. In a regression model, to be attending a medically supervised exercise program presented a relevant potential for a 35% reduction in cardiac anxiety. CAD patients regularly attending an exercise program presented less current psychiatric diagnoses and multiple mental-related comorbidities and lower scores of cardiac anxiety. These salutary mental effects add to the already known health benefits of exercise for CAD patients.

  13. Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Deda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography–tandem Mass Spectrometry. Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples.

  14. Impact of Exercise and Aging on Rat Urine and Blood Metabolome. An LC-MS Based Metabolomics Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deda, Olga; Gika, Helen G; Taitzoglou, Ioannis; Raikos, Νikolaos; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2017-02-23

    Aging is an inevitable condition leading to health deterioration and death. Regular physical exercise can moderate the metabolic phenotype changes of aging. However, only a small number of metabolomics-based studies provide data on the effect of exercise along with aging. Here, urine and whole blood samples from Wistar rats were analyzed in a longitudinal study to explore metabolic alterations due to exercise and aging. The study comprised three different programs of exercises, including a life-long protocol which started at the age of 5 months and ended at the age of 21 months. An acute exercise session was also evaluated. Urine and whole blood samples were collected at different time points and were analyzed by LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry). Based on their metabolic profiles, samples from trained and sedentary rats were differentiated. The impact on the metabolome was found to depend on the length of exercise period with acute exercise also showing significant changes. Metabolic alterations due to aging were equally pronounced in sedentary and trained rats in both urine and blood analyzed samples.

  15. Exercise class participation among residents in low-level residential aged care could be enhanced: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerin, Michelle; Mackintosh, Shylie; Fryer, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    What do residents in low-level residential care perceive as motivators and barriers to participating in exercise classes at the facility? Qualitative study using focus groups. Residents, nursing staff and allied health staff of a low-level residential care facility. Key motivators for residents to attend the exercise classes included personal benefits, such as improved health and opportunities to socialise, and the support and encouragement that they received from family members and health professionals. The barriers to participating in the exercise classes included: health issues like pain, incontinence, and hearing impairments; external constraints such as the location of the classes and the early morning time; and internal constraints associated with a lack of knowledge about the classes and the benefits of exercising. While the key themes that arose from this study are consistent with findings from studies of community-dwelling adults, several of the barrier subthemes were unique. Recommendations from our findings to enhance exercise class participation include careful consideration of: class scheduling; class location; social aspects associated with exercise classes; support of social networks and health providers; health issues perceived to limit exercise; and marketing of classes.

  16. Improved sleep after Qigong exercise in breast cancer survivors: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Sleep disorder and fatigue are among a few major concerns of breast cancer survivors across the survivorship trajectory. The purpose of this pilot study was to examine feasibility and trends in multiple outcomes after a 6-week Qigong exercise program in breast cancer survivors. Methods: Eight female adults (mean age 55.4 ± 9.4 years, mean time after the completion of cancer treatment 3.9 ± 5.7 years who had a diagnosis of breast cancer and were at least 3 months postcompletion of primary cancer treatment prior to participation in this study. Baseline evaluation was administered using subjective questionnaires on sleep quality, insomnia, fatigue, and quality of life. All subjects participated in two training sessions to learn the "Six Healing Sound" Qigong exercise and attended group Qigong sessions once per week in the following 6 weeks. In addition to the group sessions, subjects were asked to perform the Qigong exercises twice at home right before going to bed in the evening and immediately after getting up in the morning. Following the 6-week intervention, subjects were re-assessed using the same questionnaires. Pre- and post-intervention scores were analyzed for statistical significance. Results: Compliance rate was 89.6% for group sessions and 78.5% (ranging from 65.6% to 90.7% for daily home Qigong exercises. No participant reported any adverse event or side effect during the study. All participants indicated in the end-intervention questionnaire that they would highly recommend the intervention to others. Significant improvements were observed in sleeping quality score (from 10.3 ± 3.6 to 5.4 ± 2.3, P < 0.01, insomnia index score (from 16.2 ± 3.2 to 6.8 ± 4.8, P < 0.01, fatigue score (from 60.3 ± 9.4 to 49.1 ± 8.6, P < 0.01, and SF-36 score (from 66.8 ± 7.7 to 80.9 ± 3.9, P < 0.01. Conclusions: Results of this single arm pilot study showed the feasibility and potential of "Six Healing Sounds" Qigong exercise for

  17. Free radicals and antioxidant enzymes in older adults after regular senior elastic band exercising: an experimental randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Lin Yu; Chung, Wei Sheng; Chen, Kuei Min

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to pilot test the effects of regular senior elastic band exercises on the generation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities in older adults. Long-term regular exercises have positive health promotion outcomes. On the contrary, high-intensity, high-speed and short-term exercises in older adults may increase free radicals and cause chronic disease and ageing effect. A prospective randomized controlled pilot study. Data were collected during 2012. Twenty-five older adults were recruited from a community care centre, southern Taiwan and were randomly assigned to either an experimental or control group. Twenty-two participants completed the study: experimental group (n = 10) and control group (n = 12). The experimental group performed 6-month senior elastic band exercises while the control group kept regular daily routines. Both groups received blood tests (thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and glutathione peroxidase) 30 minutes before the study began and 1 hour after the final intervention treatment. At the end of the 6-month senior elastic band exercises, no statistically significant differences in thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and glutathione peroxidase values between the experimental and control groups. No significant differences existed in both thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and glutathione peroxidase values before and after the 6-month senior elastic band exercises either. Regular senior elastic band exercises did not increase the generation of free radicals and antioxidant enzyme activities. Senior elastic band exercises have the potential to be promoted among older adults in the community as an exercise option without adverse effects on free radicals and have potential for mitigating ageing and increasing disease control. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Study protocol: a mixed methods feasibility study for a loaded self-managed exercise programme for patellofemoral pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Benjamin E; Hendrick, Paul; Bateman, Marcus; Moffatt, Fiona; Rathleff, Michael Skovdal; Selfe, James; Smith, Toby O; Logan, Pip

    2018-01-01

    Patellofemoral pain (PFP) is one of the most common forms of knee pain in adults under the age of 40, with a prevalence of 23% in the general population. The long-term prognosis is poor, with only one third of people pain-free 1 year after diagnosis. The biomedical model of pain in relation to persistent PFP has recently been called into question. It has been suggested that interventions for chronic musculoskeletal conditions should consider alternative mechanisms of action, beyond muscles and joints. Modern treatment therapies should consider desensitising strategies, with exercises that target movements and activities patients find fearful and painful. High-quality research on exercise prescription in relation to pain mechanisms, not directed at specific tissue pathology, and dose response clearly warrants further investigation. Our primary aim is to establish the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a definitive RCT which will evaluate the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a loaded self-managed exercise programme for people with patellofemoral pain. This is a single-centred, multiphase, sequential, mixed-methods trial that will evaluate the feasibility of running a definitive large-scale randomised controlled trial of a loaded self-managed exercise programme versus usual physiotherapy. Initially, 8-10 participants with a minimum 3-month history of PFP will be recruited from an NHS physiotherapy waiting list and interviewed. Participants will be invited to discuss perceived barriers and facilitators to exercise engagement, and the meaning and impact of PFP. Then, 60 participants will be recruited in the same manner for the main phase of the feasibility trial. A web-based service will randomise patients to a loaded self-managed exercise programme or usual physiotherapy. The loaded self-managed exercise programme is aimed at addressing lower limb knee and hip weakness and is positioned within a framework of reducing fear/avoidance with an emphasis on self

  19. Exercise Training in Pregnancy for obese women (ETIP: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vik Torstein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Both maternal pre-pregnancy obesity and excessive gestational weight gain are increasing in prevalence and associated with a number of adverse pregnancy outcomes for both mother and child. Observational studies regarding physical activity in pregnancy have found reduced weight gain in active mothers, as well as reduced risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. There is however a lack of high quality, randomized controlled trials on the effects of regular exercise training in pregnancy, especially those with a pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI at or above 30 kg/m2. Methods We are conducting a randomised, controlled trial in Norway with two parallel arms; one intervention group and one control group. We will enroll 150 previously sedentary, pregnant women with a pre-pregnancy BMI at or above 30 kg/m2. The intervention group will meet for organized exercise training three times per week, starting in gestation week 14 (range 12-16. The control group will get standard antenatal care. The main outcome measure will be weight gain from baseline to delivery. Among the secondary outcome measures are changes in exercise capacity, endothelial function, physical activity level, body composition, serum markers of cardiovascular risk, incontinence, lumbopelvic pain and cardiac function from baseline to gestation week 37 (range 36-38. Offspring outcome measures include anthropometric variables at birth, Apgar score, as well as serum markers of inflammation and metabolism in cord blood. Discussion The results of this trial will provide knowledge about effects of regular exercise training in previously sedentary, obese pregnant women. If the program proves effective in reducing gestational weight gain and adverse pregnancy outcomes, such programs should be considered as part of routine pregnancy care for obese women. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01243554

  20. Non-exercise physical activity and survival: English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamer, Mark; de Oliveira, Cesar; Demakakos, Panayotes

    2014-10-01

    The activity patterns of older adults include more light/mild-intensity or "non-exercise" activity and less moderate- to vigorous-intensity activity. The health benefits of this type of activity pattern remain unclear. To examine dose-response associations between physical activity and survival using time-varying analysis to understand the importance of "non-exercise" activity for survival in older adults. Participants (N=10,426) were drawn from The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing, a representative sample of men and women aged ≥50 years living in England. Participant data were linked with death records from the National Health Service registries from 2002 to 2011. Analyses were conducted in 2013. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the risk of death according to time-varying estimates of physical activity. Over an average follow-up of 7.8 years (median follow-up, 8.5 years), there were 1,896 deaths. In models adjusted for comorbidities, psychosocial factors, smoking, and obesity, there was a dose-response association between time-varying physical activity and mortality, with the greatest survival benefit in vigorously active participants. However, participating in mild ("non-exercise")-intensity physical activity was also associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio [HR]=0.76, 95% CI=0.69, 0.83); cardiovascular mortality (HR=0.74, 95% CI=0.64, 0.85); and death by other causes (HR=0.67, 95% CI=0.58, 0.78). Time-varying models produced stronger, more robust estimates than models using a single measurement of physical activity at baseline. Older adults gain health benefits from participating in regular "non-exercise" physical activity, although the greatest benefits are observed for more vigorous activity. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Bioimpedance identifies body fluid loss after exercise in the heat: a pilot study with body cooling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Gatterer

    Full Text Available Assessment of post-exercise changes in hydration with bioimpedance (BI is complicated by physiological adaptations that affect resistance (R and reactance (Xc values. This study investigated exercise-induced changes in R and Xc, independently and in bioelectrical impedance vector analysis, when factors such as increased skin temperature and blood flow and surface electrolyte accumulation are eliminated with a cold shower.Healthy males (n = 14, 24.1±1.7 yr; height (H: 182.4±5.6 cm, body mass: 72.3±6.3 kg exercised for 1 hr at a self-rated intensity (15 BORG in an environmental chamber (33°C and 50% relative humidity, then had a cold shower (15 min. Before the run BI, body mass, hematocrit and Posm were measured. After the shower body mass was measured; BI measurements were performed continuously every 20 minutes until R reached a stable level, then hematocrit and Posm were measured again.Compared to pre-trial measurements body mass decreased after the run and Posm, Hct, R/H and Xc/H increased (p<0.05 with a corresponding lengthening of the impedance vector along the major axis of the tolerance ellipse (p<0.001. Changes in Posm were negatively related to changes in body mass (r = -0.564, p = 0.036 and changes in Xc/H (r = -0.577, p = 0.041.Present findings showed that after a bout of exercise-induced dehydration followed by cold shower the impedance vector lengthened that indicates fluid loss. Additionally, BI values might be useful to evaluate fluid shifts between compartments as lower intracellular fluid loss (changed Xc/R indicated greater Posm increase.

  2. Strength training and older women: a cross-sectional study examining factors related to exercise adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seguin, Rebecca A; Economos, Christina D; Palombo, Ruth; Hyatt, Raymond; Kuder, Julia; Nelson, Miriam E

    2010-04-01

    Despite the recognized health benefits, few older women participate in strength-training exercises. The purpose of this study was to examine factors related to older women's adherence to strength training after participation in the StrongWomen Program, a nationally disseminated community program. Adherence was defined as > or =4 months of twice-weekly strength training. Surveys were sent to 970 program participants from 23 states and to participants' corresponding program leaders. Five-hundred fifty-seven participants responded (57%). Of respondents who completed surveys (527), 79% (415) adhered to strength training; adherers reported a mean of 14.1 +/- 9.1 months of strength training. Logistic-regression analysis revealed that exercise adherence was positively associated with age (p = .001), higher lifetime physical activity levels (p = .045), better perceived health (p = .003), leader's sports participation (p = .028), and leader's prior experience leading programs (p = .006). These data lend insight to factors that may be related to exercise adherence among midlife and older women.

  3. Walking as physical exercise in Fibromyalgia: an elicitation study from the Theory of Planned Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Ángeles Pastor

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This study is the first phase of the formative research recommended in the Theory of Planned Behavior for the development of an intervention. Our aims are to identify modal beliefs about the performance of an exercise pattern in people with fibromyalgia, to test the items designed for direct evaluation of the predictive constructs and to explore their relationships with the behavior. We assessed 46 women with fibromyalgia. Content analysis showed more positive than negative consequences related to the performance of exercise guidelines (behavioral beliefs. Families and friends are the important referents (normative beliefs and we identified facilitating and inhibiting factors in the performance of exercise behavior related to aspects of fibromyalgia (control beliefs such as pain, fatigue and emotional state. The subjective norm scale showed the lowest internal consistency (α= .78. The results confirmed the sedentary lifestyle of the participants (previous behavior: Mean=3.67; rank=1-7 although they also suggested that participants intended to perform the behavior (Mean=5.67. The relationships between constructs are coherent with the theory, and support the relevance of applying it to the selected behavior and population.

  4. Neurobiological mechanisms of exercise and psychotherapy in depression: The SPeED study-Rationale, design, and methodological issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzel, Stephan; Rapp, Michael A; Fydrich, Thomas; Ströhle, Andreas; Terán, Christina; Kallies, Gunnar; Schwefel, Melanie; Heissel, Andreas

    2018-02-01

    Even though cognitive behavioral therapy has become a relatively effective treatment for major depressive disorder and cognitive behavioral therapy-related changes of dysfunctional neural activations were shown in recent studies, remission rates still remain at an insufficient level. Therefore, the implementation of effective augmentation strategies is needed. In recent meta-analyses, exercise therapy (especially endurance exercise) was reported to be an effective intervention in major depressive disorder. Despite these findings, underlying mechanisms of the antidepressant effect of exercise especially in combination with cognitive behavioral therapy have rarely been studied to date and an investigation of its neural underpinnings is lacking. A better understanding of the psychological and neural mechanisms of exercise and cognitive behavioral therapy would be important for developing optimal treatment strategies in depression. The SPeED study (Sport/Exercise Therapy and Psychotherapy-evaluating treatment Effects in Depressive patients) is a randomized controlled trial to investigate underlying physiological, neurobiological, and psychological mechanisms of the augmentation of cognitive behavioral therapy with endurance exercise. It is investigated if a preceding endurance exercise program will enhance the effect of a subsequent cognitive behavioral therapy. This study will include 105 patients diagnosed with a mild or moderate depressive episode according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). The participants are randomized into one of three groups: a high-intensive or a low-intensive endurance exercise group or a waiting list control group. After the exercise program/waiting period, all patients receive an outpatient cognitive behavioral therapy treatment according to a standardized therapy manual. At four measurement points, major depressive disorder symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory, Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression

  5. Acute aerobic exercise increases cortical activity during working memory: a functional MRI study in female college students

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Li, Lin; Men, Wei-Wei; Chang, Yu-Kai; Fan, Ming-Xia; Ji, Liu; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2014-01-01

    .... However, neural correlates of its cognitive plasticity remain largely unknown. The present study examined the effect of a session of acute aerobic exercise on working memory task-evoked brain activity as well as task performance...

  6. Impact of post-manipulation corrective core exercises on the spinal deformation and lumbar strength in golfers: a case study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Shin, Chul-ho; Kim, Minjeong; Park, Gi Duck

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study examined spinal shape in professional golfers with chronic back pain, and analyzed the effects of a 4-week regimen of semi-weekly manipulation and corrective core exercises on spinal shape. [Subjects...

