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Sample records for exercise metabolic rates

  1. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by the fractal ... rate scaling is that exercise-induced maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is ... muscle stress limitation, and maximized oxygen delivery and metabolic rates.

  2. Effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of female patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Seol-Jung; Kim, Eon-Ho; Ko, Kwang-Jun

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aerobic exercise on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness or female patients with metabolic syndrome. [Subjects and Methods] Subjects were randomly assigned to an exercise group (n=12) or a control group (n=11). Subjects in the exercise group performed aerobic exercise at 60-80% of maximum heart rate for 40 min 5 times a week for 12 weeks. The changes in metabolic syndrome risk factors, resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness were measured and analyzed before and after initiation of the exercise program to determine the effect of exercise. Arterial stiffness was assessed based on brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (ba-PWV). [Results] Compared to the control group; The metabolic syndrome risk factors (weight, % body fat, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and HDL-Cholesterol) were significantly improved in the exercise: resting heart rate was significantly decreased; VO2max, muscle strength and muscle endurance were significantly increased; and ba-PWV was significantly decreased. [Conclusion] Aerobic exercise had beneficial effects on the resting heart rate, physical fitness, and arterial stiffness of patients with metabolic syndrome.

  3. Metabolic, respiratory, and cardiological measurements during exercise and rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    1971-01-01

    Low concentration effects of CO2 on metabolic respiration and circulation were measured during work and at rest. The relationship between heart rate and metabolic rate is examined, as well as calibration procedures, and rate measurement during submaximal and standard exercise tests. Alterations in acid base and electrolytes were found during exhaustive exercise, including changes in ECG and metabolic alkalosis effects.

  4. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, Andrew James; Philipp, David P; Suski, Cory D

    2010-03-01

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  5. Effects of nutritional status on metabolic rate, exercise and recovery in a freshwater fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gingerich, Andrew J.; Philipp, D. P.; Suski, C. D.

    2010-11-20

    The influence of feeding on swimming performance and exercise recovery in fish is poorly understood. Examining swimming behavior and physiological status following periods of feeding and fasting is important because wild fish often face periods of starvation. In the current study, researchers force fed and fasted groups of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) of similar sizes for a period of 16 days. Following this feeding and fasting period, fish were exercised for 60 s and monitored for swimming performance and physiological recovery. Resting metabolic rates were also determined. Fasted fish lost an average of 16 g (nearly 12%) of body mass, while force fed fish maintained body mass. Force fed fish swam 28% further and required nearly 14 s longer to tire during exercise. However, only some physiological conditions differed between feeding groups. Resting muscle glycogen concentrations was twofold greater in force fed fish, at rest and throughout recovery, although it decreased in both feeding treatments following exercise. Liver mass was nearly three times greater in force fed fish, and fasted fish had an average of 65% more cortisol throughout recovery. Similar recovery rates of most physiological responses were observed despite force fed fish having a metabolic rate 75% greater than fasted fish. Results are discussed as they relate to largemouth bass starvation in wild systems and how these physiological differences might be important in an evolutionary context.

  6. Omega-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation for 12 Weeks Increases Resting and Exercise Metabolic Rate in Healthy Community-Dwelling Older Females.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha L Logan

    Full Text Available Critical among the changes that occur with aging are decreases in muscle mass and metabolic rate and an increase in fat mass. These changes may predispose older adults to chronic disease and functional impairment; ultimately resulting in a decrease in the quality of life. Research has suggested that long chain omega-3 fatty acids, found predominantly in fatty fish, may assist in reducing these changes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of fish oil (FO supplementation in a cohort of healthy, community-dwelling older females on 1 metabolic rate and substrate oxidation at rest and during exercise; 2 resting blood pressure and resting and exercise heart rates; 3 body composition; 4 strength and physical function, and; 5 blood measures of insulin, glucose, c-reactive protein, and triglycerides. Twenty-four females (66 ± 1 yr were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either 3g/d of EPA and DHA or a placebo (PL, olive oil for 12 wk. Exercise measurements were taken before and after 12 wk of supplementation and resting metabolic measures were made before and at 6 and 12 wk of supplementation. The results demonstrated that FO supplementation significantly increased resting metabolic rate by 14%, energy expenditure during exercise by 10%, and the rate of fat oxidation during rest by 19% and during exercise by 27%. In addition, FO consumption lowered triglyceride levels by 29% and increased lean mass by 4% and functional capacity by 7%, while no changes occurred in the PL group. In conclusion, FO may be a strategy to improve age-related physical and metabolic changes in healthy older females. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01734538.

  7. Low resting metabolic rate in exercise-associated amenorrhea is not due to a reduced proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Williams, Nancy I; Mallinson, Rebecca J; Southmayd, Emily A; Allaway, Heather C M; De Souza, Mary Jane

    2016-08-01

    Exercising women with menstrual disturbances frequently display a low resting metabolic rate (RMR) when RMR is expressed relative to body size or lean mass. However, normalizing RMR for body size or lean mass does not account for potential differences in the size of tissue compartments with varying metabolic activities. To explore whether the apparent RMR suppression in women with exercise-associated amenorrhea is a consequence of a lower proportion of highly active metabolic tissue compartments or the result of metabolic adaptations related to energy conservation at the tissue level, RMR and metabolic tissue compartments were compared among exercising women with amenorrhea (AMEN; n = 42) and exercising women with eumenorrheic, ovulatory menstrual cycles (OV; n = 37). RMR was measured using indirect calorimetry and predicted from the size of metabolic tissue compartments as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Measured RMR was lower than DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (1,215 ± 31 vs. 1,327 ± 18 kcal/day, P < 0.001) but not in OV (1,284 ± 24 vs. 1,252 ± 17, P = 0.16), resulting in a lower ratio of measured to DEXA-predicted RMR in AMEN (91 ± 2%) vs. OV (103 ± 2%, P < 0.001). AMEN displayed proportionally more residual mass (P < 0.001) and less adipose tissue (P = 0.003) compared with OV. A lower ratio of measured to DXA-predicted RMR was associated with lower serum total triiodothyronine (ρ = 0.38, P < 0.001) and leptin (ρ = 0.32, P = 0.004). Our findings suggest that RMR suppression in this population is not the result of a reduced size of highly active metabolic tissue compartments but is due to metabolic and endocrine adaptations at the tissue level that are indicative of energy conservation.

  8. Exercise Intensity Modulation of Hepatic Lipid Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio S. Lira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Lipid metabolism in the liver is complex and involves the synthesis and secretion of very low density lipoproteins (VLDL, ketone bodies, and high rates of fatty acid oxidation, synthesis, and esterification. Exercise training induces several changes in lipid metabolism in the liver and affects VLDL secretion and fatty acid oxidation. These alterations are even more conspicuous in disease, as in obesity, and cancer cachexia. Our understanding of the mechanisms leading to metabolic adaptations in the liver as induced by exercise training has advanced considerably in the recent years, but much remains to be addressed. More recently, the adoption of high intensity exercise training has been put forward as a means of modulating hepatic metabolism. The purpose of the present paper is to summarise and discuss the merit of such new knowledge.

  9. Does exercise training affect resting metabolic rate in adolescents with obesity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberga, Angela S; Prud'homme, Denis; Sigal, Ronald J; Goldfield, Gary S; Hadjiyannakis, Stasia; Gougeon, Réjeanne; Phillips, Penny; Malcolm, Janine; Wells, George A; Doucette, Steve; Ma, Jinhui; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the hypothesis that resistance exercise training performed alone or in combination with aerobic exercise training would increase resting metabolic rate (RMR) relative to aerobic-only and nonexercising control groups. Postpubertal adolescents (N = 304) aged 14-18 years with obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥ 95th percentile) or overweight (BMI ≥ 85th percentile + additional diabetes risk factor(s)) were randomized to 4 groups for 22 weeks: Aerobic exercise training, Resistance exercise training, Combined aerobic and resistance exercise training, or Control. All participants received dietary counselling targeting a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal. RMR was measured by indirect calorimetry and body composition by magnetic resonance imaging. There was no significant change in RMR in any group, in spite of significant within-group increases in fat-free mass in the Aerobic, Resistance, and Combined exercise training groups. RMR at baseline and 6 months were Aerobic: 1972 ± 38 and 1990 ± 41; Resistance: 2024 ± 37 and 1992 ± 41; Combined: 2023 ± 38 and 1995 ± 38; Control: 2075 ± 38 and 2073 ± 39 kcal/day (p > 0.05). There were no between-group differences in RMR after adjustment for total body weight or fat-free mass between groups over time. Per-protocol analyses including only participants with ≥70% adherence, and analyses stratified by sex, also showed no within- or between-group differences in RMR. In conclusion, despite an increase in fat-free mass in all exercise groups, 6 months of aerobic, resistance, or combined training with modest dietary restriction did not increase RMR compared with diet only in adolescents with obesity.

  10. High- and moderate-intensity aerobic exercise and excess post-exercise oxygen consumption in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, I; Welde, B; Martins, C; Tjønna, A E

    2014-06-01

    Physical activity is central in prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. High-intensity aerobic exercise can induce larger energy expenditure per unit of time compared with moderate-intensity exercise. Furthermore, it may induce larger energy expenditure at post-exercise recovery. The aim of this study is to compare the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) in three different aerobic exercise sessions in men with metabolic syndrome. Seven men (age: 56.7 ± 10.8) with metabolic syndrome participated in this crossover study. The sessions consisted of one aerobic interval (1-AIT), four aerobic intervals (4-AIT), and 47-min continuous moderate exercise (CME) on separate days, with at least 48 h between each test day. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was measured pre-exercise and used as baseline value. EPOC was measured until baseline metabolic rate was re-established. An increase in O2 uptake lasting for 70.4 ± 24.8 min (4-AIT), 35.9 ± 17.3 min (1-AIT), and 45.6 ± 17.3 min (CME) was observed. EPOC were 2.9 ± 1.7 L O2 (4-AIT), 1.3 ±  .1 L O2 (1-AIT), and 1.4 ± 1.1 L O2 (CME). There were significant differences (P exercise intensity has a significant positive effect on EPOC in men with metabolic syndrome. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in late-onset Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforet, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt

    2012-01-01

    forearm exercise testing, and peak work capacity was determined. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during cycle exercise was examined with a combination of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope methodology. Finally, the effects of an IV glucose infusion on heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion...... examined the metabolic response to exercise in patients with late-onset Pompe disease, in order to determine if a defect in energy metabolism may play a role in the pathogenesis of Pompe disease. We studied six adult patients with Pompe disease and 10 healthy subjects. The participants underwent ischemic......, and work capacity during exercise were determined. We found that peak oxidative capacity was reduced in the patients to 17.6 vs. 38.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) in healthy subjects (p = 0.002). There were no differences in the rate of appearance and rate of oxidation of palmitate, or total fat and carbohydrate...

  12. Exercising for Life? Energy Metabolism, Body Composition, and Longevity in Mice Exercising at Different Intensities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaanholt, Lobke M.; Daan, Serge; Garland, Theodore; Visser, G. Henk; Garland Jr., Theodore

    2010-01-01

    Studies that have found a positive influence of moderate, non-exhaustive exercise on life expectancy contradict the rate-of-living theory, which predicts that high energy expenditure in exercising animals should shorten life. We investigated effects of exercise on energy metabolism and life span in

  13. Supervised exercise improves cutaneous reinnervation capacity in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singleton, J Robinson; Marcus, Robin L; Lessard, Margaret K; Jackson, Justin E; Smith, A Gordon

    2015-01-01

    Unmyelinated cutaneous axons are vulnerable to physical and metabolic injury, but also capable of rapid regeneration. This balance may help determine risk for peripheral neuropathy associated with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. Capsaicin application for 48 hours induces cutaneous fibers to die back into the dermis. Regrowth can be monitored by serial skin biopsies to determine intraepidermal nerve fiber density (IENFD). We used this capsaicin axotomy technique to examine the effects of exercise on cutaneous regenerative capacity in the setting of metabolic syndrome. Baseline ankle IENFD and 30-day cutaneous regeneration after thigh capsaicin axotomy were compared for participants with type 2 diabetes (n = 35) or metabolic syndrome (n = 32) without symptoms or examination evidence of neuropathy. Thirty-six participants (17 with metabolic syndrome) then joined twice weekly observed exercise and lifestyle counseling. Axotomy regeneration was repeated in month 4 during this intervention. Baseline distal leg IENFD was significantly reduced for both metabolic syndrome and diabetic groups. With exercise, participants significantly improved exercise capacity and lower extremity power. Following exercise, 30-day reinnervation rate improved (0.051 ± 0.027 fibers/mm/day before vs 0.072 ± 0.030 after exercise, p = 0.002). Those who achieved improvement in more metabolic syndrome features experienced a greater degree of 30-day reinnervation (p Metabolic syndrome was associated with reduced baseline IENFD and cutaneous regeneration capacity comparable to that seen in diabetes. Exercise-induced improvement in metabolic syndrome features increased cutaneous regenerative capacity. The results underscore the potential benefit to peripheral nerve function of a behavioral modification approach to metabolic improvement. © 2014 American Neurological Association.

  14. The interplay between aerobic metabolism and antipredator performance: vigilance is related to recovery rate after exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Steven Killen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available When attacked by a predator, fish respond with a sudden fast-start motion away from the threat. Although this anaerobically-powered swimming necessitates a recovery phase which is fuelled aerobically, little is known about links between escape performance and aerobic traits such as aerobic scope or recovery time after exhaustive exercise. Slower recovery ability or a reduced aerobic scope could make some individuals less likely to engage in a fast-start response or display reduced performance. Conversely, increased vigilance in some individuals could permit faster responses to an attack but also increase energy demand and prolong recovery after anaerobic exercise. We examined how aerobic scope and the ability to recover from anaerobic exercise relates to differences in fast-start escape performance in juvenile golden grey mullet at different acclimation temperatures. Individuals were acclimated to either 18, 22, or 26oC, then measured for standard and maximal metabolic rates and aerobic scope using intermittent flow respirometry. Anaerobic capacity and the time taken to recover after exercise were also assessed. Each fish was also filmed during a simulated attack to determine response latency, maximum speed and acceleration, and turning rate displayed during the escape response. Across temperatures, individuals with shorter response latencies during a simulated attack are those with the longest recovery time after exhaustive anaerobic exercise. Because a short response latency implies high preparedness to escape, these results highlight the trade-off between the increased vigilance and metabolic demand, which leads to longer recovery times in fast reactors. These results improve our understanding of the intrinsic physiological traits that generate inter-individual variability in escape ability, and emphasise that a full appreciation of trade-offs associated with predator avoidance and energy balance must include energetic costs associated with

  15. Effects of hyperthermia on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during prolonged exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Lars; Møller, Kirsten; Volianitis, Stefanos

    2002-01-01

    The development of hyperthermia during prolonged exercise in humans is associated with various changes in the brain, but it is not known whether the cerebral metabolism or the global cerebral blood flow (gCBF) is affected. Eight endurance-trained subjects completed two exercise bouts on a cycle...... ergometer. The gCBF and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen, glucose, and lactate were determined with the Kety-Schmidt technique after 15 min of exercise when core temperature was similar across trials, and at the end of exercise, either when subjects remained normothermic (core temperature = 37.9 degrees C...... with control at the end of exercise (43 +/- 4 vs. 51 +/- 4 ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1); P glucose, and the cerebral metabolic rate was therefore higher at the end...

  16. Post-exercise adipose tissue and skeletal muscle lipid metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mulla, N A; Simonsen, L; Bülow, J

    2000-01-01

    , a subcutaneous abdominal vein and a femoral vein. Adipose tissue metabolism and skeletal muscle (leg) metabolism were measured using Fick's principle. The results show that the lipolytic rate in adipose tissue during exercise was the same in each experiment. Post-exercise, there was a very fast decrease......One purpose of the present experiments was to examine whether the relative workload or the absolute work performed is the major determinant of the lipid mobilization from adipose tissue during exercise. A second purpose was to determine the co-ordination of skeletal muscle and adipose tissue lipid...... metabolism during a 3 h post-exercise period. Six subjects were studied twice. In one experiment, they exercised for 90 min at 40% of maximal O2 consumption (VO2,max) and in the other experiment they exercised at 60% VO2,max for 60 min. For both experiments, catheters were inserted in an artery...

  17. Slow VO₂ kinetics during moderate-intensity exercise as markers of lower metabolic stability and lower exercise tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Bruno; Porcelli, Simone; Salvadego, Desy; Zoladz, Jerzy A

    2011-03-01

    An analysis of previously published data obtained by our group on patients characterized by markedly slower pulmonary VO₂ kinetics (heart transplant recipients, patients with mitochondrial myopathies, patients with McArdle disease) was carried out in order to suggest that slow VO₂ kinetics should not be considered the direct cause, but rather a marker, of impaired exercise tolerance. For a given ATP turnover rate, faster (or slower) VO₂ kinetics are associated with smaller (or greater) muscle [PCr] decreases. The latter, however, should not be taken per se responsible for the higher (or lower) exercise tolerance, but should be considered within the general concept of "metabolic stability". Good muscle metabolic stability at a given ATP turnover rate (~power output) is associated with relatively smaller decreases, compared to rest, in [PCr] and in the Gibbs free energy of ATP hydrolysis, as well as with relatively smaller increases in [Pi], [ADP(free)], [AMP(free)], and [IMP(free)], metabolites directly related to fatigue. Disturbances in muscle metabolic stability can affect muscle function in various ways, whereas good metabolic stability is associated with less fatigue and higher exercise tolerance. Smaller [PCr] decreases, however, are strictly associated with a faster VO₂ kinetics. Thus, faster VO₂ kinetics may simply be an "epiphenomenon" of a relatively higher metabolic stability, which would then represent the relevant variable in terms of fatigue and exercise tolerance.

  18. Metabolic consequences of resistive-type exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, G. A.

    1988-01-01

    This brief review concerns acute and chronic metabolic responses to resistive-type exercise (RTE) (i.e., Olympic/power weight lifting and bodybuilding). Performance of RTE presents power output substantially greater (10-15-fold) than that evident with endurance-type exercise. Accordingly, RTE relies heavily on the anaerobic enzyme machinery of skeletal muscle for energy supply, with alterations in the rate of aerobic metabolism being modest. Hydrolysis of high energy phosphate compounds (PC, ATP), glycogenolysis, and glycolysis are evident during an acute bout of RTE as indicated by metabolic markers in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle samples. The type of RTE probably influences the magnitude of these responses since the increase in blood lactate is much greater during a typical "bodybuilding" than "power lifting" session. The influence of RTE training on acute metabolic responses to RTE has received little attention. An individual's inherent metabolic characteristics are apparently sufficient to meet the energy demands of RTE as training of this type does not increase VO2max or substantially alter the content of marker enzymes in mixed fiber type skeletal muscle. Analyses of pools of fast- vs slow-twitch fibers, however, indicate that RTE-induced changes may be fiber type specific. Future studies should better delineate the metabolic responses to RTE and determine whether these are related to the enhanced performance associated with such training.

  19. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoumeh Sadeghi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5% were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078. However, the mean maximum heart (MHR rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min (P<0.001. In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033 and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001. The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004 with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  20. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (P<0.001). In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001). The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004) with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  1. Exercise training in metabolic myopathies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vissing, J

    2016-01-01

    metabolic adaptations, such as increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation, which is detrimental in GSDs. Training has not been studied systematically in any FAODs and in just a few GSDs. However, studies on single bouts of exercise in most metabolic myopathies show......Metabolic myopathies encompass muscle glycogenoses (GSD) and disorders of muscle fat oxidation (FAOD). FAODs and GSDs can be divided into two main clinical phenotypes; those with static symptoms related to fixed muscle weakness and atrophy, and those with dynamic, exercise-related symptoms...... that are brought about by a deficient supply of ATP. Together with mitochondrial myopathies, metabolic myopathies are unique among muscle diseases, as the limitation in exercise performance is not solely caused by structural damage of muscle, but also or exclusively related to energy deficiency. ATP consumption...

  2. Effect of exercise on fluoride metabolism in adult humans: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    V Zohoori, Fatemeh; Innerd, Alison; Azevedo, Liane B; Whitford, Gary M; Maguire, Anne

    2015-11-19

    An understanding of all aspects of fluoride metabolism is critical to identify its biological effects and avoid fluoride toxicity in humans. Fluoride metabolism and subsequently its body retention may be affected by physiological responses to acute exercise. This pilot study investigated the effect of exercise on plasma fluoride concentration, urinary fluoride excretion and fluoride renal clearance following no exercise and three exercise intensity conditions in nine healthy adults after taking a 1-mg Fluoride tablet. After no, light, moderate and vigorous exercise, respectively, the mean (SD) baseline-adjusted i) plasma fluoride concentration was 9.6(6.3), 11.4(6.3), 15.6(7.7) and 14.9(10.0) ng/ml; ii) rate of urinary fluoride excretion over 0-8 h was 46(15), 44(22), 34(17) and 36(17) μg/h; and iii) rate of fluoride renal clearance was 26.5(9.0), 27.2(30.4), 13.1(20.4) and 18.3(34.9) ml/min. The observed trend of a rise in plasma fluoride concentration and decline in rate of fluoride renal clearance with increasing exercise intensity needs to be investigated in a larger trial. This study, which provides the first data on the effect of exercise with different intensities on fluoride metabolism in humans, informs sample size planning for any subsequent definitive trial, by providing a robust estimate of the variability of the effect.

  3. Does Lifestyle Exercise After a Cardiac Event Improve Metabolic Syndrome Profile in Older Adults?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kathy D; Moore-Schiltz, Laura; Sattar, Abdus; Josephson, Richard; Moore, Shirley M

    Exercise is a common recommendation to reduce the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, yet there are limited data on the influence of lifestyle exercise after cardiac events on metabolic syndrome factors. The purpose of this study was to determine whether lifestyle exercise improves metabolic syndrome profile in older adults after a cardiac event. Participants were from a post-cardiac-event lifestyle exercise study. Five metabolic syndrome factors were assessed: waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipids, glucose, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Objective measures of exercise were obtained from heart rate monitors over a year. Logistic regression was used to determine whether participants who engaged in the minimum recommendation of 130 hours of exercise or greater during the 12-month period improved their metabolic syndrome profile by improving at least 1 metabolic syndrome factor. In the sample of 116 participants (74% men; average age, 67.5 years), 43% exercised at the recommended amount (≥130 h/y) and 28% (n = 33) improved their metabolic syndrome profile. After controlling for confounding factors of age, gender, race, diabetes, functional ability, and employment, subjects who exercised at least 130 hours a year were 3.6 times more likely to improve at least 1 metabolic syndrome factor (95% confidence interval, 1.24-10.49). Of the 28% who improved their metabolic syndrome profile, 72% increased their high-density lipoprotein and 60.6% reduced their waist circumference and glucose. After a cardiac event, older patients who engage in lifestyle exercise at the recommended amount have improvement in their metabolic syndrome profile.

  4. Exercise training dose differentially alters muscle and heart capillary density and metabolic functions in an obese rat with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; da Conceição, Fabiana Gomes; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Tibirica, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    What is the central question of this study? Regular exercise is recommended as a non-pharmacological approach for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome. However, the impact of different combinations of intensity, duration and frequency of exercise on metabolic syndrome and microvascular density has not been reported. What is the main finding and its importance? We provide evidence on the impact of aerobic exercise dose on metabolic and microvascular alterations in an experimental model of metabolic syndrome induced by high-fat diet. We found that the exercise frequency and duration were the main factors affecting anthropometric and metabolic parameters and microvascular density in the skeletal muscle. Exercise intensity was related only to microvascular density in the heart. We evaluated the effect of the frequency, duration and intensity of exercise training on metabolic parameters and structural capillary density in obese rats with metabolic syndrome. Wistar-Kyoto rats were fed either a standard commercial diet (CON) or a high-fat diet (HFD). Animals that received the HFD were randomly separated into either a sedentary (SED) group or eight different exercise groups that varied according to the frequency, duration and intensity of training. After 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training, the body composition, aerobic capacity, haemodynamic variables, metabolic parameters and capillary density in the heart and skeletal muscle were evaluated. All the exercise training groups showed reduced resting systolic blood pressure and heart rate and normalized fasting glucose. The minimal amount of exercise (90 min per week) produced little effect on metabolic syndrome parameters. A moderate amount of exercise (150 min per week) was required to reduce body weight and improve capillary density. However, only the high amount of exercise (300 min per week) significantly reduced the amount of body fat depots. The three-way ANOVA showed a main effect of exercise

  5. Metabolic, thermoregulatory, and perceptual responses during exercise after lower vs. whole body precooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Andrea T; Davis, Scott L; Wilson, Thad E

    2003-03-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare the thermoregulatory, metabolic, and perceptual effects of lower body (LBI) and whole body (WBI) immersion precooling techniques during submaximal exercise. Eleven healthy men completed two 30-min cycling bouts at 60% of maximal O(2) uptake preceded by immersion to the suprailiac crest (LBI) or clavicle (WBI) in 20 degrees C water. WBI produced significantly lower rectal temperature (T(re)) during minutes 24-30 of immersion and lower T(re), mean skin temperature, and mean body temperature for the first 24, 14, and 16 min of exercise, respectively. Body heat storage rates differed significantly for LBI and WBI during immersion and exercise, although no net differences were observed between conditions. For WBI, metabolic heat production and heart rate were significantly higher during immersion but not during exercise. Thermal sensation was significantly lower (felt colder) and thermal discomfort was significantly higher (less comfortable) for WBI during immersion and exercise. In conclusion, WBI and LBI attenuated T(re) increases during submaximal exercise and produced similar net heat storage over the protocol. LBI minimized metabolic increases and negative perceptual effects associated with WBI.

  6. Cancer and Exercise: Warburg Hypothesis, Tumour Metabolism and High-Intensity Anaerobic Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Peter

    2018-01-31

    There is ample evidence that regular moderate to vigorous aerobic physical activity is related to a reduced risk for various forms of cancer to suggest a causal relationship. Exercise is associated with positive changes in fitness, body composition, and physical functioning as well as in patient-reported outcomes such as fatigue, sleep quality, or health-related quality of life. Emerging evidence indicates that exercise may also be directly linked to the control of tumour biology through direct effects on tumour-intrinsic factors. Beside a multitude of effects of exercise on the human body, one underscored effect of exercise training is to target the specific metabolism of tumour cells, namely the Warburg-type highly glycolytic metabolism. Tumour metabolism as well as the tumour⁻host interaction may be selectively influenced by single bouts as well as regularly applied exercise, dependent on exercise intensity, duration, frequency and mode. High-intensity anaerobic exercise was shown to inhibit glycolysis and some studies in animals showed that effects on tumour growth might be stronger compared with moderate-intensity aerobic exercise. High-intensity exercise was shown to be safe in patients; however, it has to be applied carefully with an individualized prescription of exercise.

  7. Exercise-induced maximum metabolic rate scaled to body mass by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2016-10-27

    Oct 27, 2016 ... maximum aerobic metabolic rate (MMR) is proportional to the fractal extent ... metabolic rate with body mass can be obtained by taking body .... blood takes place. ..... MMR and BMR is that MMR is owing mainly to respiration in skeletal .... the spectra of surface area scaling strategies of cells and organisms:.

  8. Metabolic Consequences of Dieting and Exercise in the Treatment of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donahoe, Clyde P.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Investigated the effects of dieting and exercise on resting metabolic rate (RMR) in overweight women (N=10). Results showed that dieting lowered RMR by nearly double that expected on the basis of resulting weight loss; and that exercise caused RMR to rise to a level appropriate to prevailing body weight. (LLL)

  9. Effects of smoking and aerobic exercise on male college students' metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jee-Youn; Yang, Yuhao; Sim, Young-Je

    2018-04-01

    [Purpose] The aim was to investigate the effects of university students' smoking and aerobic exercise on metabolic syndrome risk factors. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three male students were randomly assigned to the following groups: exercise smoker (n=6), non-exercise smoker (n=6), exercise non-smoker (n=6), and non-exercise non-smoker (n=5). A basketball exercise program was conducted three times per week (70 minutes per session) for 8 weeks with exercise intensity set at 50-80% of heart rate reserve. After 8 weeks, the variables of risk factors for metabolic syndrome were obtained. [Results] Systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased in the exercise non-smoker group and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Waist circumference was significantly reduced in both exercise groups regardless of smoking and significantly increased in the non-exercise smoker group. Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and fasting plasma glucose showed no differences between the groups. [Conclusion] Obesity and smoking management should be conducted together for students as well as for those with metabolic syndrome risk factors. It is recommended that more students participate in such programs, and exercise programs should be further developed and diversified to prevent metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases.

  10. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome: exercise as medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paley, Carole A; Johnson, Mark I

    2018-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a cluster of at least three out of five clinical risk factors: abdominal (visceral) obesity, hypertension, elevated serum triglycerides, low serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and insulin resistance. It is estimated to affect over 20% of the global adult population. Abdominal (visceral) obesity is thought to be the predominant risk factor for metabolic syndrome and as predictions estimate that 50% of adults will be classified as obese by 2030 it is likely that metabolic syndrome will be a significant problem for health services and a drain on health economies.Evidence shows that regular and consistent exercise reduces abdominal obesity and results in favourable changes in body composition. It has therefore been suggested that exercise is a medicine in its own right and should be prescribed as such. This review provides a summary of the current evidence on the pathophysiology of dysfunctional adipose tissue (adiposopathy). It describes the relationship of adiposopathy to metabolic syndrome and how exercise may mediate these processes, and evaluates current evidence on the clinical efficacy of exercise in the management of abdominal obesity. The review also discusses the type and dose of exercise needed for optimal improvements in health status in relation to the available evidence and considers the difficulty in achieving adherence to exercise programmes. There is moderate evidence supporting the use of programmes of exercise to reverse metabolic syndrome although at present the optimal dose and type of exercise is unknown. The main challenge for health care professionals is how to motivate individuals to participate and adherence to programmes of exercise used prophylactically and as a treatment for metabolic syndrome.

  11. Disruption of BCAA metabolism in mice impairs exercise metabolism and endurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Pengxiang; Zhou, Yingsheng; Zhang, Zhiyou; Griffin, Kathleen; Gowda, Kavitha; Lynch, Christopher J

    2010-04-01

    Exercise enhances branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, and BCAA supplementation influences exercise metabolism. However, it remains controversial whether BCAA supplementation improves exercise endurance, and unknown whether the exercise endurance effect of BCAA supplementation requires catabolism of these amino acids. Therefore, we examined exercise capacity and intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle of knockout (KO) mice of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm), which catalyzes the first step of BCAA catabolism. We found that BCATm KO mice were exercise intolerant with markedly decreased endurance to exhaustion. Their plasma lactate and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in skeletal muscle during exercise and lactate release from hindlimb perfused with high concentrations of insulin and glucose were significantly higher in KO than wild-type (WT) mice. Plasma and muscle ammonia concentrations were also markedly higher in KO than WT mice during a brief bout of exercise. BCATm KO mice exhibited 43-79% declines in the muscle concentration of alanine, glutamine, aspartate, and glutamate at rest and during exercise. In response to exercise, the increments in muscle malate and alpha-ketoglutarate were greater in KO than WT mice. While muscle ATP concentration tended to be lower, muscle IMP concentration was sevenfold higher in KO compared with WT mice after a brief bout of exercise, suggesting elevated ammonia in KO is derived from the purine nucleotide cycle. These data suggest that disruption of BCAA transamination causes impaired malate/aspartate shuttle, thereby resulting in decreased alanine and glutamine formation, as well as increases in lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and ammonia in skeletal muscle. Thus BCAA metabolism may regulate exercise capacity in mice.

  12. Maximal metabolic rates during voluntary exercise, forced exercise, and cold exposure in house mice selectively bred for high wheel-running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezende, Enrico L; Chappell, Mark A; Gomes, Fernando R; Malisch, Jessica L; Garland, Theodore

    2005-06-01

    Selective breeding for high wheel-running activity has generated four lines of laboratory house mice (S lines) that run about 170% more than their control counterparts (C lines) on a daily basis, mostly because they run faster. We tested whether maximum aerobic metabolic rates (V(O2max)) have evolved in concert with wheel-running, using 48 females from generation 35. Voluntary activity and metabolic rates were measured on days 5+6 of wheel access (mimicking conditions during selection), using wheels enclosed in metabolic chambers. Following this, V(O2max) was measured twice on a motorized treadmill and twice during cold-exposure in a heliox atmosphere (HeO2). Almost all measurements, except heliox V(O2max), were significantly repeatable. After accounting for differences in body mass (S running speeds on the treadmill. However, running speeds and V(O2max) during voluntary exercise were significantly higher in S lines. Nevertheless, S mice never voluntarily achieved the V(O2max) elicited during their forced treadmill trials, suggesting that aerobic capacity per se is not limiting the evolution of even higher wheel-running speeds in these lines. Our results support the hypothesis that S mice have genetically higher motivation for wheel-running and they demonstrate that behavior can sometimes evolve independently of performance capacities. We also discuss the possible importance of domestication as a confounding factor to extrapolate results from this animal model to natural populations.

  13. AMPKα in Exercise-Induced Substrate Metabolism and Exercise Training-Induced Metabolic and Mitochondrial Adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fentz, Joachim

    in response to 4 weeks of voluntary running wheel exercise training. However, the acute exercise-induced increase in mRNA expression of several metabolic and mitochondrial marker genes is impaired in the mice lacking AMPKα1 and α2. In addition to the two studies and some currently unpublished data this thesis...

  14. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip...

  15. Exercise-induced hypertension in men with metabolic syndrome: anthropometric, metabolic, and hemodynamic features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Valérie; Després, Jean-Pierre; Rhéaume, Caroline; Alméras, Natalie; Bergeron, Jean; Tremblay, Angelo; Poirier, Paul

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased cardiac morbidity. The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced hypertension (EIH) in men with metabolic syndrome and to explore potential associations with anthropometric and metabolic variables. A total of 179 normotensive men with metabolic syndrome underwent a maximal symptom-limited treadmill test. Blood pressure was measured at 5-min rest prior to exercise testing (anticipatory blood pressure), at every 3 min during the exercise, and during the recovery period. EIH was defined as maximum systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥220 mmHg and/or maximum diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥100 mmHg. Of the 179 men, 87 (47%) presented EIH. Resting blood pressure values at baseline were 127±10/83±6 mmHg in EIH and 119±9/80±6 mmHg (P=0.01 for both) in normal blood pressure responders to exercise. Anticipatory SBP and DPS were higher in the group with EIH (P=0.001). Subjects with EIH presented higher waist circumference (WC) (Pmetabolic syndrome showed EIH. These men are characterized by a worsened metabolic profile. Our data suggest that a treadmill exercise test may be helpful to identify a potentially higher risk metabolic syndrome subset of subjects.

  16. Sympathetic influence on cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Secher, Niels H

    2011-01-01

    This review focuses on the possibility that autonomic activity influences cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolism during exercise in humans. Apart from cerebral autoregulation, the arterial carbon dioxide tension, and neuronal activation, it may be that the autonomic nervous system influences CBF...... perfusion and reduces the near-infrared determined cerebral oxygenation at rest, but not during exercise associated with an increased cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)), suggesting competition between CMRO(2) and sympathetic control of CBF. CMRO(2) does not change during even intense handgrip......-oxidative carbohydrate uptake during exercise. Adrenaline appears to accelerate cerebral glycolysis through a beta2-adrenergic receptor mechanism since noradrenaline is without such an effect. In addition, the exercise-induced cerebral non-oxidative carbohydrate uptake is blocked by combined beta 1/2-adrenergic blockade...

  17. Skeletal muscle metabolism is impaired during exercise in glycogen storage disease type III

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt

    2015-01-01

    /kg/min (p = 0.024). Fructose ingestion improved exercise tolerance in the patients. CONCLUSION: Similar to patients with McArdle disease, in whom muscle glycogenolysis is also impaired, GSDIIIa is associated with a reduced skeletal muscle oxidation of carbohydrates and a compensatory increase in fatty acid......OBJECTIVE: Glycogen storage disease type IIIa (GSDIIIa) is classically regarded as a glycogenosis with fixed weakness, but we hypothesized that exercise intolerance in GSDIIIa is related to muscle energy failure and that oral fructose ingestion could improve exercise tolerance in this metabolic...... myopathy. METHODS: We challenged metabolism with cycle-ergometer exercise and measured substrate turnover and oxidation rates using stable isotope methodology and indirect calorimetry in 3 patients and 6 age-matched controls on 1 day, and examined the effect of fructose ingestion on exercise tolerance...

  18. Effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at the onset of submaximal exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBlanc, P J; Parolin, M L; Jones, N L; Heigenhauser, G J F

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of respiratory alkalosis on human skeletal muscle metabolism at rest and during submaximal exercise. Subjects exercised on two occasions for 15 min at 55 % of their maximal oxygen uptake while either hyperventilating (R-Alk) or breathing normally (Con). Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and after 1 and 15 min of exercise. At rest, no effects on muscle metabolism were observed in response to R-Alk. In the first minute of exercise, there was a delayed activation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in R-Alk compared with Con, resulting in a reduced rate of pyruvate oxidation. Also, glycogenolysis was higher in R-Alk compared with Con, which was attributed to a higher availability of the monoprotonated form of inorganic phosphate (P(i)), resulting in an elevated rate of pyruvate production. The mismatch between pyruvate production and its oxidation resulted in net lactate accumulation. These effects were not seen after 15 min of exercise, with no further differences in muscle metabolism between conditions. The results from the present study suggest that respiratory alkalosis may play an important role in lactate accumulation during the transition from rest to exercise in acute hypoxic conditions, but that other factors mediate lactate accumulation during steady-state exercise.

  19. Aerobic exercise acutely prevents the endothelial dysfunction induced by mental stress among subjects with metabolic syndrome: the role of shear rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales, Allan R K; Fernandes, Igor A; Rocha, Natália G; Costa, Lucas S; Rocha, Helena N M; Mattos, João D M; Vianna, Lauro C; Silva, Bruno M; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2014-04-01

    Mental stress induces transient endothelial dysfunction, which is an important finding for subjects at cardiometabolic risk. Thus, we tested whether aerobic exercise prevents this dysfunction among subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and whether an increase in shear rate during exercise plays a role in this phenomenon. Subjects with MetS participated in two protocols. In protocol 1 (n = 16), endothelial function was assessed using brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Subjects then underwent a mental stress test followed by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions. FMD was assessed again at 30 and 60 min after exercise or rest, with a second mental stress test in between. Mental stress reduced FMD at 30 and 60 min after the rest session (baseline: 7.7 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.5%, and 60 min: 3.9 ± 0.5%, P exercise prevented this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.4%, 30 min: 7.2 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline). Protocol 2 (n = 5) was similar to protocol 1 except that the first period of mental stress was followed by either exercise in which the brachial artery shear rate was attenuated via forearm cuff inflation or exercise without a cuff. Noncuffed exercise prevented the reduction in FMD (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.7%, 30 min: 7.0 ± 0.7%, and 60 min: 8.7 ± 0.8%, P > 0.05 vs. baseline), whereas cuffed exercise failed to prevent this reduction (baseline: 7.5 ± 0.6%, 30 min: 5.4 ± 0.8%, and 60 min: 4.1 ± 0.9%, P exercise prevented mental stress-induced endothelial dysfunction among subjects with MetS, and an increase in shear rate during exercise mediated this effect.

  20. Work Rate during Self-paced Exercise is not Mediated by the Rate of Heat Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Brian J; Périard, Julien D; Poirier, Martin P; Lauzon, Martin; Blondin, Denis P; Haman, Francois; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-01-01

    To date, there have been mixed findings on whether greater anticipatory reductions in self-paced exercise intensity in the heat are mediated by early differences in rate of body heat storage. The disparity may be due to an inability to accurately measure minute-to-minute changes in whole-body heat loss. Thus, we evaluated whether early differences in rate of heat storage can mediate exercise intensity during self-paced cycling at a fixed rate of perceived exertion (RPE of 16; hard-to-very-hard work effort) in COOL (15°C), NORMAL (25°C), and HOT (35°C) ambient conditions. On separate days, nine endurance-trained cyclists exercised in COOL, NORMAL, and HOT conditions at a fixed RPE until work rate (measured after first 5 min of exercise) decreased to 70% of starting values. Whole-body heat loss and metabolic heat production were measured by direct and indirect calorimetry, respectively. Total exercise time was shorter in HOT (57 ± 20 min) relative to both NORMAL (72 ± 23 min, P = 0.004) and COOL (70 ± 26 min, P = 0.045). Starting work rate was lower in HOT (153 ± 31 W) compared with NORMAL (166 ± 27 W, P = 0.024) and COOL (170 ± 33 W, P = 0.037). Rate of heat storage was similar between conditions during the first 4 min of exercise (all P > 0.05). Thereafter, rate of heat storage was lower in HOT relative to NORMAL and COOL until 30 min of exercise (last common time-point between conditions; all P exercise. No differences were measured at end exercise. We show that rate of heat storage does not mediate exercise intensity during self-paced exercise at a fixed RPE in cool to hot ambient conditions.

  1. Redistribution of whole-body energy metabolism by exercise. A positron emission tomography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masud, M.M.; Miyake, Masayasu; Watanuki, Shoichi; Itoh, Masatoshi; Tashiro, Manabu; Fujimoto, Toshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Our aim was to evaluate changes in glucose metabolism of skeletal muscles and viscera induced by different workloads using 18 F-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose ([ 18 F]FDG) and three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3-D PET). Five male volunteers performed ergometer bicycle exercise for 40 min at 40% and 70% of the maximal O 2 consumption (VO 2max ). [ 18 ]FDG was injected 10 min later following the exercise task. Whole-body 3-D PET was performed. Five other male volunteers were studied as a control to compare with the exercise group. The PET image data were analyzed using manually defined regions of interest to quantify the regional metabolic rate of glucose (rMRGlc). Group comparisons were made using analysis of variance, and significant differences (P 18 F]FDG-PET can be used as an index of organ energy metabolism for moderate exercise workloads (70% VO 2max ). The results of this investigation may contribute to sports medicine and rehabilitation science. (author)

  2. Lactate metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial myopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Ørngreen, Mette Cathrine; van Hall, Gerrit

    2013-01-01

    Patients with mitochondrial DNA mutations often have elevated plasma lactate at rest and during exercise, but it is unknown whether the high lactate levels are caused by a high production, an impaired oxidation or a combination. We studied lactate kinetics in 10 patients with mtDNA mutations and 10...... matched healthy control subjects at rest and during cycle exercise with a combination of femoral arterio-venous differences of lactate, and lactate tracer dilution methodology. During exercise, lactate concentration and production rates were several-fold higher in patients, but despite mitochondrial...... is not solely an indicator of impaired oxidative capacity, but an important fuel for oxidative metabolism, even in muscle with severely impaired mitochondrial function....

  3. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siopi, Aikaterina; Deda, Olga; Manou, Vasiliki; Kellis, Spyros; Kosmidis, Ioannis; Komninou, Despina; Raikos, Nikolaos; Christoulas, Kosmas; Theodoridis, Georgios A; Mougios, Vassilis

    2017-01-26

    Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14) completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE). Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  4. Effects of Different Exercise Modes on the Urinary Metabolic Fingerprint of Men with and without Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterina Siopi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Exercise is important in the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome (MetS, a cluster of risk factors that raises morbidity. Metabolomics can facilitate the optimization of exercise prescription. This study aimed to investigate whether the response of the human urinary metabolic fingerprint to exercise depends on the presence of MetS or exercise mode. Twenty-three sedentary men (MetS, n = 9, and Healthy, n = 14 completed four trials: resting, high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE, continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME, and resistance exercise (RE. Urine samples were collected pre-exercise and at 2, 4, and 24 h for targeted analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Time exerted the strongest differentiating effect, followed by exercise mode and health status. The greatest changes were observed in the first post-exercise samples, with a gradual return to baseline at 24 h. RE caused the greatest responses overall, followed by HIIE, while CME had minimal effect. The metabolic fingerprints of the two groups were separated at 2 h, after HIIE and RE; and at 4 h, after HIIE, with evidence of blunted response to exercise in MetS. Our findings show diverse responses of the urinary metabolic fingerprint to different exercise modes in men with and without metabolic syndrome.

  5. Effect of metformin on exercise capacity in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Abi Albon; Dkhar, Steven Aibor; Kamalanathan, Sadishkumar; Thabah, Molly Mary; George, Melvin; Chandrasekaran, Indumathi; Gunaseelan, Vikneswaran; Selvarajan, Sandhiya

    2017-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors with increased predilection towards occurrence of cardiovascular diseases. Currently physical exercise and management with metformin are the prevailing treatment modalities for metabolic syndrome. Patients with metabolic syndrome have been found to have reduced exercise capacity over a period of time. Likewise metformin has been shown to decrease exercise capacity among healthy volunteers. Hence this study aims to evaluate the effect of metformin on the exercise capacity of patients with metabolic syndrome. Prospective study with 6 weeks follow up. Newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome and to be started on Table Metformin 500mg twice a day were recruited for the study after obtaining written informed consent. Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing (CPET) was done at baseline before the subjects were started on metformin and after 6 weeks of treatment using cardiopulmonary exercise testing apparatus (ZAN600). Fifteen treatment naïve patients with metabolic syndrome completed six weeks of therapy with metformin. In these patients oxygen uptake [VO2] showed statistically significant decrease from 1.10±0.44 at baseline to 0.9±0.39 (l/min) after six weeks of treatment with metformin [mean difference of -0.20 (-0.31 to -0.09); P=0.001]. Similarly oxygen uptake/kg body weight [VO2/Kg] showed a significant decrease from 14.10±4.73 to 11.44±3.81 (mlkg -1 min -1 ) at the end of six weeks of treatment [mean difference of -2.66 (-4.06 to -1.26); P=0.001]. Six weeks of treatment with metformin significantly decreases exercise capacity in newly diagnosed patients with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2017 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Met...

  7. Acute nutritional ketosis: implications for exercise performance and metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Ketone bodies acetoacetate (AcAc) and D-β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB) may provide an alternative carbon source to fuel exercise when delivered acutely in nutritional form. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies are based on sound evolutionary principles to prolong survival during caloric deprivation. By harnessing the potential of these metabolic actions during exercise, athletic performance could be influenced, providing a useful model for the application of ketosis in therapeutic conditions. This article examines the energetic implications of ketone body utilisation with particular reference to exercise metabolism and substrate energetics. PMID:25379174

  8. Skeletal muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt

    2017-01-01

    of exercise, it is important in Pompe disease to acquire more information about muscle substrate use during exercise. METHODS: Seven adults with Pompe disease were matched to a healthy control group (1:1). We determined (1) peak oxidative capacity (VO2peak) and (2) carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism...... during submaximal exercise (33 W) for 1 h, using cycle-ergometer exercise, indirect calorimetry and stable isotopes. RESULTS: In the patients, VO2peak was less than half of average control values; mean difference -1659 mL/min (CI: -2450 to -867, P = 0.001). However, the respiratory exchange ratio...... increased to >1.0 and lactate levels rose 5-fold in the patients, indicating significant glycolytic flux. In line with this, during submaximal exercise, the rates of oxidation (ROX) of carbohydrates and palmitate were similar between patients and controls (mean difference 0.226 g/min (CI: 0.611 to -0.078, P...

  9. Measuring maximum and standard metabolic rates using intermittent-flow respirometry: a student laboratory investigation of aerobic metabolic scope and environmental hypoxia in aquatic breathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewarne, P J; Wilson, J M; Svendsen, J C

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic rate is one of the most widely measured physiological traits in animals and may be influenced by both endogenous (e.g. body mass) and exogenous factors (e.g. oxygen availability and temperature). Standard metabolic rate (SMR) and maximum metabolic rate (MMR) are two fundamental physiological variables providing the floor and ceiling in aerobic energy metabolism. The total amount of energy available between these two variables constitutes the aerobic metabolic scope (AMS). A laboratory exercise aimed at an undergraduate level physiology class, which details the appropriate data acquisition methods and calculations to measure oxygen consumption rates in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, is presented here. Specifically, the teaching exercise employs intermittent flow respirometry to measure SMR and MMR, derives AMS from the measurements and demonstrates how AMS is affected by environmental oxygen. Students' results typically reveal a decline in AMS in response to environmental hypoxia. The same techniques can be applied to investigate the influence of other key factors on metabolic rate (e.g. temperature and body mass). Discussion of the results develops students' understanding of the mechanisms underlying these fundamental physiological traits and the influence of exogenous factors. More generally, the teaching exercise outlines essential laboratory concepts in addition to metabolic rate calculations, data acquisition and unit conversions that enhance competency in quantitative analysis and reasoning. Finally, the described procedures are generally applicable to other fish species or aquatic breathers such as crustaceans (e.g. crayfish) and provide an alternative to using higher (or more derived) animals to investigate questions related to metabolic physiology. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  10. A community-based exercise intervention transitions metabolically abnormal obese adults to a metabolically healthy obese phenotype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Richardson, Tara B; Bredle, Donald L; Janot, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Background Lower habitual physical activity and poor cardiorespiratory fitness are common features of the metabolically abnormal obese (MAO) phenotype that contribute to increased cardiovascular disease risk. The aims of the present study were to determine 1) whether community-based exercise training transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy, and 2) whether the odds of transition to metabolically healthy were larger for obese individuals who performed higher volumes of exercise and/or experienced greater increases in fitness. Methods and results Metabolic syndrome components were measured in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a supervised 14-week community-based exercise program designed to reduce cardiometabolic risk factors. Obese (body mass index ≥30 kg · m2) adults with two to four metabolic syndrome components were classified as MAO, whereas those with no or one component were classified as metabolically healthy but obese (MHO). After community exercise, 27/68 (40%) MAO individuals (Pmetabolically healthy, increasing the total number of MHO persons by 73% (from 37 to 64). Compared with the lowest quartiles of relative energy expenditure and change in fitness, participants in the highest quartiles were 11.6 (95% confidence interval: 2.1–65.4; Pexercise transitions MAO adults to metabolically healthy. MAO adults who engaged in higher volumes of exercise and experienced the greatest increase in fitness were significantly more likely to become metabolically healthy. Community exercise may be an effective model for primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. PMID:25120373

  11. Lymphocyte Glucose and Glutamine Metabolism as Targets of the Anti-Inflammatory and Immunomodulatory Effects of Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Wasinski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glutamine are important energetic and biosynthetic nutrients for T and B lymphocytes. These cells consume both nutrients at high rates in a function-dependent manner. In other words, the pathways that control lymphocyte function and survival directly control the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways. Therefore, lymphocytes in different functional states reprogram their glucose and glutamine metabolism to balance their requirement for ATP and macromolecule production. The tight association between metabolism and function in these cells was suggested to introduce the possibility of several pathologies resulting from the inability of lymphocytes to meet their nutrient demands under a given condition. In fact, disruptions in lymphocyte metabolism and function have been observed in different inflammatory, metabolic, and autoimmune pathologies. Regular physical exercise and physical activity offer protection against several chronic pathologies, and this benefit has been associated with the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of exercise/physical activity. Chronic exercise induces changes in lymphocyte functionality and substrate metabolism. In the present review, we discuss whether the beneficial effects of exercise on lymphocyte function in health and disease are associated with modulation of the glucose and glutamine metabolic pathways.

  12. Effects of muscular and aqua aerobic combined exercise on metabolic indices in elderly women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yong-Kwon; Kim, Soo-Keun; Song, Min-Sun

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of muscle strengthening exercise using elastic thera-band and aquatic aerobic combined exercise on metabolic syndrome index in elderly with metabolic syndrome. Fifty-four were assigned to muscle strengthening exercise group (n = 19), aquatic aerobic exercise group (n = 19), and combined exercise group (n = 16). The muscle strength exercise, aquatic aerobic exercise and combined exercise were provided three times a week for 12 weeks. Metabolic syndrome indices[Fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and waist circumference] were measured before and after the program. One-way ANOVA, paired t-test and two-way repeated ANOVA were used with the SPSS program for data analysis. There was a significant difference in triglyceride (p exercise group and aquatic exercise group. HDL-C was significantly increased in combined group than muscle strength exercise group. The results indicate that combined exercise was more effective in the improvement of dyslipidemia and abdominal obesity.

  13. Increased fat oxidation and regulation of metabolic genes with ultraendurance exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn Wulff; Rehrer, N J; Pilegaard, H

    2007-01-01

    AIM: Regular endurance exercise stimulates muscle metabolic capacity, but effects of very prolonged endurance exercise are largely unknown. This study examined muscle substrate availability and utilization during prolonged endurance exercise, and associated metabolic genes. METHODS: Data were...... exercise markedly increases plasma fatty acid availability and fat utilization during exercise. Exercise-induced regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in fatty acid recruitment and oxidation may contribute to these changes....

  14. Metabolic Rate and Ground Reaction Force During Motorized and Non-Motorized Treadmill Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Meghan E.; Loehr, James A.; DeWitt, John K.; Laughlin, Mitzi; Lee, Stuart M. C.

    2010-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure vertical ground reaction force (vGRF) and oxygen consumption (VO2) at several velocities during exercise using a ground-based version of the ISS treadmill in the M and NM modes. METHODS: Subjects (n = 20) walked or ran at 0.89, 1.34, 1.79, 2.24, 2.68, and 3.12 m/s while VO2 and vGRF data were collected. VO2 was measured using open-circuit spirometry (TrueOne 2400, Parvo-Medics). Data were averaged over the last 2 min of each 5-min stage. vGRF was measured in separate 15-s bouts at 125 Hz using custom-fitted pressure-sensing insoles (F-Scan Sport Sensors, Tekscan, Inc). A repeated-measures ANOVA was used to test for differences in VO2 and vGRF between M and NM and across speeds. Significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS: Most subjects were unable to exercise for 5 min at treadmill speeds above 1.79 m/s in the NM mode; however, vGRF data were obtained for all subjects at each speed in both modes. VO2 was approx.40% higher during NM than M exercise across treadmill speeds. vGRF increased with treadmill speed but was not different between modes. CONCLUSION: Higher VO2 with no change in vGRF suggests that the additional metabolic cost associated with NM treadmill exercise is accounted for in the horizontal forces required to move the treadmill belt. Although this may limit the exercise duration at faster speeds, high-intensity NM exercise activates the hamstrings and plantarflexors, which are not specifically targeted or well protected by other in-flight countermeasures.

  15. Irisin in response to exercise in humans with and without metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Joo Young; Siopi, Aikaterina; Mougios, Vassilis; Park, Kyung Hee; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2015-03-01

    Irisin is a recently identified exercise-induced myokine. However, the circulating levels of irisin in response to different types of exercise in subjects with metabolic syndrome are unknown. This study aimed to study the levels of irisin in healthy males and subjects with metabolic syndrome at baseline and in response to exercise. Each individual completed high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE), continuous moderate-intensity exercise (CME), and resistance exercise (RE) sessions in a random, crossover design. Percentage change in circulating irisin levels was examined. Two different irisin assays were used to compare the results of the RE study. Circulating irisin increased immediately after HIIE, CME, and RE and declined 1 hour later. The increase was greater in response to resistance compared with either high-intensity intermittent exercise or CME. Change in irisin in response to exercise did not differ between individuals with and without metabolic syndrome. Exercise is able to increase circulating irisin levels in individuals with the metabolic syndrome as well as healthy individuals. Whether this increase may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise on patients with the metabolic syndrome remains to be studied further.

  16. Growth hormone transgenic tilapia (Oreochromis sp.) compensate for increased metabolic rate to preserve exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, D.J.; Martínez, R.; Morales, A.

    2001-01-01

    Transgenic tilapia hybrids (Oreochromis mossambicus × O. hornorum) carrying a single copy of a homologous cDNA growth hormone exhibit higher growth rates than their wild-type conspecifics (Martinez et al. 1999). Swimming respirometry was employed to determine whether the increased growth rate...... higher in transgenics, such that aerobic scope was similar in both groups, and there was no difference in maximum sustainable U (5.2 ± 0.5 vs. 4.5 ± 0.7 bl s-1 in transgenics vs. wild-types, respectively). Following 2 h recovery from exercise, tilapia were exposed to progressive hypoxia (stepwise......Pa, respectively). The results indicate that stimulation of growth consequent to ectopic expression of growth hormone in transgenic tilapia (Martinez et al. 1999) is linked to increased rates of maintenance metabolism. The swimming and hypoxia experiments indicate, however, that the transgenics were able...

  17. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. PMID:25987736

  18. Cross-training in birds: cold and exercise training produce similar changes in maximal metabolic output, muscle masses and myostatin expression in house sparrows (Passer domesticus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yufeng; Eyster, Kathleen; Liu, Jin-Song; Swanson, David L

    2015-07-01

    Maximal metabolic outputs for exercise and thermogenesis in birds presumably influence fitness through effects on flight and shivering performance. Because both summit (Msum, maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and maximum (MMR, maximum exercise metabolic rate) metabolic rates are functions of skeletal muscle activity, correlations between these measurements and their mechanistic underpinnings might occur. To examine whether such correlations occur, we measured the effects of experimental cold and exercise training protocols for 3 weeks on body (Mb) and muscle (Mpec) masses, basal metabolic rate (BMR), Msum, MMR, pectoralis mRNA and protein expression for myostatin, and mRNA expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2 (metalloproteinase activators of myostatin) in house sparrows (Passer domesticus). Both training protocols increased Msum, MMR, Mb and Mpec, but BMR increased with cold training and decreased with exercise training. No significant differences occurred for pectoralis myostatin mRNA expression, but cold and exercise increased the expression of TLL-1 and TLL-2. Pectoralis myostatin protein levels were generally reduced for both training groups. These data clearly demonstrate cross-training effects of cold and exercise in birds, and are consistent with a role for myostatin in increasing pectoralis muscle mass and driving organismal increases in metabolic capacities. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    Exercise is a potent regulator of a range of physiological processes in most tissues. Solid epidemiological data show that exercise training can reduce disease risk and mortality for several cancer diagnoses, suggesting that exercise training may directly regulate tumor physiology and metabolism. Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental intervention studies are still needed to verify the cause-effect relationship between these mechanisms and the control of tumor growth.

  20. Fatty acid-inducible ANGPTL4 governs lipid metabolic response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Catoire, Milène; Alex, Sheril; Paraskevopulos, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Physical activity increases energy metabolism in exercising muscle. Whether acute exercise elicits metabolic changes in nonexercising muscles remains unclear. We show that one of the few genes that is more highly induced in nonexercising muscle than in exercising human muscle during acute exercis...

  1. Effect of Sacubitril/Valsartan on Exercise-Induced Lipid Metabolism in Patients With Obesity and Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engeli, Stefan; Stinkens, Rudi; Heise, Tim; May, Marcus; Goossens, Gijs H; Blaak, Ellen E; Havekes, Bas; Jax, Thomas; Albrecht, Diego; Pal, Parasar; Tegtbur, Uwe; Haufe, Sven; Langenickel, Thomas H; Jordan, Jens

    2018-01-01

    Sacubitril/valsartan (LCZ696), a novel angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, was recently approved for the treatment of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Neprilysin degrades several peptides that modulate lipid metabolism, including natriuretic peptides. In this study, we investigated the effects of 8 weeks' treatment with sacubitril/valsartan on whole-body and adipose tissue lipolysis and lipid oxidation during defined physical exercise compared with the metabolically neutral comparator amlodipine. This was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, parallel-group study enrolling subjects with abdominal obesity and moderate hypertension (mean sitting systolic blood pressure ≥130-180 mm Hg). Lipolysis during rest and exercise was assessed by microdialysis and [1,1,2,3,3- 2 H]-glycerol tracer kinetics. Energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured simultaneously using indirect calorimetry. Plasma nonesterified fatty acids, glycerol, insulin, glucose, adrenaline and noradrenaline concentrations, blood pressure, and heart rate were also determined. Exercise elevated plasma glycerol, free fatty acids, and interstitial glycerol concentrations and increased the rate of glycerol appearance. However, exercise-induced stimulation of lipolysis was not augmented on sacubitril/valsartan treatment compared with amlodipine treatment. Furthermore, sacubitril/valsartan did not alter energy expenditure and substrate oxidation during exercise compared with amlodipine treatment. In conclusion, sacubitril/valsartan treatment for 8 weeks did not elicit clinically relevant changes in exercise-induced lipolysis or substrate oxidation in obese patients with hypertension, implying that its beneficial cardiovascular effects cannot be explained by changes in lipid metabolism during exercise. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01631864. © 2017 The Authors.