  7. A pilot study of exercise in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee C

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT is the mainstay therapy for men with prostate cancer. However, there are musculoskeletal side effects from ADT that increase the risk for osteoporosis and fracture, and can compromise the quality of life of these individuals. The objectives of this study are to determine the efficacy of a home-based walking exercise program in promoting bone health, physical function and quality of life in men with prostate cancer receiving ADT. Methods/Design A 12-month prospective, single-blinded, randomized controlled trial will be conducted to compare the Exercise Group with the Control Group. Sixty men with prostate cancer who will be starting ADT will be recruited and randomly assigned to one of the two groups: the Exercise Group will receive instructions in setting up an individualized 12-month home-based walking exercise program, while the Control Group will receive standard medical advice from the attending physician. A number of outcome measures will be used to assess bone health, physical function, and health-related quality of life. At baseline and 12 months, bone health will be assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. At baseline and every 3 months up to 12 months, physical function will be evaluated using the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy - Fatigue Scale, Activities-specific Balance Confidence Scale, Short Physical Performance Battery, and Six-Minute Walk Test; and health-related quality of life will be assessed using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy Prostate Module and the Medical Outcomes Study 12-item Short Form Health Survey Version 2. A mixed multiple analysis of variance will be used to analyze the data. Discussion Musculoskeletal health management remains a challenge in men with prostate cancer receiving ADT. This study addresses this issue by designing a simple and accessible home-based walking exercise program that will potentially have significant

  8. A mHealth cardiac rehabilitation exercise intervention: findings from content development studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pfaeffli Leila

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Involving stakeholders and consumers throughout the content and study design ensures interventions are engaging and relevant for end-users. The aim of this paper is to present the content development process for a mHealth (mobile phone and internet-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR exercise intervention. Methods An innovative mHealth intervention was developed with patient input using the following steps: conceptualization, formative research, pre-testing, and pilot testing. Conceptualization, including theoretical and technical aspects, was undertaken by experts. For the formative component, focus groups and interviews with cardiac patients were conducted to discuss their perceptions of a mHealth CR program. A general inductive thematic approach identified common themes. A preliminary library of text and video messages were then developed. Participants were recruited from CR education sessions to pre-test and provide feedback on the content using an online survey. Common responses were extracted and compiled. An iterative process was used to refine content prior to pilot testing and conduct of a randomized controlled trial. Results 38 CR patients and 3 CR nurses participated in the formative research and 20 CR patients participated in the content pre-testing. Participants perceived the mHealth program as an effective approach to inform and motivate patients to exercise. For the qualitative study, 100% (n = 41 of participants thought it to be a good idea, and 11% of participants felt it might not be useful for them, but would be for others. Of the 20 participants who completed the online survey, 17 out of 20 (85% stated they would sign up to a program where they could receive information by video messages on a website, and 12 out of 20 (60% showed interest in a texting program. Some older CR patients viewed technology as a potential barrier as they were unfamiliar with text messaging or did not have mobile phones. Steps to

  9. A mHealth cardiac rehabilitation exercise intervention: findings from content development studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaeffli, Leila; Maddison, Ralph; Whittaker, Robyn; Stewart, Ralph; Kerr, Andrew; Jiang, Yannan; Kira, Geoff; Carter, Karen; Dalleck, Lance

    2012-05-30

    Involving stakeholders and consumers throughout the content and study design ensures interventions are engaging and relevant for end-users. The aim of this paper is to present the content development process for a mHealth (mobile phone and internet-based) cardiac rehabilitation (CR) exercise intervention. An innovative mHealth intervention was developed with patient input using the following steps: conceptualization, formative research, pre-testing, and pilot testing. Conceptualization, including theoretical and technical aspects, was undertaken by experts. For the formative component, focus groups and interviews with cardiac patients were conducted to discuss their perceptions of a mHealth CR program. A general inductive thematic approach identified common themes. A preliminary library of text and video messages were then developed. Participants were recruited from CR education sessions to pre-test and provide feedback on the content using an online survey. Common responses were extracted and compiled. An iterative process was used to refine content prior to pilot testing and conduct of a randomized controlled trial. 38 CR patients and 3 CR nurses participated in the formative research and 20 CR patients participated in the content pre-testing. Participants perceived the mHealth program as an effective approach to inform and motivate patients to exercise. For the qualitative study, 100% (n = 41) of participants thought it to be a good idea, and 11% of participants felt it might not be useful for them, but would be for others. Of the 20 participants who completed the online survey, 17 out of 20 (85%) stated they would sign up to a program where they could receive information by video messages on a website, and 12 out of 20 (60%) showed interest in a texting program. Some older CR patients viewed technology as a potential barrier as they were unfamiliar with text messaging or did not have mobile phones. Steps to instruct participants to receive texts and view the

  10. Hot flushes among aging women: A 4-year follow-up study to a randomised controlled exercise trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansikkamäki, Kirsi; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Raitanen, Jani; Kukkonen-Harjula, Katriina; Tomás, Eija; Rutanen, Reetta; Luoto, Riitta

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this follow-up study was to explore the long-term effects of a 6-month trial of exercise training on hot flushes. The follow-up was 4 years after the exercise intervention ended. A cohort study after a randomised controlled trial. Ninety-five of the 159 randomised women (60%) participated in anthropometric measurements and performed a 2-km walk test. Participants completed a questionnaire and kept a one-week diary on physical activity, menopause symptoms and sleep quality. The frequency of 24-h hot flushes was multiplied by severity and the total sum for one week was defined as the Hot Flush Score (HFScore). Multilevel mixed regression models were analysed to compare the exercise and control groups. Hot Flush Score (HFScore) as assessed with the one-week symptom diary. The women in the exercise group had a higher probability of improved HFScore, i.e. a decrease in HFScore points, adjusted for hormone therapy (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.90-1.00) than women in the control group at the 4-year follow-up. After additional adjustment for sleep quality, the result approached statistical significance at HFScore≥13 with women in the exercise group. Women who had the least amount of hot flushes, HFScorewomen in the control group. Women in the exercise group had positive effects on their HFScore 4 years after a 6-month exercise intervention. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Association between the 6-minute walk test and exercise confidence in patients with heart failure: A prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Francis J; Toukhsati, Samia R; Cameron, James D; Yates, Rosie; Hare, David L

    2017-10-21

    Exercise confidence predicts exercise adherence in heart failure (HF) patients. The association between simple tests of functional capacity on exercise confidence are not known. To evaluate the association between a single 6-min walk test (6MWT) and exercise confidence in HF patients. Observational study enrolling HF outpatients who completed the Cardiac Depression Scale and an Exercise Confidence Survey at baseline and following the 6MWT. Paired t-test was used to compare repeated-measures data, while Repeated Measures Analysis of Covariance was used for multivariate analysis. 106 HF patients were enrolled in the study (males, 82%; mean age, 64 ± 12 years). Baseline Exercise Confidence was inversely associated with age (p Confidence (F(1,92) = 5.0, p = 0.03) after adjustment for age, gender, HF duration, NYHA class and depression. The 6MWT is associated with improved exercise confidence in HF patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linek Paweł

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01 between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

  13. The Effect of Specific Sling Exercises on the Functional Movement Screen Score in Adolescent Volleyball Players: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linek, Paweł; Saulicz, Edward; Myśliwiec, Andrzej; Wójtowicz, Monika; Wolny, Tomasz

    2016-12-01

    The existing data indicate that the result of the Functional Movement Screen (FMS) test influences the likelihood of subsequent injury in professional athletes. Therefore, exercises increasing test scores of the FMS may be useful at various stages of sports activity. This study evaluated the effects of the NEURAC sling exercises method on the FMS test score in teenage volleyball players. The study was conducted on 15 volleyball players aged 14 years. The FMS test was performed three times interspersed with a two-month interval. Between the first and the second assessment, neither additional treatment nor training was applied, while between the second and the third assessment, the participants performed stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method. Training was carried out twice a week, for eight weeks. The analysis showed that between the first and the second measurement, no significant differences occurred. The use of specific sling exercises caused a significant improvement in FMS results (p ≤ 0.01) between the first and the third, as well as the second and the third measurement. The applied stabilisation exercises based on the NEURAC method positively influenced the FMS test result in male subjects practicing volleyball. Performance of such exercises also resulted in more than 90% of the subjects having a total FMS test score ≥ 17, which may be important in the prevention of injuries. The preliminary results indicate that this type of exercise should be included in a teenage volleyball training routine.

  14. Effects of Multicomponent Exercise on Functional and Cognitive Parameters of Hypertensive Patients: A Quasi-Experimental Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Gonçalves, Ivan de Oliveira; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Uchida, Marco Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Purpose. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program (MCEP) on physical function and cognitive parameters of normotensive (NTS) and hypertensive (HTS) older patients and verify if age can influence the adaptations in response to the exercise. Methods. A total of 218 subjects, 101 NTS and 117 HTS, were recruited and underwent functional and cognitive evaluations before and after six months of a MCEP. The program of exercise was performed twice a week, for 26 weeks. The physical exercises were thought to mimic the activities of daily living and, therefore, aggregated functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. Results. Data indicated that HTS and NST patients showed a similar increase in the performance of walking speed test and one-leg stand test after the MCEP. Regarding age, results did not show differences in the magnitude of adaptations between old and young HTS and NTS patients. Conclusions. Data of the present study indicated that a 6-month MCEP was able to increase equally balance and mobility in NTS and HTS patients. Moreover, data demonstrated that aging did not seem to impair the capacity to adapt in response to exercise in both groups. PMID:28409030

  15. Effect of exercise training on clot strength in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: An ancillary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauer, Karin; Exaire, J Emilio; Stoner, Julie A; Saucedo, Jorge F; Montgomery, Polly S; Gardner, Andrew W

    2015-01-01

    Patients with peripheral artery disease have walking impairment, greater thrombotic risk, and are often treated with exercise training. We sought to determine the effect of a 3-month-long exercise program on clot strength among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication. Twenty-three symptomatic peripheral artery disease patients were randomly assigned to a walking exercise program or to an attention control group who performed light resistance exercise. We investigated the effect of exercise training on clot strength and time to clot formation was assessed by thromboelastography. After 3 months of exercise, clot strength (maximal amplitude) and time to clot formation (R) did not change significantly from baseline, even after improvements in claudication onset time (p < 0.01) and peak walking time (p < 0.05). Furthermore, changes in clot formation parameters were not significantly different between groups. Among the 10 individuals demonstrating a reduction in clot strength (reduced maximal amplitude), one was a smoker (10%) compared to 9 of 13 non-responders (69%) whose maximal amplitude was unchanged or increased (p = 0.0097). In this ancillary study, a 12-week walking program improved ambulatory function in peripheral artery disease patients with claudication, but does not modify clot strength or time to clot formation. Larger studies are needed to confirm these hypothesis generating findings and to determine whether a different amount or type of exercise may induce a change in clotting in this patient population.

  16. Effect of exercise training on clot strength in patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication: An ancillary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Mauer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Patients with peripheral artery disease have walking impairment, greater thrombotic risk, and are often treated with exercise training. We sought to determine the effect of a 3-month-long exercise program on clot strength among patients with peripheral artery disease and intermittent claudication. Methods: Twenty-three symptomatic peripheral artery disease patients were randomly assigned to a walking exercise program or to an attention control group who performed light resistance exercise. We investigated the effect of exercise training on clot strength and time to clot formation was assessed by thromboelastography. Results: After 3 months of exercise, clot strength (maximal amplitude and time to clot formation (R did not change significantly from baseline, even after improvements in claudication onset time (p < 0.01 and peak walking time (p < 0.05. Furthermore, changes in clot formation parameters were not significantly different between groups. Among the 10 individuals demonstrating a reduction in clot strength (reduced maximal amplitude, one was a smoker (10% compared to 9 of 13 non-responders (69% whose maximal amplitude was unchanged or increased (p = 0.0097. Conclusion: In this ancillary study, a 12-week walking program improved ambulatory function in peripheral artery disease patients with claudication, but does not modify clot strength or time to clot formation. Larger studies are needed to confirm these hypothesis generating findings and to determine whether a different amount or type of exercise may induce a change in clotting in this patient population.

  17. Effect of exercise intensity on exercise and post exercise energy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine if exercise and post exercise energy expenditure are affected by the intensity of exercise during a set distance of 4km walking and/or jogging. Subjects for this study were 12 moderately obese females with mean fat percentage of 31.7±6.3% and mean age of 38.2±4.6 years. For the low ...

  18. Volume-dependent effect of supervised exercise training on fatty liver and visceral adiposity index in subjects with type 2 diabetes The Italian Diabetes Exercise Study (IDES).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balducci, Stefano; Cardelli, Patrizia; Pugliese, Luca; D'Errico, Valeria; Haxhi, Jonida; Alessi, Elena; Iacobini, Carla; Menini, Stefano; Bollanti, Lucilla; Conti, Francesco G; Nicolucci, Antonio; Pugliese, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of supervised exercise training on liver enzymes and two surrogate measures of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in subjects with type 2 diabetes. Sedentary patients from 22 outpatient diabetes clinics were randomized by center, age and treatment to twice-a-week supervised aerobic and resistance training plus structured exercise counseling (exercise group, EXE; n=303) versus counseling alone (control group, CON; n=303) for 12 months. EXE participants were further randomized to low-to-moderate (n=142) or moderate-to-high (n=161) intensity training of equal energy cost. Baseline and end-of-study levels of liver enzymes, fatty liver index (FLI) and visceral adiposity index (VAI) were obtained. Enzyme levels did not change, whereas FLI and VAI decreased significantly in EXE, but not CON participants. Physical activity (PA) volume was an independent predictor of both FLI and VAI reductions, the extent of which increased from the 1st to the 4th quintile of PA volume and baseline to end-of-study changes in fitness parameters. Differences in the effect of LI versus HI training were negligible. Data from this large cohort of subjects with type 2 diabetes indicate that FLI and VAI decrease with supervised training in a volume-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The Effect of Exercise on Elderly Body Balance which Measured By Romberg Test Study in Plamongansari Pedurungan Semarang

    OpenAIRE

    Zuhaida Annafisah; Ika Rosdiana

    2012-01-01

    Background: Balance disorders is a major cause which often lead elders to fall easily. Body balance reduction of elders can be helped by many variety of balance exercises, one of them is elders exercise. There have been many researches on the assessment of body balance. But a research carrying a Romberg Test to assesses static balance by closing and opening eyes as a visual organ has not been done. This study aims to determine the effect of exercise on elderly body balance which measured by R...

  20. Developing the catecholamines hypothesis for the acute exercise-cognition interaction in humans: Lessons from animal studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMorris, Terry

    2016-10-15

    The catecholamines hypothesis for the acute exercise-cognition interaction in humans fails to adequately explain the interaction between peripherally circulating catecholamines and brain concentrations; how different exercise intensities×durations affect different cognitive tasks; and how brain catecholamines, glucocorticoids, BDNF and 5-hydroxytryptamine interact. A review of the animal literature was able to clarify many of the issues. Rodent studies showed that facilitation of cognition during short to moderate duration (SMD), moderate exercise could be accounted for by activation of the locus coeruleus via feedback from stretch reflexes, baroreceptors and, post-catecholamines threshold, β-adrenoceptors on the vagus nerve. SMD, moderate exercise facilitates all types of task by stimulation of the reticular system by norepinephrine (NE) but central executive tasks are further facilitated by activation of α2A-adrenoceptors and D1-dopaminergic receptors in the prefrontal cortex, which increases the signal to 'noise' ratio. During long-duration, moderate exercise and heavy exercise, brain concentrations of glucocorticoids and 5-hydroxytryptamine, the latter in moderate exercise only, also increase. This further increases catecholamines release. This results in increased activation of D1-receptors and α1-adrenoceptors, in the prefrontal cortex, which dampens all neural activity, thus inhibiting central executive performance. However, activation of β- and α1-adrenoceptors can positively affect signal detection in the sensory cortices, hence performance of perception/attention and autonomous tasks can be facilitated. Animal studies also show that during long-duration, moderate exercise and heavy exercise, NE activation of β-adrenoceptors releases cAMP, which modulates the signaling and trafficking of the BDNF receptor Trk B, which facilitates long-term potentiation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Parents of children with physical disabilities perceive that characteristics of home exercise programs and physiotherapists’ teaching styles influence adherence: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lillo-Navarro

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Question: What are the perceptions of parents of children with physical disabilities about the home exercise programs that physiotherapists prescribe? How do these perceptions affect adherence to home exercise programs? Design: Qualitative study using focus groups and a modified grounded theory approach. Participants: Parents of children with physical disabilities who have been prescribed a home exercise program by physiotherapists. Results: Twenty-eight parents participated in the focus groups. Two key themes that related to adherence to home exercise programs in young children with physical disabilities were identified: the characteristics of the home exercise program; and the characteristics of the physiotherapist's teaching style. In the first theme, the participants described their experiences regarding their preference for exercises, which was related to the perceived effects of the exercises, their complexity, and the number of exercises undertaken. These factors determined the amount of time spent performing the exercises, the effect of the exercises on the family's relationships, and any sense of related burden. In the second theme, participants revealed that they adhered better to prescribed exercises when their physiotherapist made an effort to build their confidence in the exercises, helped the parents to incorporate the home exercise program into their daily routine, provided incentives and increased motivation. Conclusion: Parents perceive that their children's adherence to home-based exercises, which are supervised by the parents, is more successful when the physiotherapist's style and the content of the exercise program are positively experienced. These findings reveal which issues should be considered when prescribing home exercise programs to children with physical disabilities. [Lillo-Navarro C, Medina-Mirapeix F, Escolar-Reina P, Montilla-Herrador J, Gomez-Arnaldos F, Oliveira-Sousa SL (2015 Parents of children with physical

  2. Parents of children with physical disabilities perceive that characteristics of home exercise programs and physiotherapists' teaching styles influence adherence: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillo-Navarro, Carmen; Medina-Mirapeix, Francesc; Escolar-Reina, Pilar; Montilla-Herrador, Joaquina; Gomez-Arnaldos, Francisco; Oliveira-Sousa, Silvana L

    2015-04-01

    What are the perceptions of parents of children with physical disabilities about the home exercise programs that physiotherapists prescribe? How do these perceptions affect adherence to home exercise programs? Qualitative study using focus groups and a modified grounded theory approach. Parents of children with physical disabilities who have been prescribed a home exercise program by physiotherapists. Twenty-eight parents participated in the focus groups. Two key themes that related to adherence to home exercise programs in young children with physical disabilities were identified: the characteristics of the home exercise program; and the characteristics of the physiotherapist's teaching style. In the first theme, the participants described their experiences regarding their preference for exercises, which was related to the perceived effects of the exercises, their complexity, and the number of exercises undertaken. These factors determined the amount of time spent performing the exercises, the effect of the exercises on the family's relationships, and any sense of related burden. In the second theme, participants revealed that they adhered better to prescribed exercises when their physiotherapist made an effort to build their confidence in the exercises, helped the parents to incorporate the home exercise program into their daily routine, provided incentives and increased motivation. Parents perceive that their children's adherence to home-based exercises, which are supervised by the parents, is more successful when the physiotherapist's style and the content of the exercise program are positively experienced. These findings reveal which issues should be considered when prescribing home exercise programs to children with physical disabilities. [Lillo-Navarro C, Medina-Mirapeix F, Escolar-Reina P, Montilla-Herrador J, Gomez-Arnaldos F, Oliveira-Sousa SL (2015) Parents of children with physical disabilities perceive that characteristics of home exercise programs and

  3. Effect of BCAA supplement timing on exercise-induced muscle soreness and damage: a pilot placebo-controlled double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ra, Song-Gyu; Miyazaki, Teruo; Kojima, Ryo; Komine, Shoichi; Ishikura, Keisuke; Kawanaka, Kentaro; Honda, Akira; Matsuzaki, Yasushi; Ohmori, Hajime

    2017-09-22

    The aim of present study was to compare the effects of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) supplementation taken before or after exercise on delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) and exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). Fifteen young men (aged 21.5 ± 0.4 years) were given either BCAA (9.6 g·day-1) or placebo before and after exercise (and for 3 days prior to and following the exercise day) in three independent groups: the Control group (placebo before and after exercise), the PRE group (BCAA before exercise and placebo after exercise), and the POST group (placebo before exercise and BCAA after exercise). Participants performed 30 repetitions of eccentric exercise with the non-dominant arm. DOMS, upper arm circumference (CIR), elbow range of motion (ROM), serum creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and aldolase, BCAA, and Beta-hydroxy-Beta-methylbutyrate (3HMB) were measured immediately before and after the exercise and on the following 4 days. Serum BCAA and 3HMB concentrations increased significantly in the PRE group immediately after the exercise, recovering to baseline over the following days. In the days following the exercise day, DOMS, CIR, and ROM were significantly improved in the PRE group compared to the Control group, with weaker effects in the POST group. Serum activities of CK, LDH, and aldolase in the days following the exercise day were significantly suppressed in the PRE group compared to Control group. Present study confirmed that repeated BCAA supplementation before exercise had a more beneficial effect in attenuating DOMS and EIMD induced by eccentric exercise than repeated supplementation after exercise.

  4. Effects and feasibility of an exercise intervention for individuals living with dementia in nursing homes: study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brett, Lindsey; Traynor, Victoria; Stapley, Paul; Meedya, Shahla

    2017-09-01

    Worldwide, there are an estimated 35.6 million individuals living with dementia. It is important that non-pharmacological therapies are utilized to help manage the symptoms of dementia, such as agitation, as they are the recommended first approach in best practice guidelines. This protocol outlines a randomized controlled trial with a qualitative component which evaluated the effects and feasibility of a physical therapist-led physical exercise intervention on agitation of individuals living with dementia in nursing homes. Physical performance levels were considered as a secondary outcome. This evidence-based protocol consisted of a range of adaptable physical exercises that targeted strength, balance, endurance, and flexibility. To help determine the optimum parameters for this population group, the study used two intervention groups: (a) physical exercise intervention for 45 minutes once a week; (b) physical exercise intervention for 15 minutes three times a week (total time also 45 minutes per week). Both intervention groups were compared to a control group, which continued to participate in usual care only (no specific physical exercise intervention), such as basic seated exercise class, carpet bowls, and "armchair" activities. The physical therapist-led physical exercise intervention detailed in this protocol could be integrated into dementia care in nursing homes or other similar settings to help reduce agitation and improve physical performance.

  5. Impact of exercise with TheraBite device on trismus and health-related quality of life: A prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montalvo, Charlotte; Finizia, Caterina; Pauli, Nina; Fagerberg-Mohlin, Bodil; Andréll, Paulin

    2017-01-01

    Trismus is a common symptom in patients with head and neck cancer that affects many aspects of daily life negatively. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device TheraBite on trismus, trismus-related symptomatology, and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with head and neck cancer. Fifteen patients with trismus (maximum interincisal opening [MIO] ≤35 mm) after oncologic treatment for head and neck cancer, underwent a 10-week exercise program with the TheraBite device and were followed regularly. Time between oncologic treatment and start of TheraBite exercise ranged from 0.7 to 14.8 years (average 6.2 years). MIO, trismus-related symptoms, and HRQL was assessed before and after exercise and after 6 months. A significant improvement in MIO was observed post-exercise (3.5 mm, 15.3%, p = 0.0002) and after 6-month of follow-up (4.7 mm, 22.1%, p = 0.0029). A statistically significant correlation was found between increased MIO and fewer trismus-related symptoms. In conclusion, exercise with TheraBite improved MIO and trismus-related symptoms in patients with trismus secondary to head and neck cancer. Structured exercise with the jaw-mobilizing device seems to be beneficial for patients with trismus independent of time since oncologic treatment.

  6. Effect of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function: an event-related cortical desynchronization study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Kai; Chu, Chien-Heng; Wang, Chun-Chih; Song, Tai-Fen; Wei, Gao-Xia

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to clarify the effects of acute exercise and cardiovascular fitness on cognitive function using the Stroop test and event-related desynchronization (ERD) in an aged population. Old adults (63.10 ± 2.89 years) were first assigned to either a high-fitness or a low-fitness group, and they were then subjected to an acute exercise treatment and a reading control treatment in a counterbalanced order. Alpha ERD was recorded during the Stroop test, which was administered after both treatments. Acute exercise improved cognitive performance regardless of the level of cognition, and old adults with higher fitness levels received greater benefits from acute exercise. Additionally, acute exercise, rather than overall fitness, elicited greater lower and upper alpha ERDs relative to the control condition. These findings indirectly suggest that the beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive performance may result from exercise-induced attentional control observed during frontal neural excitation. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  7. Trunk muscle activation levels during eight stabilization exercises used in the functional kinetics concept: A controlled laboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsak, Brian; Wunsch, Rüdiger; Bernhart, Philipp; Gorgas, Anna-Maria; Bichler, Romana; Lampel, Kerstin

    2017-01-01

    To ensure accurate implementation of stabilization exercises in rehabilitation, physical therapists need to understand the muscle activation patterns of prescribed exercise. Compare muscle activity during eight trunk and lumbar spine stabilization exercises of the Functional Kinetics concept by Klein-Vogelbach. A controlled laboratory study with a single-group repeated-measures design was utilized to analyze surface electromyographic intensities of 14 female and 6 male young healthy participants performing eight exercises. Data were captured from the rectus abdominis, external/internal oblique and lumbar paraspinalis. The normalized muscle activation levels (maximum voluntary isometric contraction, MVIC) for three repetitions during each exercise and muscle were analyzed. Side bridging (28 ± 20%MVIC) and advanced planking (29 ± 20%MVIC) reached the highest activity in the rectus abdominis. For external and internal oblique muscles, side bridging also showed the greatest activity of 99 ± 36%MVIC and 52 ± 25%MVIC, respectively. Apart from side bridging (52 ± 14%MVIC), the supine roll-out (31 ± 12%MVIC) and prone roll-out (31 ± 9%MVIC) showed the greatest activity for the paraspinalis. The advanced quadruped, seated back extension and flexion on chair/Swiss Ball, prone roll-out and advanced one-leg back bridging only yielded negligible muscle activities for the rectus abdominis (< 5%MVIC). Based on the data obtained, recommendations for selective trunk muscle activation during eight stabilization exercises were established, which will guide physical therapists in the development of exercises tailored to the needs of their patients.

  8. Targeted spine strengthening exercise and posture training program to reduce hyperkyphosis in older adults: results from the study of hyperkyphosis, exercise, and function (SHEAF) randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzman, W B; Vittinghoff, E; Lin, F; Schafer, A; Long, R K; Wong, S; Gladin, A; Fan, B; Allaire, B; Kado, D M; Lane, N E

    2017-10-01

    A 6-month randomized controlled trial of spine-strengthening exercise and posture training reduced both radiographic and clinical measures of kyphosis. Participants receiving the intervention improved self-image and satisfaction with their appearance. Results suggest that spine-strengthening exercise and postural training may be an effective treatment option for older adults with hyperkyphosis. The purpose of the present study is to determine in a randomized controlled trial whether spine-strengthening exercises improve Cobb angle of kyphosis in community-dwelling older adults. We recruited adults ≥60 years with kyphosis ≥40° and enrolled 99 participants (71 women, 28 men), mean age 70.6 ± 0.6 years, range 60-88, with baseline Cobb angle 57.4 ± 12.5°. The intervention included group spine-strengthening exercise and postural training, delivered by a physical therapist, 1-h, three times weekly for 6 months. Controls received four group health education meetings. The primary outcome was change in the gold standard Cobb angle of kyphosis measured from standing lateral spine radiographs. Secondary outcomes included change in kyphometer-measured kyphosis, physical function (modified Physical Performance Test, gait speed, Timed Up and Go, Timed Loaded Standing, 6-Min Walk), and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) (PROMIS global health and physical function indexes, SRS-30 self-image domain). ANCOVA was used to assess treatment effects on change from baseline to 6 months in all outcomes. There was a -3.0° (95% CI -5.2, -0.8) between-group difference in change in Cobb angle, p = 0.009, favoring the intervention and approximating the magnitude of change from an incident vertebral fracture. Kyphometer-measured kyphosis (p = 0.03) and SRS-30 self-esteem (p  0.05. Spine-strengthening exercise and posture training over 6 months reduced kyphosis compared to control. Our randomized controlled trial results suggest that a targeted kyphosis

  9. Motivation for physical activity and exercise in severe mental illness: A systematic review of intervention studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farholm, Anders; Sørensen, Marit

    2016-06-01

    There has been increasing interest for research on motivation for physical activity (PA) and exercise among individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). The aim of this systematic review is to summarize findings from all intervention studies on PA or exercise that either include empirical data on motivational constructs or apply motivational techniques/theories in their intervention. Systematic searches of seven databases were conducted from database inception to February 2015. Studies were eligible if they: (i) included participants with SMI, (ii) had PA as part of the intervention, and (iii) reported empirical data on motivational constructs related to PA or incorporated motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Of the 79 studies that met the inclusion criteria only one had motivation for PA as its main outcome. Nine additional interventions reported empirical data on motivational constructs. Altogether these studies yielded mixed results with respect to change in motivational constructs. Only one of those examined the association between motivation and PA, but found none. Sixty-four studies reported using motivational techniques/theory in their intervention. Motivational interviewing and goal-setting were the most popular techniques. Due to the exploratory nature of most of these studies, findings from intervention studies do not so far give very clear directions for motivational work with the patients. There is an urgent need for a more systematic theory based approach when developing strategies that target to increase engagement in PA among people with SMI. © 2016 Australian College of Mental Health Nurses Inc.

  10. Individual experiences following a 6-month exercise intervention: A qualitative study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ellen Staveborg Kerkelä; Linus Jonsson; Magnus Lindwall; Jennifer Strand

    2015-01-01

      Purpose: Dropout is a common problem in various exercise interventions. The individual's experience is believed to greatly impact dropout, yet little is known about the individual experiences of taking part in exercise interventions...

  11. A COMPARITIVE STUDY TO KNOW THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PRONE BACK EXTENSION EXRECISES AND SWISS BALL EXERCISES ON BACK EXTENSOR MUSCLES PERFORMANCE

    OpenAIRE

    Subhanjan Das; C. K. Senthil Kumar; Abhijit Dutta

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endurance of the back muscles is important for stability of the trunk and therefore essential for normal functioning of an individual. Prone back extension exercises are traditional measures to improve back endurance. More recently Swiss ball exercises have become popular as a means to improve back endurance. Purpose of this study is to compare Prone back extension exercises with back extension exercise on Swiss ball on the improvement of the back extensor muscles performance, and...

  12. Comparison of longitudinal sciatic nerve movement with different mobilization exercises: an in vivo study utilizing ultrasound imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Richard F; Hing, Wayne A; McNair, Peter J

    2012-08-01

    Controlled laboratory study using a single-group, within-subjects comparison. To determine whether different types of neural mobilization exercises are associated with differing amounts of longitudinal sciatic nerve excursion measured in vivo at the posterior midthigh region. Recent research focusing on the upper limb of healthy subjects has shown that nerve excursion differs significantly between different types of neural mobilization exercises. This has not been examined in the lower limb. It is important to initially examine the influence of neural mobilization on peripheral nerve excursion in healthy people to identify peripheral nerve excursion impairments under conditions in which nerve excursion may be compromised. High-resolution ultrasound imaging was used to assess sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region. Four different neural mobilization exercises were performed in 31 healthy participants. These neural mobilization exercises used combinations of knee extension and cervical spine flexion and extension. Frame-by-frame cross-correlation analysis of the ultrasound images was used to calculate nerve excursion. A repeated-measures analysis of variance and isolated means comparisons were used for data analysis. Different neural mobilization exercises induced significantly different amounts of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh region (Ptensioner exercise (simultaneous cervical spine flexion and knee extension). The single-joint neck flexion exercise resulted in the least amount of sciatic nerve excursion at the posterior midthigh (mean ± SD, -0.1 ± 0.1 mm), which was significantly smaller than the other 3 exercises (P<.001). These findings are consistent with the results of previous research that has examined median nerve excursion associated with different neural mobilization exercises. Such nerve excursion supports theories of nerve motion associated with cervical spine and extremity movement, as generalizable to the lower

  13. Exercise and cardiovascular outcomes in hypertensive patients in relation to structure and function of left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boman, Kurt; Gerdts, Eva; Wachtell, Kristian

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exercise lowers blood pressure and improves cardiovascular function, but little is known about whether exercise impacts cardiovascular morbidity and mortality independent of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and LV geometry. DESIGN: Observational analysis of prospectively obtained...... (never exercise), intermediate (30 min twice/week). During 4.8-year follow-up, 105 patients suffered the primary composite endpoint of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, or cardiovascular death. MI occurred in 39, stroke in 60, and cardiovascular death in 33 patients. RESULTS: Sedentary individuals (n...... echocardiographic data within the context of a randomized trial of antihypertensive treatment. METHODS: A total of 937 hypertensive patients with ECG LVH were studied by echocardiography in the Losartan Intervention For Endpoint reduction in hypertension study. Baseline exercise status was categorized as sedentary...

  14. Daily pilates exercise or inactivity for patients with low back pain: a clinical prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarnicola, A; Fischetti, F; Maccagnano, G; Comes, R; Tafuri, S; Moretti, B

    2014-02-01

    Studies have shown the effectiveness of a few weekly pilates sessions as helping to reduce lower back pain (LBP). However many patients fear that physical activity can actually make the pain and disability worse. We carried out this observational prospective clinical study to look at the effects that taking part in daily pilates has one on side and on the other the effects of LBP management without physical exercise. The volunteers who participated in this study were recruited from among some local cultural associations. Patients affected by LBP were evaluated. The subjects were 60 volunteers (27 males and 33 females) with a mean age of 51.2 years who had chronic low back pain (CLBP). They were allocated to pilates group (N.=30) or inactivity control group (N.=30). The pilates group performed one-hour lesson of pilates exercise, 5 lessons per week during the following 6 months. The inactivity group continued with their normal daily activities. The Roland-Morris Disability, the Oswestry, the SF-36 and the Spinal Functional Sort Questionaries of all subjects were measured at the baseline (T1) and at 6 months (T2). At T2 improvements were observed in the pilates group with increases in physical and social functioning, general health and vitality (Pmeasures at T2. We found an important improvement of pain, disability and physical and psychological perception of health in individuals who did the daily sessions of pilates. Some authors underlined the possible risk of a lack of adherence to an exercise program at home. This study suggests that a daily pilates program is effective for the management of CLBP. On the other hand, the inactivity contributes to further worsening, inducing a vicious cycle in which pain and physical activity intolerance follow each other.

  15. The effects of upper extremity aerobic exercise in patients with spinal cord injury: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkurt, Halil; Karapolat, Hale U; Kirazli, Yesim; Kose, Timur

    2017-04-01

    Immobility and secondary complications, including cardiopulmonary disease, pressure ulcers, and pain, occur in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). These patients also have difficulty coping with the strain of daily activities. Thus, it is important for SCI patients to engage in aerobic exercise in order to be able to cope adequately with the strain of activities and SCI-related complications. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of arm aerobic exercise on the parameters of cardiopulmonary function, quality of life, degree of disability, psychological state, and metabolic syndrome. This study was a single blind, randomized, controlled trial. This study was conducted in a university hospital. SCI patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group (N.=17) or a control group (N.=16). Arm ergometer exercises (three days/week; 1.5 hours/week 50-70% pVO2) and general exercises (two sessions/day; 5 days/week), were assigned to the intervention group for 12 weeks. The control group was assigned general exercises only during this trial. Before the rehabilitation (Week 0), after six weeks, and after the rehabilitation (Week 12), all patients were evaluated for functional status (maximal oxygen uptake [pVO2], power output [PO], and Functional Independence Measurement), pulmonary function (FEV1%, FVC%, FEV1/FVC%), quality of life (World Health Organization Measure of Quality of Life, short form, Turkish version), metabolic syndrome parameters (triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting blood sugar, waist circumference, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure), degree of disability (Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique, short form), and psychological status (Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). At the end of the study, increases of 39.6% and 45.4% in the pVO2 and PO levels, respectively, were found

  16. A Pilot Study to Assess the Feasibility of Group Exercise and Animal-Assisted Therapy in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Brandon; Artese, Ashley; Schmitt, Karla; Cormier, Eileen; Panton, Lynn

    2016-04-01

    This pilot study assessed the feasibility of incorporating animal-assisted therapy teams (ATT) into a 6-week group exercise program for older adults (77 ± 6 years). Fifteen participants were randomly assigned to an exercise with ATT (E+ATT; n = 8) or exercise only (E; n = 7) group. Groups exercised 3x/week for 45 min. Feasibility was assessed by three objectives: (1) ATT will not need extensive preparation beyond their original therapy training; (2) the study will require minimal cost; and (3) ATT must not impair the effectiveness of the exercise program. By the study conclusion, all objectives were met. Time and cost were minimal for ATT, and adherence was 93% and 90% for E+ATT and E, respectively. There were significant improvements in both groups (p ≤ .05) for arm curls, get-up and go, and 6-min walk. The results of this pilot study suggest that it is feasible to incorporate ATT into group exercise programming for older adults.