  2. Exercise electrocardiographic responses and serum cystatin C levels among metabolic syndrome patients without overt diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanindi A

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Asli Tanindi1 Hilal Olgun1 Ayse Tuncel2 Bulent Celik3 Hatice Pasaoglu2 Bulent Boyaci11Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Medical Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, 3Department of Statistics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Gazi University, Ankara, TurkeyObjectives: An impaired heart rate response during exercise (chronotropic incompetence and an impaired heart rate recovery (HRR after exercise are predictors of cardiovascular risk and mortality. Cystatin C is a novel marker for cardiovascular disease. We aimed to investigate exercise electrocardiographic responses in patients with metabolic syndrome who were without overt diabetes mellitus, in addition to the association of serum cystatin C levels with the exercise electrocardiographic test results.Method: Forty-three consecutive patients admitted to a cardiology outpatient clinic without angina pectoris were recruited if they met criteria for metabolic syndrome but did not have overt diabetes mellitus. Serum cystatin C levels were measured, and all participants underwent exercise electrocardiographic testing. Patients who were found to have ischemia had a coronary angiography procedure.Results: The mean cystatin C level of patients was higher in metabolic syndrome group than healthy controls (610.1 ± 334.02 vs 337.3 ± 111.01 µg/L; P < 0.001. The percentage of patients with ischemia confirmed by coronary angiography was 13.9% in the metabolic syndrome group. Cystatin C levels in the ischemic patients of the metabolic syndrome group were higher than that in nonischemic patients (957.00 ± 375.6 vs 553.8 ± 295.3 µg /L; P = 0.005. Chronotropic incompetence was observed in 30.2% of the patients with metabolic syndrome compared with 16.7% in the control group (P = 0.186. Chronotropic response indices were 0.8 ± 0.18 versus 0.9 ± 0.10 for the two groups, respectively (P = 0.259. HRR was significantly lower in the metabolic syndrome patients compared with the controls (20.1 ± 8.01 vs 25.2

  3. Do diabetes and obesity affect the metabolic response to exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Weigert, Cora

    2017-07-01

    Exercise is recommended as therapeutic intervention for people at risk to develop type 2 diabetes to prevent or treat the disease. Recent studies on the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on the outcome of exercise programs are discussed. Poor glycemic control before an intervention can be a risk factor of reduced therapeutic benefit from exercise. But the acute metabolic response to exercise and the transcriptional profile of the working muscle is similar in healthy controls and type 2 diabetic patients, including but not limited to intact activation of skeletal muscle AMP-activated kinase signaling, glucose uptake and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α. The increase in plasma acylcarnitines during exercise is not influenced by type 2 diabetes or obesity. The hepatic response to exercise is dependent on the glucagon/insulin ratio and the exercise-induced increase in hepatokines such as fibroblast growth factor 21 and follistatin is impaired in type 2 diabetes and obesity, but consequences for the benefit from exercise are unknown yet. Severe metabolic dysregulation can reduce the benefit from exercise, but the intact response of key metabolic regulators in exercising skeletal muscle of diabetic patients demonstrates the effectiveness of exercise programs to treat the disease.

  4. Are Chicken Embryos Endotherms or Ectotherms? A Laboratory Exercise Integrating Concepts in Thermoregulation and Metabolism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiebert, Sara M; Noveral, Jocelyne

    2007-01-01

    This investigative laboratory exercise uses the different relations between ambient temperature and metabolic rate in endotherms and ectotherms as a core concept to answer the following question: What thermoregulatory mode is employed by chicken embryos? Emphasis is placed on the physiological concepts that can be taught with this exercise,…

  5. Skeletal muscle substrate metabolism during exercise: methodological considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; González-Alonso, J; Sacchetti, M

    1999-01-01

    and the respiratory exchange ratio. However, if the aim is to quantify limb or muscle metabolism, invasive measurements have to be carried out, such as the determination of blood flow, arterio-venous (a-v) difference measurements for O2 and relevant substrates, and biopsies of the active muscle. As many substrates...... substrates. There are several methodological concerns to be aware of when studying the metabolic response to exercise in human subjects. These concerns include: (1) the muscle mass involved in the exercise is largely unknown (bicycle or treadmill). Moreover, whether the muscle sample obtained from a limb......; (3) the use of net limb glycerol release to estimate lipolysis is probably not valid (triacylglycerol utilization by muscle), since glycerol can be metabolized in skeletal muscle; (4) the precision of blood-borne substrate concentrations during exercise measured by a-v difference is hampered since...

  6. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, William G; Sakamoto, Kei; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-01-01

    The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are all required for full enzymatic activity. During exercise, AMPK becomes activated in skeletal muscle in response to changes in cellular energy status (e.g. increased adenosine monophosphate [AMP]/adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and creatine/phosphocreatine ratios) in an intensity-dependent manner, and serves to inhibit ATP-consuming pathways, and activate pathways involved in carbohydrate and fatty-acid metabolism to restore ATP levels. Recent evidence shows that although AMPK plays this key metabolic role during acute bouts of exercise, it is also an important component of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training because of its ability to alter muscle fuel reserves and expression of several exercise-responsive genes. This review discusses the putative roles of AMPK in acute and chronic exercise responses, and suggests avenues for future AMPK research in exercise physiology and biochemistry.

  7. The Role of Exercise – Rehabilitation on Energy Cost and Metabolic Efficiency in Dipelegic Spastic Cerebral Palsy Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadi

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the resting energy expenditure and metabolic efficiency before and after of aerobic exercise in spastic cerebral palsy children (mean age of 11 years and also to compare with those of normal children. Materials & Methods : Fifteen dipelegia spastic cerebral palsy children (experimental group participated in exercise–rehabilitation program by voluntarily and the peers eighteen able body children(control group were selected randomly. The experimental group(cp performed rehabilitation program for 3 months,3 session in week with work intensity(%HRR=462.5equal to144bpm of heart rate. The values were measured on tantory cycle ergometer according to Macmaster protocol.Results: Rest and exercise heart rate and exercise intensity(%HRR in patients decreased after rehabilitation program(P<0.05. The resting energy expenditure was similar in cp and normal groups. The rate of oxygen cost of patients decreased in post test(P<0.05 that showed increasing in metabolic efficiency.Conclusion: cerebral palsy children have greater exercise energy cost and lower cardiovascular fitness than normal children and exercise–rehabilitation leads to enhance of metabolic efficiency in this patients that is remarkable from clinical perception.

  8. Effects of aging and exercise training on leg hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piil, Peter Bergmann; Jørgensen, Tue Smith; Egelund, Jon

    2018-01-01

    hemodynamics and oxidative metabolism in the transition from rest to steady state exercise engaging the knee-extensor muscles in young (n=15, 25{plus minus}1 years) and older (n=15, 72{plus minus}1 years) subjects before and after a period of aerobic high-intensity exercise training. To enhance cGMP signaling....... The rate of increase in leg VO2 was, however, similar in the two groups as a result of higher ( PGMP signaling did not affect the rate of increase in blood flow or VO2 in either group. Exercise training augmented ( P.... A lower blood flow response in aging does not appear to be a result of reduced cGMP signaling....

  9. Obesity and metabolic syndrome in COPD: Is exercise the answer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Benjamin D; Jones, Amy V; Trethewey, Ruth E; Evans, Rachael A

    2018-05-01

    Approximately half of all patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) attending pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) programmes are overweight or obese which negatively impacts upon dyspnoea and exercise tolerance particularly when walking. Within the obese population (without COPD), the observed heterogeneity in prognosis is in part explained by the variability in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease or diabetes (cardiometabolic risk) leading to the description of metabolic syndrome. In obesity alone, high-intensity aerobic training can support healthy weight loss and improve the constituent components of metabolic syndrome. Those with COPD, obesity and/or metabolic syndrome undergoing PR appear to do as well in traditional outcomes as their normal-weight metabolically healthy peers in terms of improvement of symptoms, health-related quality of life and exercise performance, and should therefore not be excluded. To broaden the benefit of PR, for this complex population, we should learn from the extensive literature examining the effects of exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome discussed in this review and optimize the exercise strategy to improve these co-morbid conditions. Standard PR outcomes could be expanded to include cardiometabolic risk reduction to lower future morbidity and mortality; to this end exercise may well be the answer.

  10. The combined effects of exercise and food intake on adipose tissue and splanchnic metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, L H; Simonsen, L; Macdonald, I A

    2004-01-01

    were measured by Fick's Principle. Food intake before exercise reduced whole-body lipid combustion during exercise to about 50% of the combustion rate found during exercise in the fasted state. The increase in subcutaneous, abdominal adipose tissue lipolysis during exercise was not influenced...... by preexercise food intake, while the fatty acid mobilization was increased by only 1.5-fold during postprandial exercise compared to a fourfold increase during exercise in the fasted state. During exercise, catecholamine concentrations increased similarly in the fasted and the postprandial state, while...... for by changes in the regional splanchnic tissue or adipose tissue triacylglycerol metabolism. Exercise was able to increase hepatic glucose production irrespective of food intake before exercise. It is concluded that exercise performed in the fasted state shortly before a meal leads to a more favourable lipid...

  11. Triglyceride metabolism in exercising muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Matthew J; Cheng, Yunsheng

    2017-10-01

    Triglycerides are stored within lipid droplets in skeletal muscle and can be hydrolyzed to produce fatty acids for energy production through β-oxidation and oxidative phosphorylation. While there was some controversy regarding the quantitative importance of intramyocellular triglyceride (IMTG) as a metabolic substrate, recent advances in proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and confocal microscopy support earlier tracer and biopsy studies demonstrating a substantial contribution of IMTG to energy production, particularly during moderate-intensity endurance exercise. This review provides an update on the understanding of IMTG utilization during exercise, with a focus on describing the key regulatory proteins that control IMTG breakdown and how these proteins respond to acute exercise and in the adaptation to exercise training. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Recent Advances in Lipid Droplet Biology edited by Rosalind Coleman and Matthijs Hesselink. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing – effective method for evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudiu Avram

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to emphasize the role of cardiopulmonary exercise training (CPET in evaluation and recommendation of individualized exercise training in patients with a metabolic syndrome. Methods: We performed a prospective longitudinal study of 9 months. The study group consisted of 28 young patients (21.3±3.1 years old without contraindications to exercise, previously diagnosed with metabolic syndrome according to NCEP-ATPIII criteria. All patients were evaluating at baseline and after 3 months of intervention and at the end of the study (after 9 months. The evaluation consists in performing a CPET on bicycle ergometer in which subjects were monitored in terms of cardiac and respiratory parameters. The CPET results allow us to establish the range of effort intensity in which the patient should exercise in order to burn calories and achieve the maximum fat oxidation rate. All patients benefit from an intensive interval exercise training programme, supervised and guided by a physical therapist. Exercise training consisted in 50 minutes sessions, 3 times per week, at intensive endurance training zone (in the range of anaerobic threshold, completed by 1 minute interval in the range between anaerobic threshold (AT and respiratory compensation point (RCP, for every 5 minutes of training. Results: After 9 months of intervention we noticed an improvement of abdominal obesity (waist circumference decreased from 98.98±10.14 cm to 89.54±12.32 cm, p<0.001, physical fitness (V’O2peak increased from 1.83±0.33 l/min to 2.13±0.4 l/min, p<0.001 and endurance (Oxygen uptake in the range of anaerobic treshold increase from 1.27±0.27 l/min to 1.55±0.31 l/min, p<0.001. Conclusions: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing together with training zones determinations is a useful tool for assessing the exercise capacity and drawing up individual workouts. Active and closely monitored intervention by individualized exercise training programmes leads to

  13. Effect of Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome Variables in Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gwendolyn A.; Lu, Lingeng; Irwin, Melinda L.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. Breast cancer survivors are highly sedentary, overweight, or obese, which puts them at increased risk for comorbid chronic disease. We examined the prevalence of, and changes in, metabolic syndrome following 6 months of an aerobic exercise versus usual care intervention in a sample of sedentary postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. Design and Methods. 65 participants were randomized to an aerobic exercise intervention (EX) (n = 35) mean BMI 30.8 (±5.9) kg/m2 or usual care (UC) (n = 30) mean BMI 29.4 (±7.4) kg/m2. Metabolic syndrome prevalence was determined, as well as change in criteria and overall metabolic syndrome. Results. At baseline, 55.4% of total women met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. There was no statistically significant change in metabolic syndrome when comparing EX and UC. However, adhering to the exercise intervention (at least 120 mins/week of exercise) resulted in a significant (P = .009) decrease in metabolic syndrome z-score from baseline to 6 months (−0.76 ± 0.36) when compared to those who did not adhere (0.80 ± 0.42). Conclusions. Due to a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in breast cancer survivors, lifestyle interventions are needed to prevent chronic diseases associated with obesity. Increasing exercise adherence is a necessary target for further research in obese breast cancer survivors. PMID:24319454

  14. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during exercise in phosphoglucomutase type 1 deficiency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoglucomutase type 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare metabolic myopathy in which symptoms are provoked by exercise.......Phosphoglucomutase type 1 (PGM1) deficiency is a rare metabolic myopathy in which symptoms are provoked by exercise....

  15. Metabolic and anti-inflammatory benefits of eccentric endurance exercise - a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drexel, H; Saely, C H; Langer, P; Loruenser, G; Marte, T; Risch, L; Hoefle, G; Aczel, S

    2008-04-01

    Eccentric endurance exercise (e.g. hiking downwards) is less strenuous than concentric exercise (e.g. hiking upwards) but its potential to reduce cardiovascular risk is unknown. We randomly allocated 45 healthy sedentary individuals (16 men and 29 women, mean age 48 years) to one of two groups, one beginning with two months of hiking upwards, the other with two months of hiking downwards the same route, with a crossover for a further two months. For the opposite way, a cable car was used where compliance was recorded electronically. The difference in altitude was 540 metres; the distance was covered three to five times a week. Fasting and postprandial metabolic profiles were obtained at baseline and after the two month periods of eccentric and concentric exercise, respectively. Forty-two of the 45 participants completed the study; the compliance rate was therefore 93%. Compared with baseline, eccentric exercise lowered total cholesterol (by 4.1%; P = 0.026), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (by 8.4%, P = 0.001), Apolipoprotein B/Apolipoprotein A1 ratio (by 10.9%, P < 0.001), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance scores (by 26.2%, P = 0.017) and C-reactive protein (by 30.0%; P = 0.007); the magnitude of these changes was comparable to that of concentric exercise. Eccentric exercise improved glucose tolerance (by 6.2%, P = 0.023), whereas concentric exercise improved triglyceride tolerance (by 14.9%, P = 0.022). Eccentric endurance exercise is a promising new exercise modality with favourable metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects and is well applicable to sedentary individuals.

  16. Nighttime feeding likely alters morning metabolism but not exercise performance in female athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormsbee, Michael J; Gorman, Katherine A; Miller, Elizabeth A; Baur, Daniel A; Eckel, Lisa A; Contreras, Robert J; Panton, Lynn B; Spicer, Maria T

    2016-07-01

    The timing of morning endurance competition may limit proper pre-race fueling and resulting performance. A nighttime, pre-sleep nutritional strategy could be an alternative method to target the metabolic and hydrating needs of the early morning athlete without compromising sleep or gastrointestinal comfort during exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to examine the acute effects of pre-sleep chocolate milk (CM) ingestion on next-morning running performance, metabolism, and hydration status. Twelve competitive female runners and triathletes (age, 30 ± 7 years; peak oxygen consumption, 53 ± 4 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) randomly ingested either pre-sleep CM or non-nutritive placebo (PL) ∼30 min before sleep and 7-9 h before a morning exercise trial. Resting metabolic rate (RMR) was assessed prior to exercise. The exercise trial included a warm-up, three 5-min incremental workloads at 55%, 65%, and 75% peak oxygen consumption, and a 10-km treadmill time trial (TT). Physiological responses were assessed prior, during (incremental and TT), and postexercise. Paired t tests and magnitude-based inferences were used to determine treatment differences. TT performances were not different ("most likely trivial" improvement with CM) between conditions (PL: 52.8 ± 8.4 min vs CM: 52.8 ± 8.0 min). RMR was "likely" increased (4.8%) and total carbohydrate oxidation (g·min(-1)) during exercise was "possibly" or likely increased (18.8%, 10.1%, 9.1% for stage 1-3, respectively) with CM versus PL. There were no consistent changes to hydration indices. In conclusion, pre-sleep CM may alter next-morning resting and exercise metabolism to favor carbohydrate oxidation, but effects did not translate to 10-km running performance improvements.

  17. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secher, Neils H; Seifert, Thomas; Van Lieshout, Johannes J

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work capacity without effects on muscle oxygenation. Also, the work of breathing and the increasing temperature of the brain during exercise are of importance for the development of so-called central fatigue. During prolonged exercise, the perceived exertion is related to accumulation of ammonia in the brain, and data support the theory that glycogen depletion in astrocytes limits the ability of the brain to accelerate its metabolism during activation. The release of interleukin-6 from the brain when exercise is prolonged may represent a signaling pathway in matching the metabolic response of the brain. Preliminary data suggest a coupling between the circulatory and metabolic perturbations in the brain during strenuous exercise and the ability of the brain to access slow-twitch muscle fiber populations.

  18. Application of the transtheoretical model: exercise behavior in Korean adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chun-Ja; Kim, Bom-Taeck; Chae, Sun-Mi

    2010-01-01

    Although regular exercise has been recommended to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among people with metabolic syndrome, little information is available about psychobehavioral strategies in this population. The purpose of this study was to identify the stages, processes of change, decisional balance, and self-efficacy of exercise behavior and to determine the significant predictors explaining regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. This descriptive, cross-sectional survey design enrolled a convenience sample of 210 people with metabolic syndrome at a university hospital in South Korea. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze demographic characteristics, metabolic syndrome risk factors, and transtheoretical model-related variables. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to determine the most important predictors of regular exercise stages. Action and maintenance stages comprised 51.9% of regular exercise stages, whereas 48.1% of non-regular exercise stages were precontemplation, contemplation, and preparation stages. Adults with regular exercise stages displayed increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, were more likely to use consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation strategies, and were less likely to evaluate the merits/disadvantages of exercise, compared with those in non-regular exercise stages. In this study of regular exercise behavior and transtheoretical model-related variables, consciousness raising, self-reevaluation, and self-liberation were associated with a positive effect on regular exercise behavior in adults with metabolic syndrome. Our findings could be used to develop strategies and interventions to maintain regular exercise behavior directed at Korean adults with metabolic syndrome to reduce CVD risk. Further prospective intervention studies are needed to investigate the effect of regular exercise program on the prevention and/or reduction of CVD risk among this

  19. Aerobic interval training reduces vascular resistances during submaximal exercise in obese metabolic syndrome individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo; Fernandez-Elias, V E; Morales-Palomo, F; Pallares, J G; Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Ortega, J F

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) on exercise hemodynamics in metabolic syndrome (MetS) volunteers. Thirty-eight, MetS participants were randomly assigned to a training (TRAIN) or to a non-training control (CONT) group. TRAIN consisted of stationary interval cycling alternating bouts at 70-90% of maximal heart rate during 45 min day -1 for 6 months. CONT maintained baseline physical activity and no changes in cardiovascular function or MetS factors were detected. In contrast, TRAIN increased cardiorespiratory fitness (14% in VO 2PEAK ; 95% CI 9-18%) and improved metabolic syndrome (-42% in Z score; 95% CI 83-1%). After TRAIN, the workload that elicited a VO 2 of 1500 ml min -1 increased 15% (95% CI 5-25%; P exercise heart rate (109 ± 15-106 ± 13 beats min -1 ; P exercise in MetS patients. Specifically, it reduces diastolic blood pressure, systemic vascular resistances, and the double product. The reduction in double product, suggests decreased myocardial oxygen demands which could prevent the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events during exercise in this population. CLINICALTRIALS. NCT03019796.

  20. Myogenin regulates exercise capacity and skeletal muscle metabolism in the adult mouse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesse M Flynn

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Although skeletal muscle metabolism is a well-studied physiological process, little is known about how it is regulated at the transcriptional level. The myogenic transcription factor myogenin is required for skeletal muscle development during embryonic and fetal life, but myogenin's role in adult skeletal muscle is unclear. We sought to determine myogenin's function in adult muscle metabolism. A Myog conditional allele and Cre-ER transgene were used to delete Myog in adult mice. Mice were analyzed for exercise capacity by involuntary treadmill running. To assess oxidative and glycolytic metabolism, we performed indirect calorimetry, monitored blood glucose and lactate levels, and performed histochemical analyses on muscle fibers. Surprisingly, we found that Myog-deleted mice performed significantly better than controls in high- and low-intensity treadmill running. This enhanced exercise capacity was due to more efficient oxidative metabolism during low- and high-intensity exercise and more efficient glycolytic metabolism during high-intensity exercise. Furthermore, Myog-deleted mice had an enhanced response to long-term voluntary exercise training on running wheels. We identified several candidate genes whose expression was altered in exercise-stressed muscle of mice lacking myogenin. The results suggest that myogenin plays a critical role as a high-level transcriptional regulator to control the energy balance between aerobic and anaerobic metabolism in adult skeletal muscle.

  1. Aerobic-Strength Exercise Improves Metabolism and Clinical State in Parkinson’s Disease Patients

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    Patrik Krumpolec

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise ameliorates motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD. Here, we aimed to provide evidence that exercise brings additional benefits to the whole-body metabolism and skeletal muscle molecular and functional characteristics, which might help to explain exercise-induced improvements in the clinical state. 3-months supervised endurance/strength training was performed in early/mid-stage PD patients and age/gender-matched individuals (n = 11/11. The effects of exercise on resting energy expenditure (REE, glucose metabolism, adiposity, and muscle energy metabolism (31P-MRS were evaluated and compared to non-exercising PD patients. Two muscle biopsies were taken to determine intervention-induced changes in fiber type, mitochondrial content, and expression of genes related to muscle energy metabolism, as well as proliferative and regenerative capacity. Exercise improved the clinical disability score (MDS-UPDRS, bradykinesia, balance, walking speed, REE, and glucose metabolism and increased muscle expression of energy sensors (AMPK. However, the exercise-induced increase in muscle mass/strength, mitochondrial content, type II fiber size, and postexercise phosphocreatine (PCr recovery (31P-MRS were found only in controls. Nevertheless, MDS-UPDRS was associated with muscle AMPK and mechano-growth factor (MGF expression. Improvements in fasting glycemia were positively associated with muscle function and the expression of Sirt1 and Cox7a1, and the parameters of fitness/strength were positively associated with the expression of MyHC2, MyHC7, and MGF. Moreover, reduced bradykinesia was associated with better muscle metabolism (maximal oxidative capacity and postexercise PCr recovery; 31P-MRS. Exercise training improved the clinical state in early/mid-stage Parkinson’s disease patients, including motor functions and whole-body metabolism. Although the adaptive response to exercise in PD was different from that of controls, exercise

  2. Exercise-induced myokines in health and metabolic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byunghun So

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skeletal muscle has been emerging as a research field since the past 2 decades. Contraction of a muscle, which acts as a secretory organ, stimulates production, secretion, and expression of cytokines or other muscle fiber-derived peptides, i.e., myokines. Exercise-induced myokines influence crosstalk between different organs in an autocrine, endocrine, or paracrine fashion. Myokines are recently recognized as potential candidates for treating metabolic diseases through their ability to stimulate AMP-activated protein kinase signaling, increase glucose uptake, and improve lipolysis. Myokines may have positive effects on metabolic disorders, type 2 diabetes, or obesity. Numerous studies on myokines suggested that myokines offer a potential treatment option for preventing metabolic diseases. This review summarizes the current understanding of the positive effects of exercise-induced myokines, such as interleukin-15, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, leukemia inhibitory factor, irisin, fibroblast growth factor 21, and secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine, on metabolic diseases.

  3. Vigorous exercise is associated with superior metabolic profiles in polycystic ovary syndrome independent of total exercise expenditure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Eleni A; Noel, Martha W; Kao, Chia-Ning; Shinkai, Kanade; Pasch, Lauri A; Cedars, Marcelle I; Huddleston, Heather G

    2016-02-01

    To characterize metabolic features of women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) by exercise behavior and determine relative health benefits of different exercise intensities. Cross-sectional study. Tertiary academic institution. Three hundred and twenty-six women aged 14-52 years-old with PCOS by Rotterdam criteria examined between 2006 and 2013. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) administered to classify patients into three groups based on Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) Guidelines of vigorous, moderate, and inactive, along with physical examination and serum testing. Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, fasting lipids, fasting glucose and insulin, 2-hour 75-gram oral glucose tolerance, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). The DHHS guidelines for adequate physical activity were met by 182 (56%) women. Compared with moderate exercisers and inactive women, the vigorous exercisers had lower BMI and lower HOMA-IR; higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and sex hormone-binding globulin; and a reduced prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. In a multivariate logistic regression analysis controlling for age, BMI, and total energy expenditure, every hour of vigorous exercise reduced a patient's odds of metabolic syndrome by 22% (odds ratio 0.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.62, 0.99). Women with PCOS who met DHHS guidelines for exercise demonstrated superior metabolic health parameters. Vigorous but not moderate activity is associated with reduced odds of the metabolic syndrome, independent of age, BMI, and total energy expenditure. PCOS patients should be encouraged to meet activity guidelines via vigorous physical activity. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Reproductive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Role of myokines in exercise and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Åkerström, Thorbjörn; Nielsen, Anders R.

    2007-01-01

    of the last century, researchers sought a link between muscle contraction and humoral changes in the form of an "exercise factor," which could mediate some of the exercise-induced metabolic changes in other organs such as the liver and the adipose tissue. We suggest that cytokines and other peptides...... the capacity to express several myokines. To date the list includes IL-6, IL-8, and IL-15, and contractile activity plays a role in regulating the expression of these cytokines in skeletal muscle. The present review focuses on muscle-derived cytokines, their regulation by exercise, and their possible roles...

  5. Muscle metabolism during graded quadriceps exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helge, Jørn W; Stallknecht, Bente; Galbo, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    , oxidation of plasma free fatty acids increases and accordingly oxidation of other fat sources decreases. These findings are in contrast to whole body measurements performed during graded exercise involving a large muscle mass during which fat oxidation peaks at around 60% of .......The aim of the study was to examine local muscle metabolism in response to graded exercise when the involved muscle mass is too small to elicit marked hormonal changes and local blood flow restriction. Nine healthy overnight fasted male subjects performed knee extension exercise with both thighs...... intensity. In conclusion, in the presence of a high blood flow and oxygen supply and only small hormonal changes, total fat oxidation in muscle increases from rest to light exercise, but then remains constant with exercise intensity up to heavy exercise. However, with increasing exercise intensity...

  6. A reduced cerebral metabolic ratio in exercise reflects metabolism and not accumulation of lactate within the human brain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Mads K; Quistorff, Bjørn; Danielsen, Else R

    2003-01-01

    During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O(2)/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio-venous differe......During maximal exercise lactate taken up by the human brain contributes to reduce the cerebral metabolic ratio, O(2)/(glucose + 1/2 lactate), but it is not known whether the lactate is metabolized or if it accumulates in a distribution volume. In one experiment the cerebral arterio......-venous differences (AV) for O(2), glucose (glc) and lactate (lac) were evaluated in nine healthy subjects at rest and during and after exercise to exhaustion. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was drained through a lumbar puncture immediately after exercise, while control values were obtained from six other healthy.......0 to 0.9 +/- 0.1 mM (P ratio from 6.0 +/- 0.3 to 2.8 +/- 0.2 (P

  7. Effects of exercise on tumor physiology and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Line; Christensen, Jesper Frank; Hojman, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    . Here, we review the body of literature describing exercise intervention studies performed in rodent tumor models and elaborate on potential mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology. Exercise has been shown to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity, and tumor growth across numerous...... different transplantable, chemically induced or genetic tumor models. We propose 4 emerging mechanistic effects of exercise, including (1) vascularization and blood perfusion, (2) immune function, (3) tumor metabolism, and (4) muscle-to-cancer cross-talk, and discuss these in details. In conclusion......, exercise training has the potential to be a beneficial and integrated component of cancer management, but has yet to fully elucidate its potential. Understanding the mechanistic effects of exercise on tumor physiology is warranted. Insight into these mechanistic effects is emerging, but experimental...

  8. Skeletal muscle metabolism during prolonged exercise in Pompe disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Laforêt, Pascal; Madsen, Karen Lindhardt

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Pompe disease (glycogenosis type II) is caused by lysosomal alpha-glucosidase deficiency, which leads to a block in intra-lysosomal glycogen breakdown. In spite of enzyme replacement therapy, Pompe disease continues to be a progressive metabolic myopathy. Considering the health benefits...... of exercise, it is important in Pompe disease to acquire more information about muscle substrate use during exercise. METHODS: Seven adults with Pompe disease were matched to a healthy control group (1:1). We determined (1) peak oxidative capacity (VO2peak) and (2) carbohydrate and fatty acid metabolism...... during submaximal exercise (33 W) for 1 h, using cycle-ergometer exercise, indirect calorimetry and stable isotopes. RESULTS: In the patients, VO2peak was less than half of average control values; mean difference -1659 mL/min (CI: -2450 to -867, P = 0.001). However, the respiratory exchange ratio...

  9. Leisure-time exercise, physical activity during work and commuting, and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwahara, Keisuke; Honda, Toru; Nakagawa, Tohru; Yamamoto, Shuichiro; Akter, Shamima; Hayashi, Takeshi; Mizoue, Tetsuya

    2016-09-01

    Data are limited regarding effect of intensity of leisure-time physical activity on metabolic syndrome. Furthermore, no prospective data are available regarding effect of occupational and commuting physical activity on metabolic syndrome. We compared metabolic syndrome risk by intensity level of leisure-time exercise and by occupational and commuting physical activity in Japanese workers. We followed 22,383 participants, aged 30-64 years, without metabolic syndrome until 2014 March (maximum, 5 years of follow-up). Physical activity was self-reported. Metabolic syndrome was defined by the Joint Statement criteria. We used Cox regression models to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) of metabolic syndrome. During a mean follow-up of 4.1 years, 5361 workers developed metabolic syndrome. After adjustment for covariates, compared with engaging in no exercise, the HRs (95 % CIs) for metabolic equivalent hours of exercise per week were 0.99 (0.90, 1.08), 0.99 (0.90, 1.10), and 0.95 (0.83, 1.08), respectively, among individuals engaging in moderate-intensity exercise alone; 0.93 (0.75, 1.14), 0.81 (0.64, 1.02), and 0.84 (0.66, 1.06), among individuals engaging in vigorous-intensity exercise alone; and 0.90 (0.70, 1.17), 0.74 (0.62, 0.89), and 0.81 (0.69, 0.96) among individuals engaging in the two intensities. Higher occupational physical activity was weakly but significantly associated with lower risk of metabolic syndrome. Walking to and from work was not associated with metabolic syndrome. Vigorous-intensity exercise alone or vigorous-intensity combined with moderate-intensity exercise and worksite intervention for physical activity may help prevent metabolic syndrome for Japanese workers.

  10. Fat and carbohydrate metabolism during submaximal exercise in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucouturier, Julien; Baker, Julien S; Duché, Pascale

    2008-01-01

    During exercise, the contribution of fat and carbohydrate to energy expenditure is largely modulated by the intensity of exercise. Age, a short- or long-term diet enriched in carbohydrate or fat substrate stores, training and gender are other factors that have also been found to affect this balance. These factors have been extensively studied in adults from the perspective of improving performance in athletes, or from a health perspective in people with diseases. During the last decade, lifestyle changes associated with high-energy diets rich in lipid and reduced physical activity have contributed to the increase in childhood obesity. This lifestyle change has emerged as a serious health problem favouring the early development of cardiovascular diseases, insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus. Increasing physical activity levels in young people is important to increase energy expenditure and promote muscle oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is surprising that the regulation of balance between carbohydrate and lipid use during exercise has received much less attention in children than in adults. In this review, we have focused on the factors that affect carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during exercise and have identified areas that may be relevant in explaining the higher contribution of lipid to energy expenditure in children when compared with adults. Low muscle glycogen content is possibly associated with a low activity of glycolytic enzymes and high oxidative capacity, while lower levels of sympathoadrenal hormones are likely to favour lipid metabolism in children. Changes in energetic metabolism occurring during adolescence are also dependent on pubertal events with an increase in testosterone in boys and estrogen and progesterone in girls. The profound effects of ovarian hormones on carbohydrate and fat metabolism along with their effects on oxidative enzymes could explain that differences in substrate metabolism have not always been observed between

  11. Acute changes in arterial stiffness following exercise in people with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Jeyasundar; Swaminathan, Narasimman; Pereira, Natasha M; Henderson, Keiran; Brodie, David A

    This study aims to examine the changes in arterial stiffness immediately following sub-maximal exercise in people with metabolic syndrome. Ninety-four adult participants (19-80 years) with metabolic syndrome gave written consent and were measured for arterial stiffness using a SphygmoCor (SCOR-PVx, Version 8.0, Atcor Medical Private Ltd, USA) immediately before and within 5-10min after an incremental shuttle walk test. The arterial stiffness measures used were pulse wave velocity (PWV), aortic pulse pressure (PP), augmentation pressure, augmentation index (AI), subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR) and ejection duration (ED). There was a significant increase (pexercise. Exercise capacity had a strong inverse correlation with arterial stiffness and age (pExercise capacity is inversely related to arterial stiffness and age in people with metabolic syndrome. Exercise induced changes in arterial stiffness measured using pulse wave analysis is an important tool that provides further evidence in studying cardiovascular risk in metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2016 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of exercise program on burnout and metabolic syndrome components in banking and insurance workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Han Hui; Yeh, Ching Ying; Su, Chien Tien; Chen, Chiou Jong; Peng, Shu Mei; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of exercise program for banking and insurance workers and clarify the association between exercise, burnout, and metabolic syndrome components. In the process of the study, a practicable worksite exercise program was developed for bank and insurance enterprises. A three-month (12-wk) exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. Levels of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed after exercise intervention. After intervention, the indicators of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved in both low and high intensity groups, and the improvement were expressed in reduction of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, person burnout and work-related burnout. A dose-response of burnouts and metabolic syndrome components with exercise intensity are shown (psyndrome components were independently associated with burnout and exercise intensity in the crude model. After adjustment for potential confounders, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure differences showed significant associations with exercise intensity (pburnouts and metabolic syndrome components.

  13. Exercise induced adipokine changes and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golbidi, Saeid; Laher, Ismail

    2014-01-01

    The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6) in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  14. Effect of previous exhaustive exercise on metabolism and fatigue development during intense exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iaia, F. M.; Perez-Gomez, J.; Nordsborg, Nikolai

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined how metabolic response and work capacity are affected by previous exhaustive exercise. Seven subjects performed an exhaustive cycle exercise ( approximately 130%-max; EX2) after warm-up (CON) and 2 min after an exhaustive bout at a very high (VH; approximately 30 s), high...

  15. Cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses to graded exercise in juvenile diabetics with and without autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Galbo, H; Christensen, N J

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen juvenile diabetics were studied in order to determine if decreased beat-to-beat variation during deep respiration, indicating abnormal autonomic nerve function, imply that cardiovascular, hormonal and metabolic responses are impaired. Patients with decreased beat-to-beat variation had to...... to be more heavily stressed during exercise to reach a certain heart rate or catecholamine level. The relation between other metabolic and hormonal response is discussed....

  16. Exercise as an intervention for the age-related decline in brain metabolic support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda J Anderson

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To identify interventions for brain aging, we must first identify the processes in which we hope to intervene. Brain aging is a period of decreasing functional capacity and increasing vulnerability, which reflect a reduction in morphological organization and perhaps degeneration. Since life is ultimately dependent upon the ability to maintain cellular organization through metabolism, this review explores evidence for a decline in neural metabolic support during aging, which includes a reduction in whole brain cerebral blood flow, and cellular metabolic capacity. Capillary density may also decrease with age, although the results are less clear. Exercise may be a highly effective intervention for brain aging, because it improves the cardiovascular system as a whole, and increases regional capillary density and neuronal metabolic capacity. Although the evidence is strongest for motor regions, more work may yield additional evidence for exercise-related improvement in metabolic support in non-motor regions. The protective effects of exercise may be specific to brain region and the type of insult. For example, exercise protects striatal cells from ischemia, but it produces mixed results after hippocampal seizures. Exercise can improve metabolic support and bioenergetic capacity in adult animals, but it remains to be determined whether it has similar effects in aging animals. What is clear is that exercise can influence the multiple levels of support necessary for maintaining optimal neuronal function, which is unique among proposed interventions for aging.

  17. A comparison of 2 circuit exercise training techniques for eliciting matched metabolic responses in persons with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Mark S; Jacobs, Patrick L; Woods, Jeffrey M; Clark, James E; Pray, Tanya A; Pumarejo, Alex E

    2002-02-01

    To test whether acute metabolic (VO(2)), chronotropic (heart rate), and perceptual (rating of perceived exertion; RPE) responses to exercise by persons with paraplegia differ when the exercise is on a multistation isoinertial exercise system (MultiGym) or on a customized system of Thera-Band resistance bands (ElasticGym). Within-subjects comparison of 2 treatments. Academic medical center. Sixteen men and 1 woman with complete paraplegia (T4-L1), as defined by the American Spinal Injury Association. A circuit resistance training (CRT) program for persons with paraplegia was adapted to both a MultiGym and a customized ElasticGym. Exercises used for training and testing used 6 resistance maneuvers at 50% of the 1-repetition maximum (1-RM), with interposed rapid arm spinning. Subjects were habituated to both conditions for 2 weeks before testing on randomized nonconsecutive days. VO(2) (L/min) was measured by portable spirometry, heart rate (beats/min) by a chest strap monitor, and RPE by the Borg Scale of Perceived Exertion (6-20). No significant effects of test condition on average VO(2) or heart rate were observed, with differences between conditions reflecting only .08L/min and 6.4 beats/min, respectively. Average RPE was significantly higher in testing under the ElasticGym condition (P < .05). CRT on a customized ElasticGym system elicited acute metabolic and chronotropic responses that did not differ from responses to exercise on a MultiGym, though RPE was greater with the ElasticGym. Copyright 2002 by the American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine and the American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation

  18. Preventive role of exercise training in autonomic, hemodynamic, and metabolic parameters in rats under high risk of metabolic syndrome development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes-Silva, Ivana Cinthya; Mostarda, Cristiano; Moreira, Edson Dias; Silva, Kleiton Augusto Santos; dos Santos, Fernando; de Angelis, Kátia; Farah, Vera de Moura Azevedo; Irigoyen, Maria Claudia

    2013-03-15

    High fructose consumption contributes to metabolic syndrome incidence, whereas exercise training promotes several beneficial adaptations. In this study, we demonstrated the preventive role of exercise training in the metabolic syndrome derangements in a rat model. Wistar rats receiving fructose overload in drinking water (100 g/l) were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT) or kept sedentary (F) for 10 wk. Control rats treated with normal water were also submitted to exercise training (CT) or sedentarism (C). Metabolic evaluations consisted of the Lee index and glycemia and insulin tolerance test (kITT). Blood pressure (BP) was directly measured, whereas heart rate (HR) and BP variabilities were evaluated in time and frequency domains. Renal sympathetic nerve activity was also recorded. F rats presented significant alterations compared with all the other groups in insulin resistance (in mg · dl(-1) · min(-1): F: 3.4 ± 0.2; C: 4.7 ± 0.2; CT: 5.0 ± 0.5 FT: 4.6 ± 0.4), mean BP (in mmHG: F: 117 ± 2; C: 100 ± 2; CT: 98 ± 2; FT: 105 ± 2), and Lee index (in g/mm: F = 0.31 ± 0.001; C = 0.29 ± 0.001; CT = 0.27 ± 0.002; FT = 0.28 ± 0.002), confirming the metabolic syndrome diagnosis. Exercise training blunted all these derangements. Additionally, FS group presented autonomic dysfunction in relation to the others, as seen by an ≈ 50% decrease in baroreflex sensitivity and 24% in HR variability, and increases in sympathovagal balance (140%) and in renal sympathetic nerve activity (45%). These impairments were not observed in FT group, as well as in C and CT. Correlation analysis showed that both Lee index and kITT were associated with vagal impairment caused by fructose. Therefore, exercise training plays a preventive role in both autonomic and hemodynamic alterations related to the excessive fructose consumption.

  19. Effect of BCAA intake during endurance exercises on fatigue substances, muscle damage substances, and energy metabolism substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Hee; Kim, Seok-Hwan; Jeong, Woo-Seok; Lee, Ha-Yan

    2013-12-01

    The increase rate of utilization of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) by muscle is reduced to its plasma concentration during prolonged exercise leading to glycogen. BCAA supplementation would reduce the serum activities of intramuscular enzymes associated with muscle damage. To examine the effects of BCAA administration on fatigue substances (serotonin, ammonia and lactate), muscle damage substances (CK and LDH) and energy metabolism substances (FFA and glucose) after endurance exercise. Subjects (n = 26, college-aged males) were randomly divided into an experimental (n = 13, EXP) and a placebo (n = 13, CON) group. Subjects both EXP and CON performed a bout of cycle training (70% VO2max intensity) to exhaustion. Subject in the EXP were administrated BCAA (78ml/kg·w) prior to the bout of cycle exercise. Fatigue substances, muscle damage substances and energy metabolism substances were measured before ingesting BCAAs and placebos, 10 min before exercise, 30 min into exercise, immediately after exercise, and 30 min after exercise. Data were analyzed by two-way repeated measure ANCOVA, correlation and statistical significance was set at p BCAA decreased serum concentrations of the intramuscular enzymes as CK and LDH following exhaustive exercise. This observation suggests that BCAA supplementation may reduce the muscle damage associated with endurance exercise.

  20. Exercise reverses metabolic syndrome in high-fat diet-induced obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Sabeur; Meziri, Fayçal; Devaux, Sylvie; Berthelot, Alain; Touyz, Rhian M; Laurant, Pascal

    2011-03-01

    Chronic consumption of a high-fat diet induces obesity. We investigated whether exercise would reverse the cardiometabolic disorders associated with obesity without it being necessary to change from a high- to normal-fat diet. Sprague-Dawley rats were placed on a high-fat (HFD) or control diet (CD) for 12 wk. HFD rats were then divided into four groups: sedentary HFD (HFD-S), exercise trained (motor treadmill for 12 wk) HFD (HFD-Ex), modified diet (HFD to CD; HF/CD-S), and exercise trained with modified diet (HF/CD-Ex). Cardiovascular risk parameters associated with metabolic syndrome were measured, and contents of aortic Akt, phospho-Akt at Ser (473), total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and phospho-eNOS at Ser (1177) were determined by Western blotting. Chronic consumption of HFD induced a metabolic syndrome. Exercise and dietary modifications reduced adiposity, improved glucose and insulin levels and plasma lipid profile, and exerted an antihypertensive effect. Exercise was more effective than dietary modification in improving plasma levels of thiobarbituric acid-reacting substance and in correcting the endothelium-dependent relaxation to acetylcholine and insulin. Furthermore, independent of the diet used, exercise increased Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. Metabolic syndrome induced by HFD is reversed by exercise and diet modification. It is demonstrated that exercise training induces these beneficial effects without the requirement for dietary modification, and these beneficial effects may be mediated by shear stress-induced Akt/eNOS pathway activation. Thus, exercise may be an effective strategy to reverse almost all the atherosclerotic risk factors linked to obesity, particularly in the vasculature.

  1. [Metabolic effects of exercise on childhood obesity: a current view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paes, Santiago Tavares; Marins, João Carlos Bouzas; Andreazzi, Ana Eliza

    2015-01-01

    To review the current literature concerning the effects of physical exercise on several metabolic variables related to childhood obesity. A search was performed in Pubmed/Medline and Web of Science databases. The keywords used were as follows: Obesity, Children Obesity, Childhood Obesity, Exercise and Physical Activity. The online search was based on studies published in English, from April 2010 to December 2013. Search queries returned 88,393 studies based on the aforementioned keywords; 4,561 studies were selected by crossing chosen keywords. After applying inclusion criteria, four studies were selected from 182 eligible titles. Most studies have found that aerobic and resistance training improves body composition, lipid profile and metabolic and inflammatory status of obese children and adolescents; however, the magnitude of the effects is associated with the type, intensity and duration of practice. Regardless of type, physical exercise promotes positive adaptations to childhood obesity, mainly acting to restore cellular and cardiovascular homeostasis, to improve body composition, and to activate metabolism; therefore, physical exercise acts as a co-factor in combating obesity. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of isotonic and isometric exercises with mist sauna bathing on cardiovascular, thermoregulatory, and metabolic functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwase, Satoshi; Kawahara, Yuko; Nishimura, Naoki; Nishimura, Rumiko; Sugenoya, Junichi; Miwa, Chihiro; Takada, Masumi

    2014-08-01

    To clarify the effects of isometric and isotonic exercise during mist sauna bathing on the cardiovascular function, thermoregulatory function, and metabolism, six healthy young men (22 ± 1 years old, height 173 ± 4 cm, weight 65.0 ± 5.0 kg) were exposed to a mist sauna for 10 min at a temperature of 40 °C, and relative humidity of 100 % while performing or not performing ˜30 W of isometric or isotonic exercise. The effect of the exercise was assessed by measuring tympanic temperature, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, chest sweat rate, chest skin blood flow, and plasma catecholamine and cortisol, glucose, lactate, and free fatty acid levels. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant differences in blood pressure, skin blood flow, sweat rate, and total amount of sweating. Tympanic temperature increased more during isotonic exercise, and heart rate increase was more marked during isotonic exercise. The changes in lactate indicated that fatigue was not very great during isometric exercise. The glucose level indicated greater energy expenditure during isometric exercise. The free fatty acid and catecholamine levels indicated that isometric exercise did not result in very great energy expenditure and stress, respectively. The results for isotonic exercise of a decrease in lactate level and an increase in plasma free fatty acid level indicated that fatigue and energy expenditure were rather large while the perceived stress was comparatively low. We concluded that isotonic exercise may be a more desirable form of exercise during mist sauna bathing given the changes in glucose and free fatty acid levels.

  3. Resting and exercise energy metabolism in weight-reduced adults with severe obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Kazanna C; Coen, Paul M; King, Wendy C; Anthony, Steven J; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G S; Lowery, Jolene B; Helbling, Nicole L; Dubé, John J; DeLany, James P; Jakicic, John M; Goodpaster, Bret H

    2016-06-01

    To determine effects of physical activity (PA) with diet-induced weight loss on energy metabolism in adults with severe obesity. Adults with severe obesity (n = 11) were studied across 6 months of intervention, then compared with controls with less severe obesity (n = 7) or normal weight (n = 9). Indirect calorimetry measured energy metabolism during exercise and rest. Markers of muscle oxidation were determined by immunohistochemistry. Data were presented as medians. The intervention induced 7% weight loss (P = 0.001) and increased vigorous PA by 24 min/wk (P = 0.02). During exercise, energy expenditure decreased, efficiency increased (P ≤ 0.03), and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) did not change. Succinate dehydrogenase increased (P = 0.001), but fiber type remained the same. Post-intervention subjects' resting metabolism remained similar to controls. Efficiency was lower in post-intervention subjects compared with normal-weight controls exercising at 25 W (P ≤ 0.002) and compared with all controls exercising at 60% VO2peak (P ≤ 0.019). Resting and exercise FAO of post-intervention subjects remained similar to adults with less severe obesity. Succinate dehydrogenase and fiber type were similar across all body weight statuses. While metabolic adaptations to PA during weight loss occur in adults with severe obesity, FAO does not change. Resulting FAO during rest and exercise remains similar to adults with less severe obesity. © 2016 The Obesity Society.

  4. Basal metabolic rate scaled to body mass between species by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The principal reason that basal metabolic rate (BMR) and MMR scale with different power exponents to whole body mass is that MMR is due mainly to respiration in skeletal muscle during exercise and BMR to respiration in the viscera during rest. It follows, therefore, from the self-similarity of the vascular system that BMR is ...

  5. Acute Hypotension after High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Palomo, Felix; Ramirez-Jimenez, Miguel; Ortega, Juan Fernando; Pallarés, Jesús G; Mora-Rodriguez, Ricardo

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the magnitude of post-exercise hypotension (PEH) after a bout of cycling exercise using high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in comparison to a bout of traditional moderate-intensity continuous exercise (CE). After supine rest 14 obese (31±1 kg·m -2 ) middle-age (57±2 y) metabolic syndrome patients (50% hypertensive) underwent a bout of HIIT or a bout of CE in a random order and then returned to supine recovery for another 45 min. Exercise trials were isocaloric and compared to a no-exercise trial (CONT) of supine rest for a total of 160 min. Before and after exercise we assessed blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (Q), systemic vascular resistance (SVR), intestinal temperature (T INT ), forearm skin blood flow (S K BF) and percent dehydration. HIIT produced a larger post-exercise reduction in systolic blood pressure than CE in the hypertensive group (-20±6 vs. -5±3 mmHg) and in the normotensive group (-8±3 vs. -3±2 mmHg) while HIIT reduced SVR below CE (Pexercise T INT and S K BF increased only after HIIT (all Pexercise method to CE to acutely reduce blood pressure in MSyn subjects. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Exercise Induced Adipokine Changes and the Metabolic Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Golbidi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of adequate physical activity and obesity created a worldwide pandemic. Obesity is characterized by the deposition of adipose tissue in various parts of the body; it is now evident that adipose tissue also acts as an endocrine organ capable of secreting many cytokines that are though to be involved in the pathophysiology of obesity, insulin resistance, and metabolic syndrome. Adipokines, or adipose tissue-derived proteins, play a pivotal role in this scenario. Increased secretion of proinflammatory adipokines leads to a chronic inflammatory state that is accompanied by insulin resistance and glucose intolerance. Lifestyle change in terms of increased physical activity and exercise is the best nonpharmacological treatment for obesity since these can reduce insulin resistance, counteract the inflammatory state, and improve the lipid profile. There is growing evidence that exercise exerts its beneficial effects partly through alterations in the adipokine profile; that is, exercise increases secretion of anti-inflammatory adipokines and reduces proinflammatory cytokines. In this paper we briefly describe the pathophysiologic role of four important adipokines (adiponectin, leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the metabolic syndrome and review some of the clinical trials that monitored these adipokines as a clinical outcome before and after exercise.

  7. Physical exercise restores microvascular function in obese rats with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Marcus Vinicius; Vieira, Aline Bomfim; Nascimento, Alessandro Rodrigues; Martins, Rômulo Lanza; Daleprane, Julio Beltrame; Lessa, Marcos Adriano; Tibiriçá, Eduardo

    2014-11-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are related to systemic functional microvascular alterations, including a significant reduction in microvessel density. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of exercise training on functional capillary density in the skeletal muscle and skin of obese rats with metabolic syndrome. We used male Wistar-Kyoto rats that had been fed a standard commercial diet (CON) or high-fat diet (HFD) for 32 weeks. Animals receiving the HFD were randomly divided into sedentary (HFD+SED) and training groups (HFD+TR) at the 20(th) week. After 12 weeks of aerobic treadmill training, the maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max); hemodynamic, biochemical, and anthropometric parameters; and functional capillary density were assessed. In addition, a maximal exercise test was performed. Exercise training increased the VO2max (69 ± 3 mL/kg per min) and exercise tolerance (30 ± 1 min) compared with the HFD+SED (41 ± 6 mL/kg per min, P Exercise training also increased the number of spontaneously perfused capillaries in the skeletal muscle (252 ± 9 vs. 207 ± 9 capillaries/mm(2)) of the training group compared with that in the sedentary animals (260 ± 15 capillaries/mm(2)). These results demonstrate that exercise training reverses capillary rarefaction in our experimental model of metabolic syndrome and obesity.

  8. Association Between Energy Balance and Metabolic Hormone Suppression During Ultraendurance Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geesmann, Bjoern; Gibbs, Jenna C; Mester, Joachim; Koehler, Karsten

    2017-08-01

    Ultraendurance athletes often accumulate an energy deficit when engaging in ultraendurance exercise, and on completion of the exercise, they exhibit endocrine changes that are reminiscent of starvation. However, it remains unclear whether these endocrine changes are a result of the exercise per se or secondary to the energy deficit and, more important, whether these changes can be attenuated by increased dietary intake. The goal of the study was to assess the relationship between changes in key metabolic hormones after ultraendurance exercise and measures of energy balance. Metabolic hormones, as well as energy intake and expenditure, were assessed in 14 well-trained male cyclists who completed a 1230-km ultraendurance cycling event. After completion of the event, serum testosterone (-67% ± 18%), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (-45% ± 8%), and leptin (-79% ± 9%) were significantly suppressed (P deficit to a 3593-kcal surplus. The marked suppression of testosterone, IGF-1, and leptin after ultraendurance exercise is comparable to changes occurring during acute starvation. The suppression of IGF-1, but not that of other metabolic hormones, was strongly associated with the magnitude of the energy deficit, indicating that athletes who attained a greater energy deficit exhibited a more pronounced drop in IGF-1. Future studies are needed to determine whether increased dietary intake can attenuate the endocrine response to ultraendurance exercise.

  9. Alterations of autonomic nervous activity and energy metabolism by capsaicin ingestion during aerobic exercise in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Ki Ok; Moritani, Toshio

    2007-04-01

    We investigated whether capsaicin ingestion (150 mg) enhances substrate oxidation associated with thermogenic sympathetic activity as an energy metabolic modulator without causing prolongation of the cardiac OT interval during aerobic exercise in humans. Ten healthy males [24.4 (4.3) y] volunteered for this study. The cardiac autonomic nervous activities evaluated by means of heart rate variability of power spectral analysis, energy metabolism, and ECG QT interval were continuously measured during 5-min rest and 30-min exercise at 50% of maximal ventilatory threshold (50% VT(max)) on a stationary ergometer with placebo or capsaicin oral administration chosen at random. The results indicated that there were no significant differences in heart rate during rest or exercise between the two trials. Autonomic nervous activity increased in the capsaicin tablet trial during exercise, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Capsaicin, however, significantly induced a lower respiratory gas exchange ratio [0.92 (0.02) vs. 0.94 (0.02), means (SE), p means (SE), p < 0.05] during exercise. On the other hand, the data on the cardiac OT interval showed no significant difference, indicating that oral administration of capsaicin did not cause any adverse effect on cardiac depolarization-repolarization. In conclusion, it may be considered that capsaicin consumption 1 h before low intensity exercise (50% VT(max)) is a valuable supplement for the treatment of individuals with hyperlipidemia and/or obesity because it improves lipolysis without any adverse effects on the cardiac depolarization and repolarization process.

  10. Influence of pre-exercise muscle glycogen content on exercise-induced transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Keller, Charlotte; Steensberg, Adam

    2002-01-01

    Transcription of metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise in skeletal muscle of humans. To determine whether pre-exercise muscle glycogen content influences the magnitude and/or duration of this adaptive response, six male subjects performed one-legged cycling exercise...... to lower muscle glycogen content in one leg and then, the following day, completed 2.5 h low intensity two-legged cycling exercise. Nuclei and mRNA were isolated from biopsies obtained from the vastus lateralis muscle of the control and reduced glycogen (pre-exercise glycogen = 609 +/- 47 and 337 +/- 33...... mmol kg(-1) dry weight, respectively) legs before and after 0, 2 and 5 h of recovery. Exercise induced a significant (P glycogen leg only. Although PDK4...

  11. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Song; Seo-Jin Park; Jung-hyoun Cho; Sung-Goo Kang; Hyun-Kook Lim; Yu-Bae Ahn; Minjeong Kim; Se-Hong Kim

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants...

  12. Metabolic aspects of low carbohydrate diets and exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peters Sandra

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Following a low carbohydrate diet, there is a shift towards more fat and less carbohydrate oxidation to provide energy to skeletal muscle, both at rest and during exercise. This review summarizes recent work on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolic adaptations to a low carbohydrate diet, focusing mainly on pyruvate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase, and how these changes relate to the capacity for carbohydrate oxidation during exercise.

  13. The effect of acute dark chocolate consumption on carbohydrate metabolism and performance during rest and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellingwerff, Trent; Godin, Jean-Philippe; Chou, Chieh J; Grathwohl, Dominik; Ross, Alastair B; Cooper, Karen A; Williamson, Gary; Actis-Goretta, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of cocoa-enriched dark chocolate (DC) has been shown to alter glucose and insulin concentration during rest and exercise compared with cocoa-depleted control (CON). However, the impact of DC consumption on exercise metabolism and performance is uncertain. Therefore, we investigated carbohydrate metabolism via stable isotope tracer techniques during exercise after subjects ingested either DC or CON. Sixteen overnight-fasted male cyclists performed a single-blinded, randomized, crossover design trial, after consuming either DC or CON at 2 h prior to 2.5 h of steady-state (SS) exercise (∼45% peak oxygen uptake). This was followed by an ∼15-min time-trial (TT) and 60 min of recovery. [6,6-(2)H2]Glucose and [U-(13)C]glucose were infused during SS to assess glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd). After DC consumption, plasma (-)-glucose and insulin concentrations were significantly (p consumption coincided with high concentrations of epicatechin and (or) theobromine. In summary, DC consumption altered muscle carbohydrate partitioning, between muscle glucose uptake and glycogen oxidation, but did not effect cycling TT performance.

  14. Road transport and diet affect metabolic response to exercise in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connysson, M; Muhonen, S; Jansson, A

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effects of transport and diet on metabolic response during a subsequent race-like test in Standardbred horses in training fed a forage-only diet and a 50:50 forage:oats diet. Six trained and raced Standardbred trotter mares were used. Two diets, 1 forage-only diet (FONLY) and 1 diet with 50% of DM intake from forage and 50% from oats (FOATS), were fed for two 29-d periods in a crossover design. At Day 21, the horses were subjected to transport for 100 km before and after they performed an exercise test (transport test [TT]). At Day 26, the horses performed a control test (CT), in which they were kept in their stall before and after the exercise test. Blood samples were collected throughout the study, and heart rate and water intake were recorded. Heart rate and plasma cortisol, glucose, and NEFA concentrations were greater for the TT than for the CT ( = 0.008, = 0.020, = 0.010, and = 0.0002, respectively) but were not affected by diet. Plasma acetate concentration was lower during the TT than during the CT ( = 0.034) and greater for the FONLY than for the FOATS ( = 0.003). There were no overall effects of the TT compared with the CT on total plasma protein concentration (TPP), but TPP was lower with the FONLY than with the FOATS ( = 0.016). There was no overall effect of the TT compared with the CT on water intake, but water intake was greater with the FONLY than the FOATS ( = 0.011). There were no overall effects of transport or diet on BW, plasma lactate, or plasma urea concentration. It was concluded that both transport and diet affect metabolic response during exercise in horses. Aerobic energy supply was most likely elevated by transportation and by the FONLY. The FONLY also decreased exercise-induced effects on extracellular fluid regulation. These results highlight the importance of experimental design in nutrition studies. If the aim is to examine how a diet affects exercise response in competition horses, transport should

  15. Metabolic syndrome and hypertension: regular exercise as part of lifestyle management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackland, Daniel T; Voeks, Jenifer H

    2014-11-01

    The incorporation of physical activity and exercise represents a clinically important aspect in the management of metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and diabetes. While the benefit of exercise and active lifestyles is well documented for prevention and risk reduction of cardiovascular and stroke outcomes, the detailed regiment and recommendations are less clear. The components of a prescribed physical activity include consideration of activity type, frequency of an activity, activity duration, and intensity of a specific physical movement. The exercise parameters prescribed as part of the management of metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and elevated blood pressure are most often proposed as separate documents while the general recommendations are similar. The evidence is strong such that physical activity and exercise recommendations in disease management guidelines are considered high quality. The general recommendations for both blood pressure and glycemic management include a regiment of physical activity with moderate- to high-intensity exercise of 30-min bouts on multiple days with a desired goal of a total of 150 min of exercise per week. While additional research is needed to identify the specific exercise/activity mode, frequencies for exercise training, intensity levels, and duration of exercise that achieve maximal blood pressure and glycemic lowering, this general recommendation showed a consistent and significant benefit in risk reduction. Similarly, the current available evidence also indicates that aerobic exercise, dynamic resistance exercise, and isometric exercises can lower blood pressure and improve glycemic control.