  17. Physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy: A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Linda Kahr; Backhausen, Mette; Hegaard, Hanne Kristine; Juhl, Mette

    2015-12-01

    Pelvic girdle pain is a frequent cause of sick leave among pregnant women in Denmark. Studies regarding prevention of pelvic girdle pain are sparse. The aim of this study was to examine the association between physical exercise and pelvic girdle pain in pregnancy. A nested case-control study within the Danish National Birth Cohort (n = 5304). This study used self-reported data on pelvic girdle pain obtained from an interview six months after childbirth. Information on physical exercise was obtained from the pregnancy interview around gestational week 16. The association was estimated using logistic regression analysis. Physical exercise in pregnancy was associated with decreased risk of overall pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.87; 95% CI: 0.77-0.99, p = 0.028). Tests for trend indicated decreasing odds for pelvic girdle pain with increasing number of hours per week spent on exercise (p exercise, swimming was associated with a decreased risk of pelvic girdle pain (OR = 0.73; 95% CI: 0.58-0.91, p = 0.005). The findings suggest a possible protective effect of physical exercise on pelvic girdle pain during pregnancy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Important aspects in relation to patients' attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation - facilitators, barriers and physiotherapist's role: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäck, Maria; Öberg, Birgitta; Krevers, Barbro

    2017-03-14

    In order to improve attendance at exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR), a greater insight into patients' perspectives is necessary. The aim of the study was to explore aspects that influence patients' attendance at exercise-based CR after acute coronary artery disease (CAD) and the role of the physiotherapist in patients' attendance at exercise-based CR. A total of 16 informants, (5 women; median age 64.5, range 47-79 years), diagnosed with CAD, were included in the study at the Cardiology Department, Linköping University Hospital, Sweden. Qualitative interviews were conducted and analysed according to inductive content analysis. Four main categories were identified: (i) previous experience of exercise, (ii) needs in the acute phase, (iii) important prerequisites for attending exercise-based CR and (iv) future ambitions. The categories demonstrate that there are connections between the past, the present and the future, in terms of attitudes to facilitators, barriers and the use of strategies for managing exercise. An overall theme, defined as existential thoughts, had a major impact on the patients' attitudes to attending exercise-based CR. The interaction and meetings with the physiotherapists in the acute phase were described as important factors for attending exercise-based CR. Moreover, informants could feel that the physiotherapists supported them in learning the right level of effort during exercise and reducing the fear of exercise. This study adds to previous knowledge of barriers and facilitators for exercise-based CR that patients with CAD get existential thoughts both related to exercise during the rehabilitation process and for future attitudes to exercise. This knowledge might necessitate greater attention to the physiotherapist-patient interaction. To be able to tailor exercise-based CR for patients, physiotherapists need to be aware of patients' past experiences of exercise and previous phases of the rehabilitation process as these are

  19. Effectiveness of Schroth exercises during bracing in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: results from a preliminary study-SOSORT Award 2017 Winner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwan, Kenny Yat Hong; Cheng, Aldous C S; Koh, Hui Yu; Chiu, Alice Y Y; Cheung, Kenneth Man Chee

    2017-01-01

    Bracing has been shown to decrease significantly the progression of high-risk curves to the threshold for surgery in patients with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but the treatment failure rate remains high. There is evidence to suggest that Schroth scoliosis-specific exercises can slow progression in mild scoliosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of Schroth exercises in AIS patients with high-risk curves during bracing. A prospective, historical cohort-matched study was carried out. Patients diagnosed with AIS who fulfilled the Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) criteria for bracing were recruited to receive Schroth exercises during bracing. An outpatient-based Schroth program was given. Data for these patients were compared with a 1:1 matched historical control group who were treated with bracing alone. The assessor and statistician were blinded. Radiographic progression, truncal shift, and SRS-22r scores were compared between cases and controls. Twenty-four patients (5 males and 19 females, mean age 12.3 ± 1.4 years) were included in the exercise group, and 24 patients (mean age 11.8 ± 1.1 years) were matched in the control group. The mean follow-up period for the exercise group was 18.1 ± 6.2 months. In the exercise group, spinal deformity improved in 17% of patients (Cobb angle improvement of ≥ 6°), worsened in 21% (Cobb angle increases of ≥ 6°), and remained stable in 62%. In the control group, 4% improved, 50% worsened, and 46% remained stable. In the subgroup analysis, 31% of patients who were compliant (13 cases) improved, 69% remained static, and none had worsened, while in the non-compliant group (11 cases), none had improved, 46% worsened, and 46% remained stable. Analysis of the secondary outcomes showed improvement of the truncal shift, angle of trunk rotation, the SRS function domain, and total scores in favor of the exercise group. This is the first study to investigate the effects of Schroth exercises

  20. Dose-dependent changes in cognitive function with exercise augmentation for major depression: results from the TREAD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Tracy L; Grannemann, Bruce D; Chansard, Matthieu; Karim, Alyzae I; Trivedi, Madhukar H

    2015-02-01

    Cognitive dysfunction has been repeatedly observed in major depressive disorder (MDD), particularly in areas of attention, verbal and nonverbal learning and memory, and executive functioning. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive outcomes in other populations, including age-associated cognitive decline, but has not to our knowledge been investigated as an augmentation strategy in depression. This study evaluated the effectiveness of exercise augmentation on cognitive performance in persons with MDD and residual symptoms that included cognitive complaints following initial treatment with a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI). Participants enrolled in the Treatment with Exercise Augmentation for Depression (TREAD) study were randomized to receive either a low or high dose exercise regimen. TREAD participants who provided informed consent for the current study completed Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery measures assessing Attention, Visual Memory, Executive Function/Set-shifting and Working Memory, and Executive Function/Spatial Planning domains. Data were analyzed for 39 participants completing both baseline and Week 12 cognitive testing. Overall tests indicated a significant task × group × time interaction for the Executive Function/Set-shifting and Working Memory domain. Post-hoc tests indicated improvements in high dose exercisers' spatial working memory, but decreases in spatial working memory and set-shifting outcomes in low dose exercisers. Both groups improved on measures of psychomotor speed, attention, visual memory and spatial planning. This study suggests a dose-response effect of exercise in specific executive function and working memory tasks among depressed persons with a partial response to SSRI and cognitive complaints, with some cognitive functions improving regardless of exercise dose. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  1. The efficacy of cooling with phase change material for the treatment of exercise-induced muscle damage: pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Kwiecien, Susan; McHugh, Malachy; Howatson, Glyn

    2017-01-01

    Post-exercise cryotherapy treatments are typically short duration interventions. This study examined the efficacy of prolonged cooling using phase change material (PCM) on strength loss and pain after eccentric exercise. Eight adults performed 120 bilateral eccentric quadriceps contractions (90% MVC). Immediately afterwards, frozen PCM packs (15°C) were placed over the quadriceps, with room temperature PCM packs on the contralateral quadriceps. Skin temperature was recorded continually (6 h P...

  2. Estimating Accuracy at Exercise Intensities: A Comparative Study of Self-Monitoring Heart Rate and Physical Activity Wearable Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Dooley, Erin E.; Golaszewski, Natalie M; Bartholomew, John B.

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity tracking wearable devices have emerged as an increasingly popular method for consumers to assess their daily activity and calories expended. However, whether these wearable devices are valid at different levels of exercise intensity is unknown. Objective The objective of this study was to examine heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) validity of 3 popular wrist-worn activity monitors at different exercise intensities. Methods A total of 62 participants (fema...

  3. Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer (EPOC) study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of exercise versus stretching in males with Barrett's oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winzer, Brooke M; Paratz, Jennifer D; Reeves, Marina M; Whiteman, David C

    2010-06-16

    Chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and excessive body fat are considered principal causes of Barrett's oesophagus (a metaplastic change in the cells lining the oesophagus) and its neoplastic progression, oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Metabolic disturbances including altered levels of obesity-related cytokines, chronic inflammation and insulin resistance have also been associated with oesophageal cancer development, especially in males. Physical activity may have the potential to abrogate metabolic disturbances in males with Barrett's oesophagus and elicit beneficial reductions in body fat and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms. Thus, exercise may be an effective intervention in reducing oesophageal adenocarcinoma risk. However, to date this hypothesis remains untested.The 'Exercise and the Prevention of Oesophageal Cancer Study' will determine whether 24 weeks of exercise training will lead to alterations in risk factors or biomarkers for oesophageal adenocarcinoma in males with Barrett's oesophagus. Our primary outcomes are serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, tumour necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein and interleukin-6 as well as insulin resistance. Body composition, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptoms, cardiovascular fitness and muscular strength will also be assessed as secondary outcomes. A randomized controlled trial of 80 overweight or obese, inactive males with Barrett's oesophagus will be conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Participants will be randomized to an intervention arm (60 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic and resistance training, five days per week) or a control arm (45 minutes of stretching, five days per week) for 24 weeks. Primary and secondary endpoints will be measured at baseline (week 0), midpoint (week 12) and at the end of the intervention (week 24). Due to the increasing incidence and very high mortality associated with oesophageal adenocarcinoma, interventions effective in preventing the progression of

  4. Effect of BEMER signal on biological restitution and cognitive processes after endurance exercise. A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mrozkowiak, Mirosław; Mrozkowiak, Magdalena; Zukowska, Hanna; Sokołowski, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Mrozkowiak Mirosław, Mrozkowiak Magdalena, Zukowska Hanna, Sokołowski Marek. Effect of BEMER signal on biological restitution and cognitive processes after endurance exercise. A case study. Journal of Education, Health and Sport. 2016;6(10):175-196. eISSN 2391-8306. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.160524 http://ojs.ukw.edu.pl/index.php/johs/article/view/3932       The journal has had 7 points in Ministry of Science and Higher Education parametric evaluation. Part B it...

  5. Regional gray matter volume increases following 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise: a longitudinal VBM study in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Taki, Yasuyuki; Nonaka, Hiroi; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-09-01

    The effects of physical exercise on brain morphology in rodents have been well documented in histological studies. However, to further understand when and where morphological changes occur in the whole brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the effects of 7days of voluntary wheel running exercise on regional gray matter volume (rGMV) using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in rats. Eighteen pairs of adult male naïve Wistar rats were randomized to the exercise or control condition (one rat for each condition from each pair). Each rat was scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at three time points: before exercise, after 7days of exercise, and after 7days of follow-up. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that were recently published by our laboratory, and the intra- and inter-subject template creation steps were followed. Longitudinal VBM analysis revealed significant increases in rGMV in the motor, somatosensory, association, and visual cortices in the exercise group. Among these brain regions, rGMV changes in the motor cortex were positively correlated with the total distance that was run during the 7days of exercise. In addition, the effects of 7days of exercise on rGMV persisted after 7days of follow-up. These results support the utility of a longitudinal VBM study in rats and provide new insights into experience-dependent structural brain plasticity in naïve adult animals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain: study protocol for a single-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Low back pain affects approximately 80% of people at some stage in their lives. Exercise therapy is the most widely used nonsurgical intervention for low back pain in practice guidelines. Whole body vibration exercise is becoming increasingly popular for relieving musculoskeletal pain and improving health-related quality of life. However, the efficacy of whole body vibration exercise for low back pain is not without dispute. This study aims to estimate the effect of whole body vibration exercise for chronic low back pain. Methods/Design We will conduct a prospective, single-blind, randomized controlled trial of 120 patients with chronic low back pain. Patients will be randomly assigned into an intervention group and a control group. The intervention group will participate in whole body vibration exercise twice a week for 3 months. The control group will receive general exercise twice a week for 3 months. Primary outcome measures will be the visual analog scale for pain, the Oswestry Disability Index and adverse events. The secondary outcome measures will include muscle strength and endurance of spine, trunk proprioception, transversus abdominis activation capacity, and quality of life. We will conduct intention-to-treat analysis if any participants withdraw from the trial. Discussion Important features of this study include the randomization procedures, single-blind, large sample size, and a standardized protocol for whole body vibration in chronic low back pain. This study aims to determine whether whole body vibration exercise produces more beneficial effects than general exercise for chronic low back pain. Therefore, our results will be useful for patients with chronic low back pain as well as for medical staff and health-care decision makers. Trial registration Chinese Clinical Trial Registry: ChiCTR-TRC-13003708. PMID:24693945

  7. Preliminary study of an exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep among long-term haemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniam, Radha; Subramanian, Pathmawathi; Singh, Surindar Kaur Surat; Lim, Soo Kun; Chinna, Karuthan; Rosli, Roshaslina

    2014-09-01

    Fatigue and quality of sleep are the main factors that contribute to a poor quality of life among patients on long-term haemodialysis. Studies have also emphasised the importance of exercise for improving the wellbeing of dialysis patients. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of a predialysis low-to-moderate-intensity exercise programme for reducing fatigue and improving sleep disorders among long-term haemodialysis patients. In this quasi-experimental study, an exercise programme was conducted three times a week for 12 weeks before long-term haemodialysis patients underwent dialysis at two centres. The patients were categorised into either the exercise group (n = 28) or control group (n = 27). The latter was asked to maintain their current lifestyles. Assessments of fatigue and sleep disorder levels were performed for both groups using self-reported questionnaires at baseline and after intervention. The patients' perception of the exercise programme was also determined using self-reported questionnaires. Paired sample t-test indicated improvements in fatigue level in the exercise group (mean fatigue score: post-treatment 40.5 ± 7.9 vs. pre-treatment 30.0 ± 10.9). Improvements in sleep disorders were also observed in the exercise group (mean score: post-treatment 7.6 ± 3.3 vs. pre-treatment 10.1 ± 3.8). However, sleep quality deteriorated in the control group (mean score: post-treatment 10.7 ± 2.9 vs. pre-treatment 9.3 ± 2.9). Simple low-to-moderate-intensity exercise is effective for improving fatigue, sleep disorders and the overall quality of life among haemodialysis patients.

  8. The effects of exercise and weight loss in overweight patients with hip osteoarthritis: design of a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paans, Nienke; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge; van der Meer, Klaas; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Stevens, Martin

    2009-02-23

    Hip osteoarthritis (OA) is recognised as a substantial source of disability, with pain and loss of function as principal symptoms. An aging society and a growing number of overweight people, which is considered a risk factor for OA, contribute to the growing number of cases of hip OA. In knee OA patients, exercise as a single treatment is proven to be very effective towards counteracting pain and physical functionality, but the combination of weight loss and exercise is demonstrated to be even more effective. Exercise as a treatment for hip OA patients is also effective, however evidence is lacking for the combination of weight loss and exercise. Consequently, the aim of this study is to get a first impression of the potential effectiveness of exercise and weight loss in overweight patients suffering from hip OA. This is a prospective cohort study. Patients aged 25 or older, overweight (BMI > 25) or obese (BMI > 30), with clinical and radiographic evidence of OA of the hip and able to attend exercise sessions will be included. The intervention is an 8-month exercise and weight-loss lifestyle program. Main goal is to increase aerobic capacity, lose weight and stimulate a low-calorie and active lifestyle. Primary outcome is self-reported physical functioning. Secondary outcomes include pain, stiffness, health-related quality of life and habitual activity level. Weight loss in kilograms and percentage of fat-free mass will also be measured. The results of this study will give a first impression of potential effectiveness of exercise and weight loss as a combination program for patients with OA of the hip. Once this program is proven to be effective it may lead to postponing the moment of total hip replacement. NTR1053.

  9. The effects of exercise and weight loss in overweight patients with hip osteoarthritis: design of a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Meer Klaas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hip osteoarthritis (OA is recognised as a substantial source of disability, with pain and loss of function as principal symptoms. An aging society and a growing number of overweight people, which is considered a risk factor for OA, contribute to the growing number of cases of hip OA. In knee OA patients, exercise as a single treatment is proven to be very effective towards counteracting pain and physical functionality, but the combination of weight loss and exercise is demonstrated to be even more effective. Exercise as a treatment for hip OA patients is also effective, however evidence is lacking for the combination of weight loss and exercise. Consequently, the aim of this study is to get a first impression of the potential effectiveness of exercise and weight loss in overweight patients suffering from hip OA. Methods/Design This is a prospective cohort study. Patients aged 25 or older, overweight (BMI > 25 or obese (BMI > 30, with clinical and radiographic evidence of OA of the hip and able to attend exercise sessions will be included. The intervention is an 8-month exercise and weight-loss lifestyle program. Main goal is to increase aerobic capacity, lose weight and stimulate a low-calorie and active lifestyle. Primary outcome is self-reported physical functioning. Secondary outcomes include pain, stiffness, health-related quality of life and habitual activity level. Weight loss in kilograms and percentage of fat-free mass will also be measured. Discussion The results of this study will give a first impression of potential effectiveness of exercise and weight loss as a combination program for patients with OA of the hip. Once this program is proven to be effective it may lead to postponing the moment of total hip replacement. Trial Registration number NTR1053

  10. Endurance Exercise Training in Young Adults with Barth Syndrome: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W Todd; Reeds, Dominic N; Peterson, Linda R; Bohnert, Kathryn L; Tinius, Rachel A; Benni, Paul B; Byrne, Barry J; Taylor, Carolyn L

    2017-01-01

    Barth syndrome (BTHS) is a rare X-linked disorder that is characterized by mitochondrial abnormalities, cardio-skeletal myopathy, exercise intolerance, and premature mortality. The effect on endurance exercise training on exercise tolerance, cardio-skeletal function, and quality of life in BTHS is unknown. Four young adults (23 ± 5 years, n = 4) with BTHS participated in a 12-week, supervised, individualized endurance exercise training program. Exercise training was performed on a cycle ergometer for 30-45' three times per week at a moderate intensity level. Exercise tolerance was measured by graded exercise testing and peak oxygen consumption, heart function via two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography, skeletal muscle function by near-infrared spectroscopy, and quality of life through the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire. There were no adverse events during exercise testing or training for any participant. Peak oxygen consumption modestly (~5%) improved in three or four participants. Mean quality of life questions regarding dyspnea and side effects from medications significantly improved following exercise training. Mean resting heart function or skeletal muscle oxygen extraction during exercise did not improve after exercise training. Endurance exercise training is safe and appears to modestly improve peak exercise tolerance and certain measures of quality of life in young adults with BTHS. However, compared to improvements resulting from endurance exercise training seen in other non-BTHS mitochondrial myopathies and heart failure, these improvements appear blunted. Further research into the most beneficial mode, intensity and frequency of exercise training in BTHS is warranted.