  16. Acute metabolic response to fasted and postprandial exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lima FD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Filipe Dinato de Lima,1,2 Ana Luiza Matias Correia,1 Denilson da Silva Teixeira,2 Domingos Vasco da Silva Neto,2 Ítalo Sávio Gonçalves Fernandes,2 Mário Boratto Xavier Viana,2 Mateus Petitto,2 Rodney Antônio da Silva Sampaio,2 Sandro Nobre Chaves,2 Simone Teixeira Alves,2 Renata Aparecida Elias Dantas,2 Márcio Rabelo Mota2 1University of Brasília, Brasília, DF, Brazil; 2Universitary Center of Brasília (UniCEUB, Brasília, DF, BrazilAbstract: The aim of this study was to analyze the acute metabolic response to exercise in fasting and postprandial. For this, ten individuals were submitted to an incremental treadmill test, with an initial speed of 5 and 1 km/h increments every minute, with no inclination, and a body composition assessment. After this 1st day, all volunteers were submitted to two experimental procedures (fasting and postprandial, with an aerobic exercise performed for 36 minutes at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption. At postprandial procedure, all subjects ingested a breakfast containing 59.3 g of carbohydrate (76.73%, 9.97 g of protein (12.90%, 8.01 g of lipids (10.37%, with a total energy intake of 349.17 kcal. An analysis of plasma concentration of triglycerides, lactate, and glucose was performed in two stages: before and after exercise. The Shapiro–Wilk test was used to verify the normality of the data. For analysis of glucose concentration, plasma lactate, and triglycerides, we used a repeated measures analysis of variance factorial 2×2, with Bonferroni multiple comparison test. The significance level of P<0.05 was adopted. The results indicated a maintenance level of glucose at fasting and a decrease in glucose concentration at postprandial exercise. Both conditions increase plasma lactate. Triglycerides also increased in the two experimental conditions; however, after exercise fasting, the increase was significantly higher than in the postprandial exercise. These data suggest that both exercises could increase

  17. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.A.; Lee, D.C.; Sui, X.; Artero, E.G.; Ruiz, J.R.; Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; Lavie, C.J.; Blair, S.N.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The study cohort included adults (mean +/- SD age, 46+/-9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical

  18. Moderate daily exercise activates metabolic flexibility to prevent prenatally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jennifer L; Huber, Korinna; Thompson, Nichola M; Davison, Michael; Breier, Bernhard H

    2009-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities are of major worldwide concern. It is now recognized that there are a number of metabolically distinct pathways of obesity development. The present paper investigates the effect of moderate daily exercise on the underlying mechanisms of one such pathway to obesity, through interrogation of metabolic flexibility. Pregnant Wistar rats were either fed chow ad libitum or undernourished throughout pregnancy, generating control or intrauterine growth restricted (IUGR) offspring, respectively. At 250 d of age, dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry scans and plasma analyses showed that moderate daily exercise, in the form of a measured amount of wheel running (56 m/d), prevented the development of obesity consistently observed in nonexercised IUGR offspring. Increased plasma C-peptide and hepatic atypical protein kinase Czeta levels explained increased glucose uptake and increased hepatic glycogen storage in IUGR offspring. Importantly, whereas circulating levels of retinol binding protein 4 were elevated in obese, nonexercised IUGR offspring, indicative of glucose sparing without exercise, retinol binding protein 4 levels were normalized in the exercised IUGR group. These data suggest that IUGR offspring have increased flexibility of energy storage and use and that moderate daily exercise prevents obesity development through activation of distinct pathways of energy use. Thus, despite a predisposition to develop obesity under sedentary conditions, obesity development was prevented in IUGR offspring when exercise was available. These results emphasize the importance of tailored lifestyle changes that activate distinct pathways of metabolic flexibility for obesity prevention.

  19. Effects of growth hormone transgenesis on metabolic rate, exercise performance and hypoxia tolerance in tilapia hybrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McKenzie, DJ; Martinez, R; Morales, A

    2003-01-01

    Swimming respirometry was employed to compare inactive metabolic rate (Rr), maximum metabolic rate (Rmax), resultant aerobic scope and maximum sustainable (critical) swimming speed (Ucrit), in growth hormone transgenic (GHT) and wild-type (W) tilapia Oreochromis sp. hybrids. Although the Rr of GHT...... tilapia was significantly (58%) higher than their W conspecifics, there were no significant differences in their net aerobic scope because GHT tilapia exhibited a compensatory increase in Rmax that was equal to their net increase in Rr. As a consequence, the two groups had the same Ucrit. The GHT and W...... tilapia also exhibited the same capacity to regulate oxygen uptake during progressive hypoxia, despite the fact that the GHT fish were defending a higher demand for O2. The results indicate that ectopic expression of GH raises metabolic rate in tilapia, but the fish compensate for this metabolic load...

  20. Plasma pH does not influence the cerebral metabolic ratio during maximal whole body exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volianitis, Stefanos; Rasmussen, Peter; Seifert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    .05) following the Sal and Bicarb trials, respectively. Accordingly, the cerebral metabolic ratio decreased equally during the Sal and Bicarb trials: from 5.8 ± 0.6 at rest to 1.7 ± 0.1 and 1.8 ± 0.2, respectively. The enlarged blood-buffering capacity after infusion of Bicarb eliminated metabolic acidosis......Exercise lowers the cerebral metabolic ratio of O2 to carbohydrate (glucose + 1/2 lactate) and metabolic acidosis appears to promote cerebral lactate uptake. However, the influence of pH on cerebral lactate uptake and, in turn, on the cerebral metabolic ratio during exercise is not known. Sodium...... during maximal exercise but that did not affect the cerebral lactate uptake and, therefore, the decrease in the cerebral metabolic ratio....

  1. Non-selective beta-adrenergic blockade prevents reduction of the cerebral metabolic ratio during exhaustive exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, T.S.; Rasmussen, P.; Overgaard, M.

    2008-01-01

    Intense exercise decreases the cerebral metabolic ratio of oxygen to carbohydrates [O(2)/(glucose + (1/2)lactate)], but whether this ratio is influenced by adrenergic stimulation is not known. In eight males, incremental cycle ergometry increased arterial lactate to 15.3 +/- 4.2 mm (mean +/- s.......d.) and the arterial-jugular venous (a-v) difference from -0.02 +/- 0.03 mm at rest to 1.0 +/- 0.5 mm (P cerebral metabolic ratio decreased from 5.5 +/- 1.4 to 3.0 +/- 0.3 (P ... of a non-selective beta-adrenergic (beta(1) + beta(2)) receptor antagonist (propranolol) reduced heart rate (69 +/- 8 to 58 +/- 6 beats min(-1)) and exercise capacity (239 +/- 42 to 209 +/- 31 W; P

  2. Effects of Aerobic and Resistance Exercise on Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenic Obesity, and Circulating Biomarkers in Overweight or Obese Survivors of Breast Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieli-Conwright, Christina M; Courneya, Kerry S; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy; Sami, Nathalie; Lee, Kyuwan; Buchanan, Thomas A; Spicer, Darcy V; Tripathy, Debu; Bernstein, Leslie; Mortimer, Joanne E

    2018-03-20

    Purpose Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, and breast cancer recurrence in survivors of breast cancer. This randomized controlled trial assessed the effects of a 16-week combined aerobic and resistance exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers among ethnically diverse, sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Methods Eligible survivors of breast cancer (N = 100) were randomly assigned to exercise (n = 50) or usual care (n = 50). The exercise group participated in supervised moderate-to-vigorous-65% to 85% of heart rate maximum-aerobic and resistance exercise three times per week for 16 weeks. Metabolic syndrome z-score (primary outcome), sarcopenic obesity, and serum biomarkers were measured at baseline, postintervention (4 months), and 3-month follow-up (exercise only). Results Participants were age 53 ± 10.4 years, 46% were obese, and 74% were ethnic minorities. Adherence to the intervention was 95%, and postintervention assessments were available in 91% of participants. Postintervention metabolic syndrome z-score was significantly improved in exercise versus usual care (between-group difference, -4.4; 95% CI, -5.9 to -2.7; P metabolic syndrome variables remained significantly improved compared with baseline in the exercise group ( P exercise effectively attenuated metabolic syndrome, sarcopenic obesity, and relevant biomarkers in an ethnically diverse sample of sedentary, overweight, or obese survivors of breast cancer. Our findings suggest a targeted exercise prescription for improving metabolic syndrome in survivors of breast cancer and support the incorporation of supervised clinical exercise programs into breast cancer treatment and survivorship care plans.

  3. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B; Kavouras, Stavros A; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S

    2013-03-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal VLDL-TG metabolism in women. Eleven healthy women (age = 23.5 ± 2.7 yr, body mass index = 21.6 ± 1.4 kg·m-2; mean ± SD) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: (i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123 ± 18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06 ± 0.39 MJ, ∼500 kcal), (ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10 ± 0.41 MJ, and (iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was approximately 30% lower after the exercise trial compared with the control trial (P restriction trial (P = 0.297 vs control). Relative to the control condition, exercise increased the plasma clearance rate of VLDL-TG by 22% (P = 0.001) and reduced hepatic VLDL-TG secretion rate by approximately 17% (P = 0.042), whereas hypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P > 0.2). (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction.

  4. Metabolic response to different glycemic indexes of pre-exercise meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Faria

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To ensure performance and health, the type of food and the time of pre-exercise ingestion should be considered by practitioners of morning physical activity. Objective: This study assessed the metabolic response after pre-exercise meals with different glycemic indexes (GI and in the fasting state adopting different types of hydration.METHODS: Twelve men performed four experimental tests; two with pre-exercise meals of high GI (HGI and low GI (LGI, and two were performed in the fasting state with hydration: water (H2O and carbohydrate drink (CHO. Each test consisted of a pre-exercise rest period of 30 minutes followed by 60 minutes of cycle ergometer with continuous load equivalent to 60% of the extrapolated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2MaxExt. During the exercise, participants were hydrated every 15 minutes with 3mL per kg body weight. During each experimental test, venous blood samples were obtained for fasting and at 15-minute intervals during rest, and every 20 minutes during exercise. The gas analysis was carried out in periods of 5 minutes every 20 minutes of exercise.RESULTS: There was no difference in substrate oxidation. After 20 minutes of exercise, pre-exercise food intake procedures showed similar behavior, having only reduced blood glucose levels compared to fasting procedures (p<0.01. There was maintenance of blood glucose at stable and higher levels during exercise in relation to the other tests in the fast procedure with CHO.CONCLUSION: The data suggest that despite the similar metabolic behavior between LGI and HGI meals, the adoption of a LGI meal before the morning exercise seems to be a more suitable feeding practice due to higher tendency of rebound hypoglycemia after HGI meal and when morning exercise is performed on fasting, hydration with CHO seems to minimize the hypoglycemic risk arising from that state.

  5. Transcriptional expression changes of glucose metabolism genes after exercise in thoroughbred horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gim, Jeong-An; Ayarpadikannan, Selvam; Eo, Jungwoo; Kwon, Yun-Jeong; Choi, Yuri; Lee, Hak-Kyo; Park, Kyung-Do; Yang, Young Mok; Cho, Byung-Wook; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2014-08-15

    Physical exercise induces gene expression changes that trigger glucose metabolism pathways in organisms. In the present study, we monitored the expression levels of LDHA (lactate dehydrogenase) and GYS1 (glycogen synthase 1) in the blood, to confirm the roles of these genes in exercise physiology. LDHA and GYS1 are related to glucose metabolism and fatigue recovery, and these processes could elicit economically important traits in racehorses. We collected blood samples from three retired thoroughbred racehorses, pre-exercise and immediately after 30 min of exercise. We extracted total RNA and small RNA (≤ 200 nucleotide-long) from the blood, and assessed the expression levels of LDHA, GYS1, and microRNAs (miRNAs), by using qRT-PCR. We showed that LDHA and GYS1 were down-regulated, whereas eca-miR-33a and miR-17 were up-regulated, after exercise. We used sequences from the 3' UTR of LDHA and GYS1, containing eca-miR-33a and miR-17 binding sites, to observe the down-regulation activity of each gene expression. We observed that the two miRNAs, namely, eca-miR-33a and miR-17, inhibited LDHA and GYS1 expression via binding to the 3' UTR sequences of each gene. Our results indicate that eca-miR-33a and miR-17 play important roles in the glucose metabolism pathway. In addition, our findings provide a basis for further investigation of the exercise metabolism of racehorses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. The Metabolic Cost of a High Intensity Exercise Program During Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Kyle; Everett, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Cunningham, Daid

    2012-01-01

    Background: Given that disuse-related skeletal muscle atrophy may be exacerbated by an imbalance between energy intake and output, the amount of energy required to complete exercise countermeasures is an important consideration in the well being of subject health during bed rest and spaceflight. Objective: To evaluate the energy cost of a high intensity exercise program performed during short duration bed rest. Methods: 9 subjects (8 male and 1 female; 34.5 +/- 8.2 years) underwent 14 days of bed rest and exercise countermeasures. Exercise energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) were collected once in each of 5 different exercise protocols (30 second, 2 minute and 4 minute intervals, continuous aerobic and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. Body mass, basal metabolic rate (BMR), upper and lower leg muscle, subcutaneous, and intramuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) volumes were assessed before and at the end of bed rest. Results: There were no significant differences in body mass (pre: 75.1 +/- 10.5 kg; post: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg), BMR (pre: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; post: 1657 +/- 177 kcal), muscle subcutaneous, or IMAT volumes (Table 2) after 14 days of bed rest and exercise. Body mass was maintained with an average daily intake of 2710 +/- 262 kcal (36.2 +/- 2.1 kcal/kg/day), while average daily energy expenditure was 2579 +/-311 kcal (34.5 +/- 3.6 kcal/kg/day). Exercise energy expenditure was significantly greater as a result of continuous aerobic exercise than all other exercise protocols.

  7. EFFECT OF DANCE EXERCISE ON COGNITIVE FUNCTION IN ELDERLY PATIENTS WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME: A PILOT STUDY

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    Sang-Wook Song

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group. The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K. Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048, word list delayed recall (p = 0.038, word list recognition (p = 0.007, and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037. However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome.

  8. Exercise and recovery metabolism in the Pacific spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, J G; Heigenhauser, G J F; Wood, C M

    2003-08-01

    We examined the effects of exhaustive exercise and post-exercise recovery on white muscle substrate depletion and metabolite distribution between white muscle and blood plasma in the Pacific spiny dogfish, both in vivo and in an electrically stimulated perfused tail-trunk preparation. Measurements of arterial-venous lactate, total ammonia, beta-hydroxybutyrate, glucose, and L-alanine concentrations in the perfused tail-trunk assessed white muscle metabolite fluxes. Exhaustive exercise was fuelled primarily by creatine phosphate hydrolysis and glycolysis as indicated by 62, 71, and 85% decreases in ATP, creatine phosphate, and glycogen, respectively. White muscle lactate production during exercise caused a sustained increase (approximately 12 h post-exercise) in plasma lactate load and a short-lived increase (approximately 4 h post-exercise) in plasma metabolic acid load during recovery. Exhaustive exercise and recovery did not affect arterial PO2, PCO2, or PNH3 but the metabolic acidosis caused a decrease in arterial HCO3- immediately after exercise and during the first 8 h recovery. During recovery, lactate was retained in the white muscle at higher concentrations than in the plasma despite increased lactate efflux from the muscle. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity was very low in dogfish white muscle at rest and during recovery (0.53 +/- 0.15 nmol g wet tissue(-1) min(-1); n=40) indicating that lactate oxidation is not the major fate of lactate during post-exercise recovery. The lack of change in white muscle free-carnitine and variable changes in short-chain fatty acyl-carnitine suggest that dogfish white muscle does not rely on lipid oxidation to fuel exhaustive exercise or recovery. These findings support the notion that extrahepatic tissues cannot utilize fatty acids as an oxidative fuel. Furthermore, our data strongly suggest that ketone body oxidation is important in fuelling recovery metabolism in dogfish white muscle and at least 20% of the ATP required for

  9. Aerobic metabolism and cardioventilatory responses in paraplegic athletes during an incremental wheelchair exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinet, A; Le Gallais, D; Bernard, P L; Poulain, M; Varray, A; Mercier, J; Micallef, J P

    1997-01-01

    The aims of the present study were: (1) to assess aerobic metabolism in paraplegic (P) athletes (spinal lesion level, T4-L3) by means of peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and ventilatory threshold (VT), and (2) to determine the nature of exercise limitation in these athletes by means of cardioventilatory responses at peak exercise. Eight P athletes underwent conventional spirographic measurements and then performed an incremental wheelchair exercise on an adapted treadmill. Ventilatory data were collected every minute using an automated metabolic system: ventilation (l x min[-1]), oxygen uptake (VO2, l x min[-1], ml x min[-1] x kg[-1]), carbon dioxide production (VCO2, ml x min[-1]), respiratory exchange ratio, breathing frequency and tidal volume. Heart rate (HR, beats x min[-1]) was collected with the aid of a standard electrocardiogram. VO2peak was determined using conventional criteria. VT was determined by the breakpoint in the VCO2 - VO2 relationship, and is expressed as the absolute VT (VO2, ml x min[-1] x kg[-1]) and relative VT (percentage of VO2peak). Spirometric values and cardioventilatory responses at rest and at peak exercise allowed the measurement of ventilatory reserve (VR), heart rate reserve (HRr), heart rate response (HRR), and O2 pulse (O2 P). Results showed a VO2peak value of 40.6 (2.5) ml x min(-1) x kg(-1), an absolute VT detected at 23.1 (1.5) ml x min(-1) x kg(-1) VO2 and a relative VT at 56.4 (2.2)% VO2peak. HRr [15.8 (3.2) beats min(-1)], HRR [48.6 (4.3) beat x l(-1)], and O2 P [0.23 (0.02) ml x kg(-1) x beat(-1)] were normal, whereas VR at peak exercise [42.7 (2.4)%] was increased. As wheelchair exercise excluded the use of an able-bodied (AB) control group, we compared our VO2peak and VT results with those for other P subjects and AB controls reported in the literature, and we compared our cardioventilatory responses with those for respiratory and cardiac patients. The low VO2peak values obtained compared with subject values obtained during

  10. Exercise training prevents diastolic dysfunction induced by metabolic syndrome in rats

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    Cristiano Mostarda

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: High fructose consumption contributes to the incidence of metabolic syndrome and, consequently, to cardiovascular outcomes. We investigated whether exercise training prevents high fructose diet-induced metabolic and cardiac morphofunctional alterations. METHODS: Wistar rats receiving fructose overload (F in drinking water (100 g/l were concomitantly trained on a treadmill (FT for 10 weeks or kept sedentary. These rats were compared with a control group (C. Obesity was evaluated by the Lee index, and glycemia and insulin tolerance tests constituted the metabolic evaluation. Blood pressure was measured directly (Windaq, 2 kHz, and echocardiography was performed to determine left ventricular morphology and function. Statistical significance was determined by one-way ANOVA, with significance set at p<0.05. RESULTS: Fructose overload induced a metabolic syndrome state, as confirmed by insulin resistance (F: 3.6 ± 0.2 vs. C: 4.5 ± 0.2 mg/dl/min, hypertension (mean blood pressure, F: 118 ± 3 vs. C: 104 ± 4 mmHg and obesity (F: 0.31±0.001 vs. C: 0.29 ± 0.001 g/mm. Interestingly, fructose overload rats also exhibited diastolic dysfunction. Exercise training performed during the period of high fructose intake eliminated all of these derangements. The improvements in metabolic parameters were correlated with the maintenance of diastolic function. CONCLUSION: The role of exercise training in the prevention of metabolic and hemodynamic parameter alterations is of great importance in decreasing the cardiac morbidity and mortality related to metabolic syndrome.

  11. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, David L; Thomas, Nathan E; Liknes, Eric T; Cooper, Sheldon J

    2012-01-01

    The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR) and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum) (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate) and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber) in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis), American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum) and MMR only), and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum) only) and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum) in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus) in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum) or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum) and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum) were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum) were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential mechanistic

  12. Intraspecific correlations of basal and maximal metabolic rates in birds and the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David L Swanson

    Full Text Available The underlying assumption of the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy is that basal (BMR and maximal aerobic metabolic rates are phenotypically linked. However, because BMR is largely a function of central organs whereas maximal metabolic output is largely a function of skeletal muscles, the mechanistic underpinnings for their linkage are not obvious. Interspecific studies in birds generally support a phenotypic correlation between BMR and maximal metabolic output. If the aerobic capacity model is valid, these phenotypic correlations should also extend to intraspecific comparisons. We measured BMR, M(sum (maximum thermoregulatory metabolic rate and MMR (maximum exercise metabolic rate in a hop-flutter chamber in winter for dark-eyed juncos (Junco hyemalis, American goldfinches (Carduelis tristis; M(sum and MMR only, and black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapillus; BMR and M(sum only and examined correlations among these variables. We also measured BMR and M(sum in individual house sparrows (Passer domesticus in both summer, winter and spring. For both raw metabolic rates and residuals from allometric regressions, BMR was not significantly correlated with either M(sum or MMR in juncos. Moreover, no significant correlation between M(sum and MMR or their mass-independent residuals occurred for juncos or goldfinches. Raw BMR and M(sum were significantly positively correlated for black-capped chickadees and house sparrows, but mass-independent residuals of BMR and M(sum were not. These data suggest that central organ and exercise organ metabolic levels are not inextricably linked and that muscular capacities for exercise and shivering do not necessarily vary in tandem in individual birds. Why intraspecific and interspecific avian studies show differing results and the significance of these differences to the aerobic capacity model are unknown, and resolution of these questions will require additional studies of potential

  13. Cardiac Autonomic Modulation and the Kinetics of Heart Rate Responses in the On- and Off-Transient during Exercise in Women with Metabolic Syndrome

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    Lucas R. B. E. Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test whether women with metabolic syndrome (MS have impairments in the on- and off-transients during an incremental test and to study whether any of the MS components are independently associated with the observed responses.Research Design and Methods: Thirty-six women aged 35–55 years were divided into a group with MS (MSG, n = 19 and a control group (CG, n = 17. R-R intervals (RRi and heart rate variability (HRV were calculated on a beat-to-beat basis and the heart rate (HR at the on- and off-transient were analyzed during an incremental cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET.Results: MSG showed lower aerobic capacity and lower parasympathetic cardiac modulation at rest compared with CG. HR values in on-transient phase were significantly lower in MSG compared with CG. The exponential amplitudes “amp” and the parameters “τ” [speed of heart rate recovery (HRR] were lower in MSG. MSG exhibited higher HR values in comparison to CG during the off-transient indicating a slower HRR. In MSG, there was an inverse and significant correlation between fasting plasma vs. ΔF and glucose vs. exponential “τ” of HRR dynamics.Conclusion: MS is associated with poor heart rate kinetics. The altered HR kinetics seems to be related to alterations in cardiac parasympathetic modulation, and glucose metabolism seems to be the major determinant.

  14. Metabolic responses to high protein diet in Korean elite bodybuilders with high-intensity resistance exercise

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    Choue Ryowon

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High protein diet has been known to cause metabolic acidosis, which is manifested by increased urinary excretion of nitrogen and calcium. Bodybuilders habitually consumed excessive dietary protein over the amounts recommended for them to promote muscle mass accretion. This study investigated the metabolic response to high protein consumption in the elite bodybuilders. Methods Eight elite Korean bodybuilders within the age from 18 to 25, mean age 21.5 ± 2.6. For data collection, anthropometry, blood and urinary analysis, and dietary assessment were conducted. Results They consumed large amounts of protein (4.3 ± 1.2 g/kg BW/day and calories (5,621.7 ± 1,354.7 kcal/day, as well as more than the recommended amounts of vitamins and minerals, including potassium and calcium. Serum creatinine (1.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl and potassium (5.9 ± 0.8 mmol/L, and urinary urea nitrogen (24.7 ± 9.5 mg/dl and creatinine (2.3 ± 0.7 mg/dl were observed to be higher than the normal reference ranges. Urinary calcium (0.3 ± 0.1 mg/dl, and phosphorus (1.3 ± 0.4 mg/dl were on the border of upper limit of the reference range and the urine pH was in normal range. Conclusions Increased urinary excretion of urea nitrogen and creatinine might be due to the high rates of protein metabolism that follow high protein intake and muscle turnover. The obvious evidence of metabolic acidosis in response to high protein diet in the subjects with high potassium intake and intensive resistance exercise were not shown in this study results. However, this study implied that resistance exercise with adequate mineral supplementation, such as potassium and calcium, could reduce or offset the negative effects of protein-generated metabolic changes. This study provides preliminary information of metabolic response to high protein intake in bodybuilders who engaged in high-intensity resistance exercise. Further studies will be needed to determine the effects of the intensity

  15. The Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion Polymorphism Modifies Exercise-Induced Muscle Metabolism.

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    David Vaughan

    Full Text Available A silencer region (I-allele within intron 16 of the gene for the regulator of vascular perfusion, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, is implicated in phenotypic variation of aerobic fitness and the development of type II diabetes. We hypothesised that the reportedly lower aerobic performance in non-carriers compared to carriers of the ACE I-allele, i.e. ACE-DD vs. ACE-ID/ACE-II genotype, is associated with alterations in activity-induced glucose metabolism and capillarisation in exercise muscle.Fifty-three, not-specifically trained Caucasian men carried out a one-legged bout of cycling exercise to exhaustion and/or participated in a marathon, the aim being to identify and validate genotype effects on exercise metabolism. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER, serum glucose and lipid concentration, glycogen, and metabolite content in vastus lateralis muscle based on ultra-performance lipid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS, were assessed before and after the cycling exercise in thirty-three participants. Serum metabolites were measured in forty subjects that completed the marathon. Genotype effects were assessed post-hoc.Cycling exercise reduced muscle glycogen concentration and this tended to be affected by the ACE I-allele (p = 0.09. The ACE-DD genotype showed a lower maximal RER and a selective increase in serum glucose concentration after exercise compared to ACE-ID and ACE-II genotypes (+24% vs. +2% and -3%, respectively. Major metabolites of mitochondrial metabolism (i.e. phosphoenol pyruvate, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, L-Aspartic acid, glutathione were selectively affected in vastus lateralis muscle by exercise in the ACE-DD genotype. Capillary-to-fibre ratio was 24%-lower in the ACE-DD genotype. Individuals with the ACE-DD genotype demonstrated an abnormal increase in serum glucose to 7.7 mM after the marathon.The observations imply a genetically modulated role for ACE in control of glucose import and oxidation in

  16. Effect of Dance Exercise on Cognitive Function in Elderly Patients with Metabolic Syndrome: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer’s disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key points Metabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music. In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word

  17. Effect of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Se-Hong; Kim, Minjeong; Ahn, Yu-Bae; Lim, Hyun-Kook; Kang, Sung-Goo; Cho, Jung-Hyoun; Park, Seo-Jin; Song, Sang-Wook

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment. The purpose of this prospective pilot study was to examine the effects of dance exercise on cognitive function in elderly patients with metabolic syndrome. The participants included 38 elderly metabolic syndrome patients with normal cognitive function (26 exercise group and 12 control group). The exercise group performed dance exercise twice a week for 6 months. Cognitive function was assessed in all participants using the Korean version of the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's disease (CERAD-K). Repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to assess the effect of dance exercise on cognitive function and cardiometabolic risk factors. Compared with the control group, the exercise group significantly improved in verbal fluency (p = 0.048), word list delayed recall (p = 0.038), word list recognition (p = 0.007), and total CERAD-K score (p = 0.037). However, no significance difference was found in body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, fasting plasma glucose, triglyceride, and HDL cholesterol between groups over the 6-month period. In the present study, six months of dance exercise improved cognitive function in older adults with metabolic syndrome. Thus, dance exercise may reduce the risk for cognitive disorders in elderly people with metabolic syndrome. Key pointsMetabolic syndrome (MS) is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment.Aerobic exercise improves cognitive function in elderly people and contributes to the prevention of degenerative neurological disease and brain damage. Dance sport is a form of aerobic exercise that has the additional benefits of stimulating the emotions, promoting social interaction, and exposing subjects to acoustic stimulation and music.In the present study, dance exercise for a 6-month period improved cognitive function in older adults with MS. In particular, positive effects were observed in verbal fluency, word list

  18. Exercise-induced albuminuria is related to metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Sharon; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Shani; Rogowski, Ori; Shapira, Itzhak; Zeltser, David; Weinstein, Talia; Lahav, Dror; Vered, Jaffa; Tovia-Brodie, Oholi; Arbel, Yaron; Berliner, Shlomo; Milwidsky, Assi

    2016-06-01

    Microalbuminuria (MA) is a known marker for endothelial dysfunction and future cardiovascular events. Exercise-induced albuminuria (EiA) may precede the appearance of MA. Associations between EiA and metabolic syndrome (MS) have not been assessed so far. Our aim was to investigate this association in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals with no baseline albuminuria. This was a cross-sectional study of 2,027 adults with no overt cardiovascular diseases who took part in a health survey program and had no baseline MA. Diagnosis of MS was based on harmonized criteria. All patients underwent an exercise test (Bruce protocol), and urinary albumin was measured before and after the examination. Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR) values before and after exercise were 0.40 (0.21-0.89) and 1.06 (0.43-2.69) mg/g for median (interquartile range) respectively. A total of 394 (20%) subjects had EiA; ACR rose from normal rest values (0.79 mg/g) to 52.28 mg/g after exercise (P metabolic equivalents (P < 0.001), higher baseline blood pressure (P < 0.001), and higher levels of fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and body mass index (P < 0.001). Multivariate binary logistic regression model showed that subjects with MS were 98% more likely to have EiA (95% confidence interval: 1.13-3.46, P = 0.016). In conclusion, EiA in the absence of baseline MA is independently related to MS. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Association of Resistance Exercise, Independent of and Combined With Aerobic Exercise, With the Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Esmée A; Lee, Duck-Chul; Sui, Xuemei; Artero, Enrique G; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Eijsvogels, Thijs M H; Lavie, Carl J; Blair, Steven N

    2017-08-01

    To determine the association of resistance exercise, independent of and combined with aerobic exercise, with the risk of development of metabolic syndrome (MetS). The study cohort included adults (mean ± SD age, 46±9.5 years) who received comprehensive medical examinations at the Cooper Clinic in Dallas, Texas, between January 1, 1987, and December, 31, 2006. Exercise was assessed by self-reported frequency and minutes per week of resistance and aerobic exercise and meeting the US Physical Activity Guidelines (resistance exercise ≥2 d/wk; aerobic exercise ≥500 metabolic equivalent min/wk) at baseline. The incidence of MetS was based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. We used Cox regression to generate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. Among 7418 participants, 1147 (15%) had development of MetS during a median follow-up of 4 years (maximum, 19 years; minimum, 0.1 year). Meeting the resistance exercise guidelines was associated with a 17% lower risk of MetS (HR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.96; P=.009) after adjusting for potential confounders and aerobic exercise. Further, less than 1 hour of weekly resistance exercise was associated with 29% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.56-0.89; P=.003) compared with no resistance exercise. However, larger amounts of resistance exercise did not provide further benefits. Individuals meeting both recommended resistance and aerobic exercise guidelines had a 25% lower risk of development of MetS (HR, 0.75; 95% CI, 0.63-0.89; Pexercise, even less than 1 hour per week, was associated with a lower risk of development of MetS, independent of aerobic exercise. Health professionals should recommend that patients perform resistance exercise along with aerobic exercise to reduce MetS. Copyright © 2017 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Systematic Review of Chinese Traditional Exercise Baduanjin Modulating the Blood Lipid Metabolism

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    Lijuan Mei

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Baduanjin exercise is considered to be beneficial to modulate the blood lipid metabolism. The purpose of the systematic review was to assess the potential efficacy and safety of Baduanjin exercise. Methods. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CBM, CNKI, VIP, Chinese Important Conference Papers Database, and Chinese Dissertation Database were searched for all prospective-controlled trials of Baduanjin exercise from their inception to December 31, 2011. Results. A total of 14 studies were included. Comparing with no treatment, Baduanjin exercise significantly reduced the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C in plasma, and elevated plasma HDL-C level for healthy participants, and the pooled MD (95% confidence interval, CI was −0.58 mmol/L (−0.86, −0.30 mmol/L, −0.22 mmol/L (−0.31, −0.13 mmol/L, −0.35 mmol/L (−0.54, −0.17 mmol/L, 0.13 mmol/L (0.06, 0.21 mmol/L, respectively. Baduanjin exercise also obviously decreased the levels of TG, LDL-C in plasma comparing with no treatment for patients, and the pooled MD (95% CI was −0.30 mmol/L (−0.40, −0.19 mmol/L, −0.38 mmol/L (−0.63, −0.13 mmol/L, but there was not obvious to decrease plasma TC level or elevate plasma HDL-C level in patients with the pooled MD (95%CI, −0.39 mmol/L (−1.09, 0.31 mmol/L and 0.22 mmol/L (−0.11, 0.55 mmol/L, respectively. In addition, the obvious advantage was not observed to modulate the blood lipid metabolism in comparing Baduanjin exercise with other exercises, regardless for health participants or patients. Conclusion. Studies indicated that Baduanjin exercise could significantly decrease the levels of TC, TG, LDL-C levels in plasma and elevate plasma HDL-C level for the healthy people. It also was helpful that Baduanjin exercise modulated the blood lipid metabolism for patients. Moreover, the Baduanjin exercise did not have an obvious advantage on modulating the lipid metabolism comparing with other exercises. But the

  1. The effects of sex, metabolic syndrome and exercise on postprandial lipemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox-York, Kimberly A; Sharp, Teresa A; Stotz, Sarah A; Bessesen, Daniel H; Pagliassotti, Michael J; Horton, Tracy J

    2013-02-01

    Exercise has been suggested to have cardioprotective benefits due to a lowering of postprandial triglycerides (PPTG). We hypothesized that a morning exercise bout would significantly lower PPTG measured over a full day, in response to moderate fat meals (35% energy) in men more so than women, and in metabolic syndrome (MetS) relative to normal weight (NW) individuals. Participants completed two randomized study days; one control and one exercise day (60 min of morning exercise, 60% VO(2peak)). Meals were consumed at breakfast, lunch and dinner with the energy expended during exercise replaced on the active day. The areas (AUC) and incremental areas (IAUC) under the curve were calculated for total triglycerides, total cholesterol and other metabolites. Exercise did not significantly change the PPTG AUC & IAUC overall, or within, or between, each sex or group (NW and MetS). Exercise induced a 30% decrease in total cholesterol IAUC (p=0.003) in NW subjects. Overall, women had a lower IAUC for PPTG compared to men (p=0.037), with the greatest difference between MetS women and MetS men, due to a sustained drop in TG after lunch in the women. This suggests that PP, rather than fasting, lipid analyses may be particularly important when evaluating sex differences in metabolic risk. With energy replacement, moderate morning exercise did not result in a significant decrease in PPTG excursions. Exercise did elicit a significant decrease in PP cholesterol levels in NW subjects, suggesting a potential mechanism for the cardioprotective effects of exercise. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Role of AMPK in skeletal muscle metabolic regulation and adaptation in relation to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Sebastian Beck; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    The 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a potent regulator of skeletal muscle metabolism and gene expression. AMPK is activated both in response to in vivo exercise and ex vivo contraction. AMPK is therefore believed to be an important signalling molecule in regulating muscle metabolism...... during exercise as well as in adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training. The first part of this review is focused on different mechanisms regulating AMPK activity during muscle work such as alterations in nucleotide concentrations, availability of energy substrates and upstream AMPK kinases. We...... in relation to adaptation of skeletal muscle to exercise training....

  3. Exercise Metabolism in Nonobese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Following the Acute Restoration of Normoglycaemia

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    Christopher J. Gaffney

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated how acute restoration of normoglycaemia affected energy metabolism during exercise in nonobese patients with type 2 diabetes. Six subjects (mean ± SEM aged 56.2 ± 2.7 years, with a BMI of 24.5 ± 1.5 kg/m2 and a VO2 peak of 28.7 ml/kg/min, attended the lab on two randomised occasions for a four-hour resting infusion of insulin or saline, followed by 30 minutes cycling at 50% VO2 peak. During the 4 h resting infusion, there was a greater (P<0.0001 reduction in blood glucose in insulin treatment (INS (from 11.2 ± 0.6 to 5.6 ± 0.1 mmol/l than in saline treatment/control (CON (from 11.5 ± 0.7 to 8.5 ± 0.6 mmol/l. This was associated with a lower (P<0.05 resting metabolic rate in INS (3.87 ± 0.17 than in CON (4.39 ± 0.30 kJ/min. During subsequent exercise, blood glucose increased significantly in INS from 5.6 ± 0.1 at 0 min to 6.3 ± 0.3 mmol/l at 30 min (P<0.01, which was accompanied by a lower blood lactate response (P<0.05. Oxygen uptake, rates of substrate utilization, heart rate, and ratings of perceived exertion were not different between trials. Insulin-induced normoglycaemia increased blood glucose during subsequent exercise without altering overall substrate utilization.

  4. Concurrent and aerobic exercise training promote similar benefits in body composition and metabolic profiles in obese adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Paula Alves; Chen, Kong Y; Lira, Fabio Santos; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Cicotti; Antunes, Barbara Moura Mello; Campos, Eduardo Zapaterra; Freitas, Ismael Forte

    2015-11-26

    The prevalence of obesity in pediatric population is increasing at an accelerated rate in many countries, and has become a major public health concern. Physical activity, particularly exercise training, remains to be a cornerstone of pediatric obesity interventions. The purpose of our current randomized intervention trial was to compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. Thus the aim of the study was compare the effects of two types of training matched for training volume, aerobic and concurrent, on body composition and metabolic profile in obese adolescents. 32 obese adolescents participated in two randomized training groups, concurrent or aerobic, for 20 weeks (50 mins x 3 per week, supervised), and were compared to a 16-subject control group. We measured the percentage body fat (%BF, primary outcome), fat-free mass, percentage of android fat by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and others metabolic profiles at baseline and after interventions, and compared them between groups using the Intent-to-treat design. In 20 weeks, both exercise training groups significantly reduced %BF by 2.9-3.6% as compare to no change in the control group (p = 0.042). There were also positive changes in lipid levels in exercise groups. No noticeable changes were found between aerobic and concurrent training groups. The benefits of exercise in reducing body fat and metabolic risk profiles can be achieved by performing either type of training in obese adolescents. RBR-4HN597.

  5. Paradoxical dissociation between heart rate and heart rate variability following different modalities of exercise in individuals with metabolic syndrome: The RESOLVE study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudet, Gil; Walther, Guillaume; Courteix, Daniel; Obert, Philippe; Lesourd, Bruno; Pereira, Bruno; Chapier, Robert; Vinet, Agnès; Chamoux, Alain; Naughton, Geraldine; Poirier, Paul; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2017-02-01

    Aims To analyse the effects of different modalities of exercise training on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Methods and results Eighty MetS participants (aged 50-70 years) were housed and managed in an inpatient medical centre for 21 days, including weekends. Physical activity and food intake/diet were intensively monitored. Participants were randomly assigned into three training groups, differing only by intensity of exercise: moderate-endurance-moderate-resistance ( re), high-resistance-moderate-endurance ( Re), and moderate-resistance-high-endurance ( rE). HRV was recorded before and after the intervention by 24-hour Holter electrocardiogram. Although mean 24-hour heart rate decreased more in Re than re (-11.6 ± 1.6 vs. -4.8 ± 2.1%; P = 0.010), low frequency/high frequency decreased more in re than Re (-20.4 ± 5.5% vs. + 20.4 ± 9.1%; P = 0.002) and rE (-20.4 ± 5.5% vs. -0.3 ± 11.1%; P = 0.003). Very low frequency increased more in Re than re (+121.2 ± 35.7 vs. 42.9 ± 11.3%; P = 0.004). For all HRV parameters, rE ranged between re and Re values. Low frequency/high frequency changes were linked with visceral fat loss only in re (coefficient 5.9, 95% CI 1.9-10.0; P = 0.004). By day 21, HRV parameters of MetS groups (heart rate -8.6 ± 1.0%, standard deviation of R-R intervals + 34.0 ± 6.6%, total power + 63.3 ± 11.1%; P < 0.001) became closer to values of 50 aged-matched healthy controls. Conclusions A 3-week residential programme with intensive volumes of physical activity (15-20 hours per week) enhanced HRV in individuals with MetS. Participants with moderate intensity of training had greater improvements in sympathovagal balance, whereas those with high intensity in resistance training had greater decreases in heart rate and greater increases in very low frequency. Modality-specific relationships were observed between enhanced HRV

  6. Global Metabolic Stress of Isoeffort Continuous and High Intensity Interval Aerobic Exercise: A Comparative 1H NMR Metabonomic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafeiridis, Andreas; Chatziioannou, Anastasia Chrysovalantou; Sarivasiliou, Haralambos; Kyparos, Antonios; Nikolaidis, Michalis G; Vrabas, Ioannis S; Pechlivanis, Alexandros; Zoumpoulakis, Panagiotis; Baskakis, Constantinos; Dipla, Konstantina; Theodoridis, Georgios A

    2016-12-02

    The overall metabolic/energetic stress that occurs during an acute bout of exercise is proposed to be the main driving force for long-term training adaptations. Continuous and high-intensity interval exercise protocols (HIIE) are currently prescribed to acquire the muscular and metabolic benefits of aerobic training. We applied 1 H NMR-based metabonomics to compare the overall metabolic perturbation and activation of individual bioenergetic pathways of three popular aerobic exercises matched for effort/strain. Nine men performed continuous, long-interval (3 min), and short-interval (30 s) bouts of exercise under isoeffort conditions. Blood was collected before and after exercise. The multivariate PCA and OPLS-DA models showed a distinct separation of pre- and postexercise samples in three protocols. The two models did not discriminate the postexercise overall metabolic profiles of the three exercise types. Analysis focused on muscle bioenergetic pathways revealed an extensive upregulation of carbohydrate-lipid metabolism and the TCA cycle in all three protocols; there were only a few differences among protocols in the postexercise abundance of molecules when long-interval bouts were performed. In conclusion, continuous and HIIE exercise protocols, when performed with similar effort/strain, induce comparable global metabolic response/stress despite their marked differences in work-bout intensities. This study highlights the importance of NMR metabonomics in comprehensive monitoring of metabolic consequences of exercise training in the blood of athletes and exercising individuals.

  7. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Fernanda; Lima, Nathalia Ea; Ornelas, Elisabete; Simardi, Lucila; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Maifrino, Laura Beatriz Mesiano

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT) and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C), metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise), metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk), and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun). The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv) of the studied structures. Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (-54%), triglyceride levels (-40%), Vv[islet] (-62%), Vv[islet.cells] (-22%), Vv[islet.insterstitial] (-44%), and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-24%) and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%). Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (-34%) and triglyceride levels (-27%), an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72%) and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%), and a decrease of Vv[acini] (-4%) and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (-16%) when compared with those in the MS group. Our results suggest that the experimental model with low-intensity exercise (walking) seems to be more particularly recommended for preventing morphological and metabolic disorders occurring in the MS.

  8. Do diabetes and obesity affect the metabolic response to exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plomgaard, Peter; Weigert, Cora

    2017-01-01

    control before an intervention can be a risk factor of reduced therapeutic benefit from exercise. But the acute metabolic response to exercise and the transcriptional profile of the working muscle is similar in healthy controls and type 2 diabetic patients, including but not limited to intact activation...... of skeletal muscle AMP-activated kinase signaling, glucose uptake and expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1α. The increase in plasma acylcarnitines during exercise is not influenced by type 2 diabetes or obesity. The hepatic response to exercise is dependent......PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Exercise is recommended as therapeutic intervention for people at risk to develop type 2 diabetes to prevent or treat the disease. Recent studies on the influence of obesity and type 2 diabetes on the outcome of exercise programs are discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: Poor glycemic...

  9. Metabolic and clinical comparative analysis of treadmill six-minute walking test and cardiopulmonary exercise testing in obese and eutrophic women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Di Thommazo-Luporini

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Impaired exercise tolerance is directly linked to decreased functional capacity as a consequence of obesity. OBJECTIVES: To analyze and compare the cardiopulmonary, metabolic, and perceptual responses during a cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPX and a treadmill six-minute walking test (tread6MWT in obese and eutrophic women. METHOD: Twenty-nine female participants, aged 20-45 years were included. Fourteen were allocated to the obese group and 15 to the eutrophic group. Anthropometric measurements and body composition assessment were performed. RESULTS: In both tests, obese women presented with significantly higher absolute oxygen uptake, minute ventilation, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure; they also presented with lower speed, distance walked, and oxygen uptake corrected by the weight compared to eutrophics. During the maximal exercise test, perceived dyspnea was greater and the respiratory exchange ratio was lower in obese subjects compared to eutrophics. During the submaximal test, carbon dioxide production, tidal volume, and heart rate were higher in obese subjects compared to eutrophic women. When analyzing possible correlations between the CPX and the tread6MWT at peak, there was a strong correlation for the variable heart rate and a moderate correlation for the variable oxygen uptake. The heart rate obtained in the submaximal test was able to predict the one obtained in the maximal test. Bland-Altman plots demonstrated the agreement between both tests to identify metabolic and physiological parameters at peak exercise. CONCLUSIONS: The six-minute walking test induced ventilatory, metabolic, and cardiovascular responses in agreement with the maximal testing. Thus, the six-minute walking test proves to be important for functional evaluation in the physical therapy routine.

  10. Muscle blood flow and muscle metabolism during exercise and heat stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Bodil; Savard, G; Richter, Erik

    1990-01-01

    The effect of heat stress on blood flow and metabolism in an exercising leg was studied in seven subjects walking uphill (12-17%) at 5 km/h on a treadmill for 90 min or until exhaustion. The first 30 min of exercise were performed in a cool environment (18-21 degrees C); then subjects moved...

  11. The metabolic cost of an integrated exercise program performed during 14 days of bed rest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Jessica M; Hackney, Kyle; Downs, Meghan; Guined, Jamie; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Fiedler, James; Cunningham, David; Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2014-06-01

    Exercise countermeasures designed to mitigate muscle atrophy during long-duration spaceflight may not be as effective if crewmembers are in negative energy balance (energy output > energy input). This study determined the energy cost of supine exercise (resistance, interval, aerobic) during the spaceflight analogue of bed rest. Nine subjects (eight men and one woman; 34.5 +/- 8.2 yr) completed 14 d of bed rest and concomitant exercise countermeasures. Body mass and basal metabolic rate (BMR) were assessed before and during bed rest. Exercise energy expenditure was measured during and immediately after [excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC)] each of five different exercise protocols (30-s, 2-min, and 4-min intervals, continuous aerobic, and a variety of resistance exercises) during bed rest. On days when resistance and continuous aerobic exercise were performed daily, energy expenditure was significantly greater (2879 +/- 280 kcal) than 2-min (2390 +/- 237 kcal), 30-s (2501 +/- 264 kcal), or 4-min (2546 +/- 264 kcal) exercise. There were no significant differences in BMR (pre-bed rest: 1649 +/- 216 kcal; week 1: 1632 +/- 174 kcal; week 2:1657 +/- 176 kcal) or body mass (pre-bed rest: 75.2 +/- 10.1 kg; post-bed rest: 75.2 +/- 9.6 kg). These findings highlight the importance of energy balance for long-duration crewmembers completing a high-intensity exercise program with multiple exercise sessions daily.

  12. The effect of aerobic exercise training on growth performance, digestive enzyme activities and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile qingbo (Spinibarbus sinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Yu, Li-Juan; Wang, Chuan; Zeng, Ling-Qing; Cao, Zhen-Dong; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2013-09-01

    Continual swimming exercise usually promotes growth in fish at a moderate water velocity. We hypothesized that the improvement in growth in exercise-trained fish may be accompanied by increases in digestive enzyme activity, respiratory capacity and, hence, postprandial metabolism. Juvenile qingbo fish (Spinibarbus sinensis) were subjected to aerobic training for 8weeks at a water velocity of control (3cms(-1)), 1, 2 and 4 body length (bl)s(-1) at a constant temperature of 25°C. The feed intake (FI), food conversion rate (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR), whole-body composition, trypsin and lipase activities, maximal oxygen consumption (M˙O2max) and postprandial M˙O2 response were measured at the end of the training period. Aerobic exercise training induced a significant increase in FI compared with the control group, while the FCR of the 4bls(-1) group was significantly lower than for the other three groups (PFI after long-term training; (3) and aerobic exercise training boosted the activity of digestive enzymes and maximum digestive metabolism, which could favor fast digestion and growth in juvenile S. sinensis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Home-based exercise may not decrease the insulin resistance in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chiao-Nan; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Wu, Ying-Tai

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the differences in exercise self-efficacy, compliance, and effectiveness of home-based exercise in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred and ten individuals at risk for diabetes participated in this study. Subjects were categorized into individuals with MetS and individuals without MetS. Metabolic risk factors and exercise self-efficacy were evaluated for all subjects before and after 3 months of home-based exercise. Univariate analysis of variance was used to compare the effectiveness of a home-based exercise program between individuals with and without MetS. The home-based exercise program improved body mass index and lipid profile in individuals at risk for diabetes, regardless of MetS status at baseline. Individuals without MetS had higher exercise self-efficacy at baseline and performed greater exercise volume compared with individuals with MetS during the intervention. The increased exercise volume in individuals without MetS may contribute to their better control of insulin resistance than individuals with MetS. Furthermore, baseline exercise self-efficacy was correlated with exercise volume executed by subjects at home. We conclude that home-based exercise programs are beneficial for individuals at risk for diabetes. However, more intensive and/or supervised exercise intervention may be needed for those with MetS.

  14. Islet transplantation in diabetic rats normalizes basal and exercise-induced energy metabolism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houwing, Harmina; Benthem, L.; Suylichem, P.T.R. van; Leest, J. van der; Strubbe, J.H.; Steffens, A.B.

    Transplantation of islets of Langerhans in diabetic rats normalizes resting glucose and insulin levels, but it remains unclear whether islet transplantation restores resting and exercise-induced energy metabolism. Therefore, we compared energy metabolism in islet transplanted rats with energy

  15. EX-MET study: exercise in prevention on of metabolic syndrome - a randomized multicenter trial: rational and design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjønna, Arnt Erik; Ramos, Joyce S; Pressler, Axel; Halle, Martin; Jungbluth, Klaus; Ermacora, Erika; Salvesen, Øyvind; Rodrigues, Jhennyfer; Bueno, Carlos Roberto; Munk, Peter Scott; Coombes, Jeff; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2018-04-02

    Metabolic syndrome substantially increases risk of cardiovascular events. It is therefore imperative to develop or optimize ways to prevent or attenuate this condition. Exercise training has been long recognized as a corner-stone therapy for reducing individual cardiovascular risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome. However, the optimal exercise dose and its feasibility in a real world setting has yet to be established. The primary objective of this randomized trial is to investigate the effects of different volumes of aerobic interval training (AIT) compared to the current exercise guideline of moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) on the composite number of cardiovascular disease risk factors constituting the metabolic syndrome after a 16 week, 1-year, and 3-year follow-up. This is a randomized international multi-center trial including men and women aged ≥30 years diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome according to the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Recruitment began in August 2012 and concluded in December 2016. This trial consists of supervised and unsupervised phases to evaluate the efficacy and feasibility of different exercise doses on the metabolic syndrome in a real world setting. This study aims to include and randomize 465 participants to 3 years of one of the following training groups: i) 3 times/week of 4 × 4 min AIT at 85-95% peak heart rate (HRpeak); ii) 3 times/week of 1 × 4 min AIT at 85-95% HRpeak; or iii) 5-7 times/week of ≥30 min MICT at 60-70% HRpeak. Clinical examinations, physical tests and questionnaires are administered to all participants during all testing time points (baseline, 16 weeks and after 1-, and 3-years). This multi-center international trial indeed aims to ease the burden in healthcare/economic cost arising from treating end-stage CVD related conditions such as stroke and myocardial infarction, that could eventually emerge from the metabolic syndrome condition. Clinical

  16. The effects of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in osteopenia women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Kim, Hyo Jin

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a single bout pilates exercise on mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines in elderly osteopenia women. We selected 11 people of elderly osteopenia women and loaded a single bout pilates exercise about RPE 10-14 level. The blood samples were collected before, immediately after and 60 minute after pilates exercise, then examined calcium metabolic markers in serum and extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from whole blood and confirmed mRNA expression of bone metabolic cytokines from PBMC. To clarify the changes during exercise, we designed repeated measure ANOVA as the control group to perform blood sampling without exercise. As a result, serum P showed significant interaction effect between group and time (ppilates exercise group decreased about 9% at immediately after exercise and 13% during recovery after exercise (ppilates group significantly increased at immediately after exercise and during recovery after exercise (ppilates group (ppilates group (NS). These results suggested that a single bout pilates exercise of elderly osteopenia women cause hypophosphatemia with temporary muscle damage, and it leading high turnover bone metabolic state with to activate both of bone formation and bone resorption.

  17. Complex exercise rehabilitation program for women of the II period of age with metabolic syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Eun-Ok; Olga, Kozyreva

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a complex exercise program integrating Eastern and Western complex exercise rehabilitation programs in order to examine the effects of it on the human body with the subjects for women of the II period of mature age with metabolic syndrome. The subjects of this study are 60 II period of mature aged women with metabolic syndrome living in G City, and the experimental group conducted Taekwon-aerobic exercise, European rehabilitation gymnastics, gym ball e...

  18. Does caffeine alter muscle carbohydrate and fat metabolism during exercise?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Terry E; Battram, Danielle S; Dela, Flemming

    2008-01-01

    and carbohydrate metabolism. While caffeine certainly mobilizes fatty acids from adipose tissue, rarely have measures of the respiratory exchange ratio indicated an increase in fat oxidation. However, this is a difficult measure to perform accurately during exercise, and small changes could be physiologically...... important. The few studies examining human muscle metabolism directly have also supported the fact that there is no change in fat or carbohydrate metabolism, but these usually have had a small sample size. We combined the data from muscle biopsy analyses of several similar studies to generate a sample size...

  19. Oxidative stress does not influence local sweat rate during high-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meade, Robert D; Fujii, Naoto; Poirier, Martin P; Boulay, Pierre; Sigal, Ronald J; Kenny, Glen P

    2018-02-01

    What is the central question of this study? We evaluated whether oxidative stress attenuates the contribution of nitric oxide to sweating during high-intensity exercise. What is the main finding and its importance? In contrast to our previous report of an oxidative stress-mediated reduction in nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilatation in this cohort during intense exercise, we demonstrated no influence of local ascorbate administration on the sweating response during moderate- (∼51% peak oxygen uptake) or high-intensity exercise (∼72% peak oxygen uptake). These new findings provide important mechanistic insight into how exercise-induced oxidative stress impacts sudomotor activity. Nitric oxide (NO)-dependent sweating is diminished during high- but not moderate-intensity exercise. We evaluated whether this impairment stems from increased oxidative stress during high-intensity exercise. On two separate days, 11 young (24 ± 4 years) men cycled in the heat (35°C) at a moderate [500 W; 52 ± 6% peak oxygen uptake (V̇O2 peak )] or high (700 W; 71 ± 5% V̇O2 peak ) rate of metabolic heat production. Each session included two 30 min exercise bouts separated by a 20 min recovery period. Local sweat rate was monitored at four forearm skin sites continuously perfused via intradermal microdialysis with the following: (i) lactated Ringer solution (Control); (ii) 10 mm ascorbate (Ascorbate; non-selective antioxidant); (iii) 10 mm N G -nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME; NO synthase inhibitor); or (iv) 10 mm ascorbate plus 10 mm l-NAME (Ascorbate + l-NAME). During moderate exercise, sweat rate was attenuated at the l-NAME and Ascorbate + l-NAME sites (both ∼1.0 mg min -1  cm -2 ; all P < 0.05) but not at the Ascorbate site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ; both P ≥ 0.28) in comparison to the Control site (∼1.1 mg min -1  cm -2 ). However, no differences were observed between treatment sites (∼1.4 mg min -1  cm -2 ; P = 0

  20. Cerebral blood flow and metabolism during exercise: implications for fatigue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, T.; Lieshout, J.J. van; Secher, Niels

    2008-01-01

    During exercise: the Kety-Schmidt-determined cerebral blood flow (CBF) does not change because the jugular vein is collapsed in the upright position. In contrast, when CBF is evaluated by (133)Xe clearance, by flow in the internal carotid artery, or by flow velocity in basal cerebral arteries......, a approximately 25% increase is detected with a parallel increase in metabolism. During activation, an increase in cerebral O(2) supply is required because there is no capillary recruitment within the brain and increased metabolism becomes dependent on an enhanced gradient for oxygen diffusion. During maximal...... whole body exercise, however, cerebral oxygenation decreases because of eventual arterial desaturation and marked hyperventilation-related hypocapnia of consequence for CBF. Reduced cerebral oxygenation affects recruitment of motor units, and supplemental O(2) enhances cerebral oxygenation and work...

  1. Heart rate response to hypoxic exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundby, C; Møller, P; Kanstrup, I L

    2001-01-01

    progressively decreased the maximal heart rate from day 1 and onwards; also, hypoxia by itself increased plasma noradrenaline levels after maximal exercise. Domperidone further increased maximal noradrenaline concentrations, but had no effect on maximal heart rate. On each study day at altitude, oxygen......This study examined the effects of dopamine D(2)-receptor blockade on the early decrease in maximal heart rate at high altitude (4559 m). We also attempted to clarify the time-dependent component of this reduction and the extent to which it is reversed by oxygen breathing. Twelve subjects performed...... two consecutive maximal exercise tests, without and with oxygen supplementation respectively, at sea level and after 1, 3 and 5 days at altitude. On each study day, domperidone (30 mg; n=6) or no medication (n=6) was given 1 h before the first exercise session. Compared with sea level, hypoxia...

  2. Fat metabolism during exercise: mechanisms of regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique da Silva Gevaerd

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Fats are important energetic fuel to exercise. However, the regulation of fat uptake during exercise is unclear. The main objective of this review was to focus on physiological control mechanisms of mobilization, transport and fat uptake during exercise. The articles of fat metabolism were searched in Pubmed and Lilacs indexes. Classical and current papers were preferred. Evidence suggests that transport of fatty acids (FA from extracellular to intracellular spaces could be the main factor to limit fatty acid uptake. Future studies on fat uptake during exercise can focus on this mechanism. In intense exercise, the lower blood fl ow in the adipose tissue and higher fatty acid reesterifi cation rate impairs fat uptake during exercise. Supplementation of the FA has been used, however, the ideal quantities and forms to prevent gastrointestinal discomfort were not yet determined. In the biological point of view, intramuscular reserve of FA could be more effi cient, because is not necessary to FA to cross the cell membrane. RESUMO Os lipídios são considerados importantes fontes energéticas para a realização de exercícios físicos. Entretanto, os mecanismos de regulação do consumo desse substrato durante o exercício não estão totalmente esclarecidos. O objetivo principal da presente revisão foi abordar mecanismos fisiológicos de controle da mobilização, transporte e utilização de gordura durante o exercício. Os trabalhos indexados no banco de dados Pubmed e Lilacs sobre metabolismo de gordura, foram analisados e os clássicos e recentes foram preferencialmente utilizados. A partir dos dados recentes da literatura, especula-se que o transporte de ácidos graxos do meio extracelular para o meio intracelular pode constituir um dos principais mecanismos limitantes no consumo desse substrato. Estudos sobre o consumo de lipídios durante o exercício devem ser focados sobre esse mecanismo. Em exercício intenso, o menor fl uxo de sangue

  3. The effects of pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression in female undergraduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jiyeon; Kim, Chang-Sun

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of the study was to verify the effects of Pilates exercise by observing the impact of 8 weeks of Pilates exercise on lipid metabolism and inflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in female undergraduates in their 20s who had no prior experience in Pilates exercise and had not exercised in the previous 6 months. There were 18 subjects with no prior experience in Pilates exercise. The subjects were separated into the Pilates exercise group (n = 9) and the non-exercise control group (n = 9). The former performed Pilates exercise for 60-70 minutes over 8 weeks with a gradual strength increase of 9-16 in the Rating of Perceived Exercise (RPE). The body composition, creatine kinase in the bloodstream and lipid metabolism (TC, LDL-C, HDL-C, TG) were measured before and after the experiment and Real-Time PCR was used to investigate the mRNA expression of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-⍺. The creatine kinase (CK) in the blood had significant differences between the groups. The test group showed significant increase compared to the control group after 8 weeks of Pilates exercise (p = 0.007). Lipid analysis showed that the level of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was significantly different in the two groups (p = 0.049), with the Pilates exercise group exhibiting significantly higher levels compared to the control group. No significant differences were observed in the levels of total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). IL-6 mRNA expression did not show significant differences between the groups either. Timing and TNF-α mRNA expression showed significant effect in both the exercise and the control groups (p = 0.013) but no correlation. It was found from the study that Pilates exercise for 8 weeks affected CK expression (the muscle damage marker) and induced positive changes in the levels of high-density lipoprotein.

  4. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernt Rønning

    Full Text Available The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR, as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (P<0.1. Thus, the effect of BMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  5. Is the rate of metabolic ageing and survival determined by Basal metabolic rate in the zebra finch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rønning, Bernt; Moe, Børge; Berntsen, Henrik H; Noreen, Elin; Bech, Claus

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between energy metabolism and ageing is of great interest because aerobic metabolism is the primary source of reactive oxygen species which is believed to be of major importance in the ageing process. We conducted a longitudinal study on captive zebra finches where we tested the effect of age on basal metabolic rate (BMR), as well as the effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing (decline in BMR with age) and survival. Basal metabolic rate declined with age in both sexes after controlling for the effect of body mass, indicating a loss of functionality with age. This loss of functionality could be due to accumulated oxidative damage, believed to increase with increasing metabolic rate, c.f. the free radical theory of ageing. If so, we would expect the rate of metabolic ageing to increase and survival to decrease with increasing BMR. However, we found no effect of BMR on the rate of metabolic ageing. Furthermore, survival was not affected by BMR in the males. In female zebra finches there was a tendency for survival to decrease with increasing BMR, but the effect did not reach significance (PBMR on the rate of functional deterioration with age, if any, was not strong enough to influence neither the rate of metabolic ageing nor survival in the zebra finches.