  11. Using implicit attitudes of exercise importance to predict explicit exercise dependence symptoms and exercise behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Lauren N.; Smith, April R.; Fussner, Lauren M.; Dodd, Dorian R.; Clerkin, Elise M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives ”Fast” (i.e., implicit) processing is relatively automatic; “slow” (i.e., explicit) processing is relatively controlled and can override automatic processing. These different processing types often produce different responses that uniquely predict behaviors. In the present study, we tested if explicit, self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence and an implicit association of exercise as important predicted exercise behaviors and change in problematic exercise attitudes. Design We assessed implicit attitudes of exercise importance and self-reported symptoms of exercise dependence at Time 1. Participants reported daily exercise behaviors for approximately one month, and then completed a Time 2 assessment of self-reported exercise dependence symptoms. Method Undergraduate males and females (Time 1, N = 93; Time 2, N = 74) tracked daily exercise behaviors for one month and completed an Implicit Association Test assessing implicit exercise importance and subscales of the Exercise Dependence Questionnaire (EDQ) assessing exercise dependence symptoms. Results Implicit attitudes of exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted Time 2 EDQ scores. Further, implicit exercise importance and Time 1 EDQ scores predicted daily exercise intensity while Time 1 EDQ scores predicted the amount of days exercised. Conclusion Implicit and explicit processing appear to uniquely predict exercise behaviors and attitudes. Given that different implicit and explicit processes may drive certain exercise factors (e.g., intensity and frequency, respectively), these behaviors may contribute to different aspects of exercise dependence. PMID:26195916

  12. Troponin release following endurance exercise: is inflammation the cause? a cardiovascular magnetic resonance study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Hanlon Rory

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aetiology and clinical significance of troponin release following endurance exercise is unclear but may be due to transient myocardial inflammation. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR affords us the opportunity to evaluate the presence of myocardial inflammation and focal fibrosis and is the ideal imaging modality to study this hypothesis. We sought to correlate the relationship between acute bouts of ultra endurance exercise leading to cardiac biomarkers elevation and the presence of myocardial inflammation and fibrosis using CMR. Methods 17 recreation athletes (33.5 +/- 6.5 years were studied before and after a marathon run with troponin, NTproBNP, and CMR. Specific imaging parameters to look for inflammation included T2 weighted images, and T1 weighted spin-echo images before and after an intravenous gadolinium-DTPA to detect myocardial hyperemia secondary to inflammation. Late gadolinium imaging was performed (LGE to detect any focal regions of replacement fibrosis. Results Eleven of the 17 participant had elevations of TnI above levels of cut off for myocardial infarction 6 hrs after the marathon (0.075 +/- 0.02, p = 0.007. Left ventricular volumes were reduced post marathon and a small increase in ejection fraction was noted (64+/- 1% pre, 67+/- 1.2% post, P = 0.014. Right ventricular volumes, stroke volume, and ejection fraction were unchanged post marathon. No athlete fulfilled criteria for myocardial inflammation based on current criteria. No regions of focal fibrosis were seen in any of the participants. Conclusion Exercise induced cardiac biomarker release is not associated with any functional changes by CMR or any detectable myocardial inflammation or fibrosis.

  13. Psychophysiological effects of massage-myofascial release after exercise: a randomized sham-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo-Morales, Manuel; Olea, Nicolas; Martínez, Marin Manuel; Hidalgo-Lozano, Amparo; Ruiz-Rodríguez, Concepción; Díaz-Rodríguez, Lourdes

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of massage on neuromuscular recruitment, mood state, and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) after high-intensity exercise. This was a prospective randomized clinical trial using between-groups design. The study was conducted at a university-based sports medicine clinic. Sixty-two (62) healthy active students age 18-26 participated. Participants, randomized into two groups, performed three 30-second Wingate tests and immediately received whole-body massage-myofascial induction or placebo (sham ultrasound/magnetotherapy) treatment. The duration (40 minutes), position, and therapist were the same for both treatments. Dependent variables were surface electromyography (sEMG) of quadriceps, profile of mood states (POMS) and mechanical nociceptive threshold (MNT) of trapezius and masseter muscles. These data were assessed at baseline and after exercise and recovery periods. Generalized estimating equations models were performed on dependent variables to assess differences between groups. Significant differences were found in effects of treatment on sEMG of Vastus Medialis (VM) (p = 0.02) and vigor subscale (p = 0.04). After the recovery period, there was a significant decrease in electromyographic (EMG) activity of VM (p = 0.02) in the myofascial-release group versus a nonsignificant increase in the placebo group (p = 0.32), and a decrease in vigor (p < 0.01) in the massage group versus no change in the placebo group (p = 0.86). Massage reduces EMG amplitude and vigor when applied as a passive recovery technique after a high-intensity exercise protocol. Massage may induce a transient loss of muscle strength or a change in the muscle fiber tension-length relationship, influenced by alterations of muscle function and a psychological state of relaxation.

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood pressure response during exercise in healthy children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels C; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    that physiological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors would influence BP response during exercise in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 439 Danish third-grade children and 364 ninth-grade adolescents. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured with sphygmomanometer during a maximal...... was used to test the hypotheses. In boys, HOMA-IR score and BMI were positively related to SBP response during exercise (β = 1.03, P = 0.001, and β = 0.58, P = 0.017, respectively). The effects sizes of HOMA-IR score and BMI and the significance levels only changed slightly (β = 0.91, P = 0.004, and β = 0......Raised blood pressure (BP) response during exercise independently predicts future hypertension. Subjects with higher BP in childhood also have elevated BP later in life. Therefore, the factors related to the regulation of exercise BP in children needs to be well understood. We hypothesized...

  15. Feasibility of a Facebook Intervention for Exercise Motivation and Cardiac Rehabilitation Adherence: Study Protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegmund, Lee Anne; Ahmed, Haitham M; Crawford, Michael Todd; Bena, James Frank

    2017-08-18

    While cardiac rehabilitation has been shown to be effective at improving coronary heart disease (CHD), participation is generally poor. Attempts to increase uptake and adherence often fail. Use of a Facebook intervention for this population may be a unique opportunity to support self-determined motivation and affect adherence. To evaluate the impact of a Facebook intervention on motivation for exercise and adherence to cardiac rehabilitation in patients with CHD during a 12-week, Phase II cardiac rehabilitation program. A prospective, randomized controlled pilot study, grounded in Self-Determination Theory, will be conducted. Participants will be recruited from inpatient, or the intake visit to outpatient, cardiac rehabilitation, and then randomly assigned to the intervention or comparison group. Participants in the intervention group will take part in a private Facebook group. Weekly posts will be designed to support self-determined motivation, measured at baseline and postcardiac rehabilitation by the Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-3 (BREQ-3). The Psychological Need Satisfaction for Exercise (PNSE) scale will measure fulfillment of needs that affect motivation. Participants in the comparison group will be given the same materials, but these will be supplied via handouts and email. The number of sessions attended will be tallied and analyzed using t tests. Overall motivation will be evaluated using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) models. Multivariate analysis of variance models will be used to evaluate differences in the change across motivation subtypes. If significant, ANCOVA models for each subtype will be fit. ANCOVA models will be used to compare changes in needs satisfaction, overall and separately among the three subscales, between groups. Engagement in the Facebook group will be measured by number of "likes" and self-report of weekly visits to the group. This project was funded in July 2017 and recruitment is currently underway. The

  16. An exploratory study into the effect of exhausting bicycle exercise on endocrine and immune responses in post-menopausal women : Relationships between vigour and plasma cortisol concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation following exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pompe, G; Bernards, N; Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, C

    It is well-established that bicycle exercise alters the endocrine and immune responses in men, but little information is available for women, especially middle-aged, post-menopausal women. The purpose of our study was to document the endocrine and immune reactivity to exhausting bicycle exercise in

  17. Multiple sclerosis patients need and want information on exercise promotion from healthcare providers: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learmonth, Yvonne C; Adamson, Brynn C; Balto, Julia M; Chiu, Chung-Yi; Molina-Guzman, Isabel; Finlayson, Marcia; Riskin, Barry J; Motl, Robert W

    2017-08-01

    There is growing recognition of the benefits and safety of exercise and its importance in the comprehensive care of persons with multiple sclerosis (MS), yet uptake is low. We explored the needs and wants of patients with MS regarding exercise promotion through healthcare providers. Participants were adults with MS who had mild-or-moderate disability and a range of exercise levels. All participants lived in the Midwest of the United States. Fifty semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed using thematic analysis. Two themes emerged, namely interactions between patients and healthcare providers and needs and wants of patients. Analysis of participant accounts illustrate that current exercise promotion by healthcare providers does not meet patient needs and wants. The identified needs and wants of persons with MS involved (i) information and knowledge on the benefits of exercise and exercise prescription, (ii) materials to allow home and community exercise and (iii) tools for initiating and maintaining exercise behaviour. Patients with MS frequently interact with healthcare providers and are generally unsatisfied with exercise promotion during interactions. Healthcare providers can address the low uptake of exercise among persons with MS by acting upon the identified unmet needs involving materials, knowledge and behaviour change strategies for exercise. © 2016 The Authors Health Expectations Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Comparative Study of the Effect of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Static and Dynamic Balance in Elderly Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Banihashemi Emamghisi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Stumbling or falling is a major health problem among the elderly which accounts for their majority of physical injuries such as pelvic fractures, disability, loss of independency and even death. The goal of the study was comparison of the effect of aerobic and resistance exercise on static and dynamic balance in old men. Methods: A quasi-experimental study was conducted and thirty elderly males, who were referred to Jahandidegan institute of Borujen, were divided randomly in three empirical groups subdividing aerobic, resistance and control group. 24 hours before the start of and 24 hours after completion of eight weeks -aerobic and resistance exercise, all participants went under static and dynamic balance examination. The results were analysed by SPSS software edition 19. Results: Mean and standard deviation of dynamic balance scores before the exercise for the resistance, aerobic and control groups were 1017.6±212.7, 930.5±238.2, 1119.6±287.3 and after eight weeks exercise were 851.7±155.5, 743.4±130.1, 1220.06±226.9 respectively. On the other hand, Mean and standard deviation of static balance scores before the exercise in resistance, aerobic and control groups were 2280.3±2286.2, 3534.9±4455.4, 1284.1±231.4 and after eight weeks exercise were 5563.4±8014.6, 6089±7888.4, 1297.1±214.4 respectively. ANOVA test revealed that the difference in changes of three groups were not statistically significant (P > 0.05. Conclusion: Despite marginal correlation between static and dynamic balance as the outcomes of aerobic and resistant exercise these activities are proposed because such the exercises reduce incidence of falling events and related-injuries and also risk of independency among older adults.

  19. Effects of a formal exercise program on Parkinson's disease: a pilot study using a delayed start design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, A; Zid, D; Russell, J; Malone, A; Rendon, A; Wehr, A; Li, X

    2014-01-01

    Parkinson's Disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease. Increasing evidence shows that physical exercise is beneficial for motor and non-motor symptoms of PD, and animal models suggest that it may help slow progression of disease. Using a randomized delayed-start design, 31 patients were randomized to an early start group (ESG) or a delayed start group (DSG) exercise program. The ESG underwent a rigorous formal group exercise program for 1 h, three days/week, for 48 weeks (November 2011-October 2012). The DSG participated in this identical exercise program from weeks 24-48. Outcome measures included the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS), Walking Test (get-up-and-go), Tinetti Mobility Test, PDQ-39 Questionnaire, and the Beck Depression Inventory. There was minimal attrition in this study, with only one patient dropping out. Results did not show improvement in total UPDRS scores with early exercise. At week 48, the mean change from baseline total UPDRS score was 6.33 in the ESG versus 5.13 in the DSG (p = 0.58). However, patients randomized to the ESG scored significantly better on the Beck Depression Inventory, with a mean improvement of 1.07 points relative to those in the DSG (p = 0.04). The findings demonstrate that long-term, group exercise programs are feasible in the Parkinson's disease population, with excellent adherence and minimal drop out. While the outcome measures used in our study did not provide strong evidence that exercise has a neuroprotective effect on motor function, earlier participation in a group exercise program had a significant effect on symptoms of depression. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Experience of pelvic floor muscle exercises among women in Taiwan: a qualitative study of improvement in urinary incontinence and sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Hsia-Tzu; Hayter, Mark; Hinchliff, Sharron; Tsai, Chuan-Hsiu; Hsu, Min-Tao

    2015-07-01

    To gain an in-depth understanding of women's experiences of performing pelvic floor muscle exercises for urinary incontinence and the impact on their sexuality. Urinary incontinence is not a life-threatening disorder; however, it has been shown to have detrimental effects on quality of life in terms of psychological, social and sexual dysfunction. Pelvic floor muscle exercises is the first recommended strategy for managing mild to moderate urinary incontinence as it is noninvasive and cost effective. Pelvic floor muscle exercises reduce incontinence and strengthen the pelvic floor muscles, which positively affects sexual function in women. Currently, the data are scarce for qualitative literature regarding the subjective experiences of Taiwanese women undergoing pelvic floor muscle exercises and the impact on their urinary incontinence and sexuality. Qualitative exploratory study. Semi-structured in depth interviews were undertaken with twelve women who had completed a pelvic floor muscle exercises program in Taiwan. Data were analysed using thematic analysis. Themes were related to Taiwanese women's initial feelings that urinary incontinence was inevitable and the effects on their sexuality. Three core themes were identified: perceptions of inevitability, developing awareness and gaining control and sexual taboo. Through developing awareness and control of their pelvic floor muscles women expressed improvement in urinary incontinence. Sexual enjoyment, body image, self confidence and sexuality were also enhanced. Pelvic floor muscle exercises had a positive effect on urinary incontinence and sexuality. The findings demonstrated that sex is a taboo topic for many Taiwanese women. With the sensitive management of pelvic floor muscle exercises programs this issue can be addressed. This study raises awareness of healthcare professionals by identifying how Taiwanese women perceive pelvic floor muscles. The positive impact of pelvic floor muscle exercises upon both

  1. The PLE(2)NO self-management and exercise program for knee osteoarthritis: Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marconcin, Priscila; Espanha, Margarida; Yázigi, Flávia; Campos, Pedro

    2016-06-07

    International recommendations suggest exercise and self-management programs, including non-pharmacological treatments, for knee osteoarthritis (KOA) because they can benefit pain relief and improve function and exercise adherence. The implementation of a combined self-management and exercise program termed PLE(2)NO may be a good method for controlling KOA symptoms because it encourages the development of self-efficacy to manage the pathology. This study will assess the effects of a self-management and exercise program in comparison to an educational intervention (control program) on symptoms, physical fitness, health-related quality of life, self-management behaviors, self-efficacy, physical activity level and coping strategies. This PLE(2)NO study is a single-blinded, randomized controlled trial of elderly (aged above 60 yrs old) patients with clinical and radiographic KOA. The patients will be allocated into either an educational group (control) or a self-management and exercise group (experimental). All participants will receive a supplement of chondroitin and glucosamine sulfates. This paper describes the protocol that will be used in the PLE(2)NO program. This program has several strengths. First, it involves a combination of self-management and exercise approaches, is available in close proximity to the patients and occurs over a short period of time. The latter two characteristics are crucial for maintaining participant adherence. Exercise components will be implemented using low-cost resources that permit their widespread application. Moreover, the program will provide guidance regarding the effectiveness of using a self-management and exercise program to control KOA symptoms and improve self-efficacy and health-related quality of life. NCT02562833 (09/23/2015).

  2. Pilot study: Effects of drinking hydrogen-rich water on muscle fatigue caused by acute exercise in elite athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aoki Kosuke

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Muscle contraction during short intervals of intense exercise causes oxidative stress, which can play a role in the development of overtraining symptoms, including increased fatigue, resulting in muscle microinjury or inflammation. Recently it has been said that hydrogen can function as antioxidant, so we investigated the effect of hydrogen-rich water (HW on oxidative stress and muscle fatigue in response to acute exercise. Methods Ten male soccer players aged 20.9 ± 1.3 years old were subjected to exercise tests and blood sampling. Each subject was examined twice in a crossover double-blind manner; they were given either HW or placebo water (PW for one week intervals. Subjects were requested to use a cycle ergometer at a 75 % maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 for 30 min, followed by measurement of peak torque and muscle activity throughout 100 repetitions of maximal isokinetic knee extension. Oxidative stress markers and creatine kinase in the peripheral blood were sequentially measured. Results Although acute exercise resulted in an increase in blood lactate levels in the subjects given PW, oral intake of HW prevented an elevation of blood lactate during heavy exercise. Peak torque of PW significantly decreased during maximal isokinetic knee extension, suggesting muscle fatigue, but peak torque of HW didn’t decrease at early phase. There was no significant change in blood oxidative injury markers (d-ROMs and BAP or creatine kinease after exercise. Conclusion Adequate hydration with hydrogen-rich water pre-exercise reduced blood lactate levels and improved exercise-induced decline of muscle function. Although further studies to elucidate the exact mechanisms and the benefits are needed to be confirmed in larger series of studies, these preliminary results may suggest that HW may be suitable hydration for athletes.