  6. The effect of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance and postprandial metabolic response in juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiu-Ming; Liu, Li; Yuan, Jian-Ming; Xiao, Yuan-Yuan; Fu, Shi-Jian; Zhang, Yao-Guang

    2016-03-01

    To investigate the effects of aerobic exercise and starvation on growth performance, postprandial metabolic response and their interaction in a sedentary fish species, either satiation-fed or starved juvenile southern catfish (Silurus meridionalis) were exercised at 25 °C under three water velocities, i.e., nearly still water (control), 1 body length (bl) s(-1) and 2 bl s(-1), for eight weeks. Then, the feed intake (FI), food conversion efficiency (FCE), specific growth rate (SGR), morphological parameters, resting ṀO2 (ṀO2rest) and postprandial ṀO2 responses of the experimental fish were measured. Exercise at a low velocity (1 bl s(-1)) showed no effect on any growth performance parameter, whereas exercise at a high velocity (2 bl s(-1)) exhibited higher FI but similar SGR due to the extra energy expenditure from swimming and consequent decreased FCE. Starvation led to a significant body mass loss, whereas the effect intensified in both exercise groups. Exercise resulted in improved cardio-respiratory capacity, as indicated by increased gill and heart indexes, whereas it exhibited no effect on resting and postprandial metabolism in S. meridionalis. The starved fish displayed significantly larger heart, gill and digestive tract indexes compared with the feeding fish, suggesting selective maintenance of cardio-respiratory and digestive function in this fish species during starvation. However, starved fish still exhibited impaired digestive performance, as evidenced by the prolonged duration and low postprandial metabolic increase, and this effect was further exacerbated in both the 1 and 2 bl s(-1) exercise groups. These data suggest the following: (1) aerobic exercise produced no improvement in growth performance but may have led to the impairment of growth under insufficient food conditions; (2) the mass of different organs and tissues responded differently to aerobic exercise and starvation due to the different physiological roles they play; and (3

  7. [Effect of two hypocaloric diets and their combination with physical exercise on basal metabolic rate and body composition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfanti, Noelia; Fernández, Juan Marcelo; Gomez-Delgado, Francisco; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2014-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is diagnosed by the detection of at least three criteria (hypertriglyceridemia, low HDL-C, hypertension, obesity and altered fasting glucose). Visceral fat excess would be the starting point for its development. Scientific evidence supports hypocaloric diets -mediterranean or low fat diet and rich in complex carbohydrates diet included- as the best treatment to reduce fat mass (FM), maximizing its impact by combining them with physical exercise (PE). However, the effects of these treatments on basal metabolic rate (BMR) of patients with MetS, are unknown. To study the effect of the hypocaloric diet - mediterranean or low fat diet- with or without PE on the BMR and body composition (BC) of adults with MetS. 36 volunteers, MetS, both sexes, > 50 years, meeting the inclusion criteria. They were randomly assigned to a group of intervention (3 months) of hypocaloric diet: mediterranean diet (MED), low fat and rich in complex carbohydrates diet (CHO) and both combined with PE (MEDE and CHOE respectively). Anthropometric data was taken (weight, muscle mass (MM) and FM) and BMR was determined by indirect calorimetry, before and after intervention. The addition of PE to both hypocaloric treatments produced greater FM loss and weight loss than dieting alone, being this loss in CHOE > MEDE (p CHOE (p diet with or without PE lost MM (p MED CONCLUSIONS: CHOE induces less reduction of BMR while supporting a better profile of BC than MEDE. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  8. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki

    2015-01-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled...... to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples...... were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined...

  9. Astaxanthin in Exercise Metabolism, Performance and Recovery: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel R. Brown

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available During periods of heavy exercise training and competition, lipid, protein, and nucleic molecules can become damaged due to an overproduction of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS within the exercising organism. As antioxidants can prevent and delay cellular oxidative damage through removing, deactivating, and preventing the formation of RONS, supplementation with exogenous antioxidant compounds has become a commercialized nutritional strategy commonly adopted by recreationally active individuals and athletes. The following review is written as a critical appraisal of the current literature surrounding astaxanthin and its potential application as a dietary supplement in exercising humans. Astaxanthin is a lipid-soluble antioxidant carotenoid available to supplement through the intake of Haematococcus pluvialis-derived antioxidant products. Based upon in vitro and in vivo research conducted in mice exercise models, evidence would suggest that astaxanthin supplementation could potentially improve indices of exercise metabolism, performance, and recovery because of its potent antioxidant capacity. In exercising humans, however, these observations have yet to be consistently realized, with equivocal data reported. Implicated, in part, by the scarcity of well-controlled, scientifically rigorous research, future investigation is necessary to enable a more robust conclusion in regard to the efficacy of astaxanthin supplementation and its potential role in substrate utilization, endurance performance, and acute recovery in exercising humans.

  10. Individually and Combined Water-Based Exercise With Ginger Supplement, on Systemic Inflammation and Metabolic Syndrome Indices, Among the Obese Women With Breast Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Niloofar; Dabidi Roshan, Valiollah; Fathi Bayatiyani, Zohreh

    2015-12-01

    Breast neoplasms has known as the most common cancer among the women worldwide, and relationship between obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cancer has been recognized since many years ago. The aim of this study was to determine the individual and concomitant effect of 6-weeks water-based exercise and oral ginger supplement on markers that have related to metabolic syndrome and systemic inflammation in obese women with breast neoplasms. Forty women whose have diagnosed with breast neoplasms have volunteered to participate in the study. Subjects have randomly assigned into four groups; placebo, exercise training, ginger supplement and exercise training+ ginger supplement groups. Subjects in the ginger supplement group and the exercise training+ ginger supplement group have orally received 4 capsules, 7 days a week and for 6 weeks. The water-based exercise training program have collected at a progressive intensity and time, have ranged from 50% to 75% of heart rate reserve, in a pool, 4 times a week for 6 weeks. Fasting blood sampling has collected at the pretest and post-test. The ginger supplementation and the water-base exercise have resulted in a reduction of hs-CRP, IL-10, insulin, glucose, insulin resistance, LDL-C, TG; but an increase in HDL-C and HDL-C/LDL-C. The water-base exercise and ginger supplement group have significantly shown larger positive effect in all outcomes, in comparison with the water-base exercise or ginger supplement alone groups. Findings have suggested that obese breast neoplasms survivors have commonly shown metabolic syndrome and elevated inflammation, which placed them at an increased risk for cardiovascular diseases. Moreover, data has indicated a protective effect of the nondrug strategies, such as water-base exercise and ginger supplementation have played an important role in pathogenesis of inflammatory and metabolic responses, among diagnosed breast neoplasms.

  11. Metabolic effect of bodyweight whole-body vibration in a 20-min exercise session: A crossover study using verified vibration stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Milanese

    Full Text Available The ability of whole body vibration (WBV to increase energy expenditure (EE has been investigated to some extent in the past using short-term single exercises or sets of single exercises. However, the current practice in WBV training for fitness is based on the execution of multiple exercises during a WBV training session for a period of at least 20 min; nevertheless, very limited and inconsistent data are available on EE during long term WBV training session. This crossover study was designed to demonstrate, in an adequately powered sample of participants, the ability of WBV to increase the metabolic cost of exercise vs. no vibration over the time span of a typical WBV session for fitness (20 min. Twenty-two physically active young males exercised on a vibration platform (three identical sets of six different exercises using an accelerometer-verified vibration stimulus in both the WBV and no vibration condition. Oxygen consumption was measured with indirect calorimetry and expressed as area under the curve (O2(AUC. Results showed that, in the overall 20-min training session, WBV increased both the O2(AUC and the estimated EE vs. no vibration by about 22% and 20%, respectively (P<0.001 for both, partial eta squared [η2] ≥0.35 as well as the metabolic equivalent of task (+5.5%, P = 0.043; η2 = 0.02 and the rate of perceived exertion (+13%, P<0.001; ŋ2 = 0.16. Results demonstrated that vibration is able to significantly increase the metabolic cost of exercise in a 20-min WBV training session.

  12. The effect of exercise training on clinical outcomes in patients with the metabolic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostman, C; Smart, N A; Morcos, D; Duller, A; Ridley, W; Jewiss, D

    2017-08-30

    Purpose: to establish if exercise training improves clinical outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Registered with PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews ( https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/Identifier:CRD42017055491 ). studies were identified through a MEDLINE search strategy (1985 to Jan 12, 2017), Cochrane controlled trials registry, CINAHL and SPORTDiscus. prospective randomized or controlled trials of exercise training in humans with metabolic syndrome, lasting 12 weeks or more. We included 16 studies with 23 intervention groups; 77,000 patient-hours of exercise training. In analyses of aerobic exercise studies versus control: body mass index was significantly reduced, mean difference (MD) -0.29 (kg m -2 ) (95% CI -0.44, -0.15, p exercise versus control: waist circumference, MD -3.80 cm (95% CI -5.65, -1.95, p exercise interventions. Exercise training improves body composition, cardiovascular, and, metabolic outcomes in people with metabolic syndrome. For some outcome measures, isolated aerobic exercise appears optimal.

  13. Fat metabolism during exercise in patients with McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, M C; Jeppesen, T D; Andersen, S Tvede

    2009-01-01

    carbohydrate oxidation was lower, during exercise in patients with McArdle disease vs healthy controls. We found augmented fat oxidation with the onset of a second wind, but further increases in FFA availability, as exercise continued, did not result in further increases in FAO. CONCLUSION: These results......OBJECTIVE: It is known that muscle phosphorylase deficiency restricts carbohydrate utilization, but the implications for muscle fat metabolism have not been studied. We questioned whether patients with McArdle disease can compensate for the blocked muscle glycogen breakdown by enhancing fat...... indicate that patients with McArdle disease have exaggerated fat oxidation during prolonged, low-intensity exercise and that increased fat oxidation may be an important mechanism of the spontaneous second wind. The fact that increasing availability of free fatty acids with more prolonged exercise did...

  14. Psychological stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction: the role of metabolic syndrome and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Steven; Brnayan, Kayla W; DeVallance, Evan; Skinner, Roy; Lemaster, Kent; Sheets, J Whitney; Pitzer, Christopher R; Asano, Shinichi; Bryner, Randall W; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2018-05-01

    What is the central question of this study? How does chronic stress impact cerebrovascular function and does metabolic syndrome accelerate the cerebrovascular adaptations to stress? What role does exercise training have in preventing cerebrovascular changes to stress and metabolic syndrome? What is the main finding and its importance? Stressful conditions lead to pathological adaptations of the cerebrovasculature via an oxidative nitric oxide pathway, and the presence of metabolic syndrome produces a greater susceptibility to stress-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction. The results also provide insight into the mechanisms that may contribute to the influence of stress and the role of exercise in preventing the negative actions of stress on cerebrovascular function and structure. Chronic unresolvable stress leads to the development of depression and cardiovascular disease. There is a high prevalence of depression with the metabolic syndrome (MetS), but to what extent the MetS concurrent with psychological stress affects cerebrovascular function is unknown. We investigated the differential effect of MetS on cerebrovascular structure/function in rats (16-17 weeks old) following 8 weeks of unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS) and whether exercise training could limit any cerebrovascular dysfunction. In healthy lean Zucker rats (LZR), UCMS decreased (28%, P stress and increased production of nitric oxide in the cerebral vessels. In conclusion, UCMS significantly impaired MCA structure and function, but the effects of UCMS were more substantial in OZR vs. LZR. Importantly, aerobic exercise when combined with UCMS prevented the MCA dysfunction through subtle shifts in nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the cerebral microvasculature. © 2018 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2018 The Physiological Society.

  15. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score).......The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score)....

  16. Effect of different exercise protocols on metabolic profiles and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle in high-fat diet-fed rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Youqing; Xu, Xiangfeng; Yue, Kai; Xu, Guodong

    2015-05-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of mild-intensity endurance, high-intensity interval, and concurrent exercise on preventing high-fat diet-induced obesity. Male rats were divided into five groups, control diet/sedentary group, high-fat diet/sedentary, high-fat diet/endurance exercise, high-fat diet/interval exercise (HI), and high-fat diet/concurrent exercise. All exercise groups were made to exercise for 10 weeks, with matched running distances. Body weight, fat content, blood metabolites, quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and adipocyte and liver lipid droplet size were assessed, and the expression of fatty acid metabolism-related genes was quantified. All exercise protocols reduced body weight, adiposity, serum triglycerides, and fasting glucose and also improved QUICKI to some extent. However, only HI prevented obesity and its associated pathologies completely. The expression of stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase-1 was elevated in all rats fed a high-fat diet whereas carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) expression was increased with exercise. Rev-erbα expression was elevated only in the HI group, which also had the highest level of CPT1 expression. The HI-induced increase in Rev-erbα and CPT1 expression was associated with the complete prevention of diet-induced obesity. Moreover, the increased caloric expenditure achieved with this protocol was preferential over other exercise regimens, and might be used to improve lipid metabolism. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  17. Effectiveness of community-based exercise intervention programme in obese adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Hung; Chen, Miao-Chuan; Chien, Nai-Hui; Lin, Hsih-Fong

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to change the anthropometric, clinical, biochemical indicators and the rate of metabolic syndrome among obese adults in community. Obesity is an indicator of metabolic syndrome and cardiometabolic diseases. Obesity increases national health care expenditure in Taiwan. The high prevalence of obesity is not only a public health issue but also an economic problem. Changes in lifestyle can help to prevent metabolic syndrome for individuals with obesity. A randomised controlled trial was applied. In this randomised controlled trial by location, 136 metabolically abnormal obese individuals were included. The related indicators with metabolic syndrome were measured at baseline and after six months. The experimental group participated in a six-month community-based programme including provided exercise environments, exercise skills and volunteers' reminding. The control group was only provided environment and skills. One hundred and thirty-one participants completed this trail. In comparison with the baseline, the intervention group showed a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (2·34 mg/dl), and decrease in body weight (1·09 kg), waist circumference (3·63 cm), systolic blood pressure (10·52 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (5·21 mmHg), fasting blood glucose (5·84 mg/dl) and body mass index (0·74 kg/m(2) ). In the control group, significant decrease in body mass index and waist circumference were discovered. Compared to the changes between the two groups, the results showed there were significant differences in waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The community-based intervention could help to improve high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, reduce body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose in metabolically abnormal obese. This community-based programme helped metabolically abnormal

  18. Effect of different exercise intensities on the pancreas of animals with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaral F

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Fernanda Amaral,1 Nathalia EA Lima,1 Elisabete Ornelas,1 Lucila Simardi,2 Fernando Luiz Affonso Fonseca,2,3 Laura Beatriz Mesiano Maifrino1,4 1Laboratório de Estudos Morfoquantitativo e Imunohistoquímico, Universidade São Judas Tadeu, São Paulo, Brazil; 2Faculdade de Medicina do ABC, Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil; 3Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil; 4Instituto Dante Pazzanese de Cardiologia, São Paulo, Brazil Introduction: Metabolic syndrome (MS comprises several metabolic disorders that are risk factors for cardiovascular disease and has its source connected to the accumulation of visceral adipose tissue (VAT and development of insulin resistance. Despite studies showing beneficial results of exercise on several risk factors for cardiovascular disease, studies evaluating the effects of different intensities of exercise training on the pancreas with experimental models are scarce. Methods: In total, 20 Wistar rats were used, divided into four groups: control (C, metabolic syndrome (MS and without exercise, metabolic syndrome and practice of walking (MSWalk, and metabolic syndrome and practice of running (MSRun. The applied procedures were induction of MS by fructose in drinking water; experimental protocol of walking and running; weighing of body mass and VAT; sacrifice of animals with blood collection and removal of organs and processing of samples for light microscopy using the analysis of volume densities (Vv of the studied structures. Results: Running showed a reduction of VAT weight (–54%, triglyceride levels (–40%, Vv[islet] (–62%, Vv[islet.cells] (–22%, Vv[islet.insterstitial] (–44%, and Vv[acinar.insterstitial] (–24% and an increase of Vv[acini] (+21% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+22%. Regarding walking, we observed a decrease of VAT weight (–34% and triglyceride levels (–27%, an increase of Vv[islet.cells] (+72% and Vv[acinar.cells] (+7%, and a decrease of Vv

  19. High-intensity exercise training increases the diversity and metabolic capacity of the mouse distal gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denou, Emmanuel; Marcinko, Katarina; Surette, Michael G; Steinberg, Gregory R; Schertzer, Jonathan D

    2016-06-01

    Diet and exercise underpin the risk of obesity-related metabolic disease. Diet alters the gut microbiota, which contributes to aspects of metabolic disease during obesity. Repeated exercise provides metabolic benefits during obesity. We assessed whether exercise could oppose changes in the taxonomic and predicted metagenomic characteristics of the gut microbiota during diet-induced obesity. We hypothesized that high-intensity interval training (HIIT) would counteract high-fat diet (HFD)-induced changes in the microbiota without altering obesity in mice. Compared with chow-fed mice, an obesity-causing HFD decreased the Bacteroidetes-to-Firmicutes ratio and decreased the genetic capacity in the fecal microbiota for metabolic pathways such as the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. After HFD-induced obesity was established, a subset of mice were HIIT for 6 wk, which increased host aerobic capacity but did not alter body or adipose tissue mass. The effects of exercise training on the microbiota were gut segment dependent and more extensive in the distal gut. HIIT increased the alpha diversity and Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio of the distal gut and fecal microbiota during diet-induced obesity. Exercise training increased the predicted genetic capacity related to the TCA cycle among other aspects of metabolism. Strikingly, the same microbial metabolism indexes that were increased by exercise were all decreased in HFD-fed vs. chow diet-fed mice. Therefore, exercise training directly opposed some of the obesity-related changes in gut microbiota, including lower metagenomic indexes of metabolism. Some host and microbial pathways appeared similarly affected by exercise. These exercise- and diet-induced microbiota interactions can be captured in feces. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. Environmental heat stress, hyperammonemia and nucleotide metabolism during intermittent exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohr, Magni; Rasmussen, Peter; Drust, Barry

    2006-01-01

    ) followed by five 15 s all-out sprints. Control trials were conducted in a 20°C environment while heat stress trials were performed at an ambient temperature of 40°C. Muscle biopsies and venous blood samples were obtained at rest, after 40 min of exercise and following the maximal sprints. Following......Abstract  This study investigated the influence of environmental heat stress on ammonia (NH3) accumulation in relation to nucleotide metabolism and fatigue during intermittent exercise. Eight males performed 40 min of intermittent exercise (15 s at 306±22 W alternating with 15 s of unloaded cycling...... exercise with heat stress, the core and muscle temperatures peaked at 39.5±0.2 and 40.2±0.2°C to be ~ 1°C higher (Pheat stress trial (P

  1. Resveratrol Is Not as Effective as Physical Exercise for Improving Reproductive and Metabolic Functions in Rats with Dihydrotestosterone-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Benrick

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS is a reproductive and metabolic disorder associated with obesity and insulin resistance that often precedes the development of type-2 diabetes. Rats continuously exposed to dihydrotestosterone from prepuberty display typical reproductive and metabolic PCOS characteristics including anovulation, polycystic ovaries, insulin resistance, and obesity. Our aim was to investigate if resveratrol improves reproductive and metabolic functions in PCOS rats. The effect was compared to exercise. Control and PCOS rats were treated with vehicle or resveratrol (400 mg · kg−1 · day−1 for 5-6 weeks. Another group of PCOS rats received vehicle treatment and exercised for 5-6 weeks. Insulin sensitivity was determined by euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp. The glucose infusion rate was lower in the PCOS-vehicle group compared to control-vehicle rats (P<0.05. Exercise increased insulin sensitivity compared with PCOS-vehicle rats (P<0.05, but resveratrol did not. Resveratrol treatment and exercise resulted in smaller adipocytes, upregulated estrogen-related receptor α gene expression in subcutaneous fat, and improved estrus cyclicity in the previously acyclic PCOS rats. Although resveratrol had positive effects on adiposity and cyclicity in a similar manner to exercise, resveratrol does not seem to be a good candidate for treating insulin resistance associated with PCOS because no improvement in insulin sensitivity was observed in PCOS rats on normal chow.

  2. Myocardial fatty acid utilisation during exercise induced ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtanen, K.S.; Nikkinen, P.; Lindroth, L.; Kuikka, J.T.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Reversible or irreversible myocardial damage due to ischemia correlates with altered membrane functions of the cells. To compare myocardial free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism and flow during exercise induced ischemia we studied ten patients with coronary artery disease but without previous myocardial infarction. Methods: A series of post-exercise single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements was performed after injection of 123 I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). Myocardial perfusion was estimated from the separately performed exercise-redistribution thallium study. Fatty acid metabolic rate, thallium uptake and washout were calculated for anterior, lateral, posterior and septal segments. Results: The more reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate (-63±18%, mean ±1 SD) compared to flow (-36±16%) was related to the severity of myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormalities. Conclusion: In this small group of patients, the reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate tentatively suggests a parsimonious workload of the exercising myocardium by reducing oxygen consumption in patients with coronary artery disease. (orig.) [de

  3. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin resistant phenotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance, however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilizati...

  4. Glucose metabolic alterations in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingjing; Liu, Beibei; Cai, Ming; Lin, Xiaojing; Lou, Shujie

    2017-11-04

    Diabetes could negatively affect the structures and functions of the brain, especially could cause the hippocampal dysfunction, however, the potential metabolic mechanism is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the changes of glucose metabolism in hippocampus of diabetes mellitus rats and the regulation of aerobic exercise, and to analyze the possible mechanisms. A rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus was established by high-fat diet feeding in combination with STZ intraperitoneal injection, then 4 weeks of aerobic exercise was conducted. The glucose metabolites and key enzymes involved in glucose metabolism in hippocampus were respectively detected by GC/MS based metabolomics and western blot. Metabolomics results showed that compared with control rats, the level of citric acid was significantly decreased, while the levels of lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate, xylulose 5-phosphate and glucitol were significantly increased in the diabetic rat. Compared with diabetic rats, the level of citric acid was significantly increased, while the lactic acid, ribose 5-phosphate and xylulose 5-phosphate were significantly decreased in the diabetic exercise rats. Western blot results showed that lower level of citrate synthase and oxoglutarate dehydrogenase, higher level of aldose reductase and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase were found in the diabetic rats when compared to control rats. After 4 weeks of aerobic exercise, citrate synthase was upregulated and glucose 6-phosphatedehydrogenase was downregulated in the diabetic rats. These results suggest that diabetes could cause abnormal glucose metabolism, and aerobic exercise plays an important role in regulating diabetes-induced disorder of glucose metabolism in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of acute exercise on monocyte subpopulations in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wonner, Ralph; Wallner, Stefan; Orsó, Evelyn; Schmitz, Gerd

    2016-06-10

    Acute exercise induces numerous changes in peripheral blood, e.g. counts of leukocytes. CD16 pos monocytes, which play a role in the pathogenesis of arteriosclerosis and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), are among the blood cells with the highest fold increase through exercise. So far no studies have investigated the effect of exercise on the blood cell composition of patients with MetS. Blood cell counts, a wide panel of laboratory tests, as well as lipid and protein content of monocytes and granulocytes were determined in healthy subjects, persons with metabolic risk and MetS patients before and after one minute of exercise at 400 W. Leukocyte counts increased significantly in all groups with CD14 pos CD16 pos monocytes showing the highest fold-change. In MetS patients the fold increase was smaller. They had a higher resting level of CD14 pos CD16 pos monocytes and a lower basal ratio of CD16 neg /CD16 pos monocytes. A similar ratio of these cells was induced in control and risk subjects after exercise. However, absolute counts of mobilized pro-inflammatory monocytes did not differ significantly. Furthermore, we detected a decrease in protein content of monocytes in controls, but not in MetS patients. As strenuous exercise is able to mobilize the same amount of pro-inflammatory monocytes in MetS patients as in healthy persons, the elevated basal level of these cells in MetS patients is likely to be caused by enhanced maturation rather than chronic mobilization. The removal of these monocytes from the endothelium might be part of the beneficial effect of exercise on vascular disease. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  6. Adding Diet and Exercise Counseling to the Health Promotion Plan Alleviates Anthropometric and Metabolic Complications in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    S. Morita-Suzuki; Y. Fujioka; H. Mitsuoka; M. Tashiro; M. Harada

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of individual (IC) and group (GC) diet and exercise counseling in men with metabolic syndrome. Participants received exercise instruction and exercise load was monitored. IC participants received individual diet counseling sessions and general consultations at baseline and monthly. GC participants received a group diet counseling session at baseline and general consultations at baseline and monthly. In the IC group, body mass index (BMI) percent body fat, waist cir...

  7. Yerba Maté (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-08-15

    Yerba Maté (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measures design. Participants rested for 120 min before performing a 30-min cycling exercise corresponding to individuals' crossover point intensity (COP). FAO, determined using indirect calorimetry, was significantly higher during the 30-min exercise in YM vs. PLC (0.21 ± 0.07 vs. 0.17 ± 0.06 g/min, p exercise at targeted "fat-loss"' intensities augments FAO and improves measures of satiety and mood state. Such positive combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects may provide an important role for designing future fat and weight-loss lifestyle interventions.

  8. Effect of long-term physical exercise program and/or diet on metabolic syndrome in obese boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Hermoso, Antonio; Saavedra García, José Miguel; Escalante González, Yolanda; Domínguez Pachón, Ana María

    2014-07-01

    There have been just a few studies examining the influence of detraining on obese boys. They conclude that any gains regress to the untrained control values during the detraining period. The objective of the present study was thus to evaluate the effects of detraining (6 months) on metabolic syndrome after two types of intervention (both 31 months), one of an exercise program alone and the other of a diet-plus-exercise program, in obese boys. The participants were 18 sedentary boys (8- 11 years old) with a body mass index equal or greater than the 97th percentile for the age and sex (male) of the subject, without any dysfunction or metabolic problem. The participants were divided into two groups - the E group (physical exercise program) and the E+D group (physical exercise program plus a low calorie diet). Metabolic parameters were evaluated (TC, HDL, LDL, TG, glucose, insulin, Systolic Blood Pressure, and Diastolic Blood Pressure), allowing the metabolic syndrome index to be calculated. Changes were observed in LDL-C (effect sizes = -3.19 and -2.28) and in the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio (effect sizes = -3.02 and -1.16) in the E and E+D groups, respectively. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity was completely removed only in the E group (100% norisk and non-obese subjects - exercise program (with or without diet) seems not to negatively affect the cardiovascular profile, suggesting that the program provides benefits and fosters healthy habits that can be maintained over time, preventing the development of metabolic syndrome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  9. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, B.; Graham, T.

    2006-01-01

    During prolonged exercise, carbohydrate oxidation may result from decreased pyruvate production and increased fatty acid supply and ultimately lead to reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Pyruvate also interacts with the amino acids alanine, glutamine, and glutamate, whereby the decline...... amino acid taken up during exercise and recovery. Alanine and glutamine were also associated...... with pyruvate metabolism, and they comprised 68% of total amino-acid release during exercise and recovery. Thus reduced pyruvate production was primarily associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, whereas the greatest production of pyruvate was related to glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism...

  10. Amino acid metabolism during exercise in trained rats: the potential role of carnitine in the metabolic fate of branched-chain amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, L L; Miller, R H; Nagle, F J; Lardy, H A; Stratman, F W

    1987-08-01

    The influence of endurance training and an acute bout of exercise on plasma concentrations of free amino acids and the intermediates of branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism were investigated in the rat. Training did not affect the plasma amino acid levels in the resting state. Plasma concentrations of alanine (Ala), aspartic acid (Asp), asparagine (Asn), arginine (Arg), histidine (His), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), lysine (Lys), methionine (Met), phenylalanine (Phe), proline (Pro), serine (Ser), threonine (Thr), and valine (Val) were significantly lower, whereas glutamate (Glu), glycine (Gly), ornithine (Orn), tryptophan (Trp), tyrosine (Tyr), creatinine, urea, and ammonia levels were unchanged, after one hour of treadmill running in the trained rats. Plasma concentration of glutamine (Glu), the branched-chain keto acids (BCKA) and short-chain acyl carnitines were elevated with exercise. Ratios of plasma BCAA/BCKA were dramatically lowered by exercise in the trained rats. A decrease in plasma-free carnitine levels was also observed. These data suggest that amino acid metabolism is enhanced by exercise even in the trained state. BCAA may only be partially metabolized within muscle and some of their carbon skeletons are released into the circulation in forms of BCKA and short-chain acyl carnitines.

  11. Longitudinal changes in body composition and metabolic profile between exercise clinical trials in men with chronic spinal cord injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgey, Ashraf S.; Martin, Heather; Metz, Alyse; Khalil, Refka E.; Dolbow, David R.; Gater, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Study design Longitudinal design. Objectives The study was undertaken to determine the effects of cessation of exercise interventions on body composition and metabolic profiles in men with chronic SCI. Settings Clinical trials within a Medical Center. Methods Eleven men with motor complete SCI were followed on average over a period of 2.5 years. Six men were involved in two different exercise interventions (functional electrical stimulation cycling versus arm cycling ergometer), 5 days/week for 16 weeks (exercise group), and five men served as a control (control group). Anthropometrics and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) were captured to measure changes in lean mass (LM), fat mass (FM), percentage FM before, immediately after exercise, and after a period of 2.5 years. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) and lipid panel were also measured. Results Thigh circumference increased by 8.5% following exercise (P = 0.042) and remained 6.4% greater than baseline measurements (P = 0.012). Leg LM increased by 9% following the exercise intervention (P = 0.03) and decreased by 16% in the follow-up visit (P = 0.02). Percentage trunk and total body FM increased by 4.5% (P = 0.008) and 3.5% (P = 0.019) in the follow-up visit, respectively, and whole body LM increased by 8.4% and decreased back by 5.4% following a 2.5 year-period. BMR significantly decreased by 15.5% following the exercise (P = 0.029) interventions. Conclusion Exercise training is accompanied with positive changes in body composition as well as compensatory decrease in BMR, that regressed back following 2.5 years of exercise cessation. Participation in an exercise trial is unlikely to confound the measurements of a follow-up trial. PMID:27077574

  12. Aerobic exercise training reduces arterial stiffness in metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donley, David A; Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; DeVallance, Evan; Bonner, Daniel E; Olfert, I Mark; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a threefold increase risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality partly due to increased arterial stiffening. We compared the effects of aerobic exercise training on arterial stiffening/mechanics in MetS subjects without overt CVD or type 2 diabetes. MetS and healthy control (Con) subjects underwent 8 wk of exercise training (ExT; 11 MetS and 11 Con) or remained inactive (11 MetS and 10 Con). The following measures were performed pre- and postintervention: radial pulse wave analysis (applanation tonometry) was used to measure augmentation pressure and index, central pressures, and an estimate of myocardial efficiency; arterial stiffness was assessed from carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity (cfPWV, applanation tonometry); carotid thickness was assessed from B-mode ultrasound; and peak aerobic capacity (gas exchange) was performed in the seated position. Plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and CVD risk (Framingham risk score) were also assessed. cfPWV was reduced (P Exercise training reduced (P exercise training, thereby lowering their cardiovascular risk. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Whole-Body Vibration Mimics the Metabolic Effects of Exercise in Male Leptin Receptor-Deficient Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wenger, Karl H; Misra, Sudipta; Davis, Catherine L; Pollock, Norman K; Elsalanty, Mohammed; Ding, Kehong; Isales, Carlos M; Hamrick, Mark W; Wosiski-Kuhn, Marlena; Arounleut, Phonepasong; Mattson, Mark P; Cutler, Roy G; Yu, Jack C; Stranahan, Alexis M

    2017-05-01

    Whole-body vibration (WBV) has gained attention as a potential exercise mimetic, but direct comparisons with the metabolic effects of exercise are scarce. To determine whether WBV recapitulates the metabolic and osteogenic effects of physical activity, we exposed male wild-type (WT) and leptin receptor-deficient (db/db) mice to daily treadmill exercise (TE) or WBV for 3 months. Body weights were analyzed and compared with WT and db/db mice that remained sedentary. Glucose and insulin tolerance testing revealed comparable attenuation of hyperglycemia and insulin resistance in db/db mice following TE or WBV. Both interventions reduced body weight in db/db mice and normalized muscle fiber diameter. TE or WBV also attenuated adipocyte hypertrophy in visceral adipose tissue and reduced hepatic lipid content in db/db mice. Although the effects of leptin receptor deficiency on cortical bone structure were not eliminated by either intervention, exercise and WBV increased circulating levels of osteocalcin in db/db mice. In the context of increased serum osteocalcin, the modest effects of TE and WBV on bone geometry, mineralization, and biomechanics may reflect subtle increases in osteoblast activity in multiple areas of the skeleton. Taken together, these observations indicate that WBV recapitulates the effects of exercise on metabolism in type 2 diabetes.

  14. Decreased muscle oxygenation and increased arterial blood flow in the non-exercising limb during leg exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, Kiyoshi; Kime, Ryotaro; Osada, Takuya; Murase, Norio; Shimomura, Kousuke; Katsumura, Toshihito

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated arterial blood flow, muscle tissue oxygenation and muscle metabolism in the non-exercising limb during leg cycling exercise. Ten healthy male volunteers performed a graded leg cycling exercise at 0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 watts (W) for 5 min each. Tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of the non-exercising left forearm muscle was measured using a near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy (NIR(SRS)), and non-exercising forearm blood flow ((NONEX)FBF) in the brachial artery was also evaluated by a Doppler ultrasound system. We also determined O(2) consumption of the non-exercising forearm muscle (NONEXV(O)(2mus)) by the rate of decrease in O(2)Hb during arterial occlusion at each work rate. TOI was significantly decreased at 160 W (p exercising muscle may be reduced, even though (NONEX)FBF increases at high work rates during leg cycling exercise.

  15. Enhanced muscle glucose metabolism after exercise in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garetto, L P; Richter, Erik; Goodman, M N

    1984-01-01

    glycogen was substantially repleted at the time (30 min postexercise) that glucose metabolism was examined. When rats were run at twice the previous rate (36 m/min), muscle glycogen was still substantially diminished 30 min after the run. At this time the previously noted increase in insulin sensitivity......Thirty minutes after a treadmill run, glucose utilization and glycogen synthesis in perfused rat skeletal muscle are enhanced due to an increase in insulin sensitivity (Richter et al., J. Clin. Invest. 69: 785-793, 1982). The exercise used in these studies was of moderate intensity, and muscle...... was still observed in perfused muscle; however, glucose utilization was also increased in the absence of added insulin (1.5 vs. 4.2 mumol X g-1 X h-1). In contrast 2.5 h after the run, muscle glycogen had returned to near preexercise values, and only the insulin-induced increase in glucose utilization...

  16. Adults with initial metabolic syndrome have altered muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Alessandro da Costa; Barbosa, Thales Coelho; Kluser Sales, Allan Robson; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira; da Nóbrega, Antonio Claudio Lucas; Silva, Bruno Moreira

    2017-02-01

    Reduced aerobic power is independently associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) incidence and prevalence in adults. This study investigated whether muscle deoxygenation (proxy of microvascular O 2 extraction) during incremental exercise is altered in MetS and associated with reduced oxygen consumption ( V˙O 2peak ). Twelve men with initial MetS (no overt diseases and medication-naive; mean ± SD, age 38 ± 7 years) and 12 healthy controls (HCs) (34 ± 7 years) completed an incremental cycling test to exhaustion, in which pulmonary ventilation and gas exchange (metabolic analyzer), as well as vastus lateralis deoxygenation (near infrared spectroscopy), were measured. Subjects with MetS, in contrast to HCs, showed lower V˙O 2peak normalized to total lean mass, similar V˙O 2 response to exercise, and earlier break point (BP) in muscle deoxygenation. Consequently, deoxygenation slope from BP to peak exercise was greater. Furthermore, absolute V˙O 2peak was positively associated with BP in correlations adjusted for total lean mass. MetS, without overt diseases, altered kinetics of muscle deoxygenation during incremental exercise, particularly at high-intensity exercise. Therefore, the balance between utilization and delivery of O 2 within skeletal muscle is impaired early in MetS natural history, which may contribute to the reduction in aerobic power. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  17. Exercise counteracts aging-related memory impairment: a potential role for the astrocytic metabolic shuttle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng-Feng eTsai

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Age-related cognitive impairment has become one of the most common health threats in many countries. The biological substrate of cognition is the interconnection of neurons to form complex information processing networks. Experience-based alterations in the activities of these information processing networks lead to neuroadaptation, which is physically represented at the cellular level as synaptic plasticity. Although synaptic plasticity is known to be affected by aging, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well described. Astrocytes, a glial cell type that is infrequently investigated in cognitive science, have emerged as energy suppliers which are necessary for meeting the abundant energy demand resulting from glutamatergic synaptic activity. Moreover, the concerted action of an astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle is essential for cognitive function; whereas, energetic incoordination between astrocytes and neurons may contribute to cognitive impairment. Whether altered function of the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle links aging to reduced synaptic plasticity is unexplored. However, accumulated evidence documents significant beneficial effects of long-term, regular exercise on cognition and synaptic plasticity. Furthermore, exercise increases the effectiveness of astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle by upregulation of astrocytic lactate transporter levels. This review summarizes previous findings related to the neuronal activity-dependent astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle. Moreover, we discuss how aging and exercise may shape the astrocyte-neuron metabolic shuttle in cognition-associated brain areas.

  18. Fat metabolism during exercise in patients with mitochondrial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Tina Dysgaard; Orngreen, Mette Cathrine; Van Hall, Gerrit

    2009-01-01

    . Fat metabolism was determined by means of indirect calorimetry and stable isotope technique in patients and healthy subjects. Patients carried various types and loads (mean [SE], 72% [5%]) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations in skeletal muscle. All subjects exercised at the same absolute workload......OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with defects of the respiratory chain have metabolic adaptations that promote a preferential use of fats or carbohydrates, similar to what is observed in metabolic myopathies affecting glycolysis or fat oxidation. DESIGN: Causation and case-control study...... (mean [SE], 65 [10] W), corresponding to 72% (in patients) and 30% (in healthy subjects) of maximum oxygen consumption. SETTING: Neuromuscular research unit. PARTICIPANTS: Ten patients with mtDNA mutations and 10 sex-matched healthy subjects. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Fat turnover, plasma concentrations...

  19. The effect of additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Jisu; Park, Miyoung; Chung, Nana; Lim, Kiwon

    2018-03-30

    The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10). Then, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose level, and blood lactate level were measured in all team-sports players during submaximal exercise corresponding to 70% VO2max before and after intervention. There was no significant interaction in all parameters, but team-sports players in the EXP presented more improved VO2max (CON vs EXP = vs 5.3% vs 6.3%), VE (CON vs EXP = vs 3.8% vs 6.6%), VO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 8.5% vs 9.9%), VCO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 2.8% vs 4.0%), blood glucose level (CON vs EXP = vs -12.9% vs -7.6%), and blood lactate level (CON vs EXP = -18.2% vs -25%) compared to those in the CON. These findings showed that additional carbohydrate supplementation conducted in our study is not effective in exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise. ©2018 The Korean Society for Exercise Nutrition.

  20. Specific Physical Exercise Improves Energetic Metabolism in the Skeletal Muscle of Amyotrophic-Lateral- Sclerosis Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Desseille

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the specific loss of motor neurons, leading to muscle paralysis and death. Although the cellular mechanisms underlying amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-induced toxicity for motor neurons remain poorly understood, growing evidence suggest a defective energetic metabolism in skeletal muscles participating in ALS-induced motor neuron death ultimately destabilizing neuromuscular junctions. In the present study, we report that a specific exercise paradigm, based on a high intensity and amplitude swimming exercise, significantly improves glucose metabolism in ALS mice. Using physiological tests and a biophysics approach based on nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, we unexpectedly found that SOD1(G93A ALS mice suffered from severe glucose intolerance, which was counteracted by high intensity swimming but not moderate intensity running exercise. Furthermore, swimming exercise restored the highly ALS-sensitive tibialis muscle through an autophagy-linked mechanism involving the expression of key glucose transporters and metabolic enzymes, including GLUT4 and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH. Importantly, GLUT4 and GAPDH expression defects were also found in muscles from ALS patients. Moreover, we report that swimming exercise induced a triglyceride accumulation in ALS tibialis, likely resulting from an increase in the expression levels of lipid transporters and biosynthesis enzymes, notably DGAT1 and related proteins. All these data provide the first molecular basis for the differential effects of specific exercise type and intensity in ALS, calling for the use of physical exercise as an appropriate intervention to alleviate symptoms in this debilitating disease.

  1. Influence of acute exercise with and without carbohydrate replacement on postprandial lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Michael; O'Gorman, Donal J; McCaffrey, Noel; Hamilton, Marc T; Zderic, Theodore W; Carson, Brian P; Moyna, Niall M

    2009-03-01

    Acute exercise, undertaken on the day before an oral fat tolerance test (OFTT), typically reduces postprandial triglycerides (TG) and increases high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). However, the benefits of acute exercise may be overstated when studies do not account for compensatory changes in dietary intake. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute exercise, with and without carbohydrate (CHO) replacement, on postprandial lipid metabolism. Eight recreationally active young men underwent an OFTT on the morning after three experimental conditions: no exercise [control (Con)], prolonged exercise without CHO replacement (Ex-Def) and prolonged exercise with CHO replacement to restore CHO and energy balance (Ex-Bal). The exercise session in Ex-Def and Ex-Bal consisted of 90 min cycle ergometry at 70% peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2peak)) followed by 10 maximal 1-min sprints. CHO replacement was achieved using glucose solutions consumed at 0, 2, and 4 h postexercise. Muscle glycogen was 40 +/- 4% (P Con values on the morning of the Ex-Def and Ex-Bal OFTT, respectively. Postprandial TG were 40 +/- 14% lower and postprandial HDL-C, free fatty acids, and 3-hydroxybutyrate were higher in Ex-Def compared with Con (P < 0.05). Most importantly, these exercise effects were not evident in Ex-Bal. Postprandial insulin and glucose and the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA(IR)) were not significantly different across trials. There was no relation between the changes in postprandial TG and muscle glycogen across trials. In conclusion, the influence of acute exhaustive exercise on postprandial lipid metabolism is largely dependent on the associated CHO and energy deficit.

  2. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jui-Hua; Li, Ren-Hau; Huang, Shu-Ling; Sia, Hon-Ke; Chen, Yu-Ling; Tang, Feng-Cheng

    2015-12-16

    This study aimed to investigate (1) relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2) interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP), and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO), and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  3. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Anselmino

    Full Text Available Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model.The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running, considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations. To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8.Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77, while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56.The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  4. A Computational Study on the Relation between Resting Heart Rate and Atrial Fibrillation Hemodynamics under Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anselmino, Matteo; Scarsoglio, Stefania; Saglietto, Andrea; Gaita, Fiorenzo; Ridolfi, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Clinical data indicating a heart rate (HR) target during rate control therapy for permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and assessing its eventual relationship with reduced exercise tolerance are lacking. The present study aims at investigating the impact of resting HR on the hemodynamic response to exercise in permanent AF patients by means of a computational cardiovascular model. The AF lumped-parameter model was run to simulate resting (1 Metabolic Equivalent of Task-MET) and various exercise conditions (4 METs: brisk walking; 6 METs: skiing; 8 METs: running), considering different resting HR (70 bpm for the slower resting HR-SHR-simulations, and 100 bpm for the higher resting HR-HHR-simulations). To compare relative variations of cardiovascular variables upon exertion, the variation comparative index (VCI)-the absolute variation between the exercise and the resting values in SHR simulations referred to the absolute variation in HHR simulations-was calculated at each exercise grade (VCI4, VCI6 and VCI8). Pulmonary venous pressure underwent a greater increase in HHR compared to SHR simulations (VCI4 = 0.71, VCI6 = 0.73 and VCI8 = 0.77), while for systemic arterial pressure the opposite is true (VCI4 = 1.15, VCI6 = 1.36, VCI8 = 1.56). The computational findings suggest that a slower, with respect to a higher resting HR, might be preferable in permanent AF patients, since during exercise pulmonary venous pressure undergoes a slighter increase and systemic blood pressure reveals a more appropriate increase.

  5. Metabolic control of muscle blood flow during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher

    2003-01-01

    that combined blockade of NOS and PGI2, and NOS and cytochrome P450, both attenuate exercise-induced hyperemia in humans. Combined vasodilator blockade studies offer the potential to uncover important interactions and compensatory vasodilator responses. The signaling pathways that link metabolic events evoked...... to exert control of muscle vasodilation. Adenosine, nitric oxide (NO), prostacyclin (PGI2), and endothelial-derived hyperpolarization factor (EDHF) are possible mediators of muscle vasodilation during exercise. In humans, adenosine has been shown to contribute to functional hyperemia as blood flow...... by muscle contraction to vasodilatory signals in the local vascular bed remains an important area of study....

  6. Effect of nocturnal exhaustion exercise on the metabolism of selected elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patlar Suleyman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to examine how exercise performed until fatigue at night affects element distribution in the serum. The study examined 10 healthy sedentary males who were not actively engaged in any particular sport and whose mean age was 23.00±0.25 years, mean height 177.79±2.25 cm, and mean weight 70.70±1.63 kg. Blood samples were collected from the subjects at midnight twice: during rest before exercise and after exercise. Serum phosphorus, sodium, potassium, sulfur (mmol/L, cobalt, boron, cadmium, chrome, nickel, manganese, molybdenum, copper, iron, zinc and calcium levels (mg/L were measured using atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES. Exhaustion exercise performed at night brought about a decrease in copper levels only (p<0.05, while elevating levels of potassium, sodium, magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, manganese, nickel, selenium, molybdenum, chrome, cobalt, lead and cadmium (p<0.05. The results of the study demonstrate that nighttime exercise until exhaustion significantly alters element metabolism.

  7. [The influence of physical exercise on heart rate variability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajek, Jacek; Zyśko, Dorota; Negrusz-Kawecka, Marta; Halawa, Bogumił

    2003-03-01

    Heart rate variability is controlled by the influence of autonomic nervous system, whereas one part of the system modulates the activity of the other. There is evidence of increased sympathetic activity in patients (pts) with essential hypertension. The aim of the study was to assess the persisting influence of increased sympathetic activity 30 min after moderate physical exercise on heart rate variability in patients with arterial hypertension. The study was performed in 19 patients (10 women, mean age 52.7 +/- 9.5 years and 9 men, mean age 37.7 +/- 8.8 years) with stage I (6 pts) and stage II (13 pts) arterial hypertension. All studied pts had sinus rhythm, were free of diabetes, coronary heart disease and congestive heart failure. 24-hour Holter monitoring was performed and for 30 min before the exercise test the pts stayed in supine rest. The exercise tests were performed between 10 and 11 a.m. Immediately after the exercise all pts stayed in supine position for 30 min. The heart rate variability parameters were studied using Holter monitoring system Medilog Optima Jet and were then analysed statistically. The mean energy expenditure during the exercise was 5.8 +/- 1.1 METs and the maximal heart rate was 148.1 +/- 20.3 bpm. All studied HRV parameters were significantly different in the assessed time period compared to the baseline values (p < 0.001). Significant correlation was found between the age of the studied patients and the mean RR interval, what can be considered as a hyperkinetic (hyperadrenergic) circulatory status and shorter RR interval in younger pts. Significant negative correlation between the age and SDNN parameter (r = -0.65, p < 0.001), 30 min after the exercise mirrors the prolonged adrenergic influence in older pts. The present study shows that the influence of moderate physical exercise on heart rate variability in pts with essential hypertension is extended over 30 min period after exercise and is more pronounced in older pts. The studies

  8. Substrate availability and transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes in human skeletal muscle during recovery from exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilegaard, Henriette; Osada, Takuya; Andersen, Lisbeth Tingsted

    2005-01-01

    before exercise and 2, 5, 8, and 24 hours after exercise. Muscle glycogen was restored to near resting levels within 5 hours in the HC trial, but remained depressed through 24 hours in the LC trial. During the 2- to 8-hour recovery period, leg glucose uptake was 5- to 15-fold higher with HC ingestion......In skeletal muscle of humans, transcription of several metabolic genes is transiently induced during recovery from exercise when no food is consumed. To determine the potential influence of substrate availability on the transcriptional regulation of metabolic genes during recovery from exercise, 9...... male subjects (aged 22-27) completed 75 minutes of cycling exercise at 75% V¿o2max on 2 occasions, consuming either a high-carbohydrate (HC) or low-carbohydrate (LC) diet during the subsequent 24 hours of recovery. Nuclei were isolated and tissue frozen from vastus lateralis muscle biopsies obtained...

  9. Exercise Testing Reveals Everyday Physical Challenges of Bariatric Surgery Candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creel, David B; Schuh, Leslie M; Newton, Robert L; Stote, Joseph J; Cacucci, Brenda M

    2017-12-01

    Few studies have quantified cardiorespiratory fitness among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Treadmill testing allows researchers to determine exercise capacity through metabolic equivalents. These findings can assist clinicians in understanding patients' capabilities to carry out various activities of daily living. The purpose of this study was to determine exercise tolerance and the variables associated with fitness, among individuals seeking bariatric surgery. Bariatric surgery candidates completed submaximal treadmill testing and provided ratings of perceived exertion. Each participant also completed questionnaires related to history of exercise, mood, and perceived barriers/benefits of exercise. Over half of participants reported that exercise was "hard to very hard" before reaching 70% of heart rate reserve, and one-third of participants reported that exercise was "moderately hard" at less than 3 metabolic equivalents (light activity). Body mass index and age accounted for the majority of the variance in exercise tolerance, but athletic history, employment status, and perceived health benefits also contributed. Perceived benefit scores were higher than barrier scores. Categories commonly used to describe moderate-intensity exercise (3-6 metabolic equivalents) do not coincide with perceptions of intensity among many bariatric surgery candidates, especially those with a body mass index of 50 or more.

  10. Temporal discounting rates and their relation to exercise behavior in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Linda M; Tsai, Pao-Feng; Landes, Reid D; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Lefler, Leanne L

    2015-12-01

    As our nation's population ages, the rates of chronic illness and disability are expected to increase significantly. Despite the knowledge that exercise may prevent chronic disease and promote health among older adults, many still are inactive. Factors related to exercise behaviors have been explored in recent years. However, temporal discounting is a motivational concept that has not been explored in regard to exercise in older adults. Temporal discounting is a decision making process by which an individual chooses a smaller more immediate reward over a larger delayed reward. The aim of this study was to determine if temporal discounting rates vary between exercising and non-exercising older adults. This study used cross-sectional survey of 137 older adults living in the community. Older adults were recruited from 11 rural Arkansas churches. The Kirby delay-discounting Monetary Choice Questionnaire was used to collect discounting rates and then bivariate analysis was performed to compare temporal discounting rate between the exercisers and non-exercisers. Finally, multivariate analysis was used to compare discounting rate controlling for other covariates. The results indicated that exercising older adults display lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercising older adults. After controlling for education, exercisers still have lower temporal discounting rates than non-exercisers (phealth conditions relate to lack of exercise especially in older adults. This research suggests that if we can find appropriate incentives for discounting individuals, some type of immediate reward, then potentially we can design programs to engage and retain older adults in exercise. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E; Egan, Brendan

    2017-05-01

    Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β-hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post-exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise-trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti-lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2016 The Physiological Society.

  12. Metabolism of ketone bodies during exercise and training: physiological basis for exogenous supplementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mark; Cogan, Karl E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Optimising training and performance through nutrition strategies is central to supporting elite sportspeople, much of which has focused on manipulating the relative intake of carbohydrate and fat and their contributions as fuels for energy provision. The ketone bodies, namely acetoacetate, acetone and β‐hydroxybutyrate (βHB), are produced in the liver during conditions of reduced carbohydrate availability and serve as an alternative fuel source for peripheral tissues including brain, heart and skeletal muscle. Ketone bodies are oxidised as a fuel source during exercise, are markedly elevated during the post‐exercise recovery period, and the ability to utilise ketone bodies is higher in exercise‐trained skeletal muscle. The metabolic actions of ketone bodies can alter fuel selection through attenuating glucose utilisation in peripheral tissues, anti‐lipolytic effects on adipose tissue, and attenuation of proteolysis in skeletal muscle. Moreover, ketone bodies can act as signalling metabolites, with βHB acting as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases, an important regulator of the adaptive response to exercise in skeletal muscle. Recent development of ketone esters facilitates acute ingestion of βHB that results in nutritional ketosis without necessitating restrictive dietary practices. Initial reports suggest this strategy alters the metabolic response to exercise and improves exercise performance, while other lines of evidence suggest roles in recovery from exercise. The present review focuses on the physiology of ketone bodies during and after exercise and in response to training, with specific interest in exploring the physiological basis for exogenous ketone supplementation and potential benefits for performance and recovery in athletes. PMID:27861911

  13. The effect of additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hun-Young; Kim, Jisu; Park, Miyoung; Chung, Nana; Lim, Kiwon

    2018-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of our study was to determine the effectiveness of carbohydrate loading by additional carbohydrate supplements for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise on exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise in team-sports athletes. [Methods] Twenty male team-sports athletes (14 soccer and 6 rugby players) volunteered to participate in the study and were equally divided into the experimental group (EXP, n=10) performing additional carbohydrate supplementation for 7 days after prolonged interval exercise until blood glucose level reaches 50 mg/dL or less and the control group (CON, n=10). Then, maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and minute ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), blood glucose level, and blood lactate level were measured in all team-sports players during submaximal exercise corresponding to 70% VO2max before and after intervention. [Results] There was no significant interaction in all parameters, but team-sports players in the EXP presented more improved VO2max (CON vs EXP = vs 5.3% vs 6.3%), VE (CON vs EXP = vs 3.8% vs 6.6%), VO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 8.5% vs 9.9%), VCO2 (CON vs EXP = vs 2.8% vs 4.0%), blood glucose level (CON vs EXP = vs -12.9% vs -7.6%), and blood lactate level (CON vs EXP = -18.2% vs -25%) compared to those in the CON. [Conclusion] These findings showed that additional carbohydrate supplementation conducted in our study is not effective in exercise performance and energy metabolism during submaximal exercise. PMID:29673243

  14. Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome among Workers: The Role of Interactions between Smoking and Alcohol to Nutrition and Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jui-Hua Huang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate (1 relations of smoking and alcohol to metabolic syndrome (MetS and its components, with nutrition and exercise controlled; and (2 interactions between smoking/alcohol and nutrition/exercise on MetS. This cross-sectional study enrolled 4025 workers. Self-reported lifestyles, anthropometric values, blood pressure (BP, and biochemical determinations were obtained. Among males, smoking significantly increased the risk of low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, high triglyceride, abdominal obesity (AO, and MetS. Additionally, smoking showed significant interaction effects with nutrition on high BP, AO, and MetS; after further analysis, nutrition did not decrease above-mentioned risks for smokers. However, there was no significant interaction of smoking with exercise on any metabolic parameter. Alcohol increased the risk of AO, but decreased low HDL-C. It also showed an interaction effect with exercise on AO; after further analysis, exercise decreased AO risk for drinkers. Among females, alcohol significantly decreased the risk of high fasting blood glucose, but did not show significant interaction with nutrition/exercise on any metabolic parameter. In conclusion, in males, smoking retained significant associations with MetS and its components, even considering benefits of nutrition; exercise kept predominance on lipid parameters regardless of smoking status. Alcohol showed inconsistencies on metabolic parameters for both genders.

  15. Exercise training, but not resveratrol, improves metabolic and inflammatory status in skeletal muscle of aged men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Jesper; Gliemann Hybholt, Lasse; Biensøe, Rasmus S

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the metabolic and anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol alone and when combined with exercise training in skeletal muscle of aged human subjects. Material and Methods: Healthy physically inactive men (60-72 year old) were randomized into either 8 weeks of daily intake of 250...... mg resveratrol or placebo or into 8 weeks of high intensity exercise training with 250 mg resveratrol or placebo. Before and after the interventions, resting blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and a one-leg knee-extensor endurance exercise test (KEE) was performed. Results: Exercise...... with no significant additive or adverse effects of resveratrol on these parameters. Despite an overall ~25% reduction in total acetylation level in skeletal muscle with resveratrol, no exclusive resveratrol-mediated metabolic effects were observed on the investigated parameters. Notably however, resveratrol blunted...

  16. Ergogenic effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on intermittent exercise performance preceded by intense arm cranking exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marriott, Matthaus; Krustrup, Peter; Mohr, Magni

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate ingestion have been suggested to improve high-intensity intermittent exercise, but it is unclear if these ergogenic substances affect performance under provoked metabolic acidification. To study the effects of caffeine and sodium bicarbonate on intense...... to CAF and PLA, while no difference in heart rate was observed between trials. CONCLUSIONS: Caffeine and sodium bicarbonate administration improved Yo-Yo IR2 performance and lowered perceived exertion after intense arm cranking exercise, with greater overall effects of sodium bicarbonate intake....... intermittent exercise performance and metabolic markers under exercise-induced acidification, intense arm-cranking exercise was performed prior to intense intermittent running after intake of placebo, caffeine and sodium bicarbonate. METHODS: Male team-sports athletes (n = 12) ingested sodium bicarbonate (Na...

  17. Exercise Training and Calorie Restriction Influence the Metabolic Parameters in Ovariectomized Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anikó Pósa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The estrogen deficiency after menopause leads to overweight or obesity, and physical exercise is one of the important modulators of this body weight gain. Female Wistar rats underwent ovariectomy surgery (OVX or sham operation (SO. OVX and SO groups were randomized into new groups based on the voluntary physical activity (with or without running and the type of diet for 12 weeks. Rats were fed standard chow (CTRL, high triglyceride diet (HT, or restricted diet (CR. The metabolic syndrome was assessed by measuring the body weight gain, the glucose sensitivity, and the levels of insulin, triglyceride, leptin, and aspartate aminotransferase transaminase (AST and alanine aminotransferase (ALT. The exercise training combined with the CR resulted in improvements in the glucose tolerance and the insulin sensitivity. Plasma TG, AST, and ALT levels were significantly higher in OVX rats fed with HT but these high values were suppressed by exercise and CR. Compared to SO animals, estrogen deprivation with HT caused a significant increase in leptin level. Our data provide evidence that CR combined with voluntary physical exercise can be a very effective strategy to prevent the development of a metabolic syndrome induced by high calorie diet.

  18. Toll like receptor expression induced by exercise in obesity and metabolic syndrome: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rada, Isabel; Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc; Zbinden-Foncea, Hermann

    2018-01-01

    Obesity and metabolic syndrome are disorders that correlate with the activation of pro-inflammatory pathways and cytokine production, to which Toll like receptors (TLR) contribute. Exercise may act as an anti-inflammatory modulator, but there is no consensus about the role of the TLR in this tuning. The present styudy aims to systematically review the current evidence on exercise-induced TLR regulation in animals and humans suffering from obesity and metabolic syndrome. Pubmed and Scopus databases were searched for publications from 1990 to September 2015. Search terms included: "Toll like Receptor", "TLR", "exercise", "obesity", "diabetes", and "metabolic syndrome". Elegibility criteria comprised: randomized control trials, cross-sectional and cohort studies; human or animal models with metabolic syndrome; any type of exercise; TLR expression measurement in any tissue by a clearly reported technique. The quality of selected studies was assessed using a modified version of the Downs and Black Quality Assessment Checklist. Data of study design; population; exercise type, timing and training elements; measurement technique, tissue analyzed and main outcome were extracted and categorized to facilitate data synthesis. 17 studies were included, of which 11 publications obtained a high, 5 a moderate and 1 a low score for quality assessment. A total of 8 human studies were analyzed: 6 studies used endurance continuous or interval training protocols, 1 study resistance training and the remaining study was performed following a marathon race. Blood cells were analyzed in seven studies, of which four studies sampled peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), three analyzed whole blood and one study sampled skeletal muscle. Nine animal studies were included: 8 used endurance training and 1 acute aerobic exercise. A variety of tissues samples were explored such as PBMC, skeletal muscle, adipose, vascular and nervous tissue. Globally, the animal studies showed a marked tendency

  19. Post-plyometric exercise hypotension and heart rate in normotensive individuals: influence of exercise intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arazi, Hamid; Asadi, Abbas; Rahimzadeh, Mehdi; Moradkhani, Amir-Hossein

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of high, moderate and low intensity plyometric exercise on the post-exercise systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate responses. Ten healthy normotensive men (age, 21.1±0.9 years; height, 175.8±6 cm; and body mass, 69.1±13.6 kg) volunteered to participate in this study and were evaluated for three non-consecutive days in depth jump exercise from 20-cm box (low intensity [LI]), 40-cm box (moderate intensity [MI]) and 60-cm box (high intensity [HI]) for 5 sets of 20 repetitions. After each exercise session, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and heart rate (HR) were measured every 10 min for a period of 90 min. No significant differences were observed among post-exercise SBP, DBP and HR when the protocols (LI, MI and HI) were compared. The LI and HI protocols showed greater reduction in SBP at 40(th)-70(th) min of post-exercise (~9%), whereas the LI and MI protocols indicated greater reduction in DBP at 10(th)-50(th) min of post exercise (~10%). In addition, the change in the DBP for HI was not significant and the increases in the HR were similar for all intensities. It can be concluded that a plyometric exercise (PE) can reduce SBP and DBP post-exercise and therefore we can say that PE has significant effects for reducing BP and HR or post-exercise hypotension.

  20. Yerba Mat? (Ilex paraguariensis) Metabolic, Satiety, and Mood State Effects at Rest and during Prolonged Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Atcheson, Roisin

    2017-01-01

    Yerba Mat? (YM), has become a popular herb ingested for enhancing metabolic health and weight-loss outcomes. No studies have tested the combined metabolic, satiety, and psychomotor effects of YM during exercise. We tested whether YM ingestion affects fatty acid oxidation (FAO), profile of mood state score (POMS), and subjective appetite scale (VAS), during prolonged moderate exercise. Twelve healthy active females were randomized to ingest either 2 g of YM or placebo (PLC) in a repeated-measu...