  3. High intensity physical exercise and pain in the neck and upper limb among slaughterhouse workers: cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Andersen, Lars L

    2014-01-01

    Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49-0.997), whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  4. High Intensity Physical Exercise and Pain in the Neck and Upper Limb among Slaughterhouse Workers: Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emil Sundstrup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Slaughterhouse work involves a high degree of repetitive and forceful upper limb movements and thus implies an elevated risk of work-related musculoskeletal disorders. High intensity strength training effectively rehabilitates musculoskeletal disorders among sedentary employees, but less is known about the effect among workers with repetitive and forceful work demands. Before performing randomized controlled trials it may be beneficial to assess the cross-sectional connection between exercise and musculoskeletal pain. We investigated the association between high intensity physical exercise and pain among 595 slaughterhouse workers in Denmark, Europe. Using logistic regression analyses, odds ratios for pain and work disability as a function of physical exercise, gender, age, BMI, smoking, and job position were estimated. The prevalence of pain in the neck, shoulder, elbow, and hand/wrist was 48%, 60%, 40%, and 52%, respectively. The odds for experiencing neck pain were significantly lower among slaughterhouse workers performing physical exercise (OR = 0.70, CI: 0.49–0.997, whereas the odds for pain in the shoulders, elbow, or hand/wrist were not associated with exercise. The present study can be used as general reference of pain in the neck and upper extremity among slaughterhouse workers. Future studies should investigate the effect of high intensity physical exercise on neck and upper limb pain in slaughterhouse workers.

  5. Tai Chi and meditation-plus-exercise benefit neural substrates of executive function: a cross-sectional, controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawkes, Teresa D; Manselle, Wayne; Woollacott, Marjorie H

    2014-12-01

    We report the first controlled study of Tai Chi effects on the P300 event-related potential, a neuroelectric index of human executive function. Tai Chi is a form of exercise and moving meditation. Exercise and meditation have been associated with enhanced executive function. This cross-sectional, controlled study utilized the P300 event-related potential (ERP) to compare executive network neural function between self-selected long-term Tai Chi, meditation, aerobic fitness, and sedentary groups. We hypothesized that because Tai Chi requires moderate aerobic and mental exertion, this group would show similar or better executive neural function compared to meditation and aerobic exercise groups. We predicted all health training groups would outperform sedentary controls. Fifty-four volunteers (Tai Chi, n=10; meditation, n=16; aerobic exercise, n=16; sedentary, n=12) were tested with the Rockport 1-mile walk (estimated VO2 Max), a well-validated measure of aerobic capacity, and an ecologically valid visuo-spatial, randomized, alternating runs Task Switch test during dense-array electroencephalographic (EEG) recording. Only Tai Chi and meditation plus exercise groups demonstrated larger P3b ERP switch trial amplitudes compared to sedentary controls. Our results suggest long-term Tai Chi practice, and meditation plus exercise may benefit the neural substrates of executive function.

  6. Physical and psychological benefits of once-a-week Pilates exercises in young sedentary women: A 10-week longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolnai, Nóra; Szabó, Zsófia; Köteles, Ferenc; Szabo, Attila

    2016-09-01

    Pilates exercises have several demonstrated physical and psychological benefits. To date, most research in this context was conducted with symptomatic or elderly people with few dependent measures. The current study examined the chronic or longitudinal effects of very low frequency, once a week, Pilates training on several physical and psychological measures, over a 10-week intervention, in young, healthy, and sedentary women. Further, the study gauged the acute effects of Pilates exercises on positive- and negative affect in 10 exercise sessions. Compared to a control group, the Pilates group exhibited significant improvements in skeletal muscle mass, flexibility, balance, core- and abdominal muscle strength, body awareness, and negative affect. This group also showed favorable changes in positive (22.5% increase) and negative affect (12.2% decrease) in nine out of ten exercise sessions. This work clearly demonstrates the acute and chronic benefits of Pilates training on both physical and psychological measures. It also reveals that even only once a week Pilates training is enough to trigger detectable benefits in young sedentary women. While this frequency is below the required levels of exercise for health, it may overcome the 'lack of time' excuse for not exercising and subsequently its tangible benefits may positively influence one's engagement in more physical activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function in heart failure. An iodine-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy study

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    Agostini, D.; Bouvard, G. [Service de Medecine Nucleaire, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Lecluse, E.; Grollier, G.; Potier, J.C. [Service de Cardiologie, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Belin, A. [Service de Readaptation Cardiaque, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Babatasi, G. [Service de Chirurgie Cardio-Thoracique, CHU Cote de Nacre, Caen (France); Amar, M.H. [Centre Francois Baclesse, Caen (France). Service de Recherche Clinique

    1998-03-01

    Exercise training can induce important haemodynamic and metabolic adaptations in patients with chronic heart failure due to severe left ventricular dysfunction. This study examined the impact of exercise rehabilitation on cardiac neuronal function using iodine-123 metaiobodenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy. Fourteen patients (11 men, 3 women; mean age 48 years; range: 36-66 years) with stable chronic heart failure of NYHA class II-III and an initial resting radionuclide left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50% were enrolled in the study. Patients underwent progressive, supervised endurance training (treadmill test, Bruce protocol) during a 6-month period (60 sessions, 3 sessions per week) at a cardiac rehabilitation referral centre in order to measure exercise parameters. Planar {sup 123}I-MIBG scintigraphy provided measurements of cardiac neuronal uptake (heart-mediastinum ratio activity, 4 h after intravenous injection of 185 MBq of MIBG). Radionuclide LVEF was also assessed at the outset and after 6 months of exercise training. Workload (801{+-}428 vs 1229{+-}245 kpm.min{sup -1}, P=0.001), exercise duration (504{+-}190 vs 649{+-}125 s, P=0.02), and myocardial MIBG uptake (135%{+-}19% vs 156%{+-}25%, P=0.02) increased significantly after rehabilitation. However, LVEF did not change significantly (23%{+-}9% vs 21%{+-}10%, p=NS). It is concluded that exercise rehabilitation induces improvement of cardiac neuronal function without having negative effects on cardiac contractility in patients with stable chronic heart failure. (orig.)

  8. Cardiorespiratory parameters of exercise capacity in a healthy Lithuanian population: the pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigaliūnienė, Asta; Ramonas, Andrius; Celutkienė, Jelena; Sileikienė, Virginija; Rudys, Alfredas; Juocevičius, Alvydas; Laucevičius, Aleksandras

    2013-01-01

    The normative values of exercise capacity used for the interpretation of exercise testing results are influenced by a variety of internal and external factors specific to certain populations. Therefore, in clinical practice it is recommended that population-specific reference values be employed. Cardiorespiratory fitness norms have not yet been established for a healthy Lithuanian population over a wide age span. The purpose of the present study was to determine the main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters for healthy adults living in Lithuania and to compare these parameters with the reference values established for different foreign populations. This was a cross-sectional, community-based study involving 168 healthy adults aged from 20 to 60 years who were randomly selected from the general population. All subjects performed a progressive incremental exercise test on the cycle ergometer. The main cardiorespiratory fitness parameters analysed were peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold, and peak heart rate (HRpeak). The average estimated VO2peak was 35.02 ± 7.37 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for men and 28.27 ± 6.33 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) for women. According to the results presented by other authors, this parameter is approximately 9-22% lower compared to other populations in all age groups, with the exception of the 20-29 year old group who alone satisfied fair aerobic fitness criteria. The average age-related decline in VO2peak was 0.016 L.min(-1) per year for men and 0.011 L.min(-1) per year for women. However, age itself explained only 12-14% of the variance. After VO2peak was adjusted relative to body mass, the difference in the decline between men and women remained insignificant: VO2peak decrease was 0.34 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for men (coefficient of determination R(2) 0.250) and 0.32 mL.kg(-1).min(-1) per year for women (R(2) 0.330). A decline in peak heart rate of approximately 9 beats per minute was observed in each following age

  9. Exercise training and music therapy in elderly with depressive syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verrusio, W; Andreozzi, P; Marigliano, B; Renzi, A; Gianturco, V; Pecci, M T; Ettorre, E; Cacciafesta, M; Gueli, N

    2014-08-01

    Recent studies have thrown doubt on the true effectiveness of anti-depressants in light and moderate depression. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of physical training and music therapy on a sample group of subjects affected by light to moderate depression versus subjects treated with pharmacological therapy only. Randomized controlled study. Patients were randomized into two groups. Subjects in the pharmacotherapy group received a therapy with antidepressant drugs; the exercise/music therapy group was assigned to receive physical exercise training combined with listening to music. The effects of interventions were assessed by differences in changes in mood state between the two groups. Medically eligible patients were screened with the Hamilton Anxiety Scale and with the Geriatric Depression Scale. We used plasmatic cytokine dosage as a stress marker. We recruited 24 subjects (mean age: 75.5 ± 7.4, 11 M/13 F). In the pharmacotherapy group there was a significant improvement in anxiety only (pmusic therapy was a reduction in anxiety and in depression at 3-months and at 6-months (pmusic therapy in depressed subjects. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Long-term Exercise Adherence After High-intensity Interval Training in Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Randomized Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aamot, Inger-Lise; Karlsen, Trine; Dalen, Håvard; Støylen, Asbjørn

    2016-03-01

    Exercise adherence in general is reported to be problematic after cardiac rehabilitation. Additionally, vigorous exercise is associated with impaired exercise adherence. As high-intensity interval training (HIT) is frequently used as a therapy to patients with coronary artery disease in cardiac rehabilitation, the objective was to assess long-term exercise adherence following an HIT cardiac rehabilitation programme. A multicentre randomized study was carried out. Eligible participants were adults who had previously attended a 12-week HIT cardiac rehabilitation programme, as either a home-based or hospital-based HIT (treadmill exercise or group exercise). The primary outcome was change in peak oxygen uptake; secondary outcomes were self-reported and objectively measured physical activity. Out of 83 eligible participants, 76 were available for assessment (68 men/8 women, mean age 59 (8) years) at a one-year follow-up. Peak oxygen uptake was significantly elevated above baseline values, (treadmill exercise: 35.8 (6.4) vs. 37.4 (7.4) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) , group exercise: 32.7 (6.5) vs. 34.1 (5.8) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) and home-based exercise: 34.5 (4.9) vs. 36.7 (5.8) ml kg(-1)  min(-1) at baseline and follow-up, respectively), with no significant differences between groups. The majority of the participants (>90%) met the recommended daily level of 30 minutes of moderate physical activity. The home-based group showed a strong trend towards increased physical activity compared with the hospital-based groups. The results from this study have shown that both home-based and hospital-based HIT in cardiac rehabilitation induce promising long-term exercise adherence, with maintenance of peak oxygen uptake significantly above baseline values at a one-year follow-up. The implication for physiotherapy practice is that HIT in cardiac rehabilitation induces satisfactory long-term exercise adherence. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Developing the principles of chair based exercise for older people: a modified Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Katie R; Leighton, Paul; Logan, Philippa; Gordon, Adam L; Anthony, Kevin; Harwood, Rowan H; Gladman, John R F; Masud, Tahir

    2014-05-19

    Chair based exercise (CBE) is suggested to engage older people with compromised health and mobility in an accessible form of exercise. A systematic review looking at the benefits of CBE for older people identified a lack of clarity regarding a definition, delivery, purpose and benefits. This study aimed to utilise expert consensus to define CBE for older people and develop a core set of principles to guide practice and future research. The framework for consensus was constructed through a team workshop identifying 42 statements within 7 domains. A four round electronic Delphi study with multi-disciplinary health care experts was undertaken. Statements were rated using a 5 point Likert scale of agreement and free text responses. A threshold of 70% agreement was used to determine consensus. Free text responses were analysed thematically. Between rounds a number of strategies (e.g., amended wording of statements, generation and removal of statements) were used to move towards consensus. 16 experts agreed on 46 statements over four rounds of consultation (Round 1: 22 accepted, 3 removed, 5 new and 17 modified; Round 2: 16 accepted, 0 removed, 4 new and 6 modified; Round 3: 4 accepted, 2 removed, 0 new and 4 modified; Round 4: 4 accepted, 0 removed, 0 new, 0 modified).Statements were accepted in all seven domains: the definition of CBE (5), intended users (3), potential benefits (8), structure (12), format (8), risk management (7) and evaluation (3).The agreed definition of CBE had five components: 1. CBE is primarily a seated exercise programme; 2. The purpose of using a chair is to promote stability in both sitting and standing; 3. CBE should be considered as part of a continuum of exercise for frail older people where progression is encouraged; 4. CBE should be used flexibly to respond to the changing needs of frail older people; and 5. Where possible CBE should be used as a starting point to progress to standing programmes. Consensus has been reached on a definition

  12. The majority are not performing home-exercises correctly two weeks after their initial instruction—an assessor-blinded study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathilde Faber

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Time-under-tension (TUT reflects time under load during strength training and is a proxy of the total exercise dose during strength training. The purpose of this study was to investigate if young participants are able to reproduce TUT and exercise form after two weeks of unsupervised exercises.Material and Methods. The study was an assessor-blinded intervention study with 29 participants. After an initial instruction, all participants were instructed to perform two weeks of home-based unsupervised shoulder abduction exercises three times per week with an elastic exercise band. The participants were instructed in performing an exercise with a predefined TUT (3 s concentric; 2 s isometric; 3 s eccentric; 2 s break corresponding to a total of 240 s of TUT during three sets of 10 repetitions. After completing two weeks of unsupervised home exercises, they returned for a follow-up assessment of TUT and exercise form while performing the shoulder abduction exercise. A stretch sensor attached to the elastic band was used to measure TUT at baseline and follow-up. A physiotherapist used a pre-defined clinical observation protocol to determine if participants used the correct exercise form.Results. Fourteen of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT at follow-up (predefined target: 240 s ±8%. Thirteen of the 29 participants performed the shoulder abduction exercise with a correct exercise form. Seven of the 29 participants trained with the instructed TUT and exercise form at follow-up.Conclusion. The majority of participants did not use the instructed TUT and exercise form at follow-up after two weeks of unsupervised exercises. These findings emphasize the importance of clear and specific home exercise instructions if participants are to follow the given exercise prescription regarding TUT and exercise form as too many or too few exercise stimuli in relation to the initially prescribed amount of exercise most likely will provide

  13. Massage therapy and exercise therapy in patients with multiple sclerosis: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negahban, Hossein; Rezaie, Solmaz; Goharpey, Shahin

    2013-12-01

    The primary aim was to investigate the comparative effects of massage therapy and exercise therapy on patients with multiple sclerosis. The secondary aim was to investigate whether combination of both massage and exercise has an additive effect. Randomized controlled pilot trial with repeated measurements and blinded assessments. Local Multiple Sclerosis Society. A total of 48 patients with multiple sclerosis were randomly assigned to four equal subgroups labelled as massage therapy, exercise therapy, combined massage-exercise therapy and control group. The treatment group received 15 sessions of supervised intervention for five weeks. The massage therapy group received a standard Swedish massage. The exercise therapy group was given a combined set of strength, stretch, endurance and balance exercises. Patients in the massage-exercise therapy received a combined set of massage and exercise treatments. Patients in the control group were asked to continue their standard medical care. Pain, fatigue, spasticity, balance, gait and quality of life were assessed before and after intervention. Massage therapy resulted in significantly larger improvement in pain reduction (mean change 2.75 points, P = 0.001), dynamic balance (mean change, 3.69 seconds, P = 0.009) and walking speed (mean change, 7.84 seconds, P = 0.007) than exercise therapy. Patients involved in the combined massage-exercise therapy showed significantly larger improvement in pain reduction than those in the exercise therapy (mean change, 1.67 points, P = 0.001). Massage therapy could be more effective than exercise therapy. Moreover, the combination of massage and exercise therapy may be a little more effective than exercise therapy alone.

  14. The effect of exercise on prevention of the common cold: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trial studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Kun; Hwang, In Hong; Kim, Soo Young; Pyo, Se Young

    2014-05-01

    Because there is no specific treatment for the common cold, many previous studies have focused on prevention of the common cold. There were some studies reporting that regular, moderate-intensity exercise increases immunity and prevents the common cold. We conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effects of exercise on prevention of the common cold. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), CINAHL for studies released through June 2013. We manually searched the references. Two authors independently extracted the data. To assess the risk of bias of included literature, Cochrane Collaboration's tool for assessing risk of bias was used. Review Manager ver. 5.2 (RevMan, Cochrane Collaboration) was used for statistical analysis. Four randomized controlled trials were identified. A total of 281 participants, 134 in the exercise group and 147 in the control group, were included. The effect of exercise on the prevention of the common cold had a relative risk (RR) of 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.56 to 0.95; I(2) = 7%). The mean difference of mean illness days between exercise group and control group was -3.50 (95% CI, -6.06 to -0.94; I(2) = 93%). In the subgroup analysis, the RR of under 16 weeks exercise was 0.79 (95% CI, 0.58 to 1.08). In this meta-analysis, regular, moderate-intensity exercise may have an effect on the prevention of the common cold. But numbers of included studies and participants were too small and quality of included studies was relatively poor. Subsequent well-designed studies with larger sample size are needed to clarify the association.

  15. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A SPECIALIST Prevention Strengthening Exercise Committee Exercise Committee Core Strengthening Many popular forms of exercise focus on ... acute pain, you should stop doing it. Transverse Core Strengthening This strengthens the muscles that cross from ...

  16. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Smoking Weight Patient Safety Exercise Strengthening Strengthen Your Core! Stretching/Flexibility Aerobic Exercise Cervical Exercise Strength Training for the Elderly Other Back Pack Safety Pregnancy ...

  17. Exercise Physiologists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... SITE MAP | EN ESPAÑOL Occupational Outlook Handbook > Healthcare > Exercise Physiologists PRINTER-FRIENDLY EN ESPAÑOL Summary What They ... of workers and occupations. What They Do -> What Exercise Physiologists Do About this section Exercise physiologists analyze ...

  18. Exercise or basic body awareness therapy as add-on treatment for major depression: a controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsson, Louise; Papoulias, Ilias; Petersson, Eva-Lisa; Carlsson, Jane; Waern, Margda

    2014-10-01

    While physical exercise as adjunctive treatment for major depression has received considerable attention in recent years, the evidence is conflicting. This study evaluates the effects of two different add-on treatments: exercise and basic body awareness therapy. Randomized controlled trial with two intervention groups and one control, including 62 adults on antidepressant medication, who fulfilled criteria for current major depression as determined by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Interventions (10 weeks) were aerobic exercise or basic body awareness therapy (BBAT), compared to a single consultation with advice on physical activity. Primary outcome was depression severity, rated by a blinded assessor using the Montgomery Asberg Rating Scale (MADRS). Secondary outcomes were global function, cardiovascular fitness, self-rated depression, anxiety and body awareness. Improvements in MADRS score (mean change=-10.3, 95% CI (-13.5 to -7.1), p=0.038) and cardiovascular fitness (mean change=2.4ml oxygen/kg/min, 95% CI (1.5 to 3.3), p=0.017) were observed in the exercise group. Per-protocol analysis confirmed the effects of exercise, and indicated that BBAT has an effect on self-rated depression. The small sample size and the challenge of missing data. Participants׳ positive expectations regarding the exercise intervention need to be considered. Exercise in a physical therapy setting seems to have effect on depression severity and fitness, in major depression. Our findings suggest that physical therapy can be a viable clinical strategy to inspire and guide persons with major depression to exercise. More research is needed to clarify the effects of basic body awareness therapy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dealing with existential anxiety in exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation: a phenomenological-hermeneutic study of patients' lived experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonÿ, Charlotte P; Pedersen, Birthe D; Dreyer, Pia; Birkelund, Regner

    2015-09-01

    To investigate patients' lived experiences of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is used to enable patients with cardiac problems to move forward to lead satisfying lives. However, knowledge of patients' concerns while they follow the current programmes is sparse. This study, which included nine men and two women with unstable angina pectoris and non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction, used a phenomenological-hermeneutic approach. The patients were followed by field observations during exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation. Focus group interviews were conducted at the programme end, and individual interviews were performed one to two months later. The interpretation comprised three methodological steps: naïve reading, structural analysis, and comprehensive interpretation and discussion. Although both physically and psychologically challenged, the patients were encouraged to maintain an active lifestyle. Three themes were identified: anxiety regarding exercise, whereby the patients are initially insecure about how to behave with their diseased hearts; encouragement from training together, whereby the patients support each other in exercising; and growing confidence in the heart, whereby the patients enjoy being physically active. In exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation, patients' insecurity with respect to their heart disease is revealed as an existential anxiety. Through peer support and a positive physical perception, the patients gain renewed self-efficacy, helping them to continue their lives in an active and satisfying way. Knowing that patients are confronted with an existential anxiety during exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation is important because it requires specific care. Recognising this anxiety also highlights how participating in the programme can be very demanding, which can help us understand aspects of adherence problems. Of greatest importance is that exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation enables

  20. Acute effect on ambulatory blood pressure from aerobic exercise: a randomised cross-over study among female cleaners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund Rasmussen, Charlotte; Nielsen, Line; Linander Henriksen, Marie; Søgaard, Karen; Krustrup, Peter; Holtermann, Andreas; Korshøj, Mette

    2018-02-01

    High occupational physical activity (OPA) is shown to increase the risk for elevated blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Conversely, aerobic exercise acutely lowers the blood pressure up to 25 h post exercise. However, it is unknown if this beneficial effect also apply for workers exposed to high levels of OPA. Cleaners constitute a relevant occupational group for this investigation because of a high prevalence of OPA and cardiovascular disease. Accordingly, the objective was to investigate the acute effects on ambulatory blood pressure from a single aerobic exercise session among female cleaners. Twenty-two female cleaners were randomised to a cross-over study with a reference and an aerobic exercise session. Differences in 24-h, work hours, leisure time, and sleep ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) were evaluated using repeated measure 2 × 2 mixed-models. After the aerobic exercise session, the 24-h systolic ambulatory blood pressure was significantly lowered by 2.4 mmHg (p ABP was unaltered. During work hours, a lowered systolic ABP of 2.2 mmHg (p = 0.02) and a higher diastolic ABP of 1.5 mmHg (p = 0.03) were found after the aerobic exercise session. During leisure time, the systolic ABP was lowered by 1.7 mmHg (p = 0.04) and the diastolic ABP was unaltered. During sleep, the systolic and diastolic ABP was unaltered. A single aerobic exercise session lowered 24-h systolic ABP of 2.4 mmHg. Thus, an aerobic exercise session seems to be beneficial for lowering the risk of hypertension among cleaners.

  1. [Weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in first-year primary school children: the AVall study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llargués, Esteve; Franco, Rosa; Recasens, Assumpta; Nadal, Anna; Vila, Maria; José Pérez, M; Martínez-Mateo, Francesc; Recasens, Isabel; Salvador, Gemma; Serra, Jaume; Castells, Conxa

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate weight, dietary patterns and exercise habits in children attending the first year of primary school in the city of Granollers (Spain). We performed a cross-sectional study of children enrolled in the schools of the city of Granollers. All the children were born in 2000. Data were collected from September to October 2006. Weight and height were measured in each schoolchild. The parents completed a questionnaire on the frequency of food intake and physical activity and the Krece Plus test. The International Obesity Task Force cut-offs for body mass index were used to define overweight and obesity. A total of 566 schoolchildren were included. The prevalence of overweight was 19.6% and that of obesity was 8.5%. Only 3.8% of the children had an adequate breakfast and 17.1% ate five portions of fruit and vegetables a day. Some families consumed a low amount of fruit (22%), vegetables (37%), bread/pasta/ rice/cereals (14%), fish (32%), legumes (13%) and nuts (9%). Children who had lunch at school ate more fruits (38% vs 29%), vegetables (35% vs 25%) and fish (82% vs 73%) than those who did not have lunch at school. A total of 82% of the schoolchildren exercised regularly. A quarter of the children who participated in the study were overweight. The schoolchildren who had lunch at school had better dietary patterns. Inappropriate family habits can determine children's dietary habits.

  2. Whey Protein Supplementation Enhances Whole Body Protein Metabolism and Performance Recovery after Resistance Exercise: A Double-Blind Crossover Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel W. D. West

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available No study has concurrently measured changes in free-living whole body protein metabolism and exercise performance during recovery from an acute bout of resistance exercise. We aimed to determine if whey protein ingestion enhances whole body net protein balance and recovery of exercise performance during overnight (10 h and 24 h recovery after whole body resistance exercise in trained men. In a double-blind crossover design, 12 trained men (76 ± 8 kg, 24 ± 4 years old, 14% ± 5% body fat; means ± standard deviation (SD performed resistance exercise in the evening prior to consuming either 25 g of whey protein (PRO; MuscleTech 100% Whey or an energy-matched placebo (CHO immediately post-exercise (0 h, and again the following morning (~10 h of recovery. A third randomized trial, completed by the same participants, involving no exercise and no supplement served as a rested control trial (Rest. Participants ingested [15N]glycine to determine whole body protein kinetics and net protein balance over 10 and 24 h of recovery. Performance was assessed pre-exercise and at 0, 10, and 24 h of recovery using a battery of tests. Net protein balance tended to improve in PRO (P = 0.064; effect size (ES = 0.61, PRO vs. CHO during overnight recovery. Over 24 h, net balance was enhanced in PRO (P = 0.036 but not in CHO (P = 0.84; ES = 0.69, PRO vs. CHO, which was mediated primarily by a reduction in protein breakdown (PRO < CHO; P < 0.01. Exercise decreased repetitions to failure (REP, maximal strength (MVC, peak and mean power, and countermovement jump performance (CMJ at 0 h (all P < 0.05 vs. Pre. At 10 h, there were small-to-moderate effects for enhanced recovery of the MVC (ES = 0.56, mean power (ES = 0.49, and CMJ variables (ES: 0.27–0.49 in PRO. At 24 h, protein supplementation improved MVC (ES = 0.76, REP (ES = 0.44, and peak power (ES = 0.55. In conclusion, whey protein supplementation enhances whole body anabolism, and may improve acute recovery of

  3. A novel comparative effectiveness study of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise for fibromyalgia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chenchen; McAlindon, Timothy; Fielding, Roger A; Harvey, William F; Driban, Jeffrey B; Price, Lori Lyn; Kalish, Robert; Schmid, Anna; Scott, Tammy M; Schmid, Christopher H

    2015-01-30

    Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal pain syndrome that causes substantial physical and psychological impairment and costs the US healthcare system over $25 billion annually. Current pharmacological therapies may cause serious adverse effects, are expensive, and fail to effectively improve pain and function. Finding new and effective non-pharmacological treatments for fibromyalgia patients is urgently needed. We are currently conducting the first comparative effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise (a recommended component of the current standard of care) in a large fibromyalgia population. This article describes the design and conduct of this trial. A single-center, 52-week, randomized controlled trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise is being conducted at an urban tertiary medical center in Boston, Massachusetts. We plan to recruit 216 patients with fibromyalgia. The study population consists of adults ≥21 years of age with fibromyalgia who meet American College of Rheumatology 1990 and 2010 diagnostic criteria. Participants are randomized to one of four Tai Chi intervention groups: 12 or 24 weeks of supervised Tai Chi held once or twice per week, or a supervised aerobic exercise control held twice per week for 24 weeks. The primary outcome is the change in Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire total score from baseline to 24 weeks. Secondary outcomes include measures of widespread pain, symptom severity, functional performance, balance, muscle strength and power, psychological functioning, sleep quality, self-efficacy, durability effects, and health-related quality of life at 12, 24, and 52 week follow-up. This study is the first comparative effectiveness randomized trial of Tai Chi versus aerobic exercise in a large fibromyalgia population with long-term follow up. We present here a robust and well-designed trial to determine the optimal frequency and duration of a supervised Tai Chi intervention with regard to short

  4. No adverse effects of statins on muscle function and health-related parameters in the elderly: an exercise study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panayiotou, G; Paschalis, V; Nikolaidis, M G; Theodorou, A A; Deli, C K; Fotopoulou, N; Fatouros, I G; Koutedakis, Y; Sampanis, M; Jamurtas, A Z

    2013-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of a repeated bout of eccentric exercise on health-related parameters and muscle performance on subjects undergoing atorvastatin therapy. Twenty-eight elderly men participated in the investigation and were assigned either in a control (n = 14) or in a statin therapy group (n = 14). All participants performed two isokinetic eccentric exercise bouts separated by 3 weeks. Muscle damage indices, resting energy expenditure, substrate metabolism, lipid and lipoprotein profile, as well as insulin sensitivity, were evaluated before and after eccentric. No differences in muscle function were observed between the two groups either at rest or after exercise. Eccentric exercise increased resting energy expenditure, increased fat oxidation, improved lipid profile, and increased insulin resistance 2 days after both eccentric exercise bouts. However, these changes appeared to lesser extent after the second bout. No differences were observed in the responses in the health-related parameters in the control and in the statin therapy group. Eccentric exercise affected similarly the control and the atorvastatin-treated individuals. The present results indicate that atorvastatin-treated elderly individuals may participate in various physical activities, even high-intensity muscle-damaging activities, without negative impact on muscle function and adaptation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Understanding the context for pet cat and dog feeding and exercising behaviour among pet owners in Ireland: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Martin J; Devitt, Catherine; Downes, Marie T; More, Simon J

    2017-01-01

    Pet cat and dog obesity contributes to increased risk of several diseases, including cancer and diabetes mellitus as well as a worsening of orthopaedic problems, and a reduction in survival rate. This study aims to develop a better understanding of cat and dog owners' self-reported beliefs and factors that influence owner behaviour around feeding and exercising their pet cat or dog, as there is a lack of in-depth understanding in this area. Seven focus group discussions, with 43 pet owners in total, were conducted. Pet owners often reported a perceived a low level of control over feeding; often undermined by other people feeding of their pet, their pets begging for food, and their pets attitude towards food. Treats were used in the absence of owner control over pet begging and emotional attachment, and to influence pet behaviour. The majority of participants had positive attitudes to pet exercise, which could be related to pet specific requirements, especially differences in cats and dogs. There were some negative experiences of stress associated with dog walking and fears over aggressive confrontations with other dogs. Feeding one's pet is influenced by beliefs about pet specific needs, pet food and pet health, pet owners' perceived control over feeding, and the implications for the pet owner. Pet exercise is influenced by beliefs about pet specific exercise needs, and the implications of exercising one's pet for the pet owner. Understanding owner behaviours on feeding and exercise allows for a more targeted approach to preventing and treating pet obesity.

  6. Aerobic and Cognitive Exercise (ACE) Pilot Study for Older Adults: Executive Function Improves with Cognitive Challenge While Exergaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelos, Nicole; Shah, Nikita; Cohen, Katherine; Hogan, Michael J; Mulkerrin, Eamon; Arciero, Paul J; Cohen, Brian D; Kramer, Arthur F; Anderson-Hanley, Cay

    2015-11-01

    Dementia cases are increasing worldwide; thus, investigators seek to identify interventions that might prevent or ameliorate cognitive decline in later life. Extensive research confirms the benefits of physical exercise for brain health, yet only a fraction of older adults exercise regularly. Interactive mental and physical exercise, as in aerobic exergaming, not only motivates, but has also been found to yield cognitive benefit above and beyond traditional exercise. This pilot study sought to investigate whether greater cognitive challenge while exergaming would yield differential outcomes in executive function and generalize to everyday functioning. Sixty-four community based older adults (mean age=82) were randomly assigned to pedal a stationary bike, while interactively engaging on-screen with: (1) a low cognitive demand task (bike tour), or (2) a high cognitive demand task (video game). Executive function (indices from Trails, Stroop and Digit Span) was assessed before and after a single-bout and 3-month exercise intervention. Significant group × time interactions were found after a single-bout (Color Trails) and after 3 months of exergaming (Stroop; among 20 adherents). Those in the high cognitive demand group performed better than those in the low cognitive dose condition. Everyday function improved across both exercise conditions. Pilot data indicate that for older adults, cognitive benefit while exergaming increased concomitantly with higher doses of interactive mental challenge.

  7. Exercise during pregnancy and risk of cesarean delivery in nulliparous women: a large population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owe, Katrine Mari; Nystad, Wenche; Stigum, Hein; Vangen, Siri; Bø, Kari

    2016-12-01

    Vaginal delivery for the first birth is of great importance for further obstetric performance for the individual woman. Given the rising cesarean delivery rates worldwide over the past decades, a search for modifiable factors that are associated with cesarean delivery is needed. Exercise may be a modifiable factor that is associated with type of delivery, but the results of previous studies are not conclusive. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between exercise during pregnancy and cesarean delivery, both acute and elective, in nulliparous women. We conducted a population-based cohort study that involved 39,187 nulliparous women with a singleton pregnancy who were enrolled in the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study between 2000 and 2009. All women answered 2 questionnaires in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. Acute and elective cesarean delivery data were obtained from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. Information on exercise frequency and type was assessed prospectively by questionnaires in pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. Generalized linear models estimated risk differences of acute and elective cesarean delivery for different frequencies and types of exercise during pregnancy weeks 17 and 30. We used restricted cubic splines to examine dose-response associations of exercise frequency and acute cesarean delivery. A test for nonlinearity was also conducted. The total cesarean delivery rate was 15.4% (n=6030), of which 77.8% (n=4689) was acute cesarean delivery. Exercise during pregnancy was associated with a reduced risk of cesarean delivery, particularly for acute cesarean delivery. A nonlinear association was observed for exercise frequency in weeks 17 and 30 and risk of acute cesarean delivery (test for nonlinearity, P=.003 and P=.027, respectively). The largest risk reduction was observed for acute cesarean delivery among women who exercised >5 times weekly during weeks 17 (-2.2%) and 30 (-3.6%) compared with nonexercisers (test for trend

  8. The mediating role of exercise identity in the relationship of exercise motivational regulations with strenuous, moderate and mild exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridou, M P; Sarafi, V D; Vlachopoulos, S P

    2014-12-01

    The present study examined the mediating role of exercise identity in the relationship of exercise motivational regulations with weekly frequency of strenuous, moderate, and mild exercise. Data were collected from a sample of 193 Greek exercise participants aged 18-54, using the Revised Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire-2, the Exercise Identity Scale, and the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire. Regression analyses revealed that the main predictor of strenuous exercise was integrated regulation. This association was partially mediated by exercise role identity. Moderate exercise was mainly predicted by intrinsic motivation and external regulation, but no mediation by exercise identity was evident. Mild exercise was not predicted by any type of behavioral regulation. The relationship of integrated regulation with strenuous exercise behavior is partially mediated by the role identity component of exercise identity. No mediation is evident for moderate and mild exercise.

  9. Prevention: Exercise

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... strengthening programs. Simple exercises can be done at home as well. Some specific core strengthening exercises are described below. ... © 2017 North American Spine Society | ...