  1. Effects of aerobic training intensity on resting, exercise and post-exercise blood pressure, heart rate and heart-rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, V A; Verheyden, B; Aubert, A E; Fagard, R H

    2010-03-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of endurance training intensity (1) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR) at rest before exercise, and during and after a maximal exercise test; and (2) on measures of HR variability at rest before exercise and during recovery from the exercise test, in at least 55-year-old healthy sedentary men and women. A randomized crossover study comprising three 10-week periods was performed. In the first and third period, participants exercised at lower or higher intensity (33% or 66% of HR reserve) in random order, with a sedentary period in between. Training programmes were identical except for intensity, and were performed under supervision thrice for 1 h per week. The results show that in the three conditions, that is, at rest before exercise, during exercise and during recovery, we found endurance training at lower and higher intensity to reduce SBP significantly (Pendurance training did not affect the response of SBP after an acute bout of exercise. The effect of training on HR at rest, during exercise and recovery was more pronounced (Pendurance training had no significant effect on sympathovagal balance. In conclusion, in participants at higher age, both training programmes exert similar effects on SBP at rest, during exercise and during post-exercise recovery, whereas the effects on HR are more pronounced after higher intensity training.

  2. Hemodynamic and metabolic basis of impaired exercise tolerance in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roubin, G.S.; Anderson, S.D.; Shen, W.F.; Choong, C.Y.; Alwyn, M.; Hillery, S.; Harris, P.J.; Kelly, D.T.

    1990-01-01

    Hemodynamic and metabolic changes were measured at rest and during exercise in 23 patients with chronic heart failure and in 6 control subjects. Exercise was limited by leg fatigue in both groups and capacity was 40% lower in the patients with failure. At rest, comparing patients with control subjects, heart rate and right atrial and pulmonary wedge pressure were higher; cardiac output, stroke volume and work indexes and ejection fraction were lower; mean arterial and right atrial pressure and systemic resistance were similar. During all phases of exercise in patients with heart failure, pulmonary wedge pressure and systemic vascular resistance were higher and pulmonary vascular resistance remained markedly elevated compared with values in control subjects. Cardiac output was lower in the patients with failure, but appeared to have the same physiologic distribution in both groups during exercise. Although arterial-femoral venous oxygen content difference was higher in patients with heart failure, this increase did not compensate for the reduced blood flow. Even though the maximal oxygen consumption was significantly reduced, femoral venous lactate and pH values were higher than values in control subjects, but femoral venous pH was similar in both groups at their respective levels of maximal exercise. Ejection fraction was lower in those with heart failure at rest and did not increase with exercise. Ventilation in relation to oxygen consumption was higher in patients with failure than in control subjects

  3. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, Per; Donovan, E R

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection...... on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols...... and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR...

  4. Acute effects of Resistance exercise performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Guilherme Oliveira Silvestre

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To evaluate the acute effects of a resistance exercise session performed on ladder on energy metabolism, stress, and muscle damage in rats. METHODS Male Wistar rats were randomly distributed in Exercise (E (n=30 and Control (C (n = 20 groups. The E group performed a resistance exercise session on a vertical ladder with weights on their tails. Blood samples were collected at rest and after each climb to analyze lactate levels and ten minutes after the last climb to analyze lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, creatine kinase (CK, and corticosterone levels. RESULTS Blood lactate levels remained stable during exercise. Serum corticosterone, blood glucose, LDH and CK levels increased and glycogen content decreased in the E group, when compared to the C group. CONCLUSION These results suggest that resistance exercise performed on ladder is a model of high-intensity exercise. However, the stabilization of lactate during the session suggests that the aerobic metabolism is an important factor during the intervals between climbs.

  5. Effects of prolonged exercise versus multiple short exercise sessions on risk for metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, JinWook; Kim, KwangJun; Hong, Jeeyoung; Kong, Hyoun-Joong

    2017-08-22

    Many people, although they may recognise the positive effects of exercise, do not exercise regularly owing to lack of time. This study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged single-session exercise and multiple short sessions of exercise on the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. Thirty-six participants were divided into the single-session group, multiple-session group, and control group. The single-session group engaged in one session of treadmill exercise for 30 min a day; the multiple-session group had three sessions of 10 min a day. Both groups exercised 3 days/week for 12 weeks. The control group did not perform any exercise. The single-session group showed decreases in weight (0.97 kg [95% C.I. = 0.09-1.83], p exercise is superior to multiple short sessions for improving the risk of metabolic syndrome and the atherogenic index in middle-aged obese women. However, multiple short sessions can be recommended as an alternative to prolonged exercise when the goal is to decrease blood glucose or waist circumference.

  6. The Effects of a Diet and Exercise Program for Older Adults With Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hua; Chu, Li-Ling; Kao, Chia-Chan; Chen, Tai-Been; Lee, I; Li, Hui-Chi

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is high among older adults in Taiwan. However, few studies have studied the effect of a combined diet and exercise program on managing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in individuals 65 years and older and living in Taiwan's rural areas. This study tests the effectiveness of a diet and exercise program on the MetS biomarkers in older community residents with MetS. This study used a quasiexperimental study design. All participants were 65 years and older and were diagnosed with MetS. The outcome variables included biomarkers (blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglycerides) and demographic characteristics. The participants were distributed into a diet-and-exercise group (n = 163) and a nondiet-and-nonexercise group (n = 138). The outcome variables were examined 3 months after the start of the intervention program. The participants in the diet-and-exercise group had lower values than the nondiet-and-nonexercise group for blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, blood sugar, cholesterol, and triglyceride (all ps diet and exercise program is an effective intervention for treating older individuals with MetS. Clear and concise information concerning the effects of diet and exercise in promoting the health of older residents with MetS is helpful to improve the health of the older adults inTaiwan.

  7. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  8. Validation of Heart Rate Monitor Polar RS800 for Heart Rate Variability Analysis During Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando, David; Garatachea, Nuria; Almeida, Rute; Casajús, Jose A; Bailón, Raquel

    2018-03-01

    Hernando, D, Garatachea, N, Almeida, R, Casajús, JA, and Bailón, R. Validation of heart rate monitor Polar RS800 for heart rate variability analysis during exercise. J Strength Cond Res 32(3): 716-725, 2018-Heart rate variability (HRV) analysis during exercise is an interesting noninvasive tool to measure the cardiovascular response to the stress of exercise. Wearable heart rate monitors are a comfortable option to measure interbeat (RR) intervals while doing physical activities. It is necessary to evaluate the agreement between HRV parameters derived from the RR series recorded by wearable devices and those derived from an electrocardiogram (ECG) during dynamic exercise of low to high intensity. Twenty-three male volunteers performed an exercise stress test on a cycle ergometer. Subjects wore a Polar RS800 device, whereas ECG was also recorded simultaneously to extract the reference RR intervals. A time-frequency spectral analysis was performed to extract the instantaneous mean heart rate (HRM), and the power of low-frequency (PLF) and high-frequency (PHF) components, the latter centered on the respiratory frequency. Analysis was done in intervals of different exercise intensity based on oxygen consumption. Linear correlation, reliability, and agreement were computed in each interval. The agreement between the RR series obtained from the Polar device and from the ECG is high throughout the whole test although the shorter the RR is, the more differences there are. Both methods are interchangeable when analyzing HRV at rest. At high exercise intensity, HRM and PLF still presented a high correlation (ρ > 0.8) and excellent reliability and agreement indices (above 0.9). However, the PHF measurements from the Polar showed reliability and agreement coefficients around 0.5 or lower when the level of the exercise increases (for levels of O2 above 60%).

  9. Neural control of blood flow during exercise in human metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Morgan, Barbara J; Sebranek, Joshua J; Proctor, Lester T; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-01

    α-Adrenergic-mediated vasoconstriction is greater during simulated exercise in animal models of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) when compared with control animals. In an attempt to translate such findings to humans, we hypothesized that adults with MetSyn (n = 14, 35 ± 3 years old) would exhibit greater α-adrenergic responsiveness during exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 16, 31 ± 3 years old). We measured muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA; microneurography) and forearm blood flow (Doppler ultrasound) during dynamic forearm exercise (15% of maximal voluntary contraction). α-Adrenergic agonists (phenylephrine and clonidine) and an antagonist (phentolamine) were infused intra-arterially to assess α-adrenergic receptor responsiveness and restraint, respectively. Resting MSNA was ∼35% higher in adults with MetSyn (P exercise. Clonidine-mediated vasoconstriction was greater in adults with MetSyn (P  0.05). Interestingly, exercise-mediated vasodilatation was greater in MetSyn (P exercise blood flow during low-intensity hand-grip exercise when compared with age-matched healthy control subjects. These results suggest that adults with MetSyn exhibit compensatory vascular control mechanisms capable of preserving blood flow responses to exercise in the face of augmented sympathetic adrenergic activity. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  10. Exercise Effects for Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Metabolic Health, Autistic Traits, and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toscano, Chrystiane V A; Carvalho, Humberto M; Ferreira, José P

    2018-02-01

    This study examined the effects of a 48-week exercise-based intervention on the metabolic profile, autism traits, and perceived quality of life in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We randomly allocated 64 children with ASD (aged 6-12 years) to experimental ( n = 46) and control groups ( n = 18) and used multilevel regression modeling to examine responses to receiving or not receiving the intervention. The experimental group showed beneficial effects on metabolic indicators (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and total cholesterol), autism traits, and parent-perceived quality of life. Our results provide support for exercise and physical activity, including basic coordination and strength exercises, as important therapeutic interventions for children with ASD.

  11. Influence of priming exercise on pulmonary O2 uptake kinetics during transitions to high-intensity exercise from an elevated baseline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMenna, Fred J; Wilkerson, Daryl P; Burnley, Mark; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-08-01

    It has been suggested that the slower O2 uptake (VO2) kinetics observed when exercise is initiated from an elevated baseline metabolic rate are linked to an impairment of muscle O2 delivery. We hypothesized that "priming" exercise would significantly reduce the phase II time constant (tau) during subsequent severe-intensity cycle exercise initiated from an elevated baseline metabolic rate. Seven healthy men completed exercise transitions to 70% of the difference between gas exchange threshold (GET) and peak VO2 from a moderate-intensity baseline (90% GET) on three occasions in each of the "unprimed" and "primed" conditions. Pulmonary gas exchange, heart rate, and the electromyogram of m. vastus lateralis were measured during all tests. The phase II VO2 kinetics were slower when severe exercise was initiated from a baseline of moderate exercise compared with unloaded pedaling (mean+/-SD tau, 42+/-15 vs. 33+/-8 s; P0.05). The amplitude of the VO2 slow component and the change in electromyogram from minutes 2 to 6 were both significantly reduced following priming exercise (VO2 slow component: from 0.47+/-0.09 to 0.27+/-0.13 l/min; change in integrated electromyogram between 2 and 6 min: from 51+/-35 to 26+/-43% of baseline; Pchanges in muscle fiber activation.

  12. Aerobic exercise training induces metabolic benefits in rats with metabolic syndrome independent of dietary changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Wesendonck Caponi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effects of aerobic exercise training without dietary changes on cardiovascular and metabolic variables and on the expression of glucose transporter Type 4 in rats with metabolic syndrome. METHODS: Twenty male spontaneously hypertensive rats received monosodium glutamate during the neonatal period. The animals were allocated to the following groups: MS (sedentary metabolic syndrome, MS-T (trained on a treadmill for 1 hour/day, 5 days/week for 10 weeks, H (sedentary spontaneously hypertensive rats and H-T (trained spontaneously hypertensive rats. The Lee index, blood pressure (tail-cuff system, insulin sensitivity (insulin tolerance test and functional capacity were evaluated before and after 10 weeks of training. Glucose transporter Type 4 expression was analyzed using Western blotting. The data were compared using analysis of variance (ANOVA (p<0.05. RESULTS: At baseline, the MS rats exhibited lower insulin sensitivity and increased Lee index compared with the H rats. Training decreased the body weight and Lee index of the MS rats (MS-T vs. MS, but not of the H rats (H-T vs. H. There were no differences in food intake between the groups. At the end of the experiments, the systolic blood pressure was lower in the two trained groups than in their sedentary controls. Whole-body insulin sensitivity increased in the trained groups. Glucose transporter Type 4 content increased in the heart, white adipose tissue and gastrocnemius muscle of the trained groups relative to their respective untrained groups. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the present study shows that an isolated aerobic exercise training intervention is an efficient means of improving several components of metabolic syndrome, that is, training reduces obesity and hypertension and increases insulin sensitivity.

  13. Exercise attenuates the metabolic effects of dim light at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonken, Laura K; Meléndez-Fernández, O Hecmarie; Weil, Zachary M; Nelson, Randy J

    2014-01-30

    Most organisms display circadian rhythms that coordinate complex physiological and behavioral processes to optimize energy acquisition, storage, and expenditure. Disruptions to the circadian system with environmental manipulations such as nighttime light exposure alter metabolic energy homeostasis. Exercise is known to strengthen circadian rhythms and to prevent weight gain. Therefore, we hypothesized providing mice a running wheel for voluntary exercise would buffer against the effects of light at night (LAN) on weight gain. Mice were maintained in either dark (LD) or dim (dLAN) nights and provided either a running wheel or a locked wheel. Mice exposed to dim, rather than dark, nights increased weight gain. Access to a functional running wheel prevented body mass gain in mice exposed to dLAN. Voluntary exercise appeared to limit weight gain independently of rescuing changes to the circadian system caused by dLAN; increases in daytime food intake induced by dLAN were not diminished by increased voluntary exercise. Furthermore, although all of the LD mice displayed a 24h rhythm in wheel running, nearly half (4 out of 9) of the dLAN mice did not display a dominant 24h rhythm in wheel running. These results indicate that voluntary exercise can prevent weight gain induced by dLAN without rescuing circadian rhythm disruptions. © 2013.

  14. The Effects of a Ketogenic Diet on Exercise Metabolism and Physical Performance in Off-Road Cyclists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Zajac

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate

  15. The effects of a ketogenic diet on exercise metabolism and physical performance in off-road cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanisław; Maszczyk, Adam; Czuba, Miłosz; Michalczyk, Małgorzata; Zydek, Grzegorz

    2014-06-27

    The main objective of this research was to determine the effects of a long-term ketogenic diet, rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, on aerobic performance and exercise metabolism in off-road cyclists. Additionally, the effects of this diet on body mass and body composition were evaluated, as well as those that occurred in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles due to the dietary intervention. The research material included eight male subjects, aged 28.3 ± 3.9 years, with at least five years of training experience that competed in off-road cycling. Each cyclist performed a continuous exercise protocol on a cycloergometer with varied intensity, after a mixed and ketogenic diet in a crossover design. The ketogenic diet stimulated favorable changes in body mass and body composition, as well as in the lipid and lipoprotein profiles. Important findings of the present study include a significant increase in the relative values of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and oxygen uptake at lactate threshold (VO2 LT) after the ketogenic diet, which can be explained by reductions in body mass and fat mass and/or the greater oxygen uptake necessary to obtain the same energy yield as on a mixed diet, due to increased fat oxidation or by enhanced sympathetic activation. The max work load and the work load at lactate threshold were significantly higher after the mixed diet. The values of the respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the exercise protocol following the ketogenic diet. The heart rate (HR) and oxygen uptake were significantly higher at rest and during the first three stages of exercise after the ketogenic diet, while the reverse was true during the last stage of the exercise protocol conducted with maximal intensity. Creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly lower at rest and during particular stages of the 105-min exercise protocol following the low carbohydrate ketogenic diet

  16. Sustained exercise-trained juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus at a moderate water velocity exhibit improved aerobic swimming performance and increased postprandial metabolic responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuming Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to examine whether sustained exercise training at four water velocities, i.e. nearly still water (control, 1 body length (BL s−1, 2 BL s−1 and 4 BL s−1, has effects on swimming performance and digestive metabolism in juvenile black carp (Mylopharyngodon piceus. The results demonstrated that fish subjected to sustained training at 2 and 4 BL s−1 showed significantly higher critical swimming speed (Ucrit and maximum metabolic rate (MMR over the control group. Fish subjected to sustained training at 1 and 2 BL s−1 showed a significantly (30 and 54% prolonged duration, 14 and 17% higher postprandial ṀO2 increment (i.e. ṀO2peak, and 62 and 92% more energy expended on specific dynamic action (SDA, respectively, after consuming a similar meal over fish kept in nearly still water. These results suggest that (1 sustained exercise training at a higher speed (2 or 4 BL s−1 had a positive influence on the aerobic swimming performance of juvenile M. piceus, which may be associated with improved aerobic metabolism; and (2 sustained exercise training at a lower speed (1 or 2 BL s−1 resulted in elevated postprandial metabolic responses in juvenile M. piceus.

  17. The influence of a steroid hormone and of physical exercise on protein metabolism in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menschikowski, M.; Jung, K.; Junghans, P.; Petzke, K.J.; Albrecht, V.; Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Potsdam

    1989-01-01

    The influence of an anabolic steroid hormone preparation and of a physical exercise training program was studied on the nitrogen and protein metabolism in rats with the help of the 15 N tracer technique and the emission spectrometric 15 N isotope analysis. For the determination of the dynamic parameters of the protein metabolism graphic (stochastic) and computer-aided compartmental methods wer compared. Using the area method as a stochastic approach the animals showed significant differences in the protein turnover parameters under the influence of hormone treatment and (or) physical stress by swimming exercise in comparison to the controls. (author)

  18. Does treadmill running performance, heart rate and breathing rate response during maximal graded exercise improve after volitional respiratory muscle training?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, K; Sharma, V K; Subramanian, S K

    2017-05-10

    Maximal physical exertion in sports usually causes fatigue in the exercising muscles, but not in the respiratory muscles due to triggering of the Respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, a sympathetic vasoconstrictor response leading to preferential increment in blood flow to respiratory muscles. 1 We planned to investigate whether a six week yogic pranayama based Volitional Respiratory Muscle Training (VRMT) can improve maximal Graded Exercise Treadmill Test (GXTT) performance in healthy adult recreational sportspersons. Consecutive, consenting healthy adult recreational sportspersons aged 20.56±2.49 years (n=30), volunteered to 'baseline recording' of resting heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP), respiratory rate (RR), and Bruce ramp protocol maximal GXTT until volitional exhaustion providing total test time (TTT), derived VO2max, Metabolic Equivalent of Task (METs), HR and BP response during maximal GXTT and drop in recovery HR data. After six weeks of observation, they underwent 'pre-intervention recording' followed by supervised VRMT intervention for 6 weeks (30 minutes a day; 5 days a week) and then 'post-intervention recording'. Repeated measures ANOVA with pairwise t statistical comparison was used to analyse the data. After supervised VRMT, we observed significant decrease in their resting supine RR (prespiratory muscle aerobic capacity, attenuation of respiratory muscle metabo-reflex, increase in cardiac stroke volume and autonomic resetting towards parasympatho-dominance. Yogic Pranayama based VRMT can be used in sports conditioning programme of athletes to further improve their maximal exercise performance, and as part of rehabilitation training during return from injury.

  19. Effects of Mixed Isoenergetic Meals on Fat and Carbohydrate Metabolism during Exercise in Older Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Bassami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to investigate the effects of four different meals on fat and CHO metabolism during subsequent exercise in elderly males. Eight healthy males (age: 63.3 ± 5.2 years reported to the physiology laboratory on four separate occasions, each of which was allocated for the performance of a 30-minute exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% ̇VO2max after having normal (N, high fat (HF, high carbohydrate high glycaemic index (HGI and high carbohydrate low glycaemic index (LGI meals. Fat oxidation during exercise after the meals (HF=0.26±0.04 g/min; N=0.21±0.04 g/min; HGI=0.22±0.03 g/min; LGI=0.19±0.03 g/min was not significant (>.05, and neither were the rates of carbohydrate oxidation (N=1.79±0.28, HF=1.58±0.22, HGI=1.68±0.22, and LGI=1.77±0.21 g/m. NEFA concentration increased after HF (<.05 but decreased after HGI and LGI (<.05. Glucose concentration decreased as a result of exercise after HF, and LGI (<.05 whereas insulin concentration decreased significantly during exercise after N, HF, and HGI (<.05. It can be concluded that, in elderly males, feeding isoenergetic meals containing different proportions of carbohydrate and fat do not significantly alter oxidation of fat and CHO during exercise in spite of changes in some circulating metabolites.

  20. Evaluation of heart rate reserve and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome in Isfahan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosef Khaledi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available    BACKGROUND: Lack of heart rate increase proportionate to exercise causes poor prognosis. Moreover, inflammatory factors such as C-reactive protein (CRP are associated with atherosclerosis. The current study compared these two indices in individuals with and without metabolic syndrome in Isfahan, Iran.    METHODS: This study was performed on 203 people without and 123 patients with metabolic syndrome who were randomly selected from the participants of the Isfahan Cohort Study. The demographic data, waist circumference, blood pressure, height, and weight of the participants were recorded. Moreover, serum triglyceride (TG, fasting blood sugar (FBS, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL, low density lipoprotein (LDL, and high-sensitivity CRP (hs-CRP levels were measured. Exercise test was carried out according to the Bruce standard protocol and heart rate reserve (HRR was determined and recorded. The age-adjusted data was analyzed using generalized linear regression and student's t-test in SPSS15.    RESULTS: The mean ages of participants without and with metabolic syndrome were 54.16 ± 8.61 and 54.29 ± 7.6 years, respectively. The corresponding values for mean LDL levels were 116.17 ± 24.04 and 120.12 ± 29.55 mg/dl. TG levels were 140.38 ± 61.65 and 259.99 ± 184.49 mg/dl for subjects without and with the metabolic syndrome, respectively. The mean FBS levels were 81.81 ± 9.90 mg/dl in the participants without the syndrome and 107.13 ± 48.46 mg/dl in those with metabolic syndrome. The mean systolic blood pressure was 116.06 ± 13.69 mmHg in persons without metabolic syndrome and 130.73 ± 15.15 mmHg in patients with the syndrome. The values for mean diastolic levels in the two groups were 76.52 ± 6.69 and 82.84 ± 8.7 mmHg, respectively. While the two groups were not significantly different in terms of HRR (P = 0.27, hs-CRP levels in the metabolic syndrome group was significantly higher than the other group (P = 0.02.

  1. An exercise trial targeting African-American women with metabolic syndrome and at high risk for breast cancer: Rationale, design, and methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dash, Chiranjeev; Makambi, Kepher; Wallington, Sherrie F; Sheppard, Vanessa; Taylor, Teletia R; Hicks, Jennifer S; Adams-Campbell, Lucile L

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome and obesity are known risk factors for breast cancers. Exercise interventions can potentially modify circulating biomarkers of breast cancer risk but evidence in African-Americans and women with metabolic syndrome is lacking. The Focused Intervention on Exercise to Reduce CancEr (FIERCE) trial is a prospective, 6-month, 3-arm, randomized controlled trial to examine the effect of exercise on obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and breast cancer biomarkers among African-American women at high risk of breast cancer. Two hundred-forty inactive women with metabolic syndrome and absolute risk of breast cancer ≥ 1.40 will be randomized to one of the three trial arms: 1) a supervised, facility-based exercise arm; 2) a home-based exercise arm; and 3) a control group that maintains physical activity levels through the course of the trial. Assessments will be conducted at baseline, 3 months, and 6 months. The primary outcome variables are anthropometric indicators of obesity, metabolic syndrome components, and inflammatory, insulin-pathway, and hormonal biomarkers of breast cancer risk. The FIERCE trial will provide evidence on whether a short-term exercise intervention might be effective in reducing breast cancer risk among African-American women with comorbidities and high breast cancer risk--a group traditionally under-represented in non-therapeutic breast cancer trials. NCT02103140. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Does basal metabolic rate drive eating rate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar; Ponnalagu, Shalini; Bi, Xinyan; Forde, Ciaran

    2018-05-15

    There have been recent advances in our understanding of the drivers of energy intake (EI). However, the biological drivers of differences in eating rate (ER) remain less clear. Studies have reported that the fat-free mass (FFM) and basal metabolic rate (BMR) are both major components that contribute to daily energy expenditure (EE) and drive EI. More recently, a number of observations report that higher ER can lead to greater EI. The current study proposed that adults with a higher BMR and higher energy requirements would also exhibit higher ERs. Data on BMR, FFM, and ER were collected from 272 Chinese adults (91 males and 181 females) in a cross-sectional study. Analysis showed significant positive associations between BMR and ER (r s  = 0.405, p BMR explained about 15% of the variation in ER which was taken to be metabolically significant. This association provides metabolic explanation that the differences in an individual's BMR (hence energy requirements) may be correlated with ERs. This merits further research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Armstrong

    Full Text Available Increased left ventricular (LV twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, [Formula: see text]O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT: 32-69% of [Formula: see text]O2peak were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii at 2% above IAT, and, iii at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP. LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05. However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05. Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results.

  4. The Effects of Exercise Intensity vs. Metabolic State on the Variability and Magnitude of Left Ventricular Twist Mechanics during Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Craig; Samuel, Jake; Yarlett, Andrew; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Stembridge, Mike; Stöhr, Eric J.

    2016-01-01

    Increased left ventricular (LV) twist and untwisting rate (LV twist mechanics) are essential responses of the heart to exercise. However, previously a large variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise has been observed, which complicates the interpretation of results. This study aimed to determine some of the physiological sources of variability in LV twist mechanics during exercise. Sixteen healthy males (age: 22 ± 4 years, V˙O2peak: 45.5 ± 6.9 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, range of individual anaerobic threshold (IAT): 32–69% of V˙O2peak) were assessed at rest and during exercise at: i) the same relative exercise intensity, 40%peak, ii) at 2% above IAT, and, iii) at 40%peak with hypoxia (40%peak+HYP). LV volumes were not significantly different between exercise conditions (P > 0.05). However, the mean margin of error of LV twist was significantly lower (F2,47 = 2.08, P 0.05). Overall, LV twist mechanics were linearly related to rate pressure product. During exercise, the intra-individual variability of LV twist mechanics is smaller at the same relative exercise intensity compared with IAT. However, the absolute magnitude (degrees) of LV twist mechanics appears to be associated with the prevailing rate pressure product. Exercise tests that evaluate LV twist mechanics should be standardised by relative exercise intensity and rate pressure product be taken into account when interpreting results. PMID:27100099

  5. Heart rate profile during exercise in patients with early repolarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Serkan; Cagirci, Goksel; Atak, Ramazan; Balbay, Yucel; Demir, Ahmet Duran; Aydogdu, Sinan

    2010-09-01

    Both early repolarization and altered heart rate profile are associated with sudden death. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate an association between early repolarization and heart rate profile during exercise. A total of 84 subjects were included in the study. Comparable 44 subjects with early repolarization and 40 subjects with normal electrocardiogram underwent exercise stress testing. Resting heart rate, maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and decrement were analyzed. Both groups were comparable for baseline characteristics including resting heart rate. Maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrement of the subjects in early repolarization group had significantly decreased maximum heart rate, heart rate increment and heart rate decrement compared to control group (all P decrement (multiple-adjusted OR of the risk of presence of early repolarization was 2.98 (95%CI 1.21-7.34) (P = 0.018) and 7.73 (95%CI 2.84-21.03) (P decrement compared to higher levels, respectively. Subjects with early repolarization have altered heart rate profile during exercise compared to control subjects. This can be related to sudden death.

  6. Intensive lifestyle intervention improves cardiometabolic and exercise parameters in metabolically healthy obese and metabolically unhealthy obese individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzill, Claudie; Nigam, Anil; Juneau, Martin; Guilbeault, Valérie; Latour, Elise; Mauriège, Pascale; Gayda, Mathieu

    2014-04-01

    The effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were studied in metabolically unhealthy obese (NMHO) and metabolically healthy but obese (MHO) subjects. Fifty-five MHO (51 ± 8 years; waist circumference, 109 ± 13 cm) and 79 NMHO subjects (54 ± 9 years; waist circumference, 112 ± 13 cm) participated in an intensive lifestyle modification program based on Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and HIIT 2-3 times per week. Body composition, cardiometabolic, and exercise parameters were measured at baseline and after 9 months. Initially, MHO patients had a lower blood pressure (BP), fasting glycemia, triglycerides, and a higher high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) (P lifestyle program including Mediterranean diet nutritional counselling and HIIT is an appropriate intervention in MHO and NMHO subjects with similar potential clinical health benefits including an improved body composition, BP, fasting glycemia, insulin sensitivity, VO2 peak, and muscle endurance. Copyright © 2014 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. All rights reserved.

  7. Inhibition of Glutathione Synthesis Induced by Exhaustive Running Exercise via the Decreased Influx Rate of L-Cysteine in Rat Erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yanlian; Xiong, Yanlei; Zhou, Shuai; Yu, Zhenhai; Zhao, Dongmei; Wang, Zhiqiang; Li, Yuling; Yan, Jingtong; Cai, Yu; Zhang, Wenqian

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exhaustive exercise on L-cysteine uptake and its effect on erythrocyte glutathione (GSH) synthesis and metabolism. Rats were divided into three groups: sedentary control (C), exhaustive running exercise (ERE) and moderate running exercise (MRE) (n=12 rats/group). We determined the L-cysteine efflux and influx in vitro in rat erythrocytes and its relationship with GSH synthesis. Total anti-oxidant potential of plasma was measured in terms of the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) values for each exercise group. In addition, the glucose metabolism enzyme activity of erythrocytes was also measured under in vitro incubation conditions. Biochemical studies confirmed that exhaustive running exercise significantly increased oxidative damage parameters in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and methemoglobin levels. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that L-cysteine influx was positively correlated with erythrocyte GSH synthesis and FRAP values in both the control and exercise groups. In vitro oxidation incubation significantly decreased the level of glucose metabolism enzyme activity in the control group. We presented evidence of the exhaustive exercise-induced inhibition of GSH synthesis due to a dysfunction in L-cysteine transport. In addition, oxidative stress-induced changes in glucose metabolism were the driving force underlying decreased L-cysteine uptake in the exhaustive exercise group. © 2016 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Dehydration accelerates reductions in cerebral blood flow during prolonged exercise in the heat without compromising brain metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Llodio, Iñaki; Garcia, Benjamin; Kalsi, Kameljit K; Secher, Niels H; González-Alonso, José

    2015-11-01

    Dehydration hastens the decline in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during incremental exercise, whereas the cerebral metabolic rate for O2 (CMRO2 ) is preserved. It remains unknown whether CMRO2 is also maintained during prolonged exercise in the heat and whether an eventual decline in CBF is coupled to fatigue. Two studies were undertaken. In study 1, 10 male cyclists cycled in the heat for ∼2 h with (control) and without fluid replacement (dehydration) while internal and external carotid artery blood flow and core and blood temperature were obtained. Arterial and internal jugular venous blood samples were assessed with dehydration to evaluate CMRO2 . In study 2, in 8 male subjects, middle cerebral artery blood velocity was measured during prolonged exercise to exhaustion in both dehydrated and euhydrated states. After a rise at the onset of exercise, internal carotid artery flow declined to baseline with progressive dehydration (P dehydration accelerates the decline in CBF without affecting CMRO2 and also restricts extracranial perfusion. Thus, fatigue is related to a reduction in CBF and extracranial perfusion rather than CMRO2 . Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility following exercise training among different obese insulin-resistant phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Haus, Jacob M; Solomon, Thomas P J; Blaszczak, Alecia; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-11-15

    Impaired fasting glucose (IFG) blunts the reversal of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) after exercise training. Metabolic inflexibility has been implicated in the etiology of insulin resistance; however, the efficacy of exercise on peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity or substrate utilization in adults with IFG, IGT, or IFG + IGT is unknown. Twenty-four older (66.7 ± 0.8 yr) obese (34.2 ± 0.9 kg/m(2)) adults were categorized as IFG (n = 8), IGT (n = 8), or IFG + IGT (n = 8) according to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Subjects underwent 12-wk of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/wk at ∼85% HRmax) and were instructed to maintain a eucaloric diet. A euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (40 mU·m(2)·min(-1)) with [6,6-(2)H]glucose was used to determine peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity. Nonoxidative glucose disposal and metabolic flexibility [insulin-stimulated respiratory quotient (RQ) minus fasting RQ] were also assessed. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUCOGTT) was calculated from the OGTT. Exercise increased clamp-derived peripheral and hepatic insulin sensitivity more in adults with IFG or IGT alone than with IFG + IGT (P work is required to assess the molecular mechanism(s) by which chronic hyperglycemia modifies insulin sensitivity following exercise training.

  10. Effects of intermittent fasting and chronic swimming exercise on body composition and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moraes, Ruan Carlos Macedo de; Portari, Guilherme Vannucchi; Ferraz, Alex Soares Marreiros; da Silva, Tiago Eugênio Oliveira; Marocolo, Moacir

    2017-12-01

    Intermittent fasting protocol (IFP) has been suggested as a strategy to change body metabolism and improve health. The effects of IFP seem to be similar to aerobic exercise, having a hormetic adaptation according to intensity and frequency. However, the effects of combining both interventions are still unknown. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of IFP with and without endurance-exercise training on body composition, food behavior, and lipid metabolism. Twenty-week-old Wistar rats were kept under an inverted circadian cycle of 12 h with water ad libitum and assigned to 4 different groups: control group (ad libitum feeding and sedentary), exercise group (ad libitum feeding and endurance training), intermittent fasting group (IF; intermittent fasting and sedentary), and intermittent fasting and exercise group (IFEX; intermittent fasting and endurance training). After 6 weeks, the body weight of IF and IFEX animals decreased without changes in food consumption. Yet, the body composition between the 2 groups was different, with the IFEX animals containing higher total protein and lower total fat content than the IF animals. The IFEX group also showed increases in total high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and increased intramuscular lipid content. The amount of brown adipose tissue was higher in IF and IFEX groups; however, the IFEX group showed higher expression levels of uncoupling protein 1 in this tissue, indicating a greater thermogenesis. The IFP combined with endurance training is an efficient method for decreasing body mass and altering fat metabolism, without inflicting losses in protein content.

  11. Exercise Training During +Gz Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Chou, J. L.; Simonson, S. R.; Jackson, C. G. R.; Barnes, P. R.

    1999-01-01

    The overall purpose is to study the effect of passive (without exercise) and active (with exercise) +Gz (head-to-foot) acceleration training, using a short-arm (1.9m radius) centrifuge, on post- training maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max, work capacity) and 70 deg head-up tilt (orthostatic) tolerance in ambulatory subjects to test the hypothesis that (a) both passive and active acceleration training will improve post-training tilt-tolerance, and (b) there will be no difference in tilt-tolerance between passive and active exercise acceleration training because increased hydrostatic and blood pressures, rather than increased muscular metabolism, will provide the major adaptive stimulus. The purpose of the pilot study was to test the hypothesis that there would be no significant difference in the metabolic responses (oxygen uptake, heart rate, pulmonary ventilation, or respiratory exchange ratio) during supine exercise with moderate +Gz acceleration.

  12. Only minor additional metabolic health benefits of high as opposed to moderate dose physical exercise in young, moderately overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichkendler, M H; Rosenkilde, M; Auerbach, P L; Agerschou, J; Nielsen, M B; Kjaer, A; Hoejgaard, L; Sjödin, A; Ploug, T; Stallknecht, B

    2014-05-01

    The dose-response effects of exercise training on insulin sensitivity, metabolic risk, and quality of life were examined. Sixty-one healthy, sedentary (VO₂max: 35 ± 5 ml/kg/min), moderately overweight (BMI: 27.9 ± 1.8), young (age: 29 ± 6 years) men were randomized to sedentary living (sedentary control group; n = 18), moderate (moderate dose training group [MOD]: 300 kcal/day, n = 21), or high (high dose training group [HIGH]: 600 kcal/day, n = 22) dose physical exercise for 11 weeks. The return rate for post-intervention testing was 82-94% across groups. Weekly exercise amounted to 2,004 ± 24 and 3,774 ± 68 kcal, respectively, in MOD and HIGH. Cardiorespiratory fitness increased (P exercise groups (MOD: 32 ± 1 to 29 ± 1%; HIGH: 30 ± 1 to 27 ± 1%). Peripheral insulin sensitivity increased (P benefits were found when exercising ∼3,800 as opposed to ∼2,000 kcal/week in young moderately overweight men. This finding may have important public health implications. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  13. Metabolic rate determines haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, P S R K

    2004-01-01

    The number of haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) per animal is conserved across species. This means the HSCs need to maintain hematopoiesis over a longer period in larger animals. This would result in the requirement of stem cell self-renewal. At present the three existing models are the stochastic model, instructive model and the third more recently proposed is the chiaro-scuro model. It is a well known allometric law that metabolic rate scales to the three quarter power. Larger animals have a lower metabolic rate, compared to smaller animals. Here it is being hypothesized that metabolic rate determines haematopoietic stem cell self-renewal. At lower metabolic rate the stem cells commit for self-renewal, where as at higher metabolic rate they become committed to different lineages. The present hypothesis can explain the salient features of the different models. Recent findings regarding stem cell self-renewal suggest an important role for Wnt proteins and their receptors known as frizzleds, which are an important component of cell signaling pathway. The role of cGMP in the Wnts action provides further justification for the present hypothesis as cGMP is intricately linked to metabolic rate. One can also explain the telomere homeostasis by the present hypothesis. One prediction of the present hypothesis is with reference to the limit of cell divisions known as Hayflick limit, here it is being suggested that this is the result of metabolic rate in laboratory conditions and there can be higher number of cell divisions in vivo if the metabolic rate is lower. Copyright 2004 Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Improved Arterial–Ventricular Coupling in Metabolic Syndrome after Exercise Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B.; Donley, David A.; Bonner, Daniel E.; DeVallance, Evan; Olfert, I. Mark; Chantler, Paul D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with a three-fold increase risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is in part, due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular contractility and aerobic capacity, and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse the peak exercise CV dysfunction. Further, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS prior to the development of diabetes and/or overt CVD, can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological changes to the CV can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Methods Twenty MetS underwent either 8 weeks of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT; n=10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT; n=10) during this time period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Results Exercise training did not alter resting left ventricular diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise an increase in LV contractility (40%, p<0.01), cardiac output (28%, p<0.05) and aerobic capacity (20%, p<0.01), while a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, p<0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, p<0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not the MetS-NonT group. Further, an improvement in Lifetime Risk Score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. Conclusions These findings have clinical importance as they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and lower the risk of CVD. PMID:24870568

  15. Effect of muscle acidity on muscle metabolism and fatigue during intense exercise in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bangsbo, Jens; Madsen, K.; Kiens, Bente

    1996-01-01

    1. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of muscle pH on muscle metabolism and development of fatigue during intense exercise. 2. Seven subjects performed intense exhaustive leg exercise on two occasions: with and without preceding intense intermittent arm exercise leading to high...... or moderate (control) blood lactate concentrations (HL and C, respectively). Prior to and immediately after each exercise bout, a muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis of the active leg. Leg blood flow was measured and femoral arterial and venous blood samples were collected before and frequently...... during the exhaustive exercises. 3. The duration of the exercise was shorter in HL than in C (3.46 +/- 0.28 vs. 4.67 +/- 0.55 min; means +/- S.E.M.; P muscle pH was the same in C and HL (7.17 vs. 7.10), but at the end of exercise muscle pH was lower in HL than in C (6.82 vs. 6...

  16. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high or low glycemic diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K.; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P.J.; Haus, Jacob M.; Kelly, Karen R.; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R.; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Background The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low or high glycemic diet on metabolic syndrome severity (Z-score). Methods Twenty-one adults (66.2 ± 1.1 yr; BMI = 35.3 ± 0.9 kg/m2) with metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 minutes/d for 5 d/week at ~85% HRmax) and provided a low-glycemic (n=11; LoGIx) or high glycemic (n=10; HiGIx) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoproteins (HDL), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. Results LoGIx and HiGIx decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (p exercise with weight loss reduces metabolic syndrome severity whether individuals were randomized to a high or low glycemic index diet. PMID:23036993

  17. Similar hypotensive effects of combined aerobic and resistance exercise with 1 set versus 3 sets in women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibana, Ramires A; Nascimento, Dahan da C; de Sousa, Nuno M F; de Almeida, Jeeser A; Moraes, Milton R; Durigan, João Luiz Quagliotti; Collier, Scott R; Prestes, Jonato

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the response of systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean blood pressure (MBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) following combined training with 1 set or with 3 sets of resistance exercise (RE). Sixteen women with metabolic syndrome (MetS) were randomly assigned to perform two combined exercise protocols and a control session (CON): 1-set, 30 min of aerobic exercise (AE) at 65-70% of reserve heart rate and 1 set of 8-12 repetitions at 80% of 10-RM in six resistance exercises; 3-sets, same protocol but with 3 sets; and CON, 30 min of seated rest. The SBP, MBP and DBP were measured before and every 15 min during 90 min following the experimental sessions. The SBP displayed a decrease (P ≤ 0.05) during the 90 min following the RE session with 1-set and 3-set, while MBP was decreased (P ≤ 0.05) up to 75 min after 1-set and up to 30 min after the 3-set exercise session compared with pre-intervention values. There was a decrease in DBP only for the greatest individual decrease following 1-set (-6.1 mmHg) and 3-set (-4.9 mmHg) combined exercise sessions, without differences between them. The rate-pressure product and heart rate remained significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) 75 min and 90 min after the combined exercise session with 1- and 3-sets compared with the CON, respectively. In conclusion, a low-volume RE combined with AE resulted in similar decrease of SBP when compared with RE with 3-sets in women with MetS, which could be beneficial in situations of limited time. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Effects of non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading induced by expiratory flow limitation during strenuous incremental cycle exercise on metabolic stress and circulating natural killer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolland-Debord, Camille; Morelot-Panzini, Capucine; Similowski, Thomas; Duranti, Roberto; Laveneziana, Pierantonio

    2017-12-01

    Exercise induces release of cytokines and increase of circulating natural killers (NK) lymphocyte during strong activation of respiratory muscles. We hypothesised that non-fatiguing respiratory muscle loading during exercise causes an increase in NK cells and in metabolic stress indices. Heart rate (HR), ventilation (VE), oesophageal pressure (Pes), oxygen consumption (VO 2 ), dyspnoea and leg effort were measured in eight healthy humans (five men and three women, average age of 31 ± 4 years and body weight of 68 ± 10 kg), performing an incremental exercise testing on a cycle ergometer under control condition and expiratory flow limitation (FL) achieved by putting a Starling resistor. Blood samples were obtained at baseline, at peak of exercise and at iso-workload corresponding to that reached at the peak of FL exercise during control exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue was evaluated by measuring the tension time index of the diaphragm. Respiratory muscle overloading caused an earlier interruption of exercise. Diaphragmatic fatigue did not occur in the two conditions. At peak of flow-limited exercise compared to iso-workload, HR, peak inspiratory and expiratory Pes, NK cells and norepinephrine were significantly higher. The number of NK cells was significantly related to ΔPes (i.e. difference between the most and the less negative Pes) and plasmatic catecholamines. Loading of respiratory muscles is able to cause an increase of NK cells provided that activation of respiratory muscles is intense enough to induce a significant metabolic stress.

  19. Pulmonary Artery Wedge Pressure Relative to Exercise Work Rate in Older Men and Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, Sam; Wright, Stephen P; Goodman, Jack M; Sasson, Zion; Mak, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    An augmented pulmonary artery wedge pressure (PAWP) response may explain exercise intolerance in some humans. However, routine use of exercise hemodynamic testing is limited by a lack of data from normal older men and women. Our objective was to evaluate the exercise PAWP response and the potential for sexual dimorphism in healthy, nondyspneic older adults. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (18 men [54 ± 7 yr] and 18 women [58 ± 6 yr]) were studied at rest (control) and during two stages of semi-upright cycle ergometry, at heart rates of 100 bpm (light exercise) and 120 bpm (moderate exercise). Right heart catheterization was performed to measure pulmonary pressures. The PAWP response to exercise was assessed in context of exercise work rate and body size. At control, PAWP was similar between men and women. Work rates were significantly smaller in women at comparable HR (P exercise, with no further increase at moderate exercise. When indexed to work rate alone or work rate adjusted to body weight and height, the PAWP response at light and moderate exercise was significantly elevated in women compared with men (P exercise. The similar rise in the PAWP response to submaximal exercise occurs despite lower work rate in healthy older women compared with men, even when adjusted for smaller body size. It is important to consider sex in the development of normal reference ranges for exercise hemodynamic testing.

  20. Influence of peak exercise heart rate on normal thallium-201 myocardial clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaul, S.; Chesler, D.A.; Pohost, G.M.; Strauss, H.W.; Okada, R.D.; Boucher, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Measurement of myocardial clearance rates between initial and delayed images is a major justification for adding computer quantification to the interpretation of exercise 201 TI images. To clarify the range of normal thallium clearance and its relationship to the level of exercise achieved, exercise thallium images in 89 normal subjects were analyzed: 45 asymptomatic subjects with less than 1% probability of coronary artery disease (CAD) (Group I), and 44 patients with chest pain found to have no significant CAD on angiography (Group II). Mean initial regional thallium uptake was similar in the two groups, but myocardial thallium clearance (mean +/- 1 s.d.) was slower in Group II, expressed as a longer half-life in the myocardium (8.2 +/- 7.6 hr compared with 3.4 +/- 0.7 hr p less than 0.001). Analysis of variance using ten clinical and exercise variables as covariates showed that the slower clearance in Group II was related to a lower peak exercise heart rate (HR) (154 +/- 27 compared with 183 +/- 11, respectively, p less than 0.001). By linear regression analysis, a decrease in peak HR of 1 beat/min was associated with a slower thallium clearance (longer half-life) of 0.05 hr. Using this formula, the clearance value in each patient was then corrected for peak exercise heart rate by decreasing measured clearance by 0.05 hr multiplied by the amount peak exercise heart rate which was below 183 (the mean value in Group I). There were no differences in the corrected clearance between the two groups. We conclude that thallium myocardial clearance after exercise is related in part to factors other than the presence of CAD, being slower when peak exercise HR is lower. Therefore, thallium clearance rates alone uncorrected for peak exercise heart rate should be used with caution when diagnosing CAD

  1. Identification of anaerobic threshold by analysis of heart rate variability during discontinuous dynamic and resistance exercise protocols in healthy older men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simões, Rodrigo Polaquini; Castello-Simões, Viviane; Mendes, Renata Gonçalves; Archiza, Bruno; Dos Santos, Daniel Augusto; Bonjorno, José Carlos; de Oliveira, Claudio Ricardo; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2014-03-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine anaerobic threshold (AT) during discontinuous dynamic and resistive exercise protocols by analysing of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood lactate (BL) in healthy elderly subjects and compare the cardiovascular, metabolic and autonomic variables obtained from these two forms of exercise. Fourteen elderly (70 ± 4 years) apparently healthy males underwent the following tests: (i) incremental ramp test on cycle ergometer, (ii) one repetition maximum (1RM) leg press at 45°, (iii) a discontinuous exercise test on a cycle ergometer (DET-C) protocol and (iv) a resistance exercise leg press (DET-L) protocol. Heart rate, blood pressure and BL were obtained during each increment of exercise intensity. No significant differences (P>0·05) were found between methods of AT determination (BL and HRV) nor the relative intensity corresponding to AT (30% of maximum intensity) between the types of exercise (DET-C and DET-L). Furthermore, no significant differences (P>0·05) were found between the DET-C and DET-L in relation to HRV, however, the DET-L provided higher values of systolic blood pressure and BL (Presistive exercise protocols were similar when compared at the same relative intensity. However, DET-L resulted in higher values of blood pressure and BL at workloads beyond AT. © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dynamic 31phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the quadriceps muscle: Metabolic changes resulting from two different forms of exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schunk, K.; Kersjes, W.; Schadmand-Fischer, S.; Thelen, M.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present investigation was to examine the metabolism of the quadriceps muscles of normal young individuals using dynamic 31 phosphorus magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods: 22 normal individuals were examined in a 1.5 T-MRT using a 6 cm surface coil. The metabolic changes in the quadriceps muscle as shown by the phosphorus spectrum were evaluated during rest, exercise (isometric and isotonic exercise) and during a 36-second period of recovery. Results: The P i /PCr quotient rose from its resting value of 0.11±0.02 following exercise to a maximum of 0.83±0.47 (isometric) or 1.40±0.59 (isotonic) (difference p=0.0001). Half-time recovery of P i /PCr was 35±11 s or 31±10 s, respectively (p=0.13). During the recovery phase P i /PCr fell briefly but significantly below its rest value. Following an initial rise in pH, there was a continual fall. Minimum pH (6.68±0.21 and 6.53±0.27 respectively; p=0.01) occurred in the early recovery phase. The recovery process of pH values lasted longer following isotonic than after isometric exercise (half-value recovery time 229±72 s and 146±55 s, respectively; p=0.001). Conlcusion: Compared with isometric exercise, isotonic stress is more expensive in terms of metabolism. Dynamic 31 phosphorus MRT spectroscopy can differentiate changes in muscle metabolism during different forms of exercise. (orig.) [de

  3. Metabolic adaptations of skeletal muscle to voluntary wheel running exercise in hypertensive heart failure rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, R L; Kullman, E L; Waters, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    SHHF and Wistar-Furth (WF) rats were randomized to sedentary (SHHFsed and WFsed) and exercise groups (SHHFex and WFex). The exercise groups had access to running wheels from 6-22 months of age. Hindlimb muscles were obtained for metabolic measures that included mitochondrial enzyme function...... robust amounts of aerobic activity, voluntary wheel running exercise was not sufficiently intense to improve the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in adult SHHF animals, indicating an inability to compensate for declining heart function by improving peripheral oxidative adaptations in the skeletal...

  4. Reduced muscle activation during exercise related to brain oxygenation and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nielsen, Jannie; Overgaard, M

    2010-01-01

    Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate to th...... indicating that reduced cerebral oxygenation may play a role in the development of central fatigue and may be an exercise capacity limiting factor.......Maximal exercise may be limited by central fatigue defined as an inability of the central nervous system to fully recruit the involved muscles. This study evaluated whether a reduction in the cerebral oxygen-to-carbohydrate index (OCI) and in the cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension relate...... of perceived exertion (RPE), arm maximal voluntary force (MVC), and voluntary activation of elbow flexor muscles assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Low intensity exercise did not produce any indication of central fatigue or marked cerebral metabolic deviations. Exercise in hypoxia (0.10) reduced...

  5. Relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton; Low, Daniel C

    2006-06-01

    The present study examined the predicted positive and linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b) between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference. Initially, 128 undergraduate students (M age = 20.0 years, SD = 0.9) were surveyed to establish their three favorite music artists. A separate experimental group of 29 undergraduates (M age = 20.3 years, SD = 1.2) selected the music of a single artist from the three highest-rated artists from the earlier survey. They reported their preference for slow, medium, and fast tempo selections from each artist for three treadmill walking conditions at 40%, 60%, and 75% maximal heart rate reserve. A mixed-model 3 x 3 x 2 (Exercise Intensity x Music Tempo x Gender) analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results indicated there was no three-way interaction for music preference. There was, however, a significant (p Music Tempo (partial eta2 = .09) and a significant (p effect for music tempo, with large differences evident between preference for medium versus slow tempo and fast versus slow tempo music at all exercise intensities (partial eta2 = .78). Participants reported a preference for both medium and fast tempo music at low and moderate exercise intensities and for fast tempo music at high intensity. Only partial support was found for the expected linear relationship between exercise intensity and music tempo preference.

  6. Exercise training improves in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early endothelial progenitor cells in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenschein, Kristina; Horváth, Tibor; Mueller, Maja; Markowski, Andrea; Siegmund, Tina; Jacob, Christian; Drexler, Helmut; Landmesser, Ulf

    2011-06-01

    Endothelial dysfunction and injury are considered to contribute considerably to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. It has been suggested that intense exercise training can increase the number and angiogenic properties of early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). However, whether exercise training stimulates the capacity of early EPCs to promote repair of endothelial damage and potential underlying mechanisms remain to be determined. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of moderate exercise training on in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs, and their nitric oxide and superoxide production as characterized by electron spin resonance spectroscopy analysis in subjects with metabolic syndrome. Twenty-four subjects with metabolic syndrome were randomized to an 8 weeks exercise training or a control group. Superoxide production and nitric oxide (NO) availability of early EPCs were characterized by using electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy analysis. In vivo endothelial repair capacity of EPCs was examined by transplantation into nude mice with defined carotid endothelial injury. Endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated vasodilation was analysed using high-resolution ultrasound. Importantly, exercise training resulted in a substantially improved in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs (24.0 vs 12.7%; p exercise training, but not in the control group. Moreover, exercise training reduced superoxide production of EPCs, which was not observed in the control group. The present study suggests for the first time that moderate exercise training increases nitric oxide production of early endothelial progenitor cells and reduces their superoxide production. Importantly, this is associated with a marked beneficial effect on the in vivo endothelial repair capacity of early EPCs in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

  7. Type 2 diabetes alters metabolic and transcriptional signatures of glucose and amino acid metabolism during exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jakob S; Zhao, Xinjie; Irmler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The therapeutic benefit of physical activity to prevent and treat type 2 diabetes is commonly accepted. However, the impact of the disease on the acute metabolic response is less clear. To this end, we investigated the effect of type 2 diabetes on exercise-induced plasma metabolite...... changes and the muscular transcriptional response using a complementary metabolomics/transcriptomics approach. METHODS: We analysed 139 plasma metabolites and hormones at nine time points, and whole genome expression in skeletal muscle at three time points, during a 60 min bicycle ergometer exercise...... and a 180 min recovery phase in type 2 diabetic patients and healthy controls matched for age, percentage body fat and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2). RESULTS: Pathway analysis of differentially regulated genes upon exercise revealed upregulation of regulators of GLUT4 (SLC2A4RG, FLOT1, EXOC7, RAB13...

  8. Cerebral oxygenation is reduced during hyperthermic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter; Nybo, Lars; Volianitis, S.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Aim: Cerebral mitochondrial oxygen tension (P(mito)O(2)) is elevated during moderate exercise, while it is reduced when exercise becomes strenuous, reflecting an elevated cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO(2)) combined with hyperventilation-induced attenuation of cerebral blood flo...

  9. Dynamics of chest wall volume regulation during constant work rate exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takara, L.S.; Cunha, T.M.; Barbosa, P.; Rodrigues, M.K.; Oliveira, M.F.; Nery, L.E. [Setor de Função Pulmonar e Fisiologia Clínica do Exercício, Disciplina de Pneumologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Neder, J.A. [Setor de Função Pulmonar e Fisiologia Clínica do Exercício, Disciplina de Pneumologia, Departamento de Medicina, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Division of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, Queen' s University, Kingston, ON (Canada)

    2012-10-15

    This study evaluated the dynamic behavior of total and compartmental chest wall volumes [(V{sub CW}) = rib cage (V{sub RC}) + abdomen (V{sub AB})] as measured breath-by-breath by optoelectronic plethysmography during constant-load exercise in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thirty males (GOLD stages II-III) underwent a cardiopulmonary exercise test to the limit of tolerance (Tlim) at 75% of peak work rate on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. Exercise-induced dynamic hyperinflation was considered to be present when end-expiratory (EE) V{sub CW} increased in relation to resting values. There was a noticeable heterogeneity in the patterns of V{sub CW} regulation as EEV{sub CW} increased non-linearly in 17/30 “hyperinflators” and decreased in 13/30 “non-hyperinflators” (P < 0.05). EEV{sub AB} decreased slightly in 8 of the “hyperinflators”, thereby reducing and slowing the rate of increase in end-inspiratory (EI) V{sub CW} (P < 0.05). In contrast, decreases in EEV{sub CW} in the “non-hyperinflators” were due to the combination of stable EEV{sub RC} with marked reductions in EEV{sub AB}. These patients showed lower EIV{sub CW} and end-exercise dyspnea scores but longer Tlim than their counterparts (P < 0.05). Dyspnea increased and Tlim decreased non-linearly with a faster rate of increase in EIV{sub CW} regardless of the presence or absence of dynamic hyperinflation (P < 0.001). However, no significant between-group differences were observed in metabolic, pulmonary gas exchange and cardiovascular responses to exercise. Chest wall volumes are continuously regulated during exercise in order to postpone (or even avoid) their migration to higher operating volumes in patients with COPD, a dynamic process that is strongly dependent on the behavior of the abdominal compartment.

  10. Exercise Training positively modulates the Ectonucleotidase Enzymes in Lymphocytes of Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, C C; Bagatini, M D; Cardoso, A M; Zanini, D; Abdalla, F H; Baldissarelli, J; Dalenogare, D P; Dos Santos, D L; Schetinger, M R C; Morsch, V M M

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigated the cardiovascular risk factors as well as ectonucleotidase activities in lymphocytes of metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients before and after an exercise intervention. 20 MetS patients, who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks, 3 times/week, were studied. Anthropometric, biochemical, inflammatory and hepatic parameters and hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides and nucleoside in lymphocytes were collected from patients before and after 15 and 30 weeks of the exercise intervention as well as from participants of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of ATP and ADP, and a decrease in adenosine deamination in lymphocytes of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training after 30 weeks of intervention. Additionally, exercise training reduced the inflammatory and hepatic markers to baseline levels after 30 weeks of exercise. Our results clearly indicated alteration in ectonucleotidase enzymes in lymphocytes in the MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on the enzymatic alterations and on inflammatory and hepatic parameters, especially if it is performed regularly and for a long period. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Sleep-Dependent Modulation of Metabolic Rate in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Bethany A; Slocumb, Melissa E; Chaitin, Hersh; DiAngelo, Justin R; Keene, Alex C

    2017-08-01

    Dysregulation of sleep is associated with metabolic diseases, and metabolic rate (MR) is acutely regulated by sleep-wake behavior. In humans and rodent models, sleep loss is associated with obesity, reduced metabolic rate, and negative energy balance, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms governing interactions between sleep and metabolism. We have developed a system to simultaneously measure sleep and MR in individual Drosophila, allowing for interrogation of neural systems governing interactions between sleep and metabolic rate. Like mammals, MR in flies is reduced during sleep and increased during sleep deprivation suggesting sleep-dependent regulation of MR is conserved across phyla. The reduction of MR during sleep is not simply a consequence of inactivity because MR is reduced ~30 minutes following the onset of sleep, raising the possibility that CO2 production provides a metric to distinguish different sleep states in the fruit fly. To examine the relationship between sleep and metabolism, we determined basal and sleep-dependent changes in MR is reduced in starved flies, suggesting that starvation inhibits normal sleep-associated effects on metabolic rate. Further, translin mutant flies that fail to suppress sleep during starvation demonstrate a lower basal metabolic rate, but this rate was further reduced in response to starvation, revealing that regulation of starvation-induced changes in MR and sleep duration are genetically distinct. Therefore, this system provides the unique ability to simultaneously measure sleep and oxidative metabolism, providing novel insight into the physiological changes associated with sleep and wakefulness in the fruit fly. © Sleep Research Society 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Sleep Research Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Physical Exercise Improves Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafaina, Santos; Collado-Mateo, Daniel; Fuentes, Juan Pedro; Merellano-Navarro, Eugenio; Gusi, Narcis

    2017-09-23

    The aim of the present systematic review is to provide an up-to-date analysis of the research on the effects of exercise programs on heart rate variability (HRV) in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). An electronic search of the literature (PubMed, PEDro and Web of Science) was performed. "HRV", "heart rate variability", "exercise", "physical" and "diabetes" were the terms used for article retrieval. Lastly, 15 articles were selected. PRISMA methodology was employed and data were extracted according to the PICOS approach. Although HRV is not routinely measured in the management of T2DM, it is an important measure due to its relation with mortality and diabetic neuropathy. Physical exercise has become a therapy for T2DM, because it improves physical fitness and functional capacity, enhances metabolic control and insulin sensitivity, reduces inflammatory markers and neuropathy symptoms and can increase the regenerative capacity of cutaneous axons, slowing or preventing neuropathy progression. However, it is not clear to what extent physical exercise can improve HRV in this population. Participation in the 15 selected studies was similar in men and women (48.01% men and 51.99% women). All the intervention programs included aerobic training, and it was complemented by strength training in four studies. Duration of physical exercise sessions ranged between 30 and 75 min, the frequency being between 2 and 7 days/week. Statistically significant improvements in groups with diabetes, relative to baseline, were observed in nine studies. More than 3 days per week of aerobic training, complemented by strength training, during at least 3 months seems to improve HRV in T2DM. Weekly frequency might be the most important factor to improve HRV. These aspects could help to design better programs based in scientific evidence, incorporating HRV as an important variable associated with diabetic neuropathy and mortality.