  10. Effect of theophylline on exercise capacity in COPD patients treated with combination long-acting bronchodilator therapy: a pilot study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voduc, Nha; Alvarez, Gonzalo G; Amjadi, Kayvan; Tessier, Caroline; Sabri, Elham; Aaron, Shawn D

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease continue to experience significant functional limitation despite the use of both long-acting anticholinergic and beta-agonist inhalers. Theophylline is a widely available medication which may further improve lung function and exercise performance. Previous studies evaluating the effects of theophylline on exercise capacity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have demonstrated heterogeneous results. Methods We performed a randomized placebo-controlled double-blind pilot study assessing the effects of theophylline on constant load exercise duration and lung function, involving 24 COPD patients already treated with long-acting inhaled beta-agonist and long-acting anti-cholinergic bronchodilator therapy. Results Analyzable data was available in 10 of 12 subjects in the treatment arm and 11 of 12 subjects in the control arm. Theophylline was associated with a 26.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: −17.3–69.5) improvement in exercise duration compared to placebo. Four of 10 treated patients demonstrated an improvement in exercise duration exceeding the minimum clinically important difference of 33%, compared to 1 of 11 controls (P = 0.15). Furthermore, peak ventilation was reduced by 11.1%, (95% CI: 0.77–21.5) which may suggest improvements in gas exchange. There were no significant observed differences in resting lung function nor measures of dyspnea between the two treatment groups. Conclusions Our study demonstrated a trend, but not a statistically significant improvement in exercise duration and a reduction in peak ventilation with theophylline. Based on the observed mean differences and standard deviations in this pilot study, a randomized controlled trial would require 45 subjects in each arm to detect a significant change in exercise duration. PMID:22563244

  11. Exercise and fractures in postmenopausal women. Final results of the controlled Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study (EFOPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmler, W; Bebenek, M; Kohl, M; von Stengel, S

    2015-10-01

    The EFOPS trial clearly established the positive effect of long-term exercise on clinical low-trauma fractures in postmenopausal women at risk. Bearing in mind that the complex anti-fracture exercise protocols also affect a large variety of diseases of increased age, we strongly encourage older adults to perform multipurpose exercise programs. Physical exercise may be an efficient option for autonomous fracture prevention during increasing age. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of exercise on clinical overall fracture incidence and bone mineral density (BMD) in elderly subjects at risk. In 1998 initially, 137 early-postmenopausal, osteopenic women living in Erlangen-Nuremberg, Germany, were included in the EFOPS trial. Subjects of the exercise group (EG; n = 86) conducted two supervised group and two home exercise sessions/week while the control group (CG; n = 51) was requested to maintain their physical activity. Primary study endpoints were clinical overall low-trauma fractures determined by questionnaires, structured interviews, and BMD at the lumbar spine and femoral neck assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. In 2014, 105 subjects (EG: n = 59 vs. CG: n = 46) representing 1680 participant-years were included in the 16-year follow-up analysis. Risk ratio in the EG for overall low-trauma fractures was 0.51 (95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.23 to 0.97, p = .046), rate ratio was 0.42 (95% CI 0.20 to 0.86, p = .018). Based on comparable baseline values, lumbar spine (MV -1.5%, 95% CI -0.1 to -2.8 vs. -5.8%, -3.3 to -7.2%) and femoral neck (-6.5%, -5.2 to -7.7 vs. -9.6%, -8.2 to 11.1%) BMD decreased in both groups; however, the reduction was more pronounced in the CG (p ≤ .001). This study clearly evidenced the high anti-fracture efficiency of multipurpose exercise programs. Considering furthermore the favorable effect of exercise on most other risk factors of increasing age, we strongly encourage older adults to perform multipurpose

  12. Impairment-targeted exercises for older adults with knee pain: protocol for a proof-of-principle study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Elaine

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exercise therapy for knee pain and osteoarthritis remains a key element of conservative treatment, recommended in clinical guidelines. Yet systematic reviews point to only modest benefits from exercise interventions. One reason for this might be that clinical trials tend to use a one-size-fits-all approach to exercise, effectively disregarding the details of their participants' clinical presentations. This uncontrolled before-after study (TargET-Knee-Pain aims to test the principle that exercises targeted at the specific physical impairments of older adults with knee pain may be able to significantly improve those impairments. It is a first step towards testing the effectiveness of this more individually-tailored approach. Methods/Design We aim to recruit 60 participants from an existing observational cohort of community-dwelling older adults with knee pain. Participants will all have at least one of the three physical impairments of weak quadriceps, a reduced range of knee flexion and poor standing balance. Each participant will be asked to undertake a programme of exercises, targeted at their particular combination and degree of impairment(s, over the course of twelve weeks. The exercises will be taught and progressed by an experienced physiotherapist, with reference to a "menu" of agreed exercises for each of the impairments, over the course of six fortnightly home visits, alternating with six fortnightly telephone calls. Primary outcome measures will be isometric quadriceps strength, knee flexion range of motion, timed single-leg standing balance and the "Four Balance Test Scale" at 12 weeks. Key secondary outcome measures will be self-reported levels of pain, stiffness and difficulties with day-to-day functional tasks (WOMAC. Outcome measures will be taken at three time-points (baseline, six weeks and twelve weeks by a study nurse blinded to the exercise status of the participants. Discussion This study (Targ

  13. Physical Exercise during Encoding Improves Vocabulary Learning in Young Female Adults: A Neuroendocrinological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Kassow, Maren; Deusser, Marie; Thiel, Christian; Otterbein, Sascha; Montag, Christian; Reuter, Martin; Banzer, Winfried; Kaiser, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Acute physical activity has been repeatedly shown to improve various cognitive functions. However, there have been no investigations comparing the effects of exercise during verbal encoding versus exercise prior to encoding on long-term memory performance. In this current psychoneuroendocrinological study we aim to test whether light to moderate ergometric bicycling during vocabulary encoding enhances subsequent recall compared to encoding during physical rest and encoding after being physically active. Furthermore, we examined the kinetics of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in serum which has been previously shown to correlate with learning performance. We also controlled for the BDNF val66met polymorphism. We found better vocabulary test performance for subjects that were physically active during the encoding phase compared to sedentary subjects. Post-hoc tests revealed that this effect was particularly present in initially low performers. BDNF in serum and BDNF genotype failed to account for the current result. Our data indicates that light to moderate simultaneous physical activity during encoding, but not prior to encoding, is beneficial for subsequent recall of new items. PMID:23700461

  14. [Study of effective antiobesity project in diet and physical exercise for patients with simple obesity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yu-Xia; Xian, Jie

    2006-09-01

    To study the effective antiobesity project in diet and physical exercise for patients with simple obesity. 30 volunteers with body-mass index (BMI) >25 were investigated by questionnaire. The analysis was focused on such factors as dietary history, diet habits and physical activities. They were enrolled and received diet and physical exercise program for 3 months. Their BMI were measured before and after test respectively. The results were analyzed using statistical method. The total intake of energy and fat per day in obesity group in the past was significantly higher than that of the recommended dietary allowance. The percentage of always eating too much and favoring sweetmeat in obesity group was 64% and 62%. While less physical activities were found in obesity group. It showed that the total intake of energy, fat and protein per day in obesity group before test was significantly higher than that after test (P bad diet habits of always eating too much and favoring sweetmeat, less physical activities were the important factors of triggering obesity.

  15. [Perception of the elderly regarding participation inexergaming-based exercise: a qualitative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meneghini, Vandrize; Barbosa, Aline Rodrigues; de Mello, Ana Lúcia Schaefer Ferreira; Bonetti, Albertina; Guimarães, Alexsander Vieira

    2016-04-01

    Exergames are active video games that monitor body movement and are being used as an alternative to increase the level of physical activity of people from different age groups. This qualitative study investigated the perceptions of the elderly regarding exergaming. The focus group (FG) was conducted after 12 weeks of performing a program ofexergaming-based exercise (50 min, 3 days/week) using electronic games that simulate sports activities (Xbox 360 Kinect Sportstm). Fourteen people (55-77 years of age) participated in the FG, and a trained moderator led each group. The sessions were videotaped and transcribed for subsequent analysis. The content analysis technique was performed using ATLAS.ti® (qualitative analysis software). Participants reported psychological benefits (self-esteem, concentration, mood, reasoning, memory and well-being), physical benefits (agility and physical conditions) and social interaction (exchange of experiences, friendship and competitiveness). Regarding the experiences of the group, innovation, playfulness and visual stimulation were cited as characteristics of the games. The perception of benefits from participation in exergames fosters adherence to exercise and increases the motivation of the participants.

  16. Experimental guidelines for studies designed to investigate the impact of antioxidant supplementation on exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, Scott K; Smuder, Ashley J; Kavazis, Andreas N; Hudson, Matthew B

    2010-02-01

    Research interest in the effects of antioxidants on exercise-induced oxidative stress and human performance continues to grow as new scientists enter this field. Consequently, there is a need to establish an acceptable set of criteria for monitoring antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage in tissues. Numerous reports have described a wide range of assays to detect both antioxidant capacity and oxidative damage to biomolecules, but many techniques are not appropriate in all experimental conditions. Here, the authors present guidelines for selecting and interpreting methods that can be used by scientists to investigate the impact of antioxidants on both exercise performance and the redox status of tissues. Moreover, these guidelines will be useful for reviewers who are assigned the task of evaluating studies on this topic. The set of guidelines contained in this report is not designed to be a strict set of rules, because often the appropriate procedures depend on the question being addressed and the experimental model. Furthermore, because no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate in every experimental situation, the authors strongly recommend using multiple assays to verify a change in biomarkers of oxidative stress or redox balance.

  17. Effects of Darbepoetin Alfa with exercise in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy: an explorative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rørth, Mikael; Rich Madsen, Katrine; Burmølle, Stine Hvid

    2011-01-01

    , non-randomised intervention study using semi-structured interviews was conducted with the aim to gain an insight into the effects and experiences associated with EPO treatment in combination with a structured 6-week physical exercise intervention. Sixteen cancer patients with evidence of disease, who......Fatigue is frequent in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy. Erythropoietins (EPO) have shown well-documented effects on these patients, and administered in pharmacological doses, may reduce the need for transfusion of blood cells and improve quality of life (QoL). An explorative, descriptive.......05) was found in the study group. The future use of EPO in cancer patients is hampered by the reported negative influence of EPO on the prognosis in some diagnoses and should be based on randomized studies....

  18. Immune responses following McKenzie lumbar spine exercise in individuals with acute low back pain: A preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saud Al-Obaidi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study explores the immune responses following 4 weeks of McKenzie lumbar spine exercise in individuals with acute low back pain (ALBP. Patients and methods. Fifteen patients with ALBP and 15 healthy individuals volunteered in this study. Ten ml of peripheral blood were obtained from each patient before and after exercise sessions, and from healthy individuals at the beginning of the study. Flow cytometric analysis was used to evaluate the frequencies of CD4+ T lymphocyte sub-populations and the intracellular cytokine expression within this cell population. Pain perceptions were obtained at baseline and following each week of exercise sessions. Results. In comparison with healthy subjects there was an elevated frequency of memory (CD4+CD45RO+ T cells, helper inducer (CD4+CD29+ T cells, CD3+CD16+CD56+ T cells and a lower frequency of naïve/suppressor (CD4+CD45RA+ T cells at base line in back pain patients (p<0.05. After 4 weeks of McKenzie exercise sessions, pain intensity significantly decreased (p<0.05; however, there was no significant difference in the frequency of memory (CD4+CD45RO+ T cells, helper inducer (CD4+CD29+ T cells, CD3+CD16+CD56+ T cells and naïve/suppressor (CD4+CD45RA+ T cells at base line relative to these cell populations after exercise sessions. The percentage of Pan (CD3+ T cells expressing IL-8 and TNF-α and the CD3+ T cells expressing the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-4 increased significantly (p<0.05 following exercise sessions in comparison with baseline and healthy references. The reduction in pain scores did not correlate with elevated anti-inflammatory cytokines. Conclusion. McKenzie exercise sessions induced an immune activation state and simultaneously up regulated anti-inflammatory IL-4 cytokines that boost pain relief.

  19. Physical Therapists' Perceptions and Use of Exercise in the Management of Subacromial Shoulder Impingement Syndrome: Focus Group Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Catherine E; Kerr, Daniel P; Wilson, Iseult M; McCracken, Martin; Sim, Julius; Basford, Jeffrey R; McVeigh, Joseph G

    2016-09-01

    Shoulder pain resulting from subacromial impingement syndrome (SAIS) is a common problem with a relatively poor response to treatment. There is little research exploring physical therapists' perspectives on the management of the syndrome. The study objective was to investigate physical therapists' perceptions and experiences regarding the use of exercise in the treatment of patients with SAIS. This was a qualitative focus group study. Three 60- to 90-minute focus group sessions containing 6 to 8 experienced musculoskeletal physical therapists (total number=20) were conducted. Thematic content analysis was used to analyze transcripts and develop core themes and categories. Exercise was seen as key in the management of SAIS. The overarching theme was the need to "gain buy-in to exercise" at an early stage. The main subtheme was patient education. Therapists identified the need to use education about SAIS etiology to foster buy-in and "sell" self-management through exercise to the patient. They consistently mentioned achieving education and buy-in using visual tools, postural advice, and sometimes a "quick fix" of pain control. Furthermore, experienced practitioners reported including educational interventions much earlier in treatment than when they first qualified. Therapists emphasized the need for individually tailored exercises, including: scapular stabilization; rotator cuff, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscle strengthening; and anterior shoulder and pectoralis minor muscle stretching. Quality of exercise performance was deemed more important than the number of repetitions that the patients performed. Expanding the geographical area over which the focus groups were conducted and including therapists with less than 5 years of postgraduate experience may have strengthened the findings of this study. Experienced musculoskeletal physical therapists believe that exercise is central in treating patients with SAIS and that gaining patient buy-in to its

  20. Mixed-reality exercise effects on participation of individuals with spinal cord injuries and developmental disabilities: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyn, Patricia C; Baumgardner, Chad A; McLachlan, Leslie; Bodine, Cathy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate the effectiveness of a mixed-reality (MR) exercise environment on engagement and enjoyment levels of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). Six people participated in this cross-sectional, observational pilot study involving one MR exercise trial. The augmented reality environment was based on a first-person perspective video of a scenic biking/walking trail in Colorado. Males and females (mean age, 43.3 ± 13.7 years) were recruited from a research database for their participation in previous clinical studies. Of the 6 participants, 2 had SCI, 2 had IDD, and 2 were without disability. The primary outcome measurement of this pilot study was the self-reported engagement and enjoyment level of each participant after the exercise trial. All participants reported increased levels of engagement, enjoyment, and immersion involving the MR exercise environment as well as positive feedback recommending this type of exercise approach to peers with similar disabilities. All the participants reported higher than normal levels of enjoyment and 66.7% reported higher than normal levels of being on a real trail. Participants' feedback suggested that the MR environment could be entertaining, motivating, and engaging for users with disabilities, resulting in a foundation for further development of this technology for use in individuals with cognitive and physical disabilities.

  1. Sample size estimation in studies monitoring exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in asthmatic children

    OpenAIRE

    Hofstra, W. B.; Sont, J. K.; Sterk, P. J.; Neijens, H J; Kuethe, M. C.; Duiverman, E. J.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The repeatability of the response to standardised treadmill exercise testing using dry air and monitoring of heart rate in asthmatic children suffering from exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) has not been well established. METHODS: Twenty seven asthmatic children with known EIB performed standardised exercise testing twice within a period of three weeks. The tests were performed on a treadmill while breathing dry air. During both tests heart rate had to reach 90% of ...

  2. What is the value of health emergency preparedness exercises? A scoping review study

    OpenAIRE

    Skryabina, Elena; Reedy, Gabriel; Amlôt, Richard; Jaye, Peter; Riley, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Emergency exercises involving the health community are considered an important and integral part of emergency preparedness activities. However, little is known about whether these exercises are effective at improving individual and/or organisational preparedness for responding to emergencies. This paper reviews and summarises published evidence on the effectiveness and benefits of exercises to prepare health emergency professionals for responding to emergencies and disasters. A literature sea...

  3. Exercise after diagnosis and Metabolic Syndrome among Breast Cancer Survivors: A report from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Ying; Nechuta, Sarah; Gu, Kai; Cai, Hui; Peng, Peng; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Lu, Wei

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is an established risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and mortality. Limited data are available on the prevalence of MetS and its association with exercise among breast cancer survivors. The present study included 1696 breast cancer survivors from the Shanghai Breast Cancer Survival Study, a population-based prospective cohort study conducted between April 2002 and October 2011 in Shanghai, China. All women had a physical examination taken at study clinic approximately 60 months post-diagnosis. Exercise was assessed at approximately 6, 18, 36, and 60 months post-diagnosis. Information on medical history, tumor characteristics, cancer treatment, anthropometrics, and lifestyle were collected at study enrollment. Associations between exercise and MetS at 60 months post-diagnosis were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression models. The mean age of the study population was 56.68 at 60-month survey and the mean follow-up since cancer diagnosis was 63.66 months. The prevalence of MetS using NCEP-ATPIII criteria at approximately 60 months after diagnosis was 33.14%. Among overweight and obesity breast cancer survivors (BMI≥25 kg/m2 at baseline), the prevalence was 55.18%. The most common type of exercise in this population was walking (45.40%) at baseline. Exercise participation between 6 and 60 months post-diagnosis was inversely associated with the prevalence of MetS with the adjusted OR for exercise participation of ≥3.5 hours/week (30 minutes/day) being 0.69 (95% CI: 0. 0.48–0.98). In addition consistent exercise participation reduced the prevalence of MetS (adjusted OR 0.70 (95%CI: 0.50–1.00). Associations of exercise with MetS were not modified by baseline WC, BMI, comorbidity, baseline menopausal status, TNM stage, cancer treatment, or ER/PR status (P interactions >0.05). Regular and persistent exercise after cancer diagnosis, even at low-to-moderate intensity level, decrease the prevalence of MetS among long

  4. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN UPPER EXTREMITY EXERCISE DEVICE AND TEXT MESSAGE REMINDERS TO EXERCISE IN ADULTS WITH SPINA BIFIDA: A PILOT STUDY

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