  13. Diabetes and Technology for Increased Activity (DaTA Study: The effects of exercise and technology on heart rate variability and metabolic syndrome risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie I Stuckey

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the hypothesis that an eight-week exercise intervention supported by mobile health (mHealth technology would improve metabolic syndrome (MetS risk factors and heart rate variability (HRV in a population with MetS risk factors. Participants (n=12; 3 male; aged 56.9±7.0y reported to the laboratory for assessment of MetS risk factors and fitness (VO2max at baseline (V0 and after eight-weeks (V2 of intervention. Participants received an individualized exercise prescription and a mHealth technology kit for remote monitoring of blood pressure (BP, blood glucose, physical activity and body weight via smartphone. Participants underwent 24-h ambulatory monitoring of R-R intervals following V0 and V2. Low and high frequency powers of HRV were assessed from the recording and the ratio of low-to-high frequency powers and low and high frequency power in normalized units were calculated. One-way repeated measures analysis of variance showed that waist circumference (V0: 113.1±11.0cm, V2: 108.1±14.7cm; p=0.004 and diastolic BP (V0: 81±6mmHg, V2: 76±11mmHg; p=0.04 were reduced and VO2max increased (V0: 31.3ml/kg/min, V2: 34.8ml/kg/min; p=0.02 with no changes in other MetS risk factors. Low and high frequency powers in normalized units were reduced (V0: 75.5±12.0, V2: 72.0±12.1; p=0.03 and increased (V0: 24.5±12.0, V2: 28.0±12.1; p=0.03, respectively, with no other changes in HRV. Over the intervention period, changes in systolic BP were correlated negatively with the changes in R-R interval (r=-0.600; p=0.04 and positively with the changes in heart rate (r=0.611; p=0.03, with no other associations between MetS risk factors and HRV parameters. Thus, this eight-week mHealth supported exercise intervention improved MetS risk factors and HRV parameters, but only changes in systolic BP were associated with improved autonomic function.

  14. Energy metabolism of medium-chain triglycerides versus carbohydrates during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Décombaz, J; Arnaud, M J; Milon, H; Moesch, H; Philippossian, G; Thélin, A L; Howald, H

    1983-01-01

    Medium-chain triglycerides (MCT) are known to be rapidly digested and oxidized. Their potential value as a source of dietary energy during exercise was compared with that of maltodextrins (MD). Twelve subjects exercised for 1 h on a bicycle ergometer (60% VO2 max), 1 h after the test meal (1MJ). The metabolism of MCT was followed using 1-13C-octanoate (Oc) as tracer and U-13C-glucose (G) was added to the 13C-naturally enriched MD. After MCT ingestion no insulin peak was observed with some accumulation of ketone bodies (KB), blood levels not exceeding 1 mM. Total losses of KB during exercise in urine, sweat and as breath acetone were small (less than 0.2 mmol X h-1). Hence, the influence of KB loss and storage on gas exchange data was negligible. The partition of fat and carbohydrate utilization during exercise as obtained by indirect calorimetry was practically the same after the MCT and the CHO meals. Oxidation over the 2-h period was 30% of dose for Oc and 45% for G. Glycogen decrements in the Vastus lateralis muscle were equal. It appears that with normal carbohydrate stores, a single meal of MCT or CHO did not alter the contribution of carbohydrates during 1 h of high submaximal exercise. The moderate ketonemia after MCT, despite substantial oxidation of this fat, led to no difference in muscle glycogen sparing between the diets.

  15. Targeting Inflammation and Downstream Protein Metabolism in Sarcopenia: A Brief Up-Dated Description of Concurrent Exercise and Leucine-Based Multimodal Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Xia

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Sarcopenia is defined as the progressive loss of muscle mass with age, and poses a serious threat to the physiological and psychological health of the elderly population with consequential economic and social burdens. Chronic low-grade inflammation plays a central role in the development of sarcopenia such that it alters cellular protein metabolism to favor proteolysis over synthesis, and thereby accelerates muscular atrophy. The purpose of this review is to highlight how exercise and nutrition intervention strategies can attenuate or treat sarcopenia. Resistance exercise increases not only muscle mass but also muscle strength, while aerobic exercise is able to ameliorate the age-related metabolic disorders. Concurrent exercise training integrates the advantages of both aerobic and resistance exercise, and may exert a significant synergistic effect in the aging organism. Higher protein intakes rich in the amino acid leucine appear to restore skeletal muscle protein metabolism balance by rescuing protein synthesis in older adults. There is good reason to believe that a multimodal treatment, a combination of exercise and increased leucine consumption in the diet, can combat some of the muscle loss associated with aging. Future research is needed to consolidate these findings to humans, and to further clarify to what extent and by which mechanisms protein metabolism might be directly involved in sarcopenia pathogenesis and the multimodal treatment responses.

  16. Physiological effects of bioceramic material: harvard step, resting metabolic rate and treadmill running assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ting-Kai; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Lee, Chi-Ming; Kan, Nai-Wen; Hou, Chien-Wen

    2013-12-31

    Previous biomolecular and animal studies have shown that a room-temperature far-infrared-rayemitting ceramic material (bioceramic) demonstrates physical-biological effects, including the normalization of psychologically induced stress-conditioned elevated heart rate in animals. In this clinical study, the Harvard step test, the resting metabolic rate (RMR) assessment and the treadmill running test were conducted to evaluate possible physiological effects of the bioceramic material in human patients. The analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) during the Harvard step test indicated that the bioceramic material significantly increased the high-frequency (HF) power spectrum. In addition, the results of RMR analysis suggest that the bioceramic material reduced oxygen consumption (VO2). Our results demonstrate that the bioceramic material has the tendency to stimulate parasympathetic responses, which may reduce resting energy expenditure and improve cardiorespiratory recovery following exercise.

  17. Impact of adrenaline and metabolic stress on exercise-induced intracellular signaling and PGC-1α mRNA response in human skeletal muscle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Nina; Gunnarsson, Thomas Gunnar Petursson; Hostrup, Morten

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma adrenaline or metabolic stress enhances exercise-induced PGC-1α mRNA and intracellular signaling in human muscle. Trained (VO2-max: 53.8 ± 1.8 mL min(-1) kg(-1)) male subjects completed four different exercise protocols (work load of the legs...... exercise than at rest in all protocols, and higher (P adrenaline nor muscle metabolic stress determines the magnitude of PGC-1α mRNA response in human muscle. Furthermore, higher exercise-induced changes in AMPK, p38, and CREB...

  18. High intensity interval training (HIIT) improves resting blood pressure, metabolic (MET) capacity and heart rate reserve without compromising cardiac function in sedentary aging men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, Fergal; Herbert, Peter; Elliott, Adrian D; Richards, Jo; Beaumont, Alexander; Sculthorpe, Nicholas F

    2017-05-13

    This study examined a programme of pre-conditioning exercise with subsequent high intensity interval training (HIIT) on blood pressure, echocardiography, cardiac strain mechanics and maximal metabolic (MET) capacity in sedentary (SED) aging men compared with age matched masters athletes (LEX). Using a STROBE compliant observational design, 39 aging male participants (SED; n=22, aged 62.7±5.2yrs) (LEX; n=17, aged=61.1±5.4yrs) were recruited to a study that necessitated three distinct assessment phases; enrolment (Phase A), following pre-conditioning exercise in SED (Phase B), then following 6weeks of HIIT performed once every five days by both groups before reassessment (Phase C). Hemodynamic, echocardiographic and cardiac strain mechanics were obtained at rest and maximal cardiorespiratory and chronotropic responses were obtained at each measurement phase. The training intervention improved systolic, mean arterial blood pressure, rate pressure product and heart rate reserve (each PHIIT. Echocardiography and cardiac strain measures were unremarkable apart from trivial increase to intra-ventricular septum diastole (IVSd) (PHIIT. A programme of preconditioning exercise with HIIT induces clinically relevant improvements in blood pressure, rate pressure product and encourages recovery of heart rate reserve in SED, while improving maximal MET capacity in both SED and LEX without inducing any pathological cardiovascular remodeling. These data add to the emerging repute of HIIT as a safe and promising exercise prescription to improve cardiovascular function and metabolic capacity in sedentary aging. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Importance of heart rate during exercise for response to cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maass, Alexander H; Buck, Sandra; Nieuwland, Wybe; Brügemann, Johan; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Van Gelder, Isabelle C

    2009-07-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is an established therapy for patients with severe heart failure and mechanical dyssynchrony. Response is only achieved in 60-70% of patients. To study exercise-related factors predicting response to CRT. We retrospectively examined consecutive patients in whom a CRT device was implanted. All underwent cardiopulmonary exercise testing prior to implantation and after 6 months. The occurrence of chronotropic incompetence and heart rates exceeding the upper rate of the device, thereby compromising biventricular stimulation, was studied. Response was defined as a decrease in LVESV of 10% or more after 6 months. We included 144 patients. After 6 months 86 (60%) patients were responders. Peak VO2 significantly increased in responders. Chronotropic incompetence was more frequently seen in nonresponders (21 [36%] vs 9 [10%], P = 0.03), mostly in patients in SR. At moderate exercise, defined as 25% of the maximal exercise tolerance, that is, comparable to daily life exercise, nonresponders more frequently went above the upper rate of the device (13 [22%] vs 2 [3%], P exercise (OR 15.8 [3.3-76.5], P = 0.001) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (OR 2.4 [1.0-5.7], P = 0.04) as predictive for response. Heart rate exceeding the upper rate during moderate exercise is an independent predictor for nonresponse to CRT in patients with AF, whereas chronotropic incompetence is a predictor for patients in SR.

  20. Responsive eLearning exercises to enhance student interaction with metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesler, William J; Dreaver-Charles, Kristine

    2018-05-01

    Successful learning of biochemistry requires students to engage with the material. In the past this often involved students writing out pathways by hand, and more recently directing students to online resources such as videos, songs, and animated slide presentations. However, even these latter resources do not really provide students an opportunity to engage with the material in an active fashion. As part of an online introductory metabolism course that was developed at our university, we created a series of twelve online interactive activities using Adobe Captivate 9. These activities targeted glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the pentose phosphate pathway, glycogen metabolism, the citric acid cycle, and fatty acid oxidation. The interactive exercises consisted of two types. One involved dragging objects such as names of enzymes or allosteric modifiers to their correct drop locations such as a particular point in a metabolic pathway, a specific enzyme, and so forth. A second type involved clicking on objects, locations within a pathway, and so forth, in response to a particular question. In both types of exercises, students received feedback on their decisions in order to enhance learning. The student feedback received on these activities was very positive, and indicated that they found them to increase their confidence in the material and that they had learned the key principles of each pathway. © 2018 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 46(3):223-229, 2018. © 2018 The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  1. Whole-body pre-cooling does not alter human muscle metabolism during sub-maximal exercise in the heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, J; Wilsmore, B R; Macdonald, A D; Zeyl, A; Mcghee, S; Calvert, D; Marino, F E; Storlien, L H; Taylor, N A

    2001-06-01

    Muscle metabolism was investigated in seven men during two 35 min cycling trials at 60% peak oxygen uptake, at 35 degrees C and 50% relative humidity. On one occasion, exercise was preceded by whole-body cooling achieved by immersion in water during a reduction in temperature from 29 to 24 degrees C, and, for the other trial, by immersion in water at a thermoneutral temperature (control, 34.8 degrees C). Pre-cooling did not alter oxygen uptake during exercise (P > 0.05), whilst the change in cardiac frequency and body mass both tended to be lower following pre-cooling (0.05 whole-body pre-cooling does not alter muscle metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. It is more likely that thermoregulatory and cardiovascular strain are reduced, through lower muscle and core temperatures.

  2. Effects of exercise program on physiological functions in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heli, Valkeinen; Ihab, Hajjar; Kun, Hu; Brad, Manor; Jessica, Wisocky; Vera, Novak

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine effects of mixed interval aerobic and strength training (MAST) program on physiological functions in older women with metabolic syndrome. 12 subjects were randomly assigned to the exercise group (16-week MAST program) or the control group. Outcomes included oxygen uptake (VO 2max ), cerebral blood flow velocity (BFV) and cognitive functions. The exercise group demonstrated increased VO 2max and certain improvements in cognitive functions. No changes were observed in BFV for both groups. These results can be used as a preliminary data for planning larger studies.

  3. [Study of Basal metabolic rate of 81 young adults aged 20-29 years old in Changsha].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, X; Mao, D Q; Luo, J Y; Wu, J H; Zhuo, Q; Li, Y M

    2017-07-06

    Objective: To determine the basal metabolic rate (BMR) of young adults aged between 20-29 years old in Changsha. Methods: We recruited volunteers to join in our research project from April to May, 2015. All recruited volunteers must meet the inclusion criteria: aged 20-29 years old, height between 164-180 centimeters in males and 154-167 centimeters in females, in good health condition, and with no habit of regular physical exercise in last year. Finally, 81 qualified volunteers were selected as research objects, including 43 males and 38 females. The BMR, resting lying metabolism rate and resting sitting metabolism rate of the subjects were detected, and the determined BMR was compared with the calculated results: from the adjusted Schofield equation. Results The BMR, resting lying metabolism rate and resting sitting metabolism rate among males were (166.10±22.09), (174.22±24.56), and (179.54±23.35) kJ·m(-2)·h(-1), respectively, which were all higher than those among females were (137.70±20.04), (149.79±19.25), and (167.78±26.02) kJ·m(-2)·h(-1), respectively, ( PBMR of males and females calculated from the adjusted Schofield equation were (160.83±3.93), and (140.29±4.18) kJ·m(-2)·h(-1), respectively, and there was no significantly statistical difference found between the determined BMR and the calculated results from Schofield equation (adjusted) classified by sex, all P values >0.05. Conclusion: The BMR of young adults aged 20-29 years old in Changsha was in the national average level, and the adjusted Schofield equation displayed fine accuracy in predicting BMR of young adults aged 20-29 years old in Changsha.

  4. A brief review and clinical application of heart rate variability biofeedback in sports, exercise, and rehabilitation medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinsloo, Gabriell E; Rauch, H G Laurie; Derman, Wayne E

    2014-05-01

    An important component of the effective management of chronic noncommunicable disease is the assessment and management of psychosocial stress. The measurement and modulation of heart rate variability (HRV) may be valuable in this regard. To describe the measurement and physiological control of HRV; to describe the impact of psychosocial stress on cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and chronic respiratory disease, and the relationship between these diseases and changes in HRV; and to describe the influence of biofeedback and exercise on HRV and the use of HRV biofeedback in the management of chronic disease. The PubMed, Medline, and Embase databases were searched (up to August 2013). Additional articles were obtained from the reference lists of relevant articles and reviews. Articles were individually selected for further review based on the quality and focus of the study, and the population studied. Heart rate variability is reduced in stress and in many chronic diseases, and may even predict the development and prognosis of some diseases. Heart rate variability can be increased with both exercise and biofeedback. Although the research on the effect of exercise is conflicting, there is evidence that aerobic training may increase HRV and cardiac vagal tone both in healthy individuals and in patients with disease. Heart rate variability biofeedback is also an effective method of increasing HRV and cardiac vagal tone, and has been shown to decrease stress and reduce the morbidity and mortality of disease. The assessment and management of psychosocial stress is a challenging but important component of effective comprehensive lifestyle interventions for the management of noncommunicable disease. It is, therefore, important for the sports and exercise physician to have an understanding of the therapeutic use of HRV modulation, both in the reduction of stress and in the management of chronic disease.

  5. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-04-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question.

  6. Effects of adipose tissue distribution on maximum lipid oxidation rate during exercise in normal-weight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, L; Thivel, D; Duclos, M; Aucouturier, J; Boisseau, N

    2014-06-01

    Fat mass localization affects lipid metabolism differently at rest and during exercise in overweight and normal-weight subjects. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a low vs high ratio of abdominal to lower-body fat mass (index of adipose tissue distribution) on the exercise intensity (Lipox(max)) that elicits the maximum lipid oxidation rate in normal-weight women. Twenty-one normal-weight women (22.0 ± 0.6 years, 22.3 ± 0.1 kg.m(-2)) were separated into two groups of either a low or high abdominal to lower-body fat mass ratio [L-A/LB (n = 11) or H-A/LB (n = 10), respectively]. Lipox(max) and maximum lipid oxidation rate (MLOR) were determined during a submaximum incremental exercise test. Abdominal and lower-body fat mass were determined from DXA scans. The two groups did not differ in aerobic fitness, total fat mass, or total and localized fat-free mass. Lipox(max) and MLOR were significantly lower in H-A/LB vs L-A/LB women (43 ± 3% VO(2max) vs 54 ± 4% VO(2max), and 4.8 ± 0.6 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1)vs 8.4 ± 0.9 mg min(-1)kg FFM(-1), respectively; P normal-weight women, a predominantly abdominal fat mass distribution compared with a predominantly peripheral fat mass distribution is associated with a lower capacity to maximize lipid oxidation during exercise, as evidenced by their lower Lipox(max) and MLOR. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Does exercise stimulate protein breakdown in humans? Isotopic approaches to the problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfe, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Protein metabolism in exercise has been investigated for 100 yr, yet it is still unclear if exercise induces an increased rate of protein breakdown. We have recently addressed this general question in a series of experiments in human subjects using stable isotopic tracers. In this paper, the results of those studies are reviewed. We have found that in light exercise the de-carboxylation of leucine is increased. However, urea production is not increased correspondingly, nor is the rate of incorporation into urea of nitrogen from either leucine or lysine. Further complicating the picture is the fact that lysine de-carboxylation is not markedly elevated in exercise. From these studies, we must conclude that isotopic techniques which have achieved general acceptance in other circumstances cannot reliably be used to answer the question of whether exercise stimulates protein breakdown in humans. However, these methods do provide results which enable a better understanding of the metabolism of the individual amino acids in exercise

  8. Lower dipeptidyl peptidase-4 following exercise training plus weight loss is related to increased insulin sensitivity in adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Huang, Hazel; Mulya, Anny; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Kirwan, John P

    2013-09-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) is a circulating glycoprotein that impairs insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and is linked to obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, the effect of exercise on plasma DPP-4 in adults with metabolic syndrome is unknown. Therefore, we determined the effect of exercise on DPP-4 and its role in explaining exercise-induced improvements in insulin sensitivity. Fourteen obese adults (67.9±1.2 years, BMI: 34.2±1.1kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria) underwent a 12-week supervised exercise intervention (60min/day for 5 days/week at ∼85% HRmax). Plasma DPP-4 was analyzed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Insulin sensitivity was measured using the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamp (40mU/m(2)/min) and estimated by HOMA-IR. Visceral fat (computerized tomography), 2-h glucose levels (75g oral glucose tolerance), and basal fat oxidation as well as aerobic fitness (indirect calorimetry) were also determined before and after exercise. The intervention reduced visceral fat, lowered blood pressure, glucose and lipids, and increased aerobic fitness (PExercise improved clamp-derived insulin sensitivity by 75% (PExercise training reduces plasma DPP-4, which may be linked to elevated insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. Maintaining low plasma DPP-4 concentrations is a potential mechanism whereby exercise plus weight loss prevents/delays the onset of type 2 diabetes in adults with metabolic syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Metabolic rate regulates L1 longevity in C. elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inhwan Lee

    Full Text Available Animals have to cope with starvation. The molecular mechanisms by which animals survive long-term starvation, however, are not clearly understood. When they hatch without food, C. elegans arrests development at the first larval stage (L1 and survives more than two weeks. Here we show that the survival span of arrested L1s, which we call L1 longevity, is a starvation response regulated by metabolic rate during starvation. A high rate of metabolism shortens the L1 survival span, whereas a low rate of metabolism lengthens it. The longer worms are starved, the slower they grow once they are fed, suggesting that L1 arrest has metabolic costs. Furthermore, mutants of genes that regulate metabolism show altered L1 longevity. Among them, we found that AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK, as a key energy sensor, regulates L1 longevity by regulating this metabolic arrest. Our results suggest that L1 longevity is determined by metabolic rate and that AMPK as a master regulator of metabolism controls this arrest so that the animals survive long-term starvation.

  10. Exercise, Insulin Absorption Rates, and Artificial Pancreas Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Spencer; Hinshaw, Ling; Basu, Rita; Basu, Ananda; Szeri, Andrew J.

    2016-11-01

    Type 1 Diabetes is characterized by an inability of a person to endogenously produce the hormone insulin. Because of this, insulin must be injected - usually subcutaneously. The size of the injected dose and the rate at which the dose reaches the circulatory system have a profound effect on the ability to control glucose excursions, and therefore control of diabetes. However, insulin absorption rates via subcutaneous injection are variable and depend on a number of factors including tissue perfusion, physical activity (vasodilation, increased capillary throughput), and other tissue geometric and physical properties. Exercise may also have a sizeable effect on the rate of insulin absorption, which can potentially lead to dangerous glucose levels. Insulin-dosing algorithms, as implemented in an artificial pancreas controller, should account accurately for absorption rate variability and exercise effects on insulin absorption. The aforementioned factors affecting insulin absorption will be discussed within the context of both fluid mechanics and data driven modeling approaches.

  11. HEART RATE RECOVERY AFTER EXERCISE AND NEURAL REGULATION OF HEART RATE VARIABILITY IN 30-40 YEAR OLD FEMALE MARATHON RUNNERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshio Matsuoka

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of endurance training on heart rate (HR recovery after exercise and cardiac autonomic nervous system (ANS modulation in female marathon runners by comparing with untrained controls. Six female marathon runners (M group aged 32-40 years and eight age-matched untrained females (C group performed a maximum-effort treadmill running exercise. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max was measured during the exercise with a gas analyzer connected to subjects through a face mask. Heart rate, blood pressure and blood lactate were measured before and after the exercise. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE to the exercise was obtained immediately after the exercise. Holter ECG was recorded and analyzed with power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV to investigate the cardiac ANS modulation. The M group had significantly higher VO2max, faster HR recovery after exercise, higher Mean RR, SDRR, HF power and lower LF/HF ratio at rest compared with the C group. The M group also presented greater percent decrease of blood pressure after exercise, although their blood pressure after exercise was higher than the C group. It is suggested that endurance training induced significant alterations in cardiac ANS modulation at rest and significant acceleration of HR recovery after exercise in female marathon runners. Faster HR recovery after exercise in the female marathon runners should result from their higher levels of HRV, higher aerobic capacity and exaggerated blood pressure response to exercise compared with untrained controls.

  12. Palaeohistological Evidence for Ancestral High Metabolic Rate in Archosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Lucas J; Guénard, Guillaume; Botha-Brink, Jennifer; Cubo, Jorge

    2016-11-01

    Metabolic heat production in archosaurs has played an important role in their evolutionary radiation during the Mesozoic, and their ancestral metabolic condition has long been a matter of debate in systematics and palaeontology. The study of fossil bone histology provides crucial information on bone growth rate, which has been used to indirectly investigate the evolution of thermometabolism in archosaurs. However, no quantitative estimation of metabolic rate has ever been performed on fossils using bone histological features. Moreover, to date, no inference model has included phylogenetic information in the form of predictive variables. Here we performed statistical predictive modeling using the new method of phylogenetic eigenvector maps on a set of bone histological features for a sample of extant and extinct vertebrates, to estimate metabolic rates of fossil archosauromorphs. This modeling procedure serves as a case study for eigenvector-based predictive modeling in a phylogenetic context, as well as an investigation of the poorly known evolutionary patterns of metabolic rate in archosaurs. Our results show that Mesozoic theropod dinosaurs exhibit metabolic rates very close to those found in modern birds, that archosaurs share a higher ancestral metabolic rate than that of extant ectotherms, and that this derived high metabolic rate was acquired at a much more inclusive level of the phylogenetic tree, among non-archosaurian archosauromorphs. These results also highlight the difficulties of assigning a given heat production strategy (i.e., endothermy, ectothermy) to an estimated metabolic rate value, and confirm findings of previous studies that the definition of the endotherm/ectotherm dichotomy may be ambiguous. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy assessed by iodine-123-labeled beta-methyl-branched fatty acid myocardial scintigraphy and its relation to exercise-induced ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Shinro; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Takahashi, Masayuki; Mitsunami, Kenichi; Kinoshita, Masahiko

    1998-01-01

    Reversible thallium-201 ( 201 Tl) abnormalities during exercise stress have been used as markers of myocardial ischemia in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and are most likely to identify relatively underperfused myocardium. Although metabolic abnormalities in HCM were reported, the relationship between impaired energy metabolism and exercise-induced ischemia has not been fully elucidated as yet. To assess the relationship between myocardial perfusion abnormalities and fatty acid metabolic abnormalities, 28 patients with HCM underwent exercise 201 Tl and rest 123 I-15-(p-iodophenyl)-3-methyl pentadecanoic acid (BMIPP) scintigraphy. Perfusion abnormalities were observed by exercise 201 Tl in 19/28 patients with HCM. 123 I-BMIPP uptake was decreased compared with delayed 201 Tl in 106/364 (29%) of the total myocardial segments (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl was observed more often in the 49/75 (65%) segments with reversible exercise 201 Tl defects (p 123 I-BMIPP and 201 Tl suggests that myocardial ischemia may play an important role in metabolic abnormalities in HCM. (author)

  14. Primary prevention of metabolic syndrome in the community using an evidence-based exercise program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalleck, Lance C; Van Guilder, Gary P; Quinn, Esther M; Bredle, Don L

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effectiveness of a community-based exercise program to lower metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk factors. MetS components were retrospectively analyzed in 332 adults (190 women, 142 men) before and after a 14-week supervised community exercise program between January 2007 and May 2012 at the University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Except for total cholesterol, all health outcome variables, including the 5 MetS components, improved following community exercise. Individuals having MetS decreased from 22.3% before participation to 13.5% at end (pexercise program is an effective method to reduce cardiovascular risk in adults by substantially decreasing the prevalence of MetS and its components. Greater volumes of exercise may increase the likelihood of MetS risk factor elimination. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Heart Rate Variability Is Associated with Exercise Capacity in Patients with Cardiac Syndrome X.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dai-Yin Lu

    Full Text Available Heart rate variability (HRV reflects the healthiness of autonomic nervous system, which is associated with exercise capacity. We therefore investigated whether HRV could predict the exercise capacity in the adults with cardiac syndrome X (CSX. A total of 238 subjects (57±12 years, 67.8% men, who were diagnosed as CSX by the positive exercise stress test and nearly normal coronary angiogram were enrolled. Power spectrum from the 24-hour recording of heart rate was analyzed in frequency domain using total power (TP and spectral components of the very low frequency (VLF, low frequency (LF and high frequency (HF ranges. Among the study population, 129 subjects with impaired exercise capacity during the treadmill test had significantly lower HRV indices than those with preserved exercise capacity (≥90% of the age predicted maximal heart rate. After accounting for age, sex, and baseline SBP and heart rate, VLF (odds ratio per 1SD and 95% CI: 2.02, 1.19-3.42, LF (1.67, 1.10-2.55, and TP (1.82, 1.17-2.83 remained significantly associated with preserved exercise capacity. In addition, increased HRV indices were also associated with increased exercise duration, rate-pressure product, and heart rate recovery, independent of age, body mass index, and baseline SBP and heart rate. In subgroup analysis, HRV indices demonstrated similar predictive values related to exercise capacity across various subpopulations, especially in the young. In patients with CSX, HRV was independently associated with exercise capacity, especially in young subjects. The healthiness of autonomic nervous system may have a role in modulating the exercise capacity in patients with CSX.

  16. Association of heart rate profile during exercise with the severity of coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cay, Serkan; Ozturk, Sezgin; Biyikoglu, Funda; Yildiz, Abdulkadir; Cimen, Tolga; Uygur, Belma; Tuna, Funda

    2009-05-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality around the world. Autonomic nervous system abnormalities are associated with coronary artery disease and its complications. Exercise stress tests are routinely used for the detection of the presence of coronary artery disease. In this study, we observed the association between heart rate profile during exercise and the severity of coronary artery disease. One hundred and sixty patients with abnormal exercise treadmill test (> or =1 mm horizontal or downsloping ST-segment depression; 119 men, 41 women; mean age = 57 +/- 9 years) were included in the study. Use of any drug affecting heart rate was not permitted. Resting heart rate before exercise, maximum heart rate during exercise, and resting heart rate after exercise (5 min later) were measured and two parameters were calculated: heart rate increment (maximum heart rate - resting heart rate before exercise) and heart rate decrement (maximum heart rate - resting heart rate after exercise). All patients underwent selective coronary angiography and subclassified into two groups according to stenotic lesion severity. Group 1 had at least 50% of stenotic lesion and group 2 had less than 50%. Patients in the first group had increased resting heart rate, decreased maximum heart rate, decreased heart rate increment, and decreased heart rate decrement compared with second group. All patients were classified into tertiles of resting heart rate, heart rate increment, and heart rate decrement level to evaluate whether these parameters were associated with severity of coronary artery stenosis in the study. The multiple-adjusted odds ratio of the risk of severe coronary atherosclerosis was 21.888 (95% confidence interval 6.983-68.606) for the highest tertile of resting heart rate level compared with the lowest tertile. In addition, the multiple-adjusted odds ratio of the risk of severe coronary atherosclerosis was 20.987 (95% confidence interval 6

  17. [Chronic fatigue syndrome--exercise and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Shai; Frid, Mordechai

    2006-04-01

    One of the major symptoms of chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is reduced exercise and functional capacity and increased fatigue symptoms following physical effort. A review of the literature indicates that patients that suffer from CFS are characterized by: low aerobic capacity, higher heart rate during sub-maximal exercise, higher subjective effort prescription, reduced muscle strength, and prolonged recovery period. Although several symptoms are a result of lack of physical activity, several mechanisms were suggested to explain those symptoms: pathological heart rate control, reduced aerobic metabolic capacity, reduced blood supply to the working muscles and nerve system dysfunction. Participating in guided exercise programs was found to be the most effective treatment in improving exercise and functional capacity, reducing fatigue syndromes and improving patients' daily function.

  18. Effect of exercise training on inflammation status among people with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stensvold, Dorthe; Slørdahl, Stig Arild; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with chronic low-grade inflammation, a condition thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of the syndrome. Among a number of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin-18 (IL-18) seems to be the best marker for inflammation among people with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of aerobic training versus strength training on circulating IL-18 and other proinflammatory markers in people with metabolic syndrome. Thirty-one inactive men and women with metabolic syndrome were randomized to either high-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT, n=11), strength training (ST, n=10), or a control group (n=10). Exercise training was carried out three times per week for 12 weeks. Serum insulin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), IL-18, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured before and after the intervention. Serum IL-18 was reduced by 43% after AIT (Pmetabolic syndrome. http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT00986024/ .

  19. Hypoglycemic and antioxidant effect of Tai chi exercise training in older adults with metabolic syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Núñez VM

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Víctor Manuel Mendoza-Núñez,1 Taide Laurita Arista-Ugalde,1 Juana Rosado-Pérez,1 Mirna Ruiz-Ramos,1 Edelmiro Santiago-Osorio2 1Research Unit on Gerontology, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico; 2Hematopoiesis and Leukemia Laboratory, Research Unit on Cell Differentiation and Cancer, FES Zaragoza, National Autonomous University of Mexico, Mexico City, Mexico Introduction: The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of Tai chi (TC exercise training in healthy older adults has been demonstrated. However, there are no studies on this effect in older adults with metabolic syndrome (MetS.Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the effect of TC exercise on oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in older adults with MetS.Methods: A quasi-experimental study was carried out with a sample of 110 older sedentary volunteers with clinical diagnoses of MetS: (i a control group, n = 50, of individuals who do not participate in physical exercise, of which 37 fulfilled the entire study protocol, and (ii an experimental group, n = 60, of subjects enrolled in a TC exercise training program (eight-form easy, 5 days a week for 6 months, in sessions of 50 min, under the supervision of a qualified instructor, of which 48 fulfilled the entire study protocol. We measured in both groups (pre- and post-intervention the following cardiovascular parameters: resting heart rate (RHR, diastolic and systolic blood pressure (DBP and SBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, RHR-SBP product, RHR-MAP product; glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c; oxidative stress markers (superoxide dismutase, total antioxidant status, thiobarbituric acid reacting substances, and oxidative stress score; and inflammation markers (TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and IL-10.Results: A statistically significant decrease in HbA1c concentration was observed in the TC group compared with the control group (p < 0.05. This group also showed a statistically significant increase

  20. Metabolic and hormonal consequences of two different meals after a moderate intensity exercise bout in obese prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffeis, C; Bonadonna, R; Maschio, M; Aiello, G; Tommasi, M; Marigliano, M; Fornari, E; Morandi, A

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between postprandial nutrient balance, satiety and hormone changes induced by two different meals taken after a moderate intensity exercise bout. Ten prepubertal obese children participated in the study. The experiment was designed as a cross-over study for repeated measures. Each test period lasted five consecutive hours during which the children were under medical supervision. The effects of two isocaloric meals were compared after a moderate intensity exercise (4 multiples of resting metabolic rate, 30 min, cycling): a low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal (meal A) and a high-fat/low-carbohydrate meal (meal B). Pre and postprandial (3 h) substrate oxidation, biochemical parameters, gastrointestinal hormone concentrations and appetite were measured. The main results were: (i) higher fat balance (5.1±5.0 vs -5.0±6.6 g, P=0.001) and lower carbohydrate balance after meal B than A (-9.7±13.3 vs 11.3±18.3 g, Pvs -13.9±20.2 kcal, Pvs -169.5±1633.7 mg*180 min/dl, Pvs 478.8±638.3 pmol*180 min/l, Plow-carbohydrate ratio had a less favorable metabolic impact than an isoenergetic, isoproteic low-fat/high-carbohydrate meal.

  1. Cutaneous blood flow rate in areas with and without arteriovenous anastomoses during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, M.; Sejrsen, Per

    1998-01-01

    Arteriovenous anastomoses, capillaries, cutaneous bllod flow rate, exercise, finger blood flow, skin blood flow......Arteriovenous anastomoses, capillaries, cutaneous bllod flow rate, exercise, finger blood flow, skin blood flow...

  2. The effects of improved metabolic risk factors on bone turnover markers after 12 weeks of simvastatin treatment with or without exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jun; Boyle, Leryn J; Mikus, Catherine R; Oberlin, Douglas J; Fletcher, Justin A; Thyfault, John P; Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-11-01

    Emerging evidence supports an association between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. Statins and exercise independently improve metabolic risk factors; however whether improvements in metabolic risk factor affects bone turnover is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to: 1) evaluate the relationship between metabolic risk factors and bone turnover; and 2) determine if improvements in metabolic risk factors after 12 weeks of statin treatment, exercise or the combination affect bone turnover. Fifty participants with ≥2 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics were randomly assigned to one of three groups: statin (STAT: simvastatin, 40 mg/day), exercise (EX: brisk walking and/or slow jogging, 45 minutes/day, 5 days/week), or the combination (STAT+EX). Body composition and whole body bone mineral density were measured with dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. Serum markers of bone formation (bone specific alkaline phosphatase, BAP; osteocalcin, OC), resorption (C-terminal peptide of type I collagen, CTX) and metabolic risk factors were determined. Two-factor (time, group) repeated-measures ANCOVA was used to examine changes of metabolic risk factors and bone turnover. General linear models were used to determine the effect of pre-treatment metabolic risk factors on post-treatment bone turnover marker outcomes. Participants with ≥4 metabolic syndrome defining characteristics had lower pre-treatment OC than those with 3 or fewer. OC was negatively correlated with glucose, and CTX was positively correlated with cholesterol. STAT or STAT+EX lowered total and LDL cholesterol. The OC to CTX ratio decreased in all groups with no other significant changes in bone turnover. Higher pre-treatment insulin or body fat predicted a greater CTX reduction and a greater BAP/CTX increase. Metabolic risk factors were negatively associated with bone turnover markers. Short-term statin treatment with or without exercise lowered cholesterol and all treatments had a small

  3. Metabolic rates of giant pandas inform conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-06-01

    The giant panda is an icon of conservation and survived a large-scale bamboo die off in the 1980s in China. Captive breeding programs have produced a large population in zoos and efforts continue to reintroduce those animals into the wild. However, we lack sufficient knowledge of their physiological ecology to determine requirements for survival now and in the face of climate change. We measured resting and active metabolic rates of giant pandas in order to determine if current bamboo resources were sufficient for adding additional animals to populations in natural reserves. Resting metabolic rates were somewhat below average for a panda sized mammal and active metabolic rates were in the normal range. Pandas do not have exceptionally low metabolic rates. Nevertheless, there is enough bamboo in natural reserves to support both natural populations and large numbers of reintroduced pandas. Bamboo will not be the limiting factor in successful reintroduction.

  4. Chronic Caloric Restriction and Exercise Improve Metabolic Conditions of Dietary-Induced Obese Mice in Autophagy Correlated Manner without Involving AMPK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingxia Cui

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To investigate the role of AMPK activation and autophagy in mediating the beneficial effects of exercise and caloric restriction in obesity. Methods. Dietary-induced obesity mice were made and divided into 5 groups; one additional group of normal mice serves as control. Mice in each group received different combinations of interventions including low fat diet, caloric restriction, and exercise. Then their metabolic conditions were assessed by measuring serum glucose and insulin, serum lipids, and liver function. AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy activity were detected by western blotting. Results. Obese mice models were successfully induced by high fat diet. Caloric restriction consistently improved the metabolic conditions of the obese mice, and the effects are more prominent than the mice that received only exercise. Also, caloric restriction, exercise, and low fat diet showed a synergistic effect in the improvement of metabolic conditions. Western blotting results showed that this improvement was not related with the activation of AMPK in liver, skeletal muscle, or heart but correlates well with the autophagy activity. Conclusion. Caloric restriction has more prominent beneficial effects than exercise in dietary-induced obese mice. These effects are correlated with the autophagy activity and may be independent of AMPK activation.

  5. Genetic Ablation of CD38 Protects against Western Diet-Induced Exercise Intolerance and Metabolic Inflexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shian-Huey Chiang

    Full Text Available Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+ is a key cofactor required for essential metabolic oxidation-reduction reactions. It also regulates various cellular activities, including gene expression, signaling, DNA repair and calcium homeostasis. Intracellular NAD+ levels are tightly regulated and often respond rapidly to nutritional and environmental changes. Numerous studies indicate that elevating NAD+ may be therapeutically beneficial in the context of numerous diseases. However, the role of NAD+ on skeletal muscle exercise performance is poorly understood. CD38, a multi-functional membrane receptor and enzyme, consumes NAD+ to generate products such as cyclic-ADP-ribose. CD38 knockout mice show elevated tissue and blood NAD+ level. Chronic feeding of high-fat, high-sucrose diet to wild type mice leads to exercise intolerance and reduced metabolic flexibility. Loss of CD38 by genetic mutation protects mice from diet-induced metabolic deficit. These animal model results suggest that elevation of tissue NAD+ through genetic ablation of CD38 can profoundly alter energy homeostasis in animals that are maintained on a calorically-excessive Western diet.

  6. Glycopyrrolate abolishes the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seifert, Thomas; Fisher, James P; Young, Colin N

    2010-01-01

    Brain blood vessels contain muscarinic receptors that are important for cerebral blood flow (CBF) regulation, but whether a cholinergic receptor mechanism is involved in the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion or affects cerebral metabolism remains unknown. We evaluated CBF and cerebral......(mean) during ergometer cycling (n = 8). Separate, randomized and counterbalanced trials were performed in control (no drug) conditions and following muscarinic cholinergic receptor blockade by glycopyrrolate. Glycopyrrolate increased resting heart rate from approximately 60 to approximately 110 beats min(-1...... abolished by glycopyrrolate (P important for the exercise-induced increase in cerebral perfusion without affecting the cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen....

  7. Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Loaded Half Squat Exercise Executed at an Intensity Corresponding to the Lactate Threshold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Maté-Muñoz, Raúl Domínguez, Manuel Barba, Antonio J. Monroy, Bárbara Rodríguez, Pedro Ruiz-Solano, Manuel V. Garnacho-Castaño

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to identify the blood lactate threshold (LT2 for the half squat (HS and to examine cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables during a HS test performed at a work intensity corresponding to the LT2. Twenty-four healthy men completed 3 test sessions. In the first, their one-repetition maximum (1RM was determined for the HS. In the second session, a resistance HS incremental-load test was performed to determine LT2. Finally, in the third session, subjects performed a constant-load HS exercise at the load corresponding to the LT2 (21 sets of 15 repetitions with 1 min of rest between sets. In this last test, blood samples were collected for lactate determination before the test and 30 s after the end of set (S 3, S6, S9, S12, S15, S18 and S21. During the test, heart rate (HR was telemetrically monitored and oxygen consumption (VO2, carbon dioxide production (VCO2, minute ventilation (VE, respiratory exchange ratio (RER, ventilatory equivalent for O2 (VE·VO2-1 and ventilatory equivalent for CO2 (VE·VCO2-1 were monitored using a breath-by-breath respiratory gas analyzer. The mean LT2 for the participants was 24.8 ± 4.8% 1RM. Blood lactate concentrations showed no significant differences between sets 3 and 21 of exercise (p = 1.000. HR failed to vary between S6 and S21 (p > 1.000. The respiratory variables VO2, VCO2, and VE·VCO2-1 stabilized from S3 to the end of the constant-load HS test (p = 0.471, p = 0.136, p = 1.000, while VE and VE·VO2-1 stabilized from S6 to S21. RER did not vary significantly across exercise sets (p = 0.103. The LT2 was readily identified in the incremental HS test. Cardiorespiratory and metabolic variables remained stable during this resistance exercise conducted at an exercise intensity corresponding to the LT2. These responses need to be confirmed for other resistance exercises and adaptations in these responses after a training program also need to be addressed.

  8. Effect of changes in fat availability on exercise capacity in McArdle disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S.T.; Jeppesen, T.D.; Taivassalo, T.

    2009-01-01

    for oxidation during exercise. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover trial. SETTING: Hospitalized care. PATIENTs: Ten patients (8 men and 2 women) with McArdle disease. INTERVENTIONS: Patients cycled at a constant workload corresponding to 70% of their maximum oxygen consumption. In random order......Ardle disease, but maximal rates of fat oxidation seem limited and cannot be increased above physiologically normal rates during exercise. This limitation is probably caused by a metabolic bottleneck in the tricarboxylic acid cycle due to impaired glycolytic flux in McArdle disease. Therapies aimed at enhancing......BACKGROUND: The major fuel for exercising muscle at low exercise intensities is fat. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of fat metabolism in McArdle disease (also known as glycogen storage disease type V), an inborn error of muscle glycogenolysis, by manipulating free fatty acid availability...

  9. Effects of exercise position on the ventilatory responses to exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, W; Clark, A L; McCann, G P; Hillis, W S

    1998-09-01

    Patients with heart failure frequently complain of orthopnoea. The objective was to assess the ventilatory response of patients with chronic heart failure during erect and supine exercise. Maximal incremental exercise testing with metabolic gas exchange measurements in erect and supine positions conducted in random order. Tertiary referral centre for cardiology. Nine patients with heart failure (aged 61.9+/-6.1 years) and 10 age matched controls (63.8+/-4.6). Metabolic gas exchange measurements. The slope of the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide production. Ratings of perceived breathlessness during exercise. Oxygen consumption (VO2) and ventilation were higher during erect exercise at each stage in each group. Peak VO2 was [mean (SD)] 17.12 ml/kg/min (4.07) erect vs 12.92 (3.61) supine in the patients (P<0.01) and 22.62 (5.03) erect-supine vs 19.16 (3.78) erect (P<0.01) in the controls. Ratings of perceived exertion were higher in the patients at each stage, but unaffected by posture. There was no difference in the slope of the relation between ventilation and carbon dioxide production between erect and supine exercise 36.39 (6.12) erect vs 38.42 (8.89) supine for patients; 30.05 (4.52) vs 28.80 (3.96) for controls. In this group of patients during exercise, there was no change in the perception of breathlessness, nor the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide production with change in posture, although peak ventilation was greater in the erect position. The sensation of breathlessness may be related to the appropriateness of the ventilatory response to exertion rather than to the absolute ventilation.

  10. Studies on the Pulse Rate, Pedometer Count and Satisfactoin Degree at Various Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    小原, 史朗

    2004-01-01

    This investigation examined whether free exercise of students became good stimulation of breathing circulation function from relation of pulse rate and pedometer count. And, I examined it on satisfaction degree after exercise. Object person was 432 man students (total of 1391) and 94 woman students (total of 472). As for relation of pulse rate and pedometer count, statistical meaning was recognized by man and women. The exercise that a pulse rate and pedometer count were high together seemed ...

  11. Exercise and lifestyle predictors of resting heart rate in healthy young adults

    OpenAIRE

    Nealen, Paul M.

    2016-01-01

    Physical exercise is well-understood to provide significant health benefits, through physiological adaptations induced by the repeated exertion stress exercise imposes on our systems. Chief among these are cardiovascular adaptations to exercise, including adjustments of cardiac parameters such as stroke volume, heart rate, and maximal cardiac output. It is commonly assumed that aerobic forms of exercise provide greater cardiovascular benefits than do non-aerobic forms of exercise. To test thi...

  12. Energy metabolism during repeated sets of leg press exercise leading to failure or not

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Navarro-Amézqueta, Ion; Calbet, José A L

    2012-01-01

    This investigation examined the influence of the number of repetitions per set on power output and muscle metabolism during leg press exercise. Six trained men (age 34 ± 6 yr) randomly performed either 5 sets of 10 repetitions (10REP), or 10 sets of 5 repetitions (5REP) of bilateral leg press...... exercise, with the same initial load and rest intervals between sets. Muscle biopsies (vastus lateralis) were taken before the first set, and after the first and the final sets. Compared with 5REP, 10REP resulted in a markedly greater decrease (P...

  13. Metabolic rates of giant pandas inform conservation strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R.; Paladino, Frank V.; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2016-01-01

    The giant panda is an icon of conservation and survived a large-scale bamboo die off in the 1980s in China. Captive breeding programs have produced a large population in zoos and efforts continue to reintroduce those animals into the wild. However, we lack sufficient knowledge of their physiological ecology to determine requirements for survival now and in the face of climate change. We measured resting and active metabolic rates of giant pandas in order to determine if current bamboo resources were sufficient for adding additional animals to populations in natural reserves. Resting metabolic rates were somewhat below average for a panda sized mammal and active metabolic rates were in the normal range. Pandas do not have exceptionally low metabolic rates. Nevertheless, there is enough bamboo in natural reserves to support both natural populations and large numbers of reintroduced pandas. Bamboo will not be the limiting factor in successful reintroduction. PMID:27264109

  14. Effect of Combined Exercise Versus Aerobic-Only Training on Skeletal Muscle Lipid Metabolism in a Rodent Model of Type1 Diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dotzert, Michelle S; McDonald, Matthew W; Murray, Michael R; Nickels, J Zachary; Noble, Earl G; Melling, C W James

    2017-12-04

    Abnormal skeletal muscle lipid metabolism is associated with insulin resistance in people with type 1 diabetes. Although lipid metabolism is restored with aerobic exercise training, the risk for postexercise hypoglycemia is increased with this modality. Integrating resistance and aerobic exercise is associated with reduced hypoglycemic risk; however, the effects of this exercise modality on lipid metabolism and insulin resistance remain unknown. We compared the effects of combined (aerobic + resistance) versus aerobic exercise training on oxidative capacity and muscle lipid metabolism in a rat model of type 1 diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 4 groups: sedentary control (C), sedentary control + diabetes (CD), diabetes + high-intensity aerobic exercise (DAE) and diabetes + combined aerobic and resistance exercise (DARE). Following diabetes induction (20 mg/kg streptozotocin over five days), DAE rats ran for 12 weeks (5 days/week for 1 hour) on a motorized treadmill (27 m/min at a 6-degree grade), and DARE rats alternated daily between running and incremental weighted ladder climbing. After training, DAE showed reduced muscle CD36 protein content and lipid content compared to CD (p≤0.05). DAE rats also had significantly increased citrate synthase (CS) activity compared to CD (p≤0.05). DARE rats showed reduced CD36 protein content compared to CD and increased CS activity compared to CD and DAE rats (p≤0.05). DARE rats demonstrated increased skeletal muscle lipid staining, elevated lipin-1 protein content and insulin sensitivity (p≤0.05). Integration of aerobic and resistance exercise may exert a synergistic effect, producing adaptations characteristic of the "athlete's paradox," including increased capacity to store and oxidize lipids. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Paraoxonase responses to exercise and niacin therapy in men with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James Kyle; Plaisance, Eric P; Mahurin, A Jack; Mestek, Michael L; Moncada-Jimenez, Jose; Grandjean, Peter W

    2015-01-01

    Our purpose was to characterize changes in paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity and concentration after single aerobic exercise sessions conducted before and after 6 weeks of niacin therapy in men with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twelve men with MetS expended 500 kcal by walking at 65% of VO2max before and after a 6-week regimen of niacin. Niacin doses were titrated by 500 mg/week from 500 to 1500 mg/day and maintained at 1500 mg/day for the last 4 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected before and 24 hours after each exercise session and analyzed for PON1 activity, PON1 concentration, myeloperoxidase (MPO), apolipoprotein A1, oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oLDL), lipoprotein particle sizes and concentrations. PON1 activity, PON1 concentration, MPO, and oLDL were unaltered following the independent effects of exercise and niacin (P > 0.05 for all). High-density lipoprotein particle size decreased by 3% (P = 0.040) and concentrations of small very low-density lipoprotein increased (P = 0.016) following exercise. PON1 activity increased 6.1% (P = 0.037) and PON1 concentrations increased 11.3% (P = 0.015) with the combination of exercise and niacin. Exercise and niacin works synergistically to increase PON1 activity and concentration with little or no changes in lipoproteins or markers of lipid oxidation.

  16. Metabolic effects of exercise in the golden fish Salminus maxillosus "dourado" (Valenciennes, 1849

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Moraes

    Full Text Available Strenuous exercise in fish is usually a consequence of migration, reproduction, and spawning. Varying among fishes, this kind of stress is associated with blood glucose and lactate increase, in relation to which two major groups are distinguishable: the "lactate releasers" and "non-lactate releasers". Unlike strenuous exercise, sustained swimming imposes a variety of effort that results in distinct kinetic types of blood lactate and glucose. Compared to Platichthys stellatus and Oncorhynchus mikyiss, blood lactate of Salminus maxillosus (dourado was lower after exercise, whereas recovery time was greater. Great demands were made of white muscle, and dourado is not a lactate releaser. Two different metabolic tendencies were observed in sustained and intense swimming. Gluconeogenesis was observed during recovery, as well as the alanine cycle which recomposes the lactate tissue pattern. Full recovery after intensive exertion required more than 24 hours.

  17. Encystment of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae coincides with increased metabolic rate and haematocrit in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipsson, Karl; Brijs, Jeroen; Näslund, Joacim; Wengström, Niklas; Adamsson, Marie; Závorka, Libor; Österling, E Martin; Höjesjö, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Gill parasites on fish are likely to negatively influence their host by inhibiting respiration, oxygen transport capacity and overall fitness. The glochidia larvae of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)) are obligate parasites on the gills of juvenile salmonid fish. We investigated the effects of FPM glochidia encystment on the metabolism and haematology of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758). Specifically, we measured whole-animal oxygen uptake rates at rest and following an exhaustive exercise protocol using intermittent flow-through respirometry, as well as haematocrit, in infested and uninfested trout. Glochidia encystment significantly affected whole-animal metabolic rate, as infested trout exhibited higher standard and maximum metabolic rates. Furthermore, glochidia-infested trout also had elevated levels of haematocrit. The combination of an increased metabolism and haematocrit in infested fish indicates that glochidia encystment has a physiological effect on the trout, perhaps as a compensatory response to the potential respiratory stress caused by the glochidia. When relating glochidia load to metabolism and haematocrit, fish with low numbers of encysted glochidia were the ones with particularly elevated metabolism and haematocrit. Standard metabolic rate decreased with substantial glochidia loads towards levels similar to those of uninfested fish. This suggests that initial effects visible at low levels of encystment may be countered by additional physiological effects at high loads, e.g. potential changes in energy utilization, and also that high numbers of glochidia may restrict oxygen uptake by the gills.

  18. Exercise training with weight loss and either a high- or low-glycemic index diet reduces metabolic syndrome severity in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, Steven K; Niemi, Nicole; Solomon, Thomas P J; Haus, Jacob M; Kelly, Karen R; Filion, Julianne; Rocco, Michael; Kashyap, Sangeeta R; Barkoukis, Hope; Kirwan, John P

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy of combining carbohydrate quality with exercise on metabolic syndrome risk is unclear. Thus, we determined the effects of exercise training with a low (LoGIx)- or high (HiGIx)-glycemic index diet on the severity of the metabolic syndrome (Z-score). Twenty-one adults (66.2±1.1 years; BMI=35.3±0.9 kg/m2) with the metabolic syndrome were randomized to 12 weeks of exercise (60 min/day for 5 days/week at about 85% HRmax) and provided a LoGIx (n=11) or HiGIx (n=10) diet. Z-scores were determined from: blood pressure, triglycerides (TGs), high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), and waist circumference (WC) before and after the intervention. Body composition, aerobic fitness, insulin resistance, and nonesterfied fatty acid (NEFA) suppression were also assessed. LoGIx and HiGIx diets decreased body mass and insulin resistance and increased aerobic fitness comparably (pdiets decreased the Z-score similarly as each intervention decreased blood pressure, TGs, FPG and WC (pdiet tended to suppress NEFA during insulin stimulation compared with the LoGIx diet (p=0.06). Our findings highlight that exercise with weight loss reduces the severity of the metabolic syndrome whether individuals were randomized to a HiGIx or a LoGIx diet.

  19. Luteal phase of the menstrual cycle increases sweating rate during exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia A.M.C.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated whether the luteal phase elevation of body temperature would be offset during exercise by increased sweating, when women are normally hydrated. Eleven women performed 60 min of cycling exercise at 60% of their maximal work load at 32ºC and 80% relative air humidity. Each subject participated in two identical experimental sessions: one during the follicular phase (between days 5 and 8 and the other during the luteal phase (between days 22 and 25. Women with serum progesterone >3 ng/mL, in the luteal phase were classified as group 1 (N = 4, whereas the others were classified as group 2 (N = 7. Post-exercise urine volume (213 ± 80 vs 309 ± 113 mL and specific urine gravity (1.008 ± 0.003 vs 1.006 ± 0.002 changed (P < 0.05 during the luteal phase compared to the follicular phase in group 1. No menstrual cycle dependence was observed for these parameters in group 2. Sweat rate was higher (P < 0.05 in the luteal (3.10 ± 0.81 g m-2 min-1 than in the follicular phase (2.80 ± 0.64 g m-2 min-1 only in group 1. During exercise, no differences related to menstrual cycle phases were seen in rectal temperature, heart rate, rate of perceived exertion, mean skin temperature, and pre- and post-exercise body weight. Women exercising in a warm and humid environment with water intake seem to be able to adapt to the luteal phase increase of basal body temperature through reduced urinary volume and increased sweating rate.

  20. The Metabolic Response of Skeletal Muscle to Endurance Exercise Is Modified by the ACE-I/D Gene Polymorphism and Training State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Valdivieso

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The insertion/deletion polymorphism in the gene for the regulator of vascular tone, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, is the prototype of a genetic influence on physical fitness and this involves an influence on capillary supply lines and dependent aerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle. The respective interaction of ACE-I/D genotype and training status on local metabolic and angiogenic reactions in exercised muscle is not known. Toward this end we characterized the metabolomic and angiogenic response in knee extensor muscle, m. vastus lateralis, in 18 untrained and 34 endurance-trained (physically active, V˙O2max > 50 mL min−1 kg−1 white British men to an exhaustive bout of one-legged cycling exercise. We hypothesized that training status and ACE-I/D genotype affect supply-related muscle characteristics of exercise performance in correspondence to ACE expression and angiotensin 2 levels. ACE-I/D genotype and training status developed an interaction effect on the cross-sectional area (CSA of m. vastus lateralis and mean CSA of slow type fibers, which correlated with peak power output (r ≥ 0.44. Genotype × training interactions in muscle also resolved for exercise-induced alterations of 22 metabolites, 8 lipids, glycogen concentration (p = 0.016, ACE transcript levels (p = 0.037, and by trend for the pro-angiogenic factor tenascin-C post exercise (p = 0.064. Capillary density (p = 0.001, capillary-to-fiber ratio (p = 0.010, systolic blood pressure (p = 0.014, and exercise-induced alterations in the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF (p = 0.043 depended on the ACE-I/D genotype alone. Our observations indicate that variability in aerobic performance in the studied subjects was in part reflected by an ACE-I/D-genotype-modulated metabolic phenotype of a major locomotor muscle. Repeated endurance exercise appeared to override this genetic influence in skeletal muscle by altering the ACE-related metabolic response and molecular aspects of the

  1. The Metabolic Response of Skeletal Muscle to Endurance Exercise Is Modified by the ACE-I/D Gene Polymorphism and Training State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdivieso, Paola; Vaughan, David; Laczko, Endre; Brogioli, Michael; Waldron, Sarah; Rittweger, Jörn; Flück, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The insertion/deletion polymorphism in the gene for the regulator of vascular tone, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), is the prototype of a genetic influence on physical fitness and this involves an influence on capillary supply lines and dependent aerobic metabolism in skeletal muscle. The respective interaction of ACE-I/D genotype and training status on local metabolic and angiogenic reactions in exercised muscle is not known. Toward this end we characterized the metabolomic and angiogenic response in knee extensor muscle, m. vastus lateralis , in 18 untrained and 34 endurance-trained (physically active, [Formula: see text]O2max > 50 mL min -1 kg -1 ) white British men to an exhaustive bout of one-legged cycling exercise. We hypothesized that training status and ACE-I/D genotype affect supply-related muscle characteristics of exercise performance in correspondence to ACE expression and angiotensin 2 levels. ACE-I/D genotype and training status developed an interaction effect on the cross-sectional area (CSA) of m. vastus lateralis and mean CSA of slow type fibers, which correlated with peak power output ( r ≥ 0.44). Genotype × training interactions in muscle also resolved for exercise-induced alterations of 22 metabolites, 8 lipids, glycogen concentration ( p = 0.016), ACE transcript levels ( p = 0.037), and by trend for the pro-angiogenic factor tenascin-C post exercise ( p = 0.064). Capillary density ( p = 0.001), capillary-to-fiber ratio ( p = 0.010), systolic blood pressure ( p = 0.014), and exercise-induced alterations in the pro-angiogenic protein VEGF ( p = 0.043) depended on the ACE-I/D genotype alone. Our observations indicate that variability in aerobic performance in the studied subjects was in part reflected by an ACE-I/D-genotype-modulated metabolic phenotype of a major locomotor muscle. Repeated endurance exercise appeared to override this genetic influence in skeletal muscle by altering the ACE-related metabolic response and molecular aspects

  2. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued.

  3. Dinosaur Metabolism and the Allometry of Maximum Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myhrvold, Nathan P.

    2016-01-01

    The allometry of maximum somatic growth rate has been used in prior studies to classify the metabolic state of both extant vertebrates and dinosaurs. The most recent such studies are reviewed, and their data is reanalyzed. The results of allometric regressions on growth rate are shown to depend on the choice of independent variable; the typical choice used in prior studies introduces a geometric shear transformation that exaggerates the statistical power of the regressions. The maximum growth rates of extant groups are found to have a great deal of overlap, including between groups with endothermic and ectothermic metabolism. Dinosaur growth rates show similar overlap, matching the rates found for mammals, reptiles and fish. The allometric scaling of growth rate with mass is found to have curvature (on a log-log scale) for many groups, contradicting the prevailing view that growth rate allometry follows a simple power law. Reanalysis shows that no correlation between growth rate and basal metabolic rate (BMR) has been demonstrated. These findings drive a conclusion that growth rate allometry studies to date cannot be used to determine dinosaur metabolism as has been previously argued. PMID:27828977

  4. Regular exercise training reverses ectonucleotidase alterations and reduces hyperaggregation of platelets in metabolic syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Caroline Curry; Bagatini, Margarete Dulce; Cardoso, Andréia Machado; Zanini, Daniela; Abdalla, Fátima Husein; Baldissarelli, Jucimara; Dalenogare, Diéssica Padilha; Farinha, Juliano Boufleur; Schetinger, Maria Rosa Chitolina; Morsch, Vera Maria

    2016-02-15

    Alterations in the activity of ectonucleotidase enzymes have been implicated in cardiovascular diseases, whereas regular exercise training has been shown to prevent these alterations. However, nothing is known about it relating to metabolic syndrome (MetS). We investigated the effect of exercise training on platelet ectonucleotidase enzymes and on the aggregation profile of MetS patients. We studied 38 MetS patients who performed regular concurrent exercise training for 30 weeks. Anthropometric measurements, biochemical profiles, hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides in platelets and platelet aggregation were collected from patients before and after the exercise intervention as well as from individuals of the control group. An increase in the hydrolysis of adenine nucleotides (ATP, ADP and AMP) and a decrease in adenosine deamination in the platelets of MetS patients before the exercise intervention were observed (Pexercise training (Pexercise training prevented platelet hyperaggregation in addition to decrease the classic cardiovascular risks. An alteration of ectonucleotidase enzymes occurs during MetS, whereas regular exercise training had a protective effect on these enzymes and on platelet aggregation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased heart rate variability but normal resting metabolic rate in hypocretin/orexin-deficient human narcolepsy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fronczek, R.; Overeem, S.; Reijntjes, R.; Lammers, G.J.; Dijk, J.G.M.; Pijl, H.

    2008-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: We investigated autonomic balance and resting metabolic rate to explore their possible involvement in obesity in hypocretin/orexin-deficient narcoleptic subjects. METHODS: Resting metabolic rate (using indirect calorimetry) and variability in heart rate and blood pressure were

  6. Acute effects of exercise and calorie restriction on triglyceride metabolism in women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellou, Elena; Siopi, Aikaterina; Galani, Maria; Maraki, Maria; Tsekouras, Yiannis E.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Magkos, Faidon; Sidossis, Labros S.

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms by which exercise reduces fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) concentrations in women and the effect of negative energy balance independent of muscular contraction are not known. Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of equivalent energy deficits induced by exercise or calorie restriction on basal very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) TG metabolism in women. Methods Eleven healthy women (age: 23.5±2.7 years, BMI: 21.6±1.4 kg/m2) underwent a stable isotopically labeled tracer infusion study to determine basal VLDL-TG kinetics after performing, in random order, three experimental trials on the previous day: i) a single exercise bout (brisk walking at 60% of peak oxygen consumption for 123±18 min, with a net energy expenditure of 2.06±0.39 MJ (~500 kcal)), ii) dietary energy restriction of 2.10±0.41 MJ, and iii) a control day of isocaloric feeding and rest (zero energy balance). Results Fasting plasma VLDL-TG concentration was ~30% lower after the exercise trial compared to the control trial (Phypocaloric diet had no effect on VLDL-TG kinetics (P>0.2). Conclusion (i) Exercise-induced hypotriglyceridemia in women manifests through a different mechanism (increased clearance and decreased secretion of VLDL-TG) than that previously described in men (increased clearance of VLDL-TG only), and (ii) exercise affects TG homeostasis by eliciting changes in VLDL-TG kinetics that cannot be reproduced by an equivalent diet-induced energy deficit, indicating that these changes are independent of the exercise-induced negative energy balance but instead are specific to muscular contraction. PMID:23073216

  7. Exercise Prevents Enhanced Postoperative Neuroinflammation and Cognitive Decline and Rectifies the Gut Microbiome in a Rat Model of Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xiaomei; Uchida, Yosuke; Koch, Lauren; Britton, Steve; Hu, Jun; Lutrin, David; Maze, Mervyn

    2017-01-01

    Postoperative cognitive decline (PCD) can affect in excess of 10% of surgical patients and can be considerably higher with risk factors including advanced age, perioperative infection, and metabolic conditions such as obesity and insulin resistance. To define underlying pathophysiologic processes, we used animal models including a rat model of metabolic syndrome generated by breeding for a trait of low aerobic exercise tolerance. After 35 generations, the low capacity runner (LCR) rats differ 10-fold in their aerobic exercise capacity from high capacity runner (HCR) rats. The LCR rats respond to surgical procedure with an abnormal phenotype consisting of exaggerated and persistent PCD and failure to resolve neuroinflammation. We determined whether preoperative exercise can rectify the abnormal surgical phenotype. Following institutional approval of the protocol each of male LCR and male HCR rats were randomly assigned to four groups and subjected to isoflurane anesthesia and tibia fracture with internal fixation (surgery) or anesthesia alone (sham surgery) and to a preoperative exercise regimen that involved walking for 10 km on a treadmill over 6 weeks (exercise) or being placed on a stationary treadmill (no exercise). Feces were collected before and after exercise for assessment of gut microbiome. Three days following surgery or sham surgery the rats were tested for ability to recall a contextual aversive stimulus in a trace fear conditioning paradigm. Thereafter some rats were euthanized and the hippocampus harvested for analysis of inflammatory mediators. At 3 months, the remainder of the rats were tested for memory recall by the probe test in a Morris Water Maze. Postoperatively, LCR rats exhibited exaggerated cognitive decline both at 3 days and at 3 months that was prevented by preoperative exercise. Similarly, LCR rats had excessive postoperative neuroinflammation that was normalized by preoperative exercise. Diversity of the gut microbiome in the

  8. Metabolic signals and innate immune activation in obesity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringseis, Robert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank C; Krüger, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    The combination of a sedentary lifestyle and excess energy intake has led to an increased prevalence of obesity which constitutes a major risk factor for several co-morbidities including type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. Intensive research during the last two decades has revealed that a characteristic feature of obesity linking it to insulin resistance is the presence of chronic low-grade inflammation being indicative of activation of the innate immune system. Recent evidence suggests that activation of the innate immune system in the course of obesity is mediated by metabolic signals, such as free fatty acids (FFAs), being elevated in many obese subjects, through activation of pattern recognition receptors thereby leading to stimulation of critical inflammatory signaling cascades, like IκBα kinase/nuclear factor-κB (IKK/NF- κB), endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) and NOD-like receptor P3 (NLRP3) inflammasome pathway, that interfere with insulin signaling. Exercise is one of the main prescribed interventions in obesity management improving insulin sensitivity and reducing obesity- induced chronic inflammation. This review summarizes current knowledge of the cellular recognition mechanisms for FFAs, the inflammatory signaling pathways triggered by excess FFAs in obesity and the counteractive effects of both acute and chronic exercise on obesity-induced activation of inflammatory signaling pathways. A deeper understanding of the effects of exercise on inflammatory signaling pathways in obesity is useful to optimize preventive and therapeutic strategies to combat the increasing incidence of obesity and its comorbidities. Copyright © 2015 International Society of Exercise and Immunology. All rights reserved.

  9. AUTONOMIC CONTROL OF HEART RATE AFTER EXERCISE IN TRAINED WRESTLERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos F Henríquez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to establish differences in vagal reactivation, through heart rate recovery and heart rate variability post exercise, in Brazilian jiu-jitsu wrestlers (BJJW. A total of 18 male athletes were evaluated, ten highly trained (HT and eight moderately trained (MT, who performed a maximum incremental test. At the end of the exercise, the R-R intervals were recorded during the first minute of recovery. We calculated heart rate recovery (HRR60s, and performed linear and non-linear (standard deviation of instantaneous beat-to-beat R-R interval variability – SD1 analysis of heart rate variability (HRV, using the tachogram of the first minute of recovery divided into four segments of 15 s each (0-15 s, 15-30 s, 30-45 s, 45-60 s. Between HT and MT individuals, there were statistically significant differences in HRR60s (p <0.05 and in the non linear analysis of HRV from SD130-45s (p <0.05 and SD145-60s (p <0.05. The results of this research suggest that heart rate kinetics during the first minute after exercise are related to training level and can be used as an index for autonomic cardiovascular control in BJJW.

  10. Subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue is responsive to, but dispensable for, the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Willem T; Townsend, Logan K; Knuth, Carly M; Foster, Michelle T; Wright, David C

    2018-01-01

    Exercise training has robust effects on subcutaneous inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT), characterized by a shift to a brown adipose tissue (BAT)-like phenotype. Consistent with this, transplantation of exercise-trained iWAT into sedentary rodents activates thermogenesis and improves glucose homeostasis, suggesting that iWAT metabolism may contribute to the beneficial effects of exercise. However, it is yet to be determined if adaptations in iWAT are necessary for the beneficial systemic effects of exercise. To test this, male C57BL/6 mice were provided access to voluntary wheel running (VWR) or remained as a cage control (SED) for 11 nights after iWAT removal via lipectomy (LIPX) or SHAM surgery. We found that SHAM and LIPX mice with access to VWR ran similar distances and had comparable reductions in body mass, increased food intake, and increased respiratory exchange ratio (RER). Further, VWR improved indexes of glucose homeostasis and insulin tolerance in both SHAM and LIPX mice. The lack of effect of LIPX in the response to VWR was not explained by compensatory increases in markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and thermogenesis in skeletal muscle, epididymal white adipose tissue, or interscapular brown adipose tissue. Together, these data demonstrate that mice with and without iWAT have comparable adaptations to VWR, suggesting that iWAT may be dispensable for the metabolic health benefits of exercise.

  11. Thermal sensation and comfort with transient metabolic rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goto, Tomonobu; Toftum, Jørn; Dear, R. d.

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effect on thermal perceptions and preferences of controlled metabolic excursions of various intensities (20%, 40%, 60% relative work load) and durations (3-30 min) imposed on subjects that alternated between sedentary activity and exercise on a treadmill. The thermal...... environment was held constant at a temperature corresponding to PMV=0 at sedentary activity. Even low activity changes of short duration (1 min at 20% relative work load) affected thermal perceptions. However, after circa 15 min of constant activity, subjective thermal responses approximated the steady...

  12. Is heart rate variability a feasible method to determine anaerobic threshold in progressive resistance exercise in coronary artery disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperling, Milena P R; Simões, Rodrigo P; Caruso, Flávia C R; Mendes, Renata G; Arena, Ross; Borghi-Silva, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that the magnitude of the metabolic and autonomic responses during progressive resistance exercise (PRE) is associated with the determination of the anaerobic threshold (AT). AT is an important parameter to determine intensity in dynamic exercise. To investigate the metabolic and cardiac autonomic responses during dynamic resistance exercise in patients with Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Twenty men (age = 63±7 years) with CAD [Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction (LVEF) = 60±10%] underwent a PRE protocol on a leg press until maximal exertion. The protocol began at 10% of One Repetition Maximum Test (1-RM), with subsequent increases of 10% until maximal exhaustion. Heart Rate Variability (HRV) indices from Poincaré plots (SD1, SD2, SD1/SD2) and time domain (rMSSD and RMSM), and blood lactate were determined at rest and during PRE. Significant alterations in HRV and blood lactate were observed starting at 30% of 1-RM (p<0.05). Bland-Altman plots revealed a consistent agreement between blood lactate threshold (LT) and rMSSD threshold (rMSSDT) and between LT and SD1 threshold (SD1T). Relative values of 1-RM in all LT, rMSSDT and SD1T did not differ (29%±5 vs 28%±5 vs 29%±5 Kg, respectively). HRV during PRE could be a feasible noninvasive method of determining AT in CAD patients to plan intensities during cardiac rehabilitation.

  13. Diminished exercise capacity and mitochondrial bc1 complex deficiency in tafazzin-knockdown mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corey ePowers

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The phospholipid, cardiolipin, is essential for maintaining mitochondrial structure and optimal function. Cardiolipin-deficiency in humans, Barth syndrome, is characterized by exercise intolerance, dilated cardiomyopathy, neutropenia and 3-methyl-glutaconic aciduria. The causative gene is the mitochondrial acyl-transferase, tafazzin that is essential for remodeling acyl chains of cardiolipin. We sought to determine metabolic rates in tafazzin-deficient mice during resting and exercise, and investigate the impact of cardiolipin deficiency on mitochondrial respiratory chain activities. Tafazzin knockdown in mice markedly impaired oxygen consumption rates during an exercise, without any significant effect on resting metabolic rates. CL-deficiency resulted in significant reduction of mitochondrial respiratory reserve capacity in neonatal cardiomyocytes that is likely to be caused by diminished activity of complex-III, which requires CL for its assembly and optimal activity. Our results may provide mechanistic insights of Barth syndrome pathogenesis.

  14. The effect of long term combined yoga practice on the basal metabolic rate of healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagendra HR

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Different procedures practiced in yoga have stimulatory or inhibitory effects on the basal metabolic rate when studied acutely. In daily life however, these procedures are usually practiced in combination. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the net change in the basal metabolic rate (BMR of individuals actively engaging in a combination of yoga practices (asana or yogic postures, meditation and pranayama or breathing exercises for a minimum period of six months, at a residential yoga education and research center at Bangalore. Methods The measured BMR of individuals practicing yoga through a combination of practices was compared with that of control subjects who did not practice yoga but led similar lifestyles. Results The BMR of the yoga practitioners was significantly lower than that of the non-yoga group, and was lower by about 13 % when adjusted for body weight (P Conclusion This study shows that there is a significantly reduced BMR, probably linked to reduced arousal, with the long term practice of yoga using a combination of stimulatory and inhibitory yogic practices.

  15. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Van Leeuwen

    Full Text Available It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance.In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data.The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  16. Aerobic exercise during pregnancy and presence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates.

  17. Aerobic Exercise during Pregnancy and Presence of Fetal-Maternal Heart Rate Synchronization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Leeuwen, Peter; Gustafson, Kathleen M.; Cysarz, Dirk; Geue, Daniel; May, Linda E.; Grönemeyer, Dietrich

    2014-01-01

    It has been shown that short-term direct interaction between maternal and fetal heart rates may take place and that this interaction is affected by the rate of maternal respiration. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maternal aerobic exercise during pregnancy on the occurrence of fetal-maternal heart rate synchronization. Methods In 40 pregnant women at the 36th week of gestation, 21 of whom exercised regularly, we acquired 18 min. RR interval time series obtained simultaneously in the mothers and their fetuses from magnetocardiographic recordings. The time series of the two groups were examined with respect to their heart rate variability, the maternal respiratory rate and the presence of synchronization epochs as determined on the basis of synchrograms. Surrogate data were used to assess whether the occurrence of synchronization was due to chance. Results In the original data, we found synchronization occurred less often in pregnancies in which the mothers had exercised regularly. These subjects also displayed higher combined fetal-maternal heart rate variability and lower maternal respiratory rates. Analysis of the surrogate data showed shorter epochs of synchronization and a lack of the phase coordination found between maternal and fetal beat timing in the original data. Conclusion The results suggest that fetal-maternal heart rate coupling is present but generally weak. Maternal exercise has a damping effect on its occurrence, most likely due to an increase in beat-to-beat differences, higher vagal tone and slower breathing rates. PMID:25162592

  18. The Effects of Supplementation with a Vitamin and Mineral Complex with Guaraná Prior to Fasted Exercise on Affect, Exertion, Cognitive Performance, and Substrate Metabolism: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Veasey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exercise undertaken in a fasted state can lead to higher post-exercise mental fatigue. The administration of a vitamin and mineral complex with guaraná (MVM + G has been shown to attenuate mental fatigue and improve performance during cognitively demanding tasks. This placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, balanced cross-over study examined the effect of MVM + G consumed prior to morning exercise on cognitive performance, affect, exertion, and substrate metabolism. Forty active males (age 21.4 ± 3.0 year; body mass index (BMI 24.0 ± 2.4 kg/m2; maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2max 57.6 ± 7.3 mL/min/kg completed two main trials, consuming either MVM + G or placebo prior to a 30-min run at 60% V̇O2max. Supplementation prior to exercise led to a small but significant reduction in Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE during exercise compared to the placebo. The MVM + G combination also led to significantly increased accuracy of numeric working memory and increased speed of picture recognition, compared to the placebo. There were no significant effects of supplementation on any other cognitive or mood measures or on substrate metabolism during exercise. These findings demonstrate that consuming a vitamin and mineral complex containing guaraná, prior to exercise, can positively impact subsequent memory performance and reduce perceived exertion during a moderate-intensity run in active males.

  19. Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kempen, K.P.G.; Saris, W.H.M.; Senden, J.M.G.; Menheere, P.P.C.A.; Blaak, E.E.; van Baak, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    Effects of energy restriction on acute adrenoceptor and metabolic responses to exercise in obese subjects. Kempen KP, Saris WH, Senden JM, Menheere PP, Blaak EE, van Baak MA. Department of Human Biology, University of Limburg, Maastricht, The Netherlands. This study was intended to investigate the

  20. Exercise and sports science Australia (ESSA) position statement on exercise and spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tweedy, Sean M; Beckman, Emma M; Geraghty, Timothy J; Theisen, Daniel; Perret, Claudio; Harvey, Lisa A; Vanlandewijck, Yves C

    2017-02-01

    Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) may result in tetraplegia (motor and/or sensory nervous system impairment of the arms, trunk and legs) or paraplegia (motor and/or sensory impairment of the trunk and/or legs only). The adverse effects of SCI on health, fitness and functioning are frequently compounded by profoundly sedentary behaviour. People with paraplegia (PP) and tetraplegia (TP) have reduced exercise capacity due to paralysis/paresis and reduced exercising stroke volume. TP often further reduces exercise capacity due to lower maximum heart-rate and respiratory function. There is strong, consistent evidence that exercise can improve cardiorespiratory fitness and muscular strength in people with SCI. There is emerging evidence for a range of other exercise benefits, including reduced risk of cardio-metabolic disease, depression and shoulder pain, as well as improved respiratory function, quality-of-life and functional independence. Exercise recommendations for people with SCI are: ≥30min of moderate aerobic exercise on ≥5d/week or ≥20min of vigorous aerobic ≥3d/week; strength training on ≥2d/week, including scapula stabilisers and posterior shoulder girdle; and ≥2d/week flexibility training, including shoulder internal and external rotators. These recommendations may be aspirational for profoundly inactive clients and stratification into "beginning", "intermediate" and "advanced" will assist application of the recommendations in clinical practice. Flexibility exercise is recommended to preserve upper limb function but may not prevent contracture. For people with TP, Rating of Perceived Exertion may provide a more valid indication of exercise intensity than heart rate. The safety and effectiveness of exercise interventions can be enhanced by initial screening for autonomic dysreflexia, orthostatic hypotension, exercise-induced hypotension, thermoregulatory dysfunction, pressure sores, spasticity and pain. Copyright © 2016 Sports Medicine Australia

  1. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  2. Low energy availability in exercising men is associated with reduced leptin and insulin but not with changes in other metabolic hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Karsten; Hoerner, Neele R; Gibbs, Jenna C; Zinner, Christoph; Braun, Hans; De Souza, Mary Jane; Schaenzer, Wilhelm

    2016-10-01

    Low energy availability, defined as low caloric intake relative to exercise energy expenditure, has been linked to endocrine alterations frequently observed in chronically energy-deficient exercising women. Our goal was to determine the endocrine effects of low energy availability in exercising men. Six exercising men (VO2peak: 49.3 ± 2.4 ml · kg(-1) · min(-1)) underwent two conditions of low energy availability (15 kcal · kg(-1) fat-free mass [FFM] · day(-1)) and two energy-balanced conditions (40 kcal · kg(-1) FFM · day(-1)) in randomised order. During one low energy availability and one balanced condition, participants exercised to expend 15 kcal · kg(-1) FFM · day(-1); no exercise was conducted during the other two conditions. Metabolic hormones were assessed before and after each 4-day period. Following both low energy availability conditions, leptin (-53% to -56%) and insulin (-34% to -38%) were reduced (P exercise (P > 0.80). Low energy availability did not significantly impact ghrelin, triiodothyronine, testosterone and IGF-1 (all P > 0.05). The observed reductions in leptin and insulin were in the same magnitude as changes previously reported in sedentary women. Further research is needed to understand why other metabolic hormones are more robust against low energy availability in exercising men than those in sedentary and exercising women.

  3. Self-rating level of perceived exertion for guiding exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme and the influence of heart rate reducing medication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tang, Lars H.; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Taylor, Rod S

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether self-rating level of perceived exertion can adequately guide exercise intensity during a 12-week cardiac rehabilitation programme. DESIGN: Linear regression analysis using rehabilitation data from two randomised controlled trials. METHODS: Patients undergoing ra......-led and self-regulated model using rating of perceived exertion can help guide exercise intensity in everyday clinical practice among patients with heart disease, irrespective if they are taking heart rate-reducing medication....... radiofrequency ablation for atrial fibrillation or following heart valve surgery and participating in exercise-based rehabilitation were included. The 12-week rehabilitation outpatient programme comprised three weekly training sessions, each consisting of 20min aerobic exercise divided into three steps. Patients...... were asked to base their exercise intensity for each step on a predefined rating of perceived exertion specified in a training diary. Exercise intensity was objectively measured by heart rate during the last 2min for each exercise step. Comparative analysis and linear regression of the rating...

  4. Effect of music tempo on exercise performance and heart rate among young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakare, Avinash E; Mehrotra, Ranjeeta; Singh, Ayushi

    2017-01-01

    Music captures attention, triggers a range of emotions, alters or regulates mood, increases work output, heightens arousal, induces states of higher functioning, reduces inhibitions and encourages rhythmic movement. Music has ergo-genic effect as well, it increases exercise performance, delays fatigue and increases performance and endurance, power and strength. Our study tried to evaluate the effect of music on exercise performance in young untrained subjects. In this study, we tested the effect of music on sub maximal exercise performance time duration in young adults. 25 Male and 25 females were subjected to standard submaximal exercise with and without music. Resting HR and Max. HR during exercise and the exercise time duration was recorded. Total exercise duration in whole group with music (37.12 ± 16.26** min) was significantly greater than exercise duration without music (22.48 ± 10.26 min). Males (42.4 ± 15.6** min) outperformed significantly better than females (31.84 ± 15.48 min). Also, we observed statistically significant higher values of Maximal heart rate with music than without music. But there was no significant correlation between duration of exercise, music and change in Heart rate. We can conclude that Music increases duration of exercise in both sexes and hence endurance.

  5. Fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and metabolic phenotype in overweight men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenkilde, M; Nordby, P; Nielsen, L B

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To elucidate if fat oxidation at rest predicts peak fat oxidation during exercise and/or metabolic phenotype in moderately overweight, sedentary men. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.Subjects:We measured respiratory exchange ratio (RER) at rest in 44 moderately overweight, normotensive...... the International Diabetes Federation criteria, we found that there was a lower accumulation of metabolic risk factors in L-RER than in H-RER (1.6 vs 3.5, P=0.028), and no subjects in L-RER and four of eight subjects in H-RER had the metabolic syndrome. Resting RER was positively correlated with plasma...... triglycerides (Pexercise was positively correlated with plasma free fatty acid concentration at rest (Pexercise and a healthy metabolic...

  6. Modulation of Energy Intake and Expenditure Due to Habitual Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matoulek; Krystof, Slaby; Jiri, Radvansky; Martina, Dankova; Renata, Vetrovska; Ondrej, Mikes; Stepan, Svacina; Vladimir, Tuka

    2016-01-01

    The 20th and 21st centuries are marked by an increase in life expectancy on one hand and on the other hand by the increase of so called civilization diseases. Their share one common trait: the energy metabolism imbalance, with low energy expenditure and high energy uptake. Our age can be viewed as the age of inactivity and wealth. The aim of the present review is to highlight the influence of habitual physical activity on energy metabolism and balance. Energy balance is the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy expenditure further divides into resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of feeding and energy used by physical activity. In general population, resting metabolic rate remains constant and proportional to muscle body mass. Muscle mass increases with exercise, especially resistance exercise, concomitantly with increasing energy expenditure. The effect of exercise on appetite is very strong, proportional to exercise intensity. An acute bout of aerobic exercise suppresses appetite by decreasing ghrelin plasma levels, and increasing gut hormones. Different subgroups of patients respond differently to the same exercise or habitual activity and have thus distinct effects on energy balance. Different myokines plasma levels after exercise could explain these different reactions although most of their effect is still unclear. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many disorders, like obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric and neurologic disorders. It is evident, that physical activity has an effect not only on energy balance but also has a direct effect on other body organ via its own molecules - myokines. The pharmacological effect of myokines gives hope that one day we could have a "myokine drug" that could be used in patients who are unable to exercise. Until then we should use our "muscle-pharmacy" and try to convince

  7. Influence of creatine supplementation on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Barbosa de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of creatine supplementation in the diet on indicators of glucose metabolism in skeletal muscle of exercised rats. Forty Wistar adult rats were distributed into four groups for eight weeks: 1 Control: sedentary rats that received balanced diet; 2 Creatine control: sedentary rats that received supplementation of 2% creatine in the balanced diet; 3 Trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received balanced diet; and 4 Supplemented-trained: rats that ran on a treadmill at the Maximal Lactate Steady State and received creatine supplementation (2% in the balanced diet. The hydric intake increased and the body weight gain decreased in the supplemented-trained group. In the soleus muscle, the glucose oxidation increased in both supplemented groups. The production of lactate and glycemia during glucose tolerance test decreased in the supplemented-trained group. Creatine supplementation in conjunction with exercise training improved muscular glycidic metabolism of rats.

  8. Effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan S. El-Mekawy

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS. Twenty-eight obese post-menopausal women were randomly distributed to the control and laser acupuncture group. The control group received the diet-exercise intervention and the study group received the same intervention and sessions of laser acupuncture, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurement, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, and lipid profile were assessed before and after the treatment course. Both groups showed a significant decrease in the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. However, laser acupuncture group showed a greater decrease in the waist (P = 0.001 and hip (P = 0.001 circumferences, cholesterol (P = 0.04, and insulin levels (P = 0.043 than the control group. These results suggest that laser acupuncture is a valuable approach that could be added to the diet-exercise intervention to correct features of the MetS.

  9. Exercise in muscle glycogen storage diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preisler, Nicolai; Haller, Ronald G; Vissing, John

    2015-05-01

    Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inborn errors of glycogen or glucose metabolism. In the GSDs that affect muscle, the consequence of a block in skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown or glucose use, is an impairment of muscular performance and exercise intolerance, owing to 1) an increase in glycogen storage that disrupts contractile function and/or 2) a reduced substrate turnover below the block, which inhibits skeletal muscle ATP production. Immobility is associated with metabolic alterations in muscle leading to an increased dependence on glycogen use and a reduced capacity for fatty acid oxidation. Such changes may be detrimental for persons with GSD from a metabolic perspective. However, exercise may alter skeletal muscle substrate metabolism in ways that are beneficial for patients with GSD, such as improving exercise tolerance and increasing fatty acid oxidation. In addition, a regular exercise program has the potential to improve general health and fitness and improve quality of life, if executed properly. In this review, we describe skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise in GSDs, and how blocks in metabolic pathways affect exercise tolerance in GSDs. We review the studies that have examined the effect of regular exercise training in different types of GSD. Finally, we consider how oral substrate supplementation can improve exercise tolerance and we discuss the precautions that apply to persons with GSD that engage in exercise.

  10. Effect of aerobic exercise training followed by a low-calorie diet on metabolic syndrome risk factors in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, T; So, R; Shimojo, N; Tanaka, K

    2015-09-01

    Whether low-volume, high-intensity, interval training (HIIT) is an adequate exercise method for improving metabolic risk factors is controversial. Moreover, it is not known if performing a short-term, low-calorie diet intervention (LCDi) after a HIIT program affects risk factors. This study investigated how an 8-week, 3 times/week exercise intervention (EXi) incorporating either HIIT or moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) followed by a 4-week LCDi affects risk factors. Twenty-six male workers with metabolic risk factors (47.4 ± 7.1 years; cardiorespiratory capacity (VO2peak) of 28.5 ± 3.9 ml/kg/min) were randomly assigned to either the HIIT (3 sets of 3-min cycling with a 2-min active rest between sets, 180 kcal) or MICT (45 min, 360 kcal) group. After the EXi, all subjects participated in a 4-week LCDi (4 counseling sessions). During the EXi, VO2peak improved more (P exercise volume than MICT, but this advantage of HIIT promptly disappeared through detraining. An intervention strategy consisting of 8 weeks of either HIIT or MICT followed by a 4-week LCDi has a positive effect on metabolic risk factors. UMIN11352. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. [Heart rate variability and physical exercise. Current status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Hoos, Olaf; Esperer, Hans Dieter

    2006-09-01

    Heart rate variability (HRV) has long been used in risk stratification for sudden cardiac death and diabetic autonomic neuropathy. In recent years, both time and frequency domain indices of HRV also gained increasing interest in sports and training sciences. In these fields, HRV is currently used for the noninvasive assessment of autonomic changes associated with short-term and long-term endurance exercise training in both leisure sports activity and high-performance training. Furthermore, HRV is being investigated as a diagnostic marker of overreaching and overtraining.A large body of evidence shows that, in healthy subjects and cardiovascular patients of all ages (up to an age of 70 years), regular aerobic training usually results in a significant improvement of overall as well as instantaneous HRV. These changes, which are accompanied by significant reductions in heart rates both at rest and during submaximal exercise, reflect an increase in autonomic efferent activity and a shift in favor of enhanced vagal modulation of the cardiac rhythm. Regular aerobic training of moderate volume and intensity over a minimum period of 3 months seems to be necessary to ensure these effects, which might be associated with a prognostic benefit regarding overall mortality.At present, available data does not allow for final conclusions with respect to the usefulness of traditional HRV indices in assessing an individual's exercise performance and monitoring training load. The discrepant results published so far are due to several factors including insufficient study size and design, and different HRV methods. Large-sized and prospectively designed studies are necessary for clarification. It also remains to be seen, whether the traditional HRV indices prove useful in the diagnosis of overreaching and overtraining. Preliminary results, though promising, need to be confirmed in larger cohorts.A basic problem in HRV analysis is nonstationarity of the heart rate signal, which holds

  12. Effect of Propranolol on Thyroxine-Induced Changes in Body Temperature and Metabolism During Exercise in Dogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Brzezinska, Zofia; Greenleaf, John E.

    1976-01-01

    Effects of thyroxine on temperature and metabolism during exercise were studied in dogs after beta-adrenergic blockade. Dogs performed 60 min treadmill exercise of moderate intensity 5 and 72 h following thyroxine injected s. c. in a single dose of 0.1 mg/kg b.w. Thyroxine increased significantly the lipolytic response to exercise as well as blood lactate (LA) concentrations and rectal temperature (T(sub re)) during exercise as early as 5 h following the hormone administration. The changes became more pronounced 72 h after the injection. At rest T(sub re), blood FFA (free fatty acid) and LA levels in the thyroxine-treated dogs did not differ from the control values, and blood glucose was slightly, but significantly higher. Propranolol given intravenously in a dose of 0.25 mg/kg at 30 min of the exercise performed 72 h following thyroxine injection abolished the plasma FFA rise, and inhibited to a certain extent increases in T(sub re) and blood LA concentrations during the next 30 min of exercise.

  13. PGC-1alpha in exercise- and exercise training-induced metabolic adaptations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Stine Ringholm

    and interferes with the exercise-induced adaptive response in human skeletal muscle. Study II demonstrates that mouse liver glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) mRNA content increased in recovery from acute exercise in both wildtype (WT) and PGC-1α knockout (KO) mice, while phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK......) and pyruvate carboxylase mRNA content did not change in either genotype. Exercise training increased PEPCK protein content in both WT and PGC-1α KO mice. In addition, the mRNA and protein content of cytochrome (Cyt) c and cytochrome c oxidase (COX) subunit I increased in response to acute exercise and exercise...

  14. Is the rate of whole-body nitrogen elimination influenced by exercise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, D R; Senf, C; Lundgren, C E G

    2012-01-01

    Because it has earlier been shown that exercise 24 or two hours pre-dive may suppress the appearance of venous gas bubbles (VGB) in connection with the dive, we studied whether exercise before or during N2 elimination would influence the rate of the latter. Nitrogen elimination was recorded in eight volunteers breathing a normoxic O2+argon mixture for two hours. The N2 washout was preceded two (Condition A) or 24 hours (Condition B) earlier, by one hour of exercise at 85% VO2max (two hours of exercise interspersed with two hours of rest). In separate experiments, exercise at -40% of VO2max was performed throughout the two-hour washout (Condition C), and control experiments (Condition D) with denitrogenation without exercise were also performed. There were no significant differences among conditions for the total N2 eliminated (904 +/- 196 mL). The half-times of N2 washout for A (35.2 +/- 10.8 minutes) and B (31.9 +/- 8.6 minutes) did not differ from control washouts. The rate of washout in C increased 14% compared to D (half-time: 30.4 +/- 7.6 vs. 34.5 +/- 7.8 minutes, p = 0.002), and correlated with cardiac output. Exercise 24 or two hours pre-N2 washout did not affect it, suggesting that the decreased VGB scores noted by others in dives preceded by conditions similar to A and B are not due to changes in nitrogen exchange but rather to factors related to bubble formation and/or appearance. That N2 elimination is enhanced by concomitant exercise makes physiological sense but does not necessarily explain the observation by others of a reduced risk of decompression sickness with exercise before diving.

  15. Evolution of basal metabolic rate in bank voles from a multidirectional selection experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadowska, Edyta T.; Stawski, Clare; Rudolf, Agata; Dheyongera, Geoffrey; Chrząścik, Katarzyna M.; Baliga-Klimczyk, Katarzyna; Koteja, Paweł

    2015-01-01

    A major theme in evolutionary and ecological physiology of terrestrial vertebrates encompasses the factors underlying the evolution of endothermy in birds and mammals and interspecific variation of basal metabolic rate (BMR). Here, we applied the experimental evolution approach and compared BMR in lines of a wild rodent, the bank vole (Myodes glareolus), selected for 11 generations for: high swim-induced aerobic metabolism (A), ability to maintain body mass on a low-quality herbivorous diet (H) and intensity of predatory behaviour towards crickets (P). Four replicate lines were maintained for each of the selection directions and an unselected control (C). In comparison to C lines, A lines achieved a 49% higher maximum rate of oxygen consumption during swimming, H lines lost 1.3 g less mass in the test with low-quality diet and P lines attacked crickets five times more frequently. BMR was significantly higher in A lines than in C or H lines (60.8, 56.6 and 54.4 ml O2 h−1, respectively), and the values were intermediate in P lines (59.0 ml O2 h−1). Results of the selection experiment provide support for the hypothesis of a positive association between BMR and aerobic exercise performance, but not for the association of adaptation to herbivorous diet with either a high or low BMR. PMID:25876844

  16. Impaired Circulating Angiogenic Cells Mobilization and Metalloproteinase-9 Activity after Dynamic Exercise in Early Metabolic Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Natalia G; Sales, Allan R K; Penedo, Leticia A; Pereira, Felipe S; Silva, Mayra S; Miranda, Renan L; Silva, Jemima F R; Silva, Bruno M; Santos, Aline A; Nobrega, Antonio C L

    2015-01-01

    Increased levels of adhesion molecules or metalloproteinases (MMPs) may indicate endothelial dysfunction. Exercise mobilizes circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) from bone marrow in healthy subjects, improving vascular function. However, it is unclear whether this mechanism is preserved in the early stages of metabolic syndrome (early MetS). We aimed to evaluate the acute effects of exercise on adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, MMPs, and CACs in early MetS. Fifteen subjects with early MetS and nine healthy controls underwent an exercise session and a nonexercise session, randomly. Adhesion molecules, angiogenic factors, CACs, and MMPs were evaluated before and after exercise or nonexercise sessions. At baseline, levels of sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 were higher in early MetS than in controls (P ≤ 0.03). After exercise, sE-selectin, sICAM-1, and MMP-9 levels were still higher in early MetS (P exercise. There was no difference between moments in nonexercise session (P > 0.05). In conclusion, subjects with early MetS already presented impaired endothelial function at rest along with a decrease in CACs and an increase in MMP-9 activity in response to exercise.

  17. Aerobic exercise modulation of mental stress-induced responses in cultured endothelial progenitor cells from healthy and metabolic syndrome subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Natalia G; Sales, Allan R K; Miranda, Renan L; Silva, Mayra S; Silva, Jemima F R; Silva, Bruno M; Santos, Aline A; Nóbrega, Antonio C L

    2015-02-15

    Numerous studies have demonstrated that exercise acutely prevents the reduction in flow-mediated dilation induced by mental stress in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, it is unknown whether a similar effect occurs in endothelial progenitors cells (EPCs). This study investigated whether exercise protects from the deleterious effect of mental stress on cultured EPCs in healthy subjects and those with MetS. Ten healthy subjects (aged 31±2) and ten subjects with MetS (aged 36±2) were enrolled. Subjects underwent a mental stress test, followed immediately by either 40 min of leg cycling or rest across two randomized sessions: mental stress+non-exercise control (MS) and mental stress+exercise (MS+EXE). The Stroop Color-Word Test was used to elicit mental stress. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and following sessions to isolate mononuclear cells. These cells were cultured in fibronectin-coated plates for seven days, and EPCs were identified by immunofluorescence (acLDL(+)/ UEA-I Lectin(+)). All subjects presented similar increases in mean blood pressure and heart rate during the mental stress test (P0.05). The EPC response to MS and MS+EXE was increased in healthy subjects, whereas it was decreased in subjects with MetS (Pexercise session increased EPCs in healthy subjects but did not prevent the EPC reduction induced by mental stress among subjects with MetS. © 2015.

  18. Effects of aerobic exercise training on serum sex hormone binding globulin, body fat index, and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Won; Kim, Do-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    The percentage of obese postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome is rising, and physical factors associated with the metabolic syndrome prevalence or incidence are also rising, including high body mass index (BMI), visceral fat area (VFA), low plasma sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Therefore, we investigated the influence of aerobic exercise on SHBG, body fat index (BFI), and metabolic syndrome factors in obese postmenopausal Korean women. Thirty healthy postmenopausal, women aged 53.46 ± 2.4 years and with over 32% body fat, were randomly assigned to an aerobic exercise group (EX; n=15) or to a "nonexercise" control (Con; n=15) group. The primary outcome measurements were serum SHBG, lipid profiles, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. Secondary outcome measurements were body composition, VFA, blood pressure (BP), and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Posttraining body weight and BFI (Pmetabolic syndrome factors (Pexercise group but not in the control group. SHBG levels also showed a significant positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and significant negative correlations withglucose, diastolic blood pressure, fat mass, BMI, and percent body fat (Pexercise improves body composition, SHBG, insulin levels, and metabolic syndrome factors. These findings suggest that in obesepostmenopausal Korean women, 16 weeks of aerobic exercise is effective for preventing the metabolic syndrome caused by obesity.

  19. Alterations in the rate of limb movement using a lower body positive pressure treadmill do not influence respiratory rate or phase III ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buono, Michael J; Burnsed-Torres, Marissa; Hess, Bethany; Lopez, Kristine; Ortiz, Catherine; Girodo, Ariel; Lolli, Karen; Bloom, Brett; Bailey, David; Kolkhorst, Fred W

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200). The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (V CO2 ). Naturally, to match the V CO2 while reducing the body weight up to 50% of normal required a significant increase in the treadmill speed from 3.0 ± 0.1 to 4.1 ± 0.2 mph, which resulted in a significant (P body weight) to 133 ± 6 at 4.1 mph (i.e., 50% of body weight). The most important finding was that significant increases in step frequency did not significantly alter minute ventilation or respiratory rate. Such results do not support an important role for the rate of limb movement in Phase III ventilation during submaximal exercise, when metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline are controlled.

  20. Myocardial fatty acid utilisation during exercise induced ischemia in patients with coronary artery disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virtanen, K.S. [First Dept. of Medicine, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland); Nikkinen, P. [Dept. of Clinical Chemistry, Helsinki Univ. Central Hospital (Finland); Lindroth, L. [Medix Diacor Lab. Services, Ltd., Espoo (Finland); Kuikka, J.T. [Dept. of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine, Kuopio Univ. Hospital, Univ. of Kuopio and Niuvanniemi Hospital, Kuopio (Finland)

    2002-06-01

    Aim: Reversible or irreversible myocardial damage due to ischemia correlates with altered membrane functions of the cells. To compare myocardial free fatty acid (FFA) metabolism and flow during exercise induced ischemia we studied ten patients with coronary artery disease but without previous myocardial infarction. Methods: A series of post-exercise single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) measurements was performed after injection of {sup 123}I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). Myocardial perfusion was estimated from the separately performed exercise-redistribution thallium study. Fatty acid metabolic rate, thallium uptake and washout were calculated for anterior, lateral, posterior and septal segments. Results: The more reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate (-63{+-}18%, mean {+-}1 SD) compared to flow (-36{+-}16%) was related to the severity of myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormalities. Conclusion: In this small group of patients, the reduced post-exercise FFA metabolic rate tentatively suggests a parsimonious workload of the exercising myocardium by reducing oxygen consumption in patients with coronary artery disease. (orig.) [German] Ziel: Bei reversibler und irreversibler Myokardschaedigung infolge Ischaemie sind die Membranfunktionen der Zellen veraendert. Um myokardialen Metabolismus freier Fettsaeuren (FFA) und Durchblutung bei belastungsinduzierter Ischaemie zu vergleichen, untersuchten wir zehn Patienten mit Koronarinsuffizienz, aber ohne vorangegangenen Myokardinfarkt. Methoden: Nach Injektion von {sup 123}I-markierter Heptadekansaeure (HDA) wurde eine Serie von SPECT-Messungen nach Belastung aufgenommen. Die myokardiale Perfusion wurde abgeschaetzt durch die separat durchgefuehrte Thalliumverteilungsstudie nach Belastung. Fettsaeurestoffwechsel, Thallium-Uptake und -Washout wurden fuer die anterioren, posterioren und septalen Segmente berechnet. Ergebnisse: Eine eingeschraenktere FFA-Stoffwechselrate (-63{+-}18%, {+-}1 SD

  1. Diagnostic value of exercise induced 18F-FDG myocardial metabolism scintigraphy in myocardial ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Rui; He Zuoxiang; Shi Rongfang; Liu Xiujie; Tian Yueqin; Guo Feng; Wei Hongxing; Wu Yongjian; Qin Xuewen; Gao Runlin

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of exercise induced myocardial imaging with 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in myocardial ischemia. Methods: Twenty-six patients with known or suspected coronary artery, disease (CAD) and with no prior myocardial infarction underwent simultaneous myocardial perfusion and metabolism imaging following intravenous injection of 99 Tc m -methoxy-isobutylisonitrile ( 99 Tc m -sestamibi) and 18 F-FDG at peak exercise. Subsequently rest perfusion imaging and coronary angiography (CAG) were performed in all patients. Exercise 18 F-FDG myocardial imaging was compared with 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging and CAG. Results: In 22 patients with ≥50% narrowing over l coronary artery, 18 had perfusion abnormalities (sensitivity 82%), whereas 20 had abnormal myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake (sensitivity 91%, P>0.05). Patients with reversible (12 cases) or partial reversible (3 cases) perfusion abnormalities had increased myocardial 18 F-FDG uptake in abnormal perfusion segments. Compared with CAG, perfusion defect was seen in myocardial segments corresponding to 25 vascular territories of 51 vessels with ≥50% narrowing in 22 patients in 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging (sensitivity 49%), whereas increased 18 F-FDG uptake was seen in 34 vascular territories (sensitivity 67%, P=0.008). Conclusions: Exercise induced myocardial ischemia can be imaged directly with 18 F-FDG. Combined exercise 18 F-FDG and 99 Tc m -sestamibi imaging provides a better assessment of exercise-induced myocardial ischemia as compared with exercise-rest perfusion imaging. (authors)

  2. Improved arterial-ventricular coupling in metabolic syndrome after exercise training: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B; Donley, David A; Bonner, Daniel E; Devallance, Evan; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is associated with threefold increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, which is partly due to a blunted CV reserve capacity, reflected by a reduced peak exercise left ventricular (LV) contractility and aerobic capacity and a blunted peak arterial-ventricular coupling. To date, no study has examined whether aerobic exercise training in MetS can reverse peak exercise CV dysfunction. Furthermore, examining how exercise training alters CV function in a group of individuals with MetS before the development of diabetes and/or overt CV disease can provide insights into whether some of the pathophysiological CV changes can be delayed/reversed, lowering their CV risk. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of 8 wk of aerobic exercise training in individuals with MetS on resting and peak exercise CV function. Twenty participants with MetS underwent either 8 wk of aerobic exercise training (MetS-ExT, n = 10) or remained sedentary (MetS-NonT, n = 10) during this period. Resting and peak exercise CV function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange. Exercise training did not alter resting LV diastolic or systolic function and arterial-ventricular coupling in MetS. In contrast, at peak exercise, an increase in LV contractility (40%, P < 0.01), cardiac output (28%, P < 0.05), and aerobic capacity (20%, P < 0.01), but a reduction in vascular resistance (30%, P < 0.05) and arterial-ventricular coupling (27%, P < 0.01), were noted in the MetS-ExT but not in the MetS-NonT group. Furthermore, an improvement in lifetime risk score was also noted in the MetS-ExT group. These findings have clinical importance because they provide insight that some of the pathophysiological changes associated with MetS can be improved and can lower the risk of CV disease.

  3. Relationship between fatty acid delivery and fatty acid oxidation during strenuous exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romijn, J. A.; Coyle, E. F.; Sidossis, L. S.; Zhang, X. J.; Wolfe, R. R.

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate the extent to which decreased plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentration contributes to the relatively low rates of fat oxidation during high-intensity exercise, we studied FFA metabolism in six endurance-trained cyclists during 20-30 min of exercise [85% of maximal O2 uptake (VO2max)].

  4. Muscle protein degradation and amino acid metabolism during prolonged knee-extensor exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Saltin, B; Wagenmakers, A J

    1999-01-01

    to a substantial increase in net muscle protein degradation, and that a lowering of the starting muscle glycogen content leads to a further increase. The carbon atoms of the branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), glutamate, aspartate and asparagine, liberated by protein degradation, and the BCAA and glutamate......The aim of this study was to investigate whether prolonged one-leg knee-extensor exercise enhances net protein degradation in muscle with a normal or low glycogen content. Net amino acid production, as a measure of net protein degradation, was estimated from leg exchange and from changes...... in the concentrations of amino acids that are not metabolized in skeletal muscle. Experiments were performed at rest and during one-leg knee-extensor exercise in six subjects having one leg with a normal glycogen content and the other with a low glycogen content. Exercise was performed for 90 min at a workload of 60...

  5. Exercising with blocked muscle glycogenolysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tue L; Pinós, Tomàs; Brull, Astrid

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: McArdle disease (glycogen storage disease type V) is an inborn error of skeletal muscle metabolism, which affects glycogen phosphorylase (myophosphorylase) activity leading to an inability to break down glycogen. Patients with McArdle disease are exercise intolerant, as muscle glycogen......-derived glucose is unavailable during exercise. Metabolic adaptation to blocked muscle glycogenolysis occurs at rest in the McArdle mouse model, but only in highly glycolytic muscle. However, it is unknown what compensatory metabolic adaptations occur during exercise in McArdle disease. METHODS: In this study, 8......-week old McArdle and wild-type mice were exercised on a treadmill until exhausted. Dissected muscles were compared with non-exercised, age-matched McArdle and wild-type mice for histology and activation and expression of proteins involved in glucose uptake and glycogenolysis. RESULTS: Investigation...

  6. Less-than-expected weight loss in normal-weight women undergoing caloric restriction and exercise is accompanied by preservation of fat-free mass and metabolic adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, K; De Souza, M J; Williams, N I

    2017-03-01

    Normal-weight women frequently restrict their caloric intake and exercise, but little is known about the effects on body weight, body composition and metabolic adaptations in this population. We conducted a secondary analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial in sedentary normal-weight women. Women were assigned to a severe energy deficit (SEV: -1062±80 kcal per day; n=9), a moderate energy deficit (MOD: -633±71 kcal per day; n=7) or energy balance (BAL; n=9) while exercising five times per week for 3 months. Outcome variables included changes in body weight, body composition, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and metabolic hormones associated with energy conservation. Weight loss occurred in SEV (-3.7±0.9 kg, P0.33). RMR decreased by -6±2% in MOD (P=0.020). In SEV, RMR did not change on a group level (P=0.66), but participants whose RMR declined lost more weight (P=0.020) and had a higher baseline RMR (P=0.026) than those whose RMR did not decrease. Characteristic changes in leptin (P=0.003), tri-iodothyronine (P=0.013), insulin-like growth factor-1 (P=0.016) and ghrelin (P=0.049) occurred only in SEV. The energy deficit and adaptive changes in RMR explained 54% of the observed weight loss. In normal-weight women, caloric restriction and exercise resulted in less-than-predicted weight loss. In contrast to previous literature, weight loss consisted almost exclusively of fat mass, whereas fat-free mass was preserved.

  7. Revisiting the relationship between exercise heart rate and music tempo preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorghis, Costas I; Jones, Leighton; Priest, David-Lee; Akers, Rose I; Clarke, Adam; Perry, Jennifer M; Reddick, Benjamin T; Bishop, Daniel T; Lim, Harry B T

    2011-06-01

    In the present study, we investigated a hypothesized quartic relationship (meaning three inflection points) between exercise heart rate (HR) and preferred music tempo. Initial theoretical predictions suggested a positive linear relationship (Iwanaga, 1995a, 1995b); however, recent experimental work has shown that as exercise HR increases, step changes and plateaus that punctuate the profile of music tempo preference may occur (Karageorghis, Jones, & Stuart, 2008). Tempi bands consisted of slow (95-100 bpm), medium (115-120 bpm), fast (135-140 bpm), and very fast (155-160 bpm) music. Twenty-eight active undergraduate students cycled at exercise intensities representing 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, and 90% of their maximal HR reserve while their music preference was assessed using a 10-point scale. The Exercise Intensity x Music Tempo interaction was significant, F(6.16, 160.05) = 7.08, p music-tempo relationship (p music was not preferred at any exercise intensity, preference for fast tempo increased, relative to medium and very fast tempo music, as exercise intensity increased. The implications for the prescription of music in exercise and physical activity contexts are discussed.

  8. Exercise prescription using the heart of claudication pain onset in patients with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Grizzo Cucato

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To assess the acute metabolic and cardiovascular responses to walking exercise at an intensity corresponding to the heart rate of claudication pain onset and to investigate the effects of a 12-week walking training program at this intensity on walking capacity. METHODS: Twenty-nine patients with intermittent claudication were randomly allocated to the walking training (n = 17 or control (CO, n = 12 group. The walking training group performed an acute exercise session comprising 15×2-min bouts of walking at the heart rate of claudication pain onset, with 2-min interpolated rest intervals. The claudication symptoms and cardiovascular and metabolic responses were evaluated. Walking training was then performed at the same intensity twice each week for 12 weeks, while the control group engaged in twice weekly stretching classes. The claudication onset distance and total walking distance were evaluated before and after the interventions. Brazilian Registry Clinical Trials: RBR-7M3D8W. RESULTS: During the acute exercise session, the heart rate was maintained within tight limits. The exercise intensity was above the anaerobic threshold and >80% of the heart rate peak and VO2peak. After the exercise training period, the walking exercise group (n = 13 showed increased claudication onset distance (309±153 vs. 413±201m and total walking distance (784±182 vs. 1,100±236m compared to the control group (n = 12 (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Walking exercise prescribed at the heart rate of claudication pain onset enables patients with intermittent claudication to exercise with tolerable levels of pain and improves walking performance.

  9. A review of clinical effects associated with metabolic syndrome and exercise in prostate cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwata, J L; Dorff, T B; Schroeder, E T; Gross, M E; Dieli-Conwright, C M

    2016-12-01

    Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), a primary treatment for locally advanced or metastatic prostate cancer, is associated with the adverse effects on numerous physiologic parameters, including alterations in cardiometabolic variables that overlap with components of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). As MetS is an established risk factor for cardiovascular mortality and treatment for prostate cancer has been associated with the development of MetS, interventions targeting cardiometabolic factors have been investigated in prostate cancer patients to attenuate the detrimental effects of ADT. Much support exists for exercise interventions in improving MetS variables in insulin-resistant adults, but less evidence is available in men with prostate cancer. Regular exercise, when performed at appropriate intensities and volumes, can elicit improvements in ADT-related adverse effects, including MetS, and contributes to the growing body of literature supporting the role of exercise in cancer survivorship. This review (1) discusses the biologic inter-relationship between prostate cancer, ADT and MetS, (2) evaluates the current literature in support of exercise in targeting MetS and (3) describes the physiological mechanisms by which exercise may favorably alter MetS risk factors in prostate cancer patients on ADT.

  10. Beneficial mechanisms of aerobic exercise on hepatic lipid metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Rui; Liong, Emily C; So, Kwok Fai; Fung, Man-Lung; Tipoe, George L

    2015-04-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) refers to any fatty liver disease that is not due to excessive use of alcohol. NAFLD probably results from abnormal hepatic lipid metabolism and insulin resistance. Aerobic exercise is shown to improve NAFLD. This review aimed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms involved in the beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on NAFLD. We searched articles in English on the role of aerobic exercise in NAFLD therapy in PubMed. The mechanisms of chronic aerobic exercise in regulating the outcome of NAFLD include: (i) reducing intrahepatic fat content by down-regulating sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c and up-regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression levels; (ii) decreasing hepatic oxidative stress through modulating the reactive oxygen species, and enhancing antioxidant enzymes such as catalase and glutathione peroxidase; (iii) ameliorating hepatic inflammation via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta; (iv) attenuating mitochondrial dependent apoptosis by reducing cytochrome C released from the mitochondria to the cytosol; and (v) inducing hepato-protective autophagy. Aerobic exercise, via different mechanisms, significantly decreases the fat content of the liver and improves the outcomes of patients with NAFLD.

  11. Effects of intense aerobic exercise and/or antihypertensive medication in individuals with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Jimenez, M; Morales-Palomo, F; Ortega, J F; Mora-Rodriguez, R

    2018-05-17

    We studied the blood pressure lowering effects of a bout of exercise and/or antihypertensive medicine with the goal of studying if exercise could substitute or enhance pharmacologic hypertension treatment. Twenty-three hypertensive metabolic syndrome patients chronically medicated with angiotensin II receptor 1 blockade antihypertensive medicine underwent 24-hr monitoring in four separated days in a randomized order; a) after taking their habitual dose of antihypertensive medicine (AHM trial), b) substituting their medicine by placebo medicine (PLAC trial), c) placebo medicine with a morning bout of intense aerobic exercise (PLAC+EXER trial) and d) combining the exercise and antihypertensive medicine (AHM+EXER trial). We found that in trials with AHM subjects had lower plasma aldosterone/renin activity ratio evidencing treatment compliance. Before exercise, the trials with AHM displayed lower systolic (130±16 vs 133±15 mmHg; P=0.018) and mean blood pressures (94±11 vs 96±10 mmHg; P=0.036) than trials with placebo medication. Acutely (i.e., 30 min after treatments) combining AHM+EXER lowered systolic blood pressure (SBP) below the effects of PLAC+EXER (-8.1±1.6 vs -4.9±1.5 mmHg; P=0.015). Twenty-four hour monitoring revealed no differences among trials in body motion. However, PLAC+EXER and AHM lowered SBP below PLAC during the first 10 hours, time at which PLAC+EXER effects faded out (i.e., at 19 PM). Adding exercise to medication (i.e., AHM+EXER) resulted in longer reductions in SBP than with exercise alone (PLAC+EXER). In summary, one bout of intense aerobic exercise in the morning cannot substitute the long-lasting effects of antihypertensive medicine in lowering blood pressure, but their combination is superior to exercise alone. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  12. Diabetes, insulin and exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richter, Erik; Galbo, H

    1986-01-01

    The metabolic and hormonal adaptations to single exercise sessions and to exercise training in normal man and in patients with insulin-dependent as well as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus are reviewed. In insulin-dependent (type I) diabetes good metabolic control is best obtained...... by a regular pattern of life which will lead to a fairly constant demand for insulin from day to day. Exercise is by nature a perturbation that makes treatment of diabetes difficult: Muscle contractions per se tend to decrease the plasma glucose concentration whereas the exercise-induced response of the so......-called counter-regulatory hormones tend to increase plasma glucose by increasing hepatic glucose production and adipose tissue lipolysis. If the pre-exercise plasma insulin level is high, hypoglycaemia may develop during exercise whereas hyperglycaemia and ketosis may develop if pre-exercise plasma insulin...

  13. Nutritional assessment and its role in evaluation and prescription of exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Meşină

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Nutritional assessment gives accurate and reproducible information as regards the existence of an optimal energy metabolism: resting metabolic rate (RMR, the proportion of nutritional principles (fat, carbohydrate, protein used by the body in the basal metabolism, the intensity of effort during exercise where the maximum fat oxidation rate (MFOR is achieved. These information are used for the individualization of physical training programs and for the calorie intake adjustment in accordance with the body needs. The aim of this study is to underline once again the importance of physical activity in the weight management and to demonstrate the importance of nutritional assessment in the prescription of physical training in obese subjects.Material and methods:We investigated 43 young obese, with a mean age of 21.2 ± 3.1 years old, of which 93% were females. The subject’s evaluations consisted in: nutritional assessment (using indirect calorimetry method, maximal exercise test at baseline and the end of the study (after 6 months. After the exercise test, the subjects performed an individualized physical training with a minimum frequency of three times a week. Subject’s heart rate was monitorized during exercise by a physical therapist using a heart rate monitor (Polar F3, Finland. The dropout rate from the physical training program as part of the study was 35%, in the end remaining only 28 subjects.Results:After 6 months of individualized exercise training, we noticed a statistically significant increase of the following parameters: maximum fat oxidation rate (MFOR from 16.96±7.75 to 22.07±8.4 g/h, p=0.0043; resting metabolic rate (RMR from 2007±300.3 to 2105±290.4 kcal/day, p = 0.0026; along with the resting oxygen uptake (VO2 rest from 0.29±0.04 to 0.3±0.04 l / min, p = 0, 0035. The only parameter that has improved, but not reaching statistical significance was heart rate average at MFOR (HR_MFOR which increased from 127.1

  14. Physical exercise in overweight to obese individuals induces metabolic- and neurotrophic-related structural brain plasticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten eMueller

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Previous cross-sectional studies on body-weight-related alterations in brain structure revealed profound changes in the gray matter (GM and white matter (WM that resemble findings obtained from individuals with advancing age. This suggests that obesity may lead to structural brain changes that are comparable with brain aging. Here, we asked whether weight-loss-dependent improved metabolic and neurotrophic functioning parallels the reversal of obesity-related alterations in brain structure. To this end we applied magnetic resonance imaging together with voxel-based morphometry and diffusion-tensor imaging in overweight to obese individuals who participated in a fitness course with intensive physical training three days per week over a period of three months. After the fitness course, participants presented, with inter-individual heterogeneity, a reduced body mass index (BMI, reduced serum leptin concentrations, elevated high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C, and alterations of serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF concentrations suggesting changes of metabolic and neurotrophic function. Exercise-dependent changes in BMI and serum concentration of BDNF, leptin, and HDL-C were related to an increase in GM density in the left hippocampus, the insular cortex, and the left cerebellar lobule. We also observed exercise-dependent changes of diffusivity parameters in surrounding WM structures as well as in the corpus callosum. These findings suggest that weight-loss due to physical exercise in overweight to obese participants induces profound structural brain plasticity, not primarily of sensorimotor brain regions involved in physical exercise, but of regions previously reported to be structurally affected by an increased body weight and functionally implemented in gustation and cognitive processing.

  15. Skeletal muscle signaling and the heart rate and blood pressure response to exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Stefan P; Svendsen, Jesper H; Ersbøll, Mads

    2013-01-01

    Endurance training lowers heart rate and blood pressure responses to exercise, but the mechanisms and consequences remain unclear. To determine the role of skeletal muscle for the cardioventilatory response to exercise, 8 healthy young men were studied before and after 5 weeks of 1-legged knee-ex...... was ≈ 15 bpm lower during exercise with the trained leg (P...

  16. Dehydration affects cerebral blood flow but not its metabolic rate for oxygen during maximal exercise in trained humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trangmar, Steven J; Chiesa, Scott T; Stock, Christopher G

    2014-01-01

    Intense exercise is associated with a reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF), but regulation of CBF during strenuous exercise in the heat with dehydration is unclear. We assessed internal (ICA) and common carotid artery (CCA) haemodynamics (indicative of CBF and extra-cranial blood flow), middle...... cerebral artery velocity (MCA Vmean), arterial-venous differences and blood temperature in 10 trained males during incremental cycling to exhaustion in the heat (35°C) in control, dehydrated and rehydrated states. Dehydration reduced body mass (75.8 ± 3 vs. 78.2 ± 3 kg), increased internal temperature (38.......3 ± 0.1 vs. 36.8 ± 0.1°C), impaired exercise capacity (269 ± 11 vs. 336 ± 14 W), and lowered ICA and MCA Vmean by 12-23% without compromising CCA blood flow. During euhydrated incremental exercise on a separate day, however, exercise capacity and ICA, MCA Vmean and CCA dynamics were preserved. The fast...

  17. Vitamin C improves basal metabolic rate and lipid profile in alloxan ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    3.1 Effect of vitamin C administration on basal metabolic rate. The basal metabolic rate values in diabetic rats and control are presented in figure 1. The basal metabolic rate (BMR) in diabetic rats was 1.19 ± 0.15 ml/h/g, while the BMR in control rats was 0.76 ± 0.89 ml/h/g. The BMR value in diabetic rats treated with vitamin ...

  18. Toluene metabolism during exposure to varying concentrations combined with exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bælum, Jesper; Døssing, M; Hansen, S H

    1987-01-01

    . In Study A, four males were exposed to clean air and to constant and varying concentrations of toluene in combination with rest and with 100 W exercise in 140 min. Exercise increased end exposure excretion rate of HA and O-cr by 47 and 114%, respectively. After exposure, all excess HA was excreted within 4...... weight and smoking habits, thus influencing the metabolite concentration standardised in relation to creatinine. It is concluded that both metabolites are estimates of toluene exposure. O-cr is more specific than HA, but the individual variation in excretion of both metabolites is large, and when...

  19. Effect of high-intensity training on exercise-induced gene expression specific to ion homeostasis and metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Nikolai; Bangsbo, Jens; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2003-01-01

    Changes in gene expression during recovery from high-intensity, intermittent, one-legged exercise were studied before and after 5.5 wk of training. Genes related to metabolism, as well as Na+, K+, and pH homeostasis, were selected for analyses. After the same work was performed before and after...

  20. Systematic Sensitivity Analysis of Metabolic Controllers During Reductions in Skeletal Muscle Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishnan, Krishnan; Cabrera, Marco

    2000-01-01

    An acute reduction in oxygen delivery to skeletal muscle is generally associated with profound derangements in substrate metabolism. Given the complexity of the human bioenergetic system and its components, it is difficult to quantify the interaction of cellular metabolic processes to maintain ATP homeostasis during stress (e.g., hypoxia, ischemia, and exercise). Of special interest is the determination of mechanisms relating tissue oxygenation to observed metabolic responses at the tissue, organ, and whole body levels and the quantification of how changes in oxygen availability affect the pathways of ATP synthesis and their regulation. In this study, we apply a previously developed mathematical model of human bioenergetics to study effects of ischemia during periods of increased ATP turnover (e.g., exercise). By using systematic sensitivity analysis the oxidative phosphorylation rate was found to be the most important rate parameter affecting lactate production during ischemia under resting conditions. Here we examine whether mild exercise under ischemic conditions alters the relative importance of pathways and parameters previously obtained.

  1. Environmental effects on energy metabolism and 86Rb elimination rates of fishes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Relationships between energy metabolism and the turnover rates of number of important chemical and radiological elements (particularly the Group IA alkali metals: K, Rb, and Cs) have been observed in fishes. Using response surface statistics and fractional factorial ANOVA, the author examined the relative influences of temperature, salinity, food intake rate, mass, and their first order interactions on routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates. Routine metabolic rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity, with a strong body mass effect and a significant effect of food intake. 86 Rb elimination rates were increased primarily by increased temperature and salinity. There were no interactive effects between mass and either temperature or salinity for either routine energy metabolism or 86 Rb elimination rates. There was a significant interaction effect between temperature and salinity on routine energy metabolism rates, but not on 86 Rb elimination. The authors also observed a relationship between routine energy metabolism and 86 Rb elimination rates that may possibly be exploited as a means of estimating energy metabolic rates of fishes in the field. The statistical techniques used in this experiment have broad potential applications in assessing the contributions of combinations of environmental variables on contaminant kinetics, as well as in multiple toxicity testing, in that they greatly simplify experimental designs compared with traditional full-factorial methods

  2. Alterations in the Rate of Limb Movement Using a Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Do Not Influence Respiratory Rate or Phase III Ventilation

    OpenAIRE

    Michael J. Buono; Marissa Burnsed-Torres; Bethany Hess; Kristine Lopez; Catherine Ortiz; Ariel Girodo; Karen Lolli; Brett Bloom; David Bailey; Fred W. Kolkhorst

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200). The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (V CO2 ). Naturally, to match the V CO2 while reducin...

  3. Effects of adjunctive exercise on physiological and psychological parameters in depression: a randomized pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerling, Arno; Tegtbur, Uwe; Gützlaff, Elke; Kück, Momme; Borchert, Luise; Ates, Zeynep; von Bohlen, Anne; Frieling, Helge; Hüper, Katja; Hartung, Dagmar; Schweiger, Ulrich; Kahl, Kai G

    2015-05-15

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with decreased physical activity and increased rates of the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disorders. Exercise training has been shown to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and metabolic syndrome factors. Therefore, our study aimed at examining whether patients receiving an exercise program as an adjunct to inpatient treatment will benefit in terms of physiological and psychological factors. Fourty-two inpatients with moderate to severe depression were included. Twenty-two patients were randomized to additional 3x weekly exercise training (EXERCISE) and compared to treatment as usual (TAU). Exercise capacity was assessed as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT) and workload expressed as Watts (W). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to NCEP ATPIII panel criteria. After 6 weeks of treatment, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak, VAT, Watt), waist circumference and HDL cholesterol were significantly improved in EXERCISE participants. Treatment response expressed as ≥50% MADRS reduction was more frequent in the EXERCISE group. Adjunctive exercise training in depressed inpatients improves physical fitness, MetS factors, and psychological outcome. Given the association of depression with cardiometablic disorders, exercise training is recommended as an adjunct to standard antidepressant treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Alterations in the Rate of Limb Movement Using a Lower Body Positive Pressure Treadmill Do Not Influence Respiratory Rate or Phase III Ventilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Buono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of alterations in rate of limb movement on Phase III ventilation during exercise, independent of metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline. Subjects completed five submaximal exercise bouts on a lower body positive pressure treadmill (AlterG P 200. The percent body weight for the five exercise bouts was 100, 87, 75, 63, and 50% and each was matched for carbon dioxide production (VCO2. Naturally, to match the VCO2 while reducing the body weight up to 50% of normal required a significant increase in the treadmill speed from 3.0±0.1 to 4.1±0.2 mph, which resulted in a significant (P<0.05 increase in the mean step frequency (steps per minute from 118±10 at 3 mph (i.e., 100% of body weight to 133±6 at 4.1 mph (i.e., 50% of body weight. The most important finding was that significant increases in step frequency did not significantly alter minute ventilation or respiratory rate. Such results do not support an important role for the rate of limb movement in Phase III ventilation during submaximal exercise, when metabolic rate, gait style, and treadmill incline are controlled.

  5. Exercise-mediated vasodilation in human obesity and metabolic syndrome: effect of acute ascorbic acid infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limberg, Jacqueline K; Kellawan, J Mikhail; Harrell, John W; Johansson, Rebecca E; Eldridge, Marlowe W; Proctor, Lester T; Sebranek, Joshua J; Schrage, William G

    2014-09-15

    We tested the hypothesis that infusion of ascorbic acid (AA), a potent antioxidant, would alter vasodilator responses to exercise in human obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetSyn). Forearm blood flow (FBF, Doppler ultrasound) was measured in lean, obese, and MetSyn adults (n = 39, 32 ± 2 yr). A brachial artery catheter was inserted for blood pressure monitoring and local infusion of AA. FBF was measured during dynamic handgrip exercise (15% maximal effort) with and without AA infusion. To account for group differences in blood pressure and forearm size, and to assess vasodilation, forearm vascular conductance (FVC = FBF/mean arterial blood pressure/lean forearm mass) was calculated. We examined the time to achieve steady-state FVC (mean response time, MRT) and the rise in FVC from rest to steady-state exercise (Δ, exercise - rest) before and during acute AA infusion. The MRT (P = 0.26) and steady-state vasodilator responses to exercise (ΔFVC, P = 0.31) were not different between groups. Intra-arterial infusion of AA resulted in a significant increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity (174 ± 37%). AA infusion did not alter MRT or steady-state FVC in any group (P = 0.90 and P = 0.85, respectively). Interestingly, higher levels of C-reactive protein predicted longer MRT (r = 0.52, P exercise does not alter the time course or magnitude of exercise-mediated vasodilation in groups of young lean, obese, or MetSyn adults. However, systemic inflammation may limit the MRT to exercise, which can be improved with AA. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  6. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina de Figueiredo Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry; basal metabolic rate was also estimated by prediction equations. Results. There was a significant difference between the measured and the estimated basal metabolic rate determined by the FAO/WHO/UNU (Pvalue<0.021 and Huang et al. (Pvalue≤0.005 equations. Conclusion. The calculations using Owen et al’s. equation were the closest to the measured basal metabolic rate.

  7. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...

  8. Basal metabolic rate and the rate of senescence in the great tit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwhuis, Sandra; Sheldon, Ben C.; Verhulst, Simon; Koteja, Pawel

    1. Between-individual variation in rates of senescence has recently been found to relate to natal and early-life conditions in several natural populations. Mechanistic theories of senescence have predicted between-individual variation in basal metabolic rate (BMR) to also underlie such variation in

  9. [Specific growth rate and the rate of energy metabolism in the ontogenesis of axolotl, Ambystoma mexicanum (Amphibia: Ambystomatidae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimirova, I G; Kleĭmenov, S Iu; Alekseeva, T A; Radzinskaia, L I

    2003-01-01

    Concordant changes in the rate of energy metabolism and specific growth rate of axolotls have been revealed. Several periods of ontogeny are distinguished, which differ in the ratio of energy metabolism to body weight and, therefore, are described by different allometric equations. It is suggested that the specific growth rate of an animal determines the type of dependence of energy metabolism on body weight.

  10. Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [Chrono-nutrition and chrono-exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Shigenobu; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Ikeda, Yuko

    2013-12-01

    The circadian rhythm controls many physiological functions, such as feeding, motor activity, endocrine secretion and autonomic nerve. Regular feeding pattern can entrain the peripheral circadian clock, whereas peripheral clock systems can control the absorption distribution, metabolism and excretion of nutrients, suggesting mutual interactions between circadian clocks and nutrition/food. The interactions were so-called by "chrono-nutrition", and bigger meals for breakfast were good for entrainment of peripheral clock and protection of obesity. Similar to chrono-nutrition the timing of exercise ("chrono-exercise") is important for both entrainment signals and energy expenditure. Evening exercise and/or feeding then exercise was good timing exercise for protection of obesity. Taken all, it is suggested that timing of feeding and exercise is now one of key factors for metabolic syndrome.

  12. Exercise: Kinetic considerations for gas exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter, Harry B

    2011-01-01

    The activities of daily living typically occur at metabolic rates below the maximum rate of aerobic energy production. Such activity is characteristic of the nonsteady state, where energy demands, and consequential physiological responses, are in constant flux. The dynamics of the integrated physiological processes during these activities determine the degree to which exercise can be supported through rates of O₂ utilization and CO₂ clearance appropriate for their demands and, as such, provide a physiological framework for the notion of exercise intensity. The rate at which O₂ exchange responds to meet the changing energy demands of exercise--its kinetics--is dependent on the ability of the pulmonary, circulatory, and muscle bioenergetic systems to respond appropriately. Slow response kinetics in pulmonary O₂ uptake predispose toward a greater necessity for substrate-level energy supply, processes that are limited in their capacity, challenge system homeostasis and hence contribute to exercise intolerance. This review provides a physiological systems perspective of pulmonary gas exchange kinetics: from an integrative view on the control of muscle oxygen consumption kinetics to the dissociation of cellular respiration from its pulmonary expression by the circulatory dynamics and the gas capacitance of the lungs, blood, and tissues. The intensity dependence of gas exchange kinetics is discussed in relation to constant, intermittent, and ramped work rate changes. The influence of heterogeneity in the kinetic matching of O₂ delivery to utilization is presented in reference to exercise tolerance in endurance-trained athletes, the elderly, and patients with chronic heart or lung disease. © 2011 American Physiological Society.

  13. Isometric exercise (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isometric exercise works muscles and strengthens bone. Increased muscle mass elevates metabolism, which in turn burns fat. Strength training is also called anaerobic exercise, as opposed to aerobic, because increased oxygen production is not ...

  14. Blood temperature and perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Calbet, José A L; Boushel, Robert; Helge, Jørn W; Søndergaard, Hans; Munch-Andersen, Thor; van Hall, Gerrit; Mortensen, Stefan P; Secher, Niels H

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Temperature-sensitive mechanisms are thought to contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the relationship between exercising and non-exercising limb perfusion and blood temperature is not established. What is the main finding and its importance? The close coupling among perfusion, blood temperature and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising extremities across different exercise modalities and activity levels and the tight association between limb vasodilatation and increases in plasma ATP suggest that both temperature- and metabolism-sensitive mechanisms are important for the control of human limb perfusion, possibly by activating ATP release from the erythrocytes. Temperature-sensitive mechanisms may contribute to blood-flow regulation, but the influence of temperature on perfusion to exercising and non-exercising human limbs is not established. Blood temperature (TB ), blood flow and oxygen uptake (V̇O2) in the legs and arms were measured in 16 healthy humans during 90 min of leg and arm exercise and during exhaustive incremental leg or arm exercise. During prolonged exercise, leg blood flow (LBF) was fourfold higher than arm blood flow (ABF) in association with higher TB and limb V̇O2. Leg and arm vascular conductance during exercise compared with rest was related closely to TB (r(2) = 0.91; P exercise, LBF increased in association with elevations in TB and limb V̇O2, whereas ABF, arm TB and V̇O2 remained largely unchanged. During incremental arm exercise, both ABF and LBF increased in relationship to similar increases in V̇O2. In 12 trained males, increases in femoral TB and LBF during incremental leg exercise were mirrored by similar pulmonary artery TB and cardiac output dynamics, suggesting that processes in active limbs dominate central temperature and perfusion responses. The present data reveal a close coupling among perfusion, TB and aerobic metabolism in exercising and non-exercising

  15. Influence of music on maximal self-paced running performance and passive post-exercise recovery rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sam; Kimmerly, Derek S

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of fast tempo music (FM) on self-paced running performance (heart rate, running speed, ratings of perceived exertion), and slow tempo music (SM) on post-exercise heart rate and blood lactate recovery rates. Twelve participants (5 women) completed three randomly assigned conditions: static noise (control), FM and SM. Each condition consisted of self-paced treadmill running, and supine postexercise recovery periods (20 min each). Average running speed, heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during the treadmill running period, while HR and blood lactate were measured during the recovery period. Listening to FM during exercise resulted in a faster self-selected running speed (10.8±1.7 vs. 9.9±1.4 km•hour-1, Peffect P<0.001) and blood lactate at the end of recovery (2.8±0.4 vs. 4.7±0.8 mmol•L-1, P<0.05). Listening to FM during exercise can increase self-paced intensity without altering perceived exertion levels while listening to SM after exercise can accelerate the recovery rate back to resting levels.

  16. Body Composition and Basal Metabolic Rate in Women with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    de Figueiredo Ferreira, Marina; Detrano, Filipe; Coelho, Gabriela Morgado de Oliveira; Barros, Maria Elisa; Serrão Lanzillotti, Regina; Firmino Nogueira Neto, José; Portella, Emilson Souza; Serrão Lanzillotti, Haydée; Soares, Eliane de Abreu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. The aim of this study was to determine which of the seven selected equations used to predict basal metabolic rate most accurately estimated the measured basal metabolic rate. Methods. Twenty-eight adult women with type 2 diabetes mellitus participated in this cross-sectional study. Anthropometric and biochemical variables were measured as well as body composition (by absorptiometry dual X-ray emission) and basal metabolic rate (by indirect calorimetry); basal metabolic rate was als...

  17. Pronounced effects of accute endurance exercise on gene expression in resting and exercising human skeletal muscle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catoire, M.; Mensink, M.R.; Boekschoten, M.V.; Hangelbroek, R.W.J.; Muller, M.R.; Schrauwen, P.; Kersten, A.H.

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity positively influences whole body energy metabolism and substrate handling in exercising muscle. While it is recognized that the effects of exercise extend beyond exercising muscle, it is unclear to what extent exercise impacts non-exercising muscles. Here we investigated

  18. Protein catabolism and high lipid metabolism associated with long-distance exercise are revealed by plasma NMR metabolomics in endurance horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Le Moyec

    Full Text Available During long distance endurance races, horses undergo high physiological and metabolic stresses. The adaptation processes involve the modulation of the energetic pathways in order to meet the energy demand. The aims were to evaluate the effects of long endurance exercise on the plasma metabolomic profiles and to investigate the relationships with the individual horse performances. The metabolomic profiles of the horses were analyzed using the non-dedicated methodology, NMR spectroscopy and statistical multivariate analysis. The advantage of this method is to investigate several metabolomic pathways at the same time in a single sample. The plasmas were obtained before exercise (BE and post exercise (PE from 69 horses competing in three endurance races at national level (130-160 km. Biochemical assays were also performed on the samples taken at PE. The proton NMR spectra were compared using the supervised orthogonal projection on latent structure method according to several factors. Among these factors, the race location was not significant whereas the effect of the race exercise (sample BE vs PE of same horse was highly discriminating. This result was confirmed by the projection of unpaired samples (only BE or PE sample of different horses. The metabolomic profiles proved that protein, energetic and lipid metabolisms as well as glycoproteins content are highly affected by the long endurance exercise. The BE samples from finisher horses could be discriminated according to the racing speed based on their metabolomic lipid content. The PE samples could be discriminated according to the horse ranking position at the end of the race with lactate as unique correlated metabolite. As a conclusion, the metabolomic profiles of plasmas taken before and after the race provided a better understanding of the high energy demand and protein catabolism pathway that could expose the horses to metabolic disorders.

  19. Effects of a helium/oxygen mixture on individuals’ lung function and metabolic cost during submaximal exercise for participants with obstructive lung diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Häussermann S

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sabine Häussermann,1 Anja Schulze,1 Ira M Katz,2,3 Andrew R Martin,4 Christiane Herpich,1 Theresa Hunger,1 Joëlle Texereau2 1Inamed GmbH, Gauting, Germany; 2Medical R&D, Air Liquide Santé International, Centre de Recherche Paris-Saclay, Les Loges-en-Josas, France; 3Department of Mechanical Engineering, Lafayette College, Easton, PA, USA; 4Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, CanadaBackground: Helium/oxygen therapies have been studied as a means to reduce the symptoms of obstructive lung diseases with inconclusive results in clinical trials. To better understand this variability in results, an exploratory physiological study was performed comparing the effects of helium/oxygen mixture (78%/22% to that of medical air.Methods: The gas mixtures were administered to healthy, asthmatic, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD participants, both moderate and severe (6 participants in each disease group, a total of 30; at rest and during submaximal cycling exercise with equivalent work rates. Measurements of ventilatory parameters, forced spirometry, and ergospirometry were obtained.Results: There was no statistical difference in ventilatory and cardiac responses to breathing helium/oxygen during submaximal exercise. For asthmatics, but not for the COPD participants, there was a statistically significant benefit in reduced metabolic cost, determined through measurement of oxygen uptake, for the same exercise work rate. However, the individual data show that there were a mixture of responders and nonresponders to helium/oxygen in all of the groups.Conclusion: The inconsistent response to helium/oxygen between individuals is perhaps the key drawback to the more effective and widespread use of helium/oxygen to increase exercise capacity and for other therapeutic applications. Keywords: helium/oxygen, inspiratory capacity, oxygen uptake, COPD, asthma, obstructive airway diseases, exercise, heliox

  20. Body composition and basal metabolic rate in Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, I M; Rytgaard, Helene Charlotte; Mogensen, U B

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Several studies have suggested an association between Hidradenitis Suppurativa (HS) and obesity. Obesity is often expressed as Body Mass Index (BMI). However, BMI lacks information on body composition. General obesity is a predictor of health status and cardiovascular risk, but body...... composition (e.g. abdominal fat) may be more so. Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is an expression of resting metabolism and may serve as a complementary tool when assessing the possibly underlying metabolism behind a persons' body composition. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the body composition and basal metabolic rate...... in individuals with HS compared with healthy controls. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study on both a hospital-based and population-based HS group and compared with controls using Bioelectrical Impedance Analysis to assess body composition. RESULTS: We identified a hospital-based HS group of 32 hospital...

  1. Role of Exercise and Nutrition in the Prevention of Sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makanae, Yuhei; Fujita, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The age-associated loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength (sarcopenia) has been shown to increase the risk of injury due to falls and incidence of metabolic complications including insulin resistance and diabetes, which subsequently becomes a significant factor to disability among the elderly population. Nutrient intake is the most important anabolic stimulus for skeletal muscle. Specifically, the amino acid leucine and meal-induced insulin both independently stimulate muscle protein synthesis. However, age-specific changes in muscle anabolic responses to leucine become apparent when sub-maximal amounts of amino acids are administered in older subjects. Furthermore, insulin resistance of muscle protein metabolism with aging has been demonstrated in healthy non-diabetic older subjects. Resistance exercise is another anabolic stimulus which increases myofibrillar muscle protein synthesis in both young and older individuals. The increased muscle anabolism is apparent within 2-3 h after a single bout of heavy resistance exercise and remains elevated up to 2 d following the exercise. The mTOR signaling pathway in skeletal muscle is associated with an increased rate of muscle protein synthesis during the early recovery phase following a bout of resistance exercise. Finally, recent evidence on the cumulative effect of resistance exercise in combination with nutritional supplement on muscle protein metabolism will be discussed to propose a possible preventative measure against sarcopenia.

  2. [Exercise in arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Predel, Hans-Georg; Schramm, Thomas

    2006-09-01

    Regular endurance training has established itself as a major therapeutic principle in the specter of nonpharmacological measures in arterial hypertension. An initial medical check as well as an adequate technique, dosage and intensity of the prescribed exercise training are mandatory. With respect to the concomitant pharmacological treatment, it should be considered that the beneficial effects of lifestyle modification will not be counteracted by the chosen antihypertensive drug but, ideally, synergistically supported. Based on the individual clinical situation, principally all antihypertensive drugs recommended by the current European guidelines, may be prescribed as mono- or combination therapy.beta-receptor blockers are especially capable of controlling excessive exercise-induced blood pressure increase; however, they have metabolic and exercise physiological limitations. The neutrality concerning metabolic and exercise physiological parameters as well as the positive profile of side effects favor ACE inhibitors, long-acting calcium channel blockers and especially AT(1) antagonists in physically active hypertensive patients with concomitant metabolic syndrome.

  3. Case report of exercise and statin-fibrate combination therapy-caused myopathy in a patient with metabolic syndrome: contradictions between the two main therapeutic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    László, Andrea; Kalabay, László; Nemcsik, János

    2013-02-06

    Lifestyle modifications including exercise are beneficial and fundamentally part of the therapy of metabolic syndrome, although in most of the cases medical interventions are also required to reach the target values in the laboratory parameters. Statin and fibrate combination therapy is considered to be safe and effective in dyslipidaemia and metabolic syndrome. However, increased physical activity can enhance the statin and fibrate-associated myopathy. Myositis and the rare but life-threatening rhabdomyolysis are causing a conflict between exercise and statin-fibrate therapy, which is yet to be resolved. We present a case of a 43-year-old Caucasian man with metabolic syndrome who had the side-effect of exercise and drug-associated myositis. The patient had only transient moderate complaints and rhabdomyolysis could be avoided with the one-month creatine kinase control, a test which is not recommended routinely by the new guidelines. We would like to turn the spotlight on the possible complications of statin-fibrate therapy and exercise, when strict follow-up is recommended. In this condition high number of patients can be affected and the responsibility of general practitioners is accentuated.

  4. Fluctuating selection on basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Johan F; Nilsson, Jan-Åke

    2016-02-01

    BMR (Basal metabolic rate) is an important trait in animal life history as it represents a significant part of animal energy budgets. BMR has also been shown to be positively related to sustainable work rate and maximal thermoregulatory capacity. To this date, most of the studies have focused on the causes of interspecific and intraspecific variation in BMR, and fairly little is known about the fitness consequences of different metabolic strategies. In this study, we show that winter BMR affects local survival in a population of wild blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus), but that the selection direction differs between years. We argue that this fluctuating selection is probably a consequence of varying winter climate with a positive relation between survival and BMR during cold and harsh conditions, but a negative relation during mild winters. This fluctuating selection can not only explain the pronounced variation in BMR in wild populations, but will also give us new insights into how energy turnover rates can shape the life-history strategies of animals. Furthermore, the study shows that the process of global warming may cause directional selection for a general reduction in BMR, affecting the general life-history strategy on the population level.

  5. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei, Yuxiang; Hou, Rong; Spotila, James R; Paladino, Frank V; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Zhihe

    2017-01-01

    The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342) in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406), with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17), more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  6. Metabolic rate of the red panda, Ailurus fulgens, a dietary bamboo specialist.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxiang Fei

    Full Text Available The red panda (Ailurus fulgens has a similar diet, primarily bamboo, and shares the same habitat as the giant panda, Ailuropoda melanoleuca. There are considerable efforts underway to understand the ecology of the red panda and to increase its populations in natural reserves. Yet it is difficult to design an effective strategy for red panda reintroduction if we do not understand its basic biology. Here we report the resting metabolic rate of the red panda and find that it is higher than previously measured on animals from a zoo. The resting metabolic rate was 0.290 ml/g/h (range 0.204-0.342 in summer and 0.361 ml/g/h in winter (range 0.331-0.406, with a statistically significant difference due to season and test temperature. Temperatures in summer were probably within the thermal neutral zone for metabolism but winter temperatures were below the thermal neutral zone. There was no difference in metabolic rate between male and female red pandas and no difference due to mass. Our values for metabolic rate were much higher than those measured by McNab for 2 red pandas from a zoo. The larger sample size (17, more natural conditions at the Panda Base and improved accuracy of the metabolic instruments provided more accurate metabolism measurements. Contrary to our expectations based on their low quality bamboo diet, the metabolic rates of red pandas were similar to mammals of the same size. Based on their metabolic rates red pandas would not be limited by their food supply in natural reserves.

  7. The Accumulative Effect of Concentric‐Biased and Eccentric‐ Biased Exercise on Cardiorespiratory and Metabolic Responses to Subsequent Low‐Intensity Exercise: A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin James Peter

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the accumulative effect of concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise on cardiorespiratory, metabolic and neuromuscular responses to low-intensity exercise performed hours later. Fourteen young men cycled at low-intensity (~60 rpm at 50% maximal oxygen uptake for 10 min before, and 12 h after: concentric-biased, single-leg cycling exercise (CON (performed ~19:30 h and eccentric-biased, double-leg knee extension exercise (ECC (~06:30 h the following morning. Respiratory measures were sampled breath-by-breath, with oxidation values derived from stoichiometry equations. Knee extensor neuromuscular function was assessed before and after CON and ECC. Cardiorespiratory responses during low-intensity cycling were unchanged by accumulative CON and ECC. The RER was lower during low-intensity exercise 12 h after CON and ECC (0.88 ± 0.08, when compared to baseline (0.92 ± 0.09; p = 0.02. Fat oxidation increased from baseline (0.24 ± 0.2 g·min1 to 12 h after CON and ECC (0.39 ± 0.2 g·min1; p = 0.01. Carbohydrate oxidation decreased from baseline (1.59 ± 0.4 g·min-1 to 12 h after CON and ECC (1.36 ± 0.4 g·min1; p = 0.03. These were accompanied by knee extensor force loss (right leg: -11.6%, p < 0.001; left leg: -10.6%, p = 0.02 and muscle soreness (right leg: 2.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.0001; left leg: 2.3 ± 1.2, p < 0.01. Subsequent concentric-biased and eccentric-biased exercise led to increased fat oxidation and decreased carbohydrate oxidation, without impairing cardiorespiration, during low-intensity cycling. An accumulation of fatiguing and damaging exercise increases fat utilisation during low intensity exercise performed as little as 12 h later.

  8. Exercise training during normobaric hypoxic confinement does not alter hormonal appetite regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debevec, Tadej; Simpson, Elizabeth J; Macdonald, Ian A; Eiken, Ola; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2014-01-01

    Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health. Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003%) either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2)) or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2)). A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre) and after the confinement (Post) to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests. While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01) following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01). At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01) and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03). Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01) at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01). No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05). These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does not alter hormonal appetite regulation but can

  9. Exercise training during normobaric hypoxic confinement does not alter hormonal appetite regulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadej Debevec

    Full Text Available Both exposure to hypoxia and exercise training have the potential to modulate appetite and induce beneficial metabolic adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine whether daily moderate exercise training performed during a 10-day exposure to normobaric hypoxia alters hormonal appetite regulation and augments metabolic health.Fourteen healthy, male participants underwent a 10-day hypoxic confinement at ∼ 4000 m simulated altitude (FIO2 = 0.139 ± 0.003% either combined with daily moderate intensity exercise (Exercise group; N = 8, Age = 25.8 ± 2.4 yrs, BMI = 22.9 ± 1.2 kg · m(-2 or without any exercise (Sedentary group; N = 6 Age = 24.8 ± 3.1 yrs, BMI = 22.3 ± 2.5 kg · m(-2. A meal tolerance test was performed before (Pre and after the confinement (Post to quantify fasting and postp randial concentrations of selected appetite-related hormones and metabolic risk markers. 13C-Glucose was dissolved in the test meal and 13CO2 determined in breath samples. Perceived appetite ratings were obtained throughout the meal tolerance tests.While body mass decreased in both groups (-1.4 kg; p = 0.01 following the confinement, whole body fat mass was only reduced in the Exercise group (-1.5 kg; p = 0.01. At Post, postprandial serum insulin was reduced in the Sedentary group (-49%; p = 0.01 and postprandial plasma glucose in the Exercise group (-19%; p = 0.03. Fasting serum total cholesterol levels were reduced (-12%; p = 0.01 at Post in the Exercise group only, secondary to low-density lipoprotein cholesterol reduction (-16%; p = 0.01. No differences between groups or testing periods were noted in fasting and/or postprandial concentrations of total ghrelin, peptide YY, and glucagon-like peptide-1, leptin, adiponectin, expired 13CO2 as well as perceived appetite ratings (p>0.05.These findings suggest that performing daily moderate intensity exercise training during continuous hypoxic exposure does not alter hormonal appetite regulation but

  10. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Methods and Material: Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  11. Long-term effect of yogic practices on diurnal metabolic rates of healthy subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaya M

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : The metabolic rate is an indicator of autonomic activity. Reduced sympathetic arousal probably resulting in hypometabolic states has been reported in several yogic studies. Aim : The main objective of this study was to assess the effect of yoga training on diurnal metabolic rates in yoga practitioners at two different times of the day (at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m.. Materials and Methods : Eighty eight healthy volunteers were selected and their metabolic rates assessed at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. using an indirect calorimeter at a yoga school in Bangalore, India. Results and conclusions: The results show that the average metabolic rate of the yoga group was 12% lower than that of the non-yoga group ( P < 0.001 measured at 9 p.m. and 16% lower at 6 a.m. ( P < 0.001. The 9 p.m. metabolic rates of the yoga group were almost equal to their predicted basal metabolic rates (BMRs whereas the metabolic rate was significantly higher than the predicted BMR for the non-yoga group. The 6 a.m. metabolic rate was comparable to their predicted BMR in the non-yoga group whereas it was much lower in the yoga group ( P < 0.001. The lower metabolic rates in the yoga group at 6 a.m. and 9 p.m. may be due to coping strategies for day-to-day stress, decreased sympathetic nervous system activity and probably, a stable autonomic nervous system response (to different stressors achieved due to training in yoga.

  12. Exercise, Obesity and CNS Control of Metabolic Homeostasis: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, John K.

    2018-01-01

    This review details the manner in which the central nervous system regulates metabolic homeostasis in normal weight and obese rodents and humans. It includes a review of the homeostatic contributions of neurons located in the hypothalamus, the midbrain and limbic structures, the pons and the medullary area postrema, nucleus tractus solitarius, and vagus nucleus, and details how these brain regions respond to circulating levels of orexigenic hormones, such as ghrelin, and anorexigenic hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 and leptin. It provides an insight as to how high intensity exercise may improve homeostatic control in overweight and obese subjects. Finally, it provides suggestions as to how further progress can be made in controlling the current pandemic of obesity and diabetes.

  13. Effect of Diet, Insulin and Exercise on the Regulation of Carbohydrate Metabolism in Health and Type 1 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Chokkalingam, Kamalakkannan

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this thesis was to further the understanding of the effect of diet, insulin and exercise on the regulation of carbohydrate metabolism in health and type 1 diabetes. Three studies were undertaken in both non-diabetic healthy volunteers and patients with type 1 diabetes. The first study determined the influence of high fat diet on biochemical and molecular regulators of whole body and muscle metabolism in healthy volunteers. The second study examined the influence of insulin on...

  14. Metabolic rates are significantly lower in abyssal Holothuroidea than in shallow-water Holothuroidea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oevelen, Dick

    2018-01-01

    Recent analyses of metabolic rates in fishes, echinoderms, crustaceans and cephalopods have concluded that bathymetric declines in temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate do not result from resource-limitation (e.g. oxygen or food/chemical energy), decreasing temperature or increasing hydrostatic pressure. Instead, based on contrasting bathymetric patterns reported in the metabolic rates of visual and non-visual taxa, declining metabolic rate with depth is proposed to result from relaxation of selection for high locomotory capacity in visual predators as light diminishes. Here, we present metabolic rates of Holothuroidea, a non-visual benthic and benthopelagic echinoderm class, determined in situ at abyssal depths (greater than 4000 m depth). Mean temperature- and mass-normalized metabolic rate did not differ significantly between shallow-water (less than 200 m depth) and bathyal (200–4000 m depth) holothurians, but was significantly lower in abyssal (greater than 4000 m depth) holothurians than in shallow-water holothurians. These results support the dominance of the visual interactions hypothesis at bathyal depths, but indicate that ecological or evolutionary pressures other than biotic visual interactions contribute to bathymetric variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Multiple nonlinear regression assuming power or exponential models indicates that in situ hydrostatic pressure and/or food/chemical energy availability are responsible for variation in holothurian metabolic rates. Consequently, these results have implications for modelling deep-sea energetics and processes. PMID:29892403

  15. Long-term exercise in mice has sex-dependent benefits on body composition and metabolism during aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMullan, Rachel C; Kelly, Scott A; Hua, Kunjie; Buckley, Brian K; Faber, James E; Pardo-Manuel de Villena, Fernando; Pomp, Daniel

    2016-11-01

    Aging is associated with declining exercise and unhealthy changes in body composition. Exercise ameliorates certain adverse age-related physiological changes and protects against many chronic diseases. Despite these benefits, willingness to exercise and physiological responses to exercise vary widely, and long-term exercise and its benefits are difficult and costly to measure in humans. Furthermore, physiological effects of aging in humans are confounded with changes in lifestyle and environment. We used C57BL/6J mice to examine long-term patterns of exercise during aging and its physiological effects in a well-controlled environment. One-year-old male (n = 30) and female (n = 30) mice were divided into equal size cohorts and aged for an additional year. One cohort was given access to voluntary running wheels while another was denied exercise other than home cage movement. Body mass, composition, and metabolic traits were measured before, throughout, and after 1 year of treatment. Long-term exercise significantly prevented gains in body mass and body fat, while preventing loss of lean mass. We observed sex-dependent differences in body mass and composition trajectories during aging. Wheel running (distance, speed, duration) was greater in females than males and declined with age. We conclude that long-term exercise may serve as a preventive measure against age-related weight gain and body composition changes, and that mouse inbred strains can be used to characterize effects of long-term exercise and factors (e.g. sex, age) modulating these effects. These findings will facilitate studies on relationships between exercise and health in aging populations, including genetic predisposition and genotype-by-environment interactions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  16. Effects of ovariectomy and exercise training intensity on energy substrate and hepatic lipid metabolism, and spontaneous physical activity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuazon, Marc A; Campbell, Sara C; Klein, Dylan J; Shapses, Sue A; Anacker, Keith R; Anthony, Tracy G; Uzumcu, Mehmet; Henderson, Gregory C

    2018-06-01

    Menopause is associated with fatty liver, glucose dysregulation, increased body fat, and impaired bone quality. Previously, it was demonstrated that single sessions of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) are more effective than distance- and duration-matched continuous exercise (CE) on altering hepatic triglyceride (TG) metabolism and very-low density lipoprotein-TG (VLDL-TG) secretion. Six weeks training using these modalities was examined for effects on hepatic TG metabolism/secretion, glucose tolerance, body composition, and bone mineral density (BMD) in ovariectomized (OVX) and sham-operated (SHAM) mice. OVX and SHAM were assigned to distance- and duration-matched CE and HIIE, or sedentary control. Energy expenditure during exercise was confirmed to be identical between CE and HIIE and both similarly reduced post-exercise absolute carbohydrate oxidation and spontaneous physical activity (SPA). OVX vs. SHAM displayed impaired glucose tolerance and greater body fat despite lower hepatic TG, and these outcomes were not affected by training. Only HIIE increased hepatic AMPK in OVX and SHAM, but neither training type impacted VLDL-TG secretion. As expected, BMD was lower in OVX, and training did not affect long bones. The results reveal intensity-dependent effects on hepatic AMPK expression and general exercise effects on subsequent SPA and substrate oxidation that is independent of estrogen status. These findings support the notion that HIIE can impact aspects of liver physiology in females while the effects of exercise on whole body substrate selection appear to be independent of training intensity. However, neither exercise approach mitigated the impairment in glucose tolerance and elevated body fat occurring in OVX mice. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Changes in extracellular muscle volume affect heart rate and blood pressure responses to static exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, K.; Essfeld, D.; Stegemann, J.

    To investigate the effect of μg-induced peripheral extracellular fluid reductions on heart rate and blood pressure during isometric exercise, six healthy male subjects performed three calf ergometer test with different extracellular volumes of working muscles. In all tests, body positions during exercise were identical (supine with the knee joint flexed to 900). After a pre-exercise period of 25 min, during which calf volumes were manipulated, subjects had to counteract an external force of 180 N for 5 min. During the pre-exercise period three different protocols were applied. Test A: Subjects rested in the exercise position; test B: Body position was the same as in A but calf volume was increased by venous congestion (cuffs inflated to 80 mm Hg); test C: Calf volumes were decreased by a negative hydrostatic pressure (calves about 40 cm above heart level with the subjects supine). To clamp the changed calf volumes in tests B and C, cuffs were inflated to 300 mm Hg 5 min before the onset of exercise. This occlusion was maintained until termination of exercise. Compared to tests A and B, the reduced volume of test C led to significant increases in heart rate and blood pressure during exercise. Oxygen uptake did not exceed resting levels in B and C until cuffs were deflated, indicating that exclusively calf muscles contributed to the neurogenic peripheral drive. It is concluded that changes in extracellular muscle volume have to be taken into account when comparing heart rate and blood pressure during lg- and μg- exercise.

  18. Human skeletal muscle fatty acid and glycerol metabolism during rest, exercise and recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Hall, Gerrit; Sacchetti, M; Rådegran, G

    2002-01-01

    glycerol uptake was observed, which was substantially higher during exercise. Total body skeletal muscle FA and glycerol uptake/release was estimated to account for 18-25 % of whole body R(d) or R(a). In conclusion: (1) skeletal muscle FA and glycerol metabolism, using the leg arterial-venous difference......This study was conducted to investigate skeletal muscle fatty acid (FA) and glycerol kinetics and to determine the contribution of skeletal muscle to whole body FA and glycerol turnover during rest, 2 h of one-leg knee-extensor exercise at 65 % of maximal leg power output, and 3 h of recovery....... To this aim, the leg femoral arterial-venous difference technique was used in combination with a continuous infusion of [U-(13)C]palmitate and [(2)H(5)]glycerol in five post-absorptive healthy volunteers (22 +/- 3 years). The influence of contamination from non-skeletal muscle tissues, skin and subcutaneous...

  19. [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography--an established clinical tool opening a new window into exercise physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kindred, John H; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2015-05-15

    Positron emission tomography (PET) with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is an established clinical tool primarily used to diagnose and evaluate disease status in patients with cancer. PET imaging using FDG can be a highly valuable tool to investigate normal human physiology by providing a noninvasive, quantitative measure of glucose uptake into various cell types. Over the past years it has also been increasingly used in exercise physiology studies to identify changes in glucose uptake, metabolism, and muscle activity during different exercise modalities. Metabolically active cells transport FDG, an (18)fluorine-labeled glucose analog tracer, from the blood into the cells where it is then phosphorylated but not further metabolized. This metabolic trapping process forms the basis of this method's use during exercise. The tracer is given to a participant during an exercise task, and the actual PET imaging is performed immediately after the exercise. Provided the uptake period is of sufficient duration, and the imaging is performed shortly after the exercise; the captured image strongly reflects the metabolic activity of the cells used during the task. When combined with repeated blood sampling to determine tracer blood concentration over time, also known as the input function, glucose uptake rate of the tissues can be quantitatively calculated. This synthesis provides an accounting of studies using FDG-PET to measure acute exercise-induced skeletal muscle activity, describes the advantages and limitations of this imaging technique, and discusses its applications to the field of exercise physiology. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  20. A perspective on the future role of brain pet imaging in exercise science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boecker, Henning; Drzezga, Alexander

    2016-05-01

    Positron Emission Tomography (PET) bears a unique potential for examining the effects of physical exercise (acute or chronic) within the central nervous system in vivo, including cerebral metabolism, neuroreceptor occupancy, and neurotransmission. However, application of Neuro-PET in human exercise science is as yet surprisingly sparse. To date the field has been dominated by non-invasive neuroelectrical techniques (EEG, MEG) and structural/functional magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI/fMRI). Despite PET having certain inherent disadvantages, in particular radiation exposure and high costs limiting applicability at large scale, certain research questions in human exercise science can exclusively be addressed with PET: The "metabolic trapping" properties of (18)F-FDG PET as the most commonly used PET-tracer allow examining the neuronal mechanisms underlying various forms of acute exercise in a rather unconstrained manner, i.e. under realistic training scenarios outside the scanner environment. Beyond acute effects, (18)F-FDG PET measurements under resting conditions have a strong prospective for unraveling the influence of regular physical activity on neuronal integrity and potentially neuroprotective mechanisms in vivo, which is of special interest for aging and dementia research. Quantification of cerebral glucose metabolism may allow determining the metabolic effects of exercise interventions in the entire human brain and relating the regional cerebral rate of glucose metabolism (rCMRglc) with behavioral, neuropsychological, and physiological measures. Apart from FDG-PET, particularly interesting applications comprise PET ligand studies that focus on dopaminergic and opioidergic neurotransmission, both key transmitter systems for exercise-related psychophysiological effects, including mood changes, reward processing, antinociception, and in its most extreme form 'exercise dependence'. PET ligand displacement approaches even allow quantifying specific endogenous

  1. Effect of exercise and recovery on muscle protein synthesis in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carraro, F.; Stuart, C.A.; Hartl, W.H.; Rosenblatt, J.; Wolfe, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies using indirect means to assess the response of protein metabolism to exercise have led to conflicting conclusions. Therefore, in this study we have measured the rate of muscle protein synthesis in normal volunteers at rest, at the end of 4 h of aerobic exercise (40% maximal O2 consumption), and after 4 h of recovery by determining directly the rate of incorporation of 1,2-[13C]leucine into muscle. The rate of muscle protein breakdown was assessed by 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) excretion, and total urinary nitrogen excretion was also measured. There was an insignificant increase in 3-MH excretion in exercise of 37% and a significant increase (P less than 0.05) of 85% during 4 h of recovery from exercise (0.079 +/- 0.008 vs. 0.147 +/- 0.0338 mumol.kg-1.min-1 for rest and recovery from exercise, respectively). Nonetheless, there was no effect of exercise on total nitrogen excretion. Muscle fractional synthetic rate was not different in the exercise vs. the control group at the end of exercise (0.0417 +/- 0.004 vs. 0.0477 +/- 0.010%/h for exercise vs. control), but there was a significant increase in fractional synthetic rate in the exercise group during the recovery period (0.0821 +/- 0.006 vs. 0.0654 +/- 0.012%/h for exercise vs. control, P less than 0.05). Thus we conclude that although aerobic exercise may stimulate muscle protein breakdown, this does not result in a significant depletion of muscle mass because muscle protein synthesis is stimulated in recovery

  2. Effects of inspiratory muscle exercise in the pulmonary function, autonomic modulation, and hemodynamic variables in older women with metabolic syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Coelho, Hélio José; Scapini, Kátia Bilhar; de Moraes, Oscar Albuquerque; Mostarda, Cristiano; Ruberti, Olivia Moraes; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Caperuto, Érico Chagas; Irigoyen, Maria Cláudia; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle exercise (IME) on metabolic and hemodynamic parameters, cardiac autonomic modulation and respiratory function of older women with metabolic syndrome (MS). For this, sixteen older women with MS and 12 aged-matched controls participated of the present study. Two days before and 2 days after the main experiment, fasting blood samples (i.e., total cholesterol, triglycerides and blood glucose), cardiac autonomic modulation (i.e., heart rate variability), and respiratory muscle function were obtained and evaluated. The sessions of physical exercise was based on a IME, which was performed during 7 days. Each session of IME was performed during 20 min, at 30% of maximal static inspiratory pressure. In the results, MS group presented higher levels of triglycerides, blood glucose, and systolic blood pressure when compared to control group. IME was not able to change these variables. However, although MS group showed impaired respiratory muscle strength and function, as well as cardiac autonomic modulation, IME was able to improve these parameters. Thus, the data showed that seven days of IME are capable to improve respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation of older women with MS. These results indicate that IME can be a profitable therapy to counteracting the clinical markers of MS, once repeated sessions of acute IME can cause chronical alterations on respiratory function and cardiac autonomic modulation. PMID:28503537

  3. Muscular Contraction Mode Differently Affects Autonomic Control During Heart Rate Matched Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias eWeippert

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The precise contributions of afferent feedback to cardiovascular and respiratory responses to exercise are still unclear. Aim of this crossover study was to assess whether and how autonomic cardiovascular and respiratory control differed in response to dynamic (DYN and isometric contractions (ISO at a similar, low heart rate (HR level. Therefore, 22 healthy males (26.7 ± 3.6 yrs performed two kinds of voluntary exercises at similar HR: ISO and DYN of the right quadriceps femoris muscle. Although HR was eqivalent (82 ± 8 bpm for DYN and ISO, respectively, rating of exertion, blood pressures, and rate pressure product were higher, whereas breathing frequency, minute ventilation, oxygen uptake and carbon dioxide output were significantly lower during ISO. Tidal volume, end-tidal partial pressures of O2 and CO2, respiratory exchange ratio and capillary blood lactate concentration were comparable between both contraction modes. Heart rate variability (HRV indicators, SDNN, HF-Power and LF-Power, representing both vagal and sympathetic influences, were significantly higher during ISO. Sample entropy, a nonlinear measure of HRV was also significantly affected by contraction mode. It can be concluded that, despite the same net effect on HR, the quality of cardiovascular control during low intensity exercise is significantly different between DYN and ISO. HRV analysis indicated a sympatho-vagal coactivation during ISO. Whether mechanoreceptor feedback alone, a change in central command, or the interaction of both mechanisms is the main contributor of the distinct autonomic responses to the different exercise modes remains to be elucidated.

  4. Auditory feedback improves heart rate moderation during moderate-intensity exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaykevich, Alex; Grove, J Robert; Jackson, Ben; Landers, Grant J; Dimmock, James

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to determine whether exposure to automated HR feedback can produce improvements in the ability to regulate HR during moderate-intensity exercise and to evaluate the persistence of these improvements after feedback is removed. Twenty healthy adults performed 10 indoor exercise sessions on cycle ergometers over 5 wk after a twice-weekly schedule. During these sessions (FB), participants received auditory feedback designed to maintain HR within a personalized, moderate-intensity training zone between 70% and 80% of estimated maximum HR. All feedback was delivered via a custom mobile software application. Participants underwent an initial assessment (PREFB) to measure their ability to maintain exercise intensity defined by the training zone without use of feedback. After completing the feedback training, participants performed three additional assessments identical to PREFB at 1 wk (POST1), 2 wk (POST2), and 4 wk (POST3) after their last feedback session. Time in zone (TIZ), defined as the ratio of the time spent within the training zone divided by the overall time of exercise, rate of perceived exertion, instrumental attitudes, and affective attitudes were then evaluated to assess results using two-way, mixed-model ANOVA with sessions and gender as factors. Training with feedback significantly improved TIZ (P moderate-intensity exercise in healthy adults.

  5. A quantitative theory of solid tumor growth, metabolic rate and vascularization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander B Herman

    Full Text Available The relationships between cellular, structural and dynamical properties of tumors have traditionally been studied separately. Here, we construct a quantitative, predictive theory of solid tumor growth, metabolic rate, vascularization and necrosis that integrates the relationships between these properties. To accomplish this, we develop a comprehensive theory that describes the interface and integration of the tumor vascular network and resource supply with the cardiovascular system of the host. Our theory enables a quantitative understanding of how cells, tissues, and vascular networks act together across multiple scales by building on recent theoretical advances in modeling both healthy vasculature and the detailed processes of angiogenesis and tumor growth. The theory explicitly relates tumor vascularization and growth to metabolic rate, and yields extensive predictions for tumor properties, including growth rates, metabolic rates, degree of necrosis, blood flow rates and vessel sizes. Besides these quantitative predictions, we explain how growth rates depend on capillary density and metabolic rate, and why similar tumors grow slower and occur less frequently in larger animals, shedding light on Peto's paradox. Various implications for potential therapeutic strategies and further research are discussed.

  6. Exercise differentially affects metabolic functions and white adipose tissue in female letrozole- and dihydrotestosterone-induced mouse models of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcondes, Rodrigo R; Maliqueo, Manuel; Fornes, Romina; Benrick, Anna; Hu, Min; Ivarsson, Niklas; Carlström, Mattias; Cushman, Samuel W; Stenkula, Karin G; Maciel, Gustavo A R; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet

    2017-06-15

    Here we hypothesized that exercise in dihydrotestosterone (DHT) or letrozole (LET)-induced polycystic ovary syndrome mouse models improves impaired insulin and glucose metabolism, adipose tissue morphology, and expression of genes related to adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, Notch pathway and browning in inguinal and mesenteric fat. DHT-exposed mice had increased body weight, increased number of large mesenteric adipocytes. LET-exposed mice displayed increased body weight and fat mass, decreased insulin sensitivity, increased frequency of small adipocytes and increased expression of genes related to lipolysis in mesenteric fat. In both models, exercise decreased fat mass and inguinal and mesenteric adipose tissue expression of Notch pathway genes, and restored altered mesenteric adipocytes morphology. In conclusion, exercise restored mesenteric adipocytes morphology in DHT- and LET-exposed mice, and insulin sensitivity and mesenteric expression of lipolysis-related genes in LET-exposed mice. Benefits could be explained by downregulation of Notch, and modulation of browning and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise reveals impairments in left ventricular systolic function in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Sara B; Reger, Brian L; Donley, David A; Bonner, Daniel E; Warden, Bradford E; Gharib, Wissam; Failinger, Conard F; Olfert, Melissa D; Frisbee, Jefferson C; Olfert, I Mark; Chantler, Paul D

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is the manifestation of a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors and is associated with a threefold increase in the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, which is suggested to be mediated, in part, by resting left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. However, to what extent resting LV systolic function is impaired in MetS is controversial, and there are no data indicating whether LV systolic function is impaired during exercise. Accordingly, the objective of this study was to examine comprehensively the LV and arterial responses to exercise in individuals with MetS without diabetes and/or overt cardiovascular disease in comparison to a healthy control population. Cardiovascular function was characterized using Doppler echocardiography and gas exchange in individuals with MetS (n = 27) versus healthy control subjects (n = 20) at rest and during peak exercise. At rest, individuals with MetS displayed normal LV systolic function but reduced LV diastolic function compared with healthy control subjects. During peak exercise, individuals with MetS had impaired contractility, pump performance and vasodilator reserve capacity versus control subjects. A blunted contractile reserve response resulted in diminished arterial-ventricular coupling reserve and limited aerobic capacity in individuals with MetS versus control subjects. These findings are of clinical importance, because they provide insight into the pathophysiological changes in MetS that may predispose this population of individuals to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  8. Evolution of mitochondrial DNA and its relation to basal metabolic rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Ping; Zhao, Huabin; Lu, Xin

    2015-08-01

    Energy metabolism is essential for the survival of animals, which can be characterized by maximum metabolic rate (MMR) and basal metabolic rate (BMR). Because of the crucial roles of mitochondria in energy metabolism, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) has been subjected to stronger purifying selection in strongly locomotive than weakly locomotive birds and mammals. Although maximum locomotive speed (an indicator of MMR) showed a negative correlation with the evolutionary rate of mtDNA, it is unclear whether BMR has driven the evolution of mtDNA. Here, we take advantage of the large amount of mtDNA and BMR data in 106 mammals to test whether BMR has influenced the mtDNA evolution. Our results showed that, in addition to the locomotive speed, mammals with higher BMR have subjected to stronger purifying selection on mtDNA than did those with lower BMR. The evolution of mammalian mtDNA has been modified by two levels of energy metabolism, including MMR and BMR. Our study provides a more comprehensive view of mtDNA evolution in relation to energy metabolism.

  9. Metabolic Myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2016-12-01

    Metabolic myopathies are genetic disorders that impair intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle. Impairments in glycolysis/glycogenolysis (glycogen-storage disease), fatty acid transport and oxidation (fatty acid oxidation defects), and the mitochondrial respiratory chain (mitochondrial myopathies) represent the majority of known defects. The purpose of this review is to develop a diagnostic and treatment algorithm for the metabolic myopathies. The metabolic myopathies can present in the neonatal and infant period as part of more systemic involvement with hypotonia, hypoglycemia, and encephalopathy; however, most cases present in childhood or in adulthood with exercise intolerance (often with rhabdomyolysis) and weakness. The glycogen-storage diseases present during brief bouts of high-intensity exercise, whereas fatty acid oxidation defects and mitochondrial myopathies present during a long-duration/low-intensity endurance-type activity or during fasting or another metabolically stressful event (eg, surgery, fever). The clinical examination is often normal between acute events, and evaluation involves exercise testing, blood testing (creatine kinase, acylcarnitine profile, lactate, amino acids), urine organic acids (ketones, dicarboxylic acids, 3-methylglutaconic acid), muscle biopsy (histology, ultrastructure, enzyme testing), MRI/spectroscopy, and targeted or untargeted genetic testing. Accurate and early identification of metabolic myopathies can lead to therapeutic interventions with lifestyle and nutritional modification, cofactor treatment, and rapid treatment of rhabdomyolysis.

  10. "Nutraceuticals" in relation to human skeletal muscle and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deane, Colleen S; Wilkinson, Daniel J; Phillips, Bethan E; Smith, Kenneth; Etheridge, Timothy; Atherton, Philip J

    2017-04-01

    Skeletal muscles have a fundamental role in locomotion and whole body metabolism, with muscle mass and quality being linked to improved health and even lifespan. Optimizing nutrition in combination with exercise is considered an established, effective ergogenic practice for athletic performance. Importantly, exercise and nutritional approaches also remain arguably the most effective countermeasure for muscle dysfunction associated with aging and numerous clinical conditions, e.g., cancer cachexia, COPD, and organ failure, via engendering favorable adaptations such as increased muscle mass and oxidative capacity. Therefore, it is important to consider the effects of established and novel effectors of muscle mass, function, and metabolism in relation to nutrition and exercise. To address this gap, in this review, we detail existing evidence surrounding the efficacy of a nonexhaustive list of macronutrient, micronutrient, and "nutraceutical" compounds alone and in combination with exercise in relation to skeletal muscle mass, metabolism (protein and fuel), and exercise performance (i.e., strength and endurance capacity). It has long been established that macronutrients have specific roles and impact upon protein metabolism and exercise performance, (i.e., protein positively influences muscle mass and protein metabolism), whereas carbohydrate and fat intakes can influence fuel metabolism and exercise performance. Regarding novel nutraceuticals, we show that the following ones in particular may have effects in relation to 1 ) muscle mass/protein metabolism: leucine, hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, creatine, vitamin-D, ursolic acid, and phosphatidic acid; and 2 ) exercise performance: (i.e., strength or endurance capacity): hydroxyl β-methylbutyrate, carnitine, creatine, nitrates, and β-alanine. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  11. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Raul K; Welch, Kenneth C

    2017-07-12

    Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the "sugar oxidation cascade", the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  12. Sugar Metabolism in Hummingbirds and Nectar Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul K. Suarez

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Hummingbirds and nectar bats coevolved with the plants they visit to feed on floral nectars rich in sugars. The extremely high metabolic costs imposed by small size and hovering flight in combination with reliance upon sugars as their main source of dietary calories resulted in convergent evolution of a suite of structural and functional traits. These allow high rates of aerobic energy metabolism in the flight muscles, fueled almost entirely by the oxidation of dietary sugars, during flight. High intestinal sucrase activities enable high rates of sucrose hydrolysis. Intestinal absorption of glucose and fructose occurs mainly through a paracellular pathway. In the fasted state, energy metabolism during flight relies on the oxidation of fat synthesized from previously-ingested sugar. During repeated bouts of hover-feeding, the enhanced digestive capacities, in combination with high capacities for sugar transport and oxidation in the flight muscles, allow the operation of the “sugar oxidation cascade”, the pathway by which dietary sugars are directly oxidized by flight muscles during exercise. It is suggested that the potentially harmful effects of nectar diets are prevented by locomotory exercise, just as in human hunter-gatherers who consume large quantities of honey.

  13. Exercise in muscle glycogen storage diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preisler, Nicolai Rasmus; Haller, Ronald G; Vissing, John

    2015-01-01

    exercise program has the potential to improve general health and fitness and improve quality of life, if executed properly. In this review, we describe skeletal muscle substrate use during exercise in GSDs, and how blocks in metabolic pathways affect exercise tolerance in GSDs. We review the studies...... that have examined the effect of regular exercise training in different types of GSD. Finally, we consider how oral substrate supplementation can improve exercise tolerance and we discuss the precautions that apply to persons with GSD that engage in exercise.......Glycogen storage diseases (GSD) are inborn errors of glycogen or glucose metabolism. In the GSDs that affect muscle, the consequence of a block in skeletal muscle glycogen breakdown or glucose use, is an impairment of muscular performance and exercise intolerance, owing to 1) an increase...

  14. Heart rate recovery after maximal exercise is blunted in hypertensive seniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Best, Stuart A.; Bivens, Tiffany B.; Dean Palmer, M.; Boyd, Kara N.; Melyn Galbreath, M.; Okada, Yoshiyuki; Carrick-Ranson, Graeme; Shibata, Shigeki; Hastings, Jeffrey L.; Spencer, Matthew D.; Tarumi, Takashi; Levine, Benjamin D.; Fu, Qi

    2014-01-01

    Abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal exercise may indicate autonomic dysfunction and is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality. HRR is attenuated with aging and in middle-age hypertensive patients, but it is unknown whether HRR is attenuated in older-age adults with hypertension. This study compared HRR among 16 unmedicated stage 1 hypertensive (HTN) participants [nine men/seven women; 68 ± 5 (SD) yr; awake ambulatory blood pressure (BP) 149 ± 10/87 ± 7 mmHg] and 16 normotensive [control (CON)] participants (nine men/seven women; 67 ± 5 yr; 122 ± 4/72 ± 5 mmHg). HR, BP, oxygen uptake (V̇o2), cardiac output (Qc), and stroke volume (SV) were measured at rest, at two steady-state work rates, and graded exercise to peak during maximal treadmill exercise. During 6 min of seated recovery, the change in HR (ΔHR) was obtained every minute and BP every 2 min. In addition, HRR and R-R interval (RRI) recovery kinetics were analyzed using a monoexponential function, and the indexes (HRRI and RRII) were calculated. Maximum V̇o2, HR, Qc, and SV responses during exercise were not different between groups. ΔHR was significantly different (P age adults, HRR is attenuated further with the presence of hypertension, which may be attributable to an impairment of autonomic function. PMID:25301897

  15. Principles of exercise physiology: responses to acute exercise and long-term adaptations to training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Brown, Anita M; Frontera, Walter R

    2012-11-01

    Physical activity and fitness are associated with a lower prevalence of chronic diseases, such as heart disease, cancer, high blood pressure, and diabetes. This review discusses the body's response to an acute bout of exercise and long-term physiological adaptations to exercise training with an emphasis on endurance exercise. An overview is provided of skeletal muscle actions, muscle fiber types, and the major metabolic pathways involved in energy production. The importance of adequate fluid intake during exercise sessions to prevent impairments induced by dehydration on endurance exercise, muscular power, and strength is discussed. Physiological adaptations that result from regular exercise training such as increases in cardiorespiratory capacity and strength are mentioned. The review emphasizes the cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations that lead to improvements in maximal oxygen capacity. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-01-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10 0 incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 μCi 1- 14 C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and 14 CO 2 collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect

  17. Effect of exercise training on leucine oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrix, M.K.; Layman, D.K.

    1986-03-01

    Oxidation of the BCAA leucine is increased during a bout of exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of exercise training on leu oxidation during aerobic exercise. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a commercial diet ad lib and divided into sedentary and two trained groups. Animals were trained to run on a treadmill with a 10/sup 0/ incline at 28 m/min for 5 wks for either 50 or 120 min/day. There were no differences in food intake or body weight. After a 12 hr fast, animals were run for 50 or 120 min and changes in leu catabolism determined by measurement of in vivo leu oxidation and activity of branched chain keto acid dehydrogenase (BCKAD). For measurement of leu oxidation, rats were injected IP with 4 ..mu..Ci 1-/sup 14/C-leu during the last 15 min of exercise, placed in glass metabolic chambers, and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ collected in 1 N NaOH for 30 min periods. Leu oxidation was increased by 40% after 50 min of exercise and by 79% after 120 min of exercise. Five weeks of training reduced the rate of leu oxidation during an exercise bout. The activity of the BCKAD was not increased in the trained animals after either 50 or 120 min of exercise. These data indicate that the rate of leu oxidation during exercises is dependent on the duration of the exercise and that training will reduce the magnitude of this effect.

  18. The influence of physical exercise on alterations in concentrations of neuropeptide Y, leptin and other selected hormonal and metabolic parameters in sportspeople

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Zajadacz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the behaviour and relationships between hormones, and metabolic blood parameters essential for energetic balance control during rest, exercise and restitution. Two groups of young boys (17 cyclists and 11 canoeists were tested twice. Tests were performed on a cycloergometer. During the first study, anaerobic threshold was determined by a non-invasive method and in the second one - cyclists performed prolonged 2-hour exercise below anaerobic threshold and canoeists - 20-min effort above anaerobic threshold. Neuropeptide Y (NPY, leptin, insulin, C-peptide, metabolic clearance of insulin, growth hormone (GH, somatomedin C (IGF1 and glycaemia were analysed. Values of NPY and GH measured directly after exercise were significantly higher than the values of these parameters at rest, in both groups. However, effort did not cause significant changes in leptin concentration